Introduction Overlays Crossplots Histograms Algorithms

Quick-look log analysis refers to a number of techniques for plotting log data in a reasonably effortless and simple way that reveals either the formation content or the formation lithology. These methods are widely used by log analysts for wellsite evaluations. Their great appeal lies in their simplicity and subtlety. Most quick-look methods can be applied without any special equipment and produce quite acceptable results. Broadly speaking, there are three branches to quick-look analysis:

• compatible overlays of curves • crossplots of selected curve readings • simple algorithms for calculators
In general, compatible overlays manage to eliminate some unknown quantity by taking a ratio, while revealing another quantity that is of interest; for example, water saturation. Crossplots are indispensable for computer-generated analysis, but also offer a quick and convenient means of determining endpoints such as Rw. Algorithms offer a quick and simple means of calculating items of interest, such as porosity and water saturation. They are widely incorporated into log analysis routines on both programmable calculators and computers.

Compatibly scaled overlays entail comparison of two or more log curves. In practice, one curve is overlaid on the other and a tracing made (either by hand or via a computer graphics display) so that the end result is a composite with two curves. The relative deflection between the two curves usually indicates a formation property of interest. The basis for all overlays is that the curves being compared be compatibly scaled, i.e., both must be in the same system of units. Apples must be compared with apples and not oranges. Many of the quick-look overlays in use today are quite subtle in that they eliminate some quantity that is either unknown or of no interest. The most commonly used are:

· for hydrocarbon detection: SP with Rxo/Rt Ro with Rt dielectric logderived porosity with porosity · for lithology, porosity, and hydrocarbon typing: neutron porosity with density porosity density porosity with sonic porosity SP with Rxo/Rt This overlay is by no means universally applicable, since it requires conditions that result in healthy SP developments. However, where those conditions are met (i.e., in wells drilled with fresh mud having salty connate water) it is an elegant way to detect hydrocarbons without the need to know porosity. A natural candidate for wells where only an induction-SP log is available, it is usually produced at the time the log is run and requires some manipulation of the raw data in the logging service company’s surface equipment. Inputs required are an SP, a deep resistivity measurement (usually a deep induction), and a shallow resistivity measurement (usually a shallow-focused electric log). The theory behind the method depends only on Archie’s equation and the SP relationship, which we may write as:  SP = -K log (Rmf/Rw) Note that for the purposes of this overlay Rmf and Rw are used rather than their "equivalent" values Rmfe and Rwe. Archie’s equation, if written for both the invaded and undisturbed zones, allows a ratio to be taken which eliminates F, the porosity-dependent formation factor:  Swn = F Rw/Rt Sxon = F Rmf/Rxo

If an assumption is made that Sxo is related to Sw--, for example, that  Sxo = (Sw)1/5 --then the quantity (Sw/Sxo)n can be replaced by (Sw)8/5 if "n" is assumed equal to 2. Thus, the term Rmf/Rw can be replaced by (Rxo/Rt) (Sw)8/5 and the SP equation rewritten as:  -SP = K log [(Rxo/Rt) (Sw)5/8] or:  -SP = K (log (Rxo/Rt)) + K log (Sw5/8)

the two curves separate. in an oil-bearing zone with Sw less than 1. the two curves will "track. which is wet." In hydrocarbon-bearing zones. the massaged Rxo/Rt is effectively zero. the term K log (Sw)5/8 is equal to 0. a comparison of the actual SP with the quantity K log (Rxo/Rt) will have the following characteristics: • • In wet zones. • In practice some experimentation is usually required in order to obtain a valid overlay with the two traces overlaying in both shales and wet zones. and in the upper sand which is hydrocarbon bearing.In a water-bearing zone with Sw=1. since the Rxo/Rt ratio is close to 1. However. and thus the term K log (Rxo/Rt) is numerically equal to -SP.) In shales. and hence the term K log (Rxo/Rt) will be numerically less than -SP. the SP and the massaged Rxo/Rt ratio closely coincide. Provided that no substantial SP reduction is due to the presence of hydrocarbons (usually the case in all but very shallowly invaded formations). . the term K log ((Sw)5/8) will be less than 1. Figure 1 • (Note that in the lower sand. the K log (Rxo/Rt) curve will separate from the SP curve ( Figure 1 ). This requires using the correct K value for the formation temperature in question and correct offsetting of either the SP baseline or the massaged Rxo/Rt curve.

. Ro versus Rt -. ρ f. Since the product of F and Rw is Ro. which effectively compares Ro with Rt. It merely requires values of ρ ma. and you do not envisage recording a porosity log. By so doing. for example. good SP development (high Rmf/Rw ratio). A refinement of the method allows a more accurate computation of the real Rxo/ Rt ratio by taking into account invasion effects. An unusual variation of this method uses the SP to generate a pseudo Rxo/Rt ratio. This method cannot be used with oil-base mud.To sum up. Wherever the two curves separate. which may then be compared with the actual Rxo/Rt ratio. use this method. This refinement requires a solution to the "tornado" chart to be carried in the surface equipment software package.The F Overlay Another popular and extremely effective overlay is the F overlay. In deeply invaded formations. The analyst then uses the logarithmic F curve in conjunction with a logarithmic Rt curve (a deep induction or deep laterolog) in the manner of a slide rule to normalize the two curves so that they overlay each other in clean wet zones. the ratio of RSFL to RILd is not as large as the real Rxo/Rt ratio. with Rt greater than Ro. and F appears as an output. if you have sand-shale sequences. and m to be dialed in. In practice. a. by all means. this F curve is recorded on a logarithmic scale as a separate log. the log (F) curve has in fact been shifted by an amount equal to log (Rw) . In clean formations of known lithology this is a simple matter for the logging service company’s surface equipment. the net effect is an overlay that compares Ro to Rt. Figure 2 shows an F overlay. the implication is that Sw is less than 1 and therefore hydrocarbons are expected.

Figure 2 Note that in the water-bearing section the normalized F curve (i.. Ro) coincides with the Rt curve and that in the hydrocarbon-bearing section the Rt curve separates from the Ro curve. Figure 3 . This separation can be quantified in Sw units by using an appropriate logarithmic scaler such as that illustrated (not to scale) in Figure 3 .e.

The Logarithmic Movable Oil Plot An extension of the F overlay is the logarithmic movable oil plot. and the resulting Rxoo curve (Rxoo = Rxo in a rock 100% saturated with a fluid of resistivity Rmf) is traced onto the resistivity log (or. For example. The act of normalizing the F curve to the deep resistivity trace in a wet zone effectively computes Rw for you. one to indicate Sw and a second to indicate Sxo. Another useful feature of this overlay is that Rw need not be known. the Rt curve may be traced onto the normalized F log). If the F curve is on top of the resistivity log when the normalization is made. both are made on a single log and the result is a movable oil plot (MOP) on a logarithmic scale. This means that Rw is 0. if preferred. The result of such tracings will be as shown in Figure 4 . as noted. In practice. F = 100 lies over the Rt scale line corresponding to 20 Ohm-m. First. the F curve is normalized to an Rxo trace (such as a focused. The production of a MOP proceeds in two stages. and the Sw value is read at the Rt curve. The Sw . Second. . which requires that two overlays be made. This is numerically equal to 100 times Rw. or microelectric log) in a wet zone.The scaler is placed across the overlay so that its long axis parallels the depth lines on the log.2 Ohm-m. the F curve is normalized to Rt in a wet zone and the resulting Ro curve traced onto the resistivity log (or. the Rxo curve may be traced onto the normalized F log) .100 mark is placed on the normalized F curve. after normalizing in a wet zone. locate the 100 line on the F scale at the top of the F log and read the resistivity value on the resistivity scale that lies immediately beneath it.

.e. Consider the bulk volume model shown in Figure 5 . This presentation can help assess the most productive intervals (i. one containing residual oil and the other movable oil. those with high movable oil). The MOP adds a further dimension by subdividing that space into two parts.Figure 4 Note that the area between the Ro and Rt curves is representative of the hydrocarbon-filled pore space. .

e. orange for movable oil. Likewise the bulk density . on the MOP. If Sxo is high (i. red for residual oil. is low) then a large fraction of the oil in place has been moved by the mini-waterflood effected by the drilling process. ROS.g. Note that zero porosity point never appears on such a logarithmic plot. even with a cursory inspection. Thus some arbitrary line is chosen as the right-hand limit for the purpose of coloring in water with a blue highlighter.e. once a tracing of this sort has been prepared. however. The Neutron-Density Overlay The neutron-density overlay is probably the most commonly used presentation. however.. The compatibly scaled sandstone presentation requires that the neutron log (and here the dual-spacing thermal neutron log is the norm) be recorded on a sandstone matrix setting and displayed on a 0 to 60% scale. Sxo is close to Sw. If. Thus. In sand-shale sequences the former is needed and in carbonate-evaporite sequences the latter. In practice. residual oil saturation. it is common to color in the appropriate areas by use of high-lighters of different colors. In the invaded zone. and in such cases a formation may be less productive. and blue for water.Figure 5 Note that in the undisturbed zone the saturating fluids are connate water and oil and that the water saturation is Sw. the saturating fluids are mud filtrate and residual oil and the water saturation is Sxo. then very little of the oil in place has been moved.. the area between the Ro curve and the Rxoo curve is a measure of the residual oil saturation and the area between the Rxoo curve and the Rt curve is a measure of the movable oil saturation . since F or Rt corresponding to zero porosity is infinity. Its popularity stems from (a) the fact that the two logs are nearly always run together and (b) the enormous wealth of information that can be gathered from such a presentation. Two distinct types of overlay are considered here: the compatible sandstone-scaled overlay and the compatible limestone-scaled overlay.

a presentation on a 0 to 30% scale is inappropriate if φ N in the shales is 45% and thus off-scale) . within the potential reservoir rocks so defined.65 or 2. The choice of a scale. is immaterial provided both curves are on the same scale and the shale readings do not exceed the high end of the scale (i. Note that in gas-bearing zones. φ N is much larger than φ D (dotted curve to the left of the solid curve) . oil. Thus.. for example) and displayed on the same scale as the neutron log.68 gm/cc. to distinguish gas. Even in oil-bearing sections it is common to note φ N reading slightly less than φ D. be it 0 to 60% or 0 to 50%.recording.e. ρ b should be converted to an apparent sandstone porosity curve by choice of an appropriate value for ρ ma (2. Figure 6 shows such an overlay. . Note that in water-bearing intervals.N reads a lower apparent porosity than does φ D and that the traces. tend to be mirror images of each other. on one plot it is possible to quickly distinguish porous and permeable sections from shales and. Figure 6 Note that in shales. φ N equals φ D where the formation is clean. and water. .

Figure 7 illustrates a neutron density compatible limestone overlay. If the bulk density curve has not been converted to an apparent porosity curve then all Is not lost. In dolomite the apparent neutron porosity is higher than the .95 gm/cc translates to approximately 45% porosity on a limestone scale.95 gm/cc coincides with 45%. calls for the neutron log on a limestone matrix setting.95 gm/cc to -15%. with the density log on an apparent limestone porosity basis as well. an appropriate scale for this type of overlay is 45% to -15% (left to right). Here the norm is not sandstone or shale but limestone and possibly evaporites. a slightly different presentation is used.Since the purpose is slightly different in carbonate reservoirs. The compatible limestone presentation. Figure 7 It is constructed for a formation porosity of 15%.95 gm/cc coincides with -15% and 1. the 45% to -15% scale has an added advantage. In some locations 30% to -10% is favored. the neutron porosity and bulk density curves may be overlain so that on the neutron log 2. The reader may satisfy himself that 1. However. therefore. Since dolomite and anhydrite may compute apparent porosities less than zero on a limestone basis (remember ρ ma for dolomite is higher than ρ ma for limestone). and 2. By appropriate shifting. Note that in limestone the two traces coincide. Porosities in general are lower than in sandstone reservoirs and dolomite may be present as well.

Density-Sonic Overlay Although not as widely used as a neutron-density overlay. i. Figure 8 shows a formation with both matrix (intergranular) porosity and fracture porosity. This sandstone "crossover" is due entirely to the matrix effects on the two porosity devices and is the result of the limestone porosity scaling used. both curves have a similar character although separated from one another. It should not be confused with crossover produced by gas. Such a presentation is extremely valuable for a quick-look guide to the rock types in the column drilled and is a very good starting point for other more detailed analysis. the density-sonic overlay is particularly useful for detection of secondary porosity. If gas were present it would manifest itself by an additional separation. The gas effect "mirror imaging" is not evident.apparent density porosity and in sandstone the reverse is true. vugs and fractures. The evaporites salt and anhydrite are also shown along with shale.e. the density porosity will be equal to the total porosity: . Figure 8 Provided the matrix is known. with neutron even lower than density. Note that in sandstone intervals..

however. the later arrivals passing through the fracture system will be ignored. will travel more slowly than those traveling through the matrix system.95 gm/cc (left to right) for ρ b and 108 to 28 µsec/ft (left to right) for D. equivalent to 40 µsec/ft per track. Compatible limestone scaling on a 45% to -15% scale (left to right) is adequate for most applications. will only respond to the matrix porosity. responding as it does to the first compressional wave arrival. If bulk density and A are to be overlaid. Figure 9 A number of scaling options are available.• = = matrix + secondary The sonic tool.95 to 2. then compatible scaling is 1. has the interesting property that in fractured or vuggy intervals the two curves separate. Compressional waves traveling through a vertical. for example. Thus: • S= matrix An overlay of φ S and φ D. In . Figure 9 illustrates such an overlay. fluid-filled fracture. Since the sonic tool triggers on the first (faster traveling) arrival.

traces will overlay. The usual cautions are appropriate: clean formations and the correct choice of matrix parameters are required when computing the two porosities. is effectively the total porosity. Dielectric Porosity Overlay The compatible porosity overlay ( Figure 10 ) of a dielectric log-derived porosity with another porosity curve is useful for quick-look hydrocarbon detection. A dielectric log-derived "porosity" is effectively the water-filled pore space. In hydrocarbon-bearing zones separation may be expected.metric units a scaling of 350 to 90 µsec/meter is adequate (equivalent to 65 µsec/meter per track) . Theory Crossplots of log data are indispensable tools for the analyst. If the formation is wet. A crossplot is a twodimensional representation of the variation of data with respect to two or more . Figure 10 The theory behind the overlay is simple. whereas a density porosity. for example.

Crossplots come in many other forms. crossplots may. . crossplots can be used to discern trends or groups. Points below this line could be subjected to further analysis. an arbitrary Ro line can be determined to examine points that have water saturations less than a given value. be prepared by hand using only limited amounts of data that have been screened by the analyst. shows a crossplot of porosity versus resistivity. A plot of permeability against porosity might look like the plot shown in Figure 2 . The end result of using a crossplot is finding a parameter needed for quantitative log analysis. Trend Analysis and Groupings In logging terms. Then. Sw and Rw. a graphical representation of the Archie equation. of course. Figure 1 . Figure 1 Within a given formation. here follows an overall view of crossplotting techniques . an Ro line is determined that is representative of 100% water saturation. Suppose a well is extensively cored and core analyses are made to find porosity and permeability throughout the Although widely used in conjunction with computer processing of log data. for example.

φ D-ls = 15 and φ N-ls = 21. Extrapolations Another useful feature of the crossplot is in making extrapolations. Rock type A is of low porosity and permeability (perhaps a carbonate). . Thus. help us understand the nature of the population being plotted. crossplots visually show us trends and groupings of data points that. in turn. In the example shown in Figure 3 .Figure 2 Note that three distinct rock types are revealed by the crossplot. rock type B is of moderate porosity and high permeability (perhaps a sandstone). The extrapolation of patterns and trends on crossplots is an extremely valuable tool for predicting such key analysis parameters as porosity. and rock type C is of high porosity and moderate permeability.

. Figure 4 shows a neutron-density frequency crossplot for data from a section logged through a sand-shale sequence. Assuming a matrix of limestone and dolomite and proportioning the distance between the two curves. Frequency Plots Computers are particularly adept at manipulating log data to produce frequency plots. the point corresponds to a volumetric proportion of about 40% dolomite and 60% limestone. lying between the limestone and dolomite curves and falling near a line connecting the 18% porosity graduations on the two curves.Figure 3 This defines point P. These are crossplots on which the number of occurrences of a particular pair of data points is printed at a particular map location. porosity is 18%.

this task is accomplished by printing the scaled average of the third variable (Z) at any given X-Y cell address. . Where no data are found the plot remains blank. shale picks. Where many points fall in the same cell their total number is accumulated. Where the majority of the points lie gives a good visual image of the distribution of the formation properties in the logged section. Each data point on the log is inspected and its φ N and φ D coordinates used to place a point on the plot. each axis is divided into one-porosity-unit cells. Z Plots The Z plot is a companion plot to the conventional frequency crossplot (or X-Y plot) described above. Given the limitations of a two-dimensional sheet of paper. The purpose of the Z plot is to map the distribution of three variables instead of two.. and this number (or frequency) is the item printed on the final plot at that particular cell address. etc. recalibration shifts). There are thus 2500 (50 x 50) cells on the plot. Such plots are used extensively for log data normalization (i.e.Figure 4 For the purpose of the plot.

Note that two-digit numbers (10 or more) are represented by symbols such as "*. On this particular plot the scaling of the Z axis was accomplished by applying the formula  and z-min and z-max were chosen so that the least radioactive levels "scored" 0 and the most radioactive levels 10. the gamma ray. in Figure 4 there were 8 occurrences of the condition φ N (PHIN-the X axis) = 26% and φ D (PHID-the Y axis) = 12%.For example." . The same cell on the Z plot of Figure 5 shows a scaled average of a third parameter. Figure 5 At the chosen address the scaled average of the 8 values of gamma ray occurring at φ N = 26% and φ D = 12% is seen to be 8.

Z plots are useful for data analysis where three variables are of interest. The X axis is scaled over the useful range of the data analyzed. Among the better known uses for histograms are picking minima and maxima. 2. Figure 1 illustrates a histogram.Reviewing the Z plot of Figure 5 . Histograms Histograms of raw log data and computed results of log analysis also provide useful tools for the analyst. and checking the validity of computed results. and *). . and 3). re-scaling logs. and the least radioactive points lie to the northwestern part of the plot (low z values of 1. Figure 1 The Y axis of such a plot is either scaled in actual number of occurrences or in percent of the total number of data points analyzed. it is evident that the shaliest points lie to the southeastern corner of the plot (high z values of 8. 9.

On the plus side. This has advantages and disadvantages. log analysts have tended to condense their wisdom into algebraic manipulations to ease their daily toil. Although the calculator/ computer is a useful device for the crunching of numbers and relieves the analyst of that chore. On the minus side. obviously more data points can be analyzed in a shorter time and with greater precision. that of ensuring (a) that the model fits the circumstances and (b) that legitimate data is submitted to be processed.Illustrations of particularly useful histograms will be given in the appropriate modules of this logging series when discussing particular aspects of log analysis. Today much of what used to be done by reference to charts is done via pocket computer. . however. especially the programmable type. it also places a greater burden on the analyst. A more precise answer should not be confused with a more accurate one. Quick-Look Algorithms With the advent of the hand-held calculator. the analyst no longer has the latitude to shift points on a chart to get an immediate feel for the sensitivity of a computed answer to a change in the raw data values used. Algorithms for solving many of the common manipulations that log analysts use will be given in the appropriate modules as the particular analysis method is discussed. A word of caution is in order.

Figure 1 Inspect the logs of Figure 1 and estimate the depth difference between core depths and log depths. .

find the corresponding crossplot porosity.54 gm/cc and φ N (Lime) = 18%. The core log shows the depths as being 8 ft greater than the wireline logs. (a) If ρ f = 1.Figure 1 The log curves of Figure 1 have been depth-correlated by sliding one over the other until the major correlatable peaks match each other. .0 gm/cc and ρ b = 2. φ X using Figure 1 . The solution is 8 ft.

Figure 1 (b) Convert ρ b to φ D (Lime) and compute the quick-look value of φ X using the following formula: fD= ρ ma − ρ b/ ρ ma − ρ f (a) Plot 2. (b) To convert from ρ b to φ D use the following equation: ρ B = ρ ma (1 .φ D) + ρ f φ D .14.54 on the ordinate versus 18 on the abscissa. and find a point corresponding to a line between 14 on limestone and 14 on dolomite. The solution is φ X = 0. or 14%.

The quick formula is the average of the two readings: The solution is 14%. .

2 gm/cc.38. and Sxo = 55%.38 to find ρ hy = 0. or 20. Enter Figure 1 and plot Sxo = 55% versus the above-computed ratio of 0. is 0. The solution is φ X = 0.5%. use Figure 1 to compute a crossplot porosity. Figure 1 . Use Figure 1 to determine ρ The ratio φ N/ φ D hy when φ N = 12. φ D = 33%.125/0.33 = 0.Figure 1 If ∆ t = 79µ-sec/ft and φ N (Lime) = 18%.6%.206. Enter Figure 1 and crossplot the values. The resulting point falls between lines drawn between the sandstone and the limestone lines at 20 and 21 porosity units (%).

The solution is ρ hy = 0. .2 gm/cc.

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