P. 1
Command Ref a4

Command Ref a4

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Published by: Oana_2510 on Nov 07, 2011
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12/14/2012

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Sections

  • Welcome to Rhinoceros
  • Why Rhinoceros?
  • Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Help
  • Shortcuts
  • Built-in aliases
  • Coordinate points
  • Enter construction plane coordinates
  • Enter world coordinates
  • UseWCSCoordinates
  • UseCPlaneCoordinates
  • Enter relative coordinates
  • Enter polar coordinates
  • Enter relative polar coordinates
  • Modeling aids
  • Elevator mode
  • Use Tab to constrain along a line
  • Angle Constraint
  • Distance Constraint
  • Toggle crosshairs on and off
  • Trimmed surfaces
  • Document properties
  • Document Properties dialog box, Dimensions tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Grid tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Notes tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render Mesh tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Summary tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Units tab
  • Viewport layout
  • Select objects
  • Selecting parts of objects
  • Import and export file types
  • Rhino 1.0 file exchange
  • 3D Studio file exchange
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange
  • RemoveFlippedNormals
  • ACIS file export
  • Adobe Illustrator file exchange
  • Applied Geometry file exchange
  • AutoCAD DWG file exchange
  • AutoCAD DXF file exchange
  • AutoCAD export options
  • Export object properties
  • GHS file export
  • Lightwave file exchange
  • Moray UDO Export
  • Parasolid X_T file export
  • RenderMan RIB export
  • POV-Ray export
  • Raw Triangle file exchange
  • SLC file exchange
  • STEP file exchange
  • STL file exchange
  • VDA file exchange
  • VRML file export
  • Viewpoint Technologies file export
  • Windows Metafile file export
  • DirectX file exchange
  • Moldex
  • PostScript file exchange
  • IGES file exchange
  • Troubleshooting IGES import
  • Edit IGES export types
  • Edit IGES export type details
  • OBJ (Wavefront) file export
  • IGES polygon mesh export
  • IGES Types
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange
  • Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange
  • Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange
  • AUTOFORM IGES file exchange
  • AutoShip IGES file exchange
  • Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange
  • CADCEUS IGES file exchange
  • CamSoft IGES file exchange
  • CATIA IGES file exchange
  • Cosmos/M IGES file exchange
  • Delcam IGES file exchange
  • FastShip IGES file exchange
  • FastSURF IGES file exchange
  • IronCAD IGES file exchange
  • Integrity Ware IGES file exchange
  • LUSAS IGES file exchange
  • Mastercam IGES file exchange
  • Maya IGES file exchange
  • ME30 IGES file exchange
  • Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange
  • Microstation IGES file exchange
  • Multisurf IGES file exchange
  • NASA GridTool IGES file exchange
  • Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange
  • OptiCAD IGES file exchange
  • Pro/E IGES file exchange
  • SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange
  • Softimage IGES file exchange
  • Solid Edge IGES file exchange
  • Solid Designer IGES file exchange
  • SolidWorks IGES file exchange
  • SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange
  • SURFCAM IGES file exchange
  • Tebis IGES file exchange
  • TekSoft IGES file exchange
  • Unigraphics IGES file exchange
  • Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange
  • Context menu
  • Select Color
  • Object snaps
  • Osnap
  • NoSnap
  • End object snap
  • Near object snap
  • Point object snap
  • Mid object snap
  • Cen object snap
  • Int object snap
  • Perp object snap
  • Tan object snap
  • Quad object snap
  • Knot object snap
  • From object snap
  • PerpFrom object snap
  • TanFrom object snap
  • Along object snap
  • AlongParallel object snap
  • OnSrf object snap
  • ProjectOsnap
  • Between
  • OnCrv object snap
  • SnapToLocked
  • Object properties
  • Object Properties, Object tab
  • Object Properties, Dimensions tab
  • Object Properties, Light tab
  • Edit light object properties
  • Object Properties, Material tab
  • Object Properties, Text tab
  • Options dialog box
  • Options dialog box, Aliases tab
  • Options dialog box, Appearance tab
  • Options dialog box, Files tab
  • Options dialog box, General tab
  • Options dialog box, Keyboard tab
  • Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab
  • Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
  • Options dialog box, Shade tab
  • Options dialog box, View tab
  • Shade
  • Render
  • Troubleshoot rendering
  • Troubleshoot OpenGL
  • Layers
  • Layer materials
  • Select Layers
  • Create a new layer
  • Rename a layer
  • Change the color of a layer
  • Delete a layer
  • Filter the layer display list
  • Surfaces through a sequence of curves
  • Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers
  • Troubleshoot Booleans
  • Edit the Rhino.ini file
  • Toolbars
  • Close a toolbar
  • HideToolbar
  • Open a toolbar
  • ShowToolbar
  • ToggleToolbar
  • Move a toolbar
  • Dock a toolbar
  • Float a toolbar
  • Reshape a toolbar
  • Rename a toolbar
  • Import a toolbar from another layout file
  • Change toolbar name or button size
  • Create a new toolbar
  • Delete a toolbar
  • Create a flyout toolbar
  • Flyout a toolbar
  • Hide a flyout toolbar
  • Tear off a flyout toolbar
  • Manage toolbar buttons
  • Move a toolbar button
  • Delete a toolbar button
  • Copy a toolbar button
  • Create a floating flyout button
  • Unlink a flyout toolbar
  • Customize toolbar buttons
  • Create a new toolbar button
  • Change the toolbar button tooltip
  • Programming the toolbar button functions
  • Customize toolbar button bitmap icons
  • Clear the bitmap image
  • Draw or edit a bitmap icon
  • Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon
  • Import a bitmap from another source
  • Save your bitmap to a file
  • Scripting tools
  • VBScript and JScript
  • 3-D digitizing
  • Diagnostics
  • Error messages
  • Scripting Rhino Installers
  • Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo)
  • Rhino plug-ins
  • Glossary
  • Commands
  • 34View
  • 3DFace
  • 3View
  • 4View
  • AddNextU
  • AddNextV
  • AddPrevU
  • AddPrevV
  • AddToGroup
  • AlignBackgroundBitmap
  • AlignProfiles
  • AllCPlanesThroughPt
  • AllLayersOn
  • Angle
  • ApplyCrv
  • ApplyMesh
  • Arc3Pt
  • ArcDir
  • ArcSER
  • ArcTTR
  • Area
  • AreaCentroid
  • AreaMoments
  • Array
  • ArrayCrv
  • ArrayCrvOnSrf
  • ArrayPolar
  • ArraySrf
  • Arrow
  • Arrowhead
  • AssignBlankTexture
  • Audit
  • Autosave
  • Back
  • Baseball
  • BaseballEllipsoid
  • Bend
  • Bisector
  • Blend
  • BlendSrf
  • BooleanDifference
  • Boolean difference
  • Boolean Difference
  • BooleanIntersection
  • Boolean intersection
  • BooleanUnion
  • Boolean Union
  • Bottom
  • BoundingBox
  • Box3Pt
  • BringViewportToTop
  • Chamfer
  • ChamferSrf
  • ChangeDegree
  • ChangeDegreeSrf
  • ChangeLayer
  • ChangeToCurrentLayer
  • Check
  • CheckInLicense
  • CheckOutLicense
  • Circle
  • Circle3Pt
  • CircleD
  • CircleTTR
  • CircleTTT
  • ClearAllMeshes
  • ClearUndo
  • CloseDisplayWindow
  • ClosestPt
  • CloseViewport
  • CommandHistory
  • CommandPaste
  • CommandPrompt
  • Cone
  • Conic
  • ConicPerp
  • Continuity
  • Contour
  • ControlPolygon
  • ControlPolygon on
  • ControlPolygonDensity
  • ControlPolygonHighlight
  • ConvertToBeziers
  • ConvertToPolyline
  • Copy
  • CopyClip
  • CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll
  • CopyCPlaneToAll
  • CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard
  • CopyViewToAll
  • CPlane3Pt
  • CPlaneElevation
  • CPlaneFront
  • CPlaneNext
  • CPlaneOrigin
  • CplaneOriginAll
  • CPlanePerpToCrv
  • CPlanePrev
  • CPlaneRight
  • CPlaneThroughPt
  • CPlaneToObject
  • CPlaneTop
  • CPlaneToView
  • CPlaneV
  • CPlaneX
  • CPlaneZ
  • CreateUVCrv
  • Crv2View
  • CrvDeviation
  • CrvEnd
  • CrvSeam
  • CrvStart
  • CrvThroughSrfControlPt
  • CSec
  • CullControlPolygon
  • Curvature
  • CurvatureAnalysis
  • CurvatureGraphOff
  • CurvatureGraphOn
  • CurvatureSrf
  • Curve
  • CutArea
  • CutAreaCentroid
  • CutAreaMoments
  • CutPlane
  • CutVolume
  • CutVolumeCentroid
  • CutVolumeMoments
  • Cylinder
  • Delete
  • Delete control points on curves
  • DeleteAll
  • DetachTrim
  • DigCalibrate
  • DigClick
  • DigDisconnect
  • DigPause
  • DigScale
  • DigSection
  • DigSketch
  • DigSpacing
  • DimAligned
  • DimAngle
  • DimDiameter
  • DimHorizontal
  • DimOptions
  • DimRadius
  • DimRecenterText
  • DimRotated
  • DimVertical
  • DirectionalLight
  • DisableOsnap
  • DisplayBitmap
  • Distance
  • Divide
  • DivideByLength
  • DocumentProperties
  • Domain
  • DraftAngleAnalysis
  • DragMode
  • Drape
  • DrapePt
  • DupBorder
  • DupEdge
  • DynamicShading
  • DynamicShadingPerspective
  • EdgeSrf
  • EditDim
  • EditPtOn
  • EditText
  • Ellipse
  • EllipseD
  • Ellipsoid
  • EMap
  • EndBulge
  • EndBulgeSrf
  • Enter
  • Erase
  • EvaluatePt
  • EvaluateUVPt
  • Exit
  • Explode
  • ExplodeMesh
  • Export
  • ExportCommandAliases
  • ExportWithOrigin
  • Extend
  • ExtendByArc
  • ExtendByArcToPt
  • ExtendByLine
  • ExtendCrvOnSrf
  • ExtendSrf
  • ExtractControlPolygon
  • ExtractIsoparm
  • ExtractPt
  • ExtractSrf
  • ExtractWireframe
  • Extrude
  • ExtrudeAlongCrv
  • ExtrudeSrf
  • ExtrudeToPt
  • Fair
  • Faro
  • Fillet
  • FilletEdge
  • FilletSrf
  • FitCrv
  • FlatShade
  • FlatShade1
  • FlatShadeAll
  • FlattenSrf
  • Flip
  • Flow
  • Front
  • GCon
  • Grid
  • GridAxes
  • GridOptions
  • GridSections
  • GridSize
  • GridThick
  • Group
  • HBar
  • Heightfield
  • Helix
  • Hide
  • HideBackgroundBitmap
  • HideOsnap
  • HidePt
  • HideSwap
  • Hotspot
  • Hydrostatics
  • Import
  • ImportCommandAliases
  • Improve
  • IncrementalSave
  • Insert
  • InsertEditPoint
  • InsertKink
  • InsertKnot
  • InsertLineIntoCrv
  • InterpCrv
  • InterpCrvOnSrf
  • InterpPolyline
  • Intersect
  • Invert
  • InvertPt
  • Join
  • JoinEdge
  • JoinMesh
  • JoinSrf
  • LabelCurveEndpoints
  • Lasso
  • LayerLock
  • LayerOff
  • LayerOn
  • Leader
  • Left
  • Length
  • Line
  • Line4Pt
  • LineAngle
  • LinearizeTrims
  • LinePerp
  • LinePP
  • Lines
  • LineTan
  • LineTP
  • LineTT
  • LineV
  • List
  • LoadPlugin
  • LoadScript
  • Lock
  • LockSwap
  • Loft
  • Make2D
  • MakeCrvPeriodic
  • MakeSrfNonPeriodic
  • MakeSrfPeriodic
  • Match
  • MatchLayer
  • MatchSrf
  • Maximize
  • MaxViewport
  • Menu
  • MergeEdge
  • MergeSrf
  • Mesh
  • MeshBox
  • MeshCone
  • MeshCylinder
  • Mesh cylinder
  • MeshDensity
  • MeshPlane
  • MeshPolyline
  • MeshSphere
  • MeshToNurb
  • Minimize
  • Mirror
  • Move
  • MoveBackgroundBitmap
  • MoveUVN
  • Mscribe
  • NamedCPlane
  • NamedView
  • NetworkSrf
  • NewViewport
  • NextOrthoViewport
  • NextPerspectiveViewport
  • NextU
  • NextV
  • NextViewport
  • NextViewportToTop
  • Normal
  • Notes
  • Note
  • Offset
  • OffsetSrf
  • OneLayerOff
  • OneLayerOn
  • Open
  • OpenWorkspace
  • Options
  • Orient
  • Orient3Pt
  • OrientCrvToEdge
  • OrientOnSrf
  • OrientPerpToCrv
  • Ortho
  • OrthoAngle
  • PackTextures
  • PanDown
  • PanLeft
  • PanRight
  • PanUp
  • Parabola
  • Paraboloid
  • Paste
  • Patch
  • Pause
  • Perspective
  • PerspectiveAngle
  • PerspectiveMatch
  • PictureFrame
  • Pipe
  • PlaceBackgroundBitmap
  • PlaceCameraTarget
  • PlaceTarget
  • Plan
  • Planar
  • PlanarSrf
  • Plane
  • Plane3Pt
  • PlaneThroughPt
  • PlaneV
  • PluginManager
  • Point
  • Point filters
  • PointCloudSection
  • PointDeviation
  • PointGrid
  • PointLight
  • Points
  • PointsAtNakedEdges
  • PointsFromUV
  • Polygon
  • PolygonEdge
  • Polyline
  • PolylineOnMesh
  • PolylineThroughPt
  • PopupMenu
  • PopupToolbar
  • PrevU
  • PrevV
  • PrevViewport
  • Print
  • PrintSetup
  • Project
  • Projection
  • ProjectToCPlane
  • Properties
  • PtOff
  • PtOffSelected
  • PtOn
  • Pull
  • PushViewportToBack
  • Radius
  • RailRevolve
  • ReadCommandFile
  • ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile
  • ReadNamedViewsFromFile
  • ReadViewportsFromFile
  • Rebuild
  • RebuildEdges
  • RebuildSrf
  • Rectangle
  • Rectangle3Pt
  • RectangleCen
  • RectangleV
  • Redo
  • RedoMultiple
  • ReduceMesh
  • RefreshShade
  • RemapCPlane
  • RemoveBackgroundBitmap
  • RemoveFromGroup
  • RemoveKnot
  • RemoveMultiKnotSrf
  • RemoveWallpaper
  • Remove wallpaper
  • RenderAGEdges
  • RenderCrv
  • RenderEdges
  • RenderOptions
  • RenderPreview
  • Render preview
  • RenderPreviewAll
  • RenderPreviewSelected
  • RenderPreviewSelectedAll
  • ReparameterizeSrf
  • Restore
  • RestoreCPlane
  • RestoreView
  • Revolve
  • RevU
  • RevV
  • Ribbon
  • Right
  • Rotate
  • Rotate3D
  • RotateCamera
  • RotateCameraDown
  • RotateCameraLeft
  • RotateCameraRight
  • RotateCameraUp
  • RotateCPlane
  • RotateDown
  • RotateLeft
  • RotateRight
  • RotateUp
  • RotateView
  • RunScript
  • Save
  • SaveAs
  • SaveAsTemplate
  • SaveCPlane
  • SaveDisplayWindowAs
  • SaveSmall
  • SaveView
  • SaveWorkspace
  • SaveWorkspaceAs
  • Scale
  • Scale1D
  • Scale2D
  • ScaleBackgroundBitmap
  • ScaleNU
  • ScreenCaptureToClipboard
  • ScreenCaptureToFile
  • ScreenCaptureToFile256
  • Section
  • SelAll
  • SelBadObjects
  • SelColor
  • SelConnected
  • SelCrossing
  • SelCrv
  • SelDim
  • SelDup
  • SelGroup
  • SelID
  • SelLast
  • SelLayer
  • SelLayerNumber
  • SelLight
  • SelMesh
  • SelNakedMeshEdgePt
  • SelName
  • SelNone
  • SelPolyline
  • SelPolysrf
  • SelPrev
  • SelPt
  • SelSrf
  • SelU
  • SelUV
  • SelV
  • SelWindow
  • SetActiveViewport
  • SetCurrentRenderPlugIn
  • SetGLShade
  • SetGroupName
  • SetLayer
  • SetLayerMaterialProperties
  • SetLayerToObject
  • SetMaximizedViewport
  • SetObjectMaterial
  • SetObjectMaterialProperties
  • SetObjectName
  • SetObjectNameMultiple
  • SetOrtho
  • SetPlanar
  • SetPt
  • SetRedrawOff
  • SetRedrawOn
  • SetSnap
  • SetViewportWindowSize
  • SetWorkingDirectory
  • Shade1
  • ShadeAll
  • ShadedViewport
  • ShadeOptions
  • ShadeSelected
  • ShadeSelectedAll
  • Shear
  • Show
  • ShowBackgroundBitmap
  • ShowBrokenEdges
  • ShowCamera
  • ShowEdges
  • ShowNakedEdges
  • ShowOsnap
  • ShowPt
  • ShowSelected
  • ShrinkTrimmedSrf
  • Silhouette
  • SimplifyCrv
  • Sketch
  • SketchOnMesh
  • SketchOnSrf
  • Smooth
  • Snap
  • SnapSize
  • Sphere
  • Sphere3Pt
  • SphereD
  • Spiral
  • Split
  • SplitEdge
  • SplitSrf
  • SplitViewportHorizontal
  • SplitViewportVertical
  • Spotlight
  • SrfControlPtGrid
  • SrfPt
  • SrfPtGrid
  • StatusBar
  • SubCrv
  • SwapUV
  • SwapView
  • Sweep1
  • Sweep2
  • SynchronizeViews
  • Taper
  • TCone
  • Text
  • TextObject
  • TiltLeft
  • TiltRight
  • Title
  • ToggleOsnap
  • Toolbar
  • Torus
  • Trim
  • Tube
  • Turntable
  • Twist
  • Undo
  • UndoMultiple
  • UndoSelected
  • Ungroup
  • UnifyMeshNormals
  • Units
  • UnLock
  • UnLockSelected
  • UnpackTextures
  • UnrollSrf
  • Untrim
  • ViewCPlaneBack
  • ViewCPlaneBottom
  • ViewCPlaneFront
  • ViewCPlaneLeft
  • ViewCPlaneRight
  • ViewCPlaneTop
  • ViewportProperties
  • Viewport title
  • ViewportTitle
  • Volume
  • VolumeCentroid
  • VolumeMoments
  • VRBSrf
  • Wallpaper
  • Weight
  • Weld
  • What
  • WireframeViewport
  • WireShade1
  • WorldAxes
  • Index

Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

ii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

iii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

iv

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

v

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

vi

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

viii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

ix

0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

.................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index..........................................................Rhino 2.............................................................. 447 xv ....

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

and Find. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.com/support/faq.rhino3d. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.rhino3d. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears.rhino3d. To explore the related topics. Index. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. under the topic Help. see the Rhino Command List. Help Access Rhino's Help file.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d.com Web site www. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. 17 . This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. and by the time the product was in beta testing. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. the name stuck.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. Shift. Ortho pane on the status bar. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. and Right view. Front. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. drag with the right mouse button. click the Planar pane on the status bar. In parallel views like the default Top. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Lens length displays on status bar. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. F8.

Rhino 2. PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel. PageUp. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button.

Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar.Rhino 2. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . See Options dialog box. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. 26 .

y plane. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.6. with r prefix relative coordinates. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.10 in the construction plane coordinates.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. type w12. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point.0 and press Enter. type 0. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0. enter the starting point for the line. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.10 and press Enter. click Line.0 and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the construction plane. type coordinates in the format: x. Note If you enter only x. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12.z and press Enter. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.y. type 12.Rhino 2.6. 27 . then click Single Line.y.6. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt.0. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.and y-coordinates.6.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. click Line.and y-coordinates.z and press Enter. type coordinates in the format: wx.10 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. type w0. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. type r2. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.10 in the world coordinates. Note If you enter only x.3 and press Enter. With w prefix you can type world coordinates.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. then click Single Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the world x. type coordinates in the format: rx. then click Single Line. click Line. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. y and z coordinates to place points. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. A white tracking line will display.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. click Free-form. Click the left mouse button to select the point. click Line. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. At the Next point of curve. 28 . enter the starting point for the line. enter the starting point for the line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.axis) and press Enter. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. type r4<45 and press Enter. then click Interpolate Points. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane.axis) and press Enter. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered.Rhino 2. click Line. type 4<45 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click a point in the perspective viewport. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. then click Single Line. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. click another point in the perspective viewport. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. then click Single Line. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. indicating the new location of the selection set.

Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. 29 . press Ctrl.D points using 2. then press Ctrl and click.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Drag the mouse out. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. was when you pressed Tab. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. After starting elevator mode. but only if the point can be truly 3. click Line. and click again. release Ctrl. You can start elevator mode in another location. Press Tab. Continue with picking locations. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. From the Curves menu. Change viewports. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Place the first line point. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane.Rhino 2. Specifying 3.D.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. then click Single Line. Or press Tab twice. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. type NoElev. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. negative numbers are below. Release Ctrl.

Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. Click to place the point.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. Turn on end object snap. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . Your line will pass through the end of the curve. click Line. type a distance and press Enter. type <60. From the Curves menu. the marker snaps to the curve end. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line. enter the starting point for the line.Rhino 2. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. Or. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points.

At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. you can turn them on. Or.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. Click to place the point. click Line. Click to place the point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. enter the starting point for the line. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. type 10. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. From the Curves menu. then click Single Line. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.Rhino 2. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter.

you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points.Rhino 2. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. 32 . the surfaces cannot be merged. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. so those are the things that need to be merged. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. this will become more clear.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces.

extension line extension. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. extension line offset distance. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Text height The text height in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. and arrow length are multiplied by this number.Rhino 2. 33 . The text height. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units.

Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. 34 . Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line.Rhino 2.

but should shade and render relatively fast.Rhino 2. and higher polygon count. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. whenever you start a new model without a template. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. but may take very long to shade and render. Document Properties dialog box. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. more accurate meshes. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Document Properties dialog box. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. This setting is scale independent. is from 1 to 100. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. these settings are used. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. 35 . Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Custom Set the custom options. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. This setting is scale independent.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. When the Refine check box is selected. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. type information you want to save with the model. when not zero. Notes tab Add notes to your model.

When the Refine check box is selected. In practice. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. By default. 36 . Jagged seams is not selected. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. By default. This option is scale dependent. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Simple planes is not selected. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Refine is selected. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. Min edge length. After initial meshing. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. When the Refine check box is selected. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. and lower polygon count. edge to Srf options. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Max edge length. and higher polygon count. Max dist. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max dist. and Max dist. The default values is 16. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. more accurate meshes. less accurate meshes. edge to srf to zero turns off the option.

The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. 37 . None Each pixel is sampled once. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. With small objects. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. None No shadows. use smaller shadow offset. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. but also slows down rendering. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. This makes the image appear smoother. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. In Rhino. In practice. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. use bigger shadow offset. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. Background Sets the color of the render background. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. With large objects. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels.Rhino 2. In general. if the shadows are turned on.

Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands.2km 1. trimming surfaces. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. When you change from one units to another. In those commands. Document Properties dialog box. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2mic 1.2cm 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Fractional. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.2c 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input. or Feet & Inches. For example.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2m 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions.Rhino 2.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Mils 1.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. the relative tolerance is used instead.2mm 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Select Decimal.

39 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. and use predefined viewport configurations. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. and place a named viewport on top. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. You can specify which viewport is maximized. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. In general. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Zoom Window.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. step through the viewports. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. rename viewports. set multiple templates.01 to 0.001. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. Extents.01 millimeters. You can create new viewports. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Close the viewport. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. or Extents of the selected objects. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Use defined and named views. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Rhino 2.

Crossing. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. To bring all your objects into view. click Zoom Extents All. Select objects General Click an object to select it. To remove an object from a selection set. Edit Grid properties. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. from the View menu. 40 . all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. When the selection menu pops up. Edit viewport properties. click Set View > Plan. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. from the View menu. When you make a Window selection. To select additional objects.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. When you make a Crossing selection. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command.Rhino 2.

but if you picked it as a boundary. When object is highlighted.x files from Rhino 2. press Enter or the spacebar. Click another object. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. For instance if you have a plane.x files into Rhino 2.x file. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. Saving 1.0 If you save as a 1.x 3D models (.0. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude.x file from Rhino 2. In the File name box.x file into Rhino 2. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane.Rhino 2. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1.0 If you load a 1. select Rhino 1. Sweep1.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. To cancel the selection process: Click None.3dm). In the Save as type box.0.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu.0 rendering information is saved in the 1. and you picked an edge as a curve. click Export or Save As. you'd get one line. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. Sweep2). no 2. Import and export file types Rhino 1. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Copy. type a filename. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude).

Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. click Save As. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. select 3D Studio.2.5. They are not converted to NURBS. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.Rhino 2. In the File name box.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters.2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. In the File name box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. click Export Selected. in the Files of type. click Import/Merge. 2. Or. 42 . Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. In the Save as type box.0. If no object name is defined. click Open. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. If so. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided.0. from the File menu. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. When building morph targets. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. For version 3. select 3D Studio. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Click Save. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. or MAX 2. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. MAX 2. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. 2. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. Click Open. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. type a name for the 3DS file. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010.0 use IGES to transfer files. type a name for the 3DS file.

NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. RhinoMax2imp. 3DS MAX version 2. export to a DWG.dli. RhinoMax2imp. In the MAX2. MAX does not export NURBS curves.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. (3dmimp. From the MAX2. or RhinoMax25imp. are imported in several pieces.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. or 3D Studio R4. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points.3dm. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. Only Spline objects get exported. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. select Rhino 3D Models.0 Command Reference File formats In general.5 File Import dialog box.dli. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. RhinoMax25imp. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. Now mesh your curved surfaces. This happens because the MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. click Import. Select the 3DM file to import. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. and RhinoMax20imp. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.5. RhinoMax20imp.dli. Open 3D Studio MAX2. use 3DS file format. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces.rhino3d.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.dli. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces.dli. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. Attempt trimming? 43 . The Rhino web site at http://www.5 File menu.dli from the directories in your MAX2.5\plugins\" directory.Rhino 2.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces.5. from the Files of type box.5 plug-ins path.dli into your "3dsmax2. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. This happens because MAX2.

" then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.5 or 3DS DOS. Be patient.Rhino 2. 3D Studio MAX 2.dli and RhinoMax2imp.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. If you answer "no. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. If MAX crashes. CurveCV. NURBS curves: 44 .5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question.rhino3d. In general. The Rhino web site at http://www. from the Files of type box. select Rhino 3D Models.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Given the information we have.0. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. (3dmimp. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.5 module called "ACISMAX2. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. To closely examine and edit MAX2. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. Surface.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory.5 NURBS object. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. click Import. Click the MAX2. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. Curve.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. 3DS MAX version 2. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 as a single surface. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino.dli or RhinoMax2imp.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. Using developers tools. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. From the MAX2 File menu. click the Sub-Object button.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. Select the 3DM file to import. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.

select Rhino 3D Models.rhino3d. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. are imported in several pieces. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. CurveCV. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. Curve.habware. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. Open 3D Studio MAX.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Click the Sub-Object button. From the File menu.1.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. In the File Import dialog box. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. from the Files of type box. If there is no Rhino object name.Rhino 2. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. Select the 3DM file to import. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. click Import. Clear the Weld control.at/duck3.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. obj+number is used as a name. On December 10 1997. Surface. 45 . Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. 3D Studio MAX 3. Some surfaces. click Mesh. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. From the Tools menu. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1.

In Rhino. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.5 ACIS Version: 1. All of the version types export curves. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files.0 ACIS Version: 2.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. Or. select the options for the export. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. Using ACIS Version 5. To change these into splines. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. Click Save. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. select ACIS SAT. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. type a name for the file. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. It does not fix geometry problems. In the File name box. from the File menu. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. At the Select object prompt. click Save As.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.0 ACIS Version: 3.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. but import in as bodies.and v-direction vectors.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . click Export Selected. select the curves and explode them.0 is currently not suggested. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file.

type a name for the AI file. click Open.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport. select Adobe Illustrator. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. Or.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. under Scale.Rhino 2. In the Files of type box. Click Open.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. from the File menu.0 ACIS Version: 4. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. In the File name box. 47 .0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. select a scale option. click Import/Merge. In the AI Import Options dialog box.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4.

click Save As. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. Click Save. In the File name box. click a scale option. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. From the File menu. Or. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. click Save As.ini. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. curves need to be refit before exporting. select AG. type a name for the AG file.0 files. In the File name box. Click Open.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. click Export Selected. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. Under some circumstances. In some situations. type a name for the AG file.0 > 8. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format.1 units from the original curve. from the File menu. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. type a name for the AI file. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. click Export Selected. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. from the Files of type box. From the File menu. Make the viewport you want to export from active. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0.5. In the Open dialog box. select AG.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Or. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. under Scale. Rhino only reads curve geometry. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. Or. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. In the Save as type box. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . In the File name box. from the File menu. click Open. In the AI Export Options dialog box. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. not text. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. select Adobe Illustrator.

select AutoCAD DWG. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. click Export Selected. Click Open. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. In the Save as type box. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. Or. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. click Save As. Click Save. select AutoCAD DXF. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. select AutoCAD DXF. click Save As. type a name for the DXF file. Or. Object properties. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. from the File menu. select AutoCAD DWG. In the File name box. from the File menu. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. In the File name box. They are not converted to NURBS. In the File name box. click Open. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. From the File menu. In the Files of type box. In the File name box. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. type a name for the DXF file. AutoCAD line types are ignored.Rhino 2. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. click Export Selected. From the File menu. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. from the File menu.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. Rhino will not import images. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. select the options for DXF export. Or. type a name for the DWG file. click Import/Merge. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Or. type a name for the DWG file. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. rays. In the Files of type box. Click Save. or anything in paperspace. OLE objects. from the File menu. click Open. XREF's are imported. click Import/Merge. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. select the options for DWG export. regions. Click Open. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented.

Polylines If you export curves as polylines. They are not converted to NURBS. use RAW instead. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. arc. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. circle. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. circles. but do not properly read polyface meshes. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. 50 . If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Rhino will not import images. This means if the curve is just one line. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. and line entities. regions. rays. 2-D curves are simplified. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. or anything in paperspace. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines.Rhino 2. 3-D curves are never simplified. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. arcs. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. or circle. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. you can export either polyline or spline entities. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. arc. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. or circle. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. export curves as splines. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. OLE objects. curves are approximated with polylines.

ellipse. and line entities. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. arcs. ellipses. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. In the Save as type box. line. If the simplify tolerance is too small. From the File menu. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be.csv). or ellipse. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. select Object Properties (. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. and ellipses as NURBS curves. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. click Export Selected. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. circle. For silhouette lines. circle. The larger this number.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file.Rhino 2. If the simplify tolerance is too large. This setting uses current model units. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. Click Save. lines. but increase the number of polyline segments. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. it is exported as a simple entity. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. arcs. Use simple entities Circles. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. not the file header. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. type a name for the file. arc. line. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. or later DWG/DXF. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. it will be exported as such. In the File name box.

Rhino 2.0. This setting determines how the station lines are created. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.S) or only half (. Each component will have the same name as the shape. object name.C). pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat.0. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. object render color and selected mass properties. All component origin shift is considered 0. Rhino produces one component for each shape. Rhino must approximate each polyline. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. layer color. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. You can give each shape the name you would like here. When exporting curves as polylines. If you have previously selected a centerline. 52 . 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. The larger this number. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis.

lwo file instead of a generic name. In the File name box.000 polygon limitation. which does not have the 65. type a name for the LWO file. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. 53 . Click Save. click Export Selected. from the File menu. or Windage (sail). Or. Click Save. from the File menu. Or. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Or. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Object names will be used when exporting the . If the same name is used for multiple objects. from the Files of type box. In the File name box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. from the File menu. click Export Selected. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. In the Open dialog box. select Lightwave. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Containment. The LWO file is limited to 65. click Save As. In the Save as type box. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Import/Merge. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Each component will initially be a member of this part. select Moray UDO. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. click Open. select Lightwave.535 points for the entire file. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. In the Save as type box. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Moray automatically numbers the objects.Rhino 2. In the File name box. type a name for the UDO file. They are not converted to NURBS. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Note Object names are supported. type a name for the LWO file. click Save As. Click Open.

Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. Or.com/moray/. click Export Selected. In the File name box. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. select Parasolid X_T. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. they will be ignored with no warning. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. Rhino creates a . When you export to UDO. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box.0 will not read in open surfaces. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. only closed solids will be imported. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. To import the object into Moray.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. click Save As." Solution The model probably exported just fine. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank.stmuc. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. If the file contains open surfaces. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. they display a blank window. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. surfaces. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. type a name for the file. click User Defined.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. surfaces. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. select the target application for the export. and colors. 54 .UDO file and a . Planes are important primitives. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. and curves Solid Edge 6. from the File menu. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Click Save.Rhino 2.INC file. In the Save as type box. from Create menu.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same.

from the File menu. 55 . type a name for the RIB file. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. In the File name box. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. ISBN: 1558606181. click Save As. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. however.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann.rhino3d. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. In the Save as type box. Or.rhino3d. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Click Save.graphics. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.bmrt.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.Rhino 2. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. select RenderMan. ISBN: 0201508680. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. click Export Selected.rendering. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights.

Click Save. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. 56 . Set up your scene with materials and lights. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. from the File menu. Rhino writes the surface.povray. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. In the File name box. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. The transparency color is the color of the object.rib reboot your computer. Make sure the correct view is active when you export.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. transparency. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render.org. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. In the Save as type box.povray. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.rendribrc. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.org." Two windows will open. however. To cancel the rendering process. click the big blue "R. and highlight. type a name for the POV file. The intensity is always set to 1. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Save As. and opacity statement for each object. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp.1. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. To test render the scene. select POV-Ray Mesh. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. color. Use Properties to set the object names. Or.

The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. Textures are not exported. In the Open dialog box. Click Open. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. and highlight.Rhino 2. from the File menu. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. In the File name box. Or. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. This material name is exported for use by the renderer.inc and lights. type a name for the RTF file. type a name for the RAW file. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). click Save As. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. 57 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. click Export Selected. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. They are not converted to NURBS. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Open. select Raw Triangles. In the File name box. Or. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. from the File menu. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. from the Files of type box. click Import/Merge. Click Save. select Raw Triangles. or into one large POV file. In the Save as type box. but object colors are. transparency. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.

and use ExplodeMesh. 58 . To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Or. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. 0. Consequently. select SLC. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. 0. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. type a name for the STEP file. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The greater the number of polygons. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. 0. From the File menu.Rhino 2. use DXF instead. from the Files of type box. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. In the File name box. type a name for the SLC file.0381mm. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. from the File menu. Or. The slices will be evenly spaced. Or. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Open dialog box. click Open. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. (For example. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal.0508mm and 0. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal.0762mm. click Export Selected. Click Save. from the File menu. from the File menu. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. Export it in RAW format. click Export Selected. type a name for the STEP file.0127mm. Or. click Open.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. click Import/Merge. select STEP. click Save As. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. click Save As. Click Save.0254mm. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. Import it back into Rhino. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. Click Open. select STEP. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only.

then they have the same idea of up. but doesn't glue the edges together. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. then click Join. type a name for the STL file. to control STL accuracy. In the File name box. Click Open. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses.) Select the new mesh object. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. from the Files of type box. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. click Polygon Mesh. then click Unify Normals. click Polygon Mesh. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. click Polygon Mesh. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. Instead. that is. 59 . STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. if two triangles share an edge. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. type a name for the STL file. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. Or. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. to get JCAD to work. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. To see if the result has any holes or gaps.Rhino 2. For example. then click Weld. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select STL. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. From the Tools menu. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. In the File name box. They are not converted to NURBS. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. From the Tools menu. then Weld (angle=180). Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. from the File menu. Use JoinMesh.ini file to look like this. click Export Selected. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. select STL. From the Tools menu. In the Save as type box. If a mesh point is highlighted. click Save As. Click Save. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge.

To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. click Open. type a name for the VDA file. It does not support assembly and feature information. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Render color. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. from the File menu. Or. etc. In the File name box. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the File name box. views.axis toward the x. from the File menu. Click Save. from the Files of type box. type a name for the WRL file. click Export Selected.y plane.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. select VRML. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. click Export Selected. Click Save. In the File name box. symbols. Texture assignments are currently not exported. It does not support representation of drawing information. click Import/Merge. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. shine. select VDA. click Save As.Rhino 2. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Rhino now 60 . Or. click Save As. In the Save as type box. select VDA.D geometry and topology information. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. Or. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. Click Open. type a name for the VDA file.

Or.Rhino 2. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. From the File menu. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. In the Save as type box.) Outside of Rhino. from the File menu. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines.0.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. click Save As. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired.pdf.viewpoint. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Or. type a name for the file. You can download it from http://developer. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino.0. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. type a name for the WMF file. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. In the File name box.viewpoint. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. from the File menu. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Click Save. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. In general.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. select Windows Metafile. In the Save as type box. try 1. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. In the File name box.0 first. Render Mesh tab.exe. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. click Save As. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. Click Save.com/software/mtx2html. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. Export options Version You can choose between version 1.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. click Export Selected. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. you should try 2. This can be tricky. and if so. but will make the WRL file much larger. 61 .0 and 2. (The MTS file contains the actual data. click Export Selected.

PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. click Export Selected. and click Save. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile.x is created. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. select an IGES type. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. 1 2 In the File name box. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Detailed options Author.3ds A file yourfile. type a name for the DXF file. from the IGES type box. Organization. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. select IGES. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. in the Save as type box. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. This means various settings have different values for each product. Sender's product ID. 62 . Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Click Save. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. enter a name for the file. From the File menu.

The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. When Rhino 2. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.ini. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.Rhino 2. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. the IGES file will be empty. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. To create an IGES import log. To import trimming curves as curve objects.2 or 5.ini.

igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported.Rhino 2. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. Spaces and tabs are ignored.) are ignored. an IGES level number is automatically selected. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. To see if this is the case. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: .txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . When Rhino reads an IGES file.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type.. 3. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers." For example.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. 1." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. but this is not required. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. 2. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. you need to do a bit of sleuthing.). Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. This file can contain multiple flavors. .

lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. accepting only entities marked as geometry. click New.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. Rhino reads alpha.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file.igs. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. 65 . If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Other(). Definition(). It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything.igs normally. set the options for the IGES type. you will get it. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. If you do something like: open alpha.igs and gamma.igs. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.Rhino 2. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. or Logical/Positional(). regardless of type. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. If one of the Annotation(). Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs open gamma. click Close. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file.

0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.2 and 5.3. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. If the max degree is set to three. set the options for the IGES type. or IGES circles. from the IGES type list box. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. click Close. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS.2 stores years using two digits and 5. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. and click Copy Type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. The difference is 5. If the max degree is set to five. Unix. IGES arcs. and MacOS uses CR. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. IGES 184 entities. and maximum degree five. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. Unix uses LF. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. click Close. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. arcs. this number should be one. set the options for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. from the IGES type list box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. The number must be bigger than zero. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. select an IGES type.Rhino 2. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. 66 . In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Edit. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). and click Delete. and MacOS style line endings. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. select an IGES type. In most cases. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines.3 using four digits.

click Export Selected. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. If the max degree is set to five. Or. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. when possible. when possible. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. If you get better results with one export type.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. from the File menu. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. Try to load both files into your product. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. try the following test. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. maximum degree three. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. select Wavefront OBJ. click Save As. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. when possible.rhino3d. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. In the File name box. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Curves are not exported. 67 . type a name for the OBJ file.Rhino 2. select the options for OBJ export. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. Click Save. If the max degree is set to three. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. and maximum degree five. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. In the Save as type box.

Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. The . CR (Mac OS) Return only. Export material definitions Creates an . The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. To export to MAX. Options Skip Don't export meshes. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. End of line character CRLF (Windows.ini file. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. There are also references to these materials added to the . MS-DOS) Return + line feed.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. By default.mtl file with the same name as the . We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. Export layer names should be cleared. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. LF (Unix) Line feed only. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. mesh export is disabled. Export layer names Exports layer names. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.obj file.obj file. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. Export object names Exports object names. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.Rhino 2. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. If is far from 100% satisfactory. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files.mtl file contains one material definition per object. 68 .

type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. make it independent. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. In this case. select 3D Studio MAX 3.x.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. For the fastest import. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. and Customize > Preferences. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. and flip the trim. Or. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. click Export or Save As. from the File menu. and set the display to wireframe.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . Note When merging an IGES file. To distinguish between separate entities. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. select the trim curve. From the IGES Type box. After a large IGES import. select IGES. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. type a filename. and then restart MAX. select IGES. it is recommended that you save your work first. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. select Alias V8. try using OBJ format instead. From the IGES Type box.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. it is recommended that you save your work. select the surface. click Export Selected. All data that is not grouped.

In the File name box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. select AUTOFORM. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. select Ashlar Vellum.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

select Breault Research's ASAP. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select CADCEUS. In the File name box. select AutoShip.Rhino 2. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename. 71 . In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. click Export or Save As.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select IGES. type a filename. select IGES. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

From the IGES Type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the File name box. select CamSoft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CATIA. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . type a filename.

select IGES. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. In the Save as type box. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. type a filename. select Cosmos/M. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. In the File name box. Surfaces and Solids. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. even those that are trivially trimmed. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.Rhino 2. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities.

From the IGES Type box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Cosmos/M. click Export or Save As. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. select IGES.Rhino 2.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. select FastShip. 74 . In the File name box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.

select FastSURF. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. select IGES. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IronCAD. select Integrity Ware.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. type a filename.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.

select LUSAS. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . select IGES. In the File name box. select Mastercam.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

Or.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. from the File menu. In the File name box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.Rhino 2. In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select Maya. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select ME30. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select IGES. In the Save as type box. type a filename. 77 . click Export or Save As. click Export Selected.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. type a filename. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. select IGES. click Geometry. select IGES. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. (The MDT defaults work fine. select Microstation. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. click Edit options.2 or 5. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. 78 . You may set these options as you see fit. and click OK. click Export or Save As. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. Version 5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. click Structure. select Mechanical Desktop. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the Save as type box. click DE Mappings. set IGES Version to either 5.opt.Rhino 2.IGESOUT dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the File name box. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. From the IGES Type box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box.3. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. To save these settings. in the Description box. type a filename. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. To get the best results. From the IGES Type box. click Start and Global.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK.

select IGES. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Multisurf.1. Multisurf 3. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. In the Save as type box. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. click Export or Save As. If you add the following section to your Rhino. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. the current version of Multisurf is 3. type a filename.000000 79 . From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.1 using an IGES file. select NASA GridTool. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. type a filename.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the File name box.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.ini file.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. select IGES. select NuGraf. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select OptiCAD.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 .

use these settings in the Pro/E config. type a filename. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.01 units. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. use the "All Parts" option.001 to 0. select IGES.pro file then read it in before exporting. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . In the Save as type box.pro file or save them as rhino.0001 will produce good results. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. when exporting to IGES. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. somewhere around 0. If you set your tolerances right. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. Note With Pro/E version 20.

There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. there are now two types. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. Surface replace is another good tool to use. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. 82 . This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Surfaces and Solids. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. When modeling in Rhino. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The more trims you have. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. If the curves are planar. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E.Rhino 2. then.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Things like fillets and drafts . even those that are trivially trimmed. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E.

To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. From the IGES Type box. There is no geometry information in it. you will not get back what you sent. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. type a filename. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . and a solid.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. a surface. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. In the File name box. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies.

7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft. SGI and x86 (Intel). 1. In the Save As dialog box. Type a filename and click Save. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.Rhino 2.txt contains command line option information. DXF.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. select Softimage. Check out their web site for more information: www.okino.7sp1 and 3.8: ftp://ftp. From the File menu. 2 84 . from the Save as type box.phoenixtools. In the IGES Export dialog box. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. for SI versions 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.phoenixtools. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. from the IGES Type box.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. select IGES. Softimage can also import 3DS. click Save As.phoenixtools. All three have their own problems and benefits.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. Open Softimage. select Softimage.com Plugin download link page: www. 3. then click IGES.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage.com.igs MyDSCFile. Run iges2soft. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.

The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. select IGES.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. In the Save as type box. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. Surfaces and Solids. type a filename. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. select Solid Edge.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. In the File name box. type a filename. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing.

0001 before building the geometry. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select SolidWorks. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. To export models to Rhino.Rhino 2. Surfaces and Solids. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5.001 or 0. type a filename.0 Points=116 86 . Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.

ribs. Also. type a filename. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. SUM 4.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. then shelling is likely to fail. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. select SUM4. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. 87 . SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. leaving features such as fillets. is tangent. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. select IGES.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. shelling. try to model with smooth. select SURFCAM. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. Shelling. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. for SolidWorks. by nature. type a filename. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Generally.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Nothing replaces experience. and investigate alternative approaches. etc. which works on both edges and faces.Rhino 2. In the File name box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur.. to test feasibility.0001. which within human perception. click Export or Save As. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. In the Save as type box. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 . From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select TekSoft.Rhino 2. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. type a filename.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. select Unigraphics.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . select IGES. From the IGES Type box.

In the Save as type box. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 90 .Rhino 2. Context-sensitive menu with object selected.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select Yamaha ESPRi. Surfaces and Solids. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. select IGES.

Context-sensitive menu indicator. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. The first item is always to repeat the last command. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. actions related to objects appear in the menu. type RGB values in the Red. type values in the Hue.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette.txt in the Rhino install directory. Green. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Saturation. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. and Value boxes. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. from the Named Colors list.ini file. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. or drag to manipulate the view. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value.Rhino 2. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. The same limitation does not apply to render color. select a color. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. Edit the Rhino. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. In addition.ini file to add or change menu items. If no object is selected. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. 91 . For maximum speed. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. If context-sensitive menu is on. and Blue boxes. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box.

This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. All object snaps behave similarly. or can be activated for one pick only. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. End. right-click the Lock checkbox. To clear all persistent object snaps. Tan. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. on the status bar. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. click Osnap. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. Only Near. Point. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. and Knot object snaps can persist. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. Perp. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. If object snaps are locked. if End. Center. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. For example. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. Near. Quad. the appropriate object snap displays. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. End. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. When an object snap is active. 92 . One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. To display the Osnap dialog box. Midpoint. Near. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. As you pass your cursor over an object. After the pick. Intersection. and Point will not work for that pick. When activated. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes.

Rhino 2. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.

Click to enter the endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. all others will be cleared. Valid options are NoSnap. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. The marker jumps to the endpoint. separated by commas. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Quad. Intersection. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. from the Tools menu. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. or just suspends them for one pick.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. If a command is active. Point. Perp. Near. Midpoint. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. for example in ExtractIsoparm. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections.Rhino 2. 94 . then click End. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. Center. click Object Snap. and Knot. with no spaces. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. it turns off all persistent object snaps. InsertKnot. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. Tan. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. This command is useful for command files. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. Only these object snaps will be set. End. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. OrientOnSrf.

Near object snap Snap near a curve. Click to enter the midpoint. click Near. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Click to enter a point on the curve. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. Click to enter the point. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. click Object Snap. and the "corners" of surfaces. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker jumps to its midpoint. Move the cursor near a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. the seam point on closed curves.Rhino 2. click End. In the Osnap dialog box. click Mid. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. then click Point. click Point. 95 . Move the cursor near a curve. then click Near. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to it. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker moves along the curve. then click Mid. On the status bar. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point.

from the Tools menu. click Int. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. click Cen. tangent to the curve.Rhino 2. click Object Snap. then click Intersection. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter the point of intersection. then click Perpendicular To. perpendicular to the curve. then click Center. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Move the cursor near an intersection. then click Tangent To. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. Click to enter one of these points. Move the cursor along a curve. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. 96 . click the Osnap pane. click Perp. Move the cursor along a curve. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. The marker jumps to its center point. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. The marker jumps to it. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near a curve. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Click to enter the center point. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. from the Tools menu.

from the Tools menu. Click to enter the knot point. At the Choose a base point prompt. Set your constraints relative to the base point. then click From. In the Osnap dialog box. Similarly. arc or ellipse. Click to enter one of these points. On the status bar. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. angle constraint. with From. pick a point. then click Quadrant. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. type Knot. click Tan. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. You can use another object snap to pick this point. Move the cursor along a circle. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point.Rhino 2. Move the cursor near a curve. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. distance constraint. without picking it. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. click Object Snap. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. click Quad. click Object Snap. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. You can set this point. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. then click Knot. 3 Example 97 . From object snap Snap from a point. without entering that point for the original command. and finally choose the point for the original command. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. or similar surface edges. and relative coordinate entry. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command.

At the Click near the curve prompt. End. click Object Snap. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. At the Choose a point prompt. 98 . The cursor moves only along the curve. you can use simple snaps. snap to the end of the line. and Quad. Near.Rhino 2. Point. Cen. At the Choose a base point prompt. select the curve. Int. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. 3 At the prompt requesting a point.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. type 2 and press Enter. then click Perpendicular From. click Object Snap. select the curve. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent From. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. Mid. for greater precision. then click From. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu.

Along object snap Track along a line. Point. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. type AlongParallel. Or. 99 . you can use simple snaps (End. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Int. Note When selecting points during this sequence. select a second point. and Quad) for greater precision. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. The marker moves only along the line. At the End of tracking line prompt. then click Along Line. you can use simple snaps (End. Near. select a second point. Cen. you can use simple snaps (End. The marker tracks along the tangent line. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. At the Choose a point prompt. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. Click to enter a point on the line. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. right-click the Along toolbar button. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Mid. Mid. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Point. from the Tools menu.Rhino 2. Click to enter a point on the line. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. in the Object Snap toolbar. click Object Snap. Int. Note When selecting points during this sequence. At the End of base line prompt. Near. Mid. and Quad) for greater precision. Cen. and Quad) for greater precision. Near. Cen. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Int.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Point. select a first point to specify the tracking line. The marker moves only along the line. At the Start of base line prompt.

Note When selecting a point on the surface. then click On Surface. you can use simple snaps. but works on curves. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. from the Tools menu. The marker moves only along the surface. 100 . By default. At the Click near the surface prompt. for greater precision. Mid. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. When Osnap projection is on. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. Intersection. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. Click to enter a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Point. click Object Snap. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. End. and the cursor is over an object snap point. Near. select Project to CPlane. select the surface. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. it is off. Center. and Knot.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. 1. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. go to the Options dialog box. General tab. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. and OBJ file export. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. 2. Isoparms at surface knot locations. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. 0. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Object Properties. POV-Ray. The valid values are -1. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. One isoparm on knot-free spans. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. 101 . Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. and the other positive integers. Information Technical information about the command displays. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. or just the knot isoparms. and RenderMan RIB. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command.

Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. To change the material assignment of the layer. using a plug-in library.Rhino 2. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. texture. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Light tab Edit light object properties. this tab displays the properties for that light type. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. Color Sets the color of the light. From top left to bottom right. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties.0 Command Reference Object Properties. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. transparency. you can set the color. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. finish. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. 102 . Turns light on or off. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. Material tab Edit object material properties.

The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Unlike more advanced renderers. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. 103 . Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black.Rhino 2. Clear this option to remove the bump map. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Clear this option to remove the texture map. or a polygon mesh. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. polysurface. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. From top left to bottom right. Text tab Edit text properties. Object Properties. To change the color of the wireframe display. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy.

You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.25 inches. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). and you intend to print at 1/4 true size.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Command string Command alias definitions. When you place annotation text. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items.Rhino 2. 104 . You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Options dialog box. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. The two sizes update each other. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Example If your units are inches.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. highlights. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. click Options. shadows. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. from the smooth geometry. Also. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. and the color-andshadows Render. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. On the Shade tab. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. you will see improved performance. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Choose between the quick render preview. this shading mode may be much faster. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. and a backdrop image. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. The next time you shade the same model. spotlighting. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Render Mesh tab. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. 114 . The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. click Use OpenGL.Rhino 2. For highest quality results.

Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. Render Mesh tab.Rhino 2. from the smooth geometry. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. 115 . you may see moiré patterns in the renderings.5. The next time you render the same model. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. which might appear in waves. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. you will see improved performance. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Render tab. When you draw the plane. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Jagged spotlight edges and self. Self. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. the patterns may probably disappear. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Also.0 or 1. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. In some situations. of the view in the active viewport. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. so it won't be deformed. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Rhino Render tab. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image.

If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. Correct shadow. Self-shadowing artifacts. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. If the problems still persist. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. The scale of the objects is very large. Sometimes the conversion 116 .Rhino 2. That will usually solve the problem. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. If you increase it too much.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth.shadowing effects. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Change the size of the light. If you’re getting self. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them.

0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. change the color of the wire frame. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Start Rhino. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. they look jagged. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. 117 . contact Rhino Technical Support. Even if you got the card last week.Rhino 2. if you were working on a human figure. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. If this does not fix the problem. please read section the next section.dll and Glu32. available from Microsoft at www. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Or you can organize your parts a different way. Otherwise. you can turn them all off at once. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures.com/windows/downloads/winntw. When objects are on a layer. Off Status of layer. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. For example. This helps you organize your model. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Windows 95. On Status of layer.asp. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. To set the column width. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. and download the latest drivers. Name Layer name. To update your OpenGL drivers. you may not have the current drivers. and since the polygons are flat. select them all with one selection.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros).microsoft. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. To update Windows NT drivers. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers.

in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. polysurface. To change the color of the wireframe display. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Unlike more advanced renderers. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. texture. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. finish. you can set the color.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. or a polygon mesh. transparency. 118 . You can snap to objects on this layer. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default.Rhino 2. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application.

Clear this option to remove the bump map. You can select all layers. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. select a set of layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. click New. type a new name and press Enter. In the Layer dialog box. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. 119 . Clear this option to remove the texture map. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. select the name on the list. and Invert the selection. You cannot create new layers with these names. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.Rhino 2. If you don't remember the layer names.

Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . Click Delete. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. To delete empty layers. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. click a filter option. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on.Rhino 2. use the Empty Layers filter. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. select a color for the layer. select all the displayed layers and delete. from the list select the layers you want to delete. In the Show box. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. click the color column of the layer you want to change. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. In the Select Color dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. When a model has a large number of layers.

off. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. set the desired filter options. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. or locked. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. click Filtered Layers. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word)." are on or locked. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. and whether or not there are objects on the layer).Rhino 2. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box.

This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. If this doesn't help. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. then the surface created by loft will. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. then use the one closest to the top of the list. If you are after a tent-like. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. Think of each curve you select in Loft. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. The rail curve directs the surface along it. try adding a few more cross sections. Lofts. then try Loft. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. If you are after a flag-like surface. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. generally. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. 122 . then use a ruled surface. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Sweep1. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. Rules. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. The surface is smooth. Sweeps. stair-like. or accordion bellows-like surface. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface.Rhino 2. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes.

123 . you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise.Rhino 2. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. while keeping the other end fixed. use a Sweep2. the surface will twist. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. If you have a several of closed curves.

Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface.Rhino 2. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. or no curves. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. For each of these four ways. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. several. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. 124 . the intersection of the offsets can have one. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. there are four ways to fillet. For a given radius. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. and thus the fillet. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment.

FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. there may be several fillet pieces. 125 . for this choice of sides.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference As mentioned. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.

Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. Because of this.Rhino 2. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. If split.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. If no. When Extend = yes. 126 . yes. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. When that is the case. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. No. then the surfaces are left intact. and split. If yes.

127 .0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. their offsets may intersect.Rhino 2. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. then no fillets will be created. and a fillet will exist. If two surfaces are tangent.

everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. 128 . Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. rather than arcs. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. except cross-sections are lines.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. Otherwise. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly.Rhino 2. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. no fillet will be created. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf.

So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. However.0 Command Reference In general. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. it doesn't. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. but it may not fit. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. B and C. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. 129 . Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. it is projected. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. If you do. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. no corner patch will be attempted. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Do each surface individually. In this case. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. do not pick A and B first. Additionally. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. Often. When joining A. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. In this case. then the result to B will work. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. If one is a polysurface. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. The result will have a hole at the corner. on an open surface or polysurface.Rhino 2. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. The picking order can make the difference. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. a spherical patch will be made." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. If both are single surfaces. Objects have overlapping surface areas. Once we have a curve on the surface. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. joining A to C. the normal always points "out" like you would expect.

Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. the operation can fail. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. 130 . When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. For success using the Booleans. You can also move control points to the same location. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. or visa versa.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. not mesh objects. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. This point is also called a singularity. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.Rhino 2.

and Intersection do not work. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. At the Select object for intersection prompt. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. the two boxes are just touching along one side. select the second object. In this example. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. 131 . there are three possible intersection curves. In this example. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. In this example.Rhino 2. At the Select object to intersect prompt. The objects will Union. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. we chose the cone first. but Difference.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. and then click Intersection. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. click From Objects. the Intersect command may give different results. In this example. Depending on the order the objects are selected. select one object. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail.

if your objects are polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command.Rhino 2. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. this may not happen. In our simple example. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. Therefore. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. If your objects are very complex. so we will Explode it. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . you would expect to get all three curves. however. To get all the possible curves.

5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. 133 . use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. Delete the small wedge of the cone. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. click Split. select the cone. From the Solid menu. click Extract Surface. At the Select cutting objects prompt. At the Select object to split prompt. Explode the cone.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone.

union. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. A – B = A intersect ~B. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. The intersection involves isolated points.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. 134 . Use the Join command to join all the parts together. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. From the Edit menu. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. In this case. and is achieved by flipping the normals. intersection. difference. go through the same code. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. click Trim.Rhino 2. select the two curves. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. So. There is no intersection. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt.

Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.ini to open it for editing. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Surfaces overlap. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Exit Rhino. In Windows Explorer. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. 135 . Double-click Rhino. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. Find the setting you want to change. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. To edit the Rhino. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. planes. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. cylinders.ini and restart Rhino. etc. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt.ini. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge.ini file. the outside is the side to which the normals point. To understand the results. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. find the folder where Rhino is installed. select the check box for the toolbar. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface.Rhino 2. Edit the Rhino. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino.

and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. select the toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. type the new name. it has no title bar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. The toolbar appears or hides. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. and click Properties. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges.ini file. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar.Rhino 2. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. and is docked. The toolbar reshapes. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. 136 . The title bar appears on the toolbar.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. This is a setting in the Rhino. and from the Toolbar menu. loses its title bar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. click Properties. Or. The toolbar moves to a new position. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt.

and from the Toolbar menu. and drop in the desired position. Or. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. right-click the toolbar name in the list. select the toolbar. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. 3 137 . and click Delete Toolbar. Release the mouse button. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. Or. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Or. click Properties. Or. Press and hold Ctrl. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. Click Import. select the toolbars to import. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. click Import. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and from the Toolbar menu. which has the white triangle in the corner. select the toolbar. Click Open. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar.Rhino 2. and click New Toolbar. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. and click Properties. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. click New. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The linked toolbar appears. select the toolbar. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Or. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. and click Import Toolbar.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. click Delete. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. it will distort the bitmap icon. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. The linked toolbar appears.

Hold down a mouse button for a moment. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. Press and hold Ctrl. The toolbar appears. Release the mouse button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. select Float to Top to make the link button float. Or. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Press and hold Shift. and click the right mouse button. The linked toolbar vanishes. clear Float to Top. Press and hold Shift. it will distort the bitmap icon. The toolbar is floating.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. In this case. 138 . Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. Press and hold Shift.Rhino 2. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. The buttons rearrange. Move the cursor over a link button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.

capture a portion of the screen. 139 . In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. select the toolbar. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Use this area to edit your bitmap. click Add Button. Press and hold Shift. Click Close. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. If you don't know what to enter. type text in the ToolTip box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Or. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar.Rhino 2. and click the right mouse button. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. type text in the ToolTip box. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. and click the right mouse button. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. Release the left mouse button. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. and click Add Button. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Press F2 to view the command history. for example: Zoom In | Out. draw with the paint tools. Press and hold Shift. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. and from the Toolbar menu. You can clear the image. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Press and hold Shift. A blank button is added to the toolbar. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Delete Button dialog box. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. You can change the ToolTip. and the bitmap icon. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. click OK.

This is the time to set the toolbar button size. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. then OK.Rhino 2. click Edit Bitmap. Note You can shift the image left. from the Edit menu. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. Press and hold Shift.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. the button is blank. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. from the Edit menu. 140 . The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. right. To undo a mistake. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. Press and hold Shift. click Grab. A square replaces the cursor. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the Edit menu. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. click Clear. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. up. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. Press and hold Shift. click Undo. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. click Edit Bitmap. and click the right mouse button. Or. Press and hold Shift. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. and click the right mouse button. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. Or. Click the pencil tool. click Edit Bitmap.

Click Open. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. which stops the creation of point objects.-3 1. from the File menu. type a bitmap file name.Rhino 2.1 4. 141 . The bitmap icon is saved to a file.-4 8. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Import Bitmap. select a bitmap file. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. click Edit Bitmap. and click the right mouse button. command aliases. click Export Bitmap. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. from the File menu. Enter Simulates pressing Enter.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. This script moves objects.4 13. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.0 5. In the Export Bitmap dialog box.4 -4.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. Press and hold Shift. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. Click Save. shortcut keys. from a text file. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5.

and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. Options are 0=Interpolate. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. click Commands. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. variable names. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. 142 . Automation servers. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. The default is 20. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Divs is the samples per knotspan.5. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Fit is the fitting method. From the Tools menu. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript.Rhino 2. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. These scripting languages allow loops. The default is 1. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. is a fast. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. If you don't know what to enter. then click Paste from Clipboard. and Java applets. portable. 1=Fit. browsing for files. Microsoft JScript 5. Mode is always 1. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. layername2. Press F2 to view the command history. the Web's only standard scripting language. queries. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection.

Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. If a model passes Check.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. To fix broken edges. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. If you zoom in enough. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. If your model doesn't pass Check. though.Rhino 2. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. These damaged areas can cause problems. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. Some bad model parts. If Rhino matches the large edges. see: http://msdn. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. re-trim the surface.for instance. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. and join everything back together again. The first one to try is the Check command. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer.rvb. 143 . sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. you have to explode the model. Another problem is having a tiny. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. then edit the trim curves. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. you may find some of those microscopic edges. and Check doesn't check for those things. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. Rhino will let you do it. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. If your model doesn't pass Check. then it will list some specific problems.microsoft. For more information on scripting. But it can check the general overall structure of the object.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas.

and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. open up the kink by control point editing. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models.0 5. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Split the curve at the kink. To draw a non-G1 curve. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. Untrim or DetachTrim. 144 . Thus. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other.Rhino 2. the Join command can get confused when that happens. This test does not check the geometry.4 10. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. and Join. Additionally. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. simple edge-to-edge matching. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs.10 5. Trim again.5 5. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. If there are lots of tiny edges. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. you can Undo changing the degree. Solution: Rebuild the curve. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. You will get this error message. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. FitCrv. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.0 5. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup.

and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Use this to install as a standalone node. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. You can put control points very close to each other. Some operations. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. The warning lets you know when this has happened. Rhino 2. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Join and Booleans in particular. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Solution: DetachTrim. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. 145 . Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Internal control points are coincident. You can put control points very close to each other. but not right on top of each other. but not right on top of each other. Draw a Circle. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. You will get this error message. In short. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Solution: Rebuild the edge. fix curve and retrim. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. There are stacked control points along a surface edge.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Extrude it. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. You will get this error message.Rhino 2. and then control point edit the extrusion. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Edge direction. Usually.

The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. When a node shuts down.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. it does not modify the shape of the surface.rhino3d. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses.Rhino 2. For details on setting up a workgroup. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup.0 as a workgroup node. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. unlike standalone Rhino.0" as a workgroup node. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2.com/plugins/developer. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino.rhino3d. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. No special hardware is needed. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. Very little administration is required.com/plug-ins. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down.htm. visit www.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. Thus. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. 146 . the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. contact your network administrator. the license is added back to the available license pool. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. This is an installation option.

connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. Rhino meshes all trim edges. 0. Marker. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. called the edge. 3. 2. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. 8/3. The 3. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions.D curve. the draft angle is 0. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. and pe_tol tells how close the 3.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3.Rhino 2. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. Cursor. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. the marker will snap to the snap point. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . 3. called the pedge.D curve (the one you see). 1/3. 1. then e_tol tells how close the 3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. 1.D curves. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino.90 degrees to 90 degrees. trim curves are ignored. and tolerance values for each of the curves. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3.90 degrees The range is from . When the initial mesh grid is made.D edge is to the surface. which also approximates the intersection. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). When using elevator mode. two 2. 2. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. For example. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. If an object snap is on.D edge. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. 0. After the initial grid is made. Each 2. 147 .

red on the other. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). Imagine a rope. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. the stiffness of the rope. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. or reflective metal on one side. However. If you hold it at the ends. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. blue on one side. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. When you have a finished solid.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. The other side is the inside. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face.) with a polynomial definition. etc. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. 148 . when you have a single surface. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. or a polysurface. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. Solid objects do not have naked edges. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect.Rhino 2. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. flat constant on the other). the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing.

Planar pane and Osnap pane. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Snap pane.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. In some other 3-D programs. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. this is called a "quilt. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose.Rhino 2. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Ortho pane. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. and solids. it is also a solid. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. 149 . If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. surfaces. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap.

Esc deselects all objects. The u. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. Esc clears the command prompt. and tolerances. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. no objects are selected. You can save your own templates to base future models on. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. If objects are selected and no command is active. u. You can display the u. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces.Rhino 2. there will be no holes in the mesh. and normal. units. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points.direction is indicated by the green arrow. v. and the v. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. v.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. U. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. If a mesh is generated from a solid. Surfaces have three directions.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. Esc turns off the points. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. When no command is active. 150 . grid size. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. A rectangular surface with the u. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files.direction is indicated by the red arrow. The u.

At the Fourth corner of polygon. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. using Point object snap and JoinMesh.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Press Enter for triangle prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Second corner of polygon. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Or. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. 3View Three-viewport layout. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. and Third corner of polygon prompts. 4View Four-viewport layout. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. 151 . Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate.

Start the AddNextU command.Rhino 2. Start the AddNextV command. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. 152 . Select a point on the surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddPrevU command. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Select a point on the surface.

Select a point on the surface. Start the AddPrevV command.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. prompt select the group or enter a group name.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. 1 At the Select objects prompt. select an object to add to a group. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. 2 At the Select groups. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. 154 . Use the Group command to group objects together. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.

At the Base point on CPlane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. 155 . pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. At the Select curve to change prompt.Rhino 2. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. World Front. The curves must be planar. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. AlignProfiles Align two curves. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. 1 2 Select the objects. or World Right. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. End of first line prompt. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Start of second line prompt. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt.Rhino 2. 156 . AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. select a point that defines the end of an angle line.

ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. If the surface is trimmed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. and fitted onto the selected surface. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. select the surface to apply the mesh. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder.0000 degrees.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. 157 . A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh.Rhino 2. select the surface on which to apply the curves.

Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. enter the angle for the arc. enter the end point of the arc. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. Then. For example. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. 158 . You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. one of which has been squished around in some way. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. ApplyMesh guarantees that. although if you understand the process and work at it. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. enter the center of the arc's radius. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. If making morph targets. At the End point or angle prompt. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. But that swaps u and v on the surface. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Arc Draw an arc. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. enter the start point of the arc. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. enter the center of the arc's radius. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. mesh the most complex surface first.Rhino 2. Start. Generally. At the Start of arc prompt. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. you can make such morphs. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. so if you Mirror something. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. If you use the Mirror transformation. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. At the Point on arc prompt. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. You can enter the number of control points. Arc from three points 159 . enter a point on the arc. At the End of arc prompt.Rhino 2. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the start of the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. enter the radius of the arc. Arc from start point. and radius. End. End. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start.Rhino 2. 160 . end point. At the End of arc prompt. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. At the Choose arc prompt. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the end point. enter the end point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. If the radius value is too small. At the End of arc prompt. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. select the second curve. end point. Tangent. enter the start point. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. enter a radius value. select the first curve. At the Radius prompt. At the Direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter the start point.

0.7e-006.1e-006. product moments. If you cannot see the entire report.34 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.014). you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2). Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.1.0). The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.8545412. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. 161 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. First moments.4601236. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.1. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.Rhino 2. second moments.0 (+/. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces.1.

1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.77350269 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.10.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.1e-009) Ry: 1.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.0.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.0 (+/. and sometimes contradictory. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.0 is shown below. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface. As an example.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.1e-009) Ry: 3. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below. Area First Moments: 162 .1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.88675135 (+/.73205081 (+/.Rhino 2.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 3.0 and 6.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.5.1e-009. if you select a box polysurface. with a surface or open polysurface. For example.1e-009.1e-007) z: 0 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.36650165 (+/.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. Area = 60 (+/. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.73300329 (+/.46410162 (+/.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.

In terms of integrals.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. In terms of integrals. In particular. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. area first moments.Rhino 2. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. and area product moments. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. The relationship between the area first moments. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. area second moments. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. the area. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration.

At the Number in Y direction prompt. those distances are applied to the array directions.and y-intervals. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. to indicate the x. Transform. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. type the x-interval. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. At the Number in Z direction prompt. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. At the Number in X direction prompt. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. Or. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. 164 . The array directions are the x. press Enter.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. type the y-interval and press Enter. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete.Rhino 2. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle.

Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Or. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. At the Select path curve prompt. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. specify twist behavior.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. or the spacing distance along the curve. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. choose two points that define the z-interval. set the number of elements to array. 165 . type the z-interval and press Enter.

You can continue to place objects. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. At the Basepoint prompt. At the Angle to fill prompt.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. At the Center of polar array prompt. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. At the Select the surface prompt. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. Objects arrayed along line.Rhino 2. type the number of copies and press Enter. select objects to copy along the curve. type an angle and press Enter. Enter a value of 1 or more. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. Surface. and object to array. select a curve on a surface. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. 166 . select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. curve on surface. choose a center point for the array.

type a number of objects. At the Select surface to array along prompt. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface.Rhino 2. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. Array along a surface 167 .0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. choose the surface to array along. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. type a number of objects. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt.

Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. 168 . it prints a detailed description of the error. enter the end of the arrow. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. the model's folder will be used as the default. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. At the End of line prompt. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream).Rhino 2. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. If the Audit command detects a database error. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. the path. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. otherwise you must select a folder. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. enter the start of the arrow. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. See the PluginManager command.rhp Options set the resolution.

If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Back Set to world back view. Files tab. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a radius. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. Note By default.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. you must edit your Rhino. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a center point. 169 .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.ini. automatic Autosave is turned off. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. By default. This sphere is two joined surfaces.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. Files tab. General tab. At the Radius prompt.

At the End of first axis prompt. choose a center point. choose the amount of bend. place the point outside the object. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. choose an endpoint. Bend 170 .0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. place the point outside the object. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. At the Start of spine prompt. At the End of spine prompt. To bend the entire object.Rhino 2. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. To bend the entire object. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Bend Bend objects. choose an endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the second endpoint of the line. At the End of third axis prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. choose an endpoint.

At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. You can't bend a polysurface . Bend moves the control points of objects. you will only bend that part of the object. enter the start of the angle to bisect. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object.Rhino 2. or enter a length and press Enter. curves. enter the start of the bisector line. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. surfaces. enter the end of the angle to bisect. 171 . The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. The remainder of the object is kept straight. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. and meshes. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. At the End of angle to bisect prompt.

select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.Rhino 2. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. 172 .

and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. and curvature is called a G2 blend. tangent direction. or press Enter. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. The location. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. tangent direction. If it is invoked after picking the first end. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. If you are joining curves. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. tangent directions. and curvature. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. A blend curve that matches location. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. and one of the curves is a blend curve. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. tangent direction. it applies only to the second end. The Blend command creates G2 blends. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. If you need a G1 blend. then you should probably use InsertKnot. 173 . and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. If a blend appears to tight or loose. tangent direction. To do this. select adjacent edges. At the Select first set of edges. select a surface edge. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). Note The location. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. it applies to both ends. tangent direction. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. tangent direction. and curvature. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location.Rhino 2. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. delete the arc. In either case. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

it will no longer be periodic.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. If you raise the degree of a surface. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). click the new layer. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. This gives you more control over the shape. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. the greater the number of control points. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. 183 .Rhino 2. but adds control points between each knot span. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. the higher the degree.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. enter the radius point. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. When the user gets back in the office. Note Delete or rebuild the object. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. select one object. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. enter the center point. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. When users get back in the office. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. Circle Draw a circle. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Select objects. 184 . You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. use the CheckInLicense command.Rhino 2. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. Diagnostics. To check a license back in. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer.

0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 .Rhino 2. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.

delete the extras.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. At the Third point on circle prompt. enter the end of the diameter. enter a second point on the circumference. enter a point on the circumference. At the End of diameter prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. Tangent. You can enter the number of control points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. 186 . Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. select the first curve. There may be multiple circles. select the second curve. enter a radius. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. enter a third point on the circumference. At the Second point on circle prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be.

use the SaveAs command and check Save small. 187 .Rhino 2. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. There may be multiple circles. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Third tangent curve. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Note To reduce the size of the model file. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. or are tangent to a second curve. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Point Select a point for input. delete the extras.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. select the first curve. select the third curve. select the second curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Point objects are not a part of any other object. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode.Rhino 2. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. Press F2 again to close the window. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. enter a point. right click in the Rhino Command History window. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Note Point objects display as small squares.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. or in the Command area. pick it from the list. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. 188 . To start one of those commands. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. CommandHistory View command history. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings.

CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Cone Draw a cone. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. choose a center point for the base.Rhino 2. it is pasted.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. Or. look at the Command List in this help file. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. At the End of cone prompt. If there is text in the Clipboard. At the Radius prompt. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. choose a radius. Commands List all Rhino commands. it is pasted as a command script. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. Without the command area. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2.

Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. Or. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Conic 190 . At the End of conic prompt. enter the middle point for the conic. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.Rhino 2. enter the end point for the conic. Conic Draw a conic section curve. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. At the Reference vertex prompt. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. enter the start point for the conic.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt.

5. Point on first curve prompt. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. select a second curve. Second reference curve prompt. First reference curve prompt.S) intersects chord(A. select a curve. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. type T to select tangent curves.C). Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. If you work out the details. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. Curvature point or rho prompt.0 and less than 0.Rhino 2. B. let T be the point where line(B. Point on second curve prompt.5 and less than 1. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt.5. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic.

ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0.5. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. Or. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 and 0.5 and 1. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. enter the reference vertex for the conic. 192 . Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically.Rhino 2. End control points are at the same location. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. so the w<1 case is elliptical. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. At the End of conic prompt.5. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. enter the end point for the conic.

Match. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. polysurfaces. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Blend. and meshes for contour line creation. Position. 193 . Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. curvature.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same.Rhino 2. One of the contour planes will go through this point. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. choose a base point. BlendSrf. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity.

At the Distance between contours prompt. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. 194 . the less dense the control polygon will display. The higher this number is. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. generated in both directions from the base point. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons.Rhino 2. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. At the Control polygon display density prompt.

Rhino 2. select curves and press Enter. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. The original curves are removed. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. 195 . At the Angle tolerance prompt. Edges can't be converted with this command. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. select an object to create polylines from. use the ExtractWireframe command first. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. 196 . they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. it is created when the object is pasted. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. At the Point to copy to prompts. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. Or. If the layer does not exist. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing.Rhino 2. Or. to move the copy vertically. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. snap spacing. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. choose a point to move the copy from. to copy the object in the same place. choose locations for copies. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. When you Paste objects into Rhino. type I and press Enter. type v and press Enter.

choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt.Rhino 2. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane elevation prompt.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. choose a point on the x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. choose a point on the y-axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. 197 . All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front.

for example. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. At the CPlane origin prompt. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes.D. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. 198 .Rhino 2. drag the construction plane's new x. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. in the dynamic preview. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. choose the new origin.and yaxes to a new location. Once your construction plane is positioned. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve.D location where it needs to be.

select a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane.Rhino 2. 199 . Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

axis.axis.Rhino 2. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the Z axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the z. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the X axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the x. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. 200 . choose the new origin.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis.

Crv2View Create a curve from two views. At the Select planar curve prompt. select the first planar curve. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. select a surface. the original surface must be developable.Rhino 2. Top view of profile curves 201 .0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. If true arc-length mapping is desired. select the second planar curve. Use UnrollSrf. cut openings in the unrolled surface. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface.

Example For an example.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane.Rhino 2. Look in the index under "Curve. From 2 Views. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve." 202 .

Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve.Rhino 2. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. press Enter. They are connected with a line. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. For each overlap interval. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. and move it along the curve. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. At the Location of seam point prompt. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. pick a new location for the seam point. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. 203 . For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. When you are done adjusting the connections. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. pick on a seam point marker. joining the ends of the overlap interval. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear.

Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. 204 .

pick near a control point. V or Both directions. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. At the End of cross-section line prompt.Rhino 2. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. Press Enter to stop creating curves. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. with the control polygons. The control point for the surface appear. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. end the line for the cross section plane. select a surface. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. press Enter to end the command.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the Select point on the surface prompts. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. that passes through the profile curves. as the desired control polygons are emphasized.

0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 .Rhino 2. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. For best results. space the cross section curves relatively evenly.

click to create the circle object. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. select a curve. press Esc to end the command without change. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt.Rhino 2. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. 2 207 . A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. This does not automate finding the inflection points. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Or. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. the curve is locally flat. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. Options Gaussian In the images below. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature.Rhino 2. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. 208 . For example. and other important properties. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. set the style and range. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. In the Curvature dialog box. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. curvature. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.

enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question.Rhino 2.>100. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. In the case of an offset. (Planes. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). cylinders. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Blue areas should be safe." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. Set the value for blue rather high (10. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. 209 . In the case of the mill.>1000) and the red close to infinity. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero.

then we establish a convention. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature.Rhino 2. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . or to the right of the curve. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. This is known as signed curvature. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. this may result in a rather uninformative image. both free and attached to objects. These meshes can be large. and the direction. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. these values may not be appropriate. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. As a starting point.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. At any point on a curve in the plane. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. the normal to the surface at that point. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. A soap bubble. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. If we care about this. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. unlike a simple soap film. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface.

The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. u. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. close the dialog box. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. This contrasts with a soap bubble. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. frequency. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. 211 . Adjust the length.Rhino 2. Curvature graph on surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. even when other commands are started. such as wire loops.

Rhino 2. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. They are not curvature continuous. However. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. In other words.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. Degree 5 curve 212 . So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. or tangent only.

Press F2 to show the Command History window. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms.Rhino 2. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. Gaussian curvature. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . As you move your cursor. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. the curve is "smooth" or "fair.D point. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. maximum principal curvature. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. minimum principal curvature. pick a point on the surface. At any point on a curve (except lines). To see the circle. If isoparm display is turned off. To better grasp this. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). 3. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. negative when the circles point opposite ways. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation.D normal. that is. 3. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. If the graph changes smoothly." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. Curve Draw a curve by control points. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point.

and pick. enter the start of the curve. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. At the Next point. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. To end the curve. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Sharp When you make a closed curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt.Rhino 2. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. At the Next point. press Enter. The curve closes. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. When drawing a high degree curve. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . enter additional control points. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. enter an additional control point.

area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. product moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.Rhino 2. When you Paste objects into Rhino. select the box.1. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Object properties and location are stored with the object. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If the layer does not exist.1.014). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0). At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.0.8545412. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.1e-006.4601236. 4 215 .1. it is created when the object is pasted. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. select the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.7e-006. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt.34 (+/.0 (+/. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. First moments. second moments.

The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the end point of a line that defines a plane.3921 (+/. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. 216 .0001).Rhino 2. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the first point of a line to define a plane. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. At the Start of cut plane prompt. select the box.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.0. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. At the End of cut plane prompt. press Enter to stop making cut planes. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt.7e-006. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. second moments. At the Radius prompt. choose a center point for the base. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. First moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.8545412.4601236. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Solid cylinder 217 . At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. select the box. product moments.1e-006. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. choose a radius. At the End of cylinder prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.1. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. choose a point for the center of the top surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt.Rhino 2. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.0 (+/.0). At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.

and saved construction planes are not deleted. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. 218 .0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. All objects in the model are deleted. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Press Delete. To start a new model. If you want to post-select objects to delete. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. saved views.Rhino 2. use the Erase command. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Delete Delete selected objects. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. use New command instead. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Layers.

select the proper serial port and baud rate. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Microscribe. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. You do not need to ensure that the y. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.axis. 219 . At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve.Rhino 2. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axis in the real world.axis in the real world. Rhino will do it for you. choose an origin in Rhino. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. use the arm to choose a y. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. select a boundary to detach. Similar to Untrim . and the trim curve is created. use the arm to choose an x. select your digitizing arm. In the Baud Rate dialog box. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt.axis is perpendicular to the x. Surface before outside trimming curve detached.

and curves with the digitizer. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. choose an x. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Thus. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. circles. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. If it is more convenient. You can draw lines. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. and is assigned to the F12 key. recording reference points as you go. arcs. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. 220 . you can use the digitizer. Whatever the reason. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis.Rhino 2. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. choose a y. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Digitize the third set of reference points. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. or the object moves slightly. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points.axis in Rhino. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system.

use the arm to choose an x. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. and Y for the origin. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer.axis on the table. Y. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. click Digitize. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal.Rhino 2. or you need to close and restart Rhino. and then click Calibrate. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.axis on the table. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. click Digitize.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. Label each point O. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose a y. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O.axes. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and y. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. x. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. X. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. Microscribe. and O. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. press Enter to use the world coordinate system.. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. If the digitizer or object moves. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. This is the reference polyline.

Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane.4. To digitize in millimeters. 222 . The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. To digitize in centimeters.54. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. You can space the planes at intervals. At the Start of axis prompt. enter a third point on the base plane. To digitize in meters. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. and spacing. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. The planes are defined with a base point. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. direction. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. enter a point on the base plane.Rhino 2. Type C to create a closed curve. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. enter the start of the section plane axis. enter 25. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. specify how you want to space the planes. When you finish digitizing points on the object. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. a point is sampled. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. type the scale factor for all digitized input. At the Second point on plane prompt. As long as the pedal is depressed. hold the pedal. At the Third point on plane prompt. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. enter a second point on the base plane.0254. Press Enter when you are finished. enter 0. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. enter 2. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal.

a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. Rhino samples points. When you release the pedal. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. 223 . pick the a point in the model to dimension from.Rhino 2. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. At the Place the dimension prompt. enter the distance between sampled points. As long as the pedal is depressed. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Second dimension point prompt. a point is sampled. pick a second line. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. pick a line. At the Select second line prompt. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines.

pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point for the dimension line location.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 .Rhino 2. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. enter the second point of a reference angle.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. pick a curve. At the Second reference point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. 225 .Rhino 2. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. At the Place the dimension prompt. enter an angle for the dimension line. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle.

select a curve. On surfaces. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.Rhino 2. At the Second dimension point prompt. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. pick a point for the dimension line location. Press Enter to terminate the display. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. At the Press Enter when done prompt. to change the direction. At the Dimension line location prompt. red and green arrows show the u. At the Dimension line location prompt. type F. Or. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Dir Show direction display. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points.directions at the point.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. surface or polysurface.and v. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. Curve direction 226 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt.

VReverse. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. 227 . DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. The location of the directional light does not matter. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. unless you apply textures. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.order and direction. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. the UReverse. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. pick a location for the directional light. The directional light icon does not render or shade.Rhino 2.and v.

right-click the Disable checkbox. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. pick a point. Darker colors. 228 . All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. like gray. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. clear the Disable checkbox. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Distance Measure the distance between two points.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. light the scene less.Rhino 2. When Object snaps are disabled.

Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Note Point objects display as small squares. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Point objects are not a part of any other object. At the Length of segments prompt. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. At the Number of segments prompt. use the Split command. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates.0000 units. select the curves to divide and press Enter. type an integer number and press Enter. 229 . Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. reversing the direction of the curve. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve.

0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. If you want points to start at the other end. surface. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.Rhino 2. use the Split command. Point objects are not a part of any other object. or polysurface to evaluate. use the Dir command to flip the curve. 230 . select a curve. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. When a polysurface is picked.

In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. You can check this with the Dir command. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. type the text to show in the dot. 231 . Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough.Rhino 2. enter the location of the dot. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. At the Location of dot prompt.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane.

Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .

Duplicate border curve 233 .Rhino 2. The Dup command only duplicates curves. type c (curve). textblocks. The object will be duplicated in place. and press Enter. For example. It does not duplicate points. surfaces. type f (face). Dup Duplicate an object. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. but it only makes points. edge. and solids. surfaces. and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. meshes. Because of this. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. select an object to duplicate. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. the surface will always sag more than the original. To limit your selection to surfaces. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. dimensions. then select the edge to duplicate.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. or bnd (boundary). At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. or lights. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. select the first curve. 234 . Or. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. select the edges of a surface. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. select the third curve. select the second curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the fourth curve. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. For many surface creation commands. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves.

Enter new text in the dialog box 235 .Rhino 2. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. select a dimension. type new text. EditDim Edit dimension text. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. For a surface from closed planar curves. You can use surface edges. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch.

They are not the same as knots.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. In the Edit Text dialog box. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. set the options. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. 236 . Type the new text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. select a text block. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves.

and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). When you place annotation text. You can enter the number of control points. enter the endpoint for the second axis. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.25 inches. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . At the End of first axis prompt. Example If your units are inches. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.Rhino 2. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. The two sizes update each other. enter the center point. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. enter the endpoint for the first axis. At the End of second axis prompt.

Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a focus point.Rhino 2. 238 . Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Draw an ellipse from focus points. At the End of first axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. enter the end of the axis. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the end of the second axis. At the End of second axis prompt.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. enter the second focus point.

enter the second focus point. enter a focus point. choose an endpoint for the major axis. choose an endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. End of third axis prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. 239 . At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose a center point. End of first axis prompt. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. or type a height and press Enter. End of second axis prompt.

The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. In the Environment Map Options dialog box.Rhino 2. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. 240 . curvature. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. When you use the EMap command. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. and other important properties. These meshes can be large. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.

241 . select More reliable. When Faster is selected. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected.Rhino 2. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. on the Shade tab. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. under Zebra and EMap. but will always work. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers.

No means there is one drag point. drag point indicators.Rhino 2. maintains the tangent direction. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. as with the Blend command. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. In each case. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. At the Start of region to edit.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. One-point-per-end mode. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. 242 . Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. select a surface edge. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. you are moving control points of the curve. At the End of region to edit. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed.

0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. the script Circle 0. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. After editing.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. 243 .1 2.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. aliases.Rhino 2.1 2. For example. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. During EndBulgeSrf editing.

Rhino 2. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Note When a polysurface is picked. select the surface to evaluate.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. and the U.z format. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino.y. the untrimmed surface is used. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. select the objects you want to erase. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. Press Enter when done prompt. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). A point object is created on the surface. If the surface is trimmed. select a point. 244 . EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. click points on the surface. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Note Erase is the same as Delete. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. Exit Exit Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.

pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. and selected mass properties. type a filename. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Use the Explode command. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects.Rhino 2. object render color. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type a filename. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the File name box. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. File. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Click Save. Export Export selected objects to a file. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. select objects to explode. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. layer color. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. object name. select Rhino 2 3D Models. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. 245 . In the Files of type box. In the Files of type box. Rhino supports several file types. select the file type you want to use.0 files. Click Save. This command is obsolete. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh.

At the next Select object to extend prompts. In the File name box. type a filename. select a boundary object to extend to. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt.Rhino 2. In the Files of type box. Or. The extension is joined to the original curve. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. Or. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Press Enter when done prompts.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Extend Extend a curve. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Click Save. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. select objects to extend. enter a name for the text file. 246 . At the next Select boundary objects. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane.

Type=Line Makes a line extension. Or. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. type a number for the radius and press Enter. 247 . and solids as boundary edges. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. enter the end of the extension. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. Or. select a curve to extend. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the Radius of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. At the End point or angle prompt. Note You can use any combination of curves. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. surfaces. type an angle for the arc.Rhino 2. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension.

the extension will be joined to the original curve. Select near the end of the curve to extend. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. enter the endpoint of the extension.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. the extension will be joined to the original curve.Rhino 2. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . use Extend a curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. select a curve to extend. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. use Extend a curve. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt.

At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. the extension will be joined to the original curve. select the curve to extend. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Options Join If Join=Yes.Rhino 2. Or. At the End of line or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. if possible. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. type a distance to extend and press Enter.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. select a curve to extend. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. near the end you want to extend. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. enter the endpoint for the line extension. 249 .

enter an amount to extend. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Note With the linear extension. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge.Rhino 2. or pick two points to specify the distance. depending on the shape of the object. Then the surface is extended on the end. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. 250 . Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. The extension length is based on parameterization. This fixes the original. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon.

Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. and isoparms display at the marker. If you need curved cross sections. use Project or Intersect. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. The marker is constrained to the surface.Rhino 2.and v-directions of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. Extract several isoparms. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. In contrast to InsertKnot. and polygon mesh objects.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. If you need angled cross sections along surface. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. surfaces. v or both directions. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. and Loft a surface through them. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. choose a point. If you need to place an object on a surface. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u.

and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. the surface is copied. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Note ExtractPt works on curves. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. surfaces. drag the desired distance and pick. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to.Rhino 2. The original surface is left intact. and polygon mesh objects. 252 . select surfaces and press Enter. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. If you choose the Copy option. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. or type a distance and press Enter. Solid Tools. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. At the Extrusion distance prompt. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid.

then the extrusion is in that direction. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. This option does not appear for open curves. The choices are Sharp. Smooth. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces.Rhino 2. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Otherwise. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. and Chamfer. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . Round.

select the path curve.Rhino 2. or enter a distance and press Enter. select the curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. At the Point to extrude to prompt. pick a point. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. choose the point. At the Select path curve prompt. At the Extrusion distance prompt. select surfaces and press Enter. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. The default is vertical to the construction plane. 254 . ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. select the curve to extrude. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. To draw a deformable plane. draw two lines at right angles. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines.

select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. Fillet Fillet two curves.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. 255 . type J and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. or accept the default and press Enter. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. At the Tolerance prompt. enter a number. Join To change the Join option. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. type R and press Enter. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. type the fillet radius and press Enter. select curves and press Enter. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems.

choose the first surface to fillet. choose the second surface to fillet. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.Rhino 2.

FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. If you have a dense string of points. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. enter a tolerance. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. Each face has a constant monochrome color. In general. The original curves are unchanged. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. select curves and press Enter. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. 257 . FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points.Rhino 2. The curves are refitted. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. At the Fitting tolerance <0. For scripting. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points.

Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. the OpenGL shade options will be available. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If OpenGL shading is turned on.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. object highlighting. axes. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. The grid. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. On the Shade tab.Rhino 2. click Use OpenGL. Each face has a constant monochrome color. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Each face has a constant monochrome color. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. this shading mode may be much faster. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. click Options. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. 258 . Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.

this shading mode may be much faster. click Use OpenGL.Rhino 2. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. At the Increment size prompt. enter a number and press Enter. such as Union instead of Difference. click Options. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. On the Shade tab. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. that define the outline of the flattened surface. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. the OpenGL shade options will be available. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. The objects looks exactly the same. If OpenGL shading is turned on. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. select curves. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. 259 . but their directions are reversed. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. If Booleans give unexpected results. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines.

Instead of drawing a line before the command.Rhino 2. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. At the Original backbone curve . Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. Front Set to world front view. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . This curve will be used as a new backbone.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Flow does not work on polysurfaces. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Flow works on the control points of an object . especially those with trimmed edges.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. At the New backbone curve .

you must edit your Rhino. At the Second curve .select near end prompt. select the second curve near the coinciding end.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. 261 . Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.select near end prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line.Rhino 2. Grid Toggle the display of the grid.

A handlebar displays on the curve. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Group Place selected objects in a group. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. 262 . Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. select the curve or surface to edit.Rhino 2. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. You can then apply commands to the entire group. GridSize Set the extents of the grid.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline.

Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. select a bitmap file. 263 . Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap.Rhino 2. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. or enter a length. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. At the First corner prompt. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. A handlebar will display on the surface. pick a point.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. select the surface to edit. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Height The scale of the height of the surface. pick a point. In the Heightfield dialog box. At the Second corner or length prompt. adjust options. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box.

enter the radius for the helix. select Turns or Pitch. enter the number of turns for the helix. 264 . enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. If you select Turns. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. the helix will twist counterclockwise. enter the end of the helix axis. If you select Pitch. enter the start of the helix axis. If you select Reverse twist.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix.Rhino 2. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. This is the line the helix will wind around. At the End of axis prompt.

select the objects you want to hide. Visibility. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. 265 . close the Osnap dialog box. Status bar: Osnap Or. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility.Rhino 2. If you exit the model and reopen it. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session.

Use 1. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. not a statement of a physical principle. (This is a limitation of the command. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. Longitude=X. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100.axis or the y. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. only half of the model needs to be given. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). enter a number between 0. The longitudinal direction. and press Enter. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. the command does nothing.axis. 266 .Rhino 2. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. The information displays in a separate window. that is. Waterline Length Length at water line.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates.0 and 1. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. the more concentrated the hotspot. The visible objects hide. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. The smaller the number. ) prompt. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.

in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. the command will fail. If the imported file type does not support layers. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. In the File name box. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. select curves. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. and STL Tools File menu.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. type a filename. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. Click Open. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. File. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. 267 . select Rhino 3D Models. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Import Import or merge objects from another file. The objects are reparameterized.Rhino 2.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. the objects are placed on the current layer. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Note Rhino supports many file types.

and rotate. choose a start angle. etc. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. At the Scale factor <1. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.3dm hi 1.3dm hi 2. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. Scale Scales the objects. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. If you say yes. If you say no.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. Click Open. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. At the Rotation Angle <0. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale.3dm tricky 1a 1.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt. or a point to rotate from.Rhino 2. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.3dm bg 32985. and z-directions.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects.0. scale. it does. 268 .3dm tricky 1a 2.3dm tricky 1a. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. y. Press Enter to place the model at 0. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.3dm tricky 1a 1.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. In the File name box.3dm bg 32986. select Rhino 3D Models. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. type a filename.

The marker is constrained to track along the curve.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. After inserting kinks. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. select the curve to insert edit points to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point.Rhino 2. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. press Enter to end the command. 269 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. choose points where you want to insert a kink.

At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. pick points of the surface for new knots. or Both. V. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.Rhino 2. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. pick points on the curve for new knots. 270 . select a surface.

and the parts are joined. The curve closes automatically. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. A straight line replaces part of the curve. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. enter an additional point. enter additional points.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. At the Next point of curve. At the Start of line prompt. and pick.Rhino 2.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. press Enter. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. At the End of line prompt. To end the curve. Main. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. 271 . InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. enter the start of the curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.

choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. 7. 5. When you draw an interpolated curve. 3. choose an additional point. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. Degree You can set the degree of the curve.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. choose the first point of the curve. and 11. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. 9. At the Start of curve prompt. 272 . This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. The marker is constrained to the surface.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. At the Next point on curve. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. Valid degrees are 1. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. all three parameterizations generate the same curve.Rhino 2. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. select a surface.

Object snaps End. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does.Rhino 2. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Close Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. 273 . InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Midpoint. Cen. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. and Intersection work. Knot. Near.

A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Intersect Intersect two objects. select the objects. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. use the BooleanIntersection command.Rhino 2. Non-polyline curves are rejected. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . To create surface and solid intersections.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Invert Invert the selection.

select objects. Contrast this with the Invert command. 275 . Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Invert also selects the polysurface. InvertPts inverts point selection only. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. When you are finished selecting objects to join. Join Join objects.Rhino 2. which also selects other objects. Points selected.

Booleans.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. If you use JoinEdge. NetworkSrf. doing a Join.Rhino 2. Using the Millimeter template. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. depending on what you may do with the model. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. you can have some problems later on. BlendSrf. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. Booleans. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. use MergeSrf. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. or Patch. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. or Patch. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. Do you want to join these edges?". and intersections go across the seam without gaps. If the edges are too far out of line. If not. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. and resetting the tolerance. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work.015 units apart. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. use MergeSrf. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. BlendSrf. For simplicity. 276 . no join occurs. a 3. When two edges are joined. NetworkSrf. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. For the group joiner. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. then the second one gets moved. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). but are not coincident. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3.

277 . BlendSrf. select curves.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. No mesh points are moved. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. y. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Booleans. The picking order can make the difference. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. use MergeSrf. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. If there are naked edges. The action performed is reported on the command line. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. or Patch. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. merged or deleted. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. NetworkSrf.Rhino 2. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. This command does not work in all cases. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want.

Lasso Select points with a lasso. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. 278 . select the layers you want to lock. press Enter to close the lasso. Start the Lasso command. See the PluginManager command. In the Edit Layers dialog box. but you cannot select them. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. Select Points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers.Rhino 2. Click the Lock option. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit.

Layer Two.Layer Three". type the name of the layer to lock. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Two. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. Note For layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Layer Two.Layer Three" 279 . In the Edit Layers dialog box. from the list select layers you want to turn on. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. Click the Off option. LayerOff Turn a layer off. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt.Rhino 2. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. from the list. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. In the Edit Layers dialog box. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces. Click the On option. type the name of the layer to turn off.Two. unlike the Lock (object) command.Two. type the name of the layer to turn on. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Two. separate the layer names with commas: One. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. select the layers you want to turn off. separate the layer names with commas: One. separate the layer names with commas: One.Layer Three". Note For layer names with spaces. LayerOn Turn a layer on. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.

pick the start of the leader. you must edit your Rhino. At the Next point of leader. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.Rhino 2. pick additional points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. They will not show in the perspective view. Press Enter to stop the command. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. At the Next point of leader. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. Left Set to world left view. Press Enter when done prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . pick the next point on the leader line. This is the arrow end. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. and meshes. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. circles. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. polylines. The line extends on both sides of the start point. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. ellipses. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. arcs. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. polysurfaces. pick the start point for the line. surfaces. pick the end point for the line.Rhino 2. select a curve or edge. At the End of line prompt. including lines and polylines. Line. you can select any of these curve objects. Line Draw a line. BothSides option selected 281 . Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. and can be used to create other curves.

Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. At the End of line prompt. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. At the End of base line prompt. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. At the Start of line prompt. enter the start of the base line. 282 . enter the start of the line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. enter the second point. enter the end of the line.Rhino 2. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. enter the start of the base line.

The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. pick the end of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. type an angle and press Enter. At the Pivot angle prompt. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. enter the end of the base line. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve.Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. 283 . enter the end of the line.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. and parallel to the current construction plane. At the Select object prompts. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.

press Enter. At the End of line prompts. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. When you are finished drawing lines. enter the start of the first line segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. enter pick endpoints for segments. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve.Rhino 2. 284 . BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident.

Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. select a point on a curve for the start of the line.Rhino 2. 285 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt.

LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 286 .0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end.Rhino 2. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.

enter the second endpoint.Rhino 2. LineV Draw a vertical line.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. or enter a length and press Enter. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. Line vertical to construction plane. BothSides option selected 287 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt.

See the PluginManager command. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. You can download plug-ins. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. Load Loads a selected script file. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications.com/plug-ins. the code interpreted and run immediately. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. enter an integer. 288 . RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. If the script file just contains script expressions. from www. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files.Rhino 2. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt.rhino3d. select one object. or press Enter to accept the default. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. Close Closes the dialog box. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user.

then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script.. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them.g. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction.. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. At the Location of seam point prompt. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. You can snap to locked objects. The unlocked objects lock.. In the scripts folder (e. adjust options. pick on a seam point marker. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. When you are done adjusting the connections. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. In the Loft Options dialog box.g. Preview.exe is located (e. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. and move it along the closed curve. Select open curves near the same ends.0 Beta\System). select the objects you want to lock. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. Note You cannot select locked objects.g.0 Beta). 289 . C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. Lock Lock objects. In the folder where Rhino. In the install folder (e. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts.0 Beta\Scripts). press Enter.Rhino 2. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. reversing the direction of the curve. 291 . The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point.Rhino 2. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.

You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. 292 . Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. Available when you have selected three shape curves. This is also known as a ruled surface. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. Units tab before lofting.Rhino 2. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves.

Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. If the curves have kinks. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. If the surface is not linear in one direction. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. the surface is not developable. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. These are called ruling lines. You may get no surface or a partial surface. cones. or wrinkle. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. too. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). You must use at least three curves to activate this option. you may get unexpected results.Rhino 2. Preview Click to preview the loft. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. 293 . and some steel ship hulls. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. tear. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface.

Rhino 2. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. thereby smoothing the surface. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. 294 .D surface. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. You just have to be careful.

4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. aluminum). It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports)." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine.y-plane. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. select the layout and object visibility options. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. expand the plates.D models. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane.Rhino 2. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. 295 . and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. though. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf).

ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges.Rhino 2. they may not appear on the correct layer. Note This command does not create 2. 296 . Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. If two surfaces pass through each other. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). There is no way to avoid this. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout.D drawings from mesh objects.D view.

To get a feel for what the command does. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. This command tries to fix those surfaces. At the Select curve to match . Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. Other closed curves. 297 . make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. If the curve was open. Close the dialog box. Rhino creates periodic surfaces.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. Then use control point editing on both curves.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. select the first curve at the end that will move. At the Choose an object prompt. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. Match Match two curves. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options.pick near end prompt. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. it is closed. Sometimes.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. If a joined curve is made periodic. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. select a curve to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt.

Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. 298 .Rhino 2. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other.

If you edit this curve with control points. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity.Rhino 2. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. 299 . The curves are merged together after the match. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve.

This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change .select near edge prompt. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. If the target surface is also untrimmed. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. In the Match Surface dialog box. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity).Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. 300 . choose the type of match. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. select the edge of the surface to match.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. select the edge of the target surface. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.select near edge prompt. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). At the Select target surface .

301 . the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end.Rhino 2. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. If necessary. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. Generally.

Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. percent.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. in units. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces.Rhino 2. 302 . Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. in degrees. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.

the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. If you need to match to part of an edge. In these cases. If it isn't. 303 . This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. it may be useful to preview without refinement. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms.Rhino 2. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. This is the hardest condition to meet. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. That may be several seconds. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. If refinement is interrupted. If the surface being changed is trimmed. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. it will stay roundish.2. This is sometimes useful. If it is roundish. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition.) In usable terms. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. especially if tight tolerances are specified. Something like position = 0. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. it can twist the surface near the edge.knot spacing to curvature vector.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. but it will still be a valid trim. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. but you will get something. If refinement is specified. but if the conditions are wrong. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Note The edges must be naked. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. must share an endpoint. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. select the second surface. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. then click Maximize.1 ) prompt. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. Maximize Maximize Rhino. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. double click the viewport title bar. Right click the viewport title bar. if possible. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. double click the viewport title bar. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. and the prompt repeats. Or.Rhino 2. must belong to the same surface. then click Restore. select an adjacent edge. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. select the first surface to merge. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. Or. 304 .

0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. but may alter the shape of both surfaces. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .Rhino 2. Smooth The surface will be smooth. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. End view of original surfaces .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .

The default is 1 (full smoothing). Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. The resulting surface can be edited. mirroring it. A mesh can be preview and then created. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface.Rhino 2. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. Generally. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). you have to approach things differently. This is useful for modeling half of an object. 306 . Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. In some ways. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . with finer or coarser mesh. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. For closed surfaces. Once you have trimmed surfaces. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. editable surface.

edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Zero means no limit. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. The default is zero. which is the default. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. 307 . which is the default. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. and higher polygon count. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Scale-dependent. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Setting Max dist. By default. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Limits the size of the polygon edges. Default is 0. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Max dist. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. When the Refine is checked. Scale independent. edge to Srf options. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. and higher polygon count. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Simple planes is not selected. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. more accurate meshes. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). and adjustment for trim boundaries. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. more accurate meshes. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. and lower polygon count.Rhino 2. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Scale independent. No refinement results in faster meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Jagged seams is not selected. after initial meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. In practice. Zero means no minimum. When the Refine is checked. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. When this Refine is checked. Scale independent. By default. less accurate meshes. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist.

0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. choose a width by picking. If a length was entered. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. not editable. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. choose a diagonal corner. choose a height. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Or type in a length and press Enter. At the End of cone prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt. choose a corner of the box. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. At the Height prompt.Rhino 2. 308 . or type in a height and press Enter. choose a radius. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. at the Width prompt. choose the cone's point. or type in a width and press Enter. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. choose a center point for the base. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.

Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. choose a height. choose a center point for the base. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. choose a radius. At the Height prompt. and a open cone-shaped mesh. joined from a base circular mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. joined from a base and top circular meshes. Or type D to choose a diameter instead.

The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. at the Width prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter. At the Other corner or length prompt. 310 . MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. choose a corner of the plane. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. If a length was entered. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. choose a the diagonal corner.Rhino 2. choose a width by picking. or type in a width and press Enter. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline.

0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. choose a radius. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. 311 . At the Radius prompt.Rhino 2. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.

Select the objects. choose a point on the mirror plane. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Move Move objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. The original is left selected. Press delete to delete the original.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Note Mirror makes a copy. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. 312 . Mirror Mirror objects. choose a point to move the objects from. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. As you move the cursor. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt.Rhino 2. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane.

corner2. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. to move the objects vertically. 313 . 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. pick a base point. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. Slider scale affects this mode. y-. At the Point to move to prompt. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction.0 Command Reference Or. corner3. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. you can type corner1. choose a location for objects. or z-direction.Rhino 2. and n. MoveUVN Use u-. During the command. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. Modeling Aids tab.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. At the Choose offset point prompt. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. To move objects small amounts.sliders to move the selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. type V and press Enter. Along control polygon The u. v-. pick a new location for the base point. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys.

NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. rename or delete unwanted named views. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. All points to edit have to be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. 314 . All points to edit have to be selected. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. NamedView Edit named views. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid.

The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. 315 . Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. The default is the system tolerance. If you want to select the curves individually. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. you can turn the automatic sorter off. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. the surface will have four edges. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge.Rhino 2. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. The default is the system tolerance x 10.0 Command Reference Select the curves. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. the best guess is made at the surface. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. Edge Matching After the command is done. The surface will be created. be sure to select the surface edge. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. If a curve and surface edge overlap.

Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Tangent.Rhino 2. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Select from Loose. Position. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .

0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .

Use New to open the template you want to change. select a template to base your model file on. grid settings. drag a window for a new viewport.Rhino 2. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. units. New Create a new model. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. layers. viewport layout. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. For example.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. and tolerances. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. NewViewport Create a new viewport. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. 318 . if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box.

The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Start the NextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Start the NextU command. 319 .Rhino 2.

320 .0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. pick a point for the end of the line. or enter a length and press Enter. At the Point on surface prompt. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.Rhino 2. At the Length of line prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. select a surface. choose a point on the surface.

Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut.Rhino 2. Offset Offset a curve. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 .0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. copy. it will be open next time the model is opened. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Line normal to a surface. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. type information you want to save with the model. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model.

or cone is offset. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt.Rhino 2. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. sphere. torus. cylinder. Note For best results. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. the resulting surface is exact. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Otherwise. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. A surface and its offset 322 . OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. select a curve or edge. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. When a plane. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. click on one side the curve. Negative values offset the other way.

An arrow indicates the offset direction. All other layers will be turned off. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. they are not converted to NURBS objects. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. not the trim edges. they are also unlocked. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface.Rhino 2. In the File name box. so the fact that they are locked is lost. select the layer to turn on. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. When you turn the layers back on. Open Open an existing model. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Note Rhino supports several file types. 323 . Click Open. File. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. type a filename. select Rhino 3D Models.

Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. pick a target point for the first reference point. but objects remain the same size. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. 324 . pick a target point for the second reference point. click Open. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. type s and press Enter. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points.Rhino 2. or some of them may be hidden.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. Options Opens the Options dialog box. Scale If Scale=No. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. The objects are moved. Or. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. In the Open Workspace dialog box. and the number of columns when floating. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. from the File menu. the buttons in them. the screen position of each toolbar. whether it is floating or docked. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. type c and press Enter. and whether it is hidden or showing. The prompt will change to Scale=No. select a workspace file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. to orient copies of the objects.

it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. pick a point that. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. The three points are not interchangeable. The two triplet of points define two planes. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. to orient copies of the objects.Rhino 2. select objects and press Enter. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Or. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. 325 . with the other two reference points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. select the surface. If the curve does not start on the edge. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. type c and press Enter. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt.

0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface.and v-directions. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. 326 . Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. As you move the cursor over the surface. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. The Mirror option toggles between them. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical.Rhino 2. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. There are four possible orientations on the surface. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface.

0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. select the curve you want to align the object to. and the F8 key. At the Base point prompt. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. you will get different end results. click a point on the curve to move the object. If you pick this point in different views. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. clicking Ortho in the status bar. The cursor tracks along the curve. are all toggles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Shift Note The Ortho command. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. select a base point on the object. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down.Rhino 2. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. 327 . Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step.

If more than one object is selected. The default angle is 90 degrees. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. Polysurface made of four surfaces. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. and Toggle. Packed textures. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. 328 . type the new angle and press Enter. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. At the Ortho Angle prompt. Off. When polysurfaces are meshed. the packed texture coordinates are created. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The default angle is 90 degrees. Note When Ortho is on. Modeling Aids tab. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. When Ortho is on.

Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanLeft Pan the view left. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Front. PanRight Pan the view right. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Pan Pan the view. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. PanDown Pan the view down. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command.Rhino 2. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command. 329 .

From the Curve menu. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. click Parabola. use the Pan command. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. This is the "open" direction. and then click Focus. Direction. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola.Rhino 2. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. Focus From the Curve menu. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. click Parabola. show a direction for the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex. Focus. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. This is the "open" direction. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 330 . 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus.

End. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Uncapped paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 331 . At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 4 Vertex and focus. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. 4 Focus and direction.

it is created when the object is pasted. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. 332 . When you Paste objects into Rhino.0 Command Reference End. If the layer does not exist. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. Uncapped paraboloid.Rhino 2. they are pasted into your model. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.

These don't have to be connected. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Minimum of 8 points per curve. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. In the Patch Options dialog box. but it also can produce some unexpected results. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. it will be very close to reasonable input. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. To make a highly curved surface. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. and edges to base the patch on. For a trimmed patch. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. you may need a starting surface. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Even for a relatively flat patch. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. select the point objects. adjust options. 333 . Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane.Rhino 2. Note This command can be very useful. but with proper configuration. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. select curves that form a closed shape. curves. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe.

PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport).ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. Perspective Set to perspective view. you must edit your Rhino. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. 334 . like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. 2 The wallpaper image. aliases. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script.Rhino 2. Pause is a built in command option. and type PerspectiveMatch. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective.

Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. All points picked on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. The first point on the image. 335 . 4 All points picked on the model. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. The first point on the model.Rhino 2.

Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. select a bitmap file to use. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. Pipe Draw a pipe. etc.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. In particular. At the Length of picture frame prompt. If possible. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. changed the viewport settings. This aids in accurate image point picking. Make the image view large. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. Pick carefully. you have modified your model. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked.Rhino 2. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. Note The image must be a true perspective image. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture.

enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. For an open curve. if the curve is closed. Thick The pipe has two walls. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. Or. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. If the pipe objects are capped. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. select a curve. Click Open. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. At the Second start radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. and the closed pipe is created. At the First corner prompt. type T and press Enter. At the Starting radius prompt. 337 . select a bitmap file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the First end radius prompt. enter the radius for the pipe. At the Starting radius prompt.Rhino 2. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second corner or length prompt. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. at the End radius prompt. At the Second end radius prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. select a curve. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes.

In PARALLEL viewports. You can move the background bitmap. At the New target location <X. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. 338 . enter the target point. BMP. PCX. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. see Place a bitmap backdrop. and temporarily hide it. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. and JPG. Front. By default the Top.Rhino 2. To place a backdrop behind your model. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results.Y.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane.Y. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection).Z> prompt. 3-D Digitizing. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. remove it. TGA. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. align it (move and scale in one operation). you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view.Z> prompt. enter the camera point. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. Placing a second deletes the first. scale it.

Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. PlaceTarget Place the target location. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. then those objects are not visible on the screen. In PERSPECTIVE views. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. then those objects are not visible on the screen. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. 3-D Digitizing. From the Curve menu. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. regardless of where the previous point was picked.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed.Y.Rhino 2. In PERSPECTIVE views. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Planar Toggle planar mode. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. then click Control Points. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Without Planar on. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. In PARALLEL viewports. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. 339 . (Watch the Top and Right viewports). If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. click Free-form. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point.Z> prompt. Toolbar: Menu Set View. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. enter the target point. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

start the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. To end the polyline. 349 . enter the start point of the polyline. press Enter. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. At the Next point of polyline prompts. enter additional vertices for the polyline. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. To end the polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. press Enter. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline. select a mesh object. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. making a closed polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose.Rhino 2.

making a closed polyline.Rhino 2. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. 350 . PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline.

0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Start the PrevV command. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the PrevU command. 351 .

using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. If you fit the image to the page. Always. and each viewport is printed in its area. print scale. the objects outside the viewport are printed. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. and number of copies. the contents are printed on top of each other. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page.Rhino 2. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. The part that does not fit is not printed.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. color. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. If viewports overlap. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. No viewport edge is printed. the central part of the view is printed. print to a file. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. 352 . Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page.

PrintSetup Set up your printer. (Actually. hide them. not printing from perspective viewports. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. and same orientation. if they don't fit on the page. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. If you want to print at some other scale. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. too. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. as the paper you're printing on. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. Light objects do not print. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. Curve projected to a surface 353 . provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized.Rhino 2. Then. Print. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. It will crop objects that are visible. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. If the objects don't fit.

curves. set the projection type for the viewport. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. choose to keep or delete the input objects. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. lines.Rhino 2. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. circles. and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. and free-form curves work well. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . This command works on points. Basic shapes like ellipses. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Project will never work correctly for this. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. surfaces.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. however. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. Properties Edit object properties. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane.

Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Organic.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Toolbar: Menu: Main. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. STL Tools.Rhino 2. Point Editing. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. surfaces. STL Tools. To control point edit a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . Point Editing. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together.

select a curve to measure. select the surface to pull the curves back to. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. use the fewest control point possible. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.Rhino 2.0000. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. When drawing the curves. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Then. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Both commands ask for the viewport name.

Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. Profile curve. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. select a rail curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. In this case. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. select a profile curve. in addition to being revolved. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. rail curve. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height.

0. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.9 Enter etc….5. Note When building command files.2.4.9. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.5. If you leave off the filename.4. select the file to read. use the Enter command.1. If you read in a particular file often. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.7. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename.0 23. If the rail curve is closed. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. readcommandfile myfile. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail. 358 .1.9.5.8.1. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.0 27. a file dialog box appears.8.2.1 26.1. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. The file contents are copied into the command line. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. ! Interpcrv 23.0 23. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.txt Click the button to read the file.4. You can then select a file from the list.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.

Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. When you are satisfied with the results. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. select the 3DM file to read viewports from.Rhino 2. use the FitCrv command. click OK. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. the highest number of control points is shown. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. leaving only the rebuilt curves. 359 . If more than one curve is selected.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. but a more accurate fit. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves.

Joined and exploded polysurface. To see what it does. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. select an object. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. in the Point Count boxes. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. in the Degree box. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box.Rhino 2. draw two planes several units apart. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. Edges are pulled away from the surface.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 .

Rectangle Draw a rectangle. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. choose a corner for the rectangle. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. enter the length of the rectangle. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. At the Other corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. You will be prompted for the width.an v-directions. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. 361 . Delete Input Deletes the original surface. Or.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Degree Sets the degree of the surface.

RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. enter the length of the rectangle. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. enter the end of the same edge. select the center point of the rectangle. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the Corner or length prompt. enter the width of the rectangle.Rhino 2. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. You will be prompted for the width. 362 . At the Width prompt. select a corner point. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. At the End of edge prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt.

pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. 363 . drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. At the Height of rectangle prompt. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point.Rhino 2.

An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option.Rhino 2. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. 364 . General tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. click Preview. This makes this command scriptable.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. set the polygon count.

Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. which may be undesirable in some cases. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. For one thing. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. type c and press Enter. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. 365 . To reduce the size of the model file. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model.Rhino 2. use the SaveAs command and check Save small.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. avoid clearing meshes. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. After RefreshShade. to remap copies of the objects. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command.

0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2. 366 .

At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.Rhino 2. which is equal to the degree. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. At the Click knot to remove prompt. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. 367 . pick the knots to remove and press Enter. select a curve. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. Sweep2. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. Use the Group command to group objects together. In particular. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. select a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. select objects. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. and Blend commands. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. At the Select knotline to remove. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt.

expanded to fill the page.Rhino 2. increase the size of the viewport. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. When on. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. Render tab. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Render tab. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. 368 . unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. It has a single menu: File. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. the current working folder. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. and render again. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered.

RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. zoom. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. Basically. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. Toolbar: Render 369 . The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Does not show shadows. or bump mapping. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. When on.Rhino 2. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option.

directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. First you must set the u. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. including the domain unless you apply textures. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. The y. The x. However.length of righty is about 11. In this example. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. the texture is not distorted.and v.length for both is about 22 units. set the new limits of the u. (In this example. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. and similar prompts.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. let's call them lefty and righty. Example You have two surfaces side by side. 370 . it is distorted. At the New U begin domain prompt.and vdomains for the surface. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. the x. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22.Rhino 2. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface.

371 . Right click the title of a viewport.Rhino 2. select one or more curves. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. or to restore only the view. choose a point on the revolution axis. then click the name of the view to restore. select the construction plane to restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. RestoreView Restore a named view. then click Set View. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. At the Start of revolve axis prompt.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. select the named view to restore. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Or. Revolve Revolve a curve.

select a curve. choose a second point. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. In the Revolve Options dialog box. 372 . enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. defining the revolution axis. The marker tracks on the curve. Enter the Start angle and End angle.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt.Rhino 2. enter the number of control points. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. If you choose Deformable. click Exact or Deformable. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. or a point to rotate to.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. choose an end angle. choose a start angle. choose a point to rotate the objects around. Or. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. to rotate copies of the objects. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. or a point to rotate from. 373 . type C and press Enter. Right Set to world right view.Rhino 2.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance.

At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. the following prompt appears. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. type in an angle. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. 374 . At the Start of rotate axis prompt. choose a second point on the rotation axis. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. type c and press Enter. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. If you entered a point to rotate from. or choose a point to rotate from. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. At the End of rotate axis prompt. choose a point on the rotation axis. to rotate copies of the objects. Or.Rhino 2. etc. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera.

This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. At the End of rotation axis prompt. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. place the construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. 375 . RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. etc.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. etc. At the Second reference point prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key.Rhino 2. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. etc. enter the start of the rotation axis. pick a point. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. etc. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. Or. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left.

To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. RotateRight Rotate the view right. type the name and path of the file to run. RotateUp Rotate the view up. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Press the arrow keys. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Name of program to run prompt. use the RotateView command. Run Run another application from Rhino. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateView Rotate the view. 376 . use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down.

Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. or SaveAs dialog boxes. File. Language Specifies the language of the code. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Otherwise. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Click Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Save. Note Rhino supports several file types.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. See the PluginManager command. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. 377 .Rhino 2. Cancel Closes the dialog box. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. In the File name box. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. you can use RunScript command. type a filename. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Save Save your model.

but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. viewport layout. Note Rhino supports several file types. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. You can set up grid settings. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Click Save. Files tab. type a filename. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. layers. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. and tolerances and save them in a template. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. You can also save default geometry with the template.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Save. type a filename. 378 . In the File name box. units. Click Save.Rhino 2. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

all objects with no name are selected. SelPolyline Select all polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. ?.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. 388 . SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. enter an object name. Note You can use wild cards (*.Rhino 2. SelNone Deselect all objects. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected.) to select multiple objects.

Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Note SelLast clears the current selection set.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set.Rhino 2. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. 389 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelSrf Select all single surfaces.direction based on previously selected control points. Start the SelU command. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. SelPt Select all point objects.

A surface with control points selected 390 . Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.Rhino 2. select the surface. At the Select row of points prompt. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. The control points on the surface display.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u.and v.direction.

v-direction.Rhino 2. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. or both directions.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.direction based on previously selected control points. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Start the SelV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . SelV Select all control points in the v-direction.

rhino3d. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. 392 . Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Note Type w to start a window selection. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. from www. This is not the same as restoring a named view. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. Shade tab. and FlatShadeAll.com/plug-ins. You can download plug-ins. ShadeAll.Rhino 2. FlatShade. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.

0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. 393 . check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. select the layer to set current. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. The Undo command will work. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.0 to 255) Transparency (0. SetLayer Set the current layer. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. select an object on the layer you want to be current.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group.0 to 1.Rhino 2. Lets you name or rename a group. In the Edit Layers dialog box. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces.

3DS. POV-Ray. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. Object names are exported to IGES. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. double-click the viewport title bar. This is not the same as restoring a named view. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. To set names for a group of objects. If no object name is defined. 394 . Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. and OBJ material/shader export. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Or.Rhino 2. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. Rhino uses a generic name. If the object name has already been used. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. POV. Moray UDO. Or.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0 to 1. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. and RenderMan RIB. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note The object material can be used by RIB. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.

Select the objects. if you selected ten unnamed objects. At the Planar is On. Object names are not used in Rhino. To set names for individual objects.Rhino 2. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. check the coordinates you want to set. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. POV-Ray. enter one of the options. For example. enter one of the options. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. use the SetObjectName command. 395 . and RenderMan RIB. At the Ortho is Off. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. In the Set Points dialog box. Starting number Sets the starting number. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. SetPt Set control point location. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number.

This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. You still see interactive drawing of curves. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw.Rhino 2. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. 396 .0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. etc. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. At the Viewport height prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. enter the viewport height in pixels. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. At the Grid snap is Off. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. enter the viewport width in pixels. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels.

Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. If OpenGL is turned on. The grid and axes are not shown. Note Be patient on the first shade. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. Subsequent renderings may be faster. zoom. monochrome. and no antialiasing. with no shadows. click Options. On the Shade tab set the options. Pan. Shade Shade a viewport. select the working directory. and a special background color appears. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. the OpenGL shade options will be available. It may not be very quick the first time. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. this shading mode may be faster. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views.

It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. click Options. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. the OpenGL shade options will be available. object highlighting. If OpenGL is turned on. zoom. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. On the Shade tab.Rhino 2.org/ and www. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. 398 . On the Shade tab. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.sgi. monochrome. It may not be very quick the first time. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Use OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. If you use OpenGL Shade. The objects in current viewport are shaded. click Use OpenGL. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. then Rhino will use it. with no shadows. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. see www. Be patient on the first Shade.opengl. For more information.com/software/optimizer/. Subsequent renderings will be faster. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The grid. and no antialiasing. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and a special background color appears. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. this shading mode may be much faster. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. click Options.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. axes. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Pan. The grid and axes are not shown.

Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. isoparms. or annotation or the object will be selected. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. points. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. you can click on a shaded object to select it. The click cannot be near curves. Shear Shear objects. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. 399 . Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed.Rhino 2. select the objects to shear. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. You do not have to select an isoparm. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt.

and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. The edge is highlighted. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. The base point does not move with the shear. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. If your object has broken edges. Visibility. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. Show Show hidden objects. select objects and press Enter. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. pick the base point for the shear. 400 . or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. If you exit the model and reopen it. At the Reference point prompt. Broken edges show in the selected objects color.

The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. Status bar: Osnap 401 . Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. Edge Tools. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. The edges highlight.Rhino 2. Sometimes. If you cannot see the naked edges.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. terminate the command. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. press Enter to terminate the command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Camera icon.

ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Original trimmed surface. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . You will see no visible change in the surface.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. At the Select objects to show prompt. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. To fix this. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. When textures are applied to surfaces. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. select the objects you want to show. Organic.

Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). the silhouette looks like an oval. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves.Rhino 2. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. For example. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. 403 . the silhouette is two circles. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. only backwards. If you look at a doughnut from the side.

a polyline appears along your path. Release the mouse button.Rhino 2. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. drag the mouse. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. Or.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Sketch Sketch a curve. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. 404 .form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Options Closed Creates a closed curve.

drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. At the Click and drag to sketch. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Type C to close the curve mid-drag.Rhino 2. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. drag a curve. Or. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. select the surface to sketch on. press Enter. The marker is constrained to the surface. Sketch on surface 405 . type C.

check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. click Smooth. then click Control Points On. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. click Point Editing. Smooth works on mesh objects. In the Smooth dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. meshes. 406 . The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces.Rhino 2. The default is 0. select the curves. The selected control points will move slightly. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points.00. From the Edit menu. too. The larger the number.01 and 1. adjust the Smooth factor. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. Smooth Smooth objects. From the Transform menu. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth.2. smoothing the curve or surface. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. The selected entities will appear to melt.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.

whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. When Snap is off. or enter a distance and press Enter. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. Modeling Aids tab. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. choose a center point.Rhino 2. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. choose a point for the radius. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. A sphere is single closed surface. Note This is different from the grid size. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. 408 . it is grayed out. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note When Snap is on. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Sphere Draw a sphere. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. At the Radius prompt. Grid tab. SnapSize Set snap size.

Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. choose the third circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. 409 . At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose an endpoint for the diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. A sphere is a single closed surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Second point on sphere prompt. choose the second circumference point.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. At the End of diameter prompt.Rhino 2. choose the first circumference point.

Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. At the End of axis prompt. enter the radius for the spiral. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. enter the end of the spiral axis. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the number of turns for the spiral. enter the start of the spiral axis. If you select Pitch. If you select Turns. 410 . enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. This is the line the spiral will wind around. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. At the Radius prompt. If you select Reverse twist. select Turns or Pitch.Rhino 2.

At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt.Rhino 2. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. 411 . The marker moves along the curve. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. type p and press Enter. the polysurfaces are ignored. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. press Enter. and points. At the Select cutting objects prompt. select the curve to split. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. surfaces. select the cutting objects. select the objects to split.

412 .press Enter when done prompt. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Select a surface. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. At the Split point prompts. The edge is split into two edges. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. surfaces and polysurfaces. select points at which to split the surface. and Right view. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. Options control the direction of the split. At the Point to split edge prompt.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. Type u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves.Rhino 2. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. to access option directly. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. the marker is constrained to the edge. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. select a point. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. or b. Front. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. v.

and then deleting the extra isoparms. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. 413 . then Split.and v-directions of the surface. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.Rhino 2. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically.

not the range of the light. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight.it stays the same. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Darker colors. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. like gray. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. At the End of cone prompt. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . At the Degree in V prompt. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . and position. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. The shape of the cone affects the lighting.Rhino 2. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. Or. light the scene less. length. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. set the radius of the spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. beam angle. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. hotspot angle. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. pick a location for the spotlight. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. The spot light icon does not render or shade. pick a target point for the spotlight.

enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. choose the fourth corner. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the Third corner of surface prompt.Rhino 2. choose the first corner. choose the third corner. 415 . enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter points until all the points have been entered. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. At the Point prompts. choose the second corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. Or. At the Second corner of surface prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested.

5.33.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. 416 .33.5. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. the surface is created but not point objects.33.2.33. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.5 -4.5.0 4.5.5 -4. The marker is constrained to the curve.5 0.2.5 4.0 -4.33. When off. pick a point for the new start point. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.5. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.5.-5. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.10 -4.5.0 4.5. SwapUV Swap a the u. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.33. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.10 -4. KeepPoints When on. select the following text.5.33.-5.Rhino 2.2.5. select a surface that is not a polysurface.10 4.5.2.-2.-2.-5.5.0 -4.33.5 4. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.and v-directions of a surface.-2. and run the CommandPaste command.0 0.5.10 4.33. At the Start of curve prompt.10 0.5 0.5.0 0.-2. click in the other viewport to swap.33. pick a point for the new end point.2.-2.5.33.2. select a curve. At the End of curve prompt.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.33. copy it. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.-2.

In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. the new surface should also be tangent. 417 . At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. the shape will twist with the surface edge. select the single rail curve for sweeping. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. adjust options. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves.Rhino 2. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. reversing the direction of the curve. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface.

With closed rail curves. If you don't use Smooth. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Preview Click to preview the surface.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. If you use the Smooth option. The swept surface is created. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Note To create a single surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. 418 . the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. (The original curves are not modified. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. adjust options.Rhino 2. the cross section curves need to be compatible. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts.

use the Maintain height option. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units.Rhino 2. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. 419 . Only available after you enter three cross-section curves.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position.

and it touches the rail curves at their ends. (The original curves are not modified. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep.Rhino 2. If you get the wrong surface. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. Preview Click to preview the surface. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. If you use the Rebuild option. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. and continues to the ends of the rails. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. To create a single surface. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. If you don't use Rebuild. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature.) With closed rail curves. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. one of two possible surfaces appears. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. but want to control where the sweep ends.

At the End of taper axis prompt. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Taper Taper objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. 421 . At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object.

choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. 422 . surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. and meshes. second Radius prompt. End of cone prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Taper moves the control points of objects. choose a radius for the base of the cone. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. curves. you will only taper that part of the object.Rhino 2. choose a center point for the base. You can't taper a polysurface . TCone Draw a truncated cone. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. Radius prompt.

25 inches. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. set the options. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. 2000. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. in the form of curves.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed.Rhino 2. or solids. When you place annotation text. surfaces. 423 . Font Sets the font for the annotation text. and XP. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Example If your units are inches. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Type the text. or solids based on TrueType fonts. surfaces. The two sizes update each other. enter the start position for the text. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. It will not show in a perspective view. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. In the Edit Text dialog box.

type text characters to make into surfaces. select a font. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. in the Font box. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Font Style box. specify the height of the text characters.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. select a font. Under Create. in the Font box. specify the height of the text characters. select Surfaces. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Under Create. The text appears in the Sample window. In the Text box. select Solid. select a style.Rhino 2. select a style. In the Text box. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. type text characters to make into solids. In the Text height box. The text appears in the Sample window. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . In the Text height box. In the Font Style box.

create new toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. add new buttons to toolbars. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout.Rhino 2. the buttons in them. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. adjust the size of buttons. import toolbars from a different workspace file. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. the screen position of each toolbar. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. Top Set to world top view. 425 . The workspace holds the toolbars. TiltRight Tilt the view right.

choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. you must edit your Rhino. When you are finished trimming. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. 426 . choose a center point. press Enter. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. press Enter.Rhino 2. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. select objects you want to trim other objects with. When you are finished selecting objects. At the Second radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. click the parts of objects to trim away. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter.

or use Split. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. choose a radius for the tube wall size. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. At the first Radius prompt.Rhino 2. surfaces and polysurfaces. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. imaginary extensions of the line are used. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. Tube Draw a tube. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. choose a center point for the tube's base. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. At the second Radius prompt.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. To trim a surface with more than one curve. Front. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. use trim several times. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. and Right view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. 427 .

Twist Twist objects. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Shade. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note The view rotates about the target point.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. and Render Preview. Press Esc to stop the turntable. 428 .Rhino 2. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane.

The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. The opposite to undo is Redo. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. to twist copies of the objects. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. type c and press Enter. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. 429 . choose a second point on the axis. Twist moves the control points of objects. edit. If you entered a point to rotate from. General tab. you will only twist that part of the object. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create.only control points. viewports. or construction planes. or choose a point to rotate from. and meshes. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. You can't twist a polysurface . 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. the following prompt appears. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. Or. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. surfaces. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. or transform commands. Undo Undo the last command. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. At the End of twist axis prompt. choose a point on the twist axis. curves. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. type in an angle.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted.

Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. Render your mesh. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. For example." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. their normals are flipped. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. 430 .0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. This makes this command scriptable.Rhino 2. If some of the faces that should render disappear.

The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. explode it. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. All polygons have a face normal direction. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. UnLock Unlock locked objects. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. normals point the wrong way. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. the packed texture coordinates are created. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. In general. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. Export in desired format. Once the normals are correct. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. The 431 . the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. For example. If more than one object is selected. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all.Rhino 2. When polysurfaces are meshed. re-join the meshes. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. select the objects you want to unlock. 3DFace object. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. Use UnifyMeshNormals. If you see inside the mesh.

UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. Packed textures.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. select a surface or curves. Unpacked textures. Polysurface made of four surfaces. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. 432 . a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. If the surface is developable.

Surface Tools. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. Toolbar: Menu: Main.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. tori. but not meet that requirement. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. removing any attached geometry. Surfaces such as spheres. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. an information message is printed at the command line. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. it may be geometrically developable. a developable surface has to be single span linear. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. This command may take some time. you can remove the trim curves. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. This is not like folding out a box. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. 433 . In Rhino. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. an information message is printed at the command line. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. Curves on a surface can also be developed.

0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Trimmed surface.Rhino 2. Untrim removes the trimming curve. Untrim joined polysurfaces. 434 . Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 .0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.

0. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target.Rhino 2. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Appearance tab. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. 436 . A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Target The camera target location in world coordinates.0001). Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. you can change the lens length of the camera.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties.3921 (+/.

At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. enter or drag a radius.4649522 (+/. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.-4e016.2e-007. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.3. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. second moments.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. enter a radius for this point. First moments. select a surface or part of a polysurface.6. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. At the Start radius prompt.7e-007). and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt.9553974.6. At the Point on edge prompts. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. At the End radius <x> prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. product moments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.7e-007.Rhino 2.1. If an edge point was picked. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. choose a point on the edge. 437 . select a surface or part of a polysurface.

It does not change when you zoom. In other cases. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. Weight Edit control point weight. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. or rotate your view. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. pan. 438 . like adjacent surfaces in a cube. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles.

the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. At the Angle tolerance prompt. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. No points in the blue mesh are welded. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. and file export for stereolithography. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. texture mapping on mesh objects. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees.Rhino 2. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. If we want a smooth roof. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. they are replaced by a single mesh point.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. In our case. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. 439 . see the SetPt command. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. To get this to happen. When shaded. To perform a similar operation with control points. we can use weld with an angle of 40.

but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image.1) and top right (1. 440 . The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. then Weld (angle=180). There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. 3D Studio MAX). they must be joined before welding is effective. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example.Rhino 2. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. See Importing and exporting STL files. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex.0). When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. the bottom right is (1. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. Thus. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. It does not physically fuse the vertices. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. Weld does not report the results on the command line.1). Welding in MAX is different. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. top left is (0. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. they always get welded. Use JoinMesh.

object highlighting. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. or polysurface. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. the grid. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. select a curve.0 Command Reference What Display object information. At the Select object prompt. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. axes. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. surface. The wireframe of the objects. World axes icon on 441 . WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.

where white is the closest to your eye. and black is the farthest away. and color. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. size.Rhino 2. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. on the Shade tab. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. set the stripe direction. When objects are rendered in Rhino. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering .ini file set the color for the icon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. WorldYAxisIcon=. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. In the Zebra Options dialog box. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. 442 .

This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. 443 . To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. and other important properties. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. and curvature between the surfaces match. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. tangency. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. MatchSrf.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Position. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. the surfaces touch. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection.Rhino 2. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. These meshes can be large. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. this means the position. curvature. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. curvature. Tangent matches.

ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. 444 . you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. When More reliable is selected. in the Options dialog box. under Zebra and EMap. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. select More reliable. When Faster is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. on the Shade tab.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. but will always work. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. If you have a wheel mouse. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out.Rhino 2. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out.

ZoomNext Redo the last view change. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out.

446 . ZoomWindow Zoom window.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. Note In a perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. drag a window to zoom. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. This is particularly useful in perspective views. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. pick a point for the center of the view. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. At the Zoom factor prompt. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. type a zoom factor and press Enter.

152 AutoCAD. 333. 149. set up function key for click. 221. 127. 140. 152 Arrow command. 29. 148. from three points. 3DS file format. suspend autoclose. 149 ArrayPolar command. 180.Rhino 2. dot. 139 Align3D command. 5.0 IGES. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 53. 205. 76. 2. 144 ArcSER command. 152 Attach command. 5. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 149. 255. 142. 151 ArrayCrv command. 146 arguments at the command line. 138 AddToGroup command. 35. 205. sketch curve with. 88. calibrate. 150. 3. add notes to the model. 204. extend to a point. 136 AddNextV command. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 144. 231. toolbar button function. 279 2Sphere command. 24 AddNextU command. 426 Analyze toolbar. 204. 143 3Box command.0. 127. 281 Audit command. 5. 139. 207. 149 Array command. 27. with FaroArm. 203. circular. 33. 195. 205. disconnect. 144. 322. 5. 29. 26. 5. 143 Arc3Pts command. 29. 305. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 152. 266 animate view. 205. 148 Array toolbar. polar. 307. 32 AGLib file exchange. 151 array:. 29 3DFace command. 412 Annotate toolbar.2. MAX 3. 170 2-D drawings from model. 5. 152. 149. 5. 82 Alt key. 140. 135 3DM file exchange. 140 Align command. 150. 407. 55 Ascii STL tag. export options.0 Command Reference Index !. 143. 265. 5. 340. on a surface. dimension. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 5. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 145 AreaMoments command. 83 AlongPerp object snap. from the last point. 251. pause input. 362 3Plane command. 251. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 152. 143 ArcDir command. 141 ApplyCurves command. 324 3Rectangle command. DOS. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. MAX 1. 312 Angle command. end and radius. set ortho. 251. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. tangent to two curves. from start. 251. 140. 221. built into Rhino. 144 Arc command. 393 3View command. set scale. 123 2Circle command. 152 AnnotateDot command. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 151. 169 3CPlane command. 308 align:. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 312 AngleLine command. 330. 239. shortcuts. 298. 309 AlignProfiles command. 123 Arrowhead command. 333. 28. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. MAX 2. 62 447 . 14. 5. 152. with a MicroScribe. create planar sections. 220. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 143. 204. 163 3Circle command. 215. 141 arc: extend by. MAX 3. 206. 192. 2. 197. 27. 230. 151 ArraySurface command. 5. 28. import. 206. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 205. 144. 207. export. 136 AddPrevU command. 251. 180. 133. 281 AttachEnd command. 53. 152 ASAP file exchange. 144 arc:. 5. 5. rectangular. 5. 135 ACIS file export.0 OBJ. 255. 123. 144 ArcTTR command. 255. 206. 5. 210. arrowhead on curve. VIZ. 5. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 212. 151 arrow annotation object. 5. 33. 168. 150. 150 ArraySrf command. 82 AlongTan object snap. 148. scale factor. options. 203. 5. 215 AnnotateArrow command. MAX 2. 385 analyze:. 33. 140 Along object snap. DXF file exchange. 5. 10. 205. 139 AlignTrace command. set spacing between points. 137 AddPrevV command. 141 ApplyCrv command. 230. around a pole. 151. 5. 138 adjust end bulge. 5. 229. 346 3Sphere command. 31 AG file exchange. 34. 5. 198. 361. 5. 323 3-D digitizing:. 5. 144 Area command. 139 All command. profile curves. 206. 187. 10. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 150. end and direction. 30 add object to selection. 145 AreaCentroid command. 215 annotation. 305. 88 align: background bitmap. 231. 5. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 141 ApplyMesh command. 140 angle:. 426 angle: constraint. 368. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 53 aliases. 14. 5. arrow. 28. 125 array: along a curve. 5. 150. to suspend object snaps. to copy while dragging. 27. 215. 28. Release 12 export. 232 Arc3Pt command. 149 ArrayCurve command. 203. 152 arrowhead on curve. 232. 135 4View command. initialize. 245. 206. 142 Arc toolbar. 143. 34.5. 162. command aliases. 135 3Arc command. 207. 5. measure between two lines. 393 34View command. DWG file exchange. 207. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14.

124 C command. 156 blend:. 118. 169. 338. 170 CircleTTT command. 154. 322 blend: curve. 130. 39 Boolean. 172 built-in aliases. 123. 5. 162. 39 BMP file format. 123. 250 centroid. 166. 54 autosave: file location. 250 button. 123. 312. 199. 245. 133. 249. 164 cap open planar ends. 123. 245. with Esc key. 161 Bottom command. 153 background bitmap: align. 155 bitmap. 170. 167. 169 CircleD command. 153. 170 Circle command. 229.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 166 ChangeLayer command. 184. hide. 160 Bend command. 171. 5. 90 Autosave command. capture button image. 101. 292 Box3Pt command. layer. 297. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 2. 232 CATIA file exchange. 85. 133 BU command. 351. lock. 297. 168. 249. 365. 165 Chamfer command. 122. 366 CArc command. to current layer. 169. 115. 249. background. intersection. 322. polygon mesh. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 160 BooleanIntersection command. union. 320. 90 ChangeDegree command. 124 capture viewport. as bitmap. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. selection. align backgound. 184. render meshes when saving file. 123 Cap command. 12. with toolbar button. 179. tangent to three curves.Rhino 2. 153 back view. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 321. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. place background. 116. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 90. scale. 362 ClearMesh command. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 231 CArcPt command. 321. 124. 367. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 204 camera. remove background. 5. 168 CheckInLicense command. center of. 125. 79 center:. 171. 321. time control. 133. 84 Bezier curve. undo levels. 316 448 . 5 bumpmap for rendering. 368. 123. from center. 170 CircleTTR command. 171. 168 Check command. 168. 139. 351. width. 123. use. 351. 363. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 162 bottom view. 156. 409. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. snap size. height. 160. 232 Clipboard. 13. toolbar button tooltip. 56 cancel command. 161 buffer. 170. 5. 249. object properties. 164. set construction plane z. 316. remove. 363. 243. from three points. 349 ClearUndo command. import button image. 139. cut. 366. 124. 172. 172 CLine command. 101. 154 baseball-style seams. 425 Back command. 366. render meshes. sphere. 297. 164 chamfer:. 159. 160. show. 322. 322. 139. 351. settings. from three points. display grid. delete toolbar button. area. 384 background bitmap:. clear button image. 168 check objects for errors. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 161 BooleanDifference command. 322. 169 Circle3Pts command. 24 circle: by diameter. 156. 367. 124. place. ortho angle. 123. convert NURBS curve to. 392. 167. 171 circle:. 365. 425. 323. two surfaces. 114. 154 Between object snap. 172. surface. 402 Bisector command. set construction plane x. 56 center: buoyancy. the layer of an object. troubleshooting. 369 C2View command. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 90. 5. edit button image. 392. undo buffer. 171 clear. 384. paste from. 5. 180. 5. 160. 5. floatation. 292 Box command. ellipsoid. radius. scale background. 124. 168. 113. difference. to the Clipboard. 163. 297. 170. 162 BoundingBox command. 157. move. 163 box:. 162. tangent to two curves. 152 autosave:. hide background. 171 Circle3Pt command. 338 buoyancy. 168. move background. save button image to file. 162. 161. variable radius between surfaces. 384 bad objects. 321. 243. 145. 5. 198. 125. 122. clear undo. 165 change. 320. 365. toggle world icon. 124. 154. 184. 171. 55 axis. copy toolbar button. 384. toolbar. move toolbar button. 153 BD command. 198. 160 BooleanUnion command. 158. 297. place. 322. 145 chamfer: two curves. 124. 162 Box toolbar. 133. 157. 102. 152. 368 Baseball command. 5. as 256-color bitmap. edit toolbar. 133. 163 B-spline. 351. 163 Box3Pts command. toolbar layout. 162 box: from length. 365. 164. 250. show hidden background. 122. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 365. select. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. command. 5. 172. 139. 90. 180. 250 Center object snap. 163. 249. surface degree. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 122. 321. 157.0 file exchange. 421 Blend command. 166. 384. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. copy to. 124. 165 ChamferSrf command. 179 BI command. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 160 bi-rail sweep. toolbar button image. 123. backdrop for rendering. 421 BlendSrf command. 170. 39 BMRT support. 168 Circle toolbar. use for tracing. 168. 139. 312. 161. 168 choose one object. edit button icons. 250.

249. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 5. 172 cloud of points. 5. 133. 184. angle. toolbar. 184. objects. 419. 126. select row on surface. v-. 379. 131 ControlPolygon command. script. 181 Copy command. 182 CPlaneO. 419. 373. 406. 375. 298. along line. 75. 131. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. set weight. polygon mesh. 175. shortcut. bend. coordinates. 344. 13.Rhino 2. extract. 11 coordinates. 104. 5 command:. 327 Cob command. 339. render. 336. 131. 195 cone: cone. 176. 155. G1. 166. 85. 177 contour curves. curve and surface. 75. previous. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. rotate. 342. 380. 362. 303. 245. 88. 173. View top of. display. save. 125. 419. 406 ConfigScript command. 374. 140. 84. set origin of all construction planes. 398. arguments. 88. 359. 131 control points. 174 conic:. 12. wheel. 10. 119. display axes. 172 ClosePoint command. 179 Coons patch. 250. 14. select next in u-direction. set extents of. move all through a point. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 338. distance. 164. 398. 4. show hidden. options. draw curve using. 178. 303. view front of. 373. 5. 183. 246. move to coordinate location. render window to Clipboard. 11. 126. 12. 182 449 . 14. 406. copy settings of one to the all. 335. 181. 235. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 180. 245. display recently used. 298. 246. AutoCAD. taper. 177. 126 conic: curve. 245. 180. 173 Commands command. 202. 246. 172. settings of one construction plane to all. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 114. 5. entering coordinates. set the number of thin gridlines. set distance between grid lines. 84. perpendicular to curve. 154. 197. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 343. 335. set front. 182. turn on. relative coordinates. 114. move through a point. 181 CPlaneNext command. 125. 75. 303. 177. 173 COn command. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. view bottom of. 2. toggle world coordinate entry. add previous in u-direction to selection. 228. 228. delete from a curve. 339. 18. 2 command line. 90. 90. 155. 181. 245. set display density. 343. named construction plane. 173 cone:. 335. 11. 245. 5. 182. 74. coincident. 375. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 5. 413 command aliases. 2. project objects to. dialog box. 172 CloseViewport command. set to object. select row in vdirection. 138. 182. 183. 182. 323. 172 ClosestPt command. 406 Cone command. turn grid on or off. 173. 419. add to surface. 183. false. holes in surfaces. 246. 75 comma-delimited file export. 181 CopyClip command. make all have same orientation. 178 control point definition. view right of. polar coordinates. 136. 174. 181. 181. 234. view left of. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. place point objects on. 137. 176 ConicPerp command. 15. world coordinates. and ndirections. 176. 217 COff command. set to z-axis. 172. 11 copy: command shortcut. 178 control vertex. 180. 183. display in clipboard or history. objects to Clipboard. hide. 422. 57 CPDash command. add next in v-direction to selection. 304. 104. 419. 339. Esc to cancel. 182. 2. undo. 245. 183. 249. 176 constraint. 173. set to 3 points. 181 CPlaneFront command. relative polar coordinates. 173. 180 copy:. set top. display for a point. 327. set to x-axis. 136. 11. 173 CommandPrompt command. 75. 136. 173 commands: list of all. 386. 338. set to vertical. 413 CommandHistory command. add next in u-direction to selection. 184. 11. 183. import from 3DM file. G0. construction plane coordinates. 122. 172. 138. 173 commands:. list. 140. 379. 125. move in u-. 137. 180. 174. 173 command names. add previous in v-direction to selection. layer. set to previous. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. select previous in v-direction. 172. 166. select next in v-direction. 323. 122. set origin. 173. 251 command area. 338. 386. 177 continuous shading. 359. 75. 35 command: alias. 123. 182. 88. weld. 178. 131 command history. render window. 419. 218 Contour command. next. 125. 179. 179. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. 88. 88. 89. 133. old. 292. move along Z. 297. 181. 345. 184. toolbar button. 5 CPlaneObject command. 164. 197. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 5. 12. 174. 419 context menu. 75 continuity. 10. 126. 362. 219 coordinate entry. 21. 115. 5. 181. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 10. 172 CommandPaste command. 180. project object snap to. 89. 181. toggle display. 173. 11. turn off. 173. 202. 195 color. list all. set to next. 178 CPHighlight command. assign to mouse buttons. 119. 5. curve. view back of. 234. truncated.0 Command Reference close. rendering to Clipboard. set normal to curve. 5. 11. set right. viewport. macro. set to view. 89. history. read from file. select previous in u-direction. view to all viewports. toggle construction plane entry. for spotlight editing. 176 Conic command. 172 Closest point to an object. 11. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 405. highlight. toggle display of. 183. 379 control polygon. 15 construction plane. options. 342. 123. plan view. G2. 180. paste from clipboard. create curve from. 422. 184. 235. 115. 297. 292.

348 Ctrl+Z. 4. 255. tracking line. 15. 217. 213. 200 450 . 255. 316 Ctrl+X.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. line segments. contour. spiral. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 267. 241. 15 crossing: select with mouse. sketch. extract wireframe from surface. 189. 195. extend. 233. 279. 143. add knots. 4. simplify. 169. 327. 236. pull to surface. 311. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 330. 232. 239. 231. 131. apply to surface. extend by line. fair. 305. 195. analyze surface. 248. 268. line normal to a surface. 271. 218. 182 CPlanePrev command. 188. selection. 221. 187 CurveSketch command. 254. 179. line perpendicular to two curves. 236. 3 Ctrl+C. 231. marker. extrude along path. 185 CrvBox command. 267. 281. 184 CPlaneZ command. 238. line tangent to two curves. 302 Ctrl+O. 198 Ctrl+Y. curvature graph. 162. 236. extend by arc to a point. 234 CreatePCurves command. 389. sketch on surface. delete control points. 226. 157. end. 217. 175. offset. rebuild. 230. 144. 248. 218. 197. 387 Curve toolbar. 217. circle tangent to two curves. 164. 238. helix. 337. adjust seam point. 196. 236. interpolate through polyline. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. from point cloud. 235. 351. 142. chamfer. 241. 187. 179. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 156. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 169. extrude straight. arc from three points. 238. 232. 258. circle from three points. 178. 258. 184 CPlaneV command. 254. section. 255. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 249. 162. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. constrain along line. insert edit point. single line. 177. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 156. measure radius. 187 CrvEnd command.Rhino 2. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 133. 304. 387. 367. 4. 346 cross sections through profiles. 339. 197. place point at end. 388. 187. 4 Ctrl+V. 202. 188. 179. 304 Ctrl+A. 187 CurveSeam command. 343. 156. 239. 165. 4. 323. 168. adjust end bulge. from control points. 177. 141. 256. 343. 165. 133. 24. 340. 257. 144. 330. arc tangent to two curves. 174. 281. 305. 327. from 2 views. 351. 183 CPlaneRight command. 90. 253. 139. 195. 142. crosshairs. 388. 170. 144. ellipse. 197. 233. 183 CPlaneTop command. 185. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 190 CullCP command. line. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. arc. 4. silhouette. 2. 258. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 369. 369. 257. 191. 389. 189. 395. 339. 184 CPlaneX command. 177. 187 CrvStart command. 174. 245 Curvature command. 339. 197 curve. 168. graph on. 156 CurveBox command. 165. duplicate border of surface. 24. conic. 197. 155. 323. 390. 241. 333. extend by arc. 15. 180 Ctrl+N. 183 CPlaneToView command. 268. 141. 186. polyline. 389 CurveStart command. 2. extend to surface boundary. graph off. 326. 25. circle by diameter. 305. 314. 174. 394. 2 Ctrl+S. 257. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 195. 255. radius. constrain to ortho. 337. 265. 367. 387 curve:. 162 CurveEnd command. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. periodic. bisector line. 389. extrude to point. 355. 141. Gaussian. 185. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 270. 230. mean. curvature graph off. 195. 2. 387. duplicate edge of surface. 304. convert to polyline. 187. arc from start. 256. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 235. bounding box. 197 curve degree. parabola. 356. 340. 221. align in two views. 195. 239. 256. 394 CurveBlend command. interpolate on surface. 185. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 194. 298. 4. constrain parallel to view plane. project onto surface. 230. 239. tangent line. 271. direction. 268. 4. 191. 307 Ctrl+P. 265. 343. line vertical to construction plane. 185 CRectangle command. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 216. 314. 390. 189 CSec command. 2. 170. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 269 Curve command. 298. fillet. 367. 197. 2. 13. 187 CrvSeam command. make periodic. blend. 191 curvature:. 222. 388. 235. 2. 198 CutPlane command. 269. 162 CrvDeviation command. 226. 337. 306. 355. revolve. intersect two objects. extract isoparms from surface. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 143. 333. 326. 387. point. 195. match ends. 139. 187. 369 crossing selection. measure between two curves. 189 CSV export. 197. 311. flatten section of. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 305. 268. 270. 190 cursor. 3 crossing:. 391. 253. 90. 389. display graph. 248. 334. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 24. 226. refit. remove knots. 192. 369 Crv2View command. convert to Beziers. 155. 216. 165. 184 CPTog command. constrain to plane. 232. 24 curvature: analyze curve. select all. 3. 14. smooth. 281. 239. 164. 281. polyline through point objects. 187 CurveOverlap command. toggle. 202. 194. 15. 156. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. cross sections through profiles. 334. 189 crosshairs. 213. divide by number of segments. 169. points. 164. sketch on polygon mesh. 170. 195. circle from center. surface from network. 2. place point at start. 218. 189. 131. 184 CPlaneView command. 194. raise degree. from interpolated points.

202 DeleteAll command. summary. 410. objects. 10. 208. 2. 208 difference. 206 DigSection command. 215 Dot command. 220. 201. 215 drafting. 127. 213. 251 dot: annotation. Notes tab. 395. 251 Domain command. 368. show. 372 DetachTrim command. pause input. 205 displacement. 208. 58 delete: all objects. polygon mesh. 124. 211 DirectX file export. 201. display broken. 208 dimension. 210 Dir command. 135. naked. display curve or surface. 277 diagnostics. 209. 22. 119. grid. 243. 212 distance: constraint. 121. 206. control polygon. toolbar button bitmap icons. isoparm density. 370. 3-D polygon mesh face. 22. 385. 384. 160 Dig command. 385. 217 DupEdge command. annotation text. 344. 202. curve by number of segments. 330. 15 divide: curve by length. hydrostatic calculation. 215 dot:. dimension text. 209 DimRecenterText command. 202. calibrate. 272. viewport properties. 245. 218. reverse object direction. 214 domain: match. raise curve degree. 91. tolerances. 165. horizontal. 203. 217. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 85. points at naked edges. 209. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 344. 168. radius. 196. 22. 330. options. 12. units. 18. 416 developable surface definition. 127. control points. 205 digitize. 411. 217. object discription. diameter. 17. 217 DrapePt command. select all. Render Mesh tab. 105. 384 diameter dimension. 23. 206 DigSketch command. 218 duplicate. 205 DigScale command. 210 DirArc command. 215 draft angle. 34 DXF file exchange. 17. 210 DimHorizontal command. 370. 260. 384 edge: create curve from. naked edges. 195. 206. 104. 220. 293 Cylinder command. recenter text. 425. 211. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. rebuild. 17. 372 Deselect command. shortcuts. join two out of tolerance edges. 213 dock a toolbar. options. 15. 396 edge:. 217 draw. 209 DimRotated command. 212 distance display. 265. 120 document properties: notes. 218. from last point. 251. 144 direction. disconnect. 19 DocumentProperties command. 213 DivideByLength command. 121. 209 DimVertical command. 207. persistent object snaps. 298 DigPause command. 219. 207 DimAligned command. 202. 260. set scale. 207. 265. 207. 15 Distance command. in Trim command. 212 display:. 370. 88. 123. toggle. 207 DimAngle command. toolbar button. 209. 197. 202 delete:. 123. 216 Drape command. 279. 293 data structure for object. 272 date. intialize. 212. 201 cylinder:. curve. edge of surface. 10. vertical. 250. 207. select all objects. 212. 99 disable. 202 Deselect All. 133. 45 dirty looking rendering. 3-D digitizing. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. set up function key for click. Boolean. with FaroArm. 104. 210. 210. 208. polylines. 250 display: bitmap window. 196. 239. sketch curve. angle between lines. 396 EdgeSrf command. 372 DeselectAll command. rotated. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. border of surface. 213 divide:. 203 develop a surface. 19. edit points. grid axes. 132. 218. 131 Ebroken command. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 203 DigCalibrate command. 218. 216. 123 451 . set spacing between points. layer. 279 Dragmode. 207. 208 DimRadius command. 12. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. merge. 219. 107. 245. 108 Dup command. 384. 127. 205. 288. 165 Delcam file exchange. 19 document properties:. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. object. 207 DimDiameter command. 218 e_tol. aligned. 213 Divide command.ini. broken edges. 260. 19. 220. 330. 106. 204 DigClick command. 160. 168. button image. 33 DynamicShading command. edit text. 210. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 385. 2. 197. Rhino. split. 19. 23 distance:. 288. 132. 135. 122 Delete command. 22 degree. 288. 209. 166. 370 DWG file exchange. 167. 217. 219. 178.0 Command Reference cutting objects. toolbar. command button. 209. 344. 384. in Split command. surfaces. create 2-D curves. 214 domain:. 385. 166. change. 338.Rhino 2. 217 drape surface. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 122. 208. 422 Display command. render mesh settings. wallpaper. 206 DigSpacing command. 205. 204. 212 DisableOsnap command. 205. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. lines. 205 DigDisconnect command. 243 DirectionalLight command. change degree of surface. planar section. 217 DupBorder command. with MicroScribe. 208 DimOptions command. 206. 395. 212 disconnect digitizer.

4 F8. 233. 37. 13. 31. export to. 73. 385 ESplit command. 55. 53. 226 endpoint object snap. 235 ExtractSrf command. IronCAD (IGES). 236. 58. 236 Extrude toolbar. 67. Delcam (IGES).Rhino 2. 3. CAD 3D SUM 4. 239 FastShip file exchange. 4 F9. 36. curve to point. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 61. 154 Ellipsoid command. 45. 236. 69. 26. 221. 73. 233. 253. 30. 231. 224 EMerge command. isoparms from surface. 32. 71. 73. SolidWorks (IGES). 219 EditPtOn command. SAT file format. 228 expand a surface. 222 ellipse:. TekSoft IGES. 42. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 229 export:. 232. 202. 230. 41. 73. 45. 68. 420 EditDim command. Alias (OBJ). 41. 29. 239 false color display. 235. 231. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 429 End object snap. 124. 62. 74. Cosmos/M (IGES). Pro/E (IGES). control polygon. CADCEUS (IGES). 29. 223 ellipsoid:. Integrity Ware (IGES). 238 F1. object properties to file. 228 EvaluatePt command. surface into a solid. 51. 234. 236. 235 ExtractPt command. 231. AutoShip (IGES). 58. 26. Lightwave (LWO). 4 Fair command. 92. 30. 57. 229 ExplodeMesh command. DirectX. 56. 344 EMap command. ME30 (IGES). 12. Tebis IGES. 93. 228 exit Rhino. 233 ExtendByArc command. Solid Edge (IGES).0 Command Reference edit points. 11. 63. 1 Faro command. 30. 60. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 35. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 3D Studio MAX 3. 131. 238. 61. 231. 234 Extend command. triangles. 235. 233 extend:. 12 Enter:. 220. AutoCAD (DXF). 222 ellipsoid: baseball. Windows Metafiles (WMF). from focus points. 385 EnakedPt command. 72. 31. Catia (IGES). 63. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 71. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 70. 69. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 40. turn off. 238. unable to run program renrib.0 (IGES). wireframe curves from surface. 56. 133 Escape key. by arc. 33. 232. 2. IGES. 229 explode:. SURFCAM (IGES). 227 environment map. 55. 45. Mastercam (IGES). 69. by line. NASA GridTool. 228 Excel. 44.0 (OBJ). 59. Alias (IGES). 61. 128. 63. 54. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 46. 72. options. 35. 260 elevator mode. curve along path. 45. polygon mesh. command aliases. 53. 92. 230 extend. 227. 55. 222 EllipseEnds command. 233. 53. 231. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 133 enter coordinates. CSV file. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 44. surface. 40. 64. 64. Viewpoint Technologies. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 221. Solid Designer (IGES). FastSURF (IGES). 35. 230. 58 452 . 42. surface. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 45. 3D Studio MAX 3. 236. 239 fair curve. 45. 3D Studio (3DS). 54. mesh to IGES file. 237. VRML. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 12 ELine command. CamSoft (IGES). 33. Unigraphics (IGES). 65. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. Multisurf (IGES). 56. 228 error messages. 343 ElmoSrf command. 238 Extrude command. 58. 253. 52. Metastream. 174 Elmo command. 236 extrude: curve. 220 EditText command. ACIS. 127 Esc key. 62. 62. 10. AutoCAD (DWG). 45. 220 EJoin command. 68. 57. Wavefront (OBJ). 13. 230. curve on surface. Microstation (IGES). Adobe Illustrator (AI). 37. 70. 54. 229. 356. 229 Explode command. 33. 52. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 59. 229. 74 Export command. 46. 236. OptiCAD (IGES). 229 Exit command. 51. Moldex DXF. 234. 222 Ellipse command. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 63. 123 edit:. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 2. STL. 2. 35. 47. Maya (IGES). arc to a point. 35. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 43. Softimage (IGES. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 233 extract. NuGraf (IGES). 59. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 229 export. 67. 42. SLA. 223 elliptical conic curve. 60. 133 EShow command. 31. GHS. 330 End key. 48. 228 EvaluateUV command. Yamaha ESPRi. surface from polysurface. 230. 55. 36. 78 EndBulge command. turn on. FastShip (IGES). 224 erase objects. 64. insert on curve. 236. 40 errors in model. curve. Moray (UDO). 123. Plug-in). raw triangles (RAW). 32. 46. Commadelimited file. LUSAS (IGES). 133. 131 FAQ. curve to surface boundary. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 26. 219. 232. 53. 37. 238. show. 232. 119. 60. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). PostScript. 46. 221 EllipseD command. 230 Extend toolbar. 288 Enaked command. 4 F2. 232 ExtendByLine command. AUTOFORM (IGES). 36. 220. Applied Geometry (AG). 58. 71. curve by offset. space and rightmouse click. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 65. 233 ExtendSrf command.0 (IGES). 41. 356 extrude:. POVRay (POV).

53. 415 Ghost command. 244 Flow command. 67. edge of polysurface. 429 Horizon command. 130 Flow along a curve. 134. 131. swap hidden status. 123. 1 Help command. 46. 246 Heightfield command. 61. 262. 130. edit toolbar button. 1. 396. 48.0. 49. 307. 240. 262. polygon mesh export. 131. 407 freeze: a layer. 120. 236. 273. 55. 54. 192. 250 hide: background bitmap. 46. 50. 123. 73. 133. texture mapping coordinates. 63. 131. NURBS. 380. 1. 250. 133. 245 grid:. 245. 81 Front command. 229. 119. 385. 240 FilletEdge command. 249 HidePt command. 55. 361. 246. 377 Group command. 46. troubleshooting import problems. 69. save. control points. Alias|Wavefront. Osnap dialog box. 386. text. 415 GHS file export. 220.Rhino 2. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. set the number of lines. center of. 249 HidePts command. types. 339 HideOsnap command. 249 HideCV command. 249. objects. panes. 2 hidden layer name. 249. 338 history. 307. 362 File toolbar. two surfaces. open. 55. Breault Research's ASAP. 261. wireframe. 361. 425 IGES: file exchange. 240 FilletSrf command. 49 IGES export:. 386. 251. 246 Gridsnap command. periodic surface. polysurface. 330. 380 GridThick command. 133. 122. 229. 132. 239. 52. 277. 241 FitPlane command. 417 FlattenSrf command. 134. 302. 59. command line. false color. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command.turn on or off. 249 highlight in rendering. 119 HideTrace command. 390. 348. 278. 46. surface. 453 . 171. 378. 380. 386. 360. 57. 75 Hydrostatics command. command area. import. simple controls. 131.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. shortcut. naked edge. IGES export type details. 244 front view. 249. 262. 64. 122 font. toolbar. 131. 249. 239 fillet:. 240 Fillet command. 119 HideToolbox command. 245 Grid command. 133. initial mesh grid. 18. show hidden control points. bumpmap. tolerance. Unicode. 120. 387 HSV color. tracking line. units. definition. axis lock. 3D Studio MAX 3. 124. 53. 194 GCon command. unlock locked objects. 407. 302. 415 Freeze command. 362 FileProperties command. 307. 12 Home key. 245. 70. 249. Esc key. 251. 36 glossary terms. 246. 12. 131. 123. name. 1 help:. 68. 221 fonts. 417 ghost: a layer. 273. section of curve. 255. 416. 235 FltE command. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. flyout toolbar. edit points. 46. 336. 246 HBarSrf command. 220. 47. 244 Flowline command. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 176 G1 continuity. 246. 250 Hyperbolic curve. save as. 245 GridSections command. 2. 53. 5. 279. set distance between lines. 56. 212 frequently asked questions. 172. 302. 246 handlebars. 255. seamless mesh. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 133. set snap size. 249 HidePoints command. 413. toolbar. 65. 1 From object snap. turn on or off. 273 freeze:. 176 Gaussian curvature. 131. AUTOFORM. edit using. 360. 379. 378. unlock locked objects. 368. 325 FitCrv command. 132. 135 grid: axes . curve. 379 IGES file types. 251 floating license. 277. 305. spacing. 426. cursor. 104 fit a plane through points. 407. 377. 425. 134. 133. 131. 241 FlatShade1 command. 337. 72. 262. 133. 247 Helix command. CADCEUS. 134. 239. 194. AutoShip. 240 filter the layer display. 260. world axes. 380 GridAxes command. new. 229. 244 G0 continuity. 131. 250 HideToolbar command. 416. 384. Ashlar Vellum. 249. 122. 273. 246 GridSize command. keep last used on top. 246. 228. periodic curve. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 362 file:. 133. 245 GridOptions command. 243 floatation. 135. 246. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 246 HBar command. 248 help: display Help file. 229. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 214 fillet. 172 hold. 75 hue. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 50. 410. template. objects. 250. 54. snap to. 395. show selected. control point. 55. marker. 361. 60. Enter key. 281 FlatShade command. 250. 246 group. 386. object names. 249 hide:. 74. normal. 273. 251. 171. 251. 54. 133. 242 flatten. run application from inside Rhino. 386 HideAll command. 273 ghost:. 174 icon. status bar panes. 249 HideSwap command. 243 Flip command. reduce size of model. 119 Hide command. 46. 130. 58. 176 G2 continuity. 71. developable surface. 168. isoparm. objects. 246 Group objects for selection. 132. 259. technical support. 2. 339. 62. set the extents of. 103 hidden objects. text. 203. 250. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 132.

LUSAS. 48. 263. 71. 252 insert:. NASA GridTool IGES. 74 Import command. 101. 62. 72. 57. 46. 72. set material. 167. Alias IGES. 160. 130 license:. Tebis. 69. 126 kink. 33. 254. construction planes from 3DM file. Lightwave LWO. 140. 255. 69. 259 IronCAD file exchange. Integrity Ware IGES. 257 InterpPolyline command. 53. 60. 363. ME30. 54. Breault Research ASAP IGES. knot. LUSAS IGES. 262 lasso selection. TekSoft. aliases. 251 Improve command. Solid Designer. turn all layers on. 70. Yamaha ESPRi. curve on surface. CamSoft IGES. 131 insert: edit point. 91. definition. 396. 322 JScript. 307. 252 information. 60. 256. AUTOFORM IGES. 32. 132 isoparm. 69. 254. 283. Multisurf IGES. SUM 4. 68. 104. 10. 351. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 132. 396. 104. 343. turn off by selecting an object. 42. 425. turn off. 57. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 63. 135. Pro/E IGES. 71. 63. Boolean. Mastercam. CADCEUS IGES. 167. 26. 253. 253 InsertKinks command. 61. definition. 69.Rhino 2. 261 JoinMesh command. 60. 57. 104. 257. 46. Unigraphics. OptiCAD. 264 left view. 257 intersect: Boolean. 104. 167. 70. 77. 69. 78. 71. toolbar from another layout. stereolithography STL. 168. 255. Adobe Illustrator AI. 258 InvertPt command. AutoShip IGES. turn on. 10. NuGraf IGES. 64. 377. 56. 64. 263. 104. 104. 62. 312. Mechanical Desktop. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. snap to. Mastercam IGES. 62. 253 InsertKnot command. 260 JoinFaces command. 67. 55. IronCAD. 56. Solid Designer IGES. FastSURF IGES. 90. 263. Softimage. 66. 14. 85. Softimage IGES. Delcam. 46 IGES:. distance from. 61.0 OBJ. 54. 70. 63. 254 Insert command. named views from a 3DM file. 56. 54. two objects. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 261 JoinEdge command. 62. 260. change for an object. Cosmos/M. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 355 layer: change color. 251. 260. 152 Leader command. 307. 67. check out from workgroup license manager. 65. 62. 253. CATIA. 367 JPG file format. 258 Intersect command. 46. SolidWorks IGES. 31. 258 intersection. 52 import. 99 JCAD STL export. 101 Layer pane. 103. 46. FastShip IGES. 377 layer:. 102. 73. 42. 132. 262 LayerOff command. 65. 307. 32. Microstation. object snap. Mechanical Desktop IGES. kink in curve. Maya. Solid Edge IGES. 132. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 67.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 253 knot. 72. 283. surfaces. 253. 101. 366. CATIA IGES. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. rename. 133 Layer toolbar. 63. set current. 65. 101. 263 leader: arrow. curve. 15 lathe. 262. OptiCAD IGES. 71. 132. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 63. 61. 63. 64. 251 import:. Applied Geometry AG. Raw triangles RAW. 152. translate IGES/Rhino. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. Microstation IGES. 81. 264 leader:. SURFCAM IGES. 168. 59. 160. 73. 262 last point. 312. 371. split surface at. Maya IGES. 63. wireframe view. 37. 338. surface or polysurface. remove from curve or surface. match attributes. 56. 377 LayerLock command. 168 454 . 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 59 InterpCrv command. insert in curve. 68. 41. 135 jagged shadows. 10. 68. 307. Cosmos/M IGES. AutoCAD DXF. 253. filter display. 14. 103. arrowhead on curve. 33.0 IGES. 101. 73. select from list. select objects by. delete. 41. insert on curve or surface. 71. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 29. Tebis IGES. 73. Multisurf. 263 LayerOn command. 59. 254. 264 length: measure curve. 37. 103. 69. match. CAD 3D SUM 4. 55. 102. 53. Integrity Ware. 253 InsertKink command. 259. 119 initial mesh grid. IronCAD IGES. set material properties. 55. 61. TekSoft IGES. 60. 251 IncrementalSave command. 140. 343.0. change to current. 371. 33. display for object. angle from. IGES. 160. 160 Invert command. 78. 73. 168. 59. 254 InsertKnots command. 55. 58. 58. 71. 46. Solid Edge. 103. 58. Delcam IGES. 259 join:. 152. 58. 265 Length command. 3D Studio 3DS. 121. 264 Left command. 58. 104. 254. 261 Join command. 425 ini file. 42. 74. FastShip. AutoCAD DWG. 2. 255 Int object snap. 261 JoinSrf command. 41. 261 JPG. 59. 263 Layer command. 26. 168 license manager. 256 interpolate. SolidWorks. SURFCAM. 259. 60. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 70. Pro/E. SDRC's I-DEAS. 64. 377. 255. one layer on. management. 140. new. 283. 121. Unigraphics IGES. triangles. 258 intersect:. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 251. objects. 261 Lasso command. 258 IntersectCrv command. NASA GridTool. 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES. 59. 76. 103. 29. display density. purge empty. 103. 58. FastSURF. ME30 IGES. 15. 31. 53. 3D Studio MAX 3. 59 isoparametric curve. 59. insert in surface. dialog box. 56. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 81. 64. 256. 61. 265 length:. 73. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 160. 67.

290. 291. 281. 334 merge: surface. 268. 269. 304. 267 LinePP command. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 338. bisector. 191. 288 Maya file exchange. 288 MergeSrf command. 415 locked layer name. curve curvature. 268. 292. 417 Make2D command. 292. 283 MatchSrf command. 333. layer attributes. 91. 90 Main toolbar. 371. texture. 421 MeasurePoint command. 255. area. select all. 74. 415. 62 ME30 file exchange. 288. 377 Material properties. 358. 348. 88. plane. 221. reduce density. 259.0 Command Reference Light tab. 270 LineV command. 365. 342. unlocked objects. 37 M command. 333. 293. 256. density for primitives. 377 maximum curvature. pop up at cursor. geometric continuity. 191. 187. normal to a surface. two adjacent edges of a surface. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 262. insert straight segment into curve. 232. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 180. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. run from toobar button. 225. area moments. 268 Lines command. from closed polyline. 155. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. create. 123. seamless. 251 merge:. area centroid. 145. 304. 273 loft surface. 284 MatchLayer command. set viewport. 62 menu: context. swap status with unlocked objects. 267. 271. 102. 39. 103 locked objects. 220. decrease number of faces. 273. 229. 340. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 328. 86 lights. 261. 211. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 232. 224. 270. paste script from Clipboard. 357. 292. 270. 288 menu:. toggle display. cone. 179. 281 match:. 269. 145. 271 List command. options. 255. 141. deviation of points and curves from a surface. explode. 304. 104. 61 MDT IGES options. 283. 266. 337. 131 mass properties. volume centroid. 187. 245. 84. clear render mesh for all objects. 142. layer. 286. 363. 334 Line4Pt command. 268. 134 marker definition. 236. 155. volume moments. 255. perpendicular to two curves. 399. 273 Loft command. single line. 421 Measure command. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 240. 265. 135. 398. cylinder. 290. 293. environment. 37 line: at angle from line. 225. 273 LockOsnap command. 265. vertical to construction plane. 273 LUSAS file exchange. box. surface. apply to surface. 420. 420. 140. 266. 272 LoadScript command. bump. from NURBS object. 33. 289. 269 LineTP command. 271 Line command. detailed options. 101 manage:. 212. 338. radius. set for layer. 265. 279 Make2d4View command. 349. 378 maximize: current viewport. 288. 145. 229. 212. 334 LineTan command. 39. 271. 75. 194 MaxViewport command. 294. 270. 273 Lock command. tangent to two curves. 334. 269. 288. 228. 296 macro. 273. 290. 84. 125. 265 line:. 377. definition. 410. 210. unlock locked objects. 329. point. set properties for layer. 161. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. select all. 266. 288 Menu command. 86 material:. 12. 340. 171. 281 manage: license. Rhino. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. deviation between two curves. 330. run from shortcut key. from four points. 284. 24 menu bar. 192. 455 . 296. 194 measure: angle. export to IGES file. 345. 88. 125. perpendicular to curve. 148. 92. 60 LWO file exchange. 61 mean curvature. 3DFace. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 288. 268. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 273. 212. 421 Mass Properties toolbar.Rhino 2. 396. polyline through point objects. 224. 267. 333. 155. 126. clear at save time. directional. 290. 266. 141. 288 Merge command. 130 manage layers. 287 Match command. 272 list data structure of an object. 162. 156. 371. 288 maximize:. clear render mesh. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 338 mapping coordinates. 281. snap to. 326. 273 Logoff command. 371. volume. 23. 342. 333. run from external file. 420. persistent object snaps. 348. 395. 228. 285. 338. convert each face to NURBS surface. run from an alias. 261. 228 Logout command. set for export. 212. axis. 268 Lines toolbar. spotlight. 74. 135. 290. 334. 173. objects. 12. extend by. BMRT. 212 LockSwap command. polyline. 268. breaking apart. 145. 329. 288. 123. 284 material: for rendering. segments. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 288 mesh: 3D face. 105. 267 LinePerp command. 211. 283. distance. 262. 140. 420. 23. 421. length. 331. 145. 40. 270. 194. 266 LineAngle command. 145. 272 LoadPlugin command. 265. 273 lock: a layer. 228 LooseLoft command. 134. 239. 173. select naked edges. 378. 38 match: curve ends. 339. viewport. 377 Maximize command. 267. run with middle mouse. 213. 245. 146. 338. 130 map. 212. 213 measure:. 273 lock:. 288 MergeEdge command. 296. 52. 371. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 266 Line4pts command. 265. 41. 92. 328. 270 LineTT command. tangent to a curve. join. 294.

near. 338 OBJ file exchange. 93. 307 Offset command. 132. 261. 304 normal:. 293. 113. 355. 12 None command. 91. 349. 121. 305 N-sided patch. 79 minimize: Rhino. turn off. 249. 123. 338. 64 NURBS. on surface. 251. 304. 135. viewport. 305 notes in Rhino file. 148. 183. from. unify normals. 297 Mscribe command. 85. 421 Moray UDO file export. 79. 92. 79. 35 object snap: along. 204. 343. 290 Mesh toolbar. 140. 171. tangent from curve. 409. 297. group. 41. 298. 378. 298. 82. 229. 120. 37 object: description. export to RIB. toolbar. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 311. project to construction plane. 80. 147. 249. 384. view. save named construction plane. 303 NextViewport command. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 302 New command. 343. 363. 103. hide toolbar. 348. 79. 92. 379. 363 name:. 83. scale and rotate. 362 named view. surface. 81. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 371. options. 298. 134. 215. 4. 302 NewViewport command. 82. 2. set for multiple objects. 92. 122 Move command. 145. 92. export to IGES. 2. construction planes through a point. 296 minimize:. 243. 294. read from file. 132. 311. 305. remove flipped. 424 Mesh command. 75 named construction planes. 379. edit. 82. 83. 80. 308. 205. 308. perpendicular from a curve. 414 NoSnap command. 303 NextV command. objects. 296 Minimize command. quadrant. 385. 133. 78. 414. 387. definition. 414. export to OBJ. 323 Microsoft Excel. 384. 303. 363. 80. weld. move control points. 80. 355. 121. 302 next. 292. to move objects. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 122. surface. toolbar button. 385. object to align with curve. center. 372 non-uniform scale. 35. 425. 12. 131 NoElev option. 81. off construction plane. 296 move:. 62 middle mouse button function. 243 456 . 302. 84. read from file. export to file. 303 NextU command. 309. 251. 4. 305. parameterization. 90 Midpoint object snap. 303. 423 mesh:. 385. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 293 MeshDensity command. 306. 33. 306 OffsetSrf command. 306. 378 object properties. surface control points in u-. 297 MoveUVN command. and n-directions. 296 modeling aids. 298 NamedViews command. 79 NetworkSrf command. reverse direction. ortho viewport active. 366 normal: definition. options. 355 NamedCPlane command. 2. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 84. 132. 212. 415. 90 move: background bitmap. 296 Metastream file export. draw line. 302. toolbar button. 304. snap to a curve. 378. 203. 81. 292 MeshCylinder command. 385. export to. 294. 362. 377. set mesh the same. 141. 304 node. 293 MeshPlane command.Rhino 2. multiple objects. scale and rotate on surface. an object. reparameterize. perpendicular to a curve. 317 nudge. 296 mirror objects. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 132. 229. 83. 297. intersection. 251. definition. perspective viewport active. 78. 290. 115. set for single object. 251. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 146. 293. 290. 338. 423. 212 object snap:. 78. show toolbar. 355. between two points. 2. 141. 90. viewport. 379. 79. 311 OBJ export properties. 78 Notes command. 296. 295. display. set persistent. 309. 292 MeshCone command.0 Command Reference sphere. 84. 343. 63 Near object snap. 229 Microstation file exchange. 84. 322. knot. show. 304. 292. 120. 80. 305 offset:. 46 moments. 113. point. 349. 3. 80. 298. 194 Mirror command. 12. tangent to a curve. 302 new:. 425 offset: curve. 414. 243. 379 Named Colors list. 295. 309. save. set properties. 81. 385 name. 423 MeshBox command. v-. 82. 302. 362. 114. 298. 343. 377. parting line. viewport to top. 348. improve. 117. 132 O command. 84. restore. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 216 Moldex command. 118 Normal command. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. construction point through point. 229. midpoint. 261. 78. 84. 297 MoveTrace command. 312 mold. 338. 378. 338. 295. 295 MeshToNurb command. surface display. 296. 81. 415 object names. 30. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 243. 52. 296. unlock. 132. 141 mouse. 30. 82. show hidden. 140. restore. 409 object:. 297. 234. 212. a view. 79. 212. 298 new: file. 338. wheel function. 294 MeshSphere command. 123. 294 MeshPolyline command. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. viewport active. 63 naked edge. disable. toggle persistent. 296 minimum curvature. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 362. 297. 298 NamedView command. 133. 215. 79. 37 morph target. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 387. 206. 183. toolbar. pull direction. 297. 79. 296. layer. 103. 135. 297. 414. lock. end. 3. objects to new construction plane. 304.

308 OptiCAD file exchange. set angle. background bitmap. 96. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 321. 325. 325 PlaneV command. 314 parabolic curve. 374. 131 periodic. 322. 324 plane: cut through objects. 426 OpenGL:. 96 options:. about.2. 327 Point command. 314 Parabola command. place multiple. 351. 133. make curve periodic. 92. 88. 308. 329. objects from the clipboard. left. options. 320 place. on a surface. 94. 325 Plane3Pt command. 308 OpenWS command. 133 P command. Shade tab. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 323 planar section. make surface non-periodic. 379 Ortho pane. 92. 64 options: aliases. 78 Osnap:. 94. 326. click ortho pane to toggle. 307. 188 point cloud. Appearance tab. 290. Planar. 314 Pan command. 325 Pline command. 2. 309. 200. place at end of curve. up. 90. 5. select method. 314 PanDown command. 246. 133. undo number. 133. 324. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. developers. 90. 88. 88. 213. 376. 325 Plane command. 130. to curve. place at start of curve. 101. 366. 2. 324 Plane toolbar. digitize. 320 Pipe command. 133. 281. 28. 2. 327. control polygon appearance. 326 Point Editing toolbar. Snap. 325 plane:. 325 plug-ins. 366. 90.set. 422 Point filters. 313. target location. 318. 325. 90. 307. troublshooting. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 326. 316. autosave. toggle. 272. 325. 330. 29.5. shade. 101. 328. 329. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 351. 313 PanUp command. 131. 313. 330 457 . by three points. 92. 281. 4. 313 Panes. 95. 28. shortcut keys. 92. 92. 133. 88. 307 open:. 322. 311. 330. View tab. 94. 313. 258. 92. 92. 90. 253. snap increment. 333 PluginManager command. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 3DS MAX 2. 90. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 281. 96. press shift to toggle. nudge increment. make surface periodic. 379. 314 parabola. 98. redraw speed. startup commands. ortho angle. 2 Pan: down. 318 PConic command. create curve from. 339 POffSelected command. 290. 205 pause for user input in script. 68. 96. 12. 94. 92. 312. 80 Perpendicular line. 130. 307 OnSrf object snap. on surface from UV coordinates. load. 90. 96. Softimage. 323 planar mode. 339 point: control. 88. trim options. Modeling Aids tab. 2. pan distance. 311 Orient3Pt command. object snap radius. 172. surface. Osnap. 318 Perspective command. shortcuts. polygon mesh. 92. 367 POff command. from three points. turn on or off. 97. 313 Pan:. 2 Patch command. 98. manager. 387 paste. 40 perspective angle .0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 92. trackball motion. 93. 133. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 281. curve. 84 OneLayerOff command. toggle. 425 Orient. 308 Options dialog box. 90. 82 PerpLine command. 2 PackTextures command. 309. 311. 92. saved toolbar layout. 3DS MAX 1. 92. 323 Planar command. 379. 96. 206 PlanarSrf command. 133 Osnap command. 119. 373. 174 parameterization. 376. 206. 311 Ortho command. 133 OrthoAngle command. camera and target location. 272. 339. 133 Perp object snap. 200. 254. 90.Rhino 2. Ortho. 317 pause digitizer input. 323 Pa. 379. grid of. 224. 322. 253. 386. right. 249. 322 PlaceTarget command. 2. 176 PCX file format. 308 orient objects. 96. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 38 parting line. 367 pe_tol. Files tab. 187. 307 OneLayerOn command. 375. fit through points. 323. 323. 5. 308 Orient command. isoparm density. 133. lock to axis. Keyboard tab. 326 Point object snap. 133. 309 OrientOnSrf command. middle mouse button function. 330. 373 Point toolbar. 88. use for shade. 90. 92. 90. 311 ortho mode. 92. no-repeat commands. 190. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 312 Osnap: pane. 96. 309. 68 PNG file format. 2. 318 perspective view. 312. 262. 324.0. 90. 130. toolbar. 96. place one. 4. 94. options. toggle. 3DS MAX 2. shortcuts. 27. 29. 313 PanRight command. set. 324 Plane3Pts command. 311. 133. 79 point objects. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 363. 321. change interface appearance. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 218. 119 Open command. 373. 312 PageDown key. select all. Aliases tab. 2. 98 Options command. 84 open: file. 96. file locations. 290 Organic toolbar. view. 316. 308 OpenGL: toggle. options. 220. 323 Plan command. General tab. 27. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 133. 318. Layer. 133 PanLeft command. 313. set. 339. 338. 88. 68 PictureFrame command. 326. 94. detailed polygon mesh. 200. 363. 131 pedge.

261. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 332. relative. 135. 138. 349. convert each face to NURBS surface. 228 radius: dimension. 12. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 259. 335 PrevViewport command. 339 purge empty layers. 425. 331 Polygon command. 303. 262. 40. 424. 294. 331. 19. 141. measure. 334 PostScript file export. 179. 339. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 259. 135. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 137. select previous in u-direction. notes. 334 Polyline command. coordinate points. 333. 366 PrintSetup command. 367. 343. select object to turn off. 229. 202. twist. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. options. 292. hide back. 331 polygon mesh. 90 458 . 19. 340 QRender command. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 349. to file. viewport. 420. 87 properties:. 220. clear render mesh. 334. 10. 343 rebuild: curve. named construction planes from file. 86. cone. 19. 87. object. 331. 372 Polytrans. 228 quinitics. 414. 50 Quit command. 202. 64. 336. 261. render. 187. 345 Rebuild command. 86 Properties Text tab. 254. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. select connected. 340 RailRevolve command. 382 QRenderAll command. 344 RebuildEdges command. 353 previous viewport. 339 PointTest command. select next in u-direction. 340 Radius command. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. edit points. 327 PointDeviation command. 223 PolarSphere command. 379 preview. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 21. 378. 179. from edge. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 337 Print command. 293. 339 PointsOn command. 229. density for primitives. 259. 337 ProjCP command. 340 radius:. 343. 296. render mesh. 335. select previous in v-direction. 372. from closed polyline. inscribed. 41 POV-Ray file export. 249. 371. 339. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 372. 331. named views from a 3DM file. 64. 332 PolygonEdge command. 330 points:. 136. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 333 polyline:. invert selection. 338. 382 Quad object snap. 337 project:. 123 Proj command. 249. image of model. 303. 292. 338 ProjectOsnap command. show control. 121. create from control points. 294. join. objects to construction plane. 136. 292. export to file. 136. 259. toolbar. absolute. 423. 303. draw. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. add next in v-direction to selection. 339 PtOn command. select next in v-direction. 361. 340 rail revolve. 36. 293. 257. 2 PrevU command. 171. 366. delete control on curve. 141. explode. 338. 330 PointsOff command. 85 Properties Material tab.Rhino 2. through point objects. 339 pull curve to surface. 337. 338 project: curve to surface. 35. 3D face. 328 PointGrid command. 333. 150 polar coordinates. 137. 339 PtOffSelected command. render using OpenGL shade. 197. 339 PopupMenu command. add previous in u-direction to selection. 335 PrevV command. 290. 353. 18. 339 Pull command. 328 polar array. 295. apply to surface. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 131. to Clipboard. 229. 343 rebuild:. sphere. 339. 336 print. knot. 344 recent commands list display. 420 Properties command. document. 40 POV Materials toolbar. control points. 41 read. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 343. 413 Points command. 19. 12. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 235. 171. 290.0 Command Reference point:. 386. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 368. add previous in v-direction to selection. 333. 386. weld. 361. Polytrans Softimage translation. 229. 295. 290. 209. hide edit and control. material. 121. 338 Projection command. 138. 334 PopupToolbar command. surface. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. clear render mesh for all objects. 335. 330 PointsFromUV command. 343. 262. display information about an object. select all. 68. 235. join. 68 POn command. 335. select with lasso. 340 RailRev command. 260. 104 PushViewportToBack command. draw on mesh. 81 QueryDomain command. 294. viewport layout from file. 257. 414. select all. 423 Polygon toolbar. 254. 293. 343. 291. explode. 344. grid. 209. 425 PtOff command. 334 polysurface. 368. 371. 344. from NURBS object. 190. 65 program toolbar functions. 343 ReadCommandFile command. box. 337. 329 PointLight command. 12. 17. 412. 332 polygon:. 338. cylinder. 296. 338 Project command. 86. show edit and control. 35. plane. 188 PointCloudSection command. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 46 POV Lights toolbar. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. interpolate curve through. 85. 10. 344 RebuildSrf command. 338 properties. 381 QRender1 command. set normals the same. 197. select naked edges. 220. 190.

2. 357 right-click menu. 360 Run command. 362. 325 RectCen command. 357 rotate view. 338 Ribbon command. 126. 2. 356 Right command. Rhino from being minimized. view continuously. 348 ReduceMesh command. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 355 RestoreView command. 358. 39. 345 Rect3Pt command.0. 363. 2. 347 rectangle:. 357 right mouse button. 203. 2. 359. clear render mesh for all objects. 353 RenderCurves command. 4. 324. 338. 309. 20 render problems. 351. 347 Rectangle command. 4. 360 rotate:. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 355 revolve:. 2. 171. 354. 4. preview using OpenGL shade. 355. 181. 338. 39. ii roll out a surface. 3. 346. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 357. 3. named view. 382. 94 RIB file export. sequentially numbered versions of model. 90 reshape a toolbar. 391 SAT file export. create background image. 40. from three points. 241 RefreshShade command. 120 restore: current viewport size. edges of polygon meshes. 346 RectangleV command. 121 render: BMRT. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 183 Restore command. 359 RotateDown command. a surface. 4. 362. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. named view. 5. surface using rail curve. place lights. 378. 358 RotateCamera command. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 355. 1 Rhino. 398.0 file exchange. 352 rename. 353. 351 RemoveKnot command. command aliases. 308. 381. 338. 351. 251. 355 RevU command. 172. 359. 359 RotateCPlane command. 3. 354 repeat command exclude list. 459 . 309. 360. 230. 172. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. move and scale. 349 remove. curves. image in the render window. 125. 288. 351 RemoveTrace command. left. 355 Rev command. 351. 10. 346 RectangleCen command. length and width. 325. 355 RestoreCPlane command. corner. 25. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 181. 75 Rhino 1. 352 RenderCrv command. 3. 359 RotateCameraUp command. why the name. 181. 340 Revolve command. 39. 429 Redo command. 412 Rotate3D command. 360 RotateRight command. 360 Rule command. curve knots. close render window. background bitmap. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. through three points. 346. 355 restore:. 351 RemoveKnots command. 352. 171. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. layer. vertical. mesh settings. bumpmaps. 348. toolbar. objects in 3D space. 103. 348 refit a curve. 353 RenderPreview command. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. clearing render meshes. 340. 338. 352. 412 Rotate command. 2 redo:. 183. file to a different file name or file type. 363. 355 revolved surface. 347 redo: last undone command. 4. 24. 338 Render command. right. 425 render:. 349 relative coordinates. 338. 353. 1. 348. 119 Rhinoceros. 103. 120. 320. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 429 RedoMultiple command. 360. 338. trim curve from surface. 171. 352 render plug-in application: options. materials.Rhino 2. 96. an object. 273 ruled surface. 5. 416 rotate: construction plane. 308. 363. 152. 398. edges. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 357. view change. 39. 2. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 353. copy to Clipboard. vertical to construction plane. transparency. 120. 30. 24. textures. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 356 RevV command. 360 RotateLeft command. 355. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 348 Redo command shortcut. shine. 3. 360 RunScript command. 346. 25 Rhino web page. 30 save: as small file. 363. 347 rectangular array. 133 right view. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 353. 4. up. options. 320. object from selection. 360. 148 rectangular surface. 30. 358. 324. 356 RGB color. scale and move on surface. 353. 354. 352. 349 RemapCPlane command. 19. button image to file. 309. autosave. 361. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. down. file. 96. named construction plane. 324. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 360 RotateUp command. 352. 379 RenderOptions command. 203. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 1 RhinoScript options. 181. named construction plane. highlight. save image in render window. 252. 338. 360 RotateView command.0 Command Reference Rect command. 354 reparameterize. 363. 345 Rectangle toolbar. Front construction plane. 346 rectangle: center. 346. 360. 361 S command. 363. objects. 353 RenderEdges command. 2. 288. 355. Rhino 1. 3. Top construction plane. 345. wallpaper. 346 RectV command.ini. 19. 99 Render toolbar.

construction plane to x axis. extents of grid. 182. 181. 363. 373 select:. 374. 374. 372. 368. 51. 363 SaveWorkspace command. objects to shade. 303. objects uniformly. 262. 375. 366. 365 screen capture. 136. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 366. 303. to Clipboard. add next control point in v-direction. JScript. 371. 126. 181. 368 SelConnected command. 361 save template. 365. 375. 246. add previous control point in v-direction. curves. all objects. duplicate objects. 138. 370 SelLast command. 246. current layer. 370. to file in 256 colors. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 377. 206. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. to file. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 309 Scale command. 90. 371 SelMesh command. 371 SelectName command. 373 SelU command.Rhino 2. 383. 172. with a window. 354. 258. 362. 364 Scale2D command. 367 section curves. 363 SaveAs command. 259. 365. 372. 376 set: active viewport by name. invert point selection. control polygon display density. 308. 368 SelectConnected command. maximized viewport by name. 103. 365. 373 SelSrfs command. lasso. 184. 371. 369 SelCrvs command. 373 SelSolid command. 136. distance between grid lines. bad objects. 262. 50. 372 SelPolysrf command. construction plane to view. 373. 335. template. 366 Scale1D command. construction plane to next used. subparts of objects. 371. objects non-uniformly. 184. 366. 152. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 184. with crossing window. 372. 362 SaveCPlane command. 369. 373. 363. 363 scale: background bitmap. rows and columns of control points on surface. deselect all objects. 182. 365. next control point in u-direction. meshes. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 137. 372 SelPrev command. 371 SelMeshes command. 379. 366. 363 SaveWS command. invert. 365 ScaleNU command. 126 scripting:. 373 SelUV command. 370. 335. 125. 309. 370 SelID command. by layer. toolbar layout. 373. 377. 339. 369. 369 SelCurves command. 24. 136. objects in two dimensions. 372 SelPolylines command. objects in one direction. 372 SelNone command. 136. 262. 368. 369 SelCurve command. 372 SelPoint command. 369. 125. 75 Select Points toolbar. coordinates of points. 335. surfaces. 303. 178. 373 SelPt command. row of control points in udirection. 369. 288. 366. objects. 361. 309. 366 ScaleTrace command. 370 SelDup command. 363 SaveSmall command. 368 SelectID command. 371 SelName command. 368. 368. 262. objects by name. 366 scale:. 367. 367 screen:.0 Command Reference shortcut. 181. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. move and rotate. 308. by object ID. 354. 372 SelGroup command. 364. toolbar layout as different name. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 375 Select toolbar. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 183. 137. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 373 SelSurface command. 103. 370 SelLayer command. 364. IGES. front construction plane. dimensions. 371. next control point in v-direction. objects for render preview. 367 SelAll command. 368 SelCrossing command. add previous control point in u-direction. points objects. 67 Sect command. construction plane origin. 25. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 90 Select Color dialog box. 383. 367 Section command. objects by layer number. 362. 367. 371. 368 SelColor command. 370. 25. 363 SaveView command. 369 SelCrv command. 367. 376. 50. layers from list. 367. 364. 370. objects to unlock. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 371 SelLight command. 339. 372 SelSolids command. previous control point in vdirection. 24. polylines. 252. 373 SelPts command. 230. 129 scripting tools. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 183. VBScript. 363 Save command. polysurfaces. 364. 25. 24 SelectLayer command. 373 SelPolyline command. 374 SelV command. 364 Scale toolbar. 376. 182. construction plane to zaxis. 374. 370 SelDups command. previous control point in udirection. with mouse method. 372. rotate and move on surface. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 138. 373 SelSurfaces command. 258. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 367 SelBadObjects command. 137. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 372. construction plane with 3 points. 184. 259. 138. 126. 362 save:. digitizing scale. in shaded viewport. 335. construction plane to previously used. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 376. 373. 246. 371 SelLights command. construction plane to object. 303. construction plane origins to a point. 258. 372. 370. 371. 2. spotlights. 372 SelSrf command. 460 . 415. 373. connected points. 370 selection menu. 369 SelDim command. 383. objects instead of control points. 375 SelWindow command. construction plane vertical. 363 SaveWSAs command.

94. 378 SetObjectName command. 3. 42 SLC file exchange. 385 ShowGrev command. 383. 3 Points. 400 ShowTitle command. 383. 242. 5. 241. to a point object. 80. 386 ShowSelected command. 318. 125. right construction plane. hidden objects. 23. 382. 2. 381 shade: continuous. 337. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 392. z-buffer. 384 ShowCamera command. printer. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 94. 383 ShadeOptions command. 376 SetGridSnap command. broken edges. 184. 425 Shade1 command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 184. 2. 83. 78. curve on polygon mesh. 385. 81. scripting tools. display context menu. 207 SetSnap command. control points. 409 set:. 2. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 184. 178. 78. 386 ShowPt command.Rhino 2. 425 Shade command. x-axis. 409 ShowToolbar command. 206. 42 Smooth command. 318. to a knot. 84. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 182. 80. OpenGL. 323. 218. 426 ShowAll command. 409. 386. 23. bitmap in a separate window. 376. viewports. Top. 250 SetLayer command. 246. 357. 389 Sketch command. 84. 242. 181. 182. 383. 81. perspective angle. 183. options. with wireframe. z-axis. toolbar. 184. 92. 220. 388. 94. 184. 382. 379. 206. to an object. to construction plane. 298. change size.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. hidden control points. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 387 sketch: curve. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 182. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. naked edges. top construction plane. 380. 77. 220 ShowGrid command. 386. 385. 381. 385 ShowPoints command. 183. 381 set construction plane. 181. 181. by key. 379 SetPt command. 386 ShowPts command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 339. 337. 242. handlebars. 5. 382 ShadeAll command. 355. 381. spotlight hotspot. 391. 79. 387 silhouette curves. 363. 212. continuous shaded mode. 383 Shift key. 385 ShowOsnap command. 339 ShowEdges command. 382. 183. 384. 2. 379 SetOrtho command. shortcuts. 380 Settings command. 140. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 377. 383 ShadeSelected command. 78 461 . 245 ShowMenu command. 84. 82. 343. onto a curve. 76. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 377 SetLayerToObject command. project object snaps to construction plane. 318 SetPlanar command. 242. 162. 383 shear objects. 322. 273 SLA export. 2. 21 Shear command. 173 ShowCV command. with grid. 388 sketch:. 355. 386 Silhouette command. 119. 183. from a point. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 389 skinning. edit points. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 318. turn off object snaps. flat in one viewport. selected objects in all viewports. built-in aliases. continuous in perspective view. 379 SetPts command. along a line tangent to a curve. 338 shortcuts. to the midpoint of a curve. 376. to the view. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 376 SetGLShade command. 92. 390 smooth curve or surface. 218. 119 ShowToolbox command. 388. 182. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 241. 74. 261. near a curve. 2. edges of surface or polysurface. object. 380 SetGroupName command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 79. 390 snap: along a line. 78. 264. 119 ShowTrace command. 250. on surface. perpendicular to a curve. 95. curve with digitizer. 382. 250. selected hidden objects. 133. 376. 426 Show command. to the end of a curve. to the intersection of two curves. options. 96. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. toggle object snaps. 94. 5 shine in rendering. 78. tangent to a curve. 377 SetHotspot command. 384. with no smoothing on mesh. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. to next used. keys. to the center of a circle. toggle OpenGL mode. 386. to previously used. 184. 359. 246. 183. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 153. 183. 4 Shift+PageDown. 92. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 381 shade:. 120. 212. 218. 384. 339. in all viewports. 384. 80. 79. 125 show: background bitmap. 383 shadow. grid. 385. selected objects. 362 Set View toolbar. 220. by function. to a surface. 387 SimplifyCurve command. flat in all viewports. 383 ShadedViewport command. 241. 82. working directory. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 79. 98. Right. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 206. 76. 84. 246. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. pane. 181. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 183. 183. 389. 183. 385. Osnap toolbar. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 98. midway between two points. 5 Shift+PageUp. 119. 384 show:. 244. flat with grid. 298. 261. to surface isoparm. vertical. 382 shaded display. 81.

401. 278. 406. 391. Boolean union. sweep along path. 392. 133. 238. 115. 395. 157. 393 Spiral command. 200. 166. 338. 401. minimum radius of curvature. 240. 160. 330. 399. 22 support. 247. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 372. offset. 273. 407. 399. 284. 90 status bar. 307. 133. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 395 split:. 133. plane. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. box. 238. 135. 320. 320. 35. 344. 243 Surface toolbar. 223. develop. 288. match. 316. by diameter. skin. 426 surface analysis:. 158. 201. 306. 279. 133 sphere. 409. 82. 218. 217. 133. unroll. 190. 395. 284. 2. 171. for rendering. 233. 396. 392 Sphere toolbar. 160. 273. 290. 321. 334 spacebar. 42. 364 SubCrv command. 324. 153. extend. 371 Spotlight command. 19. change degree. 396. 68 Softimage plug-in. 430 startup commands. hotspot. truncated cone. 324. 84 snap:. 286. 302. 355. 386. 202. 190. 216. 201. 132. 241. turn on or off. 284. untrim. 391 snap mode. 421. 273. 250. 295. 399 SrfPts command. 340. cone. 398. 324. 344. 113. 15. X_T file export. 400 SubCurve command. 309 SrfBlend command. 16. 236. 317. 250. 277. 255 split: edge of a surface. 275. merge. select all. 165. 306. 234. panes. 373. draw curve through control points. chamfer. 238. 233. X_T file export. 126 Stretch command. 325. 3. 402. 192. 395. reparameterize. reverse direction. 153. 414. 391. 399 SrfPoints command. 240. rule. 277. 90. 295 Sphere command. 163. 385. 339. 240 solid:. 192. 218. 92. 173. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 249. 361. 223. 393 Sphere2Pts. 298. 69 Solid Edge. 426 462 . select all. developable. 395. 157. IGES file exchange. 398. plane vertical to construction plane. 400 StatusBar command. 103. 69. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 288. viewport vertically. 237. extrude curve to point. 42 Stereograms. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 238. 92. 394 spline. 360. 5. from curve network. 236. extract from polysurface. patch. 228. 287. 192. 114. torus. 243. 413. 162. extrude into solid. 354. 393 SphereD command. 200. periodic. 251. 273. 70. 84.Rhino 2. 42 StopScript command. 154. 69. 372. 173. 397 SplitEdge command. rebuild. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. toggle. 238. 229. 396 SplitSrf command. 2. 160 summary information. 306. 317. 163. 229. 198. from three points. 396. 398. 393. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. export object properties to. extrude curve along path. 285. 240. 366. 288. ellipsoid. 372. 157. 399. 104. 411 SolidWorks. 105 surface normal. 288. 281. 328. loft. 247. 262. 406. hide backfacing control points. 203. 273. blend. select all. 298. 180. 410. toolbar. make periodic. 406. 373. 247. 324. 397. 236. 380. 398. 401. 355. 192 Surface menu. center. 38 Solid toolbar. from planar curves. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 153. 166. 416. 83. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 163. cylinder. display. 192. mean curvature. 78. 160. 380. 284 SrfMerge command. 216. 399 SrfSum command. trim. 189. 243. 386. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 70. 236. 161. 114. 173. create variable radius fillet between. 325. 396. 392. 182. from 3 or 4 curves. 428. 392 SnapToLocked command. 298. 371. 96. 380 snap to locked objects. sweep two rails. 229. 15. 398. polygon mesh. 411. from grid of control points. 165. from heightfield bitmap. 229 SrfAlign command. 400 STEP file exchange. 277. 320. tube. file exchange. 354. 402. 68 solid: Boolean difference. shortcuts. drape. 162. make nonperiodic. 399. 423 STL:. maximum radius of curvature. 2. 233. cap planar ends. box from three points. 393 sphere:. 132. comma-delimited file export. 1. 391. 276. 76. 165. plane from three points. viewport horizontally. 352. 377. 400. 161. 410. 84 Softimage file exchange. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. split. 79. 249. create. 392. 88. 410. 159. 164. tolerance. 161. 340. Booleans. 101. 367. 160. IGES file exchange. 242. 398 spotlight:. 426 STL: ascii tag. 307. 238. extrude. 36. baseball sphere. 42. 417. 317. 384. 281. 80. 416. 398. 398 SrfCV command. 166. 118. 162. 81. 288 SrfPointGrid command.0 Command Reference Snap command. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 281. 392. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 393 Sphere2Pt. 324. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 307. 399 SrfPt command. 426. 38. 164. 223. 416. 35. 393. 189. 417. 356. 398 spreadsheet. revolved. surface at isoparms. 164. 201. 281. 421. 392. 224. 236. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 429. 251. 348. 289. 238 Standard toolbar. 381. 392. from 3 or 4 points. 189 SrfMatch command. 344. 133. 216. 317. 417. 4. 382. 10. cutting plane. 218. Boolean intersection. 38 SortPoints command. 397 Split command. 385. 409 SnapSize command. 313. 261. 10. from grid of points. one object with another. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. create fillet between. 417 surface:. 263. 361. turn on or off. 38. pipe. 94.

3-D Digitizing. Background Bitmap. 218. 401. 362. 151. 419. 125. Dimensions. BMRT Materials. 331. 39. 322. persistent object snaps. 232. 218. 400. 398. 121. 71 Swap. 257. 363. change name. 134. 307. 374. create cascading toolbar. 231. 168. 178. 257. 189. 409 TiltLeft command. Curve From Object. 84. 400. 194. 124. CPlane View. open. perspective view on and off. 255. 230. Array. 245. 293. 156. 163. 363. 228. 247. 303. 367. save. 317. 123 Toolbars. 120 tolerance. 22. unlink flyout. 215. 124. 164. 242. 323 TCone command. 122. 192. 409. 302. 120. change button size. 346. 174. 330. 408 Text command. 124. 407. 337. 254. 366. 217. 162. 203. model size. 120. 198. edit. edit button image. 238. 267. display of menu bar. angle. 290. 148. 135. control polygon display. 171. 409 toolbar layout. 216. new toolbar. 249. 39. 361. 88. 80 TanFrom object snap. 173. 167. 243. 125. 305. properties. 428. 169. 141. 335. 401. ortho. 156. pop up with middle mouse. 330. hide flyout. 420. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 272. 420. 297. 416. 308. 420 Title command. 139. 120. 265. delete button. 120. 241. import button image. open toolbar. 39. 161. 323. 50. hide toolbar. copy. 407. 409 toggle. 125 Toolbar command. 351. 393. 426. 179. 164. control polygon highlight. 142. 195. 333. 51. 260. 205. Edge Tools. 249. 414. 149. 306. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 429. grid on and off. 165. 387. 269 Taper command. 284. 323. 165. 1. 409. display program. 344. 153. planar mode. 142. 294. 258. 260. 163. 409. 337. file location. 226. 181. 124. 213. 122. 82. 241. 185. 334. dock. 391. 121. cascade. 229. 170. 221. 256. 344. 251. 221. 400 sweep. 273. 400. Arc. 248. 362 text: annotation dot. 201. 395. 90. 359. 122. 356. 266. 119. 363. 248. 120. 387. Analyze. 122. 320. 121. 94. 226. 223. 210. 245. 138. 189. 245. 122. 417. 119. 195. 352. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. relative. 309. 364. 40. 407. 187. 119. 318. 355. 157. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 232. 145. 387. 382. 348. 166. 288. 137. 420. 379. 362. 134. 162. 340. two rails. 73 template. 169. save layout as different name. planar curves. 141. 185. 22. 212. 367. 386. 389. Box. 330. 391. 125. 308. title bar on or off. 388. 168. new button. 208. 425. 119. 368. 135. 231. 179. 407. 72 technical support. 123. 323. 124. 149. 407 text:. 122. float toolbar. 401. 322. 134 TGA file format. display of status bar. 207. 81. world axes on or off. 269. 316. 203. 463 . 295. display of viewport title. edit bitmap icon. new file. 244. 311. 400 SwapUV command. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 379. 385. 288. 22 toolbar buttons. 409. 135. 236. 420. 121. 120. along path. 124. import from another layout. 184. 207. 200. 119. 23. 168. 402. 399. 123. 404 TAB key. 180. change. 363. 396. 323. toggle toolbar on and off. 389. viewport title. 392. 297. 168. 409. 150. 140. 409.Rhino 2. 311. 413. 215. 162. BMRT Lights toolbar. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 368. 236. 206. 390. 233. 302. 352. 409. 383. 288. 14 Tan object snap. 423. 401 Sweep2 command. 404 Sweep1 command. grid axes on or off. 407. rendering of curves. 365. 406. 377. Ellipse. 343. 220. move toolbar. 204. 205. 221. 405. 152. 187. 51. 338. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 121. 82 tangent line. 343. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 239. 123. 357. 322. 409. 281. 402 Sxtrd command. 385. move. 373. surface u and v. 292. 375. tear off flyout. display viewport. 396. 209. 221. 3-D Digitize. 90. 302. 170. 385. 339. 392. 120. 160. 269 TanLine command. 400 SwapView command. 192. 353. 410. 240. 96. 101. 272. scripting. 409. 409 TogglePerspective command. 407 Texture command. 120. 258. 144. 403. 415. 339. 212. 190. 155. 353. 397. 235. 173. 379. 371. 332. 425 Toggle34View command. 173. 245. 421. 79. 13. Extend. solids. 338. 296. definition. 415 tilt view. Diagnostics. 122. 215. Circle. 263. 121. 384. IGES export. 323. Annotate. 140. status bar on or off. rendering of edges. 352. 324. save. 381. 224. 246. 150. 123. 321. 120 ToggleToolbox command. edit annotation. 171. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 121. 121. 220. 409 title bar. 279. 256. 120. 122. 271. 411. menu bar. 420. 151. 402. 388. edit 2-dimensional. 154. 121. 330. 370. 78. 90. 197. 183. 234. 338 texture for rendering. 253. 255. 15. 288. 419. 223. 325. left. display of title bar. 394. 216. 313. 122. 338. 358. 230. 5. 15. surfaces. 177. 123. 304. 210. 425. 144. 326. 120. reshape toolbar. 220. save button image to file. 209. 400. 217. 222. 360. save. 90. 19. 372. set viewport. right.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. toolbar on and off. 342. 363. 125. 349. 222. crosshairs on and off. 185. 177. 422. 239. 172. 379. Curve Tools. 367 Thaw command. 288. 264. 281. 365. rename toolbar. delete toolbar. 230. 120. 351. 347. float icon to top of cascade. copy button. 178. 311. 328. 298. 215. 384. 198. 283. 103. clear the bitmap image. 366. 124. 148. 204. capture button image. move button. 261. 143. 187. close. 268. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 395. capture icon. 262. Curve. scaled size. 197. 405 target. programming. 208. 369. clear button image. 340. 408. 90. dragging based on view plane. 308. 404. 104. 143. 345. 136. 174. 368. 409. 124. 139. 407. 270. 259. 206. 321. 216. 336. 430. 255. 152. 92. 409. ortho mode. 384. 210. 412. 235. 182. 220. viewports. 390. 407 TextObject command. 305. 245. 123. 80. 353. snap mode. display of command prompt. 409 TiltRight command. 83. show toolbar. 400. 265. 279. 353. 179.

381. 150. 360. 295. 412 transparency in rendering. 104. 407. 154. 334. 284. 154. 421. 276. 261. 2. 256. 383. 409. 254. 185 u-direction definition. 179. 134. Flow command. 371. 137. menu bar. 308. 157. Bend command. 357. 409 Tools toolbar. 307. 140. 92. 428. 221. 244. 218. 298. 379. 249. 228. 153. 242. 123 464 . 409. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 234. 263. 138. 298. Solid Tools. 412. 429 UndoMultiple command. 2 Torus command. Rectangle. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 342. 244. 373. 202. 162. 145. 409. 173. Set CPlane. 356. 311. 88. 405. 328. 41. 229. set. Tools. 330. Mesh. 365. 368. 400. 173. 50. 347. 258. Orient command. 182. 168. 348. STL Tools. 251. 409. 148. 283. 263. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 429. 337. 363. 96. 140. 372. 403. 349. 307. 19. 171. 309. 192. 152. 281. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 293. 331.0 Command Reference 233. 383. Taper command. 296. 15 Units command. 411 turn off. Plane. 326. 258. 375. 236. 268. 338. Rotate command. 426 Turntable command. 425. 223. ProjectToCPlane command. 425. Smooth command. 203. 81. 363. 412 Twist command. 270. 247. 365. Point. menu bar. 339. SetPt command. 296. 409. 172. 358. redo. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 180. 253. 304. 203. 409. 266. 364. 355. 339. RemapCPlane command. 241. 414 UnhidePoints command. 341. Surface. 425. 208. IGES. Object Snap. 105. 409. 161. grid axes. 174. 410. 381. 398. 383. Orient3Pt command. 180. 366. 161 unit systems. 261. 351. 373. 296. 406. 162. 302. 331. 322. 412 U command. view change. 413 u-direction: move control points. 90. 416. 2. Move command. Transform. 346. 153. 349. 348. 398. 410. 233. Solid. 48. 366. 268. 410. control points. 386. 364. 173. trimmed surfaces. 262. 339. 228. Sphere. 262. 357. 265. 267. 311. 335. grid. 92 Trim command. Render. 251. 148. 357. 172. Extrude. 245. 393. 153. 412 Transform toolbar. 190. 348. 414 Ungroup objects. 422. 351. 308. Scale1D command. 408. 413.Rhino 2. 330. 372. 415 units systems. 173. 92. command. 203. shrink to trim boundary. control points on selected objects. 259. 154. 240. 277. 245. 323. 391. 261. 108. 358. 304. 229. 311. 364. 375. 180. 201. 368. 395. 260. ArraySrf command. 134. along a line. 300. Surface Tools. 135. 353. 152. 366. autosave. 101. 409. in text. 100. 398. 173. shortcut. 263. POV Materials. 240. 150. 321. 239. 261. 379. 19. 406 Tube command. 425 turn on. 154. OpenGL. 307. 108. 94. 133. 103. 365. 382. 343. options. 386. 345. 290. 90. command line. 180. title bar. 149. 50. 220. 386 Unicode fonts. 352. 229. 203. 362. 140. 262. 396. Polygon. 318. 102. 413. 413. 392. 416 UnGhost command. 135. 244. 249. 148. 288. 386 troubleshooting. 339. 162. 236. 82. 309. 318. 390. 83. 305. 253. 173. 214. 423. status bar. 96. Organic. 414 UndoSelected command. 355. 364. 366. 273. 243. 348. 420. 386. 386. 309. 339. 365. layer. 410 trim:. 229. 104. 245. 399. 307. 292. 382. 349. 288. 338. 113. 339. 409. 384. rendering. 395. 229. along a line tangent to a curve. 88. OrientOnSrf command. 413. 342. 183. 51. 337. 294. 404. 359. 224. 420. 88. 131 transform: Array command. 298. 151. 306. Fillets and chamfers. 251. 140. 377. 149. File. 94. 399. world axes. 142. Microscribe. Booleans. 151. 400. 263. 90. 73 union. Layer. 307. 321. 308. 82. 338. 19. control points. 101. 172. 367. 373. 349. 333. 344. Twist command. 425. Mass Properties. 49. 244. 316. Select. Select Points. 390. 309. 338. 264. 246. 358. 166. 343. 16. Scale2D command. 396. 415 Ungroup command. 245. 338. 374. 296. 429 Undo command. Set View. 82 tracking line. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 200. 236. Surface Analysis. 311. 275. 308. 326. 313. 390. 330. 92. 324. 245. 414. 330. 342. 160. 402. 385. 317. Viewport Layout. 309. 425. 370. Mirror command. 219. 194. 357. 236. 369. 181. 356 u-direction:. 357. 412. 339. 386. 161. 41. 429. 180. 361. 379. 414. 417. 348. 423. world axes. 184. 413 undo:. 405. 203. 339. 165. 249. 15 truncated cone. 238. 220. 96. 349. 365. ScaleNU command. 255. Visibility. Lines. Rotate3D command. 417. 213. Scale. 263. 357. 410 TraceBitmap command. 296. 244. 317. 338. 243. 400. shortcuts. 245. 379. 263. 307. 249. 303. 365. 101. 171. 269. 259. 1. 136. 210. 203 trimmed surfaces. 240. 135. 271. 92. Copy command. 262. 348. Scale command. 79. ArrayCrv command. 332. 323. 205. 204. 2. 333. 352. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 2. 361. 236. 172. 302. 358. POV Lights. 141. layers. all layers. 153. layer. 164. 414 unfold a surface. 296. 415. 148. 367. 427. status bar. Shear command. IGES export type details. 386. 392. 103. 299. 401. 148. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 167. 288. Main. 339. 339. 84. 397. 345. 384. 288. autosave. 361. 430. 208. 48. 297 u-direction curves. 155. 249. 2. pop up at cursor. 417. 405. 273. 161. command line. 216. 336. 362. Standard. 83. 206. 355. 218. Surface 2. 83. 198. 229. 142. 94. Point Editing. 203. 415 Toolbox command. 412 transform:. 321 track. title bar. 173. reverse. grid axes. 356. 290. 90. definition. 363. 409 top view. IGES export file types. 325. 424. 399. 409 Top command. 80. 154. 262. 324. 180. 82. 16. Boolean. 383. 384. 334. 338. 288. 238. OrientPerpToCrv command. 182. 90. 405. 190. 374. ArrayPolar command. 288. 78. Geometry Fix. 377. 390. 99. 358. 400. 322. 212. grid.

323. 153. set bottom view. 297 v-direction curves. 318. 400. 271. 338 wireframe display. 323. 376 Wallpaper command. 184 VDA file exchange. pan. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 198. 325. zoom window. 430. 336. 304. 357. construction plane right. 23. zoom all to the same scale. 325 Vrbf command. copy to all. 132. perspective view. 360.Rhino 2. zoom in. 377. 23. 249. 273. wireframe viewport. 318. 428. 409. 421 VolumeMoments command. place target. 379 Weld command. 322. isoparm. 131 vertical. 304. zoom extents in all viewports. 313. 250 What command. 429. reverse. 428 Windows Clipboard. zoom extents in one viewport. rotate right. 313. 425 WMF file export. properties. target. 415 visibility:. 271. 383. set to wireframe display. continuously rotate. 420. 303. read named from file. three viewports. set maximized by name. 376. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 422 weight:. 416 UpDeg command. 181. display. 318. 409. 419. 322. object snaps. construction plane back. 288. 273. 43 v-direction: move control points. 420 viewport title menu. 162. 322. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 338. 397. 430. 420. shade. 288. 347 VRML file export. 318. set active by name. 11 user input in script. 356 v-direction:. 347 view: back view. 419. rotate left. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 153. 126 Vline command. 397. 384. 386. 417 Untrim command. 162. 416 untrim a surface. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 400 viewport properties. 400. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 397. 420. 244. camera. set viewport. next ortho active. 430. 343. construction plane bottom. hide back. set all to match. 343. new. 404 visibility: control points. 429. 288. 404. 425 ViewportProperties command. 172. 135. 190. 325. 96. 212. 313. 409. 430. object. 343. create from surface. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 24. 249. 429 viewport layout:. 415 Visual Basic script. zoom extents. restore named. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 135. swap viewports. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. pan right. 302. control point. 425. 429. 249. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 302. 271 Volume command. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. with mouse. 430. 298. front view. 273. 417 unwrap a surface. zoom window. 384. 405. swap. 425 wireframe:. tilt left. 302. 190. 415. 24. tilt right. 172. 303. pan left. move next to top. 379. 163. 264. set top view. 415 UnLock command. 90 window selection. save named. 423 wetted surface area. 421 VRectangle command. 419. synchronize. 288. pan up. 264. 250. 153. pan down. 181. 244. 45 viewport: bring to top. 357. 51 weight: edit control point. rotate. 323. right view. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 383. control points. 244. edit named. 185. 429. 304. 386. menu. set left view. 360. 321. 54 vertex. 419. 298. next perspective active. 429. 360. 360. 162. 347. 131. 420 views. 429. set density. 429. 386. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. zoom extents selected. 336. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 376. 90. 423 weld:. set front view. 355. maximize viewport. 415 unlock:. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 318. 419. 168 465 . 304. 302. 415 UnLockSelected command. 430. 224. zoom. 384. top view. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 322. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 423. plan view. read from file. 323. split vertical. 360. bottom view. 264. 168. 313. set perspective view. 132. 343. 343. 430 viewport:. 376. 134 VBscript. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. make previous active. 96. 400. set right view. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. construction plane front. 430 view:. lock objects. 419. 250 water plane area. set back view. 412.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 162. 135. 355. 24. construction plane left. zoom window and set a target point. 336. 314. 313. 25. print. rectangle. 190. 3 window:. show control points. 420 ViewportTitle command. place camera and target. 2. left view. 404. 135. 425. plane. rotate down. 126 VCPlane command. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 244. 420. maximize. 409. zoom in and out by a percentage. 357. split horizontal. 428. 377. next active. 421 VPlane command. 236. zoom out. rotate up. 44 W command. 425 WireShade1 command. 415 Visibility toolbar. selected objects. 416 UnrollSrf command. check out license. 422 Weight command. 23. 363. line. set to shaded display. 409. 314. close. 165 UpDegSrf command. 415 unroll a surface. 420. 302. 135 WireframeViewport command. 357. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 185 v-direction definition. 134. 412. redraw speed. 45 workgroup: check in license. unlock objects. 1 window: select. 415 UnPackTextures command. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 397. 135. 363. 422 water level. 249. 163. create new. 264. 383. 288. 360. 153. 421 VRBSrf command. layout. 409. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export.

3. 429 ZoomIn command. 429 ZoomOut command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. check in license. 429 ZEA command. 5. 430 ZBuffer command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 130. previous view. 363 world axes. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 74 Z command. 429. 97. 430. 429. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 429 ZoomPrev command. 430 ZSA command. 2. 430 466 . 168. 429. 430 ZoomX command. open. 429. 430 Zoom command. 429 Zebra command.Rhino 2. 233 Xtra command. 428. 130 zoom: dynamic. 428. 429 ZoomP command. 96. 430 zoom window. 233 XtndF command. 426 ZM command. 430. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 2. 308.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. check out license. 425 WRL file export. extents in one viewport. 430 ZoomTarget command. 425 world coordinates. save as different name. 96. 428. 44 X_T file export. 217 ZBufferPts command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 3 zoom:. 168. 38 XtndB command. 168 workgroup:. 429. 2. 428. 430 ZoomWindow command. 428 Zoo. 2. 425. 429 ZoomMouse command. save. 430 ZP command. in and out by a percentage. 308. 3. 389 ZBufferSrf command. toggle display. 4. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 430. window. 428 ZoomNext command. 425. 428 ZoomExtents command. 363. options. set colors. window and set a new target point. 381 workspace. extents in all viewports. 168 working directory. 216 ZE command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. out. in. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 430. 11 WorldAxes command. 4. 429 ZS command. 363.

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