P. 1
Command Ref a4

Command Ref a4

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Published by: Oana_2510 on Nov 07, 2011
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12/14/2012

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Sections

  • Welcome to Rhinoceros
  • Why Rhinoceros?
  • Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Help
  • Shortcuts
  • Built-in aliases
  • Coordinate points
  • Enter construction plane coordinates
  • Enter world coordinates
  • UseWCSCoordinates
  • UseCPlaneCoordinates
  • Enter relative coordinates
  • Enter polar coordinates
  • Enter relative polar coordinates
  • Modeling aids
  • Elevator mode
  • Use Tab to constrain along a line
  • Angle Constraint
  • Distance Constraint
  • Toggle crosshairs on and off
  • Trimmed surfaces
  • Document properties
  • Document Properties dialog box, Dimensions tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Grid tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Notes tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render Mesh tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Summary tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Units tab
  • Viewport layout
  • Select objects
  • Selecting parts of objects
  • Import and export file types
  • Rhino 1.0 file exchange
  • 3D Studio file exchange
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange
  • RemoveFlippedNormals
  • ACIS file export
  • Adobe Illustrator file exchange
  • Applied Geometry file exchange
  • AutoCAD DWG file exchange
  • AutoCAD DXF file exchange
  • AutoCAD export options
  • Export object properties
  • GHS file export
  • Lightwave file exchange
  • Moray UDO Export
  • Parasolid X_T file export
  • RenderMan RIB export
  • POV-Ray export
  • Raw Triangle file exchange
  • SLC file exchange
  • STEP file exchange
  • STL file exchange
  • VDA file exchange
  • VRML file export
  • Viewpoint Technologies file export
  • Windows Metafile file export
  • DirectX file exchange
  • Moldex
  • PostScript file exchange
  • IGES file exchange
  • Troubleshooting IGES import
  • Edit IGES export types
  • Edit IGES export type details
  • OBJ (Wavefront) file export
  • IGES polygon mesh export
  • IGES Types
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange
  • Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange
  • Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange
  • AUTOFORM IGES file exchange
  • AutoShip IGES file exchange
  • Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange
  • CADCEUS IGES file exchange
  • CamSoft IGES file exchange
  • CATIA IGES file exchange
  • Cosmos/M IGES file exchange
  • Delcam IGES file exchange
  • FastShip IGES file exchange
  • FastSURF IGES file exchange
  • IronCAD IGES file exchange
  • Integrity Ware IGES file exchange
  • LUSAS IGES file exchange
  • Mastercam IGES file exchange
  • Maya IGES file exchange
  • ME30 IGES file exchange
  • Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange
  • Microstation IGES file exchange
  • Multisurf IGES file exchange
  • NASA GridTool IGES file exchange
  • Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange
  • OptiCAD IGES file exchange
  • Pro/E IGES file exchange
  • SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange
  • Softimage IGES file exchange
  • Solid Edge IGES file exchange
  • Solid Designer IGES file exchange
  • SolidWorks IGES file exchange
  • SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange
  • SURFCAM IGES file exchange
  • Tebis IGES file exchange
  • TekSoft IGES file exchange
  • Unigraphics IGES file exchange
  • Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange
  • Context menu
  • Select Color
  • Object snaps
  • Osnap
  • NoSnap
  • End object snap
  • Near object snap
  • Point object snap
  • Mid object snap
  • Cen object snap
  • Int object snap
  • Perp object snap
  • Tan object snap
  • Quad object snap
  • Knot object snap
  • From object snap
  • PerpFrom object snap
  • TanFrom object snap
  • Along object snap
  • AlongParallel object snap
  • OnSrf object snap
  • ProjectOsnap
  • Between
  • OnCrv object snap
  • SnapToLocked
  • Object properties
  • Object Properties, Object tab
  • Object Properties, Dimensions tab
  • Object Properties, Light tab
  • Edit light object properties
  • Object Properties, Material tab
  • Object Properties, Text tab
  • Options dialog box
  • Options dialog box, Aliases tab
  • Options dialog box, Appearance tab
  • Options dialog box, Files tab
  • Options dialog box, General tab
  • Options dialog box, Keyboard tab
  • Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab
  • Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
  • Options dialog box, Shade tab
  • Options dialog box, View tab
  • Shade
  • Render
  • Troubleshoot rendering
  • Troubleshoot OpenGL
  • Layers
  • Layer materials
  • Select Layers
  • Create a new layer
  • Rename a layer
  • Change the color of a layer
  • Delete a layer
  • Filter the layer display list
  • Surfaces through a sequence of curves
  • Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers
  • Troubleshoot Booleans
  • Edit the Rhino.ini file
  • Toolbars
  • Close a toolbar
  • HideToolbar
  • Open a toolbar
  • ShowToolbar
  • ToggleToolbar
  • Move a toolbar
  • Dock a toolbar
  • Float a toolbar
  • Reshape a toolbar
  • Rename a toolbar
  • Import a toolbar from another layout file
  • Change toolbar name or button size
  • Create a new toolbar
  • Delete a toolbar
  • Create a flyout toolbar
  • Flyout a toolbar
  • Hide a flyout toolbar
  • Tear off a flyout toolbar
  • Manage toolbar buttons
  • Move a toolbar button
  • Delete a toolbar button
  • Copy a toolbar button
  • Create a floating flyout button
  • Unlink a flyout toolbar
  • Customize toolbar buttons
  • Create a new toolbar button
  • Change the toolbar button tooltip
  • Programming the toolbar button functions
  • Customize toolbar button bitmap icons
  • Clear the bitmap image
  • Draw or edit a bitmap icon
  • Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon
  • Import a bitmap from another source
  • Save your bitmap to a file
  • Scripting tools
  • VBScript and JScript
  • 3-D digitizing
  • Diagnostics
  • Error messages
  • Scripting Rhino Installers
  • Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo)
  • Rhino plug-ins
  • Glossary
  • Commands
  • 34View
  • 3DFace
  • 3View
  • 4View
  • AddNextU
  • AddNextV
  • AddPrevU
  • AddPrevV
  • AddToGroup
  • AlignBackgroundBitmap
  • AlignProfiles
  • AllCPlanesThroughPt
  • AllLayersOn
  • Angle
  • ApplyCrv
  • ApplyMesh
  • Arc3Pt
  • ArcDir
  • ArcSER
  • ArcTTR
  • Area
  • AreaCentroid
  • AreaMoments
  • Array
  • ArrayCrv
  • ArrayCrvOnSrf
  • ArrayPolar
  • ArraySrf
  • Arrow
  • Arrowhead
  • AssignBlankTexture
  • Audit
  • Autosave
  • Back
  • Baseball
  • BaseballEllipsoid
  • Bend
  • Bisector
  • Blend
  • BlendSrf
  • BooleanDifference
  • Boolean difference
  • Boolean Difference
  • BooleanIntersection
  • Boolean intersection
  • BooleanUnion
  • Boolean Union
  • Bottom
  • BoundingBox
  • Box3Pt
  • BringViewportToTop
  • Chamfer
  • ChamferSrf
  • ChangeDegree
  • ChangeDegreeSrf
  • ChangeLayer
  • ChangeToCurrentLayer
  • Check
  • CheckInLicense
  • CheckOutLicense
  • Circle
  • Circle3Pt
  • CircleD
  • CircleTTR
  • CircleTTT
  • ClearAllMeshes
  • ClearUndo
  • CloseDisplayWindow
  • ClosestPt
  • CloseViewport
  • CommandHistory
  • CommandPaste
  • CommandPrompt
  • Cone
  • Conic
  • ConicPerp
  • Continuity
  • Contour
  • ControlPolygon
  • ControlPolygon on
  • ControlPolygonDensity
  • ControlPolygonHighlight
  • ConvertToBeziers
  • ConvertToPolyline
  • Copy
  • CopyClip
  • CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll
  • CopyCPlaneToAll
  • CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard
  • CopyViewToAll
  • CPlane3Pt
  • CPlaneElevation
  • CPlaneFront
  • CPlaneNext
  • CPlaneOrigin
  • CplaneOriginAll
  • CPlanePerpToCrv
  • CPlanePrev
  • CPlaneRight
  • CPlaneThroughPt
  • CPlaneToObject
  • CPlaneTop
  • CPlaneToView
  • CPlaneV
  • CPlaneX
  • CPlaneZ
  • CreateUVCrv
  • Crv2View
  • CrvDeviation
  • CrvEnd
  • CrvSeam
  • CrvStart
  • CrvThroughSrfControlPt
  • CSec
  • CullControlPolygon
  • Curvature
  • CurvatureAnalysis
  • CurvatureGraphOff
  • CurvatureGraphOn
  • CurvatureSrf
  • Curve
  • CutArea
  • CutAreaCentroid
  • CutAreaMoments
  • CutPlane
  • CutVolume
  • CutVolumeCentroid
  • CutVolumeMoments
  • Cylinder
  • Delete
  • Delete control points on curves
  • DeleteAll
  • DetachTrim
  • DigCalibrate
  • DigClick
  • DigDisconnect
  • DigPause
  • DigScale
  • DigSection
  • DigSketch
  • DigSpacing
  • DimAligned
  • DimAngle
  • DimDiameter
  • DimHorizontal
  • DimOptions
  • DimRadius
  • DimRecenterText
  • DimRotated
  • DimVertical
  • DirectionalLight
  • DisableOsnap
  • DisplayBitmap
  • Distance
  • Divide
  • DivideByLength
  • DocumentProperties
  • Domain
  • DraftAngleAnalysis
  • DragMode
  • Drape
  • DrapePt
  • DupBorder
  • DupEdge
  • DynamicShading
  • DynamicShadingPerspective
  • EdgeSrf
  • EditDim
  • EditPtOn
  • EditText
  • Ellipse
  • EllipseD
  • Ellipsoid
  • EMap
  • EndBulge
  • EndBulgeSrf
  • Enter
  • Erase
  • EvaluatePt
  • EvaluateUVPt
  • Exit
  • Explode
  • ExplodeMesh
  • Export
  • ExportCommandAliases
  • ExportWithOrigin
  • Extend
  • ExtendByArc
  • ExtendByArcToPt
  • ExtendByLine
  • ExtendCrvOnSrf
  • ExtendSrf
  • ExtractControlPolygon
  • ExtractIsoparm
  • ExtractPt
  • ExtractSrf
  • ExtractWireframe
  • Extrude
  • ExtrudeAlongCrv
  • ExtrudeSrf
  • ExtrudeToPt
  • Fair
  • Faro
  • Fillet
  • FilletEdge
  • FilletSrf
  • FitCrv
  • FlatShade
  • FlatShade1
  • FlatShadeAll
  • FlattenSrf
  • Flip
  • Flow
  • Front
  • GCon
  • Grid
  • GridAxes
  • GridOptions
  • GridSections
  • GridSize
  • GridThick
  • Group
  • HBar
  • Heightfield
  • Helix
  • Hide
  • HideBackgroundBitmap
  • HideOsnap
  • HidePt
  • HideSwap
  • Hotspot
  • Hydrostatics
  • Import
  • ImportCommandAliases
  • Improve
  • IncrementalSave
  • Insert
  • InsertEditPoint
  • InsertKink
  • InsertKnot
  • InsertLineIntoCrv
  • InterpCrv
  • InterpCrvOnSrf
  • InterpPolyline
  • Intersect
  • Invert
  • InvertPt
  • Join
  • JoinEdge
  • JoinMesh
  • JoinSrf
  • LabelCurveEndpoints
  • Lasso
  • LayerLock
  • LayerOff
  • LayerOn
  • Leader
  • Left
  • Length
  • Line
  • Line4Pt
  • LineAngle
  • LinearizeTrims
  • LinePerp
  • LinePP
  • Lines
  • LineTan
  • LineTP
  • LineTT
  • LineV
  • List
  • LoadPlugin
  • LoadScript
  • Lock
  • LockSwap
  • Loft
  • Make2D
  • MakeCrvPeriodic
  • MakeSrfNonPeriodic
  • MakeSrfPeriodic
  • Match
  • MatchLayer
  • MatchSrf
  • Maximize
  • MaxViewport
  • Menu
  • MergeEdge
  • MergeSrf
  • Mesh
  • MeshBox
  • MeshCone
  • MeshCylinder
  • Mesh cylinder
  • MeshDensity
  • MeshPlane
  • MeshPolyline
  • MeshSphere
  • MeshToNurb
  • Minimize
  • Mirror
  • Move
  • MoveBackgroundBitmap
  • MoveUVN
  • Mscribe
  • NamedCPlane
  • NamedView
  • NetworkSrf
  • NewViewport
  • NextOrthoViewport
  • NextPerspectiveViewport
  • NextU
  • NextV
  • NextViewport
  • NextViewportToTop
  • Normal
  • Notes
  • Note
  • Offset
  • OffsetSrf
  • OneLayerOff
  • OneLayerOn
  • Open
  • OpenWorkspace
  • Options
  • Orient
  • Orient3Pt
  • OrientCrvToEdge
  • OrientOnSrf
  • OrientPerpToCrv
  • Ortho
  • OrthoAngle
  • PackTextures
  • PanDown
  • PanLeft
  • PanRight
  • PanUp
  • Parabola
  • Paraboloid
  • Paste
  • Patch
  • Pause
  • Perspective
  • PerspectiveAngle
  • PerspectiveMatch
  • PictureFrame
  • Pipe
  • PlaceBackgroundBitmap
  • PlaceCameraTarget
  • PlaceTarget
  • Plan
  • Planar
  • PlanarSrf
  • Plane
  • Plane3Pt
  • PlaneThroughPt
  • PlaneV
  • PluginManager
  • Point
  • Point filters
  • PointCloudSection
  • PointDeviation
  • PointGrid
  • PointLight
  • Points
  • PointsAtNakedEdges
  • PointsFromUV
  • Polygon
  • PolygonEdge
  • Polyline
  • PolylineOnMesh
  • PolylineThroughPt
  • PopupMenu
  • PopupToolbar
  • PrevU
  • PrevV
  • PrevViewport
  • Print
  • PrintSetup
  • Project
  • Projection
  • ProjectToCPlane
  • Properties
  • PtOff
  • PtOffSelected
  • PtOn
  • Pull
  • PushViewportToBack
  • Radius
  • RailRevolve
  • ReadCommandFile
  • ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile
  • ReadNamedViewsFromFile
  • ReadViewportsFromFile
  • Rebuild
  • RebuildEdges
  • RebuildSrf
  • Rectangle
  • Rectangle3Pt
  • RectangleCen
  • RectangleV
  • Redo
  • RedoMultiple
  • ReduceMesh
  • RefreshShade
  • RemapCPlane
  • RemoveBackgroundBitmap
  • RemoveFromGroup
  • RemoveKnot
  • RemoveMultiKnotSrf
  • RemoveWallpaper
  • Remove wallpaper
  • RenderAGEdges
  • RenderCrv
  • RenderEdges
  • RenderOptions
  • RenderPreview
  • Render preview
  • RenderPreviewAll
  • RenderPreviewSelected
  • RenderPreviewSelectedAll
  • ReparameterizeSrf
  • Restore
  • RestoreCPlane
  • RestoreView
  • Revolve
  • RevU
  • RevV
  • Ribbon
  • Right
  • Rotate
  • Rotate3D
  • RotateCamera
  • RotateCameraDown
  • RotateCameraLeft
  • RotateCameraRight
  • RotateCameraUp
  • RotateCPlane
  • RotateDown
  • RotateLeft
  • RotateRight
  • RotateUp
  • RotateView
  • RunScript
  • Save
  • SaveAs
  • SaveAsTemplate
  • SaveCPlane
  • SaveDisplayWindowAs
  • SaveSmall
  • SaveView
  • SaveWorkspace
  • SaveWorkspaceAs
  • Scale
  • Scale1D
  • Scale2D
  • ScaleBackgroundBitmap
  • ScaleNU
  • ScreenCaptureToClipboard
  • ScreenCaptureToFile
  • ScreenCaptureToFile256
  • Section
  • SelAll
  • SelBadObjects
  • SelColor
  • SelConnected
  • SelCrossing
  • SelCrv
  • SelDim
  • SelDup
  • SelGroup
  • SelID
  • SelLast
  • SelLayer
  • SelLayerNumber
  • SelLight
  • SelMesh
  • SelNakedMeshEdgePt
  • SelName
  • SelNone
  • SelPolyline
  • SelPolysrf
  • SelPrev
  • SelPt
  • SelSrf
  • SelU
  • SelUV
  • SelV
  • SelWindow
  • SetActiveViewport
  • SetCurrentRenderPlugIn
  • SetGLShade
  • SetGroupName
  • SetLayer
  • SetLayerMaterialProperties
  • SetLayerToObject
  • SetMaximizedViewport
  • SetObjectMaterial
  • SetObjectMaterialProperties
  • SetObjectName
  • SetObjectNameMultiple
  • SetOrtho
  • SetPlanar
  • SetPt
  • SetRedrawOff
  • SetRedrawOn
  • SetSnap
  • SetViewportWindowSize
  • SetWorkingDirectory
  • Shade1
  • ShadeAll
  • ShadedViewport
  • ShadeOptions
  • ShadeSelected
  • ShadeSelectedAll
  • Shear
  • Show
  • ShowBackgroundBitmap
  • ShowBrokenEdges
  • ShowCamera
  • ShowEdges
  • ShowNakedEdges
  • ShowOsnap
  • ShowPt
  • ShowSelected
  • ShrinkTrimmedSrf
  • Silhouette
  • SimplifyCrv
  • Sketch
  • SketchOnMesh
  • SketchOnSrf
  • Smooth
  • Snap
  • SnapSize
  • Sphere
  • Sphere3Pt
  • SphereD
  • Spiral
  • Split
  • SplitEdge
  • SplitSrf
  • SplitViewportHorizontal
  • SplitViewportVertical
  • Spotlight
  • SrfControlPtGrid
  • SrfPt
  • SrfPtGrid
  • StatusBar
  • SubCrv
  • SwapUV
  • SwapView
  • Sweep1
  • Sweep2
  • SynchronizeViews
  • Taper
  • TCone
  • Text
  • TextObject
  • TiltLeft
  • TiltRight
  • Title
  • ToggleOsnap
  • Toolbar
  • Torus
  • Trim
  • Tube
  • Turntable
  • Twist
  • Undo
  • UndoMultiple
  • UndoSelected
  • Ungroup
  • UnifyMeshNormals
  • Units
  • UnLock
  • UnLockSelected
  • UnpackTextures
  • UnrollSrf
  • Untrim
  • ViewCPlaneBack
  • ViewCPlaneBottom
  • ViewCPlaneFront
  • ViewCPlaneLeft
  • ViewCPlaneRight
  • ViewCPlaneTop
  • ViewportProperties
  • Viewport title
  • ViewportTitle
  • Volume
  • VolumeCentroid
  • VolumeMoments
  • VRBSrf
  • Wallpaper
  • Weight
  • Weld
  • What
  • WireframeViewport
  • WireShade1
  • WorldAxes
  • Index

Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

ii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

iii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

iv

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

v

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

vi

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

viii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

ix

0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

..................................................................................Rhino 2.. 447 xv .........................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index................................................

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. Index. To explore the related topics. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process.rhino3d. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background.rhino3d.Rhino 2. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.rhino3d. Help Access Rhino's Help file. 17 .com Web site www.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. the name stuck. see the Rhino Command List. and by the time the product was in beta testing. and Find. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. under the topic Help.com/support/faq. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file.

In parallel views like the default Top. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Front. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. drag with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P.Rhino 2. Ortho pane on the status bar. Lens length displays on status bar. click the Planar pane on the status bar. and Right view. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. F8. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Shift. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O.

0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Rotate mouse wheel. Rotate mouse wheel. PageUp. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . PageDown. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button.

Lens length displays on status bar.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. See Options dialog box. Some are designed in to be shortcuts.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

26 .Rhino 2. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.

z and press Enter. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.6. click Line. then click Single Line. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12.y plane.6. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. Note If you enter only x.and y-coordinates.0 and press Enter. y and z coordinates to place points. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.Rhino 2. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. 27 . UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.10 in the construction plane coordinates. type r2. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. then click Single Line. the point will lie on the construction plane. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type 0. enter the starting point for the line. with r prefix relative coordinates. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. type w12. type 12. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. This starts the line at the construction plane origin. type coordinates in the format: x. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. the point will lie on the world x.6. type coordinates in the format: wx. click Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the world coordinates.0.6. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. type coordinates in the format: rx.z and press Enter.y.0 and press Enter.10 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. click Line.10 and press Enter. type w0.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point.and y-coordinates. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.0.y. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.3 and press Enter. then click Single Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note If you enter only x.

type r4<45 and press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. type 4<45 and press Enter. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. click Free-form.axis) and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. click another point in the perspective viewport. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. enter the starting point for the line. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. 28 . then click Single Line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. At the Next point of curve. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. then click Interpolate Points. then click Single Line.Rhino 2. Notice the location of the marker in the other views.axis) and press Enter. click Line. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. indicating the new location of the selection set. A white tracking line will display. click a point in the perspective viewport.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. click Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Click the left mouse button to select the point. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Press Tab. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Continue with picking locations.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes.D points using 2. Or press Tab twice. release Ctrl.D. then press Ctrl and click. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. click Line. Release Ctrl. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Drag the mouse out. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. and click again. was when you pressed Tab. After starting elevator mode. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. 29 . Specifying 3. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Change viewports. then click Single Line. but only if the point can be truly 3. You can start elevator mode in another location. press Ctrl. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. negative numbers are below. From the Curves menu. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line.Rhino 2. Place the first line point. type NoElev. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode.

At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. type <60. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. Click to place the point. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle.Rhino 2. Turn on end object snap. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. click Line. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Or.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. then click Single Line. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. enter the starting point for the line. type a distance and press Enter. the marker snaps to the curve end. From the Curves menu. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

then click Single Line. enter the starting point for the line.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. Or. Click to place the point. From the Curves menu. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . type 10. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. click Line. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Click to place the point. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away.Rhino 2. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. you can turn them on. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface.

You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. this will become more clear. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. the surfaces cannot be merged. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge.Rhino 2. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. 32 . so those are the things that need to be merged.

Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units.Rhino 2. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. extension line offset distance. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line extension. Text height The text height in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. The text height. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. 33 . Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use.

Rhino 2. 34 . Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box.

Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. but may take very long to shade and render. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Custom Set the custom options. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Document Properties dialog box. Notes tab Add notes to your model. 35 . Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. This setting is scale independent. is from 1 to 100. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. This setting is scale independent. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport.Rhino 2. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. but should shade and render relatively fast. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. these settings are used. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. whenever you start a new model without a template. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. When the Refine check box is selected. and higher polygon count. Document Properties dialog box. when not zero. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. more accurate meshes. type information you want to save with the model.

polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. more accurate meshes. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Max edge length. less accurate meshes. Max dist.Rhino 2. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. 36 . Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. By default. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. After initial meshing. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. When the Refine check box is selected. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Simple planes is not selected. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. and Max dist. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. edge to Srf options. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This option is scale dependent. and higher polygon count. In practice. Setting Max dist. Refine is selected. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. The default values is 16.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. and lower polygon count. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Jagged seams is not selected.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. Min edge length. Document Properties dialog box. By default.

37 . Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. This makes the image appear smoother. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. if the shadows are turned on. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. In Rhino. use smaller shadow offset. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects.Rhino 2. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. None No shadows. use bigger shadow offset. With small objects. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. In practice. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. but also slows down rendering. With large objects. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Background Sets the color of the render background. None Each pixel is sampled once. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. In general. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows.

2centimeter(s) Meters 1. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate. For example.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. trimming surfaces.2(") 1-1/2" 1. When you change from one units to another.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.Rhino 2. or Feet & Inches. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter. Select Decimal. You can mix fractional and decimal input.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.2mic 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2c 1. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 .2mm 1. Document Properties dialog box. In those commands.2km 1.2m 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. the relative tolerance is used instead.2cm 1.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. Mils 1.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. Fractional.

and place a named viewport on top. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model.Rhino 2. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. Use defined and named views.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. 39 . You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. and use predefined viewport configurations. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. or Extents of the selected objects. rename viewports. In general.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. Zoom Window. You can create new viewports. Extents.01 to 0. step through the viewports.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Rhino 2. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0.001. You can specify which viewport is maximized. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection.01 millimeters. set multiple templates. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. Close the viewport. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.

When you make a Crossing selection. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. When you make a Window selection. 40 . Edit viewport properties. from the View menu. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. To select additional objects. Edit Grid properties. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. click Set View > Plan. Crossing. To bring all your objects into view. When the selection menu pops up. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. from the View menu.Rhino 2. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. To remove an object from a selection set. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. click Zoom Extents All. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. Select objects General Click an object to select it.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode.

no 2.Rhino 2.x file from Rhino 2. Saving 1. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. you'd get one line.x file. type a filename. but if you picked it as a boundary. press Enter or the spacebar. Sweep2). Copy. For instance if you have a plane.x files into Rhino 2. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. When object is highlighted. and you picked an edge as a curve. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. Click another object.0 If you save as a 1. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. select Rhino 1.x files from Rhino 2. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve.0 If you load a 1. Import and export file types Rhino 1. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude).0.0.x 3D models (.x file into Rhino 2. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. In the Save as type box.3dm). Sweep1. To cancel the selection process: Click None.

Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. type a name for the 3DS file. 2. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. They are not converted to NURBS. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. from the File menu. select 3D Studio. click Export Selected. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. click Save As. In the Save as type box.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. in the Files of type. In the File name box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.0 use IGES to transfer files. If no object name is defined. Click Save. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. from the File menu. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface.2. Click Open. click Import/Merge. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided.5. Or. If so. For version 3. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command.2. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1.0. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files.0. In the File name box. Or. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. type a name for the 3DS file. In the Open dialog box. select 3D Studio. click Open. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. or MAX 2.Rhino 2. 42 . To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. When building morph targets. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. 2. MAX 2.

dli. The Rhino web site at http://www. are imported in several pieces. select Rhino 3D Models. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5\plugins\" directory. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. from the Files of type box.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp.dli into your "3dsmax2. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.3dm. MAX does not export NURBS curves. use 3DS file format. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Only Spline objects get exported.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. 3DS MAX version 2. RhinoMax2imp.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. or RhinoMax25imp. or 3D Studio R4. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Now mesh your curved surfaces. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.5 File Import dialog box.0 Command Reference File formats In general.5 File menu. RhinoMax25imp. RhinoMax20imp. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface.dli. This happens because the MAX2. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.Rhino 2.dli. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. Attempt trimming? 43 .5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. In the MAX2. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. Select the 3DM file to import. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. Open 3D Studio MAX2. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino.5 plug-ins path. and RhinoMax20imp.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.dli. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.5. (3dmimp. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. This happens because MAX2.rhino3d. RhinoMax2imp.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max.dli from the directories in your MAX2. click Import. From the MAX2.5. export to a DWG.dli. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces.

dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool).5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. Select the 3DM file to import.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. The Rhino web site at http://www.5 as a single surface. To closely examine and edit MAX2. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.5 module called "ACISMAX2. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. If you answer "no. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 or 3DS DOS.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Be patient. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. 3DS MAX version 2. Given the information we have. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces.rhino3d. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. CurveCV. From the MAX2 File menu. NURBS curves: 44 . Click the MAX2.5 NURBS object. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.Rhino 2. click Import. Surface. If MAX crashes. (3dmimp. Curve. 3D Studio MAX 2. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. In general. Open 3D Studio MAX2. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. select Rhino 3D Models. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. from the Files of type box. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.0. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.dli or RhinoMax2imp. it is not possible to say what is going wrong.dli and RhinoMax2imp. Using developers tools. click the Sub-Object button.

select Rhino 3D Models. Clear the Weld control. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. 3D Studio MAX 3. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. Open 3D Studio MAX. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. In the File Import dialog box." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS.rhino3d. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. click Import. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Select the 3DM file to import. click Mesh. CurveCV. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. are imported in several pieces. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1.at/duck3.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. from the Files of type box. On December 10 1997.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool).Rhino 2. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button.1. If there is no Rhino object name. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. From the File menu.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. obj+number is used as a name. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. Some surfaces. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. 45 . Click the Sub-Object button. Surface. Curve. From the Tools menu. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates.habware. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.

5 ACIS Version: 1. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects.0 is currently not suggested.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . The options can be changed by editing the INI file. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. type a name for the file. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. In the File name box. It does not fix geometry problems. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. At the Select object prompt. select the curves and explode them. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. Using ACIS Version 5. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. Or.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. In the Save as type box. select the options for the export.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. click Export Selected. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. Click Save. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. In Rhino. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves.0 ACIS Version: 2.0 ACIS Version: 3. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. To change these into splines. click Save As. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. All of the version types export curves. select ACIS SAT. but import in as bodies.and v-direction vectors. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. from the File menu. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface.

under Scale. select a scale option. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. click Import/Merge. select Adobe Illustrator.Rhino 2.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. In the Files of type box. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Open. type a name for the AI file. In the AI Import Options dialog box. click Open.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.0 ACIS Version: 4.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. In the File name box. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. Or. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. 47 .0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. from the File menu.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.

select Adobe Illustrator. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. Under some circumstances. In the Save as type box. From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. click Save As. curves need to be refit before exporting. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Make the viewport you want to export from active. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. click Import/Merge.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Rhino only reads curve geometry. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. from the File menu. select AG. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Or. In the AI Export Options dialog box. From the File menu.0 > 8. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. type a name for the AG file. click Export Selected.5.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. In the File name box. type a name for the AG file. under Scale. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. Or. Click Open. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino.0 files. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. click Open. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view.Rhino 2. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. from the Files of type box. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Or. In some situations. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . select AG. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In the File name box. click Export Selected. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. click a scale option. type a name for the AI file. click Save As. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. Click Save.1 units from the original curve.ini. not text. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport.

In the File name box. Or. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. from the File menu.Rhino 2. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. from the File menu. From the File menu. select the options for DXF export. from the File menu. Or. OLE objects. In the File name box. select AutoCAD DXF. type a name for the DWG file. They are not converted to NURBS. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. from the File menu. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. regions. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. click Open. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. click Import/Merge. In the Files of type box. click Export Selected. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Or. Click Open. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Click Save. type a name for the DXF file. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. From the File menu. In the File name box. type a name for the DXF file. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. click Save As. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. type a name for the DWG file. Or. In the Files of type box. click Save As. select AutoCAD DWG. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. XREF's are imported. select AutoCAD DWG. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. rays. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. click Import/Merge. Object properties. select the options for DWG export. select AutoCAD DXF. Click Save. In the File name box. click Open. In the Save as type box. or anything in paperspace. Click Open. Rhino will not import images.

To break a polygon mesh into triangles. and line entities. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. 3-D curves are never simplified. arc. They are not converted to NURBS. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. regions. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. or anything in paperspace. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. you can export either polyline or spline entities. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. Rhino will not import images. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. use RAW instead. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. rays. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. or circle. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. or circle. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. arcs. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. This means if the curve is just one line. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. arc. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. circle. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes.Rhino 2. 50 . Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. curves are approximated with polylines. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. but do not properly read polyface meshes. AutoCAD line types are ignored. circles. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. export curves as splines. 2-D curves are simplified. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. OLE objects.

The larger this number. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. type a name for the file. it will be exported as such. In the File name box. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. line. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. ellipse. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. arcs. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. From the File menu. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. not the file header. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. it is exported as a simple entity.Rhino 2. and ellipses as NURBS curves. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. In the Save as type box. Use simple entities Circles. Click Save. or later DWG/DXF.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. For silhouette lines. select Object Properties (. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. arcs. ellipses. This setting uses current model units. circle. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. circle. and line entities. If the simplify tolerance is too large. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only.csv). The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. If the simplify tolerance is too small. but increase the number of polyline segments. click Export Selected. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. lines. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. line. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. or ellipse. arc.

Rhino produces one component for each shape. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. 52 .0. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. object name. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. layer color. You can give each shape the name you would like here. Rhino must approximate each polyline. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. object render color and selected mass properties. When exporting curves as polylines. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. All component origin shift is considered 0. The larger this number. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor.Rhino 2. If you have previously selected a centerline.0. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis.C). Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file.S) or only half (. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. This setting determines how the station lines are created. Each component will have the same name as the shape.

LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. They are not converted to NURBS. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000 polygon limitation. type a name for the LWO file. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Click Save. In the Save as type box. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. from the Files of type box. from the File menu. click Open. In the Save as type box. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. If the same name is used for multiple objects. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. or Windage (sail). Type Specify the part type: Displacement. Click Save. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or. In the File name box.535 points for the entire file. Moray automatically numbers the objects. from the File menu. type a name for the UDO file. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Save As. In the File name box. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name.lwo file instead of a generic name. Or.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. select Lightwave. click Export Selected. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Containment. click Save As. Object names will be used when exporting the . which does not have the 65. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select Lightwave. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the File name box. 53 . In the Open dialog box. Note Object names are supported. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. click Import/Merge. Or. The LWO file is limited to 65. Click Open. type a name for the LWO file. select Moray UDO. Each component will initially be a member of this part.

they will be ignored with no warning. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. only closed solids will be imported. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Or.0 will not read in open surfaces. 54 . they display a blank window.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. Planes are important primitives. To import the object into Moray. If the file contains open surfaces. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. In the Save as type box. Rhino creates a . from Create menu. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7.Rhino 2. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. click User Defined. surfaces. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Click Save.INC file. When you export to UDO. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. select Parasolid X_T. and curves Solid Edge 6. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception.UDO file and a . surfaces. and colors. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle." Solution The model probably exported just fine. select the target application for the export. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. click Save As.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file.com/moray/. In the File name box. type a name for the file.stmuc. click Export Selected. from the File menu. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same.

rhino3d. Click Save.rendering. ISBN: 1558606181. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. from the File menu. In the File name box. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. type a name for the RIB file. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. 55 . Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. In the Save as type box. Or. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. however.rhino3d. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. click Save As.graphics.bmrt.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. select RenderMan. click Export Selected.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. ISBN: 0201508680. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www.

povray. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www.org. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export.1. and highlight. color. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. To test render the scene. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. Click Save. Export to RIB file format supports render background color.povray.org. In the Save as type box. Set up your scene with materials and lights. To cancel the rendering process. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color.Rhino 2. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. however. from the File menu. click Save As. and opacity statement for each object. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. transparency. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. The intensity is always set to 1.rendribrc.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. select POV-Ray Mesh.rib reboot your computer. type a name for the POV file. In the File name box. 56 . It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. click the big blue "R. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. click Export Selected. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Or. Rhino writes the surface. The transparency color is the color of the object. Use Properties to set the object names. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). This material name is exported for use by the renderer." Two windows will open. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C.

You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. Click Open. click Export Selected. select Raw Triangles. and highlight. or into one large POV file. Click Save. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files.Rhino 2.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. click Open. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 57 . transparency. but object colors are. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. click Import/Merge. type a name for the RTF file. from the File menu. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. This material name is exported for use by the renderer.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Or. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light.inc and lights. In the Open dialog box. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Raw Triangles. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. Set up your scene with materials and lights. type a name for the RAW file. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Textures are not exported. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. They are not converted to NURBS. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. In the File name box. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. click Save As. Or.

The greater the number of polygons. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. Or. click Export Selected. 0.0762mm. Click Open. 0. Click Save. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. In the Save as type box. click Import/Merge. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. In the Save as type box. click Open. In the File name box. from the File menu. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. from the File menu. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. Export it in RAW format. click Open. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. type a name for the SLC file. and use ExplodeMesh. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. In the File name box. select STEP. type a name for the STEP file. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. Or. 58 . select SLC. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The slices will be evenly spaced. 0. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0.0127mm. In the File name box. use DXF instead. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. Or. Click Save. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. from the File menu. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. click Import/Merge. Or. click Save As. From the File menu. Consequently.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. (For example.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.0508mm and 0. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. In the Open dialog box. All quadrangles are converted to triangles.0381mm. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. click Save As. type a name for the STEP file. Import it back into Rhino. select STEP.0254mm. from the Files of type box.

set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. click Polygon Mesh. from the File menu. type a name for the STL file.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. In the Save as type box. from the Files of type box. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. In the File name box. to control STL accuracy. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. For example. To see if the result has any holes or gaps.ini file to look like this. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. If a mesh point is highlighted. Click Open. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. type a name for the STL file. From the Tools menu. Use JoinMesh. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. to get JCAD to work. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. click Polygon Mesh. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. In the File name box. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. click Export Selected. From the Tools menu. that is.Rhino 2. but doesn't glue the edges together. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. then click Join.) Select the new mesh object. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. Or. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. then click Weld. From the Tools menu. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. if two triangles share an edge. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. Click Save. then Weld (angle=180). then they have the same idea of up. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. 59 . then click Unify Normals. select STL. They are not converted to NURBS. select STL. click Polygon Mesh. click Save As. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. Instead. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.

In the File name box. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. Or. It does not support representation of drawing information. from the File menu. Render color. type a name for the VDA file. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. In the Save as type box. Rhino now 60 . and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. from the File menu.D geometry and topology information. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or.Rhino 2. click Export Selected. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Save As. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. It does not support assembly and feature information.y plane. click Export Selected. views. symbols. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. from the File menu.axis toward the x. click Open. select VDA. Click Open. type a name for the VDA file. from the Files of type box. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. type a name for the WRL file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Texture assignments are currently not exported. Click Save. etc. In the File name box. Click Save. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. From the File menu. Or. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Save As. In the Save as type box. select VDA. shine. click Import/Merge. select VRML. In the File name box. In the Open dialog box. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object.

com/software/mtx2html. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer.0 first. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. In general. and if so. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. This can be tricky. In the File name box. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. click Export Selected.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer.exe. from the File menu.viewpoint." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. click Export Selected. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. In the File name box. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. click Save As.0 and 2.Rhino 2. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. Render Mesh tab. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. You can download it from http://developer.viewpoint. 61 . Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. Or.0. In the Save as type box. Or. From the File menu. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. type a name for the file.pdf. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Click Save. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. (The MTS file contains the actual data. select Windows Metafile. Click Save. type a name for the WMF file.0.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. try 1. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. click Save As. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. from the File menu. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. you should try 2.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. but will make the WRL file much larger.) Outside of Rhino. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. In the Save as type box.

x is created. Organization.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. type a name for the DXF file. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. In the File name box. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. enter a name for the file. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. From the File menu. click Export Selected. This means various settings have different values for each product. from the IGES type box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. select IGES. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. Click Save. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. in the Save as type box. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. 1 2 In the File name box. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. and click Save. 62 . Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Detailed options Author. Sender's product ID. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files.3ds A file yourfile. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. select an IGES type.

the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.ini. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. To import trimming curves as curve objects. When Rhino 2.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. the IGES file will be empty.Rhino 2.ini.2 or 5. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . To create an IGES import log. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1.

2.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. To see if this is the case. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. you need to do a bit of sleuthing. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . but this is not required. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.. an IGES level number is automatically selected.. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window.Delicious" = 13 "Apple ." For example. 1.Rhino 2. Spaces and tabs are ignored. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. A layer to level function is available in Rhino.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple .) are ignored.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. This file can contain multiple flavors. When Rhino reads an IGES file. . 3. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general.)." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping.

type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file.igs. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Definition(). click New. Rhino reads alpha. If one of the Annotation(). but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. set the options for the IGES type.Rhino 2.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. Other(). lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything.igs open gamma. click Close. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. 65 . In the IGES Export Types dialog box. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.igs and gamma. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.igs normally.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. If you do something like: open alpha.igs. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. accepting only entities marked as geometry. or Logical/Positional(). If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. you will get it. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. regardless of type.

In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Unix. and click Delete. from the IGES type list box. set the options for the IGES type. arcs. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. In most cases. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. IGES arcs. 66 . In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. The difference is 5. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. and maximum degree five. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. this number should be one. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF).3 using four digits.3. select an IGES type.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Unix uses LF. or IGES circles. select an IGES type. maximum degree three. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. click Close.Rhino 2. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. IGES 184 entities. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. and MacOS style line endings. set the options for the IGES type. and click Copy Type. If the max degree is set to three.2 and 5. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. The number must be bigger than zero. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. If the max degree is set to five. and MacOS uses CR.2 stores years using two digits and 5. from the IGES type list box. and click Edit. click Close.

and maximum degree five. Or. click Export Selected. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. when possible. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces.rhino3d. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). from the File menu. type a name for the OBJ file. select the options for OBJ export. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). In the Save as type box. when possible. Try to load both files into your product. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu.Rhino 2. maximum degree three. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. Curves are not exported. If the max degree is set to three. Click Save. when possible. If the max degree is set to five. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. click Save As. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. In the File name box. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. try the following test. 67 . you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. If you get better results with one export type. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. select Wavefront OBJ.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities.

The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. The .mtl file contains one material definition per object. Export layer names should be cleared. 68 . Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. mesh export is disabled. By default. There are also references to these materials added to the . Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. If is far from 100% satisfactory. Export material definitions Creates an . The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. CR (Mac OS) Return only. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.obj file. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. End of line character CRLF (Windows.mtl file with the same name as the . Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices.ini file. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. LF (Unix) Line feed only. To export to MAX.obj file. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. Export layer names Exports layer names. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. Export object names Exports object names. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. Options Skip Don't export meshes. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces.Rhino 2. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.

type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select 3D Studio MAX 3. select Alias V8. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. type a filename.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. In this case.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. After a large IGES import. select IGES.x. try using OBJ format instead. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application.Rhino 2.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . In the File name box. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. For the fastest import. select the trim curve. and Customize > Preferences.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. click Export or Save As. make it independent. and flip the trim. To distinguish between separate entities. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. All data that is not grouped. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. In the Save as type box. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. and set the display to wireframe. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. click Export Selected. click Export or Save As. and then restart MAX. it is recommended that you save your work first. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Note When merging an IGES file. In the File name box. it is recommended that you save your work. from the File menu. select the surface. From the IGES Type box.

select Ashlar Vellum.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. select AUTOFORM. In the Save as type box.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the File name box.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select CADCEUS.Rhino 2.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. type a filename.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. type a filename. select IGES. select AutoShip. click Export or Save As. 71 . In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. select Breault Research's ASAP.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . select IGES.Rhino 2.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select CamSoft. From the IGES Type box. select CATIA. In the File name box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. even those that are trivially trimmed. type a filename.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids. In the File name box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Cosmos/M. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y.Rhino 2. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Export or Save As. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file.

0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. select IGES. click Export or Save As. select Cosmos/M. In the Save as type box. select FastShip. From the IGES Type box. 74 . select IGES. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select FastSURF. type a filename. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IronCAD.Rhino 2. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select Integrity Ware.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. type a filename. select IGES. select LUSAS. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. select Mastercam.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. click Export or Save As.

In the File name box. Or. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 77 .Rhino 2. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. select Maya.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. from the File menu. select ME30. type a filename.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Mechanical Desktop. and click OK. select Microstation.Rhino 2.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. click Edit options. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. In the File name box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. click DE Mappings. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the File name box.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. In the Save as type box. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. click Start and Global. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box.2 or 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. To save these settings.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.3. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. (The MDT defaults work fine. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. click Structure. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. Version 5.opt. click Geometry.IGESOUT dialog box. From the IGES Type box. You may set these options as you see fit. 78 .) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. click Export or Save As. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Export or Save As. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. set IGES Version to either 5. Surfaces and Solids. type a filename. To get the best results. select IGES. in the Description box. type a filename.

Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. select NASA GridTool.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. If you add the following section to your Rhino. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. the current version of Multisurf is 3. type a filename. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims.1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 79 . select IGES. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select Multisurf. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation.Rhino 2.ini file. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. From the IGES Type box.1 using an IGES file.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. Multisurf 3. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . select NuGraf. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select IGES. In the File name box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select OptiCAD. From the IGES Type box.

you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E.01 units. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.pro file or save them as rhino. use the "All Parts" option. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. click Export or Save As. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.0001 will produce good results.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If you set your tolerances right. In the Save as type box. Note With Pro/E version 20. when exporting to IGES.pro file then read it in before exporting.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. use these settings in the Pro/E config. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. From the IGES Type box. somewhere around 0.Rhino 2. select IGES. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5.001 to 0.

This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Surface replace is another good tool to use. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. Surfaces and Solids.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.Rhino 2. there are now two types. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. then. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If the curves are planar. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. even those that are trivially trimmed.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. Things like fillets and drafts . and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. 82 . Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. The more trims you have. When modeling in Rhino. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.

In the Save as type box. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. There is no geometry information in it. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . a surface. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. select SDRC's I-DEAS. type a filename. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. From the IGES Type box. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. and a solid. you will not get back what you sent. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. select IGES.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design.

select Softimage. SGI and x86 (Intel). 1. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.phoenixtools. In the IGES Export Options dialog box.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.com Plugin download link page: www. From the File menu. from the IGES Type box. Softimage can also import 3DS. Type a filename and click Save.phoenixtools. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 2 84 . Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. then click IGES.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. Open Softimage. In the Save As dialog box.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. for SI versions 3.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.phoenixtools. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 3. In the IGES Export dialog box.7sp1 and 3. select Softimage. DXF.Rhino 2.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. Run iges2soft.igs MyDSCFile. select IGES.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. click Save As. from the Save as type box. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.com.8: ftp://ftp. Check out their web site for more information: www.okino. All three have their own problems and benefits.txt contains command line option information.

type a filename. Surfaces and Solids.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Solid Edge. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 .Rhino 2. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. click Export or Save As. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.

select IGES. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces.001 or 0. In the File name box. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.0 Points=116 86 . click Export or Save As. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids. type a filename. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. To export models to Rhino. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select SolidWorks.0001 before building the geometry.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.

From the IGES Type box. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. ribs. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. click Export or Save As. select SURFCAM.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. by nature. type a filename. for SolidWorks. Generally. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. Shelling. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. 87 .0001. Also.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. to test feasibility. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. leaving features such as fillets.Rhino 2. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. In the File name box. select IGES. select IGES. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. Nothing replaces experience. try to model with smooth. then shelling is likely to fail. is tangent. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. select SUM4. SUM 4. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. type a filename. and investigate alternative approaches. etc..0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. which works on both edges and faces. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. which within human perception. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. shelling.

select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 . In the File name box.Rhino 2. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.

click Export or Save As.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . select Unigraphics. select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select TekSoft. type a filename. In the File name box. select IGES.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 90 . Context-sensitive menu with object selected. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the File name box. Surfaces and Solids. select Yamaha ESPRi.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. type a filename.Rhino 2. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Export or Save As. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Edit the Rhino. For maximum speed. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately.ini file. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. In addition. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. and Blue boxes. type values in the Hue. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. Context-sensitive menu indicator. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. 91 . That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. type RGB values in the Red. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. If no object is selected. and Value boxes.Rhino 2. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. or drag to manipulate the view. Saturation. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. Green.txt in the Rhino install directory. select a color. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. actions related to objects appear in the menu. from the Named Colors list. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. If context-sensitive menu is on. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros.ini file to add or change menu items. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu.

on the status bar. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. To display the Osnap dialog box. When an object snap is active. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. End. 92 . and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. Tan. and Knot object snaps can persist. To clear all persistent object snaps. For example. right-click the Lock checkbox. Center. When activated. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. Intersection. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. the appropriate object snap displays. if End. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. Perp. Midpoint. As you pass your cursor over an object. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. Quad. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. click Osnap. If object snaps are locked. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. Only Near. and Point will not work for that pick. or can be activated for one pick only. End. Point. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. Near. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. After the pick. Near. All object snaps behave similarly.

Rhino 2. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.

Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. with no spaces. and Knot. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. click Object Snap. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. 94 . Quad. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. it turns off all persistent object snaps. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Near. Center. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. The normal object snaps are evaluated first.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. OrientOnSrf. separated by commas. This command is useful for command files. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Midpoint. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. The marker jumps to the endpoint. then click End. Perp. Only these object snaps will be set. Click to enter the endpoint. or just suspends them for one pick. all others will be cleared. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. InsertKnot. for example in ExtractIsoparm. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. Valid options are NoSnap. End. Intersection. Point.Rhino 2. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. If a command is active. Tan.

Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. The marker jumps to it. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. Click to enter the midpoint. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter a point on the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Near object snap Snap near a curve. click the Osnap pane. and the "corners" of surfaces. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a point. then click Point. then click Mid. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. click Near. click Mid. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. The marker moves along the curve. Move the cursor near a curve. click Object Snap. On the status bar. the seam point on closed curves. In the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. then click Near. click Point. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Click to enter the point. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. click End. On the status bar. 95 . Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point.

click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter one of these points. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. The marker jumps to its center point. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Intersection. 96 . tangent to the curve. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Click to enter one of these points. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor along a curve. Move the cursor along a curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. The marker jumps to it. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Tangent To. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. from the Tools menu. from the Tools menu. Click to enter the center point. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve.Rhino 2. On the status bar. click Int. Move the cursor near an intersection. Move the cursor near a curve. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. click Perp. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. On the status bar. then click Perpendicular To. click Cen. then click Center. perpendicular to the curve. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point.

Move the cursor along a circle. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. click Object Snap. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. click the Osnap pane. and finally choose the point for the original command. and relative coordinate entry. At the Choose a base point prompt. angle constraint. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. arc or ellipse. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter the knot point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. pick a point. then click Quadrant. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. then click Knot. On the status bar. distance constraint.Rhino 2. You can set this point. with From. without entering that point for the original command. Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click Tan.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. You can use another object snap to pick this point. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. 3 Example 97 . click Quad. Similarly. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. without picking it. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. from the Tools menu. or similar surface edges. type Knot. From object snap Snap from a point. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. then click From. click the Osnap pane. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. Move the cursor near a curve. Set your constraints relative to the base point.

Point. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. At the Click near the curve prompt. from the Tools menu. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line.Rhino 2. 98 . type 2 and press Enter. select the curve. then click From. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. Cen. click Object Snap. Int. click Object Snap. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. Mid.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. and Quad. At the Choose a base point prompt. End. Note When selecting points during this sequence. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. you can use simple snaps. snap to the end of the line. from the Tools menu. for greater precision. click Object Snap. The cursor moves only along the curve. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. At the Choose a point prompt. At the Click near the curve prompt. Near. then click Tangent From. select the curve. then click Perpendicular From.

Near. from the Tools menu. Point. and Quad) for greater precision. Click to enter a point on the line. At the Start of tracking line prompt. At the End of base line prompt. and Quad) for greater precision.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. you can use simple snaps (End. Cen. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Point. type AlongParallel. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. select a first point to specify the tracking line. then click Along Line. Along object snap Track along a line. select a second point. Int. Near. 99 . in the Object Snap toolbar. At the Choose a point prompt. you can use simple snaps (End. Int. Cen. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Point. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Click to enter a point on the line. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. The marker moves only along the line. select a second point. you can use simple snaps (End. Cen. right-click the Along toolbar button. and Quad) for greater precision. Mid. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Or. Mid. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Int. Near. At the Start of base line prompt. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. The marker moves only along the line. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point.Rhino 2. The marker tracks along the tangent line. At the End of tracking line prompt. Mid. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points.

Point. 100 . The marker moves only along the surface. but works on curves. and the cursor is over an object snap point. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. and Knot. then click On Surface. Intersection. select the surface. from the Tools menu. Mid.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. Near. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. you can use simple snaps. select Project to CPlane. At the Click near the surface prompt. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. for greater precision. By default. it is off. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. End. When Osnap projection is on. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Note When selecting a point on the surface. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. Click to enter a point on the surface. Center.Rhino 2. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf.

To change the default isoparm density for new objects. General tab. or just the knot isoparms. Isoparms at surface knot locations. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. 2. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. Information Technical information about the command displays. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. 1. and OBJ file export. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. and RenderMan RIB. go to the Options dialog box. 0. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. and the other positive integers. or you can eliminate the angle brackets.Rhino 2. Object Properties. POV-Ray. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. The valid values are -1. One isoparm on knot-free spans. 101 . Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties.

Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application.0 Command Reference Object Properties.Rhino 2. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. this tab displays the properties for that light type. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. 102 . Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. Light tab Edit light object properties. Turns light on or off. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. To change the material assignment of the layer. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. use the Edit Layers dialog box. texture. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. From top left to bottom right. Material tab Edit object material properties. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Color Sets the color of the light. using a plug-in library. you can set the color. finish. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. transparency.

Rhino 2. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. From top left to bottom right. To change the color of the wireframe display. or a polygon mesh. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. polysurface. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Object Properties. 103 . Clear this option to remove the texture map. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Text tab Edit text properties. Unlike more advanced renderers.

and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. 104 . The two sizes update each other. Command string Command alias definitions. Example If your units are inches.25 inches. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Options dialog box. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. When you place annotation text. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.Rhino 2. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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and the color-andshadows Render. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. click Use OpenGL. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Choose between the quick render preview. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. spotlighting. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Render Mesh tab. The next time you shade the same model. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. and a backdrop image. you will see improved performance. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. from the smooth geometry. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. For highest quality results. this shading mode may be much faster. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. On the Shade tab. highlights. shadows. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time.Rhino 2. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. 114 .0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. Also.

Also. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. When you draw the plane. which might appear in waves. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. you will see improved performance. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering.0 or 1. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Rhino Render tab. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. Self. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display.5. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Render tab. Render Mesh tab. so it won't be deformed.Rhino 2. 115 . Jagged spotlight edges and self.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. In some situations.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. the patterns may probably disappear. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. from the smooth geometry. The next time you render the same model. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. of the view in the active viewport. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex.

you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Self-shadowing artifacts. Sometimes the conversion 116 . Correct shadow.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. If you’re getting self. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. The scale of the objects is very large. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. That will usually solve the problem. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. If the problems still persist. If you increase it too much.shadowing effects.Rhino 2. Change the size of the light. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them.

Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. If this does not fix the problem. and download the latest drivers. you may not have the current drivers. please read section the next section. Off Status of layer. contact Rhino Technical Support.microsoft. To update Windows NT drivers. Start Rhino. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Windows 95. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. This helps you organize your model. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. To set the column width. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. available from Microsoft at www.asp.Rhino 2.com/windows/downloads/winntw. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. you can turn them all off at once.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. Name Layer name. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. On Status of layer. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Even if you got the card last week. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. change the color of the wire frame. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. To update your OpenGL drivers. 117 . if you were working on a human figure. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Or you can organize your parts a different way.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. Otherwise. they look jagged. When objects are on a layer. select them all with one selection.dll and Glu32. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. and since the polygons are flat. For example. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed.

Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. finish. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer.Rhino 2. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. You can snap to objects on this layer. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. polysurface. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Unlike more advanced renderers. texture. To change the color of the wireframe display. transparency. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. you can set the color. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. or a polygon mesh. 118 .

transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. select the name on the list. You can select all layers. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. Clear this option to remove the bump map.Rhino 2. 119 . click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. If you don't remember the layer names. type a new name and press Enter. Clear this option to remove the texture map. and Invert the selection. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. select a set of layers. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. click New. You cannot create new layers with these names. In the Edit Layers dialog box. In the Layer dialog box.

In the Edit Layers dialog box.Rhino 2. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Click Delete. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. click the color column of the layer you want to change. click a filter option. In the Show box. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. use the Empty Layers filter. To delete empty layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. In the Select Color dialog box. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . select a color for the layer. from the list select the layers you want to delete. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. select all the displayed layers and delete. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. When a model has a large number of layers. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects.

2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 .Rhino 2. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). click Filtered Layers. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). type a string of characters to match the layer name to. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. set the desired filter options." are on or locked. or locked. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. off. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter.

If you are after a flag-like surface. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. Sweep1. try adding a few more cross sections. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. 122 . Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. If you are after a tent-like. Rules. Lofts. generally. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. Think of each curve you select in Loft. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. Sweeps. then try Loft. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves.Rhino 2. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. then use a ruled surface. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. The surface is smooth. The rail curve directs the surface along it. If this doesn't help. then use the one closest to the top of the list. then the surface created by loft will. or accordion bellows-like surface. stair-like. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases.

It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. 123 . the surface will twist.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want.Rhino 2. If you have a several of closed curves. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. while keeping the other end fixed. use a Sweep2. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. If surfaces are twisted with open curves.

and thus the fillet. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. there are four ways to fillet. or no curves. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. the intersection of the offsets can have one. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. For a given radius. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. 124 . several. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. For each of these four ways.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment.

0 Command Reference As mentioned. 125 .Rhino 2. there may be several fillet pieces. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. for this choice of sides. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.

the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. No. If split. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. then the surfaces are left intact. 126 . and split. Because of this. When that is the case. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible.Rhino 2. If no. If yes. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. When Extend = yes. yes.

127 . their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. If two surfaces are tangent.Rhino 2. then no fillets will be created. and a fillet will exist.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess.

FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. 128 . Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. Otherwise. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. no fillet will be created. rather than arcs. except cross-sections are lines. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface.Rhino 2. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command.

Objects have overlapping surface areas. then the result to B will work. Often. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. do not pick A and B first. Do each surface individually." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. However. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. Once we have a curve on the surface. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm.Rhino 2. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. The result will have a hole at the corner. B and C. 129 . on an open surface or polysurface. joining A to C. it is projected. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. In this case. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. a spherical patch will be made. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. but it may not fit. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. When joining A. no corner patch will be attempted. If one is a polysurface. If both are single surfaces. The picking order can make the difference. In this case. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A.0 Command Reference In general. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. it doesn't. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Additionally. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. If you do.

0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. For success using the Booleans. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. or visa versa. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. This point is also called a singularity. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. the operation can fail. 130 . not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges.Rhino 2. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. You can also move control points to the same location. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.

The objects will Union.Rhino 2. In this example. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. At the Select object to intersect prompt. and then click Intersection. Depending on the order the objects are selected. and Intersection do not work. we chose the cone first. In this example. click From Objects. the two boxes are just touching along one side. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. select the second object. In this example. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. the Intersect command may give different results. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. 131 . select one object. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. there are three possible intersection curves. but Difference. At the Select object for intersection prompt.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. In this example.

We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. Therefore. if your objects are polysurfaces. To get all the possible curves. however. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. this may not happen. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. If your objects are very complex.Rhino 2. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. so we will Explode it. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. you would expect to get all three curves. In our simple example. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces.

0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. From the Solid menu. click Split. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily.Rhino 2. select the cone. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. At the Select cutting objects prompt. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. Explode the cone. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. Delete the small wedge of the cone. At the Select object to split prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. 133 . click Extract Surface.

intersection. click Trim. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. There is no intersection.Rhino 2. go through the same code. difference. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). A – B = A intersect ~B. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. select the two curves. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. 134 . and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. The intersection involves isolated points. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. From the Edit menu. In this case. So. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. union. and is achieved by flipping the normals.

but not on the overall shape of the polysurface.Rhino 2. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection.ini to open it for editing. select the check box for the toolbar. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. find the folder where Rhino is installed. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Find the setting you want to change.ini file.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. Edit the Rhino. For a polysurface that is not a solid. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. planes.ini and restart Rhino. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen.ini. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. To edit the Rhino. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. the outside is the side to which the normals point. To understand the results. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. Surfaces overlap. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Exit Rhino. cylinders. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. Double-click Rhino. etc. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. In Windows Explorer. 135 . The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display.

right-click the toolbar name in the list. The toolbar moves to a new position. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. Or. which can be on or off the Rhino window. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. 136 .ini file. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. type the new name. and is docked. select the toolbar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. This is a setting in the Rhino. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. The title bar appears. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. and click Properties. The toolbar reshapes. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. it has no title bar. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. loses its title bar.Rhino 2. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. The toolbar appears or hides. click Properties. and from the Toolbar menu. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area.

and click Delete Toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click Import Toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. Click Import. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. select the toolbar. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. select the toolbar. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. select the toolbar. click Properties. Or. Press and hold Ctrl. click Delete. Release the mouse button. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. which has the white triangle in the corner. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and drop in the desired position. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. 3 137 . Or. Click Open. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. click Import. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. click New. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.Rhino 2. Or. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. Or. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. it will distort the bitmap icon.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. and from the Toolbar menu. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. Or. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. select the toolbars to import. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. select the toolbar. and click New Toolbar. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and click Properties.

Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. In this case. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Move the cursor over a link button. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. The toolbar appears. Press and hold Shift. 138 . The linked toolbar vanishes. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Ctrl. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. and click the right mouse button. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. or to a different position in the same toolbar. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. The buttons rearrange. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. clear Float to Top. select Float to Top to make the link button float. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. The toolbar is floating. Press and hold Shift. Release the mouse button. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. Or.

139 . and click the right mouse button.Rhino 2. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. In the Delete Button dialog box. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Press F2 to view the command history. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. capture a portion of the screen. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. the left and right mouse buttons commands. draw with the paint tools. and the bitmap icon. select the toolbar. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. Or. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. Click Close. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. type text in the ToolTip box. Press and hold Shift. Use this area to edit your bitmap. If you don't know what to enter. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. You can change the ToolTip. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click OK. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. You can clear the image. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Release the left mouse button. A blank button is added to the toolbar. click Add Button. Press and hold Shift. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. for example: Zoom In | Out. type text in the ToolTip box. Press and hold Shift. and click Add Button. and click the right mouse button. or import a bitmap created with a paint program.

In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Clear. then OK. from the Edit menu. Click the pencil tool. click Grab. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. right. from the Edit menu. click Edit Bitmap. Press and hold Shift. Or. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Note You can shift the image left. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. click Edit Bitmap. 140 . then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. and click the right mouse button. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. click Edit Bitmap. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. A square replaces the cursor. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. and click the right mouse button. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. Press and hold Shift. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. Press and hold Shift. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Or. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. click Undo. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.Rhino 2. up. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. To undo a mistake. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. the button is blank. from the Edit menu. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.

from a text file. click Import Bitmap. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. In the Import Bitmap dialog box.Rhino 2. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. shortcut keys.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. click Edit Bitmap. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. Click Open. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons.0 5. from the File menu.1 4. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. command aliases. Press and hold Shift. click Export Bitmap.-4 8.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. and click the right mouse button.4 -4. from the File menu. This script moves objects. Click Save.-3 1. 141 .4 13. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. which stops the creation of point objects. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. select a bitmap file. type a bitmap file name.

Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. Automation servers. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. Microsoft JScript 5. browsing for files. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. Fit is the fitting method. 1=Fit. The default is 1.5. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. queries. From the Tools menu. Mode is always 1. portable. If you don't know what to enter. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Press F2 to view the command history. Options are 0=Interpolate. These scripting languages allow loops. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. and Java applets. 142 . There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. the Web's only standard scripting language. then click Paste from Clipboard. variable names. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. click Commands.Rhino 2. The default is 20. is a fast. layername2. Divs is the samples per knotspan. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected.

see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. These damaged areas can cause problems. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. then it will list some specific problems. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. you may find some of those microscopic edges. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. If your model doesn't pass Check.for instance. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. and join everything back together again. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. Rhino will let you do it. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. re-trim the surface. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. If Rhino matches the large edges. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. though. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer.Rhino 2. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer.rvb. then edit the trim curves. see: http://msdn. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. Some bad model parts. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. The first one to try is the Check command. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. 143 . The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. If your model doesn't pass Check. If you zoom in enough. Another problem is having a tiny.microsoft. To fix broken edges. For more information on scripting. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. you have to explode the model. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. If a model passes Check. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. and Check doesn't check for those things. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other.

Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. and Join. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points.Rhino 2. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. To draw a non-G1 curve. Split the curve at the kink. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Untrim or DetachTrim. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. open up the kink by control point editing.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. simple edge-to-edge matching. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. FitCrv.0 5. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. You will get this error message.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode.5 5. If there are lots of tiny edges. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points.4 10. the Join command can get confused when that happens. Additionally. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. Thus.0 5.10 5. Trim again. This test does not check the geometry. you can Undo changing the degree. Solution: Rebuild the curve. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. 144 . Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other.

occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. Solution: DetachTrim. but not right on top of each other. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. The warning lets you know when this has happened. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. Use this to install as a standalone node. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. and then control point edit the extrusion. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. 145 .Rhino 2. Join and Booleans in particular. You will get this error message. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Solution: Rebuild the edge. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. fix curve and retrim. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). There are stacked control points along a surface edge. Usually. Some operations. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Extrude it. In short. Rhino 2. You can put control points very close to each other. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Edge direction. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. but not right on top of each other. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Internal control points are coincident. You will get this error message. Draw a Circle.

Commercial versions of Rhino 2. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. visit www.0" as a workgroup node. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. This is an installation option. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. 146 . Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2.0 as a workgroup node.rhino3d. the license is added back to the available license pool. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425.Rhino 2. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. unlike standalone Rhino. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. it does not modify the shape of the surface. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. When a node shuts down. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo.rhino3d. No special hardware is needed. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. For details on setting up a workgroup.com/plugins/developer. Very little administration is required. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed.htm.com/plug-ins.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. Thus.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. contact your network administrator.

1. then e_tol tells how close the 3.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 2. 8/3. called the pedge.D edge is to the surface. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. 2.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. trim curves are ignored. which also approximates the intersection.Rhino 2. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. and tolerance values for each of the curves. 0. called the edge. Rhino meshes all trim edges. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. 0. Each 2. Cursor.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. Marker.90 degrees to 90 degrees.D curve. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. 1. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages.90 degrees The range is from . the cursor turns into a crosshair. the marker will snap to the snap point. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.D curves. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. 3.D edge. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). the draft angle is 0. The 3.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. 1/3. 147 . The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. When using elevator mode. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. After the initial grid is made. If an object snap is on. For example. When the initial mesh grid is made. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge.D curve (the one you see). Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. 3. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . two 2.

Some renderers support double-sided shaders.) with a polynomial definition. However.Rhino 2. flat constant on the other). Sphere with normal direction displayed However. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. The other side is the inside. blue on one side. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. 148 . red on the other. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. Imagine a rope. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. the stiffness of the rope. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. when you have a single surface. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. If you hold it at the ends. When you have a finished solid. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. or reflective metal on one side. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. etc. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. or a polysurface. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. Solid objects do not have naked edges.

Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Snap pane. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. 149 . In some other 3-D programs. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. it is also a solid. and solids. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode.Rhino 2. this is called a "quilt. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. It is a mathematical way of defining curves." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Ortho pane. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. surfaces. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve.

and tolerances. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. Surfaces have three directions. Esc turns off the points.direction is indicated by the green arrow.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. Esc deselects all objects. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. grid size. there will be no holes in the mesh. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files.Rhino 2. If objects are selected and no command is active. A rectangular surface with the u. If a mesh is generated from a solid. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. The u. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. v. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. units. You can display the u. Esc clears the command prompt. You can save your own templates to base future models on. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. and normal. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. v. U. and the v. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. 150 . u. The u. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. no objects are selected.direction is indicated by the red arrow. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. When no command is active.

Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Or. Press Enter for triangle prompt. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. 3View Three-viewport layout. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points.Rhino 2. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. and Third corner of polygon prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Second corner of polygon. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. 151 . Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. 4View Four-viewport layout. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices.

Start the AddNextU command. 152 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Start the AddNextV command. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2.

Start the AddPrevU command. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected 153 . The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection.Rhino 2.

Start the AddPrevV command. 154 . prompt select the group or enter a group name. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. select an object to add to a group. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group.Rhino 2. Use the Group command to group objects together. 1 At the Select objects prompt. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. 2 At the Select groups. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.

pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. 1 2 Select the objects. The curves must be planar. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. or World Right. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. 155 . with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. World Front. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. At the Select curve to change prompt. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. AlignProfiles Align two curves. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object.Rhino 2. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve.

At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. End of first line prompt. 156 . At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.Rhino 2. Start of second line prompt. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line.

ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt.0000 degrees. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1.Rhino 2. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. If the surface is trimmed. select the surface to apply the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. and fitted onto the selected surface. 157 . Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon.

When you're in ExtractIsoparm. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both).Rhino 2. enter the center of the arc's radius. Start. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. enter the end point of the arc. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. For example. 158 . enter the start point of the arc. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. Or. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. you can make such morphs. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. At the Start of arc prompt. If making morph targets. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. Arc Draw an arc. At the End point or angle prompt. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. Generally. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. enter the angle for the arc. But that swaps u and v on the surface. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. Then. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. If you use the Mirror transformation. ApplyMesh guarantees that. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. mesh the most complex surface first. although if you understand the process and work at it. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. so if you Mirror something. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. enter the center of the arc's radius. one of which has been squished around in some way. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want.

You can enter the number of control points. enter a point on the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the End of arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. enter the start of the arc. At the Point on arc prompt.Rhino 2. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. Arc from three points 159 .

Tangent. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the Direction prompt. enter the end point. enter the start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. End. and radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter the start point. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. enter a radius value. end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. select the second curve. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. enter the radius of the arc. end point.Rhino 2. End. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. At the Radius prompt. At the Choose arc prompt. enter the end point. select the first curve. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. At the End of arc prompt. Arc from start point. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. If the radius value is too small. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. 160 . At the Radius prompt. At the End of arc prompt. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start.

34 (+/. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.0). you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2). AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.0. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. 161 .0 (+/. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0.1.7e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. product moments. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.1. If you cannot see the entire report. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.8545412.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. second moments. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.4601236. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. First moments. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.014).Rhino 2.1.

5.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.1e-009) Rz: 3. with a surface or open polysurface.Rhino 2. Area First Moments: 162 .0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.0 (+/.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.10. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command. Area = 60 (+/.36650165 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. For example. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.73300329 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. and sometimes contradictory.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.0 is shown below. In order to get the particular moment you need.1e-007) z: 0 (+/. if you select a box polysurface.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-009) Ry: 1.1e-009) Ry: 3.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.1e-009.0 and 6.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.73205081 (+/.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.0.77350269 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.46410162 (+/.1e-009. Different disciplines and textbooks use different. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.88675135 (+/. As an example.

the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. The relationship between the area first moments. and area product moments. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . area first moments.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. area second moments. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. In terms of integrals.Rhino 2. In particular. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. In terms of integrals. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia.

and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. those distances are applied to the array directions. Transform.Rhino 2. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. type the y-interval and press Enter. Or. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. 164 . type the x-interval. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. At the Number in X direction prompt.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. The array directions are the x. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. to indicate the x. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. press Enter. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length.and y-intervals. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. At the Number in Z direction prompt. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. At the Number in Y direction prompt.

The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. or the spacing distance along the curve. Or. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. specify twist behavior. choose two points that define the z-interval. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. type the z-interval and press Enter.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. set the number of elements to array. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start.Rhino 2. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. At the Select path curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. 165 .

choose a center point for the array. At the Basepoint prompt. Enter a value of 1 or more. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. At the Center of polar array prompt. type the number of copies and press Enter. At the Angle to fill prompt. 166 . select a curve on a surface. select objects to copy along the curve.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. At the Select the surface prompt. type an angle and press Enter. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. You can continue to place objects.Rhino 2. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. curve on surface. Objects arrayed along line. Surface. and object to array. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole.

pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. At the Select surface to array along prompt. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface. type a number of objects. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. Array along a surface 167 .0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. type a number of objects.Rhino 2. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. choose the surface to array along.

Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. otherwise you must select a folder. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. 168 . the model's folder will be used as the default. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically.rhp Options set the resolution. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. the path. If the Audit command detects a database error. See the PluginManager command. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. enter the start of the arrow. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. it prints a detailed description of the error. enter the end of the arrow. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded.Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt.

choose a center point. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt.ini. Note By default. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. choose a radius. automatic Autosave is turned off. General tab. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. Files tab.Rhino 2. you must edit your Rhino. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. Files tab. 169 . By default.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. At the Radius prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Back Set to world back view. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

To bend the entire object. choose the second endpoint of the line. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. At the Start of spine prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint. choose an endpoint. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. place the point outside the object. choose the amount of bend. choose an endpoint. At the End of first axis prompt. Bend 170 . At the End of third axis prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. To bend the entire object. choose a center point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. place the point outside the object. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of spine prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. Bend Bend objects.

At the End of angle to bisect prompt. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. You can't bend a polysurface . Bend moves the control points of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. or enter a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. enter the start of the bisector line. you will only bend that part of the object. curves. enter the start of the angle to bisect. and meshes. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. enter the end of the angle to bisect. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. The remainder of the object is kept straight. surfaces. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. 171 .

This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. 172 .Rhino 2. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end.

A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. At the Select first set of edges. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. or press Enter. and curvature is called a G2 blend. A blend curve that matches location. If you need a G1 blend.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. then you should probably use InsertKnot. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. In either case. The Blend command creates G2 blends. tangent direction. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. select adjacent edges. If it is invoked after picking the first end. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. tangent direction. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. tangent direction. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. The location. and curvature. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. it applies only to the second end. and one of the curves is a blend curve. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). If the curve will only be used in Rhino. Note The location. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. To do this. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. and curvature.Rhino 2. delete the arc. tangent directions. If you are joining curves. it applies to both ends. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. tangent direction. select a surface edge. 173 . and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. tangent direction. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. tangent direction. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. If a blend appears to tight or loose. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. If you are going to export the curve to other applications.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

This gives you more control over the shape. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. 183 .Rhino 2. but adds control points between each knot span. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. click the new layer. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. the higher the degree. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. the greater the number of control points.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. it will no longer be periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. If you raise the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. When users get back in the office. Note Delete or rebuild the object. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. When the user gets back in the office. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. enter the center point.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. use the CheckInLicense command. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. enter the radius point. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Select objects. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. To check a license back in. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Circle Draw a circle. 184 . Diagnostics.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. select one object.

0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

There may be multiple circles. Tangent. At the Third point on circle prompt. delete the extras. select the first curve. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. At the End of diameter prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter the end of the diameter. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. At the Radius prompt. enter a radius.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter a third point on the circumference. 186 . select the second curve. enter a second point on the circumference. At the Second point on circle prompt. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. enter a point on the circumference. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt.

At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. At the Third tangent curve.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. select the first curve.Rhino 2. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Point Select a point for input. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Note To reduce the size of the model file. select the third curve. or are tangent to a second curve. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. 187 . delete the extras. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. select the second curve. There may be multiple circles.

188 . CommandHistory View command history. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. enter a point. pick it from the list. or in the Command area. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. right click in the Rhino Command History window. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears.Rhino 2. To start one of those commands. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Press F2 again to close the window. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Note Point objects display as small squares. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session.

it is pasted as a command script.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. look at the Command List in this help file. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. Cone Draw a cone. it is pasted. Without the command area. If there is text in the Clipboard. At the End of cone prompt. Or. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 .0 will replace this command if it is not nested. choose a center point for the base. Commands List all Rhino commands. At the Radius prompt. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do.

enter the start point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. enter the end point for the conic. enter the middle point for the conic. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the Reference vertex prompt. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Conic 190 . At the Curvature point or rho prompt. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. At the End of conic prompt.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Conic Draw a conic section curve.

Second reference curve prompt.5 and less than 1. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. let T be the point where line(B. Curvature point or rho prompt. type T to select tangent curves. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number.5. First reference curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. select a second curve. B. Point on second curve prompt.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt.C). The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. select a curve. Parabolic Rho value of 0. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. If you work out the details. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. Point on first curve prompt.Rhino 2.5.S) intersects chord(A.0 and less than 0.

This point partially defines the plane for the conic. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.Rhino 2. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. End control points are at the same location.5.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically.5. enter the reference vertex for the conic. Or.0 and 0. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. At the End of conic prompt. At the Curvature point or rho prompt.5 and 1. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. enter the end point for the conic. 192 . so the w<1 case is elliptical. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. Parabolic Rho value of 0. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. choose a base point. Position. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. 193 . BlendSrf. One of the contour planes will go through this point. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same.Rhino 2. Blend. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. polysurfaces. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Match. and meshes for contour line creation.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. curvature. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous.

enter the distance between contours and press Enter. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density.Rhino 2. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. the less dense the control polygon will display.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. At the Distance between contours prompt. generated in both directions from the base point. At the Control polygon display density prompt. 194 . Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. The higher this number is.

Rhino 2. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. select curves and press Enter. 195 . At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. The original curves are removed. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. use the ExtractWireframe command first. At the Angle tolerance prompt. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. Edges can't be converted with this command. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. select an object to create polylines from. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments.

it is created when the object is pasted. 196 .Rhino 2. choose a point to move the copy from. At the Point to copy to prompts. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. type I and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. to copy the object in the same place. If the layer does not exist. When you Paste objects into Rhino. snap spacing. Object properties and location are stored with the object. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Or. choose locations for copies. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. to move the copy vertically. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. type v and press Enter. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. Or. A single copy is made in the same place as the original.

Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. At the CPlane elevation prompt. At the CPlane orientation prompt. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. At the CPlane origin prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points.axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the y-axis. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. 197 . choose a point on the x-axis. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard.

CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. 198 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Once your construction plane is positioned. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.and yaxes to a new location. choose the new origin. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point.Rhino 2. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. in the dynamic preview. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. for example. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. drag the construction plane's new x. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.D location where it needs to be.D. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes.

Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top.Rhino 2. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 199 . At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. select a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

At the CPlane origin prompt. choose the new origin.Rhino 2.axis. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. choose a point on the z.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. 200 . choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis.axis. choose the new origin. At the X axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis. At the X axis direction prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. At the Z axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

the original surface must be developable. Use UnrollSrf. select the second planar curve.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. At the Select planar curve prompt. select the first planar curve. cut openings in the unrolled surface. select a surface. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. Top view of profile curves 201 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. If true arc-length mapping is desired.

0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. From 2 Views." 202 . see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Example For an example. Look in the index under "Curve. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane.Rhino 2.

At the Location of seam point prompt. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. pick on a seam point marker. and move it along the curve. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. 203 . For each overlap interval. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. They are connected with a line. pick a new location for the seam point. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. joining the ends of the overlap interval. press Enter. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. When you are done adjusting the connections. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear.Rhino 2. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve.

Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. 204 . reversing the direction of the curve. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them.

with the control polygons. pick near a control point. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. At the Select point on the surface prompts.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface.Rhino 2. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . At the End of cross-section line prompt. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. press Enter to end the command. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. select a surface. that passes through the profile curves. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. end the line for the cross section plane. Press Enter to stop creating curves. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. The control point for the surface appear. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. V or Both directions. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object.

space the cross section curves relatively evenly.Rhino 2. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. For best results.

The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. press Esc to end the command without change. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. the curve is locally flat. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. 2 207 . If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero.Rhino 2. click to create the circle object. select a curve. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. Or. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. This does not automate finding the inflection points. but it makes it possible to mark them manually.

and other important properties.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. 208 . curvature. For example. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. In the Curvature dialog box.Rhino 2. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Options Gaussian In the images below. set the style and range. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue.

"Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. 209 . Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.>1000) and the red close to infinity." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. (Planes. In the case of an offset. Set the value for blue rather high (10.Rhino 2. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Blue areas should be safe. In the case of the mill.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. cylinders. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep.>100. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r.

) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. As a starting point. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. this may result in a rather uninformative image. unlike a simple soap film. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. If we care about this. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. the normal to the surface at that point. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. or to the right of the curve. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. These meshes can be large. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface.Rhino 2. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. and the direction. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. both free and attached to objects. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. A soap bubble. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. This is known as signed curvature. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. these values may not be appropriate. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. At any point on a curve in the plane. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. then we establish a convention. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.

and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. such as wire loops.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. u. Curvature graph on surface. close the dialog box. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. 211 . Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. frequency. This contrasts with a soap bubble. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. even when other commands are started.Rhino 2. Adjust the length. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects.

The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. In other words. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. However.Rhino 2. They are not curvature continuous. Degree 5 curve 212 . This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. or tangent only.

3. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius.Rhino 2. At any point on a curve (except lines).0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. that is.D normal. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. pick a point on the surface. minimum principal curvature. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. Press F2 to show the Command History window." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. If the graph changes smoothly.D point. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. To better grasp this. If isoparm display is turned off. To see the circle. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. As you move your cursor. Curve Draw a curve by control points. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. negative when the circles point opposite ways. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. maximum principal curvature. 3. Gaussian curvature. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt.

The curve closes. When drawing a high degree curve. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter an additional control point. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Next point.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt.Rhino 2. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. and pick. enter the start of the curve. To end the curve. enter additional control points. At the Next point. press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic.

second moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1.0. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard.0 (+/.1e-006. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.1. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.1. product moments.34 (+/. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.0). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. First moments. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. Object properties and location are stored with the object. it is created when the object is pasted.014). 4 215 . and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select the box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. If the layer does not exist. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.4601236. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. select the box.Rhino 2.8545412. When you Paste objects into Rhino. select the box.7e-006.

The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt.3921 (+/. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. press Enter to stop making cut planes. 216 . The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the end point of a line that defines a plane.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box.0. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0001). Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. At the End of cut plane prompt. At the Start of cut plane prompt. select the first point of a line to define a plane. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box.

0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. second moments. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.1e-006. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2.1. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. product moments. Solid cylinder 217 .4601236. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. select the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt.0 (+/. At the End of cylinder prompt.7e-006. First moments.1. choose a radius. choose a center point for the base.1. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Radius prompt.0). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. choose a point for the center of the top surface. select the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.8545412.

Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Layers. To start a new model. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. Select the control points on the curve to delete. saved views. Press Delete. All objects in the model are deleted.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Delete Delete selected objects. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. use New command instead. If you want to post-select objects to delete. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 218 . use the Erase command.Rhino 2.

At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. select a boundary to detach. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.axis. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. select your digitizing arm.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. choose an origin in Rhino. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. and the trim curve is created.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. Rhino will do it for you. Microscribe. Similar to Untrim . Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. select the proper serial port and baud rate. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. use the arm to choose a y. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world.axis in the real world.axis is perpendicular to the x. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve.axis in the real world. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. 219 . In the Baud Rate dialog box. You do not need to ensure that the y. use the arm to choose an x.Rhino 2.

use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. You can draw lines. Digitize the third set of reference points. If it is more convenient. circles. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. choose an x. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. you can use the digitizer. Thus. recording reference points as you go. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt.Rhino 2. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. 220 . Whatever the reason. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse.axis in Rhino.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. or the object moves slightly. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. arcs. and is assigned to the F12 key.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and curves with the digitizer. choose a y. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.

and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. Microscribe. From the Tools menu. and O. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. or you need to close and restart Rhino. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. click Digitize. and Y for the origin. click Digitize. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. This is the reference polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. and y. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.Rhino 2.axis on the table. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis on the table.axes. Label each point O. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. X. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. use the arm to choose point O on the real object.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer.. If the digitizer or object moves. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. use the arm to choose a y. and then click Calibrate. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. From the Tools menu. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. Y. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. x. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. use the arm to choose an x.

touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. enter a point on the base plane. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. You can space the planes at intervals. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. enter the start of the section plane axis. To digitize in meters. When you finish digitizing points on the object. Press Enter when you are finished. Type C to create a closed curve.54. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well.Rhino 2. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. specify how you want to space the planes. hold the pedal. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. To digitize in centimeters. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. To digitize in millimeters.0254.4. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. enter 2.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. enter a third point on the base plane. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. 222 . enter 0. direction. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. At the Third point on plane prompt. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. At the Second point on plane prompt. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. type the scale factor for all digitized input. enter 25. At the Start of axis prompt. The planes are defined with a base point. As long as the pedal is depressed. and spacing. a point is sampled. enter a second point on the base plane. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing.

DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. enter the distance between sampled points. At the Select second line prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. As long as the pedal is depressed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. a point is sampled. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. 223 . DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. Rhino samples points. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. pick a second line. pick a line. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges.Rhino 2. When you release the pedal. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Place the dimension prompt. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance.

At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. pick a curve.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to.Rhino 2. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Place the dimension prompt.

At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. enter an angle for the dimension line.Rhino 2. enter the second point of a reference angle. At the Second reference point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. 225 . pick a curve. Or the first point of a reference angle. At the Place the dimension prompt.

pick a point for the dimension line location. to change the direction. pick a point for the dimension line location.directions at the point. pick a point on the model to dimension to. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. Or. On surfaces. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. At the Press Enter when done prompt. type F. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Curve direction 226 . select a curve. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. red and green arrows show the u. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt.and v. Dir Show direction display. Press Enter to terminate the display.Rhino 2. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. surface or polysurface.

pick a point at which to aim the directional light. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction.order and direction. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. the UReverse.Rhino 2. unless you apply textures. The location of the directional light does not matter. 227 . The directional light icon does not render or shade. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. VReverse.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction.and v. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. pick a location for the directional light. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt.

To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors. When Object snaps are disabled. clear the Disable checkbox. light the scene less. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. Distance Measure the distance between two points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. pick a point. 228 .Rhino 2. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. like gray. right-click the Disable checkbox. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command.

229 . Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. select curves and press Enter. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. At the Number of segments prompt. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. type an integer number and press Enter. Note Point objects display as small squares. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. use the Split command. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt.0000 units. select the curves to divide and press Enter. Point objects are not a part of any other object. At the Length of segments prompt. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. reversing the direction of the curve.Rhino 2.

The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. Point objects are not a part of any other object. If you want points to start at the other end. use the Dir command to flip the curve. or polysurface to evaluate. 230 . DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. use the Split command. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. surface. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. select a curve. When a polysurface is picked. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.Rhino 2.

In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. 231 . enter the location of the dot. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. type the text to show in the dot. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. You can check this with the Dir command. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Location of dot prompt.Rhino 2. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red.

Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . A surface is created that drapes over the objects.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode.Rhino 2. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode.

Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. textblocks. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. surfaces. the surface will always sag more than the original. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. For example. type c (curve). Because of this. type f (face). and polysurfaces. or bnd (boundary). edge. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. The object will be duplicated in place. dimensions. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. meshes. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. surfaces. and press Enter. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. select an object to duplicate. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. but it only makes points. then select the edge to duplicate. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object.Rhino 2. To limit your selection to surfaces. The Dup command only duplicates curves. or lights. and solids. It does not duplicate points. Dup Duplicate an object. Duplicate border curve 233 . It only sees mesh or render mesh objects.

select the first curve. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. For many surface creation commands. 234 . select the third curve. Or. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. select the fourth curve.Rhino 2. select the second curve. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. press Enter to create a triangular surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the edges of a surface. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves.

In the Edit Dimension dialog box. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. EditDim Edit dimension text. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. type new text. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. select a dimension. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross.Rhino 2. You can use surface edges. For a surface from closed planar curves. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets.

They are not the same as knots. 236 . In the Edit Text dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. Type the new text. set the options. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. select a text block. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing.Rhino 2.

This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print.25 inches. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. When you place annotation text. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. enter the endpoint for the second axis. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. enter the center point. enter the endpoint for the first axis. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Example If your units are inches. At the End of second axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. The two sizes update each other. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).Rhino 2.

At the End of first axis prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter the second focus point. enter the end of the axis. enter the end of the second axis. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes.Rhino 2. enter a focus point. Draw an ellipse from focus points. At the End of second axis prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. 238 . enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Partial Draws a partial ellipse.

0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. 239 . End of second axis prompt. enter a focus point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. End of third axis prompt. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter the second focus point. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. choose an endpoint for the major axis. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt.Rhino 2. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. or type a height and press Enter. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. End of first axis prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. choose a center point. choose an endpoint.

Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. curvature. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. and other important properties. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. When you use the EMap command. 240 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping.Rhino 2. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. These meshes can be large.

Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. When Faster is selected. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. When More reliable is selected. select More reliable. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. 241 . Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. under Zebra and EMap.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. on the Shade tab. but will always work.

select a surface edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. No means there is one drag point. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. At the Start of region to edit. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. In each case. One-point-per-end mode. you are moving control points of the curve. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. maintains the tangent direction. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. drag point indicators. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. 242 . drag control points to edit the edge bulge. as with the Blend command. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the End of region to edit.Rhino 2.

243 . aliases.1 2. After editing. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.1 2.Rhino 2.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. For example.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. the script Circle 0. During EndBulgeSrf editing. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does.

Exit Exit Rhino. Note Erase is the same as Delete. the untrimmed surface is used. Press Enter when done prompt.z format.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. A point object is created on the surface. and the U. Note When a polysurface is picked. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. select the surface to evaluate. select the objects you want to erase. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of.y. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.Rhino 2. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. 244 . If the surface is trimmed. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. select a point. click points on the surface. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Or use the C option to suppress creating points.

In the Files of type box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. In the Files of type box. Export Export selected objects to a file.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. File. select the file type you want to use. Use the Explode command. 245 . Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. layer color. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. In the File name box.0 files. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. and selected mass properties. Click Save. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. In the File name box. select objects to explode. object name. type a filename. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. Rhino supports several file types. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. This command is obsolete. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file.Rhino 2. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. object render color. type a filename. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Click Save. select Rhino 2 3D Models.

Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. At the next Select boundary objects. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Or. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. 246 . Click Save.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. select objects to extend. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. select Rhino 2 3D Models. enter a name for the text file. At the next Select object to extend prompts. type a filename.Rhino 2. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. Or. Press Enter when done prompts. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. In the Files of type box. The extension is joined to the original curve. select a boundary object to extend to. Extend Extend a curve. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. In the File name box.

Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension.Rhino 2. 247 . type an angle for the arc.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Type=Line Makes a line extension. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. Or. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the End point or angle prompt. enter the end of the extension. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. surfaces. and solids as boundary edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. Note You can use any combination of curves. select a curve to extend. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. Or. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. At the Radius of arc prompt. use the Fillet command with a zero radius.

ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Select near the end of the curve to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. use Extend a curve. select a curve to extend. use Extend a curve. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. enter the endpoint of the extension. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes.

ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. 249 . Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. select the curve to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. near the end you want to extend. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. Options Join If Join=Yes. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. select a curve to extend.Rhino 2. if possible. Or. At the End of line or length prompt. type a distance to extend and press Enter.

and MetaNURBS in LightWave. The extension length is based on parameterization. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. depending on the shape of the object. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. Then the surface is extended on the end. This fixes the original. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. enter an amount to extend. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. 250 . or pick two points to specify the distance. Note With the linear extension. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt.Rhino 2.

ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. If you need curved cross sections. If you need angled cross sections along surface. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. v or both directions. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. Extract several isoparms. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. In contrast to InsertKnot. choose a point. The marker is constrained to the surface. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. and Loft a surface through them. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. and isoparms display at the marker. If you need to place an object on a surface. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations.and v-directions of the surface. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way.Rhino 2. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. use Project or Intersect. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. and polygon mesh objects. surfaces.

and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. select curves and press Enter. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. drag the desired distance and pick. 252 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and polygon mesh objects. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface.Rhino 2. select surfaces and press Enter. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. The original surface is left intact. Solid Tools. the surface is copied. At the Extrusion distance prompt. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. or type a distance and press Enter. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. If you choose the Copy option. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. Note ExtractPt works on curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first.

Smooth. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal.Rhino 2. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. and Chamfer. The choices are Sharp. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Round. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . then the extrusion is in that direction. This option does not appear for open curves.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. Otherwise.

pick a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. To draw a deformable plane. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. 254 . choose the point. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. use Create a 1-Rail sweep.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. select the curve. select the path curve. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. select surfaces and press Enter. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. The default is vertical to the construction plane. draw two lines at right angles. select the curve to extrude. or enter a distance and press Enter. At the Point to extrude to prompt.Rhino 2. At the Extrusion distance prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. At the Select path curve prompt.

type J and press Enter. or accept the default and press Enter. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. enter a number.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Fillet Fillet two curves. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. 255 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. type the fillet radius and press Enter.Rhino 2. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. Or. At the Tolerance prompt. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. type R and press Enter. select curves and press Enter. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. Join To change the Join option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt.

FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. choose the second surface to fillet. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. choose the first surface to fillet. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.Rhino 2. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. In general. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. At the Fitting tolerance <0. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. enter a tolerance. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. 257 . you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. The original curves are unchanged. For scripting. Each face has a constant monochrome color. select curves and press Enter. The curves are refitted. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. If you have a dense string of points.

Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. The grid. On the Shade tab. click Options. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. axes. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. 258 . If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. the OpenGL shade options will be available.Rhino 2. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If OpenGL shading is turned on. object highlighting. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. this shading mode may be much faster. click Use OpenGL. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.

If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.Rhino 2. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. click Use OpenGL. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. click Options. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. The objects looks exactly the same. If OpenGL shading is turned on. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. On the Shade tab. At the Increment size prompt.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. but their directions are reversed. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. that define the outline of the flattened surface. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. such as Union instead of Difference. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. 259 . each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. this shading mode may be much faster. select curves. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. enter a number and press Enter. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. If Booleans give unexpected results.

Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Instead of drawing a line before the command.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. select the new backbone curve to flow to. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow.Rhino 2. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. This curve will be used as a new backbone. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. Flow works on the control points of an object . Front Set to world front view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. especially those with trimmed edges. At the Original backbone curve . For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. At the New backbone curve . Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Flow does not work on polysurfaces.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects.

If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. At the Second curve .select near end prompt.Rhino 2. select the second curve near the coinciding end.select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . you must edit your Rhino. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. Grid Toggle the display of the grid. 261 .

HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. You can then apply commands to the entire group. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. 262 . Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Group Place selected objects in a group. A handlebar displays on the curve. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. select the curve or surface to edit.Rhino 2.

Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. A handlebar will display on the surface. select a bitmap file. Height The scale of the height of the surface. or enter a length. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. At the Second corner or length prompt. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. select the surface to edit. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. 263 . Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. pick a point. pick a point.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. At the First corner prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. In the Heightfield dialog box. adjust options. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt.

select Turns or Pitch. If you select Pitch. enter the start of the helix axis. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. the helix will twist counterclockwise.Rhino 2. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. enter the end of the helix axis.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. enter the number of turns for the helix. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. If you select Turns. 264 . This is the line the helix will wind around. At the Radius prompt. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. At the End of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. enter the radius for the helix.

Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects.Rhino 2. 265 . Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Organic. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Visibility. close the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. If you exit the model and reopen it. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. select the objects you want to hide. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Status bar: Osnap Or.

1 2 Select one or more spotlights. the more concentrated the hotspot. (This is a limitation of the command. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Use 1. ) prompt. only half of the model needs to be given.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water.axis. The smaller the number.0 and 1. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. The information displays in a separate window. not a statement of a physical principle. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. enter a number between 0. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. that is. Longitude=X.Rhino 2.axis or the y. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. and press Enter. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. The longitudinal direction. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. Waterline Length Length at water line. 266 . Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. the command does nothing. The visible objects hide. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone.

ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. In the File name box. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. Click Open. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. The objects are reparameterized. type a filename. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. select curves. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. If the imported file type does not support layers. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. select Rhino 3D Models.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. and STL Tools File menu. the command will fail. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. File. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere).Rhino 2. the objects are placed on the current layer. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Note Rhino supports many file types. 267 .

0. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. it does. and rotate. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. etc.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.3dm bg 32986. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.Rhino 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm tricky 1a 2. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. 268 . The scale operation works just like the Scale command.3dm tricky 1a. type a filename. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. At the Rotation Angle <0. choose a start angle. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. select Rhino 3D Models. Press Enter to place the model at 0. scale. or a point to rotate from. At the Scale factor <1. y. If you say yes.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects.3dm tricky 1a 1. Click Open.3dm bg 32985. In the File name box. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. Scale Scales the objects.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm hi 1. If you say no.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists.3dm Untitled a 2147483647. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.3dm tricky 1a 1.0 with no changes in rotation or scale.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. and z-directions.3dm hi 2. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.

The marker is constrained to track along the curve. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. press Enter to end the command. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. select the curve to insert edit points to. After inserting kinks. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point.Rhino 2. 269 . choose points where you want to insert a kink.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve.

Rhino 2. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. pick points of the surface for new knots. or Both. 270 . At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. select a surface. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. V. pick points on the curve for new knots. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.

The curve closes automatically. A straight line replaces part of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. At the Next point of curve. 271 . Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. press Enter. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. enter an additional point. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. enter the start of the curve. Main. To end the curve. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. enter additional points. and pick. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). At the End of line prompt.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. At the Start of line prompt. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. and the parts are joined. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts.Rhino 2. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. pick a point for the end of the straight segment.

7. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. At the Start of curve prompt. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. 3. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. 272 . Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. When you draw an interpolated curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. Valid degrees are 1. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). select a surface.Rhino 2. 5. and 11. choose an additional point. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. 9. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Sharp When you make a closed curve. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. At the Next point on curve. choose the first point of the curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt.

form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Close Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Knot. Cen. Midpoint. 273 .Rhino 2. Near. and Intersection work. Object snaps End.

Rhino 2. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Intersect Intersect two objects.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. To create surface and solid intersections. use the BooleanIntersection command. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Non-polyline curves are rejected. Invert Invert the selection. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created.

Contrast this with the Invert command. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges.Rhino 2. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. which also selects other objects. press Enter. 275 . Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Points selected. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. select objects. Invert also selects the polysurface. Join Join objects.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. When you are finished selecting objects to join.

NetworkSrf. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). then the second one gets moved.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance.Rhino 2. If not. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. NetworkSrf. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. and resetting the tolerance. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. For simplicity. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. 276 .015 units apart. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. you can have some problems later on. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. BlendSrf. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. Using the Millimeter template. no join occurs. Booleans. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. If you use JoinEdge. Booleans. When two edges are joined. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. doing a Join. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. or Patch. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. a 3. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. Do you want to join these edges?". and intersections go across the seam without gaps. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. use MergeSrf. or Patch. but are not coincident. If the edges are too far out of line. depending on what you may do with the model. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. For the group joiner. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. use MergeSrf. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. BlendSrf. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf.

most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. 277 . JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. BlendSrf. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. select curves. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. The picking order can make the difference. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. No mesh points are moved. Booleans. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. merged or deleted. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. y. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. The action performed is reported on the command line.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. If there are naked edges.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. NetworkSrf. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. This command does not work in all cases. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. or Patch. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. use MergeSrf. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve.Rhino 2.

Rhino displays objects on locked layers. press Enter to close the lasso.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. select the layers you want to lock. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer.Rhino 2. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Select Points. 278 . You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. but you cannot select them. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. See the PluginManager command. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. Start the Lasso command. Click the Lock option. Lasso Select points with a lasso.

Click the Off option.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. separate the layer names with commas: One. Note For layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Layer Three" 279 .Layer Two. type the name of the layer to turn off. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Click the On option. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Layer Three". separate the layer names with commas: One. from the list select layers you want to turn on. type the name of the layer to lock. LayerOff Turn a layer off.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Note For layer names with spaces. In the Edit Layers dialog box. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Two. from the list. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. Note For layer names with spaces. select the layers you want to turn off. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. LayerOn Turn a layer on.Layer Two. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Rhino 2.Two. separate the layer names with commas: One. type the name of the layer to turn on.Layer Three".Layer Two. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Two. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. unlike the Lock (object) command.

pick the start of the leader.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. They will not show in the perspective view. At the Next point of leader. Left Set to world left view. Press Enter to stop the command. At the Next point of leader. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Press Enter when done prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . pick additional points.Rhino 2. pick the next point on the leader line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. you must edit your Rhino. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. This is the arrow end. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed.

Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. select a curve or edge. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Line Draw a line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. and can be used to create other curves. including lines and polylines. and meshes.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. arcs. BothSides option selected 281 . Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. pick the start point for the line. polylines. polysurfaces.Rhino 2. pick the end point for the line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. ellipses. you can select any of these curve objects. Line. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. circles. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. At the End of line prompt.

282 . enter the start of the line. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. At the End of base line prompt. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. enter the second point. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. enter the end of the line. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. enter the start of the base line. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. enter the start of the base line.

and parallel to the current construction plane. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the end of the base line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the Pivot angle prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. At the Select object prompts. At the End of line prompt. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. 283 . pick the end of the line. type an angle and press Enter. enter the end of the line.

press Enter. When you are finished drawing lines. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. enter the start of the first line segment. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.Rhino 2. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. 284 . BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. At the End of line prompts. enter pick endpoints for segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve.

The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. 285 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves.

LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar.Rhino 2. 286 . BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve.

Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. LineV Draw a vertical line. At the End of line prompt.Rhino 2. enter the second endpoint. or enter a length and press Enter.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. BothSides option selected 287 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. Line vertical to construction plane.

288 . Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. enter an integer. the code interpreted and run immediately. select one object. You can download plug-ins. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Add Adds an item to the list of script files.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Close Closes the dialog box. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. or press Enter to accept the default. If the script file just contains script expressions. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model.rhino3d. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. from www.Rhino 2.com/plug-ins. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. Load Loads a selected script file. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. See the PluginManager command. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. on the Options dialog box. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later.

Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers.. pick on a seam point marker.. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Lock Lock objects. adjust options.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. In the Loft Options dialog box. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve.0 Beta\System). Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction.exe is located (e. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. and move it along the closed curve. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. You can snap to locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. press Enter.. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.g.Rhino 2. When you are done adjusting the connections. In the install folder (e.0 Beta). Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. Select open curves near the same ends.0 Beta\Scripts). In the folder where Rhino. At the Location of seam point prompt. Preview. In the scripts folder (e. Note You cannot select locked objects. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock.g. select the objects you want to lock. 289 . The unlocked objects lock.g.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. 291 . Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. reversing the direction of the curve. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction.Rhino 2.

Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.Rhino 2. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. This is also known as a ruled surface. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. 292 . Available when you have selected three shape curves.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Units tab before lofting. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves.

These are called ruling lines. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. 293 . and some steel ship hulls. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. you may get unexpected results. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other.Rhino 2. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. cones. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. the surface is not developable. You may get no surface or a partial surface. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. Preview Click to preview the loft. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. If the curves have kinks. tear. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. If the surface is not linear in one direction. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. too. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. or wrinkle. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil.

You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable.Rhino 2. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. 294 . These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You just have to be careful. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results.D surface. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. thereby smoothing the surface.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives.

" The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. aluminum). 295 . Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. select the layout and object visibility options. expand the plates. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. though. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3.D models. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original.y-plane. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up.Rhino 2. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical.

While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. Note This command does not create 2. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. they may not appear on the correct layer. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. 296 . There is no way to avoid this. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges.Rhino 2. If two surfaces pass through each other. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).D view. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though.D drawings from mesh objects.

Rhino 2. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. 297 . The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. If the curve was open. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. select the first curve at the end that will move. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. This command tries to fix those surfaces. Match Match two curves. Sometimes. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. select a curve to make periodic. Then use control point editing on both curves. it is closed. Close the dialog box. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . select the surface you want to make non-periodic. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. At the Choose an object prompt. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. At the Select curve to match . To get a feel for what the command does. If a joined curve is made periodic. Other closed curves.pick near end prompt. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic.

0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch.Rhino 2. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. 298 . Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.

This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. 299 . If you edit this curve with control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched.Rhino 2. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. The curves are merged together after the match. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. Merge Only available with the Curvature option.

select the edge of the surface to match. If the target surface is also untrimmed. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. select the edge of the target surface. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity).select near edge prompt. 300 . You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2.select near edge prompt. choose the type of match.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). In the Match Surface dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. At the Select target surface .

Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. 301 .0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance.Rhino 2. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. If necessary. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Generally. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end.

in units. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. percent. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. in degrees. 302 .0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces.Rhino 2. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.

or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already.) In usable terms. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. Something like position = 0. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. it can twist the surface near the edge. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. If the surface being changed is trimmed. This is sometimes useful. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. 303 . the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. especially if tight tolerances are specified. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately.2. If refinement is interrupted.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. If you need to match to part of an edge.Rhino 2. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. but it will still be a valid trim. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. If it is roundish. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. In these cases. If refinement is specified. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. but you will get something. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. it may be useful to preview without refinement. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. That may be several seconds. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. This is the hardest condition to meet. but if the conditions are wrong. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. it will stay roundish. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching.knot spacing to curvature vector. If it isn't.

An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. double click the viewport title bar. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. select the first surface to merge. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface.Rhino 2. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. if possible. select an adjacent edge. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. must belong to the same surface. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. and the prompt repeats. Note The edges must be naked. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. Or.1 ) prompt. Right click the viewport title bar. select the second surface. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. must share an endpoint. then click Restore. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. Maximize Maximize Rhino. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. then click Maximize. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. double click the viewport title bar. 304 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Or. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined.

notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .Rhino 2. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. End view of original surfaces . Smooth The surface will be smooth.

The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . The resulting surface can be edited.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface.Rhino 2. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. editable surface. you have to approach things differently. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. Once you have trimmed surfaces. with finer or coarser mesh. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. The default is 1 (full smoothing). The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. 306 . It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Generally. mirroring it. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. In some ways. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. For closed surfaces. A mesh can be preview and then created. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. This is useful for modeling half of an object.

more accurate meshes. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. No refinement results in faster meshing. Scale-dependent. edge to Srf options. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. which is the default. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Setting Max dist. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Max dist. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Zero means no limit. and adjustment for trim boundaries. The default is zero. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. When the Refine is checked.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. and higher polygon count. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. and lower polygon count. Scale independent. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Simple planes is not selected. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Zero means no minimum. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Limits the size of the polygon edges. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. In practice. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. 307 . This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. less accurate meshes. and higher polygon count. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. By default.Rhino 2. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. By default. which is the default. Scale independent. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. When the Refine is checked. Default is 0. more accurate meshes. Scale independent. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. after initial meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. When this Refine is checked. Jagged seams is not selected. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle.

choose a diagonal corner. not editable. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. 308 . Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. At the Height prompt. at the Width prompt. choose a center point for the base. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. At the Other corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. If a length was entered. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. At the End of cone prompt. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. Or type in a length and press Enter. choose a radius. choose a height. choose a width by picking. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. or type in a height and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. or type in a width and press Enter. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose the cone's point. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. choose a corner of the box.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. joined from a base and top circular meshes.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. At the Height prompt. choose a center point for the base. and a open cone-shaped mesh.Rhino 2. joined from a base circular mesh. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a radius. choose a height. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. 310 . Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. If a length was entered. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. choose a width by picking. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a corner of the plane. or type in a width and press Enter. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. choose a the diagonal corner. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. Or type in a length and press Enter.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes.Rhino 2. at the Width prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt.

0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. At the Radius prompt.Rhino 2. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a center point. choose a radius. 311 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.

312 . Mirror Mirror objects. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Move Move objects. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. The original is left selected. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane.Rhino 2. As you move the cursor. Press delete to delete the original. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. choose a point to move the objects from. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. choose a point on the mirror plane. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Note Mirror makes a copy. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Select the objects. Minimize Minimize Rhino.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy.

you can type corner1. Slider scale affects this mode. to move the objects vertically. Modeling Aids tab. choose a location for objects.0 Command Reference Or. type V and press Enter. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. MoveUVN Use u-. At the Point to move to prompt.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. At the Choose offset point prompt. corner2. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. corner3.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. or z-direction. pick a base point. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. v-. pick a new location for the base point. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. and n. 313 .sliders to move the selected control points. y-. Along control polygon The u. To move objects small amounts. During the command.

You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.Rhino 2. rename or delete unwanted named views. NamedView Edit named views. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. 314 . rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. All points to edit have to be selected. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. All points to edit have to be selected.

You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. If you want to select the curves individually. the surface will have four edges. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. The surface will be created. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. If a curve and surface edge overlap. be sure to select the surface edge. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Edge Matching After the command is done. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. the best guess is made at the surface. The default is the system tolerance x 10. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. The default is the system tolerance. 315 . Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. you can turn the automatic sorter off. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves.

0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .Rhino 2. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Tangent. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Select from Loose. Position.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .

Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. grid settings. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. drag a window for a new viewport. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. For example.Rhino 2. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. and tolerances. Use New to open the template you want to change. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. layers.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. select a template to base your model file on. New Create a new model. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. viewport layout. 318 . NewViewport Create a new viewport. units.

The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextV command. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Start the NextU command. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.

The marker is constrained to the surface. 320 .Rhino 2. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. choose a point on the surface. pick a point for the end of the line. At the Point on surface prompt. select a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. or enter a length and press Enter. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. At the Length of line prompt.

If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Offset Offset a curve. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Line normal to a surface. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. type information you want to save with the model. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . it will be open next time the model is opened. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. copy.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box.

You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. A surface and its offset 322 . use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Otherwise. select a curve or edge. or cone is offset. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Negative values offset the other way. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. cylinder. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Note For best results. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. click on one side the curve. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances.Rhino 2. When a plane. the resulting surface is exact. sphere. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. torus. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance.

Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. Note Rhino supports several file types. All other layers will be turned off. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. type a filename. not the trim edges. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. When you turn the layers back on. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. select an object on the layer you want to turn off.Rhino 2. they are not converted to NURBS objects. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. select Rhino 3D Models. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. they are also unlocked. 323 . clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. select the layer to turn on. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. Open Open an existing model. In the File name box. so the fact that they are locked is lost. Click Open.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. File. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor.

the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. to orient copies of the objects. pick a target point for the second reference point. The prompt will change to Scale=No. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. but objects remain the same size. The objects are moved. from the File menu. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. the screen position of each toolbar. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. or some of them may be hidden. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. and the number of columns when floating. select a workspace file. Options Opens the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. pick a target point for the first reference point. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. whether it is floating or docked. Or. type c and press Enter. Scale If Scale=No.Rhino 2. 324 . In the Open Workspace dialog box. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. and whether it is hidden or showing. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. type s and press Enter. click Open. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. the buttons in them.

select the surface. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. 325 . At the Select surface to orient on prompt. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1.Rhino 2. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. select objects and press Enter. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. If the curve does not start on the edge. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. to orient copies of the objects. The two triplet of points define two planes. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. pick a point that. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. The three points are not interchangeable. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. Or. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. with the other two reference points. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects.

you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction.and v-directions. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. As you move the cursor over the surface. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. The Mirror option toggles between them. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. There are four possible orientations on the surface. pick a point on the surface to define another target point.Rhino 2. 326 . Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical.

select the curve you want to align the object to. If you pick this point in different views. At the Base point prompt. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. clicking Ortho in the status bar. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. Shift Note The Ortho command. and the F8 key. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. click a point on the curve to move the object. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. select a base point on the object. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. The cursor tracks along the curve. are all toggles. you will get different end results. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. 327 . Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve.Rhino 2. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down.

Rhino 2. When Ortho is on. When polysurfaces are meshed. 328 . and Toggle. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Modeling Aids tab. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. Polysurface made of four surfaces. Off. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. the packed texture coordinates are created. The default angle is 90 degrees. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. type the new angle and press Enter. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. At the Ortho Angle prompt. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. Packed textures. Note When Ortho is on.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. The default angle is 90 degrees. If more than one object is selected. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers.

PanLeft Pan the view left. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Plan parallel views like the default Top. PanRight Pan the view right. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. Front. PanDown Pan the view down.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.Rhino 2. use the Pan command. 329 . Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Pan Pan the view. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. use the Pan command.

At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. use the Pan command. 330 . Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. and then click Focus. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. From the Curve menu. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Direction. This is the "open" direction. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola. show a direction for the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. click Parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. Focus From the Curve menu.Rhino 2. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. click Parabola.

331 . type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.Rhino 2. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. End. Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Focus and direction. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid.

Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. they are pasted into your model. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. Object properties and location are restored with the object.0 Command Reference End. it is created when the object is pasted. Uncapped paraboloid. 332 .Rhino 2.

select the point objects. These don't have to be connected. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. Note This command can be very useful. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. adjust options. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Minimum of 8 points per curve. To make a highly curved surface. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). but it also can produce some unexpected results. but with proper configuration. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. it will be very close to reasonable input. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. In the Patch Options dialog box. select curves that form a closed shape.Rhino 2. Even for a relatively flat patch. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. you may need a starting surface. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. use a starting surface with a similar shape. 333 . and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. For a trimmed patch. curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. and edges to base the patch on. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area.

it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. 2 The wallpaper image. you must edit your Rhino. aliases. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. Pause is a built in command option. 334 . and type PerspectiveMatch. Perspective Set to perspective view. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input.

Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. 335 .Rhino 2. 4 All points picked on the model. All points picked on the image. The first point on the model. The first point on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.

The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. select a bitmap file to use. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. etc. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. This aids in accurate image point picking. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. At the Length of picture frame prompt. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. Pipe Draw a pipe. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. Make the image view large. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. PictureFrame Create a picture frame.Rhino 2. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. In particular. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. you have modified your model. Pick carefully. If possible. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. changed the viewport settings. Note The image must be a true perspective image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap.

At the Starting radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the Second start radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt.Rhino 2. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. At the Starting radius prompt. At the First corner prompt. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. 337 . At the Second corner or length prompt. select a curve.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Click Open. type T and press Enter. At the First end radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. and the closed pipe is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. select a bitmap file. At the Second end radius prompt. Or. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. enter the radius for the pipe. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. if the curve is closed. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. select a curve. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. For an open curve. If the pipe objects are capped. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. at the End radius prompt.

scale it. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport.Z> prompt. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). By default the Top. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location.Y. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera.Y. At the New target location <X. enter the camera point. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. 3-D Digitizing. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. align it (move and scale in one operation). and temporarily hide it. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. and JPG. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. see Place a bitmap backdrop. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. TGA. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. BMP. To place a backdrop behind your model. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. 338 .Rhino 2. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. PCX. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. In PARALLEL viewports. Placing a second deletes the first. remove it. enter the target point. You can move the background bitmap. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. Front.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer.Z> prompt.

Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). From the Curve menu. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. click Free-form. then those objects are not visible on the screen. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. Planar Toggle planar mode. In PERSPECTIVE views. In PERSPECTIVE views. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. PlaceTarget Place the target location. regardless of where the previous point was picked. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Toolbar: Menu Set View. 339 .Rhino 2. then click Control Points. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point.Y. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Without Planar on. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. enter the target point. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. 3-D Digitizing. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera.Z> prompt. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. In PARALLEL viewports.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

start the polyline. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Next point of polyline prompts. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. enter the start point of the polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. press Enter.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. press Enter. 349 . making a closed polyline. To end the polyline. select a mesh object. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. To end the polyline.

PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. making a closed polyline. 350 . Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. 351 .0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the PrevU command. Select a point on the surface. Start the PrevV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.

Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Always. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. 352 . Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. and each viewport is printed in its area. the central part of the view is printed.Rhino 2. print scale.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. The part that does not fit is not printed. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. If viewports overlap. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. the objects outside the viewport are printed. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. print to a file. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. If you fit the image to the page. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. and number of copies. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. the contents are printed on top of each other. No viewport edge is printed. color.

PrintSetup Set up your printer. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. as the paper you're printing on. Print. hide them. Curve projected to a surface 353 . and same orientation. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. if they don't fit on the page. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. too. Then. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. (Actually. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. If the objects don't fit.Rhino 2. If you want to print at some other scale. Light objects do not print. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. It will crop objects that are visible. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. not printing from perspective viewports.

Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. choose to keep or delete the input objects. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. lines. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. however. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Project will never work correctly for this. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Basic shapes like ellipses. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. This command works on points.Rhino 2. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. circles. Properties Edit object properties. set the projection type for the viewport. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . curves. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. and free-form curves work well. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. surfaces.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command.

Toolbar: Menu: Main. Organic. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. Point Editing. Point Editing. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. STL Tools.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. To control point edit a polysurface. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. STL Tools. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Organic. surfaces.

Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.0000. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. Use curve commands to draw the curve. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . select a curve to measure. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. use the fewest control point possible. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. Both commands ask for the viewport name. Then. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. select the surface to pull the curves back to.Rhino 2. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. When drawing the curves. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts.

select a rail curve. In this case. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height.Rhino 2. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select a profile curve. Profile curve. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. rail curve. in addition to being revolved. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface.

2. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.Rhino 2. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.0 27. select the file to read. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.5. You can then select a file from the list.1.1. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.4.0. If you read in a particular file often.2.1. use the Enter command. If you leave off the filename. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.9 Enter etc…. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.4.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. The file contents are copied into the command line.8.txt Click the button to read the file.9.1 26.5. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.4. 358 . not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved. a file dialog box appears.5.8. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it. Note When building command files.0 23. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.1. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. ! Interpcrv 23.9.0 23.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis. If the rail curve is closed.7. readcommandfile myfile.

Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. but a more accurate fit. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. 359 . The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. click OK. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. the highest number of control points is shown. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing.Rhino 2. leaving only the rebuilt curves. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. use the FitCrv command.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. When you are satisfied with the results. If more than one curve is selected. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. Delete Input Deletes the original curves.

The degree can be set to 1 through 9. select an object. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. To see what it does.Rhino 2. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. draw two planes several units apart. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Edges are pulled away from the surface. in the Point Count boxes. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. Joined and exploded polysurface. in the Degree box. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box.

Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. At the Other corner or length prompt. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. You will be prompted for the width. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt.Rhino 2. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Or. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.an v-directions. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. 361 . choose a corner for the rectangle. enter the length of the rectangle. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle.

Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. enter the end of the same edge. At the End of edge prompt. enter the length of the rectangle. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. You will be prompted for the width. Or. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. select the center point of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt. 362 . enter the start of one edge of the rectangle.Rhino 2. select a corner point. At the Width prompt. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. enter the width of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. At the Height of rectangle prompt. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections.Rhino 2. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. 363 .0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt.

RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. click Preview. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. To see the results of the reduction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box.Rhino 2. General tab. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. 364 . This makes this command scriptable. set the polygon count.

this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. which may be undesirable in some cases. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. avoid clearing meshes.Rhino 2. Or. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. type c and press Enter. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). This command replaces the ClearMesh command. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. To reduce the size of the model file. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. For one thing. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. to remap copies of the objects. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. After RefreshShade. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. 365 .

0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. select objects.Rhino 2. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. select a curve. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. and Blend commands. select a surface. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. In particular. which is equal to the degree. 367 . Use the Group command to group objects together. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. At the Click knot to remove prompt. At the Select knotline to remove. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. Sweep2. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction.

the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. and render again.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. When on. expanded to fill the page. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Render tab. It has a single menu: File. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. the current working folder. 368 .Rhino 2. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. Render tab. increase the size of the viewport. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved.

Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. Toolbar: Render 369 . The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. Basically.Rhino 2. When on. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. zoom. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. or bump mapping. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. Does not show shadows.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves.

At the New U begin domain prompt. let's call them lefty and righty.and v.and vdomains for the surface. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. the texture is not distorted. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. In this example. and similar prompts. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. including the domain unless you apply textures. set the new limits of the u. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. However.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. The x. the x. First you must set the u. The y. it is distorted.length of righty is about 11.length for both is about 22 units.Rhino 2. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. Example You have two surfaces side by side. (In this example.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. 370 .

Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Or. Right click the title of a viewport. or to restore only the view. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Use the NamedView command to edit named views.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. choose a point on the revolution axis. Revolve Revolve a curve. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane.Rhino 2. select the named view to restore. then click Set View. 371 . then click the name of the view to restore. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. RestoreView Restore a named view. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. select the construction plane to restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. select one or more curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore.

click Exact or Deformable. choose a second point. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Enter the Start angle and End angle. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. enter the number of control points. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. The marker tracks on the curve. defining the revolution axis. In the Revolve Options dialog box. If you choose Deformable. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. select a curve.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. 372 .Rhino 2.

choose an end angle.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. or a point to rotate to. 373 . to rotate copies of the objects. Right Set to world right view. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. choose a point to rotate the objects around. Or. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. type C and press Enter. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. or a point to rotate from. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. choose a start angle.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. At the End of rotate axis prompt. the following prompt appears. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. If you entered a point to rotate from. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. to rotate copies of the objects. etc. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. or choose a point to rotate from. Or. choose a second point on the rotation axis. 374 . choose a point on the rotation axis. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. type c and press Enter. type in an angle.

Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. etc. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. 375 . At the Angle or first reference point prompt. pick a point. etc. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Or. place the construction plane. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up.Rhino 2. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. etc. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. At the Second reference point prompt. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. enter the start of the rotation axis. At the End of rotation axis prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. etc.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. use the RotateView command. type the name and path of the file to run. use the RotateView command. 376 . RotateUp Rotate the view up. Run Run another application from Rhino. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateRight Rotate the view right. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. At the Name of program to run prompt. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Press the arrow keys.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateView Rotate the view.

Cancel Closes the dialog box. Language Specifies the language of the code. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Save Save your model. See the PluginManager command. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. you can use RunScript command. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the File name box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Click Save. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Otherwise.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Save. File. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Note Rhino supports several file types. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. type a filename. 377 .0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript.

type a filename. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. select Rhino 2 3D Models. type a filename. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. and tolerances and save them in a template.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. 378 . viewport layout. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. Note Rhino supports several file types. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. In the File name box. Save. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. You can set up grid settings. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Click Save. Click Save. You can also save default geometry with the template. units. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Files tab. layers. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box.Rhino 2. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. This image displays when you select the file in the Open.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

381

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

388 . etc.Rhino 2. This command is "transparent. enter an object name. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. ?. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelPolyline Select all polylines. Note You can use wild cards (*. all objects with no name are selected. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. SelNone Deselect all objects.) to select multiple objects. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc.

Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit.direction based on previously selected control points.Rhino 2. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. Note SelLast clears the current selection set.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. 389 . Start the SelU command. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelPt Select all point objects. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

Press Enter to finish selecting rows.Rhino 2.and v.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. select the surface.direction. A surface with control points selected 390 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. At the Select row of points prompt. The control points on the surface display.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. or both directions.direction based on previously selected control points. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. v-direction. Start the SelV command.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.

The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade.rhino3d. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. ShadeAll. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. You can download plug-ins. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. and FlatShadeAll. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. This is not the same as restoring a named view. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt.com/plug-ins. from www. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. 392 . Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. FlatShade. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name.Rhino 2. Note Type w to start a window selection. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. Shade tab. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.

0 to 1. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. 393 . From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box.Rhino 2. SetLayer Set the current layer. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. The Undo command will work.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. select an object on the layer you want to be current. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Lets you name or rename a group. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list.0 to 255) Transparency (0. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. select the layer to set current. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces.

This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt.0 to 1. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. Rhino uses a generic name. Note The object material can be used by RIB.0 to 255) Transparency (0. and OBJ material/shader export. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. POV. double-click the viewport title bar.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. If no object name is defined. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. Moray UDO. Or. Object names are exported to IGES. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. 3DS. This is not the same as restoring a named view. If the object name has already been used. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. and RenderMan RIB. 394 . 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Or. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. POV-Ray. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object.Rhino 2. To set names for a group of objects. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID.

This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. At the Planar is On. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. Object names are not used in Rhino. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. enter one of the options. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. In the Set Points dialog box. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. if you selected ten unnamed objects. SetPt Set control point location. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. To set names for individual objects. POV-Ray. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. enter one of the options. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. At the Ortho is Off. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. Select the objects. For example. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". use the SetObjectName command. and RenderMan RIB.Rhino 2. check the coordinates you want to set. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Starting number Sets the starting number. 395 .

type the first letters of one of the options to set it. You still see interactive drawing of curves. At the Viewport height prompt. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. enter the viewport height in pixels. At the Grid snap is Off. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. etc. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. enter the viewport width in pixels.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location.Rhino 2. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. 396 .

It may not be very quick the first time. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Shade Shade a viewport.Rhino 2. If OpenGL is turned on. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Pan. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . and a special background color appears. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. zoom. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. with no shadows. monochrome. and no antialiasing. Note Be patient on the first shade. On the Shade tab set the options. Subsequent renderings may be faster. click Options. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. select the working directory. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. The grid and axes are not shown. this shading mode may be faster. the OpenGL shade options will be available. you get 256 colors for background and surface color.

The grid. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API).opengl. and no antialiasing. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. For more information. The grid and axes are not shown. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. object highlighting. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Options. Be patient on the first Shade. The objects in current viewport are shaded. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card.sgi. On the Shade tab. axes. see www. Pan.Rhino 2. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If OpenGL is turned on. On the Shade tab. monochrome. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. If you use OpenGL Shade. Subsequent renderings will be faster. click Use OpenGL. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. 398 .com/software/optimizer/. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library.org/ and www. the OpenGL shade options will be available. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. It may not be very quick the first time. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. then Rhino will use it. and a special background color appears. with no shadows. click Use OpenGL. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. this shading mode may be much faster. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. zoom.

Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. or annotation or the object will be selected. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. You do not have to select an isoparm.Rhino 2. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. Shear Shear objects. points. The click cannot be near curves. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. you can click on a shaded object to select it.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. select the objects to shear. 399 . isoparms. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. select objects and press Enter. Visibility. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges.Rhino 2. 400 . Show Show hidden objects. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. If you exit the model and reopen it. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. At the Reference point prompt. If your object has broken edges. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. pick the base point for the shear. The base point does not move with the shear. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. The edge is highlighted.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. Toolbar: Menu: Standard.

press Enter to terminate the command. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. If you cannot see the naked edges. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. Sometimes.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. The edges highlight. Camera icon. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. Status bar: Osnap 401 . The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. Edge Tools. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. terminate the command.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. Original trimmed surface. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. To fix this. You will see no visible change in the surface. When textures are applied to surfaces. select the objects you want to show. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. At the Select objects to show prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Organic. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. with underlying surface control points shown 402 .

only backwards. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. 403 . the silhouette is two circles. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. If you look at a doughnut from the side.Rhino 2. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. the silhouette looks like an oval. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. For example.

type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Or.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. drag the mouse. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch Sketch a curve. a polyline appears along your path. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen.Rhino 2. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. 404 . Release the mouse button.

At the Click and drag to sketch.Rhino 2. press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. type C. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. Or. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. select the surface to sketch on.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. drag a curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Sketch on surface 405 . Type C to close the curve mid-drag.

Smooth works on mesh objects. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. select the curves. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. From the Transform menu. In the Smooth dialog box.01 and 1. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. 406 . Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth.2. The selected control points will move slightly.00. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart.Rhino 2. Smooth Smooth objects. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. too. click Point Editing. adjust the Smooth factor. then click Control Points On. The default is 0. The larger the number. click Smooth. smoothing the curve or surface.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. meshes. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. From the Edit menu. The selected entities will appear to melt.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.Rhino 2.

408 .0 Command Reference When Snap is on. it is grayed out. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Sphere Draw a sphere. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. At the Radius prompt. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. SnapSize Set snap size. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. choose a point for the radius. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. or enter a distance and press Enter. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. Grid tab. Note When Snap is on. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Note This is different from the grid size. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. choose a center point. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. When Snap is off.Rhino 2. Modeling Aids tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. A sphere is single closed surface.

0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. choose an endpoint for the diameter. At the Second point on sphere prompt. A sphere is a single closed surface. 409 . choose the third circumference point.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. At the End of diameter prompt. At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose the first circumference point. choose the second circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere.

enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. If you select Turns. the spiral will twist counterclockwise.Rhino 2. enter the number of turns for the spiral. enter the end of the spiral axis. If you select Reverse twist. 410 . Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the radius for the spiral. At the Radius prompt. select Turns or Pitch. enter the start of the spiral axis. If you select Pitch. This is the line the spiral will wind around. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. At the End of axis prompt. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral.

press Enter. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. type p and press Enter. select the cutting objects. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. the polysurfaces are ignored. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. 411 . At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. surfaces. The marker moves along the curve. At the Select cutting objects prompt. and points.Rhino 2. select the objects to split.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. select the curve to split. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects.

Front. or b. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. Select a surface. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top.press Enter when done prompt. The edge is split into two edges. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. 412 . Type u. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. surfaces and polysurfaces. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. to access option directly. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. v. select a point. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Options control the direction of the split. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. and Right view. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. select points at which to split the surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. At the Split point prompts. At the Point to split edge prompt. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. the marker is constrained to the edge.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve .Rhino 2. select an edge on a surface or polysurface.

and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. then Split. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces.Rhino 2. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports.and v-directions of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. 413 .0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. and then deleting the extra isoparms. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface.

The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. light the scene less. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. pick a location for the spotlight. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Or. pick a target point for the spotlight. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. At the Degree in V prompt. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. hotspot angle. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. and position. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever.it stays the same. At the End of cone prompt. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. Darker colors. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly.Rhino 2. like gray. beam angle. set the radius of the spotlight. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. length. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. not the range of the light. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. enter a v-direction degree for the surface.

At the Point prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. enter points until all the points have been entered. At the Third corner of surface prompt.Rhino 2. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. At the Second corner of surface prompt. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. 415 . choose the third corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. choose the first corner. choose the fourth corner. Or. press Enter to create a triangular surface. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the second corner. At the Number of points in a column prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface.

-2. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.-2. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.33.5.5.33. copy it.33. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.5 -4.5.-5.10 4.10 -4.5.5.5.5 0.5 0.2.2. and run the CommandPaste command. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.2.and v-directions of a surface.0 4.5 -4. When off.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. pick a point for the new start point.5.5.-2.5 4. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.0 -4. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.33. pick a point for the new end point. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.5. The marker is constrained to the curve.33.-2.2. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.5.5. At the Start of curve prompt. KeepPoints When on.5. click in the other viewport to swap.33.0 0. the surface is created but not point objects.33.5 4.0 0. select a surface that is not a polysurface.10 -4.2.33.-2. select the following text.33. select a curve.33. 416 .Rhino 2. SwapUV Swap a the u.-2.2.0 -4.33.5.10 4. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.-5. At the End of curve prompt.5.33.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.5.10 0.0 4.-5.

Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. select the single rail curve for sweeping.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. the new surface should also be tangent. adjust options. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. 417 . In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. reversing the direction of the curve. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.

Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point.Rhino 2. At the Select cross-section curves prompts.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. Note To create a single surface. With closed rail curves. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. If you don't use Smooth. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. (The original curves are not modified. reversing the direction of the curve. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. If you use the Smooth option. Preview Click to preview the surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. 418 . The swept surface is created. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. the cross section curves need to be compatible. adjust options. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines.

Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. use the Maintain height option. 419 . Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.Rhino 2.

so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. and continues to the ends of the rails. one of two possible surfaces appears. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. If you use the Rebuild option. To create a single surface. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve.) With closed rail curves. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. If you don't use Rebuild.Rhino 2. If you get the wrong surface. Preview Click to preview the surface. but want to control where the sweep ends. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. (The original curves are not modified. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. the cross-section curves need to be compatible.

Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into.Rhino 2. At the End of taper axis prompt. 421 . Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Taper Taper objects. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object.

Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. You can't taper a polysurface . curves. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly.Rhino 2. 422 . End of cone prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. surfaces. choose a center point for the base. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Taper moves the control points of objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Radius prompt. you will only taper that part of the object. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone.only control points. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. and meshes. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. TCone Draw a truncated cone. choose a radius for the base of the cone. second Radius prompt.

When you place annotation text. or solids.Rhino 2. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. The two sizes update each other. Scaled size The size you want the text to print.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. or solids based on TrueType fonts. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. In the Edit Text dialog box. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. 2000. Type the text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Example If your units are inches. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. 423 . Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. It will not show in a perspective view. in the form of curves. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. and XP. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. surfaces. enter the start position for the text. set the options. surfaces.25 inches. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).

Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. specify the height of the text characters. The text appears in the Sample window. select Solid. in the Font box. Under Create. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. select a font. In the Text box. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. In the Font Style box. The text appears in the Sample window. Under Create. specify the height of the text characters. In the Font Style box. select a font. In the Text box. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . select a style. type text characters to make into surfaces. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing.Rhino 2. In the Text height box. select Surfaces. in the Font box. In the Text height box. select a style. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. type text characters to make into solids.

the screen position of each toolbar. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. TiltRight Tilt the view right. and whether it is hidden or showing.Rhino 2. import toolbars from a different workspace file. The workspace holds the toolbars. adjust the size of buttons. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. 425 . Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. create new toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Top Set to world top view. add new buttons to toolbars. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. the buttons in them.

At the Second radius prompt. click the parts of objects to trim away. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 426 . press Enter. choose a center point.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. you must edit your Rhino. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. When you are finished trimming. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. select objects you want to trim other objects with.Rhino 2. When you are finished selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. press Enter. At the Radius prompt. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. choose a radius for the tube wall size. Front. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Tube Draw a tube. surfaces and polysurfaces. use trim several times. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. To trim a surface with more than one curve. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. and Right view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. imaginary extensions of the line are used. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. At the first Radius prompt.Rhino 2. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. 427 . If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. or use Split. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. choose a center point for the tube's base. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. At the second Radius prompt.

Shade. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Press Esc to stop the turntable. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Twist Twist objects. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. 428 .0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Note The view rotates about the target point. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. and Render Preview.

0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. 429 . Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. curves. you will only twist that part of the object. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. choose a point on the twist axis. Twist moves the control points of objects. type c and press Enter.only control points.Rhino 2. surfaces. viewports. the following prompt appears. Or. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. edit. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. At the End of twist axis prompt. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. type in an angle. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. or transform commands. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. and meshes. choose a second point on the axis. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. The opposite to undo is Redo. or construction planes. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. or choose a point to rotate from. Undo Undo the last command. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. General tab. You can't twist a polysurface . to twist copies of the objects. If you entered a point to rotate from.

clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Render your mesh. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. For example. their normals are flipped. 430 . Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab.Rhino 2. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. If some of the faces that should render disappear. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. This makes this command scriptable. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo.

Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. normals point the wrong way. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. If you see inside the mesh. For example. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. In general. When polysurfaces are meshed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. the packed texture coordinates are created. 3DFace object. Use UnifyMeshNormals. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. Once the normals are correct.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Export in desired format. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. explode it. re-join the meshes. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. UnLock Unlock locked objects. All polygons have a face normal direction.Rhino 2. The 431 . If more than one object is selected. select the objects you want to unlock. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal.

0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. Unpacked textures. Packed textures. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. select a surface or curves. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. 432 . Polysurface made of four surfaces.Rhino 2. If the surface is developable.

Surface Tools. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. Surfaces such as spheres. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. This is not like folding out a box. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. This command may take some time. it may be geometrically developable. a developable surface has to be single span linear.Rhino 2. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. 433 . or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. you can remove the trim curves. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. In Rhino. an information message is printed at the command line. Curves on a surface can also be developed. but not meet that requirement. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. tori. an information message is printed at the command line. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. Toolbar: Menu: Main. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. removing any attached geometry.

Untrim joined polysurfaces. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.Rhino 2. Untrim removes the trimming curve. 434 .0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Trimmed surface.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view.

0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. you can change the lens length of the camera.0. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. 436 . Appearance tab. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target.3921 (+/.0001). Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport.

Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt.-4e016.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.Rhino 2. At the End radius <x> prompt. second moments.7e-007. enter a radius for this point.1. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.3. First moments. 437 . volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.9553974. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.4649522 (+/.2e-007. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.7e-007). At the Point on edge prompts. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. select a surface or part of a polysurface. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend.6.6. If an edge point was picked. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. enter or drag a radius. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. choose a point on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. select a surface or part of a polysurface. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. product moments. At the Start radius prompt.

use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. In other cases. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. pan. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. Weight Edit control point weight. or rotate your view. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles.Rhino 2. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. 438 . like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. It does not change when you zoom. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box.

we can use weld with an angle of 40. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. If we want a smooth roof. When shaded. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance.Rhino 2. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. they are replaced by a single mesh point. In our case. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. texture mapping on mesh objects.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. and file export for stereolithography. No points in the blue mesh are welded. To perform a similar operation with control points. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. 439 . To get this to happen. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. At the Angle tolerance prompt. see the SetPt command.

To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. Thus. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. the bottom right is (1. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls.1) and top right (1. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. top left is (0. See Importing and exporting STL files. 440 . The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. Weld does not report the results on the command line. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. they always get welded. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. Welding in MAX is different. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.1). Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes.Rhino 2. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. then Weld (angle=180). Use JoinMesh. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values.0). Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. they must be joined before welding is effective. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. It does not physically fuse the vertices. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. 3D Studio MAX).

or polysurface. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. select a curve. the grid.0 Command Reference What Display object information. The wireframe of the objects.Rhino 2. axes. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. World axes icon on 441 . Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. object highlighting. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. surface. At the Select object prompt. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command.

In the Zebra Options dialog box. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . set the stripe direction. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. and color.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. When objects are rendered in Rhino.ini file set the color for the icon. size.Rhino 2. on the Shade tab. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. and black is the farthest away. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. where white is the closest to your eye. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. 442 . WorldYAxisIcon=.

Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. These meshes can be large.Rhino 2. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. this means the position. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. curvature. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. and curvature between the surfaces match. 443 . curvature. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. MatchSrf. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. tangency. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. the surfaces touch. Position. Tangent matches. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. and other important properties. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces.

select More reliable. but will always work. When Faster is selected. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. on the Shade tab. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. 444 . Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. under Zebra and EMap. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. When More reliable is selected. in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. If you have a wheel mouse.

Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomNext Redo the last view change.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out.Rhino 2.

When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. Note In a perspective view. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects.Rhino 2. drag a window to zoom. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. At the Zoom factor prompt. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. ZoomWindow Zoom window. This is particularly useful in perspective views. pick a point for the center of the view. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. 446 . the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. type a zoom factor and press Enter.

149. 204. 27. 195. 142 Arc toolbar. 162. 5. 149 Array command. 14. 368. dimension. 265. set up function key for click. 35. 143. 206. 5. 312 Angle command. 151. 266 animate view. 143 Arc3Pts command. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 144 Arc command. 187. 144. 205. 141 ApplyMesh command. 140. 136 AddPrevU command. 53. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 5. 205. 5. 5. 251. 150. 221. 203. 307. scale factor. 393 34View command. extend to a point. 28. 5. 412 Annotate toolbar. 205. export options. 27. 138 adjust end bulge. 151 ArrayCrv command. 5. 3. 149.2. 33. 144. 232 Arc3Pt command. 33. 231. rectangular. 5. set scale. 206. set spacing between points. calibrate. polar. 143. 231. 29. 220. 5.0 OBJ. 150. 308 align:. 245. 5. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. around a pole. 5. 281 Audit command. 145 AreaCentroid command. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 137 AddPrevV command. disconnect.5.0 Command Reference Index !. 144 ArcSER command. 144 Area command. 361. 141 arc: extend by. 152 AutoCAD. 135 4View command. circular. 29. 169 3CPlane command. 5. 76. 138 AddToGroup command. 88 align: background bitmap. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 215. 5. 5. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 31 AG file exchange. 210. 139. 152. 150. 10. toolbar button function. to copy while dragging.Rhino 2. 149 ArrayPolar command. 27. 149. 127. 305. 230. 152 arrowhead on curve. 204. 151 ArraySurface command. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 135 3DM file exchange. 136 AddNextV command. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 180. 281 AttachEnd command. 33. 207. 34. 151. 28. 229. 203. options. 139 AlignTrace command. 88. 251. 140 angle:. 168. 3DS file format. 215 annotation. 239. 123 2Circle command. add notes to the model. 28. 24 AddNextU command. 5. 5. 152 AnnotateDot command.0 IGES. 26. dot. 198. from three points. 309 AlignProfiles command. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 206. 140. sketch curve with. 204. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. MAX 2. 5. export. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 151 arrow annotation object. 146 arguments at the command line. 148 Array toolbar. 255. 28. 143 3Box command. 170 2-D drawings from model. 207. 141 ApplyCrv command. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 426 angle: constraint. command aliases. 180. 333. with FaroArm. 10. 30 add object to selection. 333. 152 ASAP file exchange. 29 3DFace command. 206. 143. 53. 5. 140 Along object snap. 2. 206. create planar sections. 152 Attach command. 29. 135 3Arc command. 139 All command. 5. 230. 212. 255. set ortho. 148. DOS. 150. 142. 5. 127. 5. tangent to two curves. 362 3Plane command. profile curves. measure between two lines. 305. 152 Arrow command. 407. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 2. 298. end and radius. 152. 144 arc:. end and direction. 62 447 . 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. suspend autoclose. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 192. 205. 5. from start. 324 3Rectangle command. 203. 221. 150. 152. 148. 207. MAX 3. 139 Align3D command. 385 analyze:. 255. 151 array:. 149 ArrayCurve command. 5. 346 3Sphere command. 251. pause input. 144. 5. initialize. 322. 32 AGLib file exchange. 323 3-D digitizing:. 135 ACIS file export. DXF file exchange. 232. 251. 123 Arrowhead command. arrow. MAX 3. 53 aliases. 144 ArcTTR command. shortcuts. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. arrowhead on curve. 143 ArcDir command. 82 AlongTan object snap. Release 12 export. built into Rhino. 34. import. 426 Analyze toolbar. 197. 251. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 5. 82 Alt key. 207. 152. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 133. from the last point. 393 3View command. VIZ. 140. 141 ApplyCurves command. with a MicroScribe. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 123. 205. 14. on a surface. 5. 163 3Circle command. 55 Ascii STL tag. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 140 Align command. 215. MAX 2. 150 ArraySrf command. 312 AngleLine command. 279 2Sphere command. 340. 5.0. 205. DWG file exchange. MAX 1. 5. 125 array: along a curve. to suspend object snaps. 330. 145 AreaMoments command.

5. 160 BooleanUnion command. 166. 363. surface. troubleshooting. 199. 167. 79 center:. 5. 5. 157. the layer of an object. from three points. backdrop for rendering. display grid. 154. 384 background bitmap:. 160 Bend command. 122. 168. 292 Box command. 297. 156. 312. 164 cap open planar ends. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 243. 165 ChamferSrf command. 322. place background. 367. 351. 161 Bottom command. 5. 162 box: from length. 312. 204 camera. 123. set construction plane z. 124. 409. 166 ChangeLayer command. 90. 139. 168. 198. 165 change. 172 CLine command. 152. 365. 161 BooleanDifference command. clear undo. 365. import button image. 250. 90 Autosave command. 55 axis. 184. width. 56 cancel command. 39 BMRT support. center of. 170. 163 Box3Pts command. move toolbar button. 170 CircleTTR command. 90. tangent to three curves. 118. 369 C2View command. copy toolbar button. 123. sphere. toggle world icon. 170. 249. radius. 154. 55 BringViewportToTop command. remove background. edit button image. 425. use. 170 CircleTTT command. 322 blend: curve. 384. clear button image. 101. 297. 322. 425 Back command. 321. 366. 84 Bezier curve. 122. 338. with Esc key. 157. 124. 154 baseball-style seams. scale background. lock. 124. 170 Circle command. move background. 165 Chamfer command. 338 buoyancy. 362 ClearMesh command.Rhino 2. 243. selection. 167. 2. delete toolbar button. 113. with toolbar button. 5. 115. 123. 249. render meshes. 153 BD command. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 171. object properties. 172. select. 169 CircleD command. 316. 123. 384. 351. 5. 5. use for tracing. 122. toolbar layout. render meshes when saving file. align backgound. set construction plane x. 232 Clipboard. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 184. scale. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 169. 180. 54 autosave: file location. hide background. to current layer. 171. 249. 168 check objects for errors. ellipsoid. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. difference. 179. cut. 162. 392. 124. 250 centroid. 351. 368. toolbar. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 139. 172 built-in aliases. tangent to two curves. 321. 124. snap size. floatation. 123. 124 capture viewport. as bitmap. 124. 245. 366. 12. 90 ChangeDegree command. 292 Box3Pt command. polygon mesh. 164. 152 AutoShip file exchange. toolbar button image. 168. 123. capture button image. 164. 168 CheckInLicense command. toolbar button tooltip. 392. hide. from center. 161. 123. 366 CArc command. 163 box:. 321. 171 circle:. 384 bad objects. 323. 156. move. 321. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 297. 56 center: buoyancy. 421 BlendSrf command. 124. 161. copy to. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 162 Box toolbar. 122. 168. 162 BoundingBox command. 145. 231 CArcPt command. 85. 168 choose one object. 139. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 130. 161 buffer. 250 Center object snap. edit toolbar. 168 Check command. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 162. 124 C command. 170. 349 ClearUndo command. 157. 250 button. union. 171 Circle3Pt command. 152 autosave:. 133. 39 BMP file format. 250. place. 5. 172. 24 circle: by diameter. surface degree. 139. 198. to the Clipboard. 232 CATIA file exchange. height. 123.0 file exchange. show. 171. 133 BU command. 320. 159. from three points. 160 bi-rail sweep. 168 Circle toolbar. 180. 125. 166. 249. 102. 5. background. 365. 170. as 256-color bitmap. 179 BI command. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. layer. 297. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 155 bitmap. 384. 125. 169 Circle3Pts command. command. 139. 249. 321. 351. 158. 320. remove. 114. undo levels. area. 168. 154 Between object snap. edit button icons. 160. 172. 39 Boolean. 365. 171. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 153. paste from. save button image to file. 365. 169. 367. 163. 90. 160. 5. 101. 322. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 316 448 . 245. 229. 145 chamfer: two curves. undo buffer. 156 blend:. 5. two surfaces. time control. 184. 153 back view. 163. convert NURBS curve to. 153 background bitmap: align. 351. variable radius between surfaces. 421 Blend command. 162 bottom view. 116. settings. show hidden background. 133. 164 chamfer:. 363. intersection. 162. 123 Cap command. 171 clear. 297. 163 B-spline. 322. place. 133. 13. 368 Baseball command. 402 Bisector command. ortho angle. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 160. 322.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 133.

136. 181 CPlaneNext command. 126. set the number of thin gridlines. 15. list all. 172 CommandPaste command. entering coordinates. show hidden. View top of. set normal to curve. 298. 14. 5. world coordinates. 335. options. render window to Clipboard. 249. 245. 173 Commands command. bend. 250. 131. 183. set to vertical. 122. 398. set to z-axis. 197. set to next. 176 Conic command. 178 CPHighlight command. 245. 172 cloud of points. 140. 5. 323. 90. 246. set weight. false. 181 CopyClip command. 235. 174 conic:. 172. 172. 173. undo. 123. 180. 419 context menu. 180. 219 coordinate entry. set distance between grid lines. 2. rendering to Clipboard. 413 CommandHistory command. 406 Cone command. project object snap to. 126 conic: curve. 181. 13. 419. 164. 180. create curve from. relative coordinates. 75. 249. select next in v-direction. 342. 172. 375. 374. 176. 181. copy settings of one to the all. select previous in v-direction. 88. shortcut. 344. 406. macro. 131 ControlPolygon command. 362. toggle display. 179. 174. 125. 164. 327 Cob command. 174. 183. 115. angle. project objects to. objects to Clipboard. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 140. 327. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. view right of. 131 control points. curve and surface. 180. coincident. 5. 183. hide. display recently used. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 2. 178 control point definition. 419. select row in vdirection. 181. holes in surfaces. 14. previous. 184. G1. 413 command aliases. 11. move through a point. 173. 84. 119. set origin. 303. 228. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 2 command line. 133. display. and ndirections. 104. construction plane coordinates. 173 commands: list of all. set to 3 points. 84. 345. 126. 125. 183. script. coordinates. move in u-. 35 command: alias. draw curve using. 5. Esc to cancel. 218 Contour command. 195 color. 89. 11. 343. 246. 11. 11. 386. weld. 297. 11. 173 commands:. 155. set to object. 178. 379 control polygon. set extents of. 123. 197. select row on surface. 174. add previous in u-direction to selection. 155. 5. 125. 234. 136. 179. 90. 182. 380. 115. 406. 228. 5. 405. named construction plane. 234. 173. save. 11. settings of one construction plane to all. perpendicular to curve. 338. layer. view bottom of. 173 command names. 386. 375. options. 359. 74. along line. 89. 172 ClosestPt command. 85. 338. 10. 339. toggle construction plane entry. toolbar button. 342. 75 continuity. 298. 88. 154. viewport. 173 COn command. view left of. set front. 373. turn off. add next in v-direction to selection. 343. 336. delete from a curve. old. set display density. 181. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 422. 362. 131 command history. 202. 304. G2. 5 command:. 119. 182 CPlaneO. 125. 11. 183. 335. 88. move to coordinate location. 12. 303. display in clipboard or history. set right. 18. 89. 175. add next in u-direction to selection. 184. make all have same orientation. 176 ConicPerp command. 5. 173. 419. 246. move along Z.Rhino 2. 2. 179 Coons patch. 379. turn grid on or off.0 Command Reference close. 245. 359. history. toggle world coordinate entry. move all through a point. 182 449 . 173 cone:. 172 ClosePoint command. 177 contour curves. 131. truncated. 5. 245. 180. 335. select previous in u-direction. 114. view front of. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 10. 182. 235. 176 constraint. 339. 172 Closest point to an object. 75. curve. highlight. 398. 138. 202. 182. 11 coordinates. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 419. display axes. 75. 177. next. 11 copy: command shortcut. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 184. 173. extract. 166. 246. taper. 75. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 172 CloseViewport command. dialog box. place point objects on. 57 CPDash command. polar coordinates. 133. 75. 138. 181. set to previous. relative polar coordinates. 181. 303. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. import from 3DM file. 422. 114. turn on. set origin of all construction planes. 419. 126. 184. 173. 217 COff command. G0. 4. view back of. view to all viewports. 137. set to x-axis. 195 cone: cone. rotate. 122. toggle display of. 339. 292. select next in u-direction. render. 178. 172. add previous in v-direction to selection. 137. read from file. 88. 5. plan view. 182. render window. 181 CPlaneFront command. 173 CommandPrompt command. 182. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 297. list. 245. 10. arguments. distance. 406 ConfigScript command. 182. 323. 173. 419. 180. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 245. 181 Copy command. 12. 338. 181. 75 comma-delimited file export. objects. 166. 373. AutoCAD. paste from clipboard. 5. v-. wheel. 178 control vertex. 21. 177. add to surface. 176. polygon mesh. 104. set top. 184. 5 CPlaneObject command. toolbar. 251 command area. 292. 180 copy:. 15 construction plane. set to view. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 177 continuous shading. 136. display for a point. 12. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 379. 183. assign to mouse buttons. 88. 183. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. for spotlight editing.

348 Ctrl+Z. convert to Beziers. 343. 2. 174. 165. helix. 221. 387. 390. 255. 197. 333. 187. 174. revolve. silhouette. 222. 185 CrvBox command. 327. toggle. 258. sketch on surface. extend by line. 195. 326. 187 CurveSeam command. 343. 198 CutPlane command. 236. curvature graph. 142. 387 curve:. 4. arc tangent to two curves. cross sections through profiles. 213. 141. 183 CPlaneRight command. 265. extend by arc. 233. 3. 307 Ctrl+P. 253. 232. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 218. 279. 305. interpolate on surface. line perpendicular to two curves. constrain to ortho. 395. 239. constrain parallel to view plane. line. 156. 281. 191 curvature:. 141. 254. apply to surface. 195. 164. 195. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 187. periodic. 162. 177. 314. 226. arc. 195. 14. polyline. pull to surface. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 179. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 231. 202. 216. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 271. 298. 198 Ctrl+Y. 388. 239. 195. from 2 views. 197. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 337. 183 CPlaneToView command. graph off. 389. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 142. extend by arc to a point. 241. line vertical to construction plane. 186. 269 Curve command. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 202. 339. place point at start. 139. 15. 387. add knots. 304. 197. 281. 165. 197 curve. 187 CrvStart command. 179. 232. 311. 218. 305. spiral. 184 CPlaneX command. 351. 218. 257. 169. 131. 197. 238. 257. from interpolated points. 2. place point at end. 235. 226. 394 CurveBlend command. 394. 369 crossing selection. end. 367. 133. 175. 230. duplicate edge of surface. 195. from control points. 221. 192. contour. 340. 143. 268. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 190 CullCP command. 334.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. constrain along line. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 216. 253. measure radius. rebuild. analyze surface. 390. 195. 15. refit. blend. 189. 185. 182 CPlanePrev command. 184 CPTog command. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. match ends. 241. 2 Ctrl+Tab. radius. 144. extrude to point. 180 Ctrl+N. 190 cursor. 194. 200 450 . 196. 24. delete control points. 389. chamfer. 226. 213. 367. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 169. 4. 255. 356. 183 CPlaneToObject command. extrude straight. 337. line normal to a surface. adjust end bulge. 248. 143. 304 Ctrl+A. 233. 339. 165. 314. line segments. 217. polyline through point objects. 231. 389 CurveStart command. tracking line. 311. extend. 169. smooth. 339. insert edit point. 235. 269. 270. 90. 258. circle from center. 268. 4 Ctrl+V. 304. 24. 306. 184 CPlaneZ command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. point. 238. 156. 387 Curve toolbar. 187 CrvEnd command. interpolate through polyline. 187 CurveSketch command. 249. fair. 191. 343. 391. convert to polyline. 245 Curvature command. 189. 389. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 333. 168. 2. divide by number of segments. 337. 239. flatten section of. arc from three points. display graph. 271. 340. 230. 355. 389. 256. conic. 334. 248. 323. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. surface from network. 194. 230. 241. 254. 236. 184 CPlaneView command. 270. 268. adjust seam point. 191. 281. 185.Rhino 2. sketch. 189. 265. 367. 189 crosshairs. 144. 234 CreatePCurves command. 388. remove knots. 195. circle tangent to two curves. 195 CurvatureSrf command. from point cloud. 235. circle from three points. 2. 141. 316 Ctrl+X. 189 CSec command. 281. 177. direction. 197. 187 CurveOverlap command. 170. 355. 3 Ctrl+C. 232. extrude along path. 255. 197. 165. 238. 187 CrvSeam command. sketch on polygon mesh. circle by diameter. mean. curvature graph off. 164. select all. 4. 4. project onto surface. 4. offset. 184 CPlaneV command. 157. 155. 90. 239. align in two views. 187. duplicate border of surface. 24. 268. 388. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. intersect two objects. 256. 187. 2 Ctrl+S. 236. bounding box. 133. 239. 217. 188. raise degree. 236. 185 CRectangle command. 346 cross sections through profiles. 369. 164. 257. 330. 162 CrvDeviation command. 298. 170. arc from start. 387. 217. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 194. make periodic. 156 CurveBox command. graph on. 305. 174. 162 CurveEnd command. 189 CSV export. 305. 183 CPlaneTop command. 369 Crv2View command. 155. section. 258. crosshairs. extract wireframe from surface. 4. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. line tangent to two curves. 323. 330. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 4. 168. 302 Ctrl+O. 326. extend to surface boundary. menu for selecting from multiple objects. selection. bisector line. 162. 2. points. simplify. 351. 327. 255. 156. 248. fillet. 369. 13. constrain to plane. tangent line. 267. extract isoparms from surface. 156. 177. 15. 131. ellipse. parabola. single line. 256. 197 curve degree. 185. 267. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 188. measure between two curves. 2. 179. 170. 25. 139. 2. 144. 3 crossing:. 178. marker. Gaussian.

rotated. 207 DimDiameter command. 210. 211 DirectX file export. 217 DupEdge command. 178. 218 e_tol. 212 distance: constraint. split. 195. 209 DimRecenterText command. 212. button image. 17. 372 DetachTrim command. with MicroScribe. 384 edge: create curve from. 205 DigDisconnect command. select all objects. 203 DigCalibrate command. 208 difference. 10. 165. 245. 22. horizontal. edit text. 218. 205. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 212 distance display. 368. merge. 260. 410. 243. 207. 206 DigSketch command. border of surface. 220. 385. 201. options. grid. 168. diameter. 218. 219. 215 dot:. 209. 385. in Split command. in Trim command. object. 272. 205 displacement. 218. isoparm density. broken edges. 17. 395. 208. 85. 293 data structure for object. 135. 45 dirty looking rendering. persistent object snaps. 202 Deselect All. 207. 165 Delcam file exchange. lines. 212 disconnect digitizer. 19 DocumentProperties command. 250 display: bitmap window. 203 develop a surface. surfaces. 202. 288. 293 Cylinder command. change. calibrate. 208 dimension. 372 Deselect command. toolbar button bitmap icons. 213 Divide command. 202. 279 Dragmode. 207. 204 DigClick command. 211.0 Command Reference cutting objects. Notes tab. reverse object direction. 166. set up function key for click. 208 DimOptions command. 220. 219. 260. 330. 395. 215 drafting. 197. 218. 330. aligned. 209. 201 cylinder:. 251 Domain command. 123. 279. 104. 196. 123. 133. 197. 23 distance:. 385. control points. annotation text. create 2-D curves. 220. options. set spacing between points. 208. 209. toggle. hydrostatic calculation. 22. points at naked edges. 370. 205 DigScale command. 206 DigSpacing command. 127. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 216 Drape command. raise curve degree. 19 document properties:. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 121. 17. 210 DirArc command. 212. 127. 217 DrapePt command. 214 domain:. 219. 207. curve by number of segments. 330. 3-D polygon mesh face. polylines. 206. 131 Ebroken command. 168. 108 Dup command. 288. 99 disable. 132. 202 delete:. 372 DeselectAll command. Render Mesh tab. 384. 370. with FaroArm. grid axes. 205. 160 Dig command. 207 DimAngle command. 370 DWG file exchange. 213. 208 DimRadius command. 422 Display command. join two out of tolerance edges. summary. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 91. 206 DigSection command. 144 direction. 385.Rhino 2. shortcuts. edge of surface. 217 DupBorder command. 132. 19. 196. 167. 396 edge:. 33 DynamicShading command. 288. rebuild. 3-D digitizing. planar section. 396 EdgeSrf command. 106. 121. layer. 206. 217. toolbar. display broken. 204. 107. 251 dot: annotation. 213 divide:. 210 DimHorizontal command. 239. pause input. sketch curve. 34 DXF file exchange. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 208. 18. 104. disconnect.ini. 215 draft angle. 207. show. 250. 123 451 . 384 diameter dimension. 411. 19. 298 DigPause command. 217 drape surface. 416 developable surface definition. 2. 215 Dot command. 245. 2. viewport properties. 214 domain: match. 19. 208. 15 Distance command. 207 DimAligned command. 166. objects. 12. 344. object discription. 105. 12. 272 date. select all. toolbar button. Boolean. 23. 205. 217. render mesh settings. 213 dock a toolbar. 277 diagnostics. 122. radius. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 217 draw. 370. change degree of surface. set scale. 210 Dir command. 212 DisableOsnap command. 384. 338 DisplayBitmap command. wallpaper. 122 Delete command. 218 duplicate. 15 divide: curve by length. 209. naked. 425. 243 DirectionalLight command. 210. 213 DivideByLength command. 210. 210 Dimensions toolbar. command button. 127. 202 DeleteAll command. control polygon. 251. 120 document properties: notes. naked edges. 201. 209. 135. from last point. 344. 209 DimVertical command. 119. display curve or surface. curve. 22 degree. 265. intialize. 205 digitize. 384. 260. 217. units. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 216. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 124. 88. 338. 160. recenter text. 22. 58 delete: all objects. 209 DimRotated command. polygon mesh. 203. Rhino. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. tolerances. 344. edit points. 265. vertical. dimension text. angle between lines. 206. 15. 212 display:. 10. 202.

233 extend:. 55. Commadelimited file. 233. DirectX. 2. 93. 63. 30. 385 ESplit command. 33. 237. 231. Lightwave (LWO). 35. 45. 40. 229. 71. 58 452 . Metastream. 228 Excel. 35. 10. 36. 56. 37. Mastercam (IGES). IGES. insert on curve. 154 Ellipsoid command. 3D Studio MAX 3. 239 fair curve. 3D Studio MAX 3. 239 false color display. 48. 58. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 222 EllipseEnds command. wireframe curves from surface. Catia (IGES). 231. Viewpoint Technologies. 40 errors in model. 429 End object snap. 228 EvaluateUV command. mesh to IGES file. 230 Extend toolbar. Alias (OBJ). 74 Export command. polygon mesh. 60. 53. 288 Enaked command. 220. surface. 73. 51. 235 ExtractPt command. curve. 58. 59. 59. 253. 29. 234. 64. Cosmos/M (IGES). 344 EMap command. 70. 45. curve on surface. 36. 227. IronCAD (IGES). 128. 124. 356 extrude:. 226 endpoint object snap. 53. 52. 29. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). surface. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 4 F2. 53. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 31. 233. 229 export. 69. 234 Extend command. 42. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 63. 234. turn on. 51. Moldex DXF. 238 Extrude command. 73. 72. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. curve to surface boundary. 230. 1 Faro command. control polygon. 224 EMerge command. from focus points. 26. 231. PostScript. AutoCAD (DWG). 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 46. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 131 FAQ. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 37. SAT file format. 45. 174 Elmo command. CAD 3D SUM 4.0 Command Reference edit points. Wavefront (OBJ). Plug-in). 32. 54. 63. AutoCAD (DXF). 236. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 236 Extrude toolbar. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 55. 62. by line. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 4 F9. 42. 45. 73. 4 Fair command. isoparms from surface. 221 Ellipse toolbar. options. 13. 32. NASA GridTool. 236. Yamaha ESPRi. turn off. 119. 55. NuGraf (IGES). 222 Ellipse command. 47. Delcam (IGES). Alias (IGES). 330 End key. 228 error messages. GHS. Unigraphics (IGES). space and rightmouse click. 40. SolidWorks (IGES). 57. TekSoft IGES. 238. 60. 70. 228 exit Rhino.0 (IGES). 44. 232. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 54.0 (IGES). FastSURF (IGES). 56. 55. 45. 12 ELine command. object properties to file. 233 extract. 221 EllipseD command. arc to a point. 236. 230 extend. Integrity Ware (IGES). SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 131. 33. ACIS. 229 Exit command. 67. 12. by arc. 220. 236. 230. 223 ellipsoid:. 232. 60. 64. surface from polysurface. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 230. Multisurf (IGES). surface into a solid. 67. 229 Explode command. Softimage (IGES. 228 expand a surface. CSV file. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 220 EJoin command. 343 ElmoSrf command.Rhino 2. 3D Studio (3DS). 36. 238. 253. 30. 42. 35. 72. Tebis IGES. curve to point. 229 explode:. 68. 232. 46. AutoShip (IGES). 127 Esc key. 219 EditPtOn command. 228 EvaluatePt command. 65. 12 Enter:. 26. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 223 elliptical conic curve. 59. 2. OptiCAD (IGES). 230. 356. 37. 62. 3. 4 F8. Pro/E (IGES). FastShip (IGES). 235 ExtractSrf command. 71. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 3 Enter: command for scripts. command aliases. LUSAS (IGES). 236 extrude: curve. 68. 233. 231. 43. Solid Edge (IGES). curve by offset. 239 FastShip file exchange. 45. CamSoft (IGES). curve along path. Microstation (IGES). Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 2. POVRay (POV). 33. SLA. 420 EditDim command. SURFCAM (IGES). 13. 56. 74. 73. 61. 52. 221. 220 EditText command. 31. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. CADCEUS (IGES). 232 ExtendByLine command. triangles. 69. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 232. 227 environment map. 133 EShow command. 31. 92. 63. 35. 235. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 202. Maya (IGES). 30. 221. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. unable to run program renrib. 26. 219. 236. 78 EndBulge command. 260 elevator mode. 123 edit:. 224 erase objects. Applied Geometry (AG). 61. 53. VRML. 54. 57. 236. 123. 11. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 62. ME30 (IGES). 92. show. 46. 385 EnakedPt command. 238 F1. 41. 133 Escape key. 58. 41. 44. STL. 229 export:. 41. 35. 133. 235. 222 ellipse:. 65. 69. 229. export to. 46. 45. 64. 61. Moray (UDO).0 (OBJ). AUTOFORM (IGES). 231. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). raw triangles (RAW). 233 ExtendByArc command. 58. 238. Solid Designer (IGES). 233 ExtendSrf command. 71. 133 enter coordinates.

wireframe. 69. reduce size of model. Osnap dialog box. save. 174 icon. 55. units. 132. simple controls. 1. 50. 1 From object snap. developable surface. normal. 2. periodic surface. definition. 131. 415 Freeze command. 360. Unicode. 378. 250. 220. 131. 379. 249. 46. 246 Heightfield command. 249. spacing. 47. 130 Flow along a curve. 133. 249 HideSwap command. 12. 240 filter the layer display. 64. 220. 104 fit a plane through points. 407. 250. turn on or off. 2. 135. 3D Studio MAX 3. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 242 flatten. 172 hold. 203. 53. objects. 386. curve. 246. 243 floatation. 380. save as. 53. 362 file:. command line. 132. panes. command area. 249. 246. 229. set the extents of. snap to. control points. 362 FileProperties command. set distance between lines. 120. 390. 246. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 52. center of. 123. 68. 246 HBarSrf command. 67. 387 HSV color. 305. 386. open. 246 GridSize command. 417 ghost: a layer. 273. 278. 380. 302. 134. 249 HidePoints command. 176 G2 continuity. 171. 54. initial mesh grid. 245. bumpmap. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. polysurface. technical support. 240 FilletSrf command. 2 hidden layer name. 380 GridThick command. text. 133. 239. 273 freeze:. 239. 236. 120. 339. toolbar. 49.0. 63.turn on or off. 246. 133. 416. 325 FitCrv command. 75 hue. 1 help:. 133. 132. 1 Help command. 61. 368. 302. 81 Front command. shortcut. run application from inside Rhino. 134. 240 FilletEdge command. 54. set snap size. 133. 133. 55. import. periodic curve. 171. 46. 244 Flow command. 212 frequently asked questions. NURBS. 273. 72. 12 Home key. Breault Research's ASAP. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 386. 240 Fillet command. 60. 307. 415 GHS file export. edit toolbar button. edge of polysurface. 133. swap hidden status. 386. 250. cursor. 281 FlatShade command. axis lock. 250 hide: background bitmap. 245 grid:. 251. 273 ghost:. naked edge. 54. 429 Horizon command. objects. 330. IGES export type details. 261. 71. 338 history. 131. 396. 244 front view. 245. edit points. 46. 5. world axes. 307. 130.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 262. texture mapping coordinates. 70. tracking line. 251. 62. 260. 119 HideTrace command. 407 freeze: a layer. 273. section of curve. 249 highlight in rendering. types. isoparm. 1. seamless mesh. CADCEUS. 249 HideCV command. 131. 49 IGES export:. 122. 386 HideAll command. 425 IGES: file exchange. 337. 273. 103 hidden objects. 246 handlebars. 336. AUTOFORM. 53.Rhino 2. 255. 378. 131. 249 hide:. 228. marker. 59. 361. 250. 73. troubleshooting import problems. 46. 277. 259. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 250 HideToolbar command. 132. 245 Grid command. 416. 251. 56. 244 Flowline command. 246 group. show selected. 229. 249 HidePt command. edit using. 339 HideOsnap command. template. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 348. 380 GridAxes command. 243 Flip command. 279. AutoShip. 133. 168. 246 HBar command. 377 Group command. 239 fillet:. show hidden control points. objects. 123. 122. 50. 241 FlatShade1 command. 74. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 119 HideToolbox command. 176 Gaussian curvature. 194 GCon command. 249. Ashlar Vellum. text. 246 Group objects for selection. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 119 Hide command. 55. new. 244 G0 continuity. 123. two surfaces. 262. object names. 124. 245 GridOptions command. 407. 130. Alias|Wavefront. 249. 385. 417 FlattenSrf command. 133. 425. 377. 122 font. 48. 172. 251 floating license. 131. 379 IGES file types. 221 fonts. 229. set the number of lines. 360. 251. 55. 18. 247 Helix command. 229. unlock locked objects. 362 File toolbar. polygon mesh export. 235 FltE command. 57. 249. 361. 135 grid: axes . 277. 245 GridSections command. 453 . 246. 65. control point. flyout toolbar. name. 131. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 36 glossary terms. 240. Esc key. Enter key. 58. 302. toolbar. 46. 192. 415 Ghost command. unlock locked objects. 241 FitPlane command. 46. 255. 131. 131. 119. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 307. 75 Hydrostatics command. tolerance. 246 Gridsnap command. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 262. 194. status bar panes. 361. 262. 134. 176 G1 continuity. 410. false color. 134. 426. 249 HidePts command. 248 help: display Help file. 413. surface. keep last used on top. 214 fillet. 384. 395.

152. 37. 55. match. 67. 377. 101. 72. 59. 103. 103. change for an object. 104. 140. 61. 253 InsertKinks command. 69. 307. 251. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 251 import:. 77. 132 isoparm. 160. 101. Multisurf. 68. 69. 253. 52 import. filter display. 152 Leader command. CATIA. surfaces. 76. 3D Studio 3DS. 343. 254 InsertEditPoint command. definition. 69. 133 Layer toolbar. 48. 263 leader: arrow. 73. 260. 15 lathe. 31. 29. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 262 lasso selection. turn off by selecting an object. 63. set material properties. Lightwave LWO. 160. 132. 63. 253 InsertKink command. 90. 264 length: measure curve. Maya IGES. 61. translate IGES/Rhino. 46. 251. 351. 3D Studio MAX 3. 104. 104. 425. 103. 101. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 63. FastSURF IGES. 41. 101 Layer pane. curve. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 102. stereolithography STL. 62. ME30. 371. SolidWorks. 71. 257 intersect: Boolean. Mechanical Desktop. insert in curve. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 256. 54. set material. 283. 65. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 78. 46. 258 Intersect command. 42. 55. Tebis IGES. 57. SUM 4. 56. 167. snap to. LUSAS IGES. display for object. 104. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 73. 32. split surface at. 74 Import command. 257 InterpPolyline command. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. management. 71. Integrity Ware IGES. 167. 85. 355 layer: change color. 396. Mastercam. 37. 160. 33. remove from curve or surface. 62. Adobe Illustrator AI. 264 leader:. 103. 56. Cosmos/M IGES. Solid Edge. 261 JoinEdge command. LUSAS. triangles. 119 initial mesh grid. 26. kink in curve. Multisurf IGES. 69. Pro/E IGES. 307. 255. 70. 264 Left command. IGES. 253. 57. 312. 366. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 252 information. 253 InsertKnot command. turn all layers on. check out from workgroup license manager. Maya. 377 layer:. 307. new. 58. 60. 63. 254 InsertKnots command. AUTOFORM IGES. 68. 103. OptiCAD. definition. 263 LayerOn command. 168. 10. 61. 258 intersection. 33. 60. 54. 62. 312. AutoCAD DWG. 62. 259. 283. 255. 57. toolbar from another layout. 3D Studio MAX 3. 121.0. TekSoft. set current. Softimage IGES. 33. curve on surface. 59. named views from a 3DM file. 104. 283. 67. 102. 254. 63. 132. 253 knot. 261 Join command. 425 ini file. 32. 67. 72. Raw triangles RAW. aliases. 46. AutoShip IGES. 58. 132. 69. 42. 259. 60. construction planes from 3DM file. SolidWorks IGES. 363. 69. Microstation. 71. delete. 140. 31. 103. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 258 intersect:. 255. IronCAD IGES. 168. 81. 72. 252 insert:. 64. 260. 255 Int object snap. TekSoft IGES. 135. 14. 257.Rhino 2. 168. 15. 104. Cosmos/M. 99 JCAD STL export. 59. 59 isoparametric curve. 55. 253. 260 JoinFaces command. wireframe view. select objects by. 42. select from list. OptiCAD IGES. dialog box. 263. 251 IncrementalSave command. 256. 55.0 IGES. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. IronCAD. 261 JoinMesh command. object snap. CATIA IGES. 256 interpolate. 396. 64. 61. turn off. angle from. 60. 58. 64. 377 LayerLock command. CADCEUS IGES. 251 Improve command. 62. 258 InvertPt command. 59. 56. 263. 53. 59. match attributes. 338. 73. Softimage. 253. 91. 104. 53. 61. 26. 261 Lasso command. SURFCAM IGES. 135 jagged shadows. arrowhead on curve. 262 LayerOff command. 261 JPG. 56. 262. CamSoft IGES. 168 454 . 58. 132. 73. 10. turn on. 67. 71. 307. objects. 74. 81. 71. Unigraphics. insert on curve or surface. FastShip IGES. 167. 259 join:. 29. Solid Designer. 64. 59 InterpCrv command.0 OBJ. 160 Invert command. 261 JoinSrf command. 254. Alias IGES. Solid Edge IGES. 131 insert: edit point. 66. two objects. Yamaha ESPRi. 14. 64. Solid Designer IGES. 263. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 53. 160. 58. Integrity Ware. ME30 IGES. 263 Layer command. 130 license:. 68. 371. 152. 262 last point. Microstation IGES. Pro/E. 78. NuGraf IGES. 70. 46 IGES:. 121. Delcam. FastSURF. SURFCAM. Mastercam IGES. rename. 58. display density. 65. change to current. 70. Applied Geometry AG. 46. 41. 254. NASA GridTool IGES. AutoCAD DXF. 254 Insert command. Unigraphics IGES. 73. knot. 46. one layer on. 41. 60. NASA GridTool. 73. insert in surface. 63. 70. 2. 71. 265 length:. 140. 343. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. distance from. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 65. purge empty. 367 JPG file format. CAD 3D SUM 4. SDRC's I-DEAS. 101. 322 JScript. 265 Length command. 168 license manager. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 264 left view. 126 kink. 10. surface or polysurface. 54. Tebis. 377. Boolean.0 IGES. 254. 258 IntersectCrv command. 63. 56. Delcam IGES. FastShip. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 59.

377. curve curvature. 334 merge: surface. two adjacent edges of a surface. volume centroid. select all. 88. 288 MergeSrf command. 378. 281. options. 326. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 220. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 236. 259. 267. 103 locked objects. 268 Lines command. 92. 338. 268. 211. 342. 269. 337. 357. density for primitives. tangent to a curve. 270 LineV command. 267. 187. 265. join. single line. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 284. 396. 269 LineTP command. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 224. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. run from external file. 191. 40. 294. 273 Logoff command. 349. viewport. 52. 123. 228 LooseLoft command. 378 maximize: current viewport. segments. 180. 142. definition. 155. 266 LineAngle command. 328. 377 Maximize command. radius. 267. 283. run from toobar button. texture. 271. 266 LinearizeTrims command. surface. clear render mesh. 270. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. run from shortcut key. 212. 39. 285. 171. 281. axis. reduce density. 304. 293. clear render mesh for all objects. 265. 162. 348. Rhino. 23. 212. volume. 255. 421. polyline through point objects. set for layer. 145. 212.0 Command Reference Light tab. 135. 270. 331. 266. 130 map. 23. 420. 256. 290. 272 LoadScript command. 191. 273 Loft command.Rhino 2. 273 LUSAS file exchange. unlock locked objects. 62 menu: context. 212 LockSwap command. deviation between two curves. 270. 377 maximum curvature. clear at save time. 187. 125. 333. 288. 261. 288 MergeEdge command. 291. 395. cone. 24 menu bar. seamless. 272 LoadPlugin command. 268. box. 213. 268. 84. 125. 135. from four points. 410. 363. 148. decrease number of faces. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 225. 140. 37 line: at angle from line. 104. 38 match: curve ends. 269. 161. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 283. 333. 145. 265. 288 maximize:. directional. breaking apart. 399. 123. 39. 273 lock:. 75. perpendicular to curve. 292. 329. area moments. 41. 88. 304. convert each face to NURBS surface. 266. 251 merge:. toggle display. 74. 420. 255. 288 menu:. 134. 288 mesh: 3D face. create. set for export. 284 MatchLayer command. from NURBS object. 74. 37 M command. set viewport. 141. 229. run with middle mouse. 273 lock: a layer. select all. 212. snap to. 255. 348. 294. 272 list data structure of an object. 12. 281 match:. 194. 455 . 90 Main toolbar. 371. 173. run from an alias. paste script from Clipboard. 271 List command. 267 LinePP command. 86 lights. from closed polyline. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 339. 334. 155. persistent object snaps. 173. distance. 271. 338. 288. 279 Make2d4View command. 273 Lock command. 342. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. unlocked objects. 131 mass properties. 194 measure: angle. 296. 268. 245. swap status with unlocked objects. 145. 145. 266 Line4pts command. 262. 358. 245. 328. 340. 155. 415 locked layer name. 228 Logout command. 284 material: for rendering. 292. 224. 269. 290. detailed options. 281 manage: license. 304. 212. apply to surface. 290. 417 Make2D command. 92. 345. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 338 mapping coordinates. 371. 101 manage:. 290. export to IGES file. 102. 60 LWO file exchange. 194 MaxViewport command. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. set properties for layer. 288 Maya file exchange. extend by. 296. 91. objects. BMRT. 213 measure:. 288. 146. 84. 145. 268. 293. 134 marker definition. 211. 33. 289. bisector. 334 LineTan command. plane. area. 228. 333. 145. explode. 240. 192. spotlight. 126. 225. 273 LockOsnap command. 210. 377 Material properties. 262. 371. 141. 239. 421 Measure command. 232. geometric continuity. 105. 140. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 130 manage layers. polyline. tangent to two curves. 265. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. layer attributes. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. layer. 61 MDT IGES options. 261. 420. 420. 179. 266. 288 Merge command. 288. 283 MatchSrf command. environment. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 266. 229. 156. 334 Line4Pt command. 265. bump. 287 Match command. 415. 286. 333. 273. 421 MeasurePoint command. volume moments. length. 232. 273. 270 LineTT command. 271 Line command. area centroid. vertical to construction plane. 12. 329. 398. 288 Menu command. 265 line:. perpendicular to two curves. 62 ME30 file exchange. normal to a surface. 290. point. 267 LinePerp command. 270. 365. 338. pop up at cursor. 221. 228. 3DFace. 292. 296 macro. 334. 338. cylinder. 330. 273 loft surface. 86 material:. 61 mean curvature. 371. 340. select naked edges. insert straight segment into curve. 273. 288. 268 Lines toolbar.

292. 385. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 93. 294. 317 nudge. 423. 415. restore. 249. 343. 306. remove flipped. 234. 379. 306. 349. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 338. surface control points in u-. 90 Midpoint object snap. 384. 302 next. 63 Near object snap. 145. 311 OBJ export properties. export to IGES. 377. 146. 297. 82. 78. restore. toggle persistent. 12 None command. 132 O command. 133. objects. disable. 243. 338. 415 object names. 78 Notes command. 307 Offset command. 355. 308. 120. 302 new:. 229 Microstation file exchange. 305. 134. 215. 298. 79. 294. 83. an object. view. 292 MeshCone command. 295. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 338. surface. 303 NextViewport command. 249. 120. read from file. 81. 183. 212 object snap:. viewport. scale and rotate on surface. 78. 385. 298 NamedView command. 297. layer. 4. definition. between two points. 80. 12. midpoint. 349. 35. 84. 212. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 229. 387. 296 modeling aids. tangent from curve. 290 Mesh toolbar. perspective viewport active. 64 NURBS. 80. 379. 295. 362. 206. 371. 83. 140. quadrant. set for single object. wheel function. parting line. 304. 296 Minimize command. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 425. 302. 414 NoSnap command. 290. 2. 363. 296 mirror objects. 297 MoveUVN command. 297. definition. 215. 140. toolbar. 414. 80. 295. 293. tangent to a curve. construction point through point. 92. 290. 37 object: description. 303. 348. show. off construction plane. improve. 305. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 79. 385 name. 80. 378. 79. 84. 302 NewViewport command. construction planes through a point. 12. 297. 81. 82. 243 456 . 243. viewport. options. 294 MeshPolyline command. move control points. 378 object properties. 293. 132. 294 MeshSphere command. 384. 363 name:. 121. show toolbar. 133. 46 Moldex DXF file export. multiple objects. 304. objects to new construction plane. 261. group. 2. 296. show hidden. set persistent. 309. 298 NamedViews command. 302. 355. 312 mold. 114. hide toolbar. 79. 81. 148. 81. scale and rotate. 362. 251. on surface. 421 Moray UDO file export. 362 named view. 37 morph target. 82. viewport to top. 4. 296 minimum curvature. 203. 298 new: file. export to. 103. 423 mesh:. 302. 355 NamedCPlane command. 91. 132. to move objects. 78. 82. edit. 141. 379 Named Colors list. options. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 90. 424 Mesh command. 52. end. surface display. 343. 135. 251. 83. 296 minimize:. 305 offset:. 132. a view. 62 middle mouse button function. 297. 348. 261. 123. 121. 293 MeshDensity command. unlock. 305 N-sided patch. from. perpendicular from a curve. 296. 41. ortho viewport active. 84. 84. 323 Microsoft Excel. 338 OBJ file exchange. 297. 35 object snap: along. center. 292 MeshCylinder command. unify normals. intersection. 79 minimize: Rhino. turn off. 3. 79. 135. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 132. 79 NetworkSrf command. 414. reparameterize. 304. save named construction plane. 303. 90 move: background bitmap. 303 NextU command. 132.0 Command Reference sphere. 378. point. 293 MeshPlane command. lock. 385. pull direction. 118 Normal command. export to RIB. 298. 425 offset: curve. near. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. weld. 303 NextV command. 363. 33. 304 normal:. toolbar button. 30. export to file. 387. 3. 343. 171. 298 NamedCPlanes command. toolbar. 298 Multisurf file exchange. v-. 362. set for multiple objects. 306 OffsetSrf command. 212. 80. 82. 117. 309. 63 naked edge. 296. 80. 251. 355. 123. 414.Rhino 2. 46 moments. 113. 308. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 204. 92. 122 Move command. 298. 297 Mscribe command. 309. 216 Moldex command. viewport active. 297 MoveTrace command. 322. 377. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 292. knot. 379. 385. surface. 304. 141. 141 mouse. 372 non-uniform scale. 423 MeshBox command. 251. reverse direction. display. 343. 304 node. 30. toolbar button. 79. 378. 84. set properties. 113. 115. 183. 92. export to OBJ. 229. 302 New command. 194 Mirror command. 2. 296. and n-directions. 103. 338. 122. 243. object to align with curve. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 92. 298. 78. 298. 296 Metastream file export. 2. 296 move:. 229. 75 named construction planes. draw line. 366 normal: definition. 414. 409. 311. 79. perpendicular to a curve. 205. parameterization. 295 MeshToNurb command. save. 305 notes in Rhino file. 85. 311. 147. 212. project to construction plane. 84. 338. 409 object:. 81. snap to a curve. 131 NoElev option. set mesh the same. read from file.

133. redraw speed. 426 OpenGL:. toggle. curve. Shade tab. 330. lock to axis. 246. 3DS MAX 2. 131. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 133. 92. create curve from. 308 orient objects. 373. 253. 312. shortcuts. 28. 92. 309. 351. 96. make surface non-periodic. view. 92. 133. 97. 133 P command. 290. 307. no-repeat commands. 88. 330. 28. toggle. 224. 79 point objects. 96. about. 323 planar section. 325. on a surface. 82 PerpLine command. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. set. 366. 94. 376. by three points. 2 PackTextures command. 190. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 379. troublshooting. 325 Plane3Pt command. 249. digitize. 326 Point object snap. 253. object snap radius. fit through points. 68 PNG file format. 374. 311 Orient3Pt command. 92. 88. 4. 325 Plane command.2. 327. shortcuts. 308 OpenGL: toggle. file locations. 220. 307 open:. saved toolbar layout. 119. 174 parameterization. 2. 4. 262. 314 PanDown command. 308 Options dialog box. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 40 perspective angle . 272. 339. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 325 plug-ins. 338. 311. middle mouse button function. Softimage. 90. 92. 339 POffSelected command. 130. View tab. 330 457 . 323. 2. 2. 326. 379 Ortho pane. 330. 366. 78 Osnap:. 27. 307 OnSrf object snap. 92. 90. surface.set. 92. developers. Keyboard tab. 325 plane:. 379. 88. 386. 281. 326. place at start of curve. Osnap. 311 ortho mode. 131 pedge. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 325. 324 plane: cut through objects. use for shade. 96. ortho angle. click ortho pane to toggle. 84 open: file. left. 323 planar mode. 375. 313. 93. Snap. 96. 314 parabola. set angle. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 130. 323 Planar command. place one. undo number. 323 Pa. 313 Pan:. 321. toolbar. 322. 313 PanUp command. 96. options. 2 Patch command. 307. 320 Pipe command. detailed polygon mesh. startup commands. make curve periodic. Layer. 281. 308 Orient command. 94. place at end of curve. 2. 92. camera and target location. 324. 290 Organic toolbar. trim options. 133 PanLeft command. 326. shortcut keys. toggle. 172. 367 pe_tol. background bitmap. 64 options: aliases.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 90. 309. 379. Aliases tab. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. options. polygon mesh.0. Appearance tab. 94. 316. 309. 12. 425 Orient. 131 periodic. 309 OrientOnSrf command. General tab. 318. 98 Options command. 272. objects from the clipboard. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 328. 68. 313. 96. 281. 133. 92. 187. 188 point cloud. Ortho. 318. 133. 318 PConic command.Rhino 2. 218. 2 Pan: down. 308. 92. 322. Planar. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. right. 90. place multiple. 373. 323. 322 PlaceTarget command. 313. grid of. change interface appearance. 333 PluginManager command. 205 pause for user input in script. 314 parabolic curve. 90. load. 176 PCX file format. 133. 312. 119 Open command. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 322. 90. 3DS MAX 2. 213. 90. 376. 258. make surface periodic. 206. 200. 98. set. 314 Parabola command. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 290. 29. 324. select method. 206 PlanarSrf command. 320 place. options. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 325 PlaneV command. 92. 101. 133. 373 Point toolbar. Files tab. 96. 133. 92. 307 OneLayerOn command. 88. 29. 281. 318 Perspective command. to curve. 94. 68 PictureFrame command. 2. 92. snap increment. 324 Plane toolbar. 98. control polygon appearance. manager. 96. nudge increment. 308 OpenWS command. 80 Perpendicular line. 90. 311. 88. 325 Pline command. 2. 313 Panes. turn on or off. 327 Point command. press shift to toggle. 351. 95. 311 Ortho command. 133. 133 Perp object snap. 313. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 363. 2. 422 Point filters. 88. 3DS MAX 1. 84 OneLayerOff command. 323 Plan command. 101. 329.5. 313 PanRight command. 363. 254. 314 Pan command. 96 options:. 130. 94. 90. 133 OrthoAngle command. 311. 133 Osnap command. 325. on surface from UV coordinates. Modeling Aids tab. from three points. up. pan distance. 318 perspective view. 316. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 90. isoparm density. 317 pause digitizer input. 94. 38 parting line. 90. target location. 200. 312 PageDown key. 312 Osnap: pane. 339. shade. 88. 90. 387 paste. trackball motion. 200. 96. 339 point: control. 329. 27. select all. 5. 5. autosave. 324 Plane3Pts command. 92. 321. 133. 367 POff command.

41 POV-Ray file export. 249. 327 PointDeviation command. 220. 368. 209. cylinder. draw. 303. 296. 295.0 Command Reference point:. select with lasso. 10. select naked edges. 10. twist. 68. 414. 340 Radius command. 337 Print command. 121. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. render mesh. explode. 340 radius:. 339. 334 PopupToolbar command. from closed polyline. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. image of model. 228 radius: dimension. 331. 337 project:. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 138. clear render mesh. knot. 85 Properties Material tab. 335. 303. 290. 179. toolbar. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 343. 121. 340 RailRevolve command. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 329 PointLight command. 50 Quit command. 223 PolarSphere command. 17. 136. 259. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 136. 19. 343. 235. 123 Proj command. 339 PointsOffSelected command. draw on mesh. 349. set normals the same. 41 read. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. measure. 254. 179. 339 Pull command. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 366 PrintSetup command. 338. 295. 343 rebuild:. coordinate points. 197. 367. 338 properties. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. export to file. 332 polygon:. add previous in v-direction to selection. 344. 412. 343 rebuild: curve. 340 RailRev command. 171. create from control points. 333. render. 423. 293. 339 pull curve to surface. 335. 371. 36. named views from a 3DM file. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 330 points:. 229. 137. 344 RebuildSrf command. 344 RebuildEdges command. convert each face to NURBS surface.Rhino 2. show edit and control. 335. box. 257. sphere. 131. 386. 339 PointTest command. 86 Properties Text tab. 344 recent commands list display. select object to turn off. 188 PointCloudSection command. 382 QRenderAll command. cone. 337 ProjCP command. 19. 336. 3D face. 21. to file. 331. 136. from NURBS object. 343. 19. interpolate curve through. density for primitives. 229. 260. 345 Rebuild command. 335 PrevViewport command. 372 Polytrans. add previous in u-direction to selection. 259. object. 338. 12. edit points. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 86. 331 polygon mesh. 381 QRender1 command. 261. 378. 414. 249. 87. 81 QueryDomain command. 343. select connected. document. 138. Polytrans Softimage translation. 254. 423 Polygon toolbar. viewport layout from file. 425 PtOff command. 332. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 338. select next in u-direction. 85. relative. 334 Polyline command. 135. weld. notes. 337. 35. select previous in v-direction. 333. 330 PointsFromUV command. delete control on curve. 2 PrevU command. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 291. 339. 229. 337. 386. 35. 141. 209. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 190. 235. 334 PostScript file export. through point objects. 150 polar coordinates. select all. 339 PtOffSelected command. 361. 366. 335 PrevV command. 331 Polygon command. viewport. 202. 294. 261. clear render mesh for all objects. 290. 328 polar array. 382 Quad object snap. 333 polyline:. 338 Project command. material. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 339. select all. explode. 331. control points. 294. 262. grid. from edge. 339 PointsOn command. 340 rail revolve. 372. 339 purge empty layers. 259. 292. hide edit and control. 336 print. 65 program toolbar functions. named construction planes from file. 197. objects to construction plane. 290. 292. plane. 296. 340 QRender command. render using OpenGL shade. 343 ReadCommandFile command. to Clipboard. 137. options. 292. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 425. 68 POn command. 371. 328 PointGrid command. 259. 40. 190. display information about an object. 86. 19. 330 PointsOff command. surface. add next in v-direction to selection. 87 properties:. 338 Projection command. select previous in u-direction. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 339 PopupMenu command. 338 project: curve to surface. 349. 187. 333. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 353 previous viewport. 344. 64. 135. 361. 262. apply to surface. 339 PtOn command. 368. 202. 420. inscribed. join. 90 458 . 293. 229. 228 quinitics. 220. 413 Points command. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. show control. 12. absolute. 334 polysurface. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 18. 293. 171. 141. join. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 294. 12. hide back. 420 Properties command. invert selection. 343. 257. 303. 424. 353. 372. 379 preview. 64. 334. select next in v-direction.

2. 353. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. textures. 352. 352 render plug-in application: options. copy to Clipboard. objects. 324. 340 Revolve command. highlight. 359. 425 render:. 39. 391 SAT file export. 357 rotate view. 4. 183 Restore command. corner. 352.0 file exchange. 309. 3. 357. 351. 181. 346. 363. close render window. transparency. 30. 351. file. 363. options. 355 Rev command. 3. named construction plane. 181. 338. 2 redo:. 10. 360. 353. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. object from selection. 24. 362. length and width. 381. 353 RenderCurves command. edges of polygon meshes. 360. 360 RotateLeft command. left. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 20 render problems. 338. through three points. 338. 355 RevU command. 348 refit a curve. 40. 241 RefreshShade command. 356 Right command. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. view continuously. 459 . 252. 338. 308. 148 rectangular surface. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 172. 325. 378. move and scale. Top construction plane. 203. save image in render window. 3. 2. preview using OpenGL shade. 353 RenderEdges command. 5. 349 relative coordinates. 358 RotateCamera command. 355. 181. 358. 2. down. 412 Rotate command. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 363. 349 remove. autosave. 354. 348 ReduceMesh command. 320. surface using rail curve. 345 Rect3Pt command. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 348 Redo command shortcut. 353. 347 redo: last undone command. up. 412 Rotate3D command. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 19. 273 ruled surface. 398. background bitmap. 351 RemoveTrace command. 309. 357 right-click menu. image in the render window. edges. 5. 39. 133 right view. 347 Rectangle command. 359. 359 RotateCPlane command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 3. 346 RectV command. 359 RotateCameraRight command. named view. 30 save: as small file. vertical. 3. 2. curve knots. 352 RenderCrv command. 360. 354 repeat command exclude list. Front construction plane. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 125. 398. 3. view change. 172. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. named view. 360 Rule command. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 324. 340. bumpmaps. 96. button image to file. materials. 358. ii roll out a surface. 120. layer. 347 rectangle:. place lights. 360. 94 RIB file export. 352. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane.0. 363. 360 Run command. Rhino 1. toolbar. 363. 351 RemoveKnot command. 181. 2. mesh settings. scale and move on surface. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. why the name. 309. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 357 right mouse button. 103. 359 RotateDown command. 362. 4. 361. 356 RGB color. create background image. 120 restore: current viewport size. 353 RenderPreview command. a surface. 171. vertical to construction plane. 1. 230. right. 429 Redo command. 346 RectangleCen command. from three points. sequentially numbered versions of model. 359 RotateCameraUp command.ini. trim curve from surface. 382. 361 S command. 325 RectCen command. curves. 320. 347 rectangular array. 355 restore:. 120. clearing render meshes. 346 RectangleV command. named construction plane. 99 Render toolbar. 351. 349 RemapCPlane command. 357. 338. 352. 96. 429 RedoMultiple command. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 103. 346. 203. 360 RotateRight command. 379 RenderOptions command. 2. 75 Rhino 1. 171. 152. 355 revolved surface. 356 RevV command. 119 Rhinoceros. 39. 2. 355 revolve:. 324.0 Command Reference Rect command. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 348. 121 render: BMRT. 338. 251. 24. shine. 183. 126. 360 rotate:. 355. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 345. 25 Rhino web page. objects in 3D space. 353.Rhino 2. 25. 39. 4. 346 rectangle: center. 90 reshape a toolbar. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 346. Rhino from being minimized. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 4. 355. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 355. command aliases. 338 Render command. clear render mesh for all objects. 363. 1 RhinoScript options. an object. 352 rename. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. file to a different file name or file type. 19. 354 reparameterize. 338. 338 Ribbon command. 4. 308. 416 rotate: construction plane. 354. 288. 1 Rhino. 351 RemoveKnots command. 171. 360 RunScript command. wallpaper. 4. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 355 RestoreView command. 360 RotateUp command. 353. 30. 288. 348. 346. 360 RotateView command.

51. 376. 367 section curves. 182. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. current layer. 25. 50. 363. add next control point in v-direction. rotate and move on surface. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 379. 370 SelDup command. 363 scale: background bitmap. 138. 259. 460 . 178. 364. 363. 25. 303. 383. objects uniformly. with crossing window. curves. 368 SelCrossing command. 137. 369. 335. 126. 370. 373 SelU command. add previous control point in u-direction. construction plane with 3 points. 372 SelGroup command. bad objects. 67 Sect command. 372. invert point selection. 365. 367. 376 set: active viewport by name. objects. 366. construction plane vertical. meshes. 370. 368. spotlights. objects for render preview. 24. 309 Scale command. 368 SelectID command. 371 SelMesh command. 361. 363 SaveSmall command. 182. 373. 369. 367. 368. 303. 309. 374. 339. 252. 366 ScaleTrace command. 373. 129 scripting tools. 374. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 365. 415. 152. 373 SelPts command. extents of grid. 262. toolbar layout as different name. 369. 369 SelDim command. 362 SaveCPlane command. 373 SelUV command.0 Command Reference shortcut. 362. 368 SelectConnected command. 364 Scale toolbar. to file. 258. 371 SelLight command. 371. 366. row of control points in udirection. template. polylines. 206. 375 Select toolbar.Rhino 2. 370. 372 SelSrf command. 373 SelSolid command. objects in two dimensions. 365 ScaleNU command. 370. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 383. 259. 136. 371 SelName command. 246. by layer. 372. 372 SelPoint command. objects non-uniformly. 373. 362 save:. 136. 370 SelID command. construction plane to zaxis. rows and columns of control points on surface. 367 SelBadObjects command. maximized viewport by name. 371 SelectName command. 308. 372. 367 Section command. 371. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 184. 370 SelLast command. construction plane to object. 50. 373 SelPolyline command. 376. 367 screen:. points objects. 365. 262. all objects. 182. 370. 374. construction plane to view. 335. 371. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 368. 258. 181. 75 Select Points toolbar. 366 Scale1D command. 183. 363 SaveWS command. VBScript. 383. next control point in u-direction. construction plane to previously used. 125. 24. 367. 368. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 363 Save command. 2. 126. 369 SelCrv command. connected points. 308. 136. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 136. layers from list. 103. 371. front construction plane. objects instead of control points. 24 SelectLayer command. 90 Select Color dialog box. 354. 138. 172. 371. 303. 258. 365. 372 SelPolylines command. 370 SelLayer command. in shaded viewport. 372. 184. 373. 126 scripting:. construction plane origins to a point. 373 SelSurfaces command. surfaces. 309. deselect all objects. lasso. 372 SelSolids command. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 366. next control point in v-direction. with a window. 363 SaveWSAs command. control polygon display density. objects to shade. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. construction plane to x axis. 103. IGES. 368 SelConnected command. 369 SelCrvs command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 230. JScript. 246. 366. add previous control point in v-direction. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. construction plane to next used. 374 SelV command. 369. 362. invert. 366. 372 SelPrev command. 372. 361 save template. 364 Scale2D command. 373 SelSurface command. 125. 137. 354. 363 SaveAs command. 303. coordinates of points. 371 SelLights command. 377. digitizing scale. 262. 137. 138. 369 SelCurve command. 181. 377. distance between grid lines. by object ID. 288. duplicate objects. 364. 375 SelWindow command. 366 scale:. previous control point in vdirection. construction plane origin. with mouse method. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 184. 375. 364. subparts of objects. 339. 373 select:. objects to unlock. 373. 368 SelColor command. 335. move and rotate. dimensions. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 370 SelDups command. 365 screen capture. to file in 256 colors. 372 SelNone command. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 181. 373 SelSrfs command. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 367. objects in one direction. 372. objects by name. 371 SelMeshes command. 246. 371. objects by layer number. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 90. previous control point in udirection. 184. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. to Clipboard. 376. 335. 369 SelCurves command. 373 SelPt command. 370 selection menu. 363 SaveView command. 183. 375. 367 SelAll command. 262. toolbar layout. polysurfaces. 364. 25.

perspective angle. 337. 153. selected hidden objects. 383 shear objects. hidden objects. 377. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 388 sketch:. continuous in perspective view. 384 show:. 183. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 245 ShowMenu command. 323. 337. 84. 220 ShowGrid command. to next used. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 359. 183. 246. 98. 3 Points. selected objects. continuous shaded mode. 343. right construction plane. 206. 400 ShowTitle command. 241. 4 Shift+PageDown. 387 sketch: curve. 250 SetLayer command. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. handlebars. 246. 181. 184. 78. 74. 381 set construction plane. 218. 261. 384. 244. 119 ShowTrace command. to surface isoparm. OpenGL. 382. 78. x-axis. 383 Shift key. 379. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 381 shade:. 389. 181. to an object. 184. 383 ShadeOptions command. 379 SetOrtho command. 264. 183. to the center of a circle. flat with grid. 425 Shade1 command. tangent to a curve. 206. 207 SetSnap command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 409 ShowToolbar command. 183. Osnap toolbar. along a line tangent to a curve. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 162. 380 Settings command. 82. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 5. 384 ShowCamera command. turn off object snaps. 125. onto a curve. curve on polygon mesh. 182. 79. z-axis. 98. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 385. working directory. 80. bitmap in a separate window. to a point object. 23. near a curve. 388. with grid. 390 snap: along a line. 386 ShowPts command. 426 ShowAll command. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 2. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 84. 383. 385 ShowPoints command. 79. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 92. 380 SetGroupName command. 119 ShowToolbox command. 386. 391. 382 ShadeAll command. 425 Shade command. midway between two points. selected objects in all viewports. project object snaps to construction plane. 181. with wireframe. 339. 78. 2. perpendicular to a curve. by key. 409 set:. 242. 218. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 92. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 5 Shift+PageUp. 94. 388. 220. 183. 78. 379 SetPts command. 426 Show command. 390 smooth curve or surface. from a point.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 386 Silhouette command. to construction plane. options. 2. spotlight hotspot. 84. 250. 392. 184. to the midpoint of a curve. 380 SetRedrawOn command. with no smoothing on mesh. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 242. 42 Smooth command. flat in one viewport. Right. 386. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 383. keys. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 381. 384. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 339 ShowEdges command. 212. 79. 133. scripting tools. 380. by function. 298. toggle object snaps. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 140. 318. 2. 79. 355. 42 SLC file exchange. 182. 383 shadow. 183. shortcuts. 318. 382. 242. 379 SetPt command. 182. 376. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. edges of surface or polysurface. 81. 181. 387 silhouette curves. 378 SetObjectName command. 5. 382. 96. 381. 242. 182. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 273 SLA export. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 298. 120. 94. 206. 389 skinning. options. 184. 383 ShadeSelected command. 338 shortcuts. 83. 385. printer. 76.Rhino 2. broken edges. 376. on surface. z-buffer. top construction plane. 76. 92. toolbar. display context menu. control points. 381 shade: continuous. 77. 82. vertical. pane. 119. 183. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 2. change size. 382 shaded display. built-in aliases. 382. 376. 261. 178. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 183. 383 ShadedViewport command. 241. 389 Sketch command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 377 SetHotspot command. 385. 376 SetGridSnap command. 376 SetGLShade command. 250. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 81. 119. 80. 357. hidden control points. 218. 362 Set View toolbar. grid. 184. toggle OpenGL mode. edit points. curve with digitizer. 384. 363. 173 ShowCV command. to the end of a curve. 81. object. 94. 95. to the view. 241. 385. 78 461 . 246. 322. 184. 386 ShowPt command. 80. 23. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 384. 220. 5 shine in rendering. 21 Shear command. 385 ShowOsnap command. 318. 94. 84. 385 ShowGrev command. 2. to a surface. 355. 386. 3. 212. 318 SetPlanar command. 409. 386 ShowSelected command. in all viewports. 125 show: background bitmap. 383. to previously used. 339. naked edges. flat in all viewports. Top. 183. to the intersection of two curves. viewports. to a knot.

307. 417. 393. one object with another. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 295. drape. 356. 113. 236. 393 Sphere2Pt. 19. 417 surface:. 218. 223. developable. 240. 307. 4. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 92. 416. baseball sphere. 80. viewport vertically. 325. 160. 10. sweep two rails. Boolean intersection. 189. 38. 241. 371. 416. 114. 393. 398. 251. 410. 36. 324. 69 Solid Edge. 428. 38 SortPoints command. extrude curve to point. 165. 284. 360. 401. 153. 288. 42 StopScript command. 68 solid: Boolean difference. reparameterize. 371 Spotlight command. 410. 166. 361. create variable radius fillet between. 288. 198. 192. 2. turn on or off. 35. 325. file exchange. 277. 400 SubCurve command. cylinder. 409. 190. 133. box. create fillet between. 372. 413. 42 Stereograms. 10. make nonperiodic. 281. 238. 384. 132. 238. 306. 90. 88. 410. display. 276. 380. 399. 398. 398 SrfCV command. 406. 402. 392. 69. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 189. 386. 392 Sphere toolbar. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 224. 153. 153. 411 SolidWorks. 385. 118. 302. 317. 190. 162. 84. 203. 396. 414. viewport horizontally. plane vertical to construction plane. 243. draw curve through control points. 361. 229. 330. 273. 284 SrfMerge command. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 233. 392. 161. 3. 421. 70. 76. 286. 392. 240. 229 SrfAlign command. 234. extrude. 309 SrfBlend command. 399. 83. 238. 393 sphere:. 81. 277. 173. make periodic. 417. 38. 166. 320. 84 snap:. 398. 395. hide backfacing control points. 320. 334 spacebar. 263. 216. 250. 126 Stretch command. 238. 344. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. maximum radius of curvature. from grid of control points. 399 SrfPoints command. 277. 288. toggle. pipe. 364 SubCrv command. 216. 164. 182. select all. 275. mean curvature. 406. 1. 79. 421. 94. 82. 284. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 15. 298. 68 Softimage plug-in. unroll. 157. 298. develop. 317. extend. blend. 192 Surface menu. 163. 70. 133. 42. 429. extrude curve along path. 426 STL: ascii tag. 166. 247. from 3 or 4 curves. tolerance. 355. patch. for rendering. 381. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 290. 354. 133. 236. 233. 255 split: edge of a surface. 223. 373. 355. 396. 281. cap planar ends. 135. 164. 395. 171. 354. 426. cutting plane. 2. 399 SrfPt command. 158. 401. 316. 69. shortcuts. 163. 367. 317. 416. toolbar. 324. 157. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 313. periodic. 392. 281. 229.Rhino 2. 279. 287. 385. 2. 228. trim. 180. 285. 399. 394 spline. 278. turn on or off. 401. 161. 84 Softimage file exchange. 338. 400 STEP file exchange. panes. 377. tube. export object properties to. 320. 295 Sphere command. 104. from curve network. 233. 133. 307. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 397 Split command. 399. 423 STL:. 426 surface analysis:. 218. 238. 406. 328. 306. untrim. 407. 372. plane from three points. 386. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 103. 288. 391 snap mode. 396 SplitSrf command. 393 SphereD command. 154. 5. 397. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. IGES file exchange. 236. match. 273. 281. X_T file export. 157. 400. select all. 201. Booleans. 393 Spiral command. from 3 or 4 points. 251. comma-delimited file export. select all. Boolean union. 115. 400 StatusBar command. 395. rebuild. torus. 289. 133. 344. 380. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 397 SplitEdge command. 240 solid:. 163. skin. 200. 192. revolved. reverse direction. 133 sphere. 398. 340. 399 SrfPts command. 273. 395. offset. 243. 162. 399 SrfSum command. 216. 160. 393 Sphere2Pts. 237. 391. 202. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 372. 161. 105 surface normal. from three points. 162. 324. 409 SnapSize command. 402. sweep along path. change degree. 42.0 Command Reference Snap command. 247. 192. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 288 SrfPointGrid command. by diameter. polygon mesh. 284. 16. minimum radius of curvature. 96. 165. 38 Solid toolbar. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 396. 164. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 430 startup commands. 395 split:. 165. 339. 114. 396. split. 397 SplitViewVertical command. loft. center. 223. 392 SnapToLocked command. 398. 391. IGES file exchange. 242. 189 SrfMatch command. 236. 160. 348. 273. 132. 324. 173. 92. 229. 392. 243 Surface toolbar. 217. extrude into solid. create. hotspot. 398. 192. 317. 160. 398 spotlight:. 417. 273. 426 462 . 380 snap to locked objects. 352. 236. 324. chamfer. ellipsoid. 160 summary information. from planar curves. 247. 249. 306. 78. 398 spreadsheet. X_T file export. 298. 411. 344. 218. cone. merge. 159. 321. 201. rule. 238 Standard toolbar. 200. extract from polysurface. from heightfield bitmap. 261. 373. truncated cone. plane. 90 status bar. 391. 249. 240. from grid of points. 15. box from three points. 366. 238. 22 support. 340. 250. 382. surface at isoparms. 35. 262. 173. 201. 392. 101.

142. 409. 244. 143. 303. 428. BMRT Materials. 415 tilt view. 323. 420. pop up with middle mouse. 120. 120. 14 Tan object snap. 356. 220. 123. 407 text:. 123 Toolbars. 173. open toolbar. cascade. 393. 121. 144. 206. 264. 339. 363. save button image to file. 347. 386. 338. model size. display of command prompt. 338. 339. 209. 220. 82. Analyze. 370. 162. 363. 396. delete toolbar. 321. 207. 230. 90. right. 330. 265. 226. 150. 210. 90. 398. 121. 273. 288. 333. 308. 39. 271. 293. 208. 135. 404. 463 . ortho mode. 258. 223. 384. 152. 156. 425. edit annotation. 298. 122. 150. 279. 171. 120. 123. rendering of curves. 119. 179. 245. 269 Taper command. 262. 368. 121. 39. two rails. 390. 204. 172. save layout as different name. edit button image. status bar on or off. control polygon highlight. 78. 419. 143. 400 sweep. 187. 119. 281. 120. 334. 123. 218. 348. 217. 141. 22. 323. 96. 153. 387. 351. 420. 345. 409. 344. 364. 13. persistent object snaps. 288. 168. 297. 138. 413. scaled size. 404 Sweep1 command. 120 tolerance. 409 title bar. 389. 164. 352. 197. new toolbar. 122. 90. 330. 288. 402 Sxtrd command. 412. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. hide toolbar. 125 Toolbar command. 92. 401 Sweep2 command. 407 Texture command. move button. grid on and off. 419. Curve From Object. 218. 362 text: annotation dot. 409. 296. 80. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 389. 243. 149. show toolbar. 201. 423.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 84. 229. 241. 207. 411. 360. 168. 119. 397. Annotate. 402. 373. 269. 83. 325. 374. reshape toolbar. close. 409 TogglePerspective command. 103. 122. 415. 192. display of title bar. 120. 317. 179. 221. 216. 148. 290. 140. import button image. 174. solids. 305. 122. 429. Box. 195. new button. 81. 272. 232. display program. Background Bitmap. 263. 90. 125. 260. 410. 365. 200. 241. 231. new file. 352. 141. 15. 302. 385. 124. viewport title. 404 TAB key. 50. 216. 349. save. toggle toolbar on and off. 121. title bar on or off. 256. float toolbar. 401. 183. 173. 119. toolbar on and off. 309. 258. 197. 120. 166. 352. display of viewport title. 151. 322. 22. 122. 124. 260. 124. 323. 221. 394. Ellipse. 73 template. 233. 157. 22 toolbar buttons. 328. dock. 239. 124. 220. 313. 236 SynchronizeViews command. programming. 306. 255. 51. 382. 302. 322. 156. 205. 390. 124. 187. 254. move toolbar. 163. change name. Dimensions. display viewport. 123. 122. 94. 104. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 426. 121. 182. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 137. hide flyout. properties. 177. 407 TextObject command. 239. 420. definition. 400. 416. Diagnostics. 134 TGA file format. CPlane View. 402. save. 187. 409. 409. grid axes on or off. 337. 367 Thaw command. 174. 379. display of status bar. 342. 372. 40. 400. 124. 355. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 387. 305. 220. 120. 3-D Digitizing. 425 Toggle34View command. 205. file location. 90. 171. 408 Text command. 120. 279. 185. 400 SwapUV command. capture button image. create cascading toolbar. 179. 359. 247. 51. unlink flyout. 409. 154. 238. 381. 384. 236. 308. 3-D Digitize. 395. 216. 420. 338. 178. 190. edit bitmap icon. 385. 248. 330. 189. viewports. 123. 400. menu bar. 284. 351. 270. 366. change button size. 169. 311. 122. 401. 101. 184. 123. 162. 168. 330. 71 Swap. float icon to top of cascade. 430. 379. 265. 340. 407. 19. tear off flyout. 400. crosshairs on and off. 245. 408. surfaces. 168. 379. 407. 140. 396. 294. 353. 311. 215. 79. display of menu bar. 407. 384. clear button image.Rhino 2. 5. 385. 308. 255. 369. 409 TiltLeft command. Curve. dragging based on view plane. 198. copy button. 257. 297. 245. 235. 323. 121. Extend. 288. 368. 407. 409 toolbar layout. 210. 365. 388. 375. 409. 361. save. 221. world axes on or off. 288 ToggleOsnap command. planar mode. 228. 169. 363. 407. 248. 177. 152. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 1. copy. 409. 149. 122. 194. 391. 236. 388. 259. 203. 212. 231. angle. 392. 222. 409. 135. 235. 363. 15. 204. move. 272. 283. 323 TCone command. 409. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 163. 362. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 363. 121. 420 Title command. change. 119. 288. 234. 181. 122. set viewport. 134. 338 texture for rendering. 311. 379. 346. 135. 120. 178. 409. Circle. 407. 292. 245. 210. 331. 368. 353. planar curves. 399. 124. 120. 302. 387. 139. 405 target. ortho. 367. 395. 232. 249. BMRT Lights toolbar. 391. 206. 134. 366. 353. 371. 242. import from another layout. 417. 121. 249. 326. capture icon. 125. surface u and v. 377. 307. 170. 185. 198. 222. 295. 261. 337. 124. 72 technical support. 400. 82 tangent line. 195. 215. 336. 192. snap mode. IGES export. 246. edit 2-dimensional. 139. 189. 353. 322. 358. 362. 344. 253. 409 TiltRight command. 215. 165. 120. relative. 425. 155. 125. 121. 170. perspective view on and off. 203. 136. 208. 217. 318. 321. 142. 392. 269 TanLine command. open. Array. 267. 167. scripting. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 335. 185. 161. 421. 406. 88. edit. 343. control polygon display. 332. 409 toggle. 160. Arc. 401. rendering of edges. 316. 367. 125. 256. 324. 230. 257. 212. rename toolbar. 162. 403. 145. along path. 144. 223. 357. 400 SwapView command. 23. 165. 215. 240. 268. 151. 422. 343. 383. 420. left. 323. 405. 414. 340. Curve Tools. 213. 80 TanFrom object snap. 173. Edge Tools. 304. 281. 320. 164. delete button. 209. 39. 224. 226. 180. 251. 245. 255. 148. clear the bitmap image. 221. 266. 230.

244. 313. 273. 345. 412 U command. 420. 140. 365. 228. 409. Orient command. ArrayPolar command. 358. 268. 15 Units command. 236. 358. 386. 384. 304. 149. 283. 294. 19. 249. 161 unit systems. 92. 358. 311. 386. 383. 338. 330. 410. 173. 365. Fillets and chamfers. 412 transparency in rendering. Solid Tools. 386 troubleshooting. 268. 296. 339. 81. 150. 409 Tools toolbar. 405. 155. 198. control points. 363. Organic. 277. 284. 88. 311. 295. title bar. 134. 335. Flow command. 348. 184. 201. 133. 236. 200. 323. 83. grid. 413 u-direction: move control points. 361. 410. 400. along a line. 390. 424. 360. 367. 409. ScaleNU command. 429. Surface 2. 311. shortcut. 356. 372. autosave. 229. Rotate3D command. 94. 136. 2. 244. layer. 49. 304. 334. 382. 90. 342. 349. 396. 41. 180. 228. 338. 218. 373. Surface Analysis. 208. 428. 153. 166. 348. Scale2D command. 348. 2. 205. 180. 148. 306. 221. 2 Torus command. 288. 429. 309. 339. 140. 338. reverse. 323. 162. 410. Sphere. 373. definition. 273. 427. ArrayCrv command. OpenGL. IGES export type details. IGES. 365. 307. 249. 265. 357. 296. 415. OrientOnSrf command. 253. 330. 414 UndoSelected command. 371. 152. 203. 358. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 417. 316. Extrude. 101. Render. 318. 148. 96. Surface Tools. title bar. Twist command. 154. in text. 339. 430. 398. 240. 263. 271. 48. 261. 157. 425. 261. 342. 208. 233. 171. 307. 161. 385. 337. 355. 409. 154. 173. 261. 288. 308. 288. 92. 236. 375. 348. 51. 375. 102. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 425. Move command. Tools. 179. 356. 379. 259. 253. 364. 182. command line. status bar. 413 undo:. 19. 369. STL Tools. 131 transform: Array command. 182. 16. 357. 411 turn off. along a line tangent to a curve. Taper command. grid axes. 214. 82. 361. 370. 245. 276. layer. 162. 218. 307. 245. 302. 262. 307. 318. 206. 400. 259. 183. world axes. ArraySrf command. 415 Ungroup command. 324. 425 turn on. 420. 308. Point Editing. 396. control points on selected objects. 262. trimmed surfaces. 245. 325. 288. 390. 249. 173. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. world axes. 352. 263. 326. 99. 331. 355. 416 UnGhost command. Layer. 415 Toolbox command. 94. 401. 296. 338. 417. 409 top view. 308. 137. autosave. 339. 138. 88. RemapCPlane command. 270. 374. 324. 296. 307. 149. 400. 293. 413. 377. 204. shortcuts. 366. 365. 382. 142. 173.Rhino 2. 172. 349. command line. 412 Transform toolbar. 357. 339. 185 u-direction definition. Select. 415 units systems. 417. 249. 180. 245. 266. File. 165. POV Lights. 405. Visibility. 92. 82. 142. 135. 347. 321. 321. 229. 412. Main. 374. 245. 258. Transform. 108. grid axes. 244. Orient3Pt command. 414 unfold a surface. 333. 281. 414. 346. 368. 341. 414. 367. view change. 83. 298. 309. 203. 296. OrientPerpToCrv command. 275.0 Command Reference 233. 386. POV Materials. 392. 408. 429 UndoMultiple command. 88. 361. 260. 251. 397. 223. 243. Mesh. 395. 145. 79. 229. 400. 390. 168. 399. 73 union. 263. 90. 364. 180. IGES export file types. 203. 362. Viewport Layout. 405. Plane. 348. 220. 261. 406 Tube command. 298. 322. 352. 384. 357. 171. 379. Lines. 331. 298. 384. 404. 349. 379. 90. 236. 307. Solid. grid. 365. 194. 254. 82 tracking line. 267. 202. Scale. 2. 393. Geometry Fix. 423. 339. 365. 164. 422. 160. 357. 392. 373. 409. 203. 244. 413. 425. 332. 192. 16. 290. 338. Scale1D command. control points. 308. 399. Scale command. 359. Standard. 409. 255. pop up at cursor. 339. 421. 426 Turntable command. 180. 82. 338. 224. 402. 429 Undo command. 381. 108. 412 Twist command. 412 transform:. 423. 154. 238. 239. 100. 321 track. 243. Mirror command. 366. 262. 161. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 241. 339. 135. Copy command. 104. 2. 153. 386. 372. 154. 96. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. rendering. 113. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 152. shrink to trim boundary. 240. Polygon. 245. 92 Trim command. 103. 140. 174. 251. 190. 244. Microscribe. 134. 229. 292. 141. 220. 161. 269. 344. 263. 2. 263. 148. 135. 210. menu bar. 406. 386. command. Bend command. 349. 90. 19. 409. 338. 356 u-direction:. 362. 351. Boolean. 151. options. 299. 328. ProjectToCPlane command. 322. 358. 238. 416. 203. Shear command. 229. 334. 103. 172. 1. 101. 413. 83. 343. 50. Object Snap. set. 180. 258. 288. 413. 240. 309. 151. 140. 148. 366. 101. 219. 383. Smooth command. 251. 105. 242. 395. 249. 364. 154. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 246. 15 truncated cone. 383. 148. 153. menu bar. 409 Top command. 96. 203 trimmed surfaces. 391. 302. 390. 410 trim:. all layers. 377. 414 UnhidePoints command. 262. 309. 247. 405. 172. 326. 379. 303. 317. 403. 297 u-direction curves. 339. 296. layers. 84. 236. 351. 353. 162. 213. 348. 256. 381. 343. 212. 342. 48. 264. Select Points. 409. 364. 345. SetPt command. 290. 90. 383. 288. 386 Unicode fonts. 41. 337. 425. 410 TraceBitmap command. 153. 409. 363. 425. 173. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 368. 412. 336. 398. 203. 339. Rectangle. 173. 399. 94. 330. 80. 366. 173. 50. 363. 78. Point. 305. 262. 172. 216. 150. 167. 414 Ungroup objects. 333. redo. 229. 104. 386. 349. 409. 190. 317. 355. Rotate command. 309. 123 464 . Set View. 330. 92. Surface. 398. 234. 311. status bar. 263. 300. Booleans. 181. 357. Mass Properties. Set CPlane. 407.

tilt left. 409. 409. continuously rotate. 297 v-direction curves. tilt right. control point. construction plane right. shade. 376 Wallpaper command. 420. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 318. 415 unlock:. 313. 419. copy to all. 126 VCPlane command. construction plane bottom. 323. rotate down. swap viewports. 343. 162. set front view. construction plane back. set maximized by name. restore named. 135. 249. 397. 162. 400. 338. 397. 404. 24. 430. 314. 304.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 429. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 288. 357. 302. 244. 318. 244. 356 v-direction:. 343. 45 workgroup: check in license. 384. 419. 425. 355. with mouse. 54 vertex. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 288. 429 viewport layout:. 360. 45 viewport: bring to top. 420 ViewportTitle command. 383. 355. 397. 400. 415 unroll a surface. 429. 313. 198. 134 VBscript. object. set to wireframe display. 172. reverse. 376. top view. 302. maximize. 288. maximize viewport. show control points. 415 UnPackTextures command. 379. read from file. 428. next perspective active. 131. 43 v-direction: move control points. pan left. 2. zoom in. 420 views. 314. 90 window selection. 420. 313. 429. 250. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 419. 302. 360. rectangle. 417 Untrim command. 423 weld:. 135. 422 water level. 264. 383. 412. zoom extents selected. 377. 405. 357. 250 What command. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 338 wireframe display. construction plane front. 185 v-direction definition. check out license. 343. 347 VRML file export. 416 UnrollSrf command. 430. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 323. 168 465 . three viewports. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 264. 190. zoom out. 11 user input in script. line. 419. 322. 273. 264. 172. rotate. 412. 336. 236. 181. place target. 322. 271. 397. perspective view. 430 view:. 425 ViewportProperties command. next active. isoparm. 165 UpDegSrf command. 416 untrim a surface. print. 357. 304. plane. right view. 323. 96. 425 WireShade1 command. set top view. 347. 313. 3 window:. 415 Visibility toolbar. edit named. zoom extents in one viewport. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 23. 376. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 404 visibility: control points. redraw speed. 244. set density. 430. 325. 428. 318. selected objects. 25. split vertical. 153. 428 Windows Clipboard. 184 VDA file exchange.Rhino 2. 298. object snaps. 422 weight:. set all to match. 360. plan view. 430 viewport:. 322. set right view. 336. 273. control points. 1 window: select. 377. 379 Weld command. 264. 430. zoom extents. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 131 vertical. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. set viewport. 429. 23. 304. 44 W command. 421 VolumeMoments command. 11 uv mapping coordinates. set perspective view. target. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 190. 313. zoom. construction plane left. 416 UpDeg command. 135. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 400. 153. 420 viewport title menu. split horizontal. properties. 212. 343. 321. zoom extents in all viewports. 409. 126 Vline command. 249. rotate right. 376. 400 viewport properties. 318. 163. 250 water plane area. menu. zoom window and set a target point. 386. 415 UnLockSelected command. pan up. 415 UnLock command. 420. swap. 384. 386. set left view. 302. 135. 303. 181. 425 WMF file export. 224. zoom all to the same scale. camera. 288. create new. 304. layout. 162. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. save named. 419. bottom view. 425. 360. 135 WireframeViewport command. 419. 273. zoom window. 357. 298. 132. 384. 271. 415. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 415 Visual Basic script. synchronize. 325. 430. 51 weight: edit control point. read named from file. 244. 168. set to shaded display. make previous active. pan. 421 VPlane command. zoom in and out by a percentage. 135. 24. set bottom view. 347 view: back view. close. wireframe viewport. 417 unwrap a surface. 303. 132. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. pan down. 421 VRectangle command. 134. 185. front view. 153. 96. 386. 163. 249. 421 VRBSrf command. 363. 271 Volume command. 429. 90. set back view. 429. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 423 wetted surface area. 360. place camera and target. 325 Vrbf command. 360. 323. 422 Weight command. 404. rotate left. 423. display. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. new. 343. 420. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. zoom window. 318. create from surface. 430. hide back. 249. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 288. 190. left view. move next to top. 409. 336. 383. 425 wireframe:. 23. 24. 162. 363. 415 visibility:. 302. 409. rotate up. 429. lock objects. 322. unlock objects. 420. 153. 409. next ortho active. pan right. set active by name.

308. 11 WorldAxes command. open. 233 XtndF command. 130 zoom: dynamic. 308. 430 ZoomTarget command. 430 Zoom command. 429 ZoomOut command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 2. extents in all viewports. 429. 428. 216 ZE command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 3. 168. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 74 Z command. 5. 428. 217 ZBufferPt command. 4. 38 XtndB command. 130. set colors.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 429. toggle display. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 429 ZoomIn command. 428 Zoo. 44 X_T file export. 381 workspace. 168. 97. 429. 430 ZP command. 168 working directory. 428 ZoomExtents command. 429 Zebra command. extents of selected objects in one viewport.Rhino 2. 429 ZoomSelected command. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 363 world axes. 429. in. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 2. 363. 425 world coordinates. previous view. 430 ZSA command. 429 ZoomPrev command. 217 ZBufferPts command. 430 466 . 430. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 428 ZoomNext command. 430 zoom window. 168 workgroup:. 425. check out license. 425 WRL file export. 430 ZoomX command. 429 ZoomP command. save. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 426 ZM command. 2. out. 430. 429. 428. 429 ZoomMouse command. 363. 429 ZEA command. window and set a new target point. in and out by a percentage. 429 ZS command. 428. 4. save as different name. 233 Xtra command. window. 3 zoom:. options. 430 ZBuffer command. 96. 430. extents in one viewport. 2. 425. 3. check in license. 96. 430 ZoomWindow command. 430.

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