P. 1
Textbook 1

Textbook 1

|Views: 260|Likes:
Published by rua90

More info:

Published by: rua90 on Nov 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





A Concise History

Volume II: Since 1340

Lynn Hunt
University of California. Los Angeles

Thomas R. Martin
College of the Holy Cross

Barbara H. Rosenwein
Loyola University Chicago

Bonnie G. Smith
Rutgers University

Bedford / St. Martin's
Boston • New York


Chapter 14

TheAtlantic System andItsConsequences

NewSocialand CulturalPatterns began to import into Britain huge quantities of calico. British imports of tobao doubled between 1672 and 1700. At Nantes, the center of the French sugar trad imports quadrupled between 1698 and 1733. Tea, chocolate, and coffee becan virtual necessities. In the 1670s, only a trickle of tea reached London, but by 17: the East India Company sent 9 million pounds to England-a figure that rose 37 million pounds by 1750. In 1700, England had two thousand coffeehouses; I 1740, every English country town had at least two. Paris got its first cafes at tl end of the seventeenth century; Berlin opened its first coffeehouse in 1714; Bacl Leipzig boasted eight coffeehouses by 1725. The birth of consumer society did not go unnoticed by eyewitnesses. In tI English economic literature of the 1690s, writers began to express a new view, humans as consuming animals with boundless appetites. Such opinions gained wide audience with the appearance of Bernard Mandeville's poem Fable of the Be. (1705), which argued that private vices might have public benefits. Mandevil insisted that pride, self-interest, and the desire for material goods (all Christi a vices) in fact promoted economic prosperity: "every part was full of Vice, Yet tl whole mass a Paradise." Many authors attacked the new doctrine of consume ism, and the French government banned the poem's publication. But Mandeville REVIEW Howis consumerismrelatedto had captured the essence of the emerging slavery? market for consumption.

Thiscoloredcotton cloth (nowfadedwithage)was paintedand embrOIdered Madras.In southern In India.in the late ,600s. Themalefigurewith the mustachemaybe a European,but th: femalefigures are clearlyAsian.Europeans, speciallythe British,discoveredthat theycoul~ makebig profitson the e export of Indiancotton cloth to Europe.Theyalsotraded Indiancotton In Afncafor slavesand sold largequantitiesinthe colonies.(V&A Images/VlCtoria and Albert Museum. London.) The Birth of a Consumer Society Worldwide colonization produced new supplies of goods, from coffee to ~alico: a~d population growth in Europe fueled demand for th~m. Beginning first In Bnt~ln, then in France and the Italian states, and finally In eastern Europe, population surged, growing by about 20 percent between 1700 and 1750. The gap between a fast-growing northwestern Europe and a more st~gnant ~outhern and central Europe now diminished as regions that had lost population dunng the seventeenth-centurr downturn recovered. Cities in particular grew. Between 1600 and 1750, Londons population more than tripled, and Paris's more th~n do.ubled. . Although contemporaries could not have realized It then, this was the start of the modern "population explosionfIt appears that a decline in. the death rate, .rather than a rise in the birthrate, explains the turnaround. Three main factors contnbuted to this decline in the death rate: better weather and hence more bountiful harvests, improved agricultural techniques, and the plague's disapp~arance a.fter 1720. By the early eighteenth century, the effects of economic expansion ~nd population growth brought about a consumer revolution. The British East India Company

India Cottons and Trade with the East


New Social and Cultural Patterns
The impact of the Atlantic system and world trade was most apparent in the cii ies, where people had more money for consumer goods and more opportunities t participate in new public activities. But rural changes also had significant long-terr influence, as a revolution in agricultural techniques made it possible to feed more an more people with a smaller agricultural workforce. As population increased, mor people moved to the cities, where they found themselves caught up in innovative urba customs such as attending musical concerts and reading novels. Along with a genef< increase in literacy, these activities helped create a new public sphere ready to respon. to new styles and new ideas. Social and cultural changes were not uniform acros Europe, however; as usual, people's experiences varied depending on whether the lived in wealth or poverty, in urban or rural areas, or in eastern or western Europe. The Agricultural Revolution

Although Britain, France, and the Dutch Republic shared the enthusiasm for con sumer goods, Britain's domestic market grew most quickly. In Britain, as agricultura output increased 43 percent over the course of the 1700s, the population increaser by 70 percent. The British imported grain to feed the growing population, but the: also benefited from the development of techniques that together constituted at


C hap t e r 14

The Atlantic System and Its Consequences

New Social and Cultural Patterns


agricultural revolution. No new machinery propelled this revolution-just more aggressive attitudes toward investment and management. The Dutch and Flemish had pioneered many of these techniques in the 1600s, but the British took them further. Four major changes occurred in British agriculture that eventually spread to other countries. First, farmers increased the amount of land under cultivation by draining wetlands and by growing crops on previously uncultivated common lands (acreage maintained by the community for grazing). Second, farmers who could afford to do so consolidated smaller, scattered plots into larger, more efficient units. Third, livestock raising became more closely linked to crop growing, and the yields of each increased. (See "Taking Measure:') For centuries, most farmers had rotated their fields in and out of production to replenish the soil. Now farmers planted carefully chosen fodder crops such as clover and turnips that added nutrients to the soil, thereby eliminating the need to leave a field fallow (unplanted) every two or three years. With more fodder available, farmers could raise more livestock, which in turn produced more manure to fertilize grain fields. Fourth, selective breeding of animals combined with the increase in fodder to improve the quality and size of herds. New crops had only a slight impact. Potatoes, for example, were introduced



o '" 5



Taking Measure Relationship of Crop Harvested to Seed Used.
1400-1800 The impact and even the timing of the agricultural revolution can be seen in this figure, based on yield ratios (the number



1600 Years



of grains produced for each seed planted). Britain, the Dutch Republic, and the Austrian Netherlands all experienced,huge increases in crop yields after 1700. Other European regions lagged behind right into the 18005. What are the economic and social consequences of having a higher crop yield?


A = Britain and the Low Countries B : France, Spain. andItaly C = Central Europe and-Scandinavia 0 = Eastern Europe

Yield Ratios

to Europe from South America in the 1500s, but because people feared they might cause leprosy, tuberculosis, or fevers, they were not grown in quantity until the late 1700s. By the 1730s and 1740s, agricultural output had increased dramatically, and prices for food had fallen because of these interconnected innovations. Changes in agricultural practices did not benefit all landowners equally. The biggest British landowners consolidated their holdings in the "enclosure movement:' They put pressure on small farmers and villagers to sell their land or give up their common lands. The big landlords then fenced off ("enclosed") their property. Because enclosure eliminated community grazing rights, it frequently sparked a struggle between the big landlords and villagers, and in Britain it normally required an act of Parliament. Such acts became increasingly common in the second half of the eighteenth century, and by the century's end six million acres of common lands had been enclosed and developed. "Improvers" produced more food more efficiently and thus supported a growing population. Contrary to the fears of contemporaries, small farmers and cottagers (those with little or no property) were not forced off the land all at once. But most villagers could not afford the litigation involved in resisting enclosure, and small landholders consequently had to sell out to landlords or farmers with larger plots. Landlords with large holdings leased their estates to tenant farmers at constantly increasing rents, and tenant farmers in turn employed cottagers as salaried agricultural workers. In this way the English peasantry largely disappeared, replaced by a more hierarchical society of big landlords, enterprising tenant farmers, and poor agricultural laborers. The new agricultural techniques spread slowly from Britain and the Low Countries (the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands) to the rest of western Europe. Outside a few pockets in northern France and the western German states, however, subsistence agriculture (producing just enough to get by rather than surpluses for the market) continued to dominate farming in western Europe and Scandinavia. In southwestern Germany, for example, 80 percent of the peasants produced no surplus because their plots were too small. Unlike the populations of the highly urbanized Low Countries (where half the people lived in towns and cities), most Europeans, western and eastern, eked out an existence in the countryside. In eastern Europe, the condition of peasants worsened in the areas where landlords tried hardest to improve their yields. To produce more for the Baltic grain market, aristocratic landholders in Prussia, Poland, and parts of Russia drained wetlands, cultivated moors, and built dikes. They also forced peasants off lands the peasants worked for themselves, increased compulsory labor services (the critical element in serfdom), and began to manage their estates directly. Some eastern landowners grew fabulously wealthy. The Potocki family in the Polish Ukraine, for example, owned three million acres of land and had 130,000 serfs. In parts of Poland and Russia, the serfs hardly differed from slaves in status, and their "masters" ran their huge estates much like American plantations.

with 675. too. a china collection.. bodice. by 1700. half of the people in cities of at least 10. Between 1650 and 1750. and opera.Prosperous fa~lhes show off their brightly colored clothes and listen to a public concert by the orchestra seated Just above them. ~hey also ~onned caps of various sorts. Many occupations could b. the middle classes lived primarily in the cities and towns. The po. New household items reflected society's increasing wealth and its exposure to colonial imports. the middle classes of London typically had several mirrors. London was by far the most populous European city. and landowners occupied the next rung down on the social ladder. a coffeepot and coffee mill. Women from poorer families usually worked as domestic servants untl~ ~hey married. Every home from the middle classes to the upper classes employed servants. Dinner. even if they owned small country estates. the p~or clambered up to shabby. was still less urban than western Europe. cities grew in population and consequently exercised more influence on culture and social life. Supper was a light meal of bread and cheese with cake or pie..e recognized by their dress: no one could confuse lawyers in their dark robes With masons or butchers in their special aprons. london T~ishand-colored prin~ from the rnid-rroos shows the newly refurbished gardens near the Thames River. A ~eapohtan prince described his homeless neighbors as "lying like filthy animals. after 1700. sleeping under bridges or in abandoned homes. Many landowners kept a residence in town. Social status in the cities was readily visible. Four out of five domestic servants in the city were female. Of. Spain. professionals. these rich families employed thousands of artisans.o Art library. or Portugal. books.000 residents could be found in the Italian states. cotton stockings. so the separation between rural and city life was not as extreme as might be imagined. the middle classes began to develop distinctive ways of life that set them apart from both the rich noble landowners and the lower classes. an important south-to-north shift occurred in the pattern of urbanization.000 inhabitants increased in population by 44 percent. Some of them filled their lives only with conspicuous consumption of fine food. From the eighteenth century onward. London's population. dirty. clothing was a reliable social indicator. dark. For breakfast. LI. for example. the British middle classes ate toast and rolls and.keshelter. poultry. People higher on Vauxhall Gardens. f'a""elTh. By 1700. urban growth would be continuous. merchants. who survived on intermittent work and charity. Workingmen dressed even more drably. administrative. Bnd~em. At the top of the ladder in the big cities were the landed nobles. though wine replaced beer in France.534 Chapter 14 The AtlanticSystem and Its Consequences New Social and Cultural Patterns 535 Social Life in the Cities Because of emigration from the countryside. In contrast to the gigantic and sprawling countryseats of the richest English peers. at least not for the very rich. and the houses were damp and crowded.or. despite the huge cities of Istanbul and Moscow. and smelly. shopkeepers. artisans and shopkeepers. At the bottom of the social scale were the unemployed poor. ' . or pork. Wide. and vegetables. cities with at least 10. the houses had gardens. The middle classes of officials. In poor districts. supervised employees. Unlike the rich nobles. rich and poor lived in the same buildings. Around 1500. or judicial offices. the urbanization of northwestern and southern Europe was roughly equal. In large cmes such as London. Beer was the main drink in London. spacious streets graced rich districts. They ate more moderately than nobles but much better than peasants or laborers. middle-class houses in town had about seven rooms.tlr •. others held key political. with no distinction of age or sex:' In some districts. and laborers. Women married to artisans and shopkeepers often kept the accounts. and the air was relatively fresh.000. frequently hir~d them. Berlin had 90. extravagant clothing. coaches. Eastern Europe. the servant population grew faster than the population of the city as a whole. Even children drank beer because of the lack of fresh water. apprentices. including four or five bedrooms and one or two living rooms. included about twenty thousand middle-class families (constituting. cramped apartments on the top floors. In this period. the streets were narrow. Along with the general growth of cities. servants. and corset. The poorest workingwomen m Pans wore woolen skirts and blouses of dark colors over petticoats.000 inhabitants in 1750. . humid. Art. Many English peers (the highest-ranking nobles) had thirty or forty servants at each of their homes. and several clocks. for example. and ran the household. consisted of roasted or boiled beef. served midday. mutton. and shoes (probably their only pair). at most. Warsaw only 23. Life for the middle classes on the European continent was quite similar. one-sixth of the city's population). drank tea. numerous pictures and ornaments. However they spent their time.orest people were homeless. and domestic servants. then the Journeymen. These activities helped form a more self-conscious public ((I Blbllotheque de.000 people. . still many more than the homes of poor agricultural workers. Pari. Below the middle classes came the artisans and shopkeepers (most of whom were organized in professional guilds). and many families brewed their own. .

Social status was not an abstract idea. Only the wealthy could escape walking in mucky streets. Despite the de~ciencies of primary education. though they sometimes encountered criticism even from within their own ranks. ?espit~ the efforts of some Protestant German states to encourage primary education. as physicians now also relied on postmortem dissections in the hospital to gain better knowledge.sociated cleanliness not with baths but with frequently changed linens. In any case. disease. most people considered bathing dangerous. Widespread popular literacy was first achieved m the Protestant areas of Switzerland and in Presbyterian Scotland." ~he upper classes as. By the 1730s. with nationwide organizations and licensing. individual health care remained something of a free-for-all in which physicians competed with bloodletters. burying refuse. Even the facade of the Louvre palace was soiled by the contents of night commodes that servants routinely dumped out of windows every morning. Press reports of body snatching and grave robbing by surgeons and their apprentices outraged the public well into the 1800s. environmentalists gathered and analyzed data on climate. Until the mid-1700s. however.for illnesses. female midwives faced competition from male midwives. Hardly any infectious diseases could be cured. Despite the change in hospitals. though inoculation against smallpox spread from the Middle East to Europe in the early eighteenth century. it permeated every detail of daily life. who were known for using instruments such as forceps to pull babies out of the birth canal. and no country had yet establtshed a national system of control or supervision. but they promoted the development of a new public sphere. The various "medical opinions" about childbirth highlight the confusion people faced.g themselves ~ith a disease. Everywhere. As a result of these efforts. that rested in the first instance on the spread of literacy. In the eighteenth century. and population. Midwives delivered most babies. druggists. Public Hygiene and Health Care The growth of cities created new challenges for public hygiene. After investigating specific cities. but still only one in two men and one in four women could read and write. The trend began in the 1690s and gradually acceler~ted. powder~d hair. and unusual designs in their clothing and to own many different outfits. More books and periodicals were published t~an ever ~efore. and got their water from contammated sources. a new literate public arose. and cleaning wells.' who specialized in home remedies. . Fewer than one in ten newly built private mansions in Paris had . Founded originally as charities concerned foremost with the moral worthiness of the poor. One consulting midwife complained that ordinary midwives in Bristol. local governments undertook such measures as draining low-lying areas. had not yet emerged. The New Public Sphere Cities may have been unhealthy. and "cunning women. itinerant venereal disease doctors. England. perhaps because of t~e Pr~testant emphasis on Bible reading. they preferred the advice and assistance of trusted local midwives. and no clear line separated trained physicians from quacks. Antiseptics were nearly unknown. l~ved m overcrowded housing with poor ventilation. such as refuse-filled rivers. a practice most patients' families resented. Protestant countries appear to have been more Successful at promoting education and literacy than Catholic countries. which was thought to strengthen the body and refresh the brain by counteracting corrupt and foul air. because it opened the body to disease. the English government allowed the licenSing system through which It contr?lled p~blications to lapse. by hiring men to carry them in sedan chairs or drive them in coaches. One manners manual of 1736 admonished. Ordinary people washed or changed clothes rarely. and perfume. medical geographers urged government campaigns to improve public sanitation.Chapter 14 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences New Social and Cultural Patterns 537 the social ladder were more likely to sport a variety of fabrics.sorderly behavior and epidemic illness. literacy doubled in the eighteenth century thanks to the spread of parish schools. Public bathhouses had disappeared from cities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries because they seemed a s~urce of di. trained physicians were few in number and almost nonexistent outside cities. because it renders the face susceptible to cold in winter and sun in summer. It is less good to wash with water. made women in labor drink a mixture of leek juice and their husbands' urine. England and the Dutch Republic led the way in this powerful outpounng of pnnted words. Bathing was hazardous. The gap between medical experts and their patients increased. all of which eventually helped lower the death rates from epidemic diseases. teachers received low wages. thanks largely to the efforts of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The process of diagnosis changed as physicians began to use specialized Latin terrl_ls. Other diseases spread quickly in the uns~ntta~y conditions of urban Itfe. pnmary schooling remained woefully inadequate almost everywhere in Euro~e: few sch~ols existed. and in . even pnvate bathmg came into disfavor because people feared the effects of contact with water. physicians developed successful ~rocedu~es for wide-scale vaccination. bonesetters. Women rarely sought a physician's help in giving birth. although even then many people resisted the Idea o. Patients were as likely to die of diseases caught in the hospital as to be cured there. midwives.f moculat~n. Hospitals and medical care underwent lasting transformations. After 1750. City people were more literate than peasants. The first London daily newspaper came out in 1702. and rates were also very high in the New England colonies and the Scandinavian countrie~. Physicians often followed popular prescriptions for illnesses because they had nothing better to offer. Paris seemed to a visitor "so detestable that it is impossible to remain there" because of the smell. espe~Ially among the middle classes of the cities. and new newspapers and magazines appeared almost Immedtately. In 1695. who learned about the technique while living in Constantinople. "It is correct to clean the face every morning by using a white cloth to cleanse it. colors. In France.baths. hospitals gradually evolved into medical institutions that defined patients by their diseases. The medical profession. physicians insisted. Cities were notoriously unhealthy because excrement (animal and human) and garbage accumulated where people lived densely packed together. searching for correlations to help direct policy.

however. but the relatively high price of tickets limited attendance to the better-off. France. They devoted their magazine to the cultural improvement of the Increasingly influential middle class. emotional grandeur favored by classical and baroque painters. setting the stage for the appearance of political and social criticism." Music had become an integral part of the new public sphere. Personal p~rtralts and pastoral paintings took the place of heroic landscapes and large ceremonial canvases. subtler scale. As the public for the arts expanded. Rococo Painting This painting by the Venetian artist Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757) is titled Africa.com/huntconcise. pnnted commentary on them emerged. but it did so on a much smaller. such as Antoine Watteau (J 684-1721) and Francois Bouche~ (1703-1770). wrote his ~t. Both painters thereby contributed to the emergence of new sensibilities in art that increasingly attracted a middle-class public.ococo wa~ ~n invented word (from the French word rocaille. Why might the artist have chosen to paint an African girl? For more help analyzing this image. The young black girl wearing a turban represents the African continent. for example. Watteau captured the melancholy side of a passing aristocratic style of life. and besieged booksellers in search of popular novels." But the great French rococo painters. The new literate public did not just read newspapers. The first public music concerts were ~erformed in E. the Spectator.ome. In the London coffeehouses. a German Lutheran. In 1740. she journeyed to Paris. Music clubs provided e~tertainment in smaller towns and villages. and Boucher painted middle-class people at home during their daily activities. . New artistic tastes thus had effects far beyond the realm of the arts. Opera continued to spread in the eighteenth century. movem_ent and curvature. Bach. ~. Although both emphasized the erotic in their depictions. This development took time to solidify. its members now pursued an interest in painting. But nothing captured the imagination of the new public more than the novel the literary genre whose very name underscored the eighteenth-century taste fo. City concert halls typically seated about two hundred. Venice had sixteen public opera houses by 1700.ine. the new public sphere began to compete with the churches. Matthew Passion for Good Friday services in 1729 while he was organist and choirmaster for the leading church in Leipzig. especially the porcelain vases now imported from China. / Our passions. Carriera was known for her use of pastels. rise and fall. as he pleases. Women did their rea~ing at h. Handel's most famous oratorio. especially In France. Hamburg and Paris began holding them Within a few years. twenty-four provincial newspapers were published in England. the rococo emphasized irregularity and asymmetry. In 1720. He composed secular works (like the "Coffee Cantata" quoted at the beginning of this chapter) for the public and a variety of private patrons. Frankfurt organized t~e ~rst regular public concerts in 1712. Dresden] (Gemaldegalerie Aile Mei's. Messiah (1741). Many rococo paintings depicted scenes of intimate sensuality rather than the monume. r~lers. Staatltche Kunstsammlungen The composer George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) was among the first to grasp the new directions in music. attended concerts. T~e rococo style challenged the hold of the baroque and classical schools.ter.ntal. Because increased trade and prosperity put money into the hands of the growing middle classes. composers could now be~in to liberate themselves from court patronage and work for a paying audience. Like the baroque. and court or church patrons still commissioned much eighteenth-century music. see the visual activity for this chapter in the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins. deeply felt piety but also his Willingness to combine musical materials into a dramatic form that captured the enthusiasm of the new public. Music as well as art grew in popularity. "His art so modulates the sounds in all. Developments in painting reflected the tastes of the new publ~c. where he eventually turned to composing oratorios. becoming much more regular and frequent In the 1690s.1709 Joseph Addison and Richard Steele published the first literary magaz. Newspapers on the continent lagged behind and often consisted m~lnly of adve~tising with little critical commentary. reflects his personal. meaning "shellwork) and originally a derogatory label meaning "frivolous decoration. By the 1720s. had no daily paper until 1777. a form he introduced in Britain. Its decorative quality made rococo art an ideal complement to newly discovered materials such as stucco and porcelain.ngland in the 1670s. and Covent Garden opera house opened in London in 1732. The growth of a public that appreciated and supported music had much the same effect as the extension of the reading public: like authors. He began his career playing second violin in the Hamburg opera orchestra and then moved to Britain in 1710. In continental Europe. The oratorio combined the drama of opera with the majesty of religious and ceremonial music and featured the chorus over the soloists. where she became an associate of Antoine Watteau and helped inaugurate the rococo style in painting. were much more than mere decorators. an edition of a single newspaper might reach ten thousand male readers. Rococo paintings adorned homes as well as palaces and served as a form of interior decoration rather than as a statement of piety. a poem published in the Gentleman's Magazine exulted. and courtiers as chief patrons of new work.

the Dutch Republic.novelty. The middle ~asses could pursue these interests because the European state system gradually stabihzed. and most Europeans remained devout.athbed in 17l5. 1665-1700) of Spain died without a direct heir. Many Pietists attended catechism instruction every day and al~o went to morning and evening prayer meetings in addition to regular Sunday services. including religion. "By order of the king. He was. In this period. both at home and in their colonies. French Ambitions Thwarted Lyin. and clandestine Jansenist presses reported new miracles to the reading public. t~ey wanted a more deeply emotional. sometimes called the to Nine Years' War (1689-1697). When the French government tried to suppress the cult. in short. Louis's rival.r. and novels were available in serial form in periodicals or from the many booksellers who popped up to serve the new market. Crusoe had to meet every challenge with fearless entrepreneurial ingenuity. Haywood had first worked as an actress when her husband deserted her and her two children. and social commentator. Crusoe's patronizing attitude toward the black man Fnday now draws much critical attention. 1689-1702). Claiming miraculous visions and astounding prophecies. A Frenchwoman. portrayed the new values of the time: to survive. States could then spend their resources establishing and expanding control over their own populations. the seventy-six-year-old Louis XIV watched helplessly as his accomplishments continued to unravel. in which warfare became less frequent and less widespread. novelist.e heart. . and when hostilities resumed four years later. and Scandinavia. and The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless-all showing a concern for the proper place of women as models of virtue in a changing world. Catholicism also had its versions of religious revival. Over three hundred French novels appeared between 1700 and 1730. God IS forbidden to work miracles here. At the fu~eral of a J~nsenist priest in Paris in 1727. Europe enjoyed the fruits of a more balanced diplomatic system. she began publishing a magazine. the model for the new I_TIan in an expanding economy. Great Britain emerged from the wars against Louis as the preeminent maritime power. Sweden. the Female Spectator. which argued in favor of higher education for women. but she soon turned to writing plays and novels. The novel's popularity was closely tied to the expansion of the reading public. Under the pressure of religious and political persecution. Not only had his plans for territorial expansion been thwarted. Religious Revivals Despite the novel's growing popularity. and Spain. despite new taxes. she urged a mystical union with God through prayer and simple devotion. After Louis XIV's death in 1715. religious books and pamphlet.gon his de. Guyon had followers all over Europe. the Dutch Republic." Some believers fell into frenzied convulsions. political spy. but his discovery of Friday shows how the fate of blacks and whites had become intertwined in the new colonial environment. Women figured prominently in novels as characters. The allies fought LOUIS a stalemate in the War of the League of Augsburg. . a cult fo:med around the priest's tomb. The English novel Love in Excess (1719) quickly reached a sixth printing. In 1689. who gained many new adherents to their austere form of Catholicism despite Louis XIV's harassment and repeated condem~~tion by the papacy (see page 486). Defoe's novel about a shipwrecked sailor. Even though Spanish power - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- . Haywood's male counterpart was Daniel Defoe (1660?-1731). Within a few years. !he War of the Spanish Succession (1701-17l3) broke out when the mentally and physically feeble Charles II (r. a merchants son who had a diverse and colorful career as a manufacturer. and women writers abounded. prince of Orange and king of England ~nd Scotlan~ (.s stil~ ~old in huge numbers. a coalition of powers held Louis XIV's France in check on the continent. even ecstatic religion. William III. Consolidation of the European State System :oe spread of Pietism and Iansenisrn reflected the emergence of a middle-class publie that now participated in every new development. attracted many noblewomen and a few leading clergymen to her own Catholic brand of Pietism. the crowd that flocked to the grave claimed to witness a series of miraculous healings. E~en more influential were the Iansenists. Austria. During this unprecedented explosion. Constancy Rewarded. they finally put an end to Louis's expansionist ambitions. After midcentury. Pietists believed in a mystical religion of th. The Spanish succession could not help but be a burning issue. and Russia defeated Sweden in . Jansenism took a revivalist turn in the 1720s. ?ne e~raged wit placed a sign at the tomb that read. and its author. claiming to be inspired by the Holy Spirit through the intercession of the dead priest. They urged intense Bible study. In the 1740s. even as their religions were changing. Eliza Haywood (1693?-1756). a Protestant revival known as Pietism rocked the complacency of the established churches in the German Lutheran states. the novel took on its modern form and became more concerned with individual psychology and social description than with the picaresque adventures popular earlier (such as Cervantes's Don Quixote). Jeanne Marie Guyon (I648-1717). Warfare settled three main issues between 1690 and 1740. Despite papal condemnation and intense controversy within Catholic circles in France. which in turn promoted popular education and contributed to the increase in literacy. Robinson Crusoe (17l9). known as Quietism. had set out to forge a European alliance that eventually mcl~ded Britain. He had to be ready for the unexpected and be able to improvise in every situation.the contest ~or supremacy in the Baltic. but his incessant wars had exhausted the treasury. earned her living turning out a stream of novels with titles such as Persecuted Virtue. [ansenisrn became even more politically active as its REVIEW What were the social and political adherents joined in opposition to crown consequences of the agricultural revolution? policies on religion.

. Spanish losses were catastrophic: Philip had to renounce in the Netherlands any future claim and Italy to the Austrians. France ceded large territories in Canada from Spain as well as a monopoly on providing from the War of the Spanish Succession conslderably to Britain. servility. Louis XV (r. Philip. 1714 [::J To Great Britain [::J To the Austrian Empire I22J The Jacobite rising of 1715 Main areas offighaing during the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain surrendered its territories in Italy and the Netherlands to the Austrians and Gibraltar to the British. but the Austrian emperor Leopold I refused to accept Charles's deathbed will. Although Philip was recognized as king of Spain. c. France emerged weakened. 1715 Although Louis XIV succeeded in putting his grandson Philip on the Spanish throne. an appearance of being nothing without him. revived some of the parlements' powers and tried to give leading nobles a greater say in political affairs. The bank was supposed to offer lower interest rates to the state. were the only ways of pleasing him. Before Charles died. thus barring unification of the two kingdoms. he named Louis XIV's second grandson. British Rise and Dutch Decline The English and Dutch had formed a coalition against Louis XIV under their joint ruler. The value of the stock rose rapidly in a frenzy of speculation. and Ireland. Spain still had extensive territories in Italy and the Netherlands and colonies overseas. The duke of SaintSimon complained that "falseness. duke of Anjou. who was simultaneously stadholder of the Dutch Republic and. 1694). Do not imitate my love of building nor my liking for war:' After being named regent. which also gained key Mediterranean to the French crown and give up considerable outposts territory slaves to the Spanish colontes. as his heir. and most of Nova Scotia) to Britain.2).) BALEARIC IS. After William's death in 1702. trade depended on the available supply of gold and silver). nephew of the dead king. even though Dutch merchants still controlled a substantial 200 200 400 milel 400 kilometcB ATLANTIC OCEAN Mrnorca (Gr. Dutch imperial power declined. France finally achieved a measure of financial stability under the leadership of Cardinal Hercule de Fleury (1653-1743). above all. With it vanished any hope of establishing a state bank or issuing paper money for nearly a century. Colonial trade boomed. ruler of England. the duke of Orleans (1674-1723). Law founded a trading company for North America and a state bank that issued paper money and stock (without them. the English and Dutch went their separate ways. In the ensuing war. the French lost several major battles and had to accept disadvantageous terms in the Peace of Utrecht of 1713-1714 (Map 14. with his English wife. Wales. 1701-1713 Mediterranean s - Boundary of the Holy Roman Empire Map 14. the Hudson Bay area. Financial problems plagued the regency as they would beset all succeeding French regimes in the eighteenth century. 1715-1774): "My child. Mary (d. the most powerful member of the government after the death of the regent. thus cutting the cost of financing the government's debts. JSardrnin Territories gained after the Peace of Utrecht. France ceded possessions in North America (Newfoundland. admiring glances. In 1719. combined with a dependent and cringing attitude.542 Chapter 14 The Atlantic system and Its Consequences Consolidation of the European State System 54: had declined steadily since Spain's golden age in the sixteenth century. Fleury aimed to avoid adventure abroad and keep social peace at home. he had to renounce any future claim to the French crown. William lll. Peace and the acceptance of limits on territorial expansion inaugurated a century of French prosperity. you are about to become a great King. he balanced the budget and carried out a large project for road and canal construction. Nobles fiercely resented his promotions of commoners to high office. the regent appointed the Scottish financier John Law to the top financial position of controller general." On his deathbed. France no longer threatened to dominate European power politics.2 Europe. Scotland. At home. Louis XIV gave his blessing and some sound advice to his five-year-old great-grandson and successor. Louis's policy of absolutism had fomented bitter hostility. only to crash a few months later.Br.

George I and George II (r. t I dl ' . How might discussions in the new coffeehouses (shown in the illustration on page 520) have influenced the kinds of decisions made by Walpole and his cabinet? (The Fotomas Index. One British official commented in 1745. page 543). In fact. Support from the Scots and Irish for this solution did not come easily because many in Scotland and Ireland supported the claims to the throne of the deposed Catholic king. The threat of Jacobitism nonetheless continued into the 1740s. William III responded by taking command of the joint English and Dutch forces and defeating James's Irish supporters. unlike the French bank. who in 1640 had owned 60 percent of the land in Ireland. 1714-1727). and the Catholics in Ireland faced yet more confiscation and legal restrictions. and supervised administration. send their children abroad for education. A Jacobite rebellion in Scotland in 1715. By the 1740s. From his position as first lord of the treasury. The Irish. When James II went to Ireland in 1689 to raise a Catholic rebellion against the new monarchs of England. or marry Protestants. Britain became a great power ~n the WOrld. and not surprisingly. consequently became King George I (r. mo." . "James"). the government could borrow more than four times what it could in the 1690s. In this period. The Parliament of Great Britain was soon dominated by the Whigs. James fled to France. In Britain's constitutional system. nor could they vote for its members unless they took an oath renouncing Catholic doctrine. Anne. to help them manage their relations with Parliament. 1727-1760) relied on one man. who had backed the Stua. establish Catholic schools at home. 90 percent of whom were Catholic. which provided that Parliament must meet at least once every three years (this was extended to seven years in 1716. who had supported the Hanoverian succession and the rights of dissenting Protestants. and the Tories. The crown chose the ministers. directed policy. did not hamper Great Britain's pursuit of economic. Only 200." Most of the Irish were peasants who lived in primitive housing and subsisted on a meager diet that included no meat. rmrus er. Walpole's cabinet was the ancestor of modern cabinets in Great Britain and the United States. These and a host of other laws reduced Catholic Ireland to the status of a colony. was suppressed (Map 14. When Queen Anne (r.rt li~e. The Scots agreed to obey the Parliament of Great Britain. would succeed William and Mary and that the Protestant house of Hanover in Germany would succeed Anne if she had no surviving heirs. The powers of Parliament were reaffirmed by the Triennial Act of 1694. Catholics were excluded. Scottish Protestant leaders agreed to the Act of Union of 1707. aiming to restore the Stuart line. vy-alpol~ ~stabhshed an endunng pattern of parliamentary government in which a pnme minister from the leading party guides legislation through the House of Co~mons. Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745). Although appointed initially by the.K. "The poor people of Ireland are used worse than negroes.000 propertied men could vote. Catholics could not sit in Parliament. Walpole made himself into first or "prime. James II.stage by virtue of its navy and its ability to finance major military involvement In the wars against Louis XlV. which would include Scottish members in the House of Commons and the House of Lords. passed laws.s~ members of Parliament came from the landed gentry. and the Anglican church. after the Whigs had established their ascendancy). The partisan division between the Whigs. and. ~alpole also built a vast patronage machine that dispensed government Jobs to WIl1support for the crown's policies. out of a population of more than five million people. To ensure a Protestant succession. which brought heads of government together the important departments. a few hundred families controlled all the important political offices. By 1700. which abolished the Scottish Parliament and affirmed the Scots' recognition of the Protestant Hanoverian succession. and colonial power. the elector of Hanover. 1702-1714) died leaving no children. The Protestant-controlled Irish Parliament passed a series of laws limiting the rights of the Catholic majority: Catholics could not bear arms. Irish Catholics. Parliament ruled that Mary's sister. Out of fear of this [acobitisrn (from the Latin Jacobus. the monarch ruled with Parliament. after his death in 1701. Walpole's successors relied more and more on the patronage system and eventually alienated not only the Tories but also the middle classes in London and even the North American colonists. military. endured-enabled the government to raise money at low interest for foreign wars.lThe Bridgeman Art Library. 1:Z Sir Robert Walpole at a Cabinet Meeting Sir Robert Walpole and George II developed the institution of the cabinet. ea I~g the House of Co~mons from 1 to 1742. his son James Edward.. The house of Hanover-renamed the house of Windsor during World War I in response to anti-German sentiment-still occupies the British throne.) - --- --- - -- ----- ---- - --- .2. while Parliament raised revenue.portion of world trade. owned just 14 percent. king. and represented the interests of the people to the crown. a Protestant great-grandson of James I. English relations with Scotland and Ireland were complicated by the problem of succession: William and Mary had no children. U. proved even more difficult to subdue. The founding in 1694 of the Bank of E~gland-which.

The angel holds a laurel wreath a symbol of Victory. Not surprisingly. He did not hesitate to use torture and executed thousands. Denmark. Petersburg after him It s bolized R' . Later in h 1918 was the Julian calendar abolished' R' ~ e /ultan for the Gregorian calendar. The tsar allowed nothing to stand in his way. or just "unseemly utterances against him:' Opposition to his policies reached into his own family. (Cl Tretyak~v Gallery. When his only son.ox church. the ~ale children of those in service ha~ to b~ r:. and for forty-five years the Dutch lived without a stadholder.~:!~t~ - - - - . To increase his authori over sian ~rth~d. the eighteenth century. He allowed a special regiment of guards unprecedented power to expedite cases against those suspected of rebellion. H d die ussian ca emy of Sciences e or ere trans ations of Western classics and hired a G h . salt refining. Peter the Great In this painting by Gottfried Danhauer (16~O-1733/7). espionage. All social and material advantages now depended on serving the crown. ISsu~ervlslon.a b ureaucracy oflaymen under hi . In some areas. and technical schools and founded.:: . grew up under the threat of a palace coup. The Dutch shifted their interest away from great-power rivalries toward those areas of international trade and finance where they could establish an enduring presence. allied himself with Peter's critics. and Dutch trade in particular suffered. where he mysteriously died. openi~g to the West. taxes tripled. saw its power eclipsed in the eighteenth.ers ~r. Known to history as Peter the Great. Although he came to the throne while still a minor (on the eve of his tenth birthday). engineering. strengthened his army.ovin: that had ~ssla recen y conquered from Sweden. By the end of 1709. an cap generally French or German). He created schools for artillery. To many Russians. forty th ousan d recruits a year . After 1720.h R .ten and begin serving at fifteen. the Dutch Republic. he dragged Russia kicking and screaming all the way to great-power status. and court categones '. RUSSIa/TheBridgeman Art Library. Peter allowed the office of patriarch (supreme ~ead) vacan . one of the richest and most influential states of the seventeenth century.nt. With the goal of Westernizing Russian culture Peter set u h f laboratories. and enjoyed little formal education. The merchant ruling class of some two thousand families dominated the Dutch Republic more than ever. Poltava.an . Construction began in 1703 in a Baltic p. The biggest exception to the downward trend was trade with the New World. The Dutch population was not growing as fast as populations elsewhere.000 men and equipped it with modern weapons.~e~. Dutch decline was only relative. a cO~ification of social and legal relationships in Russia that would last for nearly two centuries. Russia. like other absolute rulers. his accomplishments soon matched his seven-foot-tall stature. He replaced the traditional Russian calendar s ern one. He ordered his officials and the' nobles to sha:eo~~ei~ ~~~~~: ~~~ n d ress in vvestern fashion and he . With ruthless recruiting methods. which increased with escalating demands for sugar and tobacco. tobacco processing. PAt ed irst greenhouses. introduced Arabic numerals and in 1703 b h Public. een 'Pete: introduced the Julian calendar.:spaper. Because the nobles lacked a secure independent status. Peter insisted that all noblemen engage in state service.the Russian tsar appears against the backdrop of his most famous bat· tie. he left no heirs. paper manufacturing. at w lie 1 point it had fallen thirteen days behind t. administrative. in 1721 he replaced it with the Holy Syno d .By contrast. Not until Europe's Gregorian calendar. His Westernization efforts ignited an enduring controversy: did Peter set Russia on a course of inevitable Westernization required to compete with the West. Protestant Europe abandoned n Prot~stant bUI not Catl~ohc countries. d style of jacket b t d' ( even Issue precise regulations about the suitable f • 00 s. e age 0 . and pottery production all dwindled as well. State service was not onl com ul :~~erman.) Russia's Emergence as a European Power The commerce and shipbuilding of the Dutch and English so impressed the Russian tsar Peter I (r. the Baltic countries-Prussia. pretensions to the throne. and military medicine and built the first navy in Russian history. and the Dutch share of the Baltic trade decreased from 50 percent in 1720 to less than 30 percent by the 1770s. he forged an army of 200. then still used i . 1689-1725) that he traveled incognito to their shipyards in 1697 to learn their methods firsthand. Moscow. To control the often restive nobility. perform the F hI f erman t eater company to with the We t renc ~ ~ys 0 Moliere. When William of Orange (William III of England) died in 1702. Peter transformed public life in Russia and established an absolutist state on the Western model.over his head. the young man was thrown into prison. named St. and Sweden-began to ban imports of manufactured goods to protect their own industries. The Table of Ranks (I 722) classified them into milit~ry. Peter was the Antichrist incarnate. or did he forever and fatally disrupt Russia's natural evolution into a distinctive Slavic society? Peter reorganized government and finance on Western models and. Alexei. He published a book man. ~:. III USS'". for example. which included branding a cross on every recruit's left hand to prevent desertion. Moreove:. but they presided over a country that counted for less in international power politics. Peter could command them to a degree that was unimaginable in western Europe. Shipbuilding. The output of Leiden textiles dropped to one-third its 1700 level by 1740.roung noblemen and experimented with dentistry on his courtiers on eter UI t a new capital city.

• Swedish losses to Prussia after the Treaty of Nystad Boundary Battle of the Holy Roman Empire I. versus 1 in 157 in France and 1 in 64 in Russia) and the highest proportion of nobles in the military (1 in 7 noblemen. Saxony. because it was much smaller in size and population than Russia. which they often spoke even at home. however. a German minister described the city "as a wonder of the world. Imitating French manners. They not only were bought and sold like cattle but also had become legally indistinguishable from them. The Russian ambassador to Vienna reported. Formerly mighty Poland-Lithuania became the playground for great-power rivalries. An aristocratic reaction against Charles XII's incessant demands for war supplies swept away Sweden's absolutist regime. 1697-1718) stood up to the test.3 Russia and Sweden after the Great Northern War.. In 1700. the status of the serfs only worsened. Peter ordered skilled workers to move to the new city and commanded all landowners possessing more than forty serf households to build houses there. After defeating the Poles and occupying Saxony. the Great Northern War finally came to an end. Prussia had Europe's highest proportion of men at arms (1 of every 28 people. Charles first defeated Denmark. Sweden also lost territories on the north German coast to Prussia and the other allied German states (Map 14.. completely dominated by their noble lords. and when Charles XII died in battle in 1718. that h€ will be a kind of northern Turk:' Prussia and other German states joined the anti. Russia eventually defeated Sweden and took its place as the leading power in the Baltic region. Sweden had dominated the Baltic region since the Thirty Years' War and did not easily give up its preeminence. Sweden made the most of its advantages and gave way only after a great military struggle.3). By the terms of the Treaty of Nystad (1721). the criminal code of 1754 listed them as property. and the short time that was employed in the building of it:' By 1710. Austria.. In the 1720s. Upper-class Russians learned French or German. Changes in the Balance of Power in the East Peter the Great's success in building up state power changed the balance of power in eastern Europe. 250 o lSO 500 miles SOO kUomell!t'5 Map '4. Peter could not ensure his succession. and merchants for conversation and dancing. where it competed with Austria and Prussia. and an imbecile. Still in his teens at the beginning of the Great Northern War. Swedish alliance. Russia endured six different rulers. secluded status of women by ordering them to dress in European styles and appear publicly at his dinners for diplomatic representatives. when Peter the Great formed an anti-Swedish coalition with Denmark. By 1740. King Frederick William I (r. Russia supplanted Sweden as the major power in the north. At Peter's death in 1725. Peter widened that gap by every means possible. an infant. it had forty thousand residents. ~ ~:re~I:~~~~a~ui~~~~111~~. then destroyed the new Russian army. the permanent population of St. In the process. Westernization had not yet touched their lives. At his new capital. Recurrent palace coups weakened the monarchy and enabled the nobility to loosen Peter's rigid code of state service. officers. Sweden ceded its eastern Baltic provinces-Livonia. Despite all his achievements. as compared with 1 in 33 in France and I in 50 in Russia). a project that cost the lives of thousands of workers. They ceased to be counted as legal subjects. Prussia had to make the most of every military opportunity. and Poland.Chapter 14 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences Consolidation of the European State System 545 found themselves assigned to the projects there. "It is commonly said that the tsar will be formidable to all Europe. Serfs remained tied to the land. Here Peters rebuilt army finally defeated him at the battle of Poltava (1709). considering its magnificent palaces . Russia could then turn its attention to eastern Europe. as it did in the Great Northern War. it was the best trained and most up-to-date force in Europe. Petersburg represented a decisive break with Russia's past. and southern Karelia-to Russia. 1721 After the Great Northern War. he tried to improve the traditionally denigrated. and for its first eight years the new Academy of Sciences included no Russians. including a boy of twelve. . though much smaller than the armies of his rivals. Although Russia had a much larger population from which to draw its armies. St. Petersburg reached eight thousand. Estonia. In the thirty-seven years after his death in 1725. Charles invaded Russia. essentially removing Sweden from great-power competition. Petersburg. . As a new city far from the Russian heartland around Moscow. Overcoming initial military setbacks. Sweden's Charles XII (r. Such changes affected only the very top of Russian society. 1713-1740) doubled the size of the Prussian army. The Russian victory resounded everywhere. or France. Every ministry was assigned a foreign adviser. and quickly marched into Poland and Saxony. A foreigner headed every one of Peter's new technical and vocational schools. he decreed that women attend his new social salons of officials. Ingria. The mass of the population had no contact with the new ideas and ended up paying for the innovations either in ruinous new taxation or by building St.

Consolidation of the European State System 551 550 Chapter 14 The Atlantic system and Its Consequences " 'a that the country earned the description "a The army so dominated llfe in PrUSSI d F ederick William with his soltt hed" So obsesse was r di large army with a small stat: a ac " formed a regiment of "giants. an .. By the early 1700s.ize thle~~. P t . and London. to an excise tax on food." Callieres believed that the diplomatic service had to be professionalthat young attaches should be chosen for their skills. h . Because each state's strength depended largely on the size of its army.. I al Hungarian institutIOns. for the rulers often employed unreliable adventurers as their confidential agents.. Madrid.n ' fH ry su b nu dl d Ferenc Rak6czi (1676Austrian Conquest 0 unga..' the Gren~ iers.gto composed exclusively of men oV. To meet the new demands placed on it. L. but success in war still depended on sheer numbers-of men and muskets. Prussia was now poised d d by increasmg rents on cro manufacture d goo s an .. and in 1720 a British pamphleteer wrote. in ' Id nd USSla 1730s the Turks retook Be gra e.. w h 0 IOU . xchange for confirming here Itary u ty and restore confiscated estates 111 e grant amnes .2!. to become one of the major play~r . e ght for "God. sometimes. 1 the .ers dh 'ght off the street. and the army growth by subjecting all t~e provmces wn lands. "There is not.. content to watch the bigge~ p~wer~h:gheyday of Louis XIV: France had how the balance of power had change since t that now included Russia. diers that the five_foot-five-mch-tall ~n?eet tall. Still. us r~a . the growth and health of the population increasingly entered into government calculations. like the military and financial bureaucracies before it. Wit .-J 657 back to pursumg t err co . than this of the balance of power:' It was the universal law of gravitation of European politics. I and Russia concentrated on shonng up th 0 Expansion 101699 d L'thuania OExpanSlO"'017IS ence within Polan .I 'b me mired in Resni"cd byOttomn" Empire . was on 'd stic administration to the armys n ' day dress. though liberate d rom Turks Moreover. Ri . By 1685. 'val claimants to eAt' Russia each side supportmg n huani France agreed to accept the us nan the Fr~nch candidate out of Poland-Lit uama. of Lorraine to the French candiAt' gave the provmce Id candidate. He fmanced He also installed a system for recfllltmg s. n (1733-1735). When the king 0 ~ a Poland-Lithuania no longer contro~n and Sardinia went to war against Aus~na and Lithuania died in 1733. Adroit diplomacy could smooth the road toward peace. This practice could make the journey to a new post very cumbersome. -e gg le in Poland-Lit onuarua southeastern a long st:u rks its The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Numbers No Single power emerged from the wars of the first half of the eighteenth century dearly superior to the others. in which rulers issued secret instructions that often negated the official ones sent by their own foreign offices. s to recogmze oc di ntil 1711. any doctrine in the law of nations. In exchange. French writings on diplomatic methods were read everywhere. Secret diplomacy had some advantages because it allowed rulers to break with past alliances. seventy thousand men Hung of 1657-1730 1735).. the diplomatic service. 1657 . .. h the romise that the province wou pass date the father-in-law of LOUISXV. because the staff might be as large as eighty people. Habsburgdominillns. 1 1703 the wealthiest ittlng to Ausma.-. n noble Ian or . It took one French ambassador ten weeks to get from Paris to Stockholm. They forced the Austrian . b ut . The Peace of Utrecht had explicitly declared that such a balance was crucial to maintaining peace in Europe. Even 0 II of Hungary Turks to reclogn. di d ot want to eco Austna In. and the idea of maintaining a balance of power guided both military and diplomatic maneuvering. Most held their appointments for at least three or four years. Fatherland. The war showed sidelines. to resolve issues even after fighting had begun. times kidnappe t em n hi very find such men an d some I I t wear a military uniform as ISe ..u~~do:::~pied Belgrade and Transy varna in h. After Russia drove . These sensible views did not prevent the development of a dual system of diplomacy. I believe. 1717 the Turks did not stop fig tmg.. scandal. drink. of more certain truth . I' Prussia . hei lonial nva nes. Vienna. a . not their family connections." e of the first ru ers 0 .' ved less than enthUSiastiC a 0 Turkish rule. All states counted on diplomacy. ana. whereas royal officials were chosen for Switzerland.' th Polish throne. prussia stood on the lo During the War of the Polish Success f ht each other. the Dutch Republic. and they brought along all their own furniture.. Prancois de Callieress manual On the Manner of Negotiating with Sovereigns (i 716) insisted that sound diplomacy was based on the creation of confidence. h d forced the th ugh the Austnans a border. eeds "the Sergeant King. The publication in 1690 of the a I 'I armies still faced the Tu . Austrian rule. the great powers would convene and hammer out a written agreement detailing the requirements for peace. the diplomatic system in the early eighteenth century proved successful enough to ensure a continuation of the principles of the Peace of Westphalia (1648): in the midst of every crisis and war. and all went off with elaborate written instructions that included explicit statements of policy as well as full accounts of the political conditions of the country to which they were posted. had to develop regular procedures. Royal agents scoured Europe try~n. This system of equilibrium often rested on military force. pro . . Spa! .~II~nl~llc:. rather than deception: "The secret of negotiation is to harmonize the real interests of the parties concerned. and Venice. b cause its l. pictures. and tapestries. but it also led to confusion and. however. France. The French set a pattern of diplomatic service that the other European states soon imitated. s on the continent of Europe.l~e o:~iers by local district quotas. h' d th France and Britam wen to France on IS ea . Nobles of ancient families served as ambassadors to Rome. such as the leagues formed against Louis XIV or the coalition against Sweden. . eir mflu' 0 Habsburg Hungary. . silverware. Frederick Wtlham. France had embassies in all the important capitals. and plex great-power sys em f P I nd to maneuver within a com led its own destiny. t the 1 • w ~laimed a role in the struggle agall1 s f no Hungary. raised an army d Liberty" . He subordinated the ent. The ambassador selected and paid for his own staff.

whatever it may be." Although Bayle claimed to be a believer himself. mathematics and science had become fashionable pastimes in high society. and textbooks and handbooks stabilizationof the balanceof powerin Europeat advocated state intervention to improve the start of the eighteenth century? the population's health and welfare. A French Huguenot refugee from Louis XIV's persecutions. that atheists might possess moral codes as effective as those of the devout.) The Popularization of Science and the Challenges to Religion The writers of the Enlightenment glorified the geniuses of the new science and championed the scientific method as the solution for all social problems. Frederick William I of Prussia founded two university chairs to encourage populaREVIEW Whatwerethe consequencesof the tion studies. and open Jewish communities. or whatever else may be its origins.Becausemany of astronomical bservatorieswere set o upinprivatehomesrather than public buildings r universities. reasoning spirit to every problem they encountered in the world. the book made the Copernican. Discoveries in geology in the early eighteenth century showed that marine fossils dated immensely farther back than the biblical flood. Pierre Bayle (1647-1706). In 1697. launched an internationally influential campaign against religious intolerance from his safe haven in the Dutch Republic. "It is notorious that the works of M. Dutchartist JacobGole(c. The intellectual corollary was the Enlightenment. though the Dutch Republic came closest with its tacit acceptance of Catholics. Investigations 1 ~---'- .yet the Italian LauraBassi(1711-1778) stillmanagedto becomea professorof physicsat the University Bologna. a term used later in the eighteenth century to describe the loosely knit group of writers and scholars who believed that human beings could apply a critical. The new secular. As one critic complained. After 1740. As the prestige of science increased. omenwere not W allowedto attend universityclassesin anyEuropean country. Even religion must meet the test of reasonableness: ''Any particular dogma. Petty offered statistical estimates of human capital-that is. sun-centered view of the universe available to the literate public. Journals complained that scientific learning had become the passport to female affection: "There were two young ladies in Paris whose heads had been so turned by this branch of learning that one of them declined to listen to a proposal of marriage unless the candidate for her hand undertook to learn how to make telescopes:' Such writings poked fun at women with intellectual interests. and cast doubt on some of the most widely accepted principles of morality and religion:' Bayle asserted. His News from the Republic of Letters (first published in 1684) bitterly criticized the policies of Louis XIV and was quickly banned in Paris and condemned in Rome. scientific. Presented as a dialogue between an aristocratic woman and a man of the world.wivesand o daughtersof scientistscouldmake observations even publishtheir and ownfindings. for example. criticism took a more systematic turn as writers provided new theories for the organization of society and politics. but even by the 17205 and 1730s. and critical attitude first emerged in the 1690s. I· A Budding Scientist Inthisengraving. the emergence of a new consumer society. whether it is advanced on the authority of the Scriptures. After attacking Louis XIV's anti-Protestant policies. and the stabilization of the European state system all generated optimism about the future. Other scholars challenged the authority of the Bible by subjecting it to historical criticism. stroiogia. but they also demonstrated that women now participated in discussions of science.TheBirthof the Enlightenment 553 Englishman William Petty's Political Arithmetick quickened the interest of government officials everywhere. In 1727. an upper-class womanlooksthrough a telescopeto do her ownastronomicalinvestigations. of population and wages-to determine England's national wealth. which cited all the errors and delusions that he could find in past and present writers of all religions.(Bibliotheque nationale de France. Bayle have unsettled a large number of readers. his insistence on rational investigation seemed to challenge the authority of faith. 1660-1723). bythe A The Birth of the Enlightenment Economic expansion. scrutinizing everything from the absolutism of Louis XIV to the traditional role of women in society. By 1700. One of the most influential popularizations was the French writer Bernard de Fontenelles Conversations 011 the Plurality of Worlds (1686). Bayle's Dictionary became a model of critical thought in the West. dissident Protestant groups. Bayle took a more general stand in favor of religious toleration. established authorities realized they faced a new set of challenges. Bayle published the Historical and Critical Dictionary. some developed a skeptical attitude toward attempts to enforce religious conformity. Interest in science spread in literate circles because it offered a model for all forms of knowledge. is to be regarded as false if it clashes with the clear and definite conclusions of the natural understanding [reason). and the public flocked to lectures explaining scientific discoveries. No state in Europe officially offered complete tolerance.

and oracles.an ancient civilization. His tangles with church and state began in the early 1730s. and lose whatever shreds of religion remained to them. and a mistress of eighty . The baSIClesson of travel literature in the 1700s. The extensive literature of criticism was not limited to France. writing of the king: "He has a minister who is only eighteen years old. new customs. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In th. was a high-ranking judge in a French court. new rites:' Travel literature turned explicitly political in Montesquieu's Persian Letters (1721). In China. Before long. his one concern. should not be considered evil omens just because such a belief had been passed on from earlier generations. religion. travelers found a people who enjoyed pr~spenty an~ . as well as to twenty other scientific academies. in which he devoted several chapters to Newton and Locke and used the virtues of the British as a way to attack Catholic bigotry and government rigidity in France. "The great Newton was. baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755). Comets. and morality all were relative to the place. the Persians constantly compare France to Persia. then. known by his pen name. but he eventually achieved wealth and acclaim. suggesting that the French monarchy itself might verge on despotism. and the book went into ten printings in just one year-a best seller for the times. external. Bishop Bossuet. M. who leave their country for love of knowledge and travel to Europe. he sold his judgeship and traveled extensively in Europe.. when he published his Letters concerning the English Nation (the English version appeared in 1733). Voltaire also popularized Newton's scientific discoveries in his Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (I738). buried in the abyss. Voltaire (1694-1778)." Other passages ridicule the pope. They visit France in the last years of Louis Xl V's reign. of European society. visitors sought something resembling "the state of n. and is rarely seen in company. all Paris resounds with Newton. - - - --- - -- - ----- ----- -- . Montesquieu's anonymity did not last long. Prancois-Marie Arouet. In the book. contrast between their home societies and other cultures to criticize the custom. but reason only brings them face to face with vague conjectures and baffling perplexities:' Human beings. Charles-Louis de Secondat. comets. good government. the traditionalists held. property. In the book. imprisonment. Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition Just as scientific method could be used to question religious and even state authority. Every day they see a new religion. The parado~ of a judge publishing an anonymous work attacking the regime that employed him demonstrates the complications of the intellectual scene in this ~erio~. Voltaire's fame continued to grow.. and soon Parisian SOciety lion~zedhl. warned that "reason is the guide of their choice. is to get himself talked about.0~gal1lzatlO~-although they often misinterpreted different forms of society ane politics as having no organization at all. accounts of travel to exotic places dramatically increased as travel writers used th. but much of it was published in French.Voltaire spent two years in exile in Britain when the French state responded to his book with yet another order for his arrest. from morning till night. The spokesman for Louis XIV's absolutism. and the French government took the lead in suppressing the more outspoken works. or Switzerland and smuggled back across the border to a public whose appetite was only whetted by censorship. lawsuits. The Spirit of Laws. Travelers to the Americas found "noble savages" (native peoples) who appeared to live in conditions of great freedom anc equality. So sensational was the success of Voltaire's book on Newton that a hostile Jesuit reported. Forbidden books were then often published in the Dutch Republic. Defenders of church and state published books warning of the dangers of the new skepticism. reaching truly astounding proportions in the 1750s and 1760s (see Chapter 15). Rica and Usbek. it is said. Christian missionaries made little headway in China. however. urged the use of reason to combat superstition and prejudice. and at once Newton is understood or is in the process of being understood. The most influential writer of the early Enlightenment was a Frenchman born into the upper middle class. or much organiz~d government. in which rulers had life-and-death powers over their subjects. was that customs varied: justice. like the growing literature against belief in witchcraft. for example.. State authorities found religious skepticism particularly unsettling because it threatened to undermine state power. all Paris studies and learns Newton:' The success was international. ways of life that preceded sophisticated social and politi cal . Montesquieu chose Persians for his travelers because they came from what was widely considered the most despotic of all governments.atu~e"-that is. all Paris stammers Newton.554 Chapter '4 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences The Birth of the Enlightenment 55 I~ of miracles. too. a more general skepticism also emerged from the expanding knowledge about the world outside of Europe.e late 1720s. rationalistic force. Although he avoids the bustle of towns. the son of an eminent judicial family. In his early years. were simply incapable of subjecting everything to reason. In their travels to the new colonies. in contrast. The French state and many European theologians conside red Newtonianism threatening because it glorified the human mind and seemed to reduce God to an abstract. Voltaire was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in London and in Edinburgh. One critic complained that travel encouraged free thinking and the destruction of religion: "Some complete their demoralization by extensive travel. and exile. The Vatican soon listed both Persian Letters and The Spirit of Laws in its index of forbidden books. Beneath the satire. is a serious investigation into the foundation of good government and morality.. In 1748. too. they were "naturally good" and "happy" without taxes. he published a widely influential work on comparative government. He published Persian Letters anonymously in the Dutch Republic. and visitors had to admit that China's religious systems had flourished for fou~ or five thousand years with no input from Europe or from Christianity. especially in the realm of religion.. Mon~esquieu tells the storY"of two Persians. de Voltaire finally appeared. Voltaire suffered arrest.m. Britain. in the shop of the first publisher who dared to print him . Inc~udmg an eighteen-month stay in Britain. Impressed by British toleration of religious dissent (at least among Protestants). freedom..

in which reason. During the decades that followed. The influence of such views should not be overestimated. however. but t~e combination of a large army and rich overseas posse~sio.~a.: ahad ~een. If all Mel1 are born free. art.~'~. in which she advocated founding a private women's college to remedy women's lack of education. each in a different way Fra . marriage. and cotton cloth. Addressing women. debate.nated. "How can you be content to be in the World like Tulips in a Garden. Although he was not a feminist. Expansion of colonies overseas and economic development . RUSSia.:s~apers. his depiction of Roxana. They moved silently but nonetheless momentously from an economy governed by scarcity and the threat of famine to one of ever increasing growth and the prospect of continuing improvement. but 1 have always been free. Participants in the growing public sphere avidly followed the . and music.. which held that women were less capable of reasoning than men and therefore did not need systematic education. the daughter of a businessman and herself a supporter of the Tory party and the Anglican religious establishment.:he B~. Everyone did not share e uall 111 the benefits: slaves toiled in abjection in the Americas.556 Chapter '4 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences Conclusion S57 Raising the Woman Question Many of the letters exchanged in Persian Letters focus on women. longer life spans. how is it that all Women are born slaves?" Her critics accused her of promoting subversive ideas and of contradicting the Scriptures. In later works. In 1694. to make a fine shew [show] and be good for nothing?" Astell argued for intellectual training based on Descartes's principles.thwa~ted. I have amended your laws according to the laws of nature. Such opinions often rested on biological suppositions. The long-dominant Aristotelian view of reproduction held that only the male seed carried spirit and individuality.. how comes it to be so in a family? . a spirit of optimism prevailed. People could now spend money on ne. In these better times for many.". the favorite wife in Usbek's harem. Roxana revolts against the authority of Usbek's eunuchs and writes a final letter to her husband announcing her impending suicide: "I may have lived in servitude. and careful consideration of the issues took priority over custom or tradition. novels. The most systematic of these women writers was the English author Mary Astell (1666-1731). serfs in eastern Europe Conclusion Europeans crossed a major threshold in the first half of the eighteenth century. scientists began to undermine this belief. More physicians and surgeons began to champion the doctrine of ovism-that the female egg was essential in making new humans.. social roles. male Enlightenment writers would continue to REVIEW What were the main issues in the early debate women's nature and appropriate decades of the Enlightenment? 200 200 4OOmi1c:s 400 kllometen ATLANTIC OCEAN Sea Crete Cypnu CJ - Austrian Habsburg Pn&ssian territory territory Boundary of the Holy Roman Empire Mapping the West Europe in '740 By1740 Euro~e had achieved a kind of diplomatic equilibrium in which no one Pow dorni But the relatl~e balance should not deflect attention from important under! in ch:~P:: ~ml. struck a chord with many readers. such as Reflections UpOI1Marriage (1706). Poland-Lithuania: and Sweden had all declined in power an: in~uenc!. she asked. ~ home created greate~ wealth. ~hirea~. ~ea.sc:sa~~major payer lor a long time to come. and Austna had solidified their positions.Prussia. Her book was an immediate success: five printings appeared by 170 I. D~tc~ Repu~"c.at ~. At the beginning of the eighteenth century. and travel literature as well as on coffee. Most male writers unequivocally stuck to the traditional view of women.atest trends in religious debates. and my mind has always remained independenf' Women writers used the same language of tyranny and freedom to argue for concrete changes in their status. and higher expectations for the ture. Astell criticized the relationship between the sexes within marriage: "If Absolute Sovereignty be not necessary in a State. she published A Serious Proposal to the Ladies. and the family because Montesquieu considered the position of women a sure indicator of the nature of government and morality.

and stat~s f~und it in their interest to settle many international disputes by diplomacy. and the Family ill Ellgland. the system change European politics and society? combination of the Atlantic system and 2. 1688-1783. European Warfare in a Global Context.nl/ • 1709 Joseph Addison and Richard Steele publish the first edition of the Spectator in England .baroquemusic.slavevoyages. Mary AsteU's A Serious Proposal to the Ladies argues for the founding of a private women's college 1713-1714 Peace of Ut"~"". Margaret C.html Black. Ultimately. 1990.1721 Treaty of Nystad. For practice quizzes and other study tools. and rural folk almost everywhere tasted few fruits of consumer society. .'7'5 Death detailing errors of religious writers - - -- - - - - - - --- - - - - - - . The Middling Sort: Commerce. 'Jacob. 2003.anonymously in the Dutch Republic. Brewer. Handel's Messiah: The New Interactive Edition (CD-ROM). The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modem. which Itself became more regular and routine. 1703 Peter the Great of Russia begins the construction of 51. James. Cracraft. Voltaire Almighty: A Life ill Pursuit of Freedom. Margaret R.org/tast/index. Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Great Britain I L I • 169<>S . For primary-source material from this period. but many others have contributed biographies of individua figures or studies of women writers. Roger. Montesquieu publishes Persian Lt!tm. The Enlightenment. English Nation attacks French intolerance and narrow-mindedness 1733-1735War of the Polish Succession • 1697 Pierre Bayle publishes the Historical and Critical Dictionary. too. 1680-1780. Blackburn. changed as population and production increased and cities grew. John. Slave trade: http://www. The Sinews of Power: War. Politics. the War of the Spanish (170'-'7'3) - • 1733 Voltaire's Letters concerning Ulr.alth.spanishsuccession. Third Edition.558 Chapter 14 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences Conclusion found themselves ever more closely bound to their noble lords. 17 of Hunt. Suggested References A new Web site on the slave trade offers the most up-to-date information about tho workings of the Atlantic system.org/bachleipzig. Gender. 1990. 1986. see the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins.com/huntconcise. 1492-1800. The consolidation of the European state system allowed a tide of criticism and new thinking about society to swell in CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS Great Britain and France and begin to 1. Robin. Petersburg and founds the first Russian newspaper • 1699 Turks forced to recognize Habsburg rule over Hungary and Transylvania Beginning of the rapid of plantations In development Caribbean the - • '74' George Frederick Handel composes Messiah • 1694 Bank of England established. The definitive study of the early Enlightenment i. The Revolution of Peter the Great. 1680-1715. the book by Hazard. Jeremy. 2007. . Pearson. 1997. How did the rise of slavery and the plantation spill throughout Europe. Paul. 2005. 2000. 1996.. Money. The European Mind: The Critical Years. 1725-1750: http://www. Bridget. see Chapter Sources of THE MAKING OF THE WEST. Why did the Enlightenment begin just at the the Enlightenment would give rise to a moment that the Atlantic system took shape? series of Atlantic revolutions. A Brief History with Selected Readings. 1660-1815.faces War of the Spanish Succession: http://www. and the English State. 'Hill. Bach's Leipzig. 1997.. Hazard. The First English Feminist: Reflections upon Marriage and Other Writings by Mary Astell.. Experts urged government intervention to improve public he.

Born Sophia the eighteenth century. and criticized censorship by state or church. and the powers that rest in their hands. she humanity could be achieved only by rooting promptly learned Russian and adopted out the wrongs left by superstition. NY. ignorance. When she marEnlightenment principles: progress for ried the future tsar Peter III in 1745. the Russian empress conflict with church and state authorities. Great virtues and qualities are needed to surmount these obstacles.I NHE SUMMER OF 1766.. and outmoded forms and mentally frail.) dias to novels to personal interaction with rulers-to argue for reform. You have shown that you have them: you have triumphed. evil judges. such as coffeehouses and Masonic lodges (social clubs organized around the rituals Catherine the Great 561 . a writer who In this portrait by the Danish painter at home in France found himself in constant Vigilius Eriksen. ignorance. supported religious toleration. Enlightenment writers used every her. Peter. the defender of oppressed innocence . Her Catherine the Great is shown on admiring letter shows how influential Enlighthorseback (c. Catherine was the daughter of a Catherine's letter aptly summed up minor German prince. one of the leaders of the Enlightenment: It is a way of immortalizing oneself to be the advocate of humanity. The book trade and new places for urban socializing. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource. proved no match for of justice. Empress Catherine II ("the Great") of Russia wrote to T Voltaire. religious Russian Orthodoxy. favored the spread of education to eliminate ignorance.. and anything that did not promote the improvement of humanity was to be jettisoned. quibbling. she staged a coup against him and took his place when he was means at their disposal-from encyclopekilled. You have entered into combat against the enemies of mankind: superstition. As a result. Everything had to be examined in the clear light of reason. Enlightenment writers attacked the legal use of torture to extract confessions. Augusta Frederika of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1729. physically fanaticism. fanaticism. Over a fifteen-year period Catherine corresponded regularly with Voltaire. 1762).. much like any enment ideals had become by the middle of male ruler of the time. In 1762.

They wrote on subjects ranging from current affairs to art criticism. which they considered the chief obstacles to free thought and social reform. but when faced with a massive uprising of the serfs. and they wrote in every conceivable format. but that term is somewhat misleading. and responsive to the segment of the public that was reading newspapers and closely following political developments. The philosophes considered themselves part of a grand "republic of letters" that transcended national political boundaries. a best-selling novel. Bookbinding In this plate from the Encyclopedia. for example. but they still looked to rulers to effect reform. Enlightenment writers appealed to public opinion.The Enlightenment at Its Height 563 of masons' guilds). the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the program of the Enlightenment in two Latin words: sapere aude.. but they feared changes that might unleash popular discontent. They were not republicans in the usual sense-that is. "Once fanaticism has corrupted a mind. and a notorious autobiography. people who supported representative government and opposed monarchy. The worker at (c) cuts the pages. "What is truth?"). "the malady is almost incurable . bigotry. governments now needed to respond to a new force: public opinion. the Enlightenment acquired its name and. they favored neither revolution nor political upheaval. that I· The Enlightenment at Its Height The Enlightenment emerged as an intellectual movement before 1740 but reached its peak only in the second half of the eighteenth century. democracy would come opinion and on European rulers? to Europe as well. Rulers pursued Enlightenment reforms that they believed might enhance state power. The philosophes used reason to attack superstition. Whereas philosophers generally concern themselves with theoretical questions (for example. The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau. the pages to be bound on a marble block. she not only suppressed the revolt but also increased the nobles' power over their serfs. an opera. After 1789. spread these ideas within a new elite of middle. The writers of the Enlightenment called themselves philosophes (French for "philosophers"). What united them were the ideals of reason. wrote a political tract. The Men and Women of the Republic of Letters Although philosophe is a French word. informed. Catherine aimed to bring Western culture and reforms to Russia. gained support in the highest reaches of government. All reform-minded rulers faced similar potential challenges to their authority. Rulers wanted to portray themselves as modern. philosophes could be found from Philadelphia to Moscow. and at (d) the volumes are pressed to prevent warping. Yet their ideas paved the way for something much more radical and unexpected. Reason meant critical. Even though the movement for reform had its limits.' Voltaire proclaimed. a treatise on education. For example. and religious intolerance. The only remedy for this epidemic malady is the philosophical spirit:' Enlightenment writers did not necessarily oppose organized religion.and upper-class men and women. open to change. Writers such as Voltaire expressed little interest in the future of peasants or lower classes. "dare to know" -have the courage to think for yourself. In what ways is this illustration . the Enlightenment was distinctly cosmopolitan. Many Enlightenment writers collaborated on a new multivolume Encyclopedia.. even when rulers or churches tried to forbid publication. the various stages in bookbinding Binding was not included The man at (a) is pounding are laid out from left to right. The woman at (b) is stitching representative of the aims of the Encyclopedia? pages with a special frame. The philosophes wrote for an educated public of readers who snatched up every Enlightenment book they could find at their local booksellers..e effects of the theater on public morals. scientific thinking about social issues and problems. published between 1751 and 1772. Between 1740 and 1789. reform. owners had to order leather bindings from a special shop. In 1784. despite heated conflicts bet~een the philosophes and state and religious authorities. They believed that the systematic application of reason could do what religious belief could not: improve the human condition by pointing to needed reforms. the philosophes were public intellectuals dedicated to solving the real problems of the world. The American Declaration of Independence in 1776 showed how lofty Enlightenment goals could be CHAPTER FOCUS QUESTION What was translated into democratic political practhe influence of Enlightenment ideals on public tice. but they strenuously objected to religious intolerance. and freedom. an analysis of th. a constitution for Poland. the in the sale of books.

who did not believe in any kind of God. "I quite understand that the fanatics of one sect slaughter the enthusiasts of another sect . had been the prime source of fanaticism and brutality among humans. "There is no way to make Naples resemble Paris unless we find a woman to guide us. but elsewhere voices against organized religion could be heard.) Few of the leading writers held university positions. In short. came from the upper classes. Voltaire's efforts eventually helped bring about the extension of civil rights to French Protestants and encouraged campaigns to abolish the legal use of torture. like Voltaire. who believed in God but gave him no active role in earthly affairs. Criticisms of religion required daring because the church. (Since Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. except those who were German or Scottish. she gained the title Marquise de Pompadour and turned her attention to influencing artistic styles by patronizing architects and painters. whatever its denomination. Christianity. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson. and through letters to the editor and book review~ in per~odicals. Universities in France were dominated by the clergy and unreceptive to Enlightenment ideas. Denis Diderot (1713-1784). Middle-class women in London used their salons to raise money to publish women's writings. wielded enormous power in society. which they considered natural nghts guaranteed by "natural law:' In their view. Defying such opinion.Chapter 1S The Promise of Enlightenment The Enlightenment at Its Height 565 /. a judicial case in Toulouse provoked throughout France an outcry that Voltaire soon joined. these things are a nation's eternal sham~:' Most philosophes.sophes w~nte~ freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Enlightenment ideas developed instead through personal contacts. Wealthy Jewish women created nine of the fourteen salons in Berlin at the end of the eighteenth century.1 I aimed to gather together knowledge about science. GeoJfrinize us:' Women's salons helped galvanize intellectual life and reform movements all over Europe. yet Rousseaus father was a modest watchmaker in Geneva. investigated without exception and without regard for anyone's feelings:' The philosophes believed that the spread of knowledge would encourage reform in every aspect of life. both Catholic and Protestant. including Catherine the Great. authorities accused his father. When the son of a local Calvinist was found hanged (he probably committed suicide). Before the scientific revolution. self-perpetuating machine in which God's intervention was unnecessary.. When she became Louis XV's m~stress in 1745. through letters that were hand-copied. writers claimed the label atheist and disputed the common view that atheism led inevitably to immorality. debated. a wealthy middle-class widow who had been raised by her grandmother and married off at fourteen to a much older ~an. for example. the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) boldly argued in The Natural History of Religion (1755) that belief in God rested on superstition and fear rather than on reason. In the salon. her social gathenngs provided a forum for new ideas and an opportunity to establish new intellectual contacts. and Diderot was the son of a cutlery maker. and despite Newton's own deep religiosity. Throughout his life. explained the goal: "All things must be examined. [but] that Descartes should have been forced to flee to Holland to escape the fury of the ignorant .. (Her lover Voltaire learned much of his science from her. people could conceive of the universe as an eternally existing. nearly every European believed in God. which had been confiscated after his death. Madame Geoffrin corresponded extensively with influential people across Europe. and in his popular Philosophical Dictionary (1764) he attacked most of the claims of organized Christianity. Conflicts with Church and State Madame Geoffrin did not approve of discussions that attacked the Catholic church. religion. T~e phil~. first made her reputation as hostess of a salon frequented by Voltaire and Montesquieu. and in Warsaw Princess Zofia Czartoryska gathered around her the reform leaders of Poland-Lithuania. Critics also had to confront the states to which churches were closely tied. Jean Calas. organize us. . and sometimes published. Criticism of religious intolerance involved more than simply attacking the churches. he argued. Voltaire was a deist. and society. or deists. Salons could be tied closely to the circles of power: in France. After Newton. She wrote extensively about the mathematics and physics of Leibniz ~nd Newton. She b.) The all-Catholic parlement of Toulouse tried to extract the names of accomplices through torture-using a rope to pull up Calas's arm while weighting down his feet and then by pouring pitchers of water down his throat (now known as "water boarding")-and then executed him by breaking every bone in his body.. One Italian visitor commented. But deists usually rejected the idea that God directly intercedes in the functioning of the universe. of murdering him to prevent his conversion to Catholicism. it had been illegal to practice Calvinism publicly in France. Salons-informal gatherings usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women-gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and th.. ~s Voltaire asserted. through informal readings of manuscripts. Louis XV's mistress. French authorities publicly burned his Philosophical Dictionary. industry. The chief editor of the Encyclopedia.rought to~ether the most exciting thinkers and artists of the time. progress depended on these freedoms. the philosophes could discuss ideas they might hesitate to put into print and thus test public opinion and even push it in new directions. circulated. Voltaire launched a successful crusade to rehabilitate Jean Calass good name and to restore the family's properties. Deists continued to believe in a benevolent. Best known was the Parisian salon of Madame Mane-Therese Geoffrin (1699-1777). and most influential people considered religion an essential foundation of good society and government. In 1761. and they often criticized the churches for their dogmatic intolerance of dissenters. however.e ch~r~hcontrolled universities. such people could become either atheists. Voltaire's motto was Ecrasez l'il1fame-"Crush the infamous thing" (the "thing" being bigotry and intolerance). The French noblewoman Emilie du Chatelet (1706-1749) was one of the rare female philosophes. from the grain trade to the penal system. For the first time. all-knowing God who had designed the universe and set it in motion.

Great Britain was "the one nation in the world which has political liberty as the direct object of its constitution. but of surmounting a hundred impertinent to obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations. Raynal was forced into exile.. Raynal and his collaborators described in excruciating detail the destruction of native populations by Europeans and denounced the slave trade.. believing that published criticism. in the long run their books often had a revolutionary impact. a French Catholic clergyman. But they did not necessarily agree about the conclusions to be drawn. His work led both toward democracy and toward communism and continues to inspire heated debate in political science and SOciology. To explain how this natural harmonization worked. even greed. Although Voltaire. "There is not a single one of these hapless souls . that it is alone. The Enlightenment writers shifted attention away from religious questions toward the secular study of society and the individual's role in it. Rousseau set out the principles of a more communitarian philosophy. Despite the philosophes' preference for reform. The Individual and Just as Newton had used his reason to penetrate the laws of nature. was quite compatible with society's best interest: the market served as an "invisible hand" ensuring that individual interests would be synchronized with those of the whole society. when suffered to exert itself with freedom and security. and lived to be celebrated in his last years as a national hero even by many former foes. "We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed.. and his work was banned by both the Catholic church and the French government. Hume judged blacks to be "naturally inferior to . he made a fortune from financial speculations. In his somewhat rosy view. Smith provided a theory of modern capitalist society and devoted much of his energy to defending free markets as offering the best way to maximize individual efforts. The modern discipline of economics took shape around the questions raised by Smith. and prone to superstition. Smith insisted that individual self-interest. "to leave alone") to free the economy from government intervention and control. is so powerful a principle.. one that emphasized the needs of the community over those of the individual.A closer look at these two thinkers will demonstrate the breadth and depth of Enlightenment thought. so too the philosophes hoped to use reason to discern the laws of social life. Other philosophes also lived respectably. As Diderot said. . whites. questions of theological doctrine and church organization had been the main focus of intellectual and even political interest. "There never was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white:' Enlightenment critics of church and state advocated reform. and abandon duties on imports. internal order and a secure framework for market activity. Society In previous centuries. hence in need of leadership from above." His analysis of British constitutionalism inspired French critics of absolutism and would greatly influence the American revolutionaries. He insisted that governments eliminate all restrictions on the sale of land. and. and public works.' concluding. national defense. wrote a glowing history called The Age of Louis XIV (1751). Governments should restrict themselves to providing "security"-that is. Adam Smith (1723-1790) optimistically believed that individual interests naturally harmonized with those of the whole society. not only capable of carrying the SOCiety wealth and prosperity. rather than violent action. To maximize the effects of market forces and the division of labor. while we wait. Among the many differenl approaches were two that proved enduringly influential. but the Enlightenment belief in natural rights led many others to denounce slavery. For example. Montesquieu's widely reprinted Spirit of the Laws (1748) warned against the dangers of despotism. who does not have the right to be declared free . One of the most popular books of the time was the Philosophical and Political History of European Colonies and Commerce in the Two Indies. published in 1770 by Abbe Guillaume Raynal (1713-1796). They pinned their hopes on educated elites and enlightened rulers.Critics also assailed state and church support for European colonization and slavery. remove restraints on the grain trade. He argued: The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition. those of the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith and the Swiss writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He believed that free international trade would stimulate production everywhere and thus ensure the growth of national wealth. Instead. and without any assistance. since neither his ruler nor his father nor anyone else had the right to dispose of his freedom:' Some Enlightenment thinkers. it laid the foundations for the social sciences of the modern era.." the merchant "frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote if' Smith rejected the prevailing mercantilist views that the general welfare would be served by accumulating national wealth through agriculture or the hoarding of gold and silver. lived near the French-Swiss border in case he had to flee arrest. In this way. opposed the divine right of kings. An article in the new Encyclopedia proclaimed.. not revolution. for the philosophes generally regarded the lower c1asses-"the people"-as ignorant. and favored constitutional government. would bring about necessary reforms. violent. he argued that the division of labor in manufacturing would increase productivity and generate more wealth for society and well-being for the individual. however. took a more ambiguous or even negative view. Smith endorsed a concept called laissez-faire (that is. the Enlightenment advanced the secularization of European political life that had begun after the Wars of Religion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. "By pursuing his own interest. he published An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776. for example. At the same time. we will abide by them:' Those few who lived long enough to see the French Revolution in 1789 resisted its radical turn.

Italian philosophes. such as the Milanese penal reformer Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794). Diderot. In other words. Rousseau's works extolled the simplicity of rural life over urban society. Dutch printers made money publishing the books that were forbidden in France. Rousseau always felt ill at ease in high society. and in Emile he underlines the importance of physical activity for children. and his abstract model included no reference to differences in social status. He provided no legal protections for individual rights. outside in nature. not from history. and he periodically withdrew to live in solitude far from Paris. Scottish and English writers concentrated on economics. in this work Rousseau insisted that individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject one's individual interests to "the general will"-that is. the Italian states. He implied that people would be most free and moral under a republican form of government with direct democracy. (10Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library. These arguments threatened the legitimacy of eighteenth-century governments. In Rousseau's view. in this case. Whereas earlier he had argued that society corrupted the individual by taking him out of nature. authorities in both Geneva and Paris banned The Social Contract for undermining political authority. The hot spot of the Enlightenment was France. In places with small middle classes. such as Spain.) . less need for it. If everyone followed the general will. Rather than improving society. in a sense. Rousseau's rather mystical concept of the general will remains controversial. was liberty and equality. or Jean-Jacques Rousseau This eighteenth-century engraving of Rousseaushows him in his favorite place. where he walked. read. Spreading the Enlightenment The Enlightenment flourished in places where the new public sphere provided an eager audience for ideas of constitutionalism and reform. In British North America. philosophy. Rousseau's works would become a kind of political bible for the French revolutionaries of 1789. Although he participated in the salons. exile. got moral support from their French counterparts in the face of stern censorship at home. not with their rulers but with one another. who lodged him on their estates. society itself threatened natural rights or freedoms: "Man is born free. to the good of the community. Rousseau claimed that he came to his most important insights while taking long walks.568 Chapter '5 The Promiseof Enlightenment The Enlightenment at Its Height S6S I· Much more pessimistic about the relation between individual self-interest and the good of society was Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Where constitutionalism and the guarantee of individual freedoms were most advanced. but he also insisted that the individual could be "forced to be free" by the terms of the social contract. even as his writings decried the upper-class privilege that made his efforts possible. and history rather than politics or social relations. as in Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. tradition. This startling conclusion seemed to oppose some of the Enlightenment's most cherished beliefs. his "solitude" was often paid for by wealthy upper-class patrons. and. and his attacks on private property would inspire the communists of the nineteenth century such as Karl Marx. Emile (1762). Rousseau proposed a political solution to the tension between the individual and society. and everywhere he is in chains:' Rousseau first gained fame by writing a prizewinning essay in 1749 in which he argued that the revival of science and the arts had corrupted social morals. not improved them. Paradoxica~ly. Enlightenment ideas helped stiffen growing colonial resistance to British rule after 1763. and Rousseau all faced arrest. Rousseau's particular version of democracy did not guarantee the individual freedoms so important to Adam Smith. the movement had less of an edge because there was. governments successfully suppressed writings they did not like. then all individuals would be equally free and equally moral because they lived under a law to which they had all consented. He roundly condemned slavery: "To decide that the son of a slave is born a slave is to decide that he is not born a man:' Not surprisingly. The "greatest good of all:' according to Rousseau. in which a boy develops practical skills and independent thinking under the guidance of his tutor. Individuals did this by entering into a social contract. Rousseau derived his social contract from human nature. French writers published the most daring critiques of church and state and suffered the most intense harassment and persecution. Rousseau explored the tension between the individual and society in various ways. science and art raised artificial barriers between people and their natural state. and Russia. he claimed. collected plants. including his widely influential work on education. Voltaire. or the Bible. In The Social Contract (1762).

Foreign printers provided secret catalogs of their offerings and sold their products through booksellers who were willing to market forbidden texts for a high price-among them not only philosophical treatises of the Enlightenment but also pornographic works and pamphlets (some by Diderot) lampooning the Catholic clergy and leading members of the royal court. caused an immediate sens tion because it revealed so much about his inner emotional life.'SlO Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment The Enlightenment at Its Height I· I I even imprisonment. In short. . and Dartmouth. Werther medallions. literary critic. Religious revivals underlined the limits of reason in a different way. and the joys of nature thinkers like Rousseau who had scolded the philosophes for ignoring those aspet of life that escaped and even conflicted with the power of reason. TJ young Napoleon Bonaparte. and a perfume called Eau t Werther. In Kant's philosophy. In the Dutch Republic and Swiss cities. Mendelssohn labored to build bridges between German and Jewish culture by arguing that Judaism was a rational and undogmatic religion. Lessing promoted religious toleration of Jews and spiritual emancipation of Germans from foreign. Just as Smith founded modern economics and Rousseau modern political theory. Ideas are shaped. not just by sensory information (a position central to empiricism. Mui of the Protestant world experienced an "awakening" in the 1740s. As a playwright. Tile Critique of Pure Reason (1781). In the 1760s and 1770s. The Catholic church and royal authorities routinely forbade the publication of their books. states. The appeal to feelings and emotions also increased interest in the occult. their German counterparts avoided direct political confrontations with authorities. Rousseau's autobi graphical Confessions. wi this process of "mesmerism" he claimed to cure their ailments. published posthumously in 1782. and Voltaire.' Franz Mesmer. around which groups of his disciples sat. France seems to have been curiously caught in the middle during the Enlightenment: with fewer constitutional guarantees of individual freedom than Great Britain. Lessing also introduced the German Jewish writer Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) into Berlin salon society. a charismatic Austrian physician turned "experimenter. and the police arrested publishers who ignored their warnings. Tile Sorrows Young Wertiler (1774) tells of a passionate youth who reveres nature and rural Ii and is unhappy in love. Kant established the doctrine of idealism. The Limits of Reason: Roots of Romanticism and Religious Revival In reaction to what some saw as the Enlightenment's excessive reliance on authority of human reason. Werth engravings and embroidery. and philosopher. In this complex book. they were entirely ideal and abstract and located the human mind. Tragically. Kant argued. TJ book spurred a veritable Werther craze: there were Werther costumes. When the woman he loves marries someone else. (The word mesmeri: meaning "hypnotize" or "hold spellbound. revivalist Protestant preachers drew thousands of fervent believers in movement called the Great Awakening. Kant wrote one of the most important works in the history of Western philosophy. private companies made fortunes smuggling illegal books into France over mountain passes and back roads. bitter conflicts betwee revivalists and their opponents in the established churches prompted the leaders ( both sides to set up new colleges to support their beliefs. Whereas the French philosophes often took a violently anticlerical and combative tone. a philosophy based on John Locke's writings) but also by the operation on that information of mental categories such space and time. holding hands. aw crowds of aristocrats and middle-class admirers with his demonstrations in Paris "animal magnetism:' He passed a weak electrical current through tubs filled wi water or iron filings. In North America. French elites had reason to complain. and a government torn between the desires to censor dissident ideas and to appear open to modernity and progress. deep emotion.) A novel by the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) ca tured the early romantic spirit with its glorification of emotion. especially French. a new artistic movement called romanticism took ro Although it would not fully flower until the early nineteenth century. claimed have read Goethe's novel seven times. He admired Adam Smith and especially Rousseau. Gotthold Lessing (1729-1781) complained in 1769 that Prussia was still "the most slavish society in Europe" in its lack of freedom to criticize government policies. In t 1780s. Kant in Tile Critique of Pure Reason set the foundations for modern philosophy. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Reason cannot save him. and Rousseau all were revered as cultural heroes. But like Rousseau. including his sexi longings and his almost paranoid distrust of other Enlightenment figures. He believed persecution and discrimination against the Jews would end as reason triumphed. In the Germ. whose portrait he displayed proudly in his lodgings. where Catherine the Great allowed no opposition.' is derived from Mesmer's name. Kant insisted that people could achieve tr moral freedom only by living in society and obeying its laws. Diderot. there were even a few imitations of Werther's suicide. these "categories of understanding" were n ther sensory nor supernatural. he fa into deep melancholy and eventually kills himself. who was to build an empire for France. and in the British North Americ: colonies. Yet the French monarchy was far from the most autocratic in Europe. models of culture. which still dominated. all founded between 1746 and 1769. Brown. rornanticis traced its emphasis on individual genius. where the Catholic Inquisition made up its own list of banned books. The government in France controlled publishing-all books had to get official permission-but not as tightly as in Spain. Pietist groups founded new communities. These included Princeto Columbia. a growing flood of works printed abroad poured into France and circulated underground. Reason was also the chief focus of the most influential German thinker of the Enlightenment. For Kant the supreme philosophical questions-Does God exi Is personal immortality possible? Do humans have free will?-were unansweral by reason alone. or in Russia. it still enjoyed much higher levels of prosperity and cultural development than most other European countries. the means to make their complaints known. the belief that true understanding can come only from examining the ways in which ideas are formed in the mind. A university professor who lectured on everything from economics to astronomy.

The expanding middle classes saw in t Enlightenment a chance to make their claim for joining society's governing eli They bought Enlightenment books. Frene . joined Masonic lodges. He slept in his followers' homes and treated their illnesses with various remedies. and literature. John Wesley (I 703-1791). London. it Enlightenment. but an important minority embraced char and actively participated in reform efforts. (Wesley eagerly followed Benjamin Franklin's experiments with electricity. in contrast to only 2 perce in Russia and between 1 and 2 percent in the rest of western Europe. invested Widelyin government bonds ar trading companies. the Hasidim (Hebrew for "most pious" Jews). and occasionally even had their own private orchestras. kept several country residences with scores of servants as well houses in London. 1 traditional leaders of European societies-the nobles-responded to Enlightenmt ideals in contradictory fashion: many simply reasserted their privileges and resis1 the influence of the Enlightenment. but their numbers ai way of life varied greatly from country to country. and Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment Religious revivals and the first stirrings of romanticism show that all intellect. At the same time. a title did not guarantee wealth. some social and cultural dey opments manifested the influence of Enlightenment ideas. and hard work. In the face of the commercialization of agriculture and the inflation of price European aristocrats converted their remaining legal rights (called seigneurial due from the French seigneur. which created resentrne of upper-class privileges. often expressed their devotion through music. including small electric shocks for nervous diseases. librarf of expensive books. and his followers. the Oxford-educated son of an Anglican cleric. owned more than ten thousand acres ofland (the average wester European peasant owned about five acres). during Wesley's lifetime the Methot leadership remained politically conservative. and in what ways was it s. Many Polio and Spanish nobles lived in poverty. Most of the waves of Protestant revivalism ebbed after the 1750s. but others did not. Wesley began preaching a new brand of Anglicanism. Wef began to ordain his own clergy. The wealthie European nobles luxuriated in almost unimaginable opulence. firearms. ar collections of antiques. The lower classes were more affected by econon growth. rather than study of Jewish law. Traveling all over the British Isles. music. Peasants felt the squeeze as a result. (National Portrait Gallery. Similarly. Israel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) laid the foundation for Hasidism in the 1740s and 1750s. but in Great Britain the movement known as Methodism continued to grow. an average of fifteen a we When the Anglican authorities refused to let him preach in the churches. Many of the Engli: peers. North American sometimes of thousands emotional preachers of in the British North painted here by John visited the seven times. dance. with some similarities to Calvinism.) Nobles made up about 3 percent of the European population. that emphasized an intense personal experience of salvation and a life of thrift. The Nobility'S Reassertion of Privilege colonies was the English Methodist in '742. peasants had to face rising rents. Continuing population increases contributed to a rise in prices for ba. and fervent prayer. currents did not flow in the same channel. goods. for example. In 1738. Their practices soon spread all over Poland-Lithuania. He emphasized mystical contemplation of the divine. Nevertheless. Wesley himself denounced political REVI EW Why was France the center of agitation in the 1770s because. he said. At least 10 percent of the popul tion in Poland and 7 to 8 percent in Spain was noble. and scientific instruments. for "lord") into money payments and used them to SUI port an increasingly expensive lifestyle. threatened to make Great Britain "a field that the philosophes and new ideas flourf of blood" ruled by "King Mob:' George Whitefield One of the most prominent the Great Awakening American Wollaston George Whitefield. and drew tens of people to his dramatic open-air sermons.) Revivalism also stirred eastern European Jews at about the same time. Whitefield colonies I I for long periods. abstinence. He traveled the Polish countryside offering miraculous cures and became known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (meaning "Master of the Good Name") because he used divine names to effect healing and bring believers into closer personal contact with God. kennels of pedigree dogs.Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment Society and Culture In an Age of Enlightenment In fifty years. and patronized ru styles in art. Wesley would mount a table or a box to speak to the ordinary people of the village or town. a term evoked by Wesley's insistence on strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Wesley preached forty thousand sermons. founded Methodism. greenhouses for exotic plants.

plumed hats. the landed gentry could not claim these same onerous dues from their tenants. Despite the papacy's condemn. Her Charter of the. peasants had to work on the public roads without compensation for a specified number of days every year. Russia. "Grand tours" of Europe ofte led upper-class youths to the recently discovered Roman ruins at Pompeii and Hei ~ulane~m in Italy. artisans. Britain. trade. middle-class families did not have legal titles like the nobility above them but did not work with their hands like the peasants. T] Freemasons quickly lost any connection to guild life. Althou] not explicitly political In aim. and the tithe on their grain (one-tenth of the crop) to the church. half were nobles.insi. ar both aristocrats and middle-class men could join. In Britain. or manufacturing. an essential ~res~rvative. I France. Although middle-class people had rna reasons to resent the nobles. the Italian states. After 1789 and the outbreak of the French Revolution.ed more open to the new ideas. they also aspired to be like them. and powdered hair' middle-class men wore simpler and more somber clothing. thus promoting a direct experience constitutional government.and even pottery soon reflected the neoclassical emphasis on purity an. furniture. In addition. including Spain and France. Catherine II of Russia (r. the law pr~hlblted aristocrats from engaging directly in retail trade. the French word for "c dweller")-grew steadily in western Europe as a result of economic expansion. the nobility prov. and the western German states. c1anty of forms. It had not escaped their notice that Rousseau had denounced inequality. Urban residences. Aristocrats had their own seats in church and their own quarters in the universities. The gentry enforced the game laws themselves by hiring gamekeep~rs who hunted down poachers and even set traps for them in the forests. or workers bel. conserve tives would blame the lodges for every kind of political upheaval. however.of Freemason~y in 1738 as subversive of religious and civil authority.stence on special privileges. Nobility of 1785 codified these privileges in exchange for nobles' political su~s~rvlenc. France. In the eighteenth century. Members wrote constitutions f their lodges and elected their own officers. In most other countries. too. Frederick II ("the Great") of prussia (r. In short. government buildings. paid a wide range of dues to . most aristocrats maintained their marks of distinction The male court nobility continued to sport swords. they did not read the books of the philosophes and feared reforms that might challenge their dominance of rural society. Nobles and middle-class professionals mingled in Enlightenment salons at JOined the new Masonic lodges and local learned societies. 1740-1786) made sure that nobles dominated both the army officer corps and the civil bureaucracy. for instance. Shared tastes in travel. a~~ press grapes In his winepress-and various inheritance taxes on the land. Spain. According to the law. The members of Mason lodges were known as Freemasons because that was the term given to apprenti masons when ~hey were deemed "free" to practice as masters of their guild.Society and Culture In an Age of Enlightenment 574 Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment I.wof ~ature . for example. makeup. and Russia. The excavations aroused enthusiasm for the neoclassical styl In architecture and painting. as were 20 percent of the 160 contributors to the Encyclopedia. The English potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) almost single ha~dedly created a mass market for domestic crockery by appealing to middle-clas desires to emulate the rich and royal. architecture. . lodgr continued to multiply throughout the eighteenth century because they offered place for socializing outside of the traditional channels and a way of declaring one interest in the Enlightenment and reform. which began pushing aside the rococo and the Ion dominant baroque. 1762-1796) granted the nobility vast tracts of land. Freemasonry spread in Poland. the ranks of the midc class-also known as the bourgeoisie (after bourgeois. and for leading aristocrats allowed him tt advertise his wares as fashionable. that a handful of people should gorge themselves with superflUities while the hungry multitude goes in want of necessities:' The Middle Class and the Making of a New Elite The Enlightenment offered middle-class people an intellectual. bake bread In his oven. fabrics wall. anyone who poached deer or rabbits while armed or ~isguised could be sentenced to death. Among those who personally corresponded With Rousseau. or lower-level officials-or through investment land. The game laws kept the poor from eating meat and helped protect the social status of the rich.e to the state. them. peasants. In France. tion . the lodges encouraged equality among members.thei~ landlords-including pat ments to grind grain at the lord's mill. After 1760. Even though Enlightenment writers sharply criticized nobl~s'.. His designs of special tea sets for the Britisl queen. and cult~r. but in the 170( many high-ranking nobles became active members and saw no conflict with the privileged status. In Austria. Frederick II of Prussia founded a lodge in 1740. and British North America. In his view.O~ the on social ladder.. ~ost middle-class people lived in towns or cities and earned their living in I professions=-as doctors. By 1767. customs duties if they sold produce or wine In town. an after 1750.paper. the exclusive right to own serfs. In many countries. Freemasonry offered a kind ( secular religion. the overall population grew by about one-third in the 170( but the bourgeoisie nearly tripled in size. the number of arrests for breaking the gaI_TIe l~ws increased dramatically. but they fiercely defended their exclusive right to hunt game. and e~~mption from personal taxes and corporal punishment. it was "manifestly contrary to the ~a. most nobles consequently cared little about Enlighten~ent ideas. The term middle class referred to ~he ~lddle POSltl. for example. and the arts helped strengthen the link between nobles and members of the middle class. PolandLithuania. for Catherine the Great of Russia.al route to social improvement. however. . They also paid taxes to the government on salt. lawyers. Freemasonry arose in Great Britain and spread eastward: the first French ar Italian lodges opened in 1726. they held secret rit als and ~~etings ~~vot~d t? philanthropy and the discussion of new ideas. he claimed that his Queensware potter- . and on the value of their land. hunting was the special right of the nobility and a cause of deep popular resentment. women set up their own Masonic lodges.

a genre whose popularity continued to grow: in the 17801 the Papal States alone boasted forty opera houses.I The Bridgeman Art Library.(10The Fotomas Index. Complex polyphony gave way to melody. but by the early 1800s their compositions had been incor porated into the canon of concert classics all over Europe. This period also supported artistic styles other than neoclassicism. excelled in combining lightness.Neoclassical Style Inthis Georgianinteriorof Syon Houseon the outskirtsof London.Denis Diderot praised Greuze'swork as "moral ityin paint.and Roman-style mosaicsin the floor. U. The first subscription concerts open to the public took place in London in the 1670s and in Frankfurt in 1712. This laid the foundation for what we still call classical music today-that is. and a new attitude toward "the classics" developed: for the first time in the 1770s and 1780s.) the court or noble patrons. Frederick II of Prussia built himself a palace in the earlier rococo style. and British North America. Asked why he had wrtttei no string quintets (at which Mozart excelled). The two supreme masters of the new musical style of the eighteenth centur show that the transition from noble patronage to classical concerts was far fror complete. TheScottish architectRobertAdamcreated this room for the dukeof Northumberlandinthe '76os. and filled it with paintings and sculptures by the French masters of the rococo. an old woman (perhaps the mother) confronts the lover of a young girl and points to the eggs that have fallenout of a basket. L had "spread over the whole Globe:' and indeed by then his pottery was being marketed in France. bot. rather than occasional pieces for Jean-Baptiste Greuze. and the German city of Leipzig opened the first public orchestra hall in 1781. The new emphasis on emotion and family life was reflected in a growing taste for moralistic family scenes in painting. Adamhad spent fouryears in Italy and returned to Londonin'758 to decorate homes inthe "Adam style." but the paintings often had an erotic subtext. In this one. Russia. (10 Francis G. Broken Eggs (17S6) Greuzemade his reputation as a painter of moralistic familyscenes. Such subjects appealed in particular to the middle-class public. The paintings of Jean-Baptiste Greuze (I725-1805). concert groups began to play older music rather than simply playing the latest commissioned works. gave it a French name.The broken eggs are a symbolof lost virginity." . Although wealthy nobles still patronized Europe's leading musicians. clarity. which made music more accessible to the ordinary listener. he responded simply. a repertory of the greatest music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Venice.) I. depicted ordinary families at moments of domestic crisis. "No one ha ordered any. Because composers now created works that would be performed over and over again as part of a classical repertory. Greek-stylestatuary on top of the columns. the Ottoman Empire. much praised by Diderot. the Eszterhazys. Both also wrot numerous Italian operas. they deliberately attempted to write lasting works. Incredibly prolific. and profound emotion. variousneoclassicalmotifsare readilyapparent:Greekcolumns. music too began to reflect the broadening of the elite. Mayer/Corbis. Sans-souci (meaning "worry-free"). Haydn spent most of his caree working for a Hungarian noble family. the major composers began to produce fewer symphonies: the Austrian corr poser Franz Joseph Haydn (I 732-1809) wrote more than one hundred symphonie.K. As result. The public concert gradually displaced the private recital. . which now attended the official painting exhibitions in France that were held regularly every other year after 1737. and the spread of Enlightenment ideals as classical forms replaced the baroque style. The Austrians Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) bot wrote for noble patrons.1."meaningthe neoclassical manner. but his successor Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) would create only nine.

Even though food pro duction increased. Those who were able to work or keep their land fared better. Th~ Newtonian System of the Universe Digested for Young Minds. About one in four Parisians owned books. mouth. self-control.ss. One woman complained to Richardson. Women benefited as much as men from the spread of print. loss of memory. and death itself. and Philadelphia. Books about and for chil~ren bec~me popular. and the German states published their own newspapers. most German towns began to set up workhouses that were part workshop. a lackey in an ante-room reading pamphlets. At least 10 percent of Europe's urban populatior depended on some form of charity. even small villages housed book clubs. however. . Moralists and physicians wrote books about the evils of masturbation. yet critics nonetheless worned that novels undermined morals with their portrayals of lowlife characters. the upper and middle classes worrie about the increasing numbers of poor people. Such institutions also appeared for the first time in Boston. While the Enlightenment thus encouraged excessive concern about childre being left to their own devices. it nevertheless taught the middle and upper class! to value their children and to expect their improvement through education. but the lower classes overwhelmingly read religious books. Among the most widely read novels were those of the English printer and writer Samuel Richardson (1689-1761). and childhood innocence made parents increasingly anxious about their children's sexuality. offices for the poor. the seductions of virtuous women. a pale. but most were too weak or sick to work. for instance. and other examples of immoral behavior. bonds to workhouses. much lower in eastern Europe. sight. and public concerts more ~ha~ by formal schooling. As one Englishman observed. for example. An increase in literacy. Toys. an aristocratic rake. like attending public concerts. six times as many books were being published in the German states. thirty-seven English towns had local newspapers. took hold of the middle classes. the Dutch Republic. ated fears about rising crime. only 50 percent of men and 27 perI cent of women could read and write in the 1780s (although that was twice the rate of a century earlier). allowed some lower-class people to participate in new ~astesand ideas. shortages and crises still occurred periodically. "These days. part hospital. Although she runs off with Lovelace to escape her family. a long novel in eight volumes. Bu those at the bottom of the social ladder-day laborers in the cities and peasants win smallholdings-lived on the edge of dire poverty. One Parisian author commented that "people are certainly reading ten times as much in Paris as they did a hundred years ago:' Provincial towns in Britain. In some countries. the Enlightenment's emphasis on reason. wages in many trades rose as well. 200.000 workers left their homes every year in search OJ seasonal employment elsewhere. Richardson tells the story of a young woman from a heartless upper-class family who is torn between her family's choice of a repulsive suitor and her attraction to Lovelace. Newspapers advertised arithmetic. jigsaw puzzles. "proving" that it led to physical and mental degeneration and ~ven ~ad~e. The expenses for running these overcrowded institutions increased 60 percent in England between 1760 and 1785. and Hungary. or "beggar houses. and bluish complexion. People can read in almost all classes of SOCiety:' n France. The government sent people to these new workhouses to labor in manufacturing. and workhouse-hospitals. and face. public workshops. the French government created depots de mendicite. Although he himself grew up reading novels with his father. Shaped by coffeehouses. he helped change attitudes in the new elite towa:d children by offering an educational approach for gently drawing the best out of children rather than repressing their natural curiosity and love of learning. After 1740. the results did not necessarily trickle all the way down th social scale. To supplement the inadequate system of religious charity. Rousseau discouraged novel reading in Emile. as they had in the past. Prussia. idiotism. O~e English writer linked masturbation to debility of body and of mind: infertility: epIlepsy.Interest in reading. The growing numbers of poor people overwhelmed local governments and ere. life on the Margins Even more than worrying about their children. the new reading public fueled a frenzied increase in publication. France. you see a waiting-maid m her backroom. Lending libraries multiplied. and 20 percent of them died within a few months of incarceration. and my heart is still bursting:' Richardson claimed that he wrote Clarissa r:arlowe as a kind of manual of virtuous female conduct. By the end of the eighteenth century. Although booming foreign tradeFrench colonial trade. was published in Britain in 1761 and reprinted many times. "I verily believe I have shed a pint of tears. "By far the greatest part of ladies now have a taste for books:' The novel had become a respectable and influential genre. and hearing. especially in the cities. Still. with especiall striking gains in England. by Tom Telescope. dancing. as at the beginning of the century. they either migrated to the cities or wandered the roads in search of fooc and work. One French observer insisted. Masonic lodges. Prices went ul in many countries after the 1730s and continued to rise gradually until the earl' nineteenth century.' in 1767. New York. increased tenfold in the 1700s-fueled a dramati economic expansion. officials sent beggars and vaga. distortions of the eyes. Literacy rates were higher in England and the Dutch Republic. Paintings now showed individual children playing at their favorite activities rather than formally posed with their families. and part prison. though less quickly tha. after being drugged and raped by Lovelace-despite the frantic pleas of readers of the first volumes to spare her-Clarissa dies of what can only be called a broken heart. and in England especially. The population of Europe grew by nearly 30 percent. Ireland. In Clarissa Harlowe (1747-1748). and when they lost their land OJ work. prices. and clothing designed for children all appeared for the first time in the 1700s. Peasants who produced surpluses to sell in local markets and shopkeeper: and artisans who could increase their sales to meet growing demand prospered. by 1780. and drawing lessons-and potions to induce abortions and cures for venereal disease. In France alone. however. she resists his advances. At the same time. sallow. wasting of the limbs.

Widespread use of flintlock muskets required deployment in Ion. often rule eir OlC. pre d e nant lover by simply moving away. Desperation. Rulers continued t· expand their armies. t ey ega d ction and betrayal: family and commumty change more bleakly. Austria. saw his chance to grab territory and immediately invaded the rich Austrian province of Silesia. and the partition of Poland-Lithuani: among Russia. "sod ' "( male homosexua s were . CtO~CmeretnS't:s . In Britain. di ' I f ms of popu ar ent er am . h D h R ublic were sys ema I in particular t e utc ep 'I t d the attention of authorities because or even executed. nearly tripled in size betwee: 1740 and 1789. en but it also aggravated the bili b ht freedom lor some worn . perhaps as REV) EW What were the major differences in the impact of the Enlightenment on nobles. France joined Prussia in an attempt to further humiliate its traditional enemy Austria. Male homosexu. prospects. In 1756. War and Diplomacy Europeans no longer fought devastating wars over religion that killed hundreds ( thousands of civilians. the Prussian army. French and British colonials in North America soon fought each other all along their boundaries. too. laxatives. for the aimed to promote Enlightenment reforms without giving up their absolutist power Catherine the Great's admiring relationship with Voltaire showed how even the mo absolutist rulers championed reform when it suited their own goals. bullb~ltlng. now a man could aban on a pr g c. d i iti from the countryside. The new king of Prussia. Some detec I' P omen moved out of the control " f d rn sexual revo ution: as w . his daughter Maria Theresa. h h se rules were Irs a ' thought. lines. vants . the optIOns at home. e~:t a~~:fded opportun'ities for organized gamall common forms of entertamment t p th er classes had their violent side. The stereotype they had begun to develop netw of the effeminate. and hostilities broke out in India. w 0 Iike soccer matches today. State Power in an Era of Reform Rulers turned to Enlightenment-inspired reforms to improve life for their subjec and gain commercial or military advantage over rival states.1). S II servants who would lose their or crude surgical means ~f abortion. a had ~s:r:: a child. bling. b b iti dogfighting and cockfighting were were cruel. the begmnmgs 0 a rno e kh' exual fulfillment Others view this . thus reasserting the integrity of the Austrian Empire. a major reversal of alliances reshaped relations among the great powers. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) broke out when Holy Romar Emperor Charles VI died in 1740 without a male heir. pebbles and hog's dung:~1 b to move to cities to better their As population incr~ased and VI t~~e~he e~:t:s of births out of wedlock soared. Many Britis enjoye w a with sticks. 1740-1780) survived only by conceding Silesia to Prussia in order to split the Prussians off from France.State Power In an Era of Reform 5 580 Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment I. resorted to infanticide. professional armies and navies battled for control c overseas empires and for dominance on the European continent. t masters or re ow ser had little recourse agams d db bi Most European cities established r ise in aban one ales. 0 t higher in sue lOSI U . reason. ho wanted to terminate a pregnancy. Austrian and French willingness to put aside their long-standing dynastic rivalry in favor of more immediate strategic I I . usually three men deep.ai~~~~~ ~estivals. with each line in turn loading and firing on comrnano Military strategy became cautious and calculating. The instability of the European balance of power resulted in tW( major wars. and Prussia. became Holy Roman Emperor. Britain tried but failed to isolate the French Caribbean colonies during the war. and the lower classes? roles for men and women. the part of a growing emphasiS on separate middle classes. but this did not prevent the out break of hostilities. tl~~:~i:S attern a sign of sexual liberation and meaning of this change. o:::~ . because Chariest Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 had given women the right to inherit the Habsburg crown lands. but ssure had once forced a man to marry a worn . were limited and usually handle~ I~ se~recy. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 recognized Maria Theresa as the heiress to the Austrian lands. but infant and child foundling hospitals to care for abandon h i tit tions than for children brought up . who had just succeeded hi! father a few months earlier in 1740. exclusively homosexual male seems to have appeared for the first time in the eighteenth century. Historians label many' the sovereigns of this time enlightened despots or enlightened absolutists. instead. Francis I. Increased mo iuty roug . enlisting native American auxiliaries. Maria Theresa (r. For women of this era w .~s a:t~~cse ecial meeting places. for example. c. xh ibi ' easants Whereas the new elite might attendlsalon s. as a story of se u an pregnant with his child. Cricket mate es. prompting Austria to overlook two centuries of hostility and ally with France. though on a accompanied by brawls amon~ ~ahns (~ot ~n Ih t one observer called a "battle royal much smaller scale). Most European rulers recog nized the emperor's chosen heiress. mortality was 5 percen. 'I' hb n to see t eir own s ' . sexual behavior ~h~~~~~hS i~ the seventeenth century to nearly 20 perfrom less than 5 percent 0 a I H' ' have disagreed about the causes and cent at the en~ of the eighteent 1. not vulnerability of those newly arrive 10 CIles to the city as domestic servants d t hei choi es WomenIIw h0 came who seduced or raped them.. Even "gentle" sports frequented by b e upp dtfferent as they sometimes I s had not ecome so II I showing that tne upper c asse f t I I'd down in 1744 were often . and her husband. mercy for so ormtes as t tically persecuted and imprisoned . orne women tried herbs. and Great Britain allied with Austria to prevent the French from taking the Austrian Netherlands (Map 15. jobs if their employers discovered thfer inst 'nfanticide. enjoyed their tra mona or b d t verns Sometimes pleasures I laxed in ca arets an a ' and the urban lower c asses ~e. a diplomatic reversal of alliances. Frederick II. of their fami ies. The result was ~ start 109 rise I ed children in the 1700s. but they showed no Reformers criticized the harshness 0 aws aglams I called) who in some places. Prussia and Great Britain signed a defensive alliance. Foremost amen those goals was the expansion of a ruler's territory.

. Russia.probably at the instigation of his wife Catherine the Great) I pea t r .NAPLFS GJU!Al1 BRlTAIN North s"a Napte1' IZZJ ATLANTIC OCEAN 260 2'11' - JO kilometers 4ljO~i1es ATLANTIC OCEAN The accession of a twenty._ POLANDLITHUANIA armyBt" . ' . Fighting soon raged around the world (Map 15.. When Frederick II invaded Saxony. an opportunity to invade the province of Silesia.:.J400 n interests prompted some to call this a "diplomatic revolution:' Russia and Sweden soon joined the Franco-Austrian alliance. an ally of Austria. In 1745.582 Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment State Power in an Era of Reform Nort/l Sea GREAT BRITAIN \. in 1757. Empress EI' izabeth of Russia (r.. Spain Mediterraflt. and British attacks on French overseas shipping forced the French to negotiate. At first. The two coalitions also fought each other in central Europe. Frederick the Great surprised Europe with a spectacular victory at Rossbach in Saxony over a much larger Franco-Austrian =- Prussia.. and India..~.. &yof ~_Bengal 0{ Ma p 15.1 The War of the Austrian Succession. Sweden..-_200l. Peter withdrew Russia from the war . :I~e. with his bigger and better-disciplined army.stria.h . Saxony. CD CI:J ~ Roml Prussia and allies Seized from Austria Main areas of fightins Boundary of the Holy Roman Empire INGDOM • OJ'.lu._. Frederick kept all his territory Including I esra. which soon became the wealthiest province of Prussia. Maria Theresa.three-year-old woman. (H e was soon mysteriously mur ere . France joined on Prussia's side. e ieve all IS lost.. Great Britain on Austria's.=.the French defeated the British in the Austrian Netherlands and helped instigate a Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Austria had to accept the peace settlement after a formal public protest. The rebellion failed.. a fanatical admirer of Frederick and mgs d . Portugal ' Battle o 200 400 kilomete . 1740-1748 o Allies: Great Britain [::J ABies: Au. the long-simmering hostilities between Great Britain and France over colonial boundaries flared into a general war that became known as the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). the West Indies. . Frederid P.. d russian. and was :~~cee~d b~ the mental~y unstable Peter Ill.. <'<£ "'"..~~ des ~ire~.2). The peace treaties guaranteed Frederick's conquest of Silesia. I will not survive the ruin of my country" A fl k of h istory saved hi Ut rrn.. • )\PAL TAT~~' "1: ". R' uS~Ian and ~ustrian armies encircled his troops. Sea f--. to the Austrian throne gave the new king of Prussia.. 1741-1762) died . Frederick II. France. The French and British battled on land and sea in North America (where the conflict was called the French and Indian War). n separate Sil c~ rea res Wit Russia and Austria. France came to terms with Great Britain to protect its overseas possessions.

but the militarization of Pruss ian society also had a profoundly conservative effect: it kept the peasants enserfed to their lords. British naval superiority. hi~~eJf on his.~!~s~::~~~::i:~~::~ed . all the belligerents faced pressing needs ore . ru~~r must be the foreman. was central to the work f . Russia took over most of Lithuania. Frederick Irs father. coordinated the canton system. . Although Prussia suffered great losses in the Seven Years' War-some 160. and the West Indies. In 1733.:o~e ec~~~e. and Russia.p~rso. ax Increases more th a a e 0 IC opmron. Joseph II. India. The army gave the state great power. Prussia's power grew so dramatically that in 1772 Frederick the Great proposed the division of large chunks of Polish-Lithuanian territory among Austria. to organize navies to w seas conflicts.money to und their growing armies.s~:.. and allowed them to return to their family farms the rest of the year. HIS institutIOn of a uniform civil iustice system created the most consistently administered laws and efficient judiciary of ~:~. and it blocked the middle classes from access to estates or high government positions. proper y constituted state must be exactly analogous to a. fusing army and agrarian organization.n the. (r. Prussia's military expenditures rose to two-thirds of the state's revenue. which sets tion~ gro~. not its own people. . Prussia had the third. fully achieved only in the 1750s. Once retired. Conflicts among Catholics. paying for his own support as an officer and buying a position as company commander. '772 In this contemporary depiction. gave them two or three months of training annually. where Russia had been successfully battling the Ottoman Empire. both of the judicial system and of the often disor anized d Irregular law codes. In this way. and served as local officials..or fourth-largest army in Europe even though it was tenth in population and thirteenth in land area. d~:::e. Frederick William I. in exchange for keeping its rich West Indian islands. g an Although Frederick II favored all things Frenchoin~:~~r:efo~~-m. effectively ending the large but weak Polish-Lithuanian The First Partition of Poland. The artist makes it clear that Poland's ~aterested in the hands of neighborof the artist from (Mansell/ lrnages. rulers appointed reform-minded ministers and gave em a man ate to modernize government Ad. Protestants. Catheof rine the Great.. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763. By 1740.~e.: ~:I~::kl~: nvy 0 urope.friendsh:. Almost every nobleman served in the army. enabled Great Britain to rout the French in North America.. the officers returned to their estates.Inded monar~hs.. '772 commonwealth. s one a viser to Joseph II of Austria a m hi d I. Under Frederick II. Despite the protests of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa that the partition would spread "a stain over my whole reign:' she agreed to split one-third of Poland-Lithuania's territory and half of its people among the three powers. Eagerness to avenge this defeat would motivate France to support the British North American colonists in their War of Independence just fifteen years later.000 Prussian soldiers died either in action or of disease-the army helped vault Prussia to the rank of leading powers. had instituted the "canton system:' which enrolled peasant youths in each canton (or district) in the army. .~. Prussia. Legal reform. They remained "cantonists" (reservists) as long as they were able-bodied. and to counter the impact of inflation 110 make tax i age overpal t bl t bli . the Pruss ian military steadily grew in size. the mainspring . and Orthodox Christians in Poland were used to justify this cynical move.~s~ In motlOn· S~ch reforms always threatened the interests of tradid unpredictabl. In this fashion. the military permeated every aspect of rural society. Can you Infer the sentiments the content Time Life Pictures/Getty of this engraving? State-Sponsored ~:r t: Reform aftermath of ~he Seven Years' War. France ceded Canada to Great Britain and agreed to remove its armies from India.nal.I I I I The Anglo-French overseas conflicts ended more decisively than the continental land wars.) ~ng rulers. and Frederick II point on the map to the portion Poland-Lithuania each plans to take. Dividing Poland. Austria feared growing Russian influence in Poland and in the Balkans.: of Enlightenment ideas aroused sometimes IU evera\. 1780-1790) put it "A I .

Adam Smith took up many of the physiocrats' ideas in his writing in favor of free markets. . and the early 1770s the Society of JXesIVus1769-1774) agreed under pressure to dis( S . and . build schools. The most contentious area of reform was agricultural policy. In 1781. Joseph abolished the tithe to the church. the pope encouraged forced baptism. which represented her hop B g. . Diderot's comment was all too typical: Jews.I~ut in 1814. Catherine II of Russia also tried to expand modernizatIOn depended on educadtlOn.. le of religious toleration as far as Joseph 11 of No ruler pushe t e pnncip E ror and co-regent with his mother. Under . I I 1767 she called together a legislative comundertaking even more ambitious y. d In 1774 once the Jesuits had . Maria . Joseph recognized the futility of many of his efforts. as his epitaph he suggested. w 0 ecam ne after 1780. t t supervise sermnanes. draining swamplands. d the Catholic intellectual elite. . reorganized diocesan boundaries. corporal punishment. . in 1765 and then ruled alo h d . In Russia. he said. The Jesu. innocent until proven guilty. Joseph II of Austria not on Y app . shifted more of the tax burden to the nobility.~:.~een dissolved in Portugal. ider a long document called the .enjoye . In his 111 I~e~tla . France still had about 100. one-quarter of the e dies for local schools. Great Britain continued to deny Catholics freedom of open worship and the right to sit in Parliament. d . Despite much that the accused should be presu~ed dd ents about local problems. P C therine II of Russia began such an . ty b. many g . the major . I 1773 Pope Clement r. any punishment should fit ~he. For the first time. I d res that torture s hou tered in ranona proce ures. bi h t swear fidelity an su mission 0 also required Austnan IS ops . Christians and Jews. a project the time. his brother Leopold II had to revoke most reforms to appease the nobles.-~--~~----------------------------------------------------~ -------__ d the com ilation of a unified law code. . encouraged such agricultural innovations as planting potatoes and turnips (new crops that could help feed a growing population). g the school code of 1763 required school-age children attended school: In pr. a that reqUire many ye . Ort 0 ox ' these groups were allowed to own property. Most European states limited the rights and opportunities available to Jews. the Austnan ~ a e t. . and clearing forests.d uru orm y. religious worship to Protestants. continued to expand their estates at the expense of poorer peasants. d eputies an es for Ie al reform based on the ideas of Illstruction. and in the Papal States. . sion because t e mo came of Cathennes cornrms . In the interest of establishing a free market. they often faced resistance from groups threatened by the proposed changes.·th: order: an edict th~t held u~til a ~:~. Whereas Frederick II and Catherine II reinforced the authority of nobles over their serfs. which the stat .StatePower inan Eraof Reform 58. In 1781.~:~s~~rt~de \e::i~. he abolished the personal aspects of serfdom: serfs could now move freely. Joseph II also ordere I."~'" _______ ~5~86~__ ~c~h~a~p~te~r~1~5~~Th:e~p~ro~m~ls~e~o:f~En~1i!gh~t~en:m~e~nt~ ----~~~~~~~~~--.0 d . .o~ d for everyone to read and adrninisBeccaria argued that laws shou e pnn e Id be abolished as inhumane. experimenting with cattle breeding. and Frederick did nothing to ameliorate serfdom except on his own domains. they also insisted that urban guilds be abolished because they prevented free entry into the trades..~ar: ulate.000 serfs. h .~rchurches to get their way.. campaigns a~:. reater state authority over educaEnlightened absolutists also tned to gam g 1 J h II launched the di d r to the lower c asses. Their proposed reforms applied the Enlightenment emphasis on individual liberties to the economy. "Here lies Joseph II. d asked t em to cons: mission of 564.h~~ sokcr~:1cl~rimes and Punishments (1764). the Junkers. and amassed great worldwide missionary network.. who was unfortunate in all his enterprises:' Prussia's Frederick II. France.re wanted more n~~. Joseph. serfdom did not entirely disappear until 1789. Montesquieu had insisted that hIt li writer Cesarelso eccana. h d ultimately unwilling to see through for Voltaire and his fellow philosop es-prove far-reaching legal reform. hn . and converted peasants' labor services into cash payments.~!e:u~. osep tion.. . . even while exten mg e uca IOn f h . ran a Catholic teac~i~g order. r. Louis XVI signed an edict in 1787 restoring French Protestants' civil rights-but still they could not hold political office. education and poor relief.!~o. the Ge~eral SchoO w~u.. he granted freedom 0 Theresa. A group of economists called the physiocrats urged the French government to deregulate the grain trade and make the tax system more equitable to encourage agricultural productivity. The French government heeded some of this advice and gave up its system of price controls on grain in 1763. db·· t him.s:~~~teen to attend school. rders and confiscated their property to pay for abolished contemplative monas IC 0 . Reforming ministers also tried to stimulate agricultural improvement in France.~. t the Jesuits in many countries. In Catholic Enlightenment cntlClsms of thff~ ~rlga t d the influence of the Jesuits. 01 over church affairs. The Austrian nobility furiously resisted these far-reaching reforms. and they used Rulers ever~~e. bore "all the defects peculiar to an ignorant and superstitious nation." Limits of Reform I I d When enlightened absolutist leaders introduced reforms. most ambitious e ucationa re I 0 di ce in Austria ordered state subsibeen disbanded. and by wealth. only wealthy Jews could hold municipal office. I forms 0 t e peno . Unlike most other western European countries. like Joseph. By 1789. hb e Holy Roman mpe f Austria.flve an d strated Frederick II's belief that if 1 the Prussian law emon not enforce. Although all children between the ages of . On his deathbed. The efforts of other rulers to extend religious toleration proved more limited. f omen in particular-and founded elementary education-and the e ucation 0 w engineering schoolS h .c~ime. enter trades. ed the use of torture and brutal Montesquieu an d tea Ian criti . though their burdens weighed less heavily than those in eastern Europe.lts t~a~~:seties to the papacy. Joseph II tried to remove the burdens of serfdom in the Habsburg lands. enter the professions and hold political and military offices. little d d f pennons an ocum discussion an d h un re sOh narch herself-despite her regard . but it had to reverse this decision in 1770 when grain shortages caused a famine. or marry without their lords' permission. overnment 0 !CIas resen e countries. Critics mounted. The leading philosophes opposed the persecution of Jews in theory but often treated them with undisguised contempt.d ars for comp etion. When Joseph died in 1790. . But Prussia's noble landlords.

failing to protect them against food shortages. Poor people living in the villages and towns believed it was the government's responsibility to ensure that they had enough food. The growth of informed public opinion had its most dramatic consequences in the North American colonies. Jacques Turgot (1727-1781). Women often led these "popular price fixings. where a struggle over the British Parliament's right to tax turned into a full-scale war for independence. and even Joseph II used reform to bolster the efficiency of absolutist government. and he chose one of their disciples. Seventeenth-century peasants and townspeople had rioted to protest new taxes. Louis XVI (r. He rallied around him Cossacks like himself who resented the loss of their old I I Rebellions against State Power Although traditional forms of popular discontent had not disappeared. resented both for his high-handed reforms and for his private vices. suppressed many guilds. and reduced court expenses. Where Frederick II. Governments had become accountable for their actions to a much wider public sphere than ever before. Free trade in grain meant selling to the highest bidder even if that bidder was a foreign merchant. the other great power that faced persistent aristocratic resistance to reform. Underground pamphlets lampooned him. governments wanted to allow grain prices to rise with market demand. Catherine II. In the last half of the eighteenth century. and many governments did stockpile grain to make up for the occasional bad harvest. He also began making plans to introduce a system of elected local assemblies. the food supply became the focus of political and social conflict.French reform efforts did not end there. The nobles in the parlements blocked the French monarchy's reform efforts using the very same Enlightenment language spoken by the crown's ministers. in keeping with Adam Smith's and the French physiocrats' free-market proposals. inflation. where villagers attacked grain convoys heading to the capital city. Rioting spread from there to the Paris region. Such food riots occurred regularly in Britain and France in the second half of the eighteenth century. which would have made government much more representative. Local officials often ordered merchants and bakers to sell at the price the rioters demanded. One of the most turbulent was the so-called Flour War in France in 1775. attempts at change in France REVIEW What prompted enlightened backfired. who could not afford the higher prices. converted the peasants' forced labor on roads into a money tax payable by all landowners. The failure of reform in France paradoxically reflected the power of Enlightenment ideas. Louis XV appointed a reform-minded chancellor who in 1770 replaced the parlements with courts in which the judges no longer owned their offices and thus could not sell them or pass them on as an inheritance. The furor calmed down only when Louis XV died in 1774 and his successor. but rather forced the sale of grain or flour at a "just" price and blocked the shipment of grain out of their villages to other markets. the judges of the displaced parlements aroused widespread opposition to what they portrayed as tyrannical royal policy. ordinary people rioted when they perceived government as . French kings found that their absolutists to undertake reforms in the second ambitious programs for reform succeeded half of the eighteenth century? only in arousing unrealistic hopes. To break the power of the parlements (the thirteen high courts of law that had led the way in opposing royal efforts to increase and equalize taxation). Nevertheless. describing his final mistress. yielded to aristocratic demands and restored the old parlements. The American War of Independence showed that once put into practice. The government brought in troops to restore order and introduced the death penalty for rioting. as a prostitute who pandered to the elderly kings well-known taste for young girls. as his chief minister. Food Riots and Peasant Uprisings Population growth. Frustrations with serfdom and hopes for a miraculous transformation provoked the Pugachev rebellion in Russia beginning in 1773. Pugachev's appearance seemed to confirm peasant hopes for a "redeemer tsar" who would save the people from oppression. in desperate attempts to protect the food supply for their children. But unlike Austria. Most did not pillage or steal grain. Turgot pushed through several edicts that again freed the grain trade. everyone now endorsed Enlightenment ideals but used them for different ends. and one of the last possibilities to overhaul France's monarchy collapsed." as they were called in France. they could enforce their desire for old-fashioned price regulation only by rioting. Louis XV died one of the most despised kings in French history. Enlightenment ideals could have revolutionary implications. in times of scarcity. This practice enraged poor farmers. Faced with broad-based resistance led by the parlements and his own courtiers. Louis XVI dismissed Turgot. Enlightenment ideals and reforms changed the rules of the game in politics. 1774-1792). In Britain and France. a failure that ultimately helped undermine the monarchy itself. In the short run. because higher profits would motivate producers to increase the supply of food. Justice would then be more impartial. Louis XVI tried to carry out part of the program suggested by the physiocrats. agricultural workers. the dead husband of Catherine II. Turgot's deregulation of the grain trade in 1774 caused prices to rise in several provincial cities. as well as with riots against rising grain prices. and the extension of the market system put added pressure on the already beleaguered poorest classes of people. big landowners and farmers could make huge profits by selling grain outside their hometowns or villages. and city wageworkers. Lacking the political means to affect policy. At the same time. France had a large middle-class public that was increasingly frustrated by the failure to institute social change. Emelian Pugachev (1742-1775) claimed to be Tsar Peter III. This often pornographic literature linked despotism to the supposedly excessive influence of women at court. only to find themselves arrested by the central government for overriding free trade. An army deserter from the southeast frontier region. Madame du Barry.

the army captured the rebel leader and brought him in an iron cage to Moscow.fed or forced to pay taxes and endure army serVice. despite the strict limits on political participation in most countries Monarchs turned to public opinion to seek support against aristocratic group: that opposed reform. including more frequent elections. Ukrainians who set up nomadic communities of horsemen to resist outside control. Gustavus proclaimed e new constitution that divided power between the king and the legislature. they gained the backing of about one-fourth of all the voters. or Russians. these nomadic bands joined with oth~r s. In one incident. The Wilkes affair in Great Britain showed that public opinion could be mobilized to challenge a government.e~fs. In the aftermath. making thi~ the la~gest single rebellion in the history of tsanst RUSSia.. was published by women and mixed short stories and reviews of books and plays with demands for more women's rights. The Wilkes episode soon escalated into a major campaign against the corruption and social exclusiveness of Parliament. see the visual activity for this chapter in the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins. North Briton. This eighteenth-century engraving captures the common view of Cossacks as horsemen always ready for battle but with a fondness for music. pamphlets.Rebellions against State Power Chapter '5 The Promise of Enlightenment 5~ Sea Black Sea c"Z~aJl _ . 1771-1792) called himself "the firs' citizen of a free people" and promised to deliver the country from "insufferable aristocratic despotism:' Shortly after coming to the throne. Parliament denied him his seat. Catherine tight~n. Aristocratic bodies such as the French parlernents. The slogan "Wilkes and Liberty" appeared on walls all over London. A cossack Emelian pugachev and many of his followers were Cossacks. legislative role like that of the British Parliament. One of the new Frenchlanguage newspapers printed inside France. For more help analyzing this image. (10The Bridgeman Art Library. which circulated petitions for Wilkes. Newspapers. handbills. and Muslim mmontles. not once but three times. complaints the Levellers had first raised during the English revolutions of the late 1640s. and ensured some freedom of the press.e~ the n~bles control over their serfs and harshly punished those who dared to cnncize ser om. Le Journal des Dames (The Ladies' Journal). French-language newspapers published in the Dutch Republic provided many people in France with detailed accounts of political news and also gave voice to pro-parlement positions. and sued the crown when he was arrested. both the parIements and the monarch appealed to the public through the printed word.com/huntconcise. eleven people died when soldiers broke up a huge gathering of his supporters. insisted that the monarch consul them on the nation's affairs. Nearly three mllhon people e. Gustavus III of Sweden (r. abolished the use of torture in the judicial process. and the new educated elite wanted more influence.ventually participated. but the rise ( public opinion as a force independent of court society caused more enduring change in European politics. hundreds of noble families perished. and the fighting spread. .here he Public Opinion and Political Opposition Peasant uprisings might briefly shake even a powerful monarchy. Foreign newspapers called it "the revolution in southern Russia" and offered ~antastic stories about Pugachev's life history. a member of Parliament. magazines. attacked the government in his newspaper. When he was reelected.) I I . Middle-class voters formed the Society of Supporters of the Bill of Rights. In 1763. which had n. The pugachev Rebelllon. during the reign of George III (r. When Pugachev urged the peasants to attack the nobility and seize their estates. whether from the Turks. and cheap editions of Wilkes's collected works all helped promote his cause. Catherine dispatched a large army to squelch the uprising. the elimination of "rotten boroughs" (election districts so small that they could be controlled by one big was tortured and executed. In France. He won his release as well as damages. Across much of Europe and in the North American colonie: demands for broader political participation reflected Enlightenment notions abot individual rights. rebellious mineworkers. Now increasingly enser. Finally. Those who could not vote demonstrated for Wilkes. John Wilkes. and the public learned the basic of political life. Poles. toe Newspapers began to cover daily political affairs. The more determined Wilkesites proposed sweeping reforms of Parliament. The crown hired writers to make its case. 1760-1820). more representation for the counties. the magistrates of the parlements wrote their own rejoinders. too.1773 tribal independence. but Pugachev e1u~e~ them.

the Declaration of Independence was couch in the language of universal human rights. is a clever servant who gets the better of his noble employer.8. they denied that Parliament had any jurisdiction c the col~nies. f (I patron).Spain. he cries. George III denounced the American "traitors and rebel Bu~. as a triumph for Enlightenment ideas. particularly in countries where governments restricted organized political activity. the play caused a sensation. The demonstrations culminated in a seven-day riot that left fifty buildings destroyed and three hundred people dead. The failure of the "Wilkes and Libel campaign to produce concrete results convinced many Americans that Parliam was hopelessly tainted and that they would have to stand up for their rights British subjects. Mor~ slaves were imported during that quarter-century than at any ot time m Amencan history. and unsuccessfully P€ tione~ the crown for. In 1780. in 1776. France boosted the American cause by entering on t colon. but British troops in the colonies soon found themsel fighting locally organized militias. too. they participated in the Enlightenment and shared political ideas with the opposition Whigs in Britain. though Without actually endorsing American independence out of fe I I . With the British clamoring for lower taxes and the cc nists paying only a fraction of the tax rate levied on the Britons at home. including the Stamp Act in 1765. Ir Revolution in North America . a delegate from Virginia. The British government tried clamp down on the unrest. British r. In 1774. which required a special s~amp on all legal documents and publications. an American victory would give "greater scope to the Enlightenment. and the South Carolina legislature donated a substantial sum to the Society of Supporters of the Bill of Rights. After violent rioting in the co mes. The British colonies remained loyal to the crown until Parliament's encroa ment on their autonomy. when Queen Marie-Antoinette had it read for her friends. and as such it was another aspect of the power rivalries existing at that time. Unconsciously perhaps. and restrictions of pensions used by the crown to gain support. read it. threatened to use force to maintain control. a gunrunner in the American War of Independence. new keenness to the thinking of peoples and new life to the spirit of liberty" The American revolutionary leaders had been influenced by a common Atlantic civilization. or the American Revolution (1775-1783). the congress proclaimed the Declaration of Independen An eloquent statement of the American cause written principally by Thorr !efferson. Oppositional forms of public opinion came to a head in Great Britain's North American colonies. These demands would be at the heart of agitation for parliamentary reform in Britain for decades to come. Political opposition also took artistic forms. recognize their traditional British liberties.sSide m 177. Yet many Europeans saw the American War of Independence. Supporters demonstrated for Wilkes in South Carolina and Boston.592 Chapter '5 The Promise of Enlightenment Rebellions against State Power . cals wanted to reform Parliament so the voices of a broader. convened. Figaro. both British and American opposition leaders became convinced that British government was growing increasingly corrupt and despotic. Parliam passed new taxes. Their economies generally flourisl in the eighteenth century. and the colonists claimed that "no taxation without representati should be allowed. But when her husband.. more representa ~egme~t of the population would be heard. but in 1773 a new Tea Act revived colonial resistan which culminated in the so-called Boston Tea Party of 1773. the First Continental Congr. Indeed. British politicians were learning that they could ignore public opinion only at their peril. colonies had begun to form a separate nation. "What have you done to deserve so many rewards? You went to the trouble of being born. a watchmaker. The colonies had no representat m Parliament. and nothing more:' Two years later. he forbade its production on the grounds that "this man mocks at everything that should be respected in government:' When finally performed publicly. where the result was American independence and the establishment of a republican constitution that stood in stark contrast to most European regimes. They were named after the fanatical anti-Catholic crusader Lord George Gordon. When speaking of the count. Political opposition in the American colonies turned belligerent when Brit. Colonists dressed Indians boarded British ships and dumped the imported tea (by this time an en mously popular beverage) into Boston's harbor. The next year the Second Continental Congn organized a~ army With George Washington in command. Mozart based an equally famous but somewhat tamer opera on Beaumarchaiss story. The chief character. Popular demonstrations did not always support reforms. who helped organize huge marches and petition campaigns against a bill the House of Commons passed to grant limited toleration to Catholics. ~nsisting that the king govern them through colonial legislatures. As one German writer exclaimed in 1777." Two years af the D~cl~r~tio~ was issued. and a French spy in Britain. the tax was repealed. saw an opportunity to check the growing po"" of Britain. A striking example of a play with a political message was The Marriage of Figaro (1784) by Pterre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (1732-1799). After actual fighti had begun.European newspapers enthusiastically reported on every American respor to the cruel acts of oppression they have been made to suffer. The successful revolution was the only blow to Britain's increasing dominance in world affairs in the eighteenth century. and the elimination of the French threat at the end the S~ven Years' War transformed colonial attitudes. Louis XVI. a judge. In the 1760s and 1770s. which enlightened Europeans could expected to understand.1st. redress. composed of delegates from all the colonies. the Gordon riots devastated London. The Marriage of Figaro was first a hit at court. and between 1750 and 1776 their population aim ~oub~ed. Despite the continuing limitation on voting rights in Great Britain.

It established a two-house legislature. Spain declared war on Britain in 1779. But the new government represented a radical departure from European models. by the priorities rulers gave to waging wars. white citizens. the entire new factor in politics in the second half of the European system of royal rule would be eighteenth century? challenged.1780 AlthoughGreat Britain lost control over its North Americancolonies. The U. an indirectly elected president. The newly independent states still faced the challenge of republican selfgovernment. proved weak because they gave the central government few powers. for the first time in history. The American colonies achieved their independence in the peace treaty of 1783. In 1787. South America. scientific inquiry into the causes of social misery and laws defending individual rights and freedoms gained adherents everywhere. The Articles of Confederation. The slavetrade linked European ports to Africanslave-trading outposts and to plantations in the Caribbean. and entertained them at their courts. Conclusion What began as a cosmopolitan movement of a few intellectuals in the first hall of the eighteenth century reached a relatively wide audience among the educated elite of men and women. Even more important in the long run were the effects of the American war. Although slavery continued in the American republic. Dutch losses to Great Britain aroused a widespread movement for political reform in the Dutch Republic.00 2. property-owning. which became the new United States. often unchecked. that government derived its power solely from the people and did not depend on divine right or on the tradition of royalty or aristocracy. the new emphasis on rights helped fuel a movement for its abolition in both Britain and the United States.and North America. Interest in the new republic was greatest in France. he said he hoped it would be "the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves. The spirit of reform swept from the salons and coffeehouses into the halls of government. Constitution and various state constitutions were published in French with commentary by leading thinkers. was appended to the Constitution.I of the response of its Latin American colonies.0. a constitutional convention met in Philadelphia to draft a new constitution. the Bill of Rights. Reasoned. outlining the essential rights (such as freedom of speech) that the government could never overturn.594 Chapter 15 ThePromiseof Enlightenment Conclusion i .doo 2. In 1791. Ultimately.qDO miles l. Rulers such as Catherine the Great had every intention of retaining their full. still presented Europewith a formidable militarychallenge. even as they corresponded with leading philosophes. announced support for their causes. or by popular resistance to I r The American Revolution was the most profound practical result of the general European movement known as the Enlightenment.China. Enlightenment remained a promise rather than a reality. For most Europeans.with its massive territories. Moreover. The new educated elite of the eighteenth century had now created a government based on a "social contract" among male.tioo kilometers ATLANTIC OCEAN WESTINDIES / CJ E:J c:::J British possessions French possessions Spanish possessions Mapping the West Europe and the World. European influenceon the rest of the worldgrew dramatically in the eighteenth century. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in retaliation for Dutch support of the rebels. The worldwide conflict that resulted was more than Britain could handle. When Thomas Jefferson looked back many years later on the Declaration of Independence. would-be reformers often found themselves thwarted by the resistance of nobles. The following year. Yetalmost ali of Africa. and debts incurred by France in supporting the American colonies would soon force the French monarchy to the edge of bankruptcy and REVIEW Whydid publicopinion become a then to revolution. and women and slaves were excluded from political participation. It was by no means a complete democracy. The Constitution's preamble insisted explicitly. C." . powers. 1. however.and the Ottoman Empire.The Europeancountries on the Atlantic Ocean benefited most from this trade.S.and Japan and large parts of India stili resisted Europeanincursion. and an independent judiciary. drawn up in 1777 as a provisional constitution.

Gordon (anti-Catholic) riots In London • '78. and the revolution in America CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS all occurred at about the same time. Just how much it had changed. Robert J. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. Ronald Schechter. The End of the Old Regime in Europe. Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Europe. 1975.mozartproject.596 Chapter 15 The Promise of Enlightenment Conclusion deregulation of trade that stripped away protection against the unc~rtainties of the market. Gotthold Ephraim. Beales. Candide. Voltaire Foundation: http://www. 1969. 2001. but the Kors volumes offer the most up-to-date views on the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation.voltaire. Suggested References The interpretive study by Gay remains useful. Jack N. Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity. Ed.asp?historyid=aa66 Thompson. and 1. 4 vols. Kors. India. The Critique of Pure Reason. P.ox. 1768-1776: The First Crisis. Whywould rulers feel ambivalent about the Enlightenment. ed. the influence of new ideas spread far and wide. Declaring Rights: A Brief History with Documents. Derek. Daniel Gordon. Nathan the Wise. LeipZig opens first public orchestra hall • '773 Pugachev rebellion of Russian peasants . John Wilkes: The Scandalous Father of Civil Liberty. Constitution '751-'772 Encyclopedia published in France Declaration of Independence from Great Britain. •Allison. Mozart Project: http://www. 2004. McMahon. Hull. Alan Charles. "Voltaire. Isabel V. would become more evident in the influenceof the Enlightenment? next decades. while clampingdown on politicaldissent peans that the world was in fact changon the other? ing. Catherine the Great: http://russia. and 2. Adam Smith. Whichmajor developments in the second half whether the change was for better or for of the eighteenth century ran counter to the worse. Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act. Yet even the failure of reform contributed to the ferme~t 111 ~~rope a~ter 1770. Lessing.ac.. Arthur H. 1998. 1700-1815. see the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins. 1999.supporting reform on the one their conjunction convinced many Eurohand.nypl. 2006. For primary-source material from this period. Cash.historyworld. Immanuel Kant. R.html Gay. 2006. 1996. the struggle over reform in France. State. As the autobiography of Equiano (Allison) shows. and the American colonies • '770 Louis XV of France falls to break the power of the French law courts • '172 First partition of Poland I • '780 Joseph /I of Austria assumes sole power and undertakes wide· reaching reform.com/huntconcise. 2 vols.orglleveI4. see Chapter 18 of Sources of THE MAKING OF THE WEST. Trans.Third Edition. Venturi. Sexuality. Peter. 2005. ed.uk I I For practice quizzes and other study tools. the "Wilkes and Liberty campaign in Great Britain. and Civil Society in Germany. Franco. Darrin M.netlwrldhis/PlainTextHistories. TIMELINE • '787 Delegates fro the states draft a ne' U.org "Rakove. 2003. Peasant rebellions in eastern Europe. The Wealth of Nations • '775 Flour War in France • '776 American • '785 Catherine the Great's Charter of the Nobility grants nobles exclusive control over their serfs In exchange for subservience to the state I '740-'748 War of the Austrian Succession: France and Prussia versus Austria and Great Britain '756-'763 Seven Years' War fought in Europe. and trans. Burr Litchfield. 1966. 1989.S. Ed. E. Seven Years' War: http://www. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment.

The women's march shows. and Fraternity" for all. respond to their grievances. A draThousands of prints broadcast the matic procession guarded by thousands of ordievents of the French Revolution to the nary men and women made its slow way back to public in France and elsewhere.) The French Revolution first grabbed the attention of the entire world because it seemed to promise universal human rights. NY. and if such a powerful and of armed women frightened many observers and demonstrated that the long-lasting institution could come under fire. The revolutionaries did not stop with the establishment of constitutional monarchy. they broke into the royal family's private apartments the next morning.I 5. and gave the vote to almost all adult men. it pledged "Liberty. to confront the king. however: they abolished nobility. a crowd of several thousand women marched in a drenching rain twelve miles from the center of Paris to Versailles.1 . The French mon1789. In the words of its most famous slogan. When the revolutionaries encountered resistance to their programs. The people's proud display of cannons by the artists to anonymous simple and pikes underlined the fundamental transforwoodblock prints. Revolution was not only a men's affair. This colored etching mation that was occurring. constitutional government. could any monarch of Europe rest easy? (The Granger Coilection. and broad-based political participation. To prevent further bloodshed-two of the royal bodyguards had already been killed and their heads paraded on pikes-the king agreed to move his Women's March to Versailles family and his government back to Paris. The sight archy was in danger. They demanded the king's help in securing more grain for the hungry and his reassurance that he did not intend to resist the emerging revolutionary movement. Equality. 1789.a crowd of armed women to Versailles had forced the king of France to marching to Versailles on October 5. Joined by thousands of men who came from Paris to reinforce them. executed the king and queen. established a republic for the first time in French history. They varied from fine art engravings signed the city. the Revolution inaugurated a new cycle of violence and intimidation. At the same time. they set up a government of terror to compel N OCTOBER O 599 .

at the last meeting of the Estates General. With the growing support of public opinion. Success came at a high price. The deputies of the Second Estate represented the nobility. 1774-1792) tried every available avenue to raise funds. he submitted proposals for reform to the Assembly of Notables. Louis XVI (r. In 1787. the French government lived off relatively short-term. 1787-1789 On the surface the French monarchy in the late 1780s seemed as strong as ever. The army's success ultimately undermined the republic and made possible the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. About half of the French national budget went to paying interest on the debt that had accumulated over the years of involvement in the American War of Independence.000 men and women who owned about 25 percent of the land and collected seigneurial dues and rents from their peasant tenants. French victories spread revolutionary ideas far and wide. at least 95 percent of the nation. resistance to the French armies and the ever-mounting costs of military glory toppled him. a remarkable young general from the Frenchcontrolled island of Corsica. governments that try to control every aspect of life. which owned about 10 percent of the land and collected its own taxes (the tithe) on peasants. Who would determine the fate of the nation? There were three estates. In this excited political climate. The Revolution of Rights and Reason France was not the only country experiencing upheaval. In the winter and . more conquests. the judges (members of the nobility because of the offices they held) became popular heroes for resisting the king's "tyranny". and a form of military dictatorship. about 400. but not before he had established himself as an almost mythic figure. while limiting all forms of political dissent. and Catherine the Great engineered the failure of the new Polish constitution of 1791. including Swiss banks. In contrast to Great Britain. The Revolution might have remained a strictly French affair if war had not involved the rest of Europe. government annuities. marched across Europe. the parlement of Paris.000 clergy of the Catholic church. the French had regained international prestige by supporting the victorious Americans. Overnight.6 The French Revolution and Napoleon The Revolution of Rights and Reason 601 obedience. and most populous state in western Europe. or orders. and advances from tax collectors. including daily activities. but its revolution lasted longer. the Austrian emperor Leopold II reinstated Austrian authority in Belgium. but he left it to the Estates General to decide whether the estates would continue to vote separately by order rather than by individual head. After suffering humiliation at the hands of the British in the Seven Years' War (17561763). Voting by order would conserve the traditional powers of the clergy and nobility. When this group refused to cooperate. Napoleon Bonaparte was the most Revolution? astonishing of them. which had a national bank to help raise loans for the government. the newly independent United States of America prepared a new federal constitution. Emperor Napoleon I ruled over an empire greater than any Europe had seen since Roman times. and officials. the state's censorship apparatus broke down. Faced with budget shortfalls and growing criticism of Queen Marie-Antoinette's personal spending. wanted reform only on their own terms. Louis finally gave in to demands that he call a meeting of the Estates General. Historians have sometimes referred to these revolts as the "Atlantic revolutions" because so many protest movements arose in countries on both sides of the North Atlantic in the late 1700s. The calling of the Estates General electrified public opinion. Before the elections to the Estates General in 1789. the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium and Luxembourg). In 1614. Pamphleteers by the hundreds denounced the traditional privileges of the nobility and clergy and called for voting by head rather than by order. and Polish revolts: the Prussians invaded the Dutch Republic and restored the stadholder. It shaped European politics for generations afterward. The CHAPTER FOCUS QUESTION Did Napoleon French Revolution produced many surrepresent the continuation or end of the French prises. Belgian.600 Chapter . like the notables. the bond and annuity holders from the middle and upper classes now demanded a clearer system of fiscal accountability. Not only was France the richest. and Poland. revolts in the name of liberty also broke out in the Dutch Republic. For years the French government had been trying unsuccessfully to modernize the tax system to make it more equitable. the king presented his plan for a more uniform land tax to his old rival. The deputies of the Third Estate represented everyone else. At the same time. to Poland and Egypt. fueled by patriotic nationalism. Eventually. however. the judges. the king agreed to double the number of deputies for the Third Estate (making them equal in number to the other two combined). each order had voted separately. but in the end they delivered old-fashioned conquest and annexation benefiting France. and either the clergy or the nobility could therefore veto any decision of the Third Estate. where the first successful slave revolt established the republic of Haiti. in reality. The deputies in the First Estate represented some 100. and caused more violence. clergymen. which had last met 175 years before. Some historians therefore see in the French Revolution the origins of modern totalitarianism-that is. Between 1787 and 1789. high-interest loans from private sources. in the Estates General. voting by head would give the Third Estate an advantage because many clergymen and even some nobles sympathized with the Third Estate. By 1812. a group of handpicked nobles. These campaigns promised Euro~eans liberation from traditional monarchies. most powerful. Private contractors collected many taxes and pocketed a large share of the proceeds. from the colonies in the Caribbean. Internal divisions and external interference doomed the Dutch. Nevertheless. The peasants bore the greatest burden of taxes and resented the exemptions enjoyed by the nobles and clergy. he ordered the parlement judges into exile in the provinces. however. After 1792. brought about more startling changes. who brought France more wars. Origins of the French Revolution. When it too refused. huge French republican armies.

activity for this chapter in the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins. Hundreds of thousands of textile workers were out 0 work and hungry. The angry crewe shot and stabbed the governor of the prison and flaunted his head on a pike. the clergy voted by a narrow margin to join them. A deputy in Versailles reporter home: "Today all of the evils overwhelm France. When some twelve hundred deputies journeyed to the king's palace ofVersaille for the opening of the Estates General in May 1789. Although most noble insisted on voting by order. new National Assembly feared a plot by the king and high-ranking nobles to arres them and disperse the Assembly. When the news spread. A serious slump in textile production had been causing massiv unemployment since 1786. and famine:' On July 14. one high-ranking official regarded as sympathetic to the deputies' cause. but he alsi ordered thousands of soldiers to march to Paris. rison). NY. on June 17. The deputies who supported th. who feared that the beggar: and vagrants crowding the roads might be part of an aristocratic plot to starve the people by burning crops or barns. constitutIOnal recogmtlo~ of rights revision of the law codes. th.s: The grievance lists demanded fairer distribution of taxes. see t~e visual.:If. These new hopes soared just at the moment France experienced a dan?erous food shortage. The common people showed themselves will ing to intervene violently at a crucial political moment. 1789. his finance minister and th. After six weeks of stalemate.~axes. As one villager lamented." one deputy wrote home. After a chaotic battle in whicl one hundred armed citizens died.) I' spring of 1789. (Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource. Tw./: I'f' The Third Estate Awakens . In some places. The king': . shows a clergyman (First Estate) and a nobleman (Second Estate) alarr:ned by the awakenmg of the commoner (Third Estate). The furious reaction in Paris to Necker's dismissal and the threat of militar: force changed the course of the French Revolution. This "tennis court oath" expressed the determination 0 the Third Estate to carry through a constitutional revolution. especially about .com/huntconclse. The fall of the Bastille (an event now commemorated as a French nationa holiday) set an important precedent. the deputies of the Third Estate refused to proceed 01 that basis. and we are between despotism carnage. in which each deputy would vote as an individual. Local governments were forced out of power and replacer by committees of "patriots" loyal to the revolutionary cause. Bad weather damaged the harvest of 1788. "Everyone is convinced that the approach of th. the prison officials surrendered. and a variety of other reforms. The Third Estate breaks the chains of oppression and arms Itself to battle for its rights.f{}XI. food riot: turned into local revolts. "The last crust of bread has be~n t~ken from u. the deputies met on a nearby tennis court and swore ai oath not to disband until they had given France a constitution that reflected thei newly declared authority.d h This print produced after the fall of the Bastille (notice the two heads raised on pikes outsi e t e. The patriots reliec on newly formed National Guard units composed of civilians. Barred from thei meeting hall on June 20. . Their fears were con firmed when on July 11 the king fired Jacques Necker. One of their firs duties was to calm the peasants in the countryside. adding another volatile element to an already tense situation. causing bread pnces to rise in many places in the spring and summer of 1789 and threatening starvation fo the poorest people. At first Louis appeared to agree to the new representative assembly. an armed crowd marched on the Bastille the fortified prison that symbolized royal authority. troops covers some violent design. the deputies of the Thin Estate took unilateral action and declared themselves and whoever would join then the National Assembly. The meetings and the compiling of grievances raised expectations that the Estates General would help the king to solve all the nation's ills. In what ways does this print draw attention to the social conflicts that la~ behmd the political struggles in the Estates General? For more help analyzing this image. common people in Paris began to arm themselves and attack places where eithe grain or arms were thought to be stored (Map 16. Although educated men dominated the meetings at the regional level. All over France. thousands of men (and a few women by pr0:'Y) hel~ meetings to elect deputies and write down their grievances. The effect was Immediate. many readers avidly follower the developments in newspapers that sprouted up overnight. 1789. days later. J)l! Tlf:llS E. the Great Fear (the term usee by historians to describe this rural panic) turned into peasant attacks on aristocrat: or on seigneurial records of peasants' dues kept in the lord's chateau.1). the h~mblest peasants also voted in their villages and burst forth with complaints.

000feet Fall of the Bastille Map 16 1 Revolutionary Paris. During the ~::~~~~~~~. From Monarchy to Republic Until July 1789. 1789. and de Launay was to be the sacrificial victim. shot. NY. Royal authority had been successfully challenged and even humiliated. the French Revolution followed a course much li~e that ~~ the test movements in the Low Countries.:dc~:::here the ~pper classes lived. as the Great Fear sparked peasant attacks on their lords' castles and records. Its man d er 0 f th e ne W . The Bastille prison is shown here in all its imposing grandeur. and its first enemies. Because so many of the besieging citizens had been killed (only one of the defenders died). In Paris.00 sbo --'r-~J 5. Before drafting a new constitution. he was stabbed.arge of ~ax cOI~ectlo~~a:~ . The peasants had achieved their goals. aristocrats fled into exile. first victims. the Marquis de Lafayette. 1789 if d . Unlike the Dutch and Belgian upnsl~gs. dozens of deputies had come to the podium to relinquish the tax exemptions of their own professional groups. The head was displayed as a trophy on a pike held high above the crowd. noble deputies announced their willingness to give up their tax exemptions and seigneurial dues. '789. In response to peasant unrest.~:. pr~shon was located in a wOrking-~lass neighbo. 2. on the night of August 4. or provinces. the deputies insisted on financial compensation for some of these dues. As the hastily formed citizens' guard marched him off to city hall.::~:~~~n~Ot~~~a~~:.Chapter 16 The French Revolution and Napoleon The Revolution of Rights and Reason 605 o o 1-1----. new tensions culminated in a second revolution on August 10.~~~~~~~~es ~:~~~: ~~~:t~~\~et~~y~~~f. ine 1792. my When war ro e ou t th king attempted to raise a counterrevo Iutionary ar . popular anger ran high. When he lashed out at one of the men nearest him. towns. The moment depicted is that of the surrender of the fortress's governor. (The Granger Collection. This effort falbe kW en P .5. but most peasants refused to pay).. Bernard Rene de Launay. now called the Place de la Concorde. including all seigneurial dues on the land (a few days later. amid wild enthusiasm. The National Assembly decreed the abolition of what it called "the feudal regime" -that is.---'-.t:~r~ne~s ~eneral Bastille. o~~~~ :~anc:ld: la Revolution. :he huge forti :. the French Revolution did not come to a quick end. that deposed the king and established a republic in which all power rested in an elected legislature. 1792. it freed the few remaining serfs and eliminated all special privileges in matters of taxation. ~::ever. huge crowds taunted and spat at him.) le One of Louis XVI's brothers and many other leading governmen t b egan·to crumb fh A . The Fren~h Revolution began with the fall of the Bastille on July '4. the deputies of the National Assembly had to confront growing violence in the countryside. The French ~evolutlOnaries first tried to establish a constitutional monarchy based ?n the Enh~~~nm~nt rinciples of human rights and rational government. a hero 0 b e men can War of Independence and a noble deputy in the National Asse~bly. ecarne co~National Guard The Revolution thus had Its first heroes. The Assembly also mandated equality of opportunity . and then beheaded. By the end of the night. crowds had torn own many o. n the wea ons stored in the Hotel des (the private companr in ch.

. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy passed in July 1790 set pay scales for the clergy and provided that the voters elect their own parish priests and bishops just as they . for t~e Immediate elecuncertain if war had not intervene/ b b us of the king might have remained war with Austria. On April 20 1792 L . In June 1792. it proclaimed. A one-house legislature was responsible for making laws. dh s peasants ut cut the grounc . Instead it wo Id '. w ereas the de ti . including both the king's brothers ' rances eastern borde . no offices could be bought and sold. The National Assembl ' to.. Talent. arre. such as the march to Versailles in October 1789 described at the beginning of this chapter. Three weeks later. as IC I e encouraged idleness anc vows and encouraged monks dn. Motivated partly by the ongoing financial crisis. Impounded church paper money. I an e to the eastern border (r. ng e pu. War had an imrnedi . Some women did not accept their exclusion. By pronouncing all "men" free and equal. t lif Faced with resistance to these ch h pnva e I e on state pensions. The revolutionary government o re se to take the th f .I I di o the army officer corps had I dv erni ISocra s. On June 20 1791 h . and executing others as traitors Riot dd oa . h entered on the Austrian side Th df n ustna. published tracts. In words reminiscent of the American Declaration of Independence. ' r in expectation of joining Leopolds count~rrevolutionary army. The deputies also abolished the old taxes and replaced them with new ones that were supposed to be uniformly levied. e eputies also outlawed any future monastic an nuns to return to . die mgs treac ery and lead to .e m erruptions for the next When the French armies proved w f . in which the king served simply as the leading state functionary. The oath of aile i ion. rat ors. "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights:' The Declaration granted freedom of religion. the authority of un er Ire. rather than birth. When the deputies turned to reforming the Catholic church. 0 ICC urc . The nobles not only lost their tax exemptions.thiS ~ncide~t as a kidnapping. Enlightenment principles were beginning to become law. equality of taxation. u continue despite bri f i t . artoons depi f h as animals being returned "to th e st abl" Circulated amo ICmg bli e royal family t e. t e Nation~ ~ssembly in November 179C Pope Pius VI in Rome conde d h yalty to the CIVilConstitution of the Clergy mne t e constituti d h If refused to take the oath. orcmg some into exile many of the oath-taking priests' wh s ~n . The king could hold up the enactment of laws but could not veto them absolutely. the deputies drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen as a preamble to the constitution. tton of the new Legislative Asse~bl . ousan so French ari t ts. whom some now regarded as t it mOcnstratlOnsm Pans against the royal . called assignats issued b t~roperty served as a guarantee for the nev sell the church lands to the hl'g' t b'ddY ~ government. The constitution finally com Ieted in 17 .ntomette hop d th definitive defeat of the Revol t' heat war would lead to the u ron. All officials were elected. twenty-three years. russia immediately . but on June 19. OUlS ec ared war 0 A . In addition to joining demonstrations. "Woman is born free and lives equal to man in her rights:' Unresponsive to such calls for women's equality.in access to official posts. e sales increased the we ers an prosperou b out from under the assignats C . Olympe de Gouges (I748-1793) played on the language of the official Declaration to make the point that women should also be included. 'A ut . h favored a republic believed that Id pu ies m t e new Assembly who . though Protestant and Jewish men did. In her Declaration of the Rights of Women of 1791. Louis and M . e po~ers expected a brief and relatively .' pans went awry when a postrom IS portrait on th F royal family was arrested at Varennes f . she announced. e new rench money. onvmce t at mon ti Hi a decline in the nation's populatio th d . and the Netherlands. When fighting broke out in 1792 all th contained war. women wrote petitions. freedom of the press. The government began tc h es I ers m state au ti Th . rc. landholdings of wealthy city d II d c IOns.monstrations led by women confronted Louis XVI deeply resented thOs oweI' u~ to replace those who refused. and these departments are still the basic units of the French state today. . The constitution defined them as the "active citizens". Women were theoretically citizens under civil law but without the right to full political participation. an angry crowd invaded the elected other officials. and organized political clubs to demand more participation. t h e changes imposed on the Cath I' h h powers an in particular . they created enduring conflicts. 1790.~te radicalizing effect on French politics. The deputies replaced the old administrative divisions of the provinces with a national system of eighty-three regional departments (departements) with identical administrative and legal structures.ntoinette The I master recognized the king f hi . because many people had expected a substantial cut in the tax rate. 1790-1792) the brother ofoMgal. In Article I.: de epict . required all clergy to swear an oath :. th . family. was to be the key to success. and equality before the law.n sAupp~rtfrom the Austrian emperor Leopold II . escaped in disguise from the T'I' enes pa I' m Par's t e royal family Ul ace d fl "d of France. was in Paris at the time. The sta~1 proVided. viewing it as a betrayal of the promised new order. the Legislative Assembly came d -f u y unprepared for battle.r~ ml~s ~rom the border with the Austrian to but the "flight to Varennes" touche~ :. Thomas Jefferson. the Assembly confiscated all the church's property and promised to pay clerical salaries in return. which had to choose b tw Ig -alrv permanently divided the Catholic to the Revolution with its "consti~uti~::l'?:~~:~ the old churc.I~es. all others were "passive:' Despite these limitations.P . war wou reveal th ki h ISdownfall. yearly 1792 everyone seemed intent on arre. France became a constitutional monarchy. the Assembly abolished all titles of nobility. where they hoped t . the National Assembly gave voting rights only to white men who paid a minimum level of taxation. Did women have equal rights with men? What about free blacks in the colonies? How could slavery be justified if all men were born free? Did religiOUStoleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights? Women never received the right to vote during the French Revolution. The National Assembly had difficulty collecting taxes. The new administrative system survived. an a o~ ~he French clergy population. . however. inc u mg two-thirds f and they were gathering' alonagrFeay e~llgrated. . the Declaration immediately created new dilemmas. e new im ItS on his d. nonetheless. whose principal author.h and commitment passed laws against the clergy wh fu d .




The French Revolution and Napoleon The Revolution of Rights and Reason






hall of the Assembly in Paris and threatened the royal family. When the Prussians crossed the border and advanced on Paris, the Prussian commander, the duke of Brunswick, issued a manifesto announcing that Paris would be destroyed if the royal family suffered any violence. The ordinary people of Paris did not passively await their fate. Known as sans-culottes (without breeches)-because men who worked with their hands wore long trousers rather than the knee breeches of the upper classes-they had followed every twist and turn in revolutionary fortunes. Political clubs had multiplied since the founding in 1789 of the first and most influential of them, the Iacobin Club, named after the former monastery in Paris where the club first met. Every local district in Paris had its club, where men and women listened to the news of the day and discussed their opinions. Faced with the threat of military retaliation and frustrated with the inaction of the Legislative Assembly, the sans-culottes organized an insurrection on August 10, 1792, and attacked the Tuileries palace, where the king resided. The Legislative Assembly ordered new elections, this time by universal male suffrage (no wealth qualifications as in the constitution of 1791), for a National Convention that would write a new constitution. Before the National Convention could meet, violence exploded again in early September 1792 when the Prussians approached Paris. Hastily gathered mobs stormed the overflowing prisons to seek out traitors who might help the enemy. In an atmosphere of near hysteria, eleven hundred inmates were killed, including many innocent people. The princess of Lamballe, one of the queens favorites, was hacked to pieces. and her mutilated body was displayed beneath the windows where the royal family was kept under guard. These "September massacres" showed the dark side of popular revolution, in which the common people demanded instant revenge on supposed enemies and conspirators. The Execution of Louis XVI

ers la7 Iand pro~essionals who had developed their ardent repubhcan beliefs in na rona networ ~f Iacobin Clubs. After the fall of the monarchy in Au ust I" howev~r, th~ Iacobins divided into two factions: the Girondins and the Mo!ta na' Th~ Glron~ms (named after a department in southwestern France the Gfror W;I.~hprovl:ed some of its leading orators) resented the growing po~er of Pari' ~~ I a~sfi an" tried to appeal to the departments outside Paris. The Montagn~ enc or men of the mountain;' so called because the sat i . were closely allied with the Paris militants and willing to e:act th~ ::t:ehlghest se urged on them by the sans-culottes. me measi

.The first .showdown between the Girondins and the Monta nards dunng the trial of the king in December 1792 Although the G~ di occur that th ki . Iron InS agr e mg was guilty of treason, many of them ar ued for cl . ~opular referendum on his fate. After a long and bit~r debate ~;:e~~~u~~rle. ( y a very narrow majority to execute the king. Louis XVI went'to the uml::. vo Janu~ry 21, 1793, sharing the fate of Charles I of England in 1649 ,,~ h me. convmced ourselves that a king is only a man" t . eave J man is above the law" Th G' dt I • wro e one newspaper. "and that 2 1793 twe . . . e. Iron rns asted only a few months longer. On Jt : ' nty-nme Girondin deputies were arrested after militants in Paris or m~ed an armed demonstration against them and invaded the National C . DIssent, even among republicans, could now prove fatal. a rona onvenn


When it met, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and, on September 22, 1792, established the first republic in French history. The republic would answer only to the people. not to any royal authority. The new government faced a dire situation. It was supposed to write a new constitution for the republic while fighting a war with external enemies and confronting increasing resistance at home. The Revolution had divided the population: for some, it had not gone far enough toward providing food. land, and retribution against enemies; for others, it had gone too far by dismantling the church and the monarchy. The French people had never known any government other than monarchy. Only half the population could read and write at even a basic level. In this situation, symbolic actions became very important. Any public sign of monarchy was at risk, and revolutionaries soon pulled down statues of kings and burned reminders of the former regime. The fate of Louis XVI and the future direction of the republic divided the deputies elected to the National Convention. Most of the deputies were middle-class

The Execution of King Louis XV,
Louis XVI was executed by order of the National Convention . . executioner shows the severed head to th N r I on January 21, 1793· In this pnnt, the scaffold. (Mary EvansPicture library.) e a Ion a Guard arranged in orderly silence around the




The French Revolution and Napoleon

Terror and Resistance




1 I



European elites reacted with horror to the execution of Louis XVI. The British government suppressed the many corresponding societies made up of democrats an~ reformers who had established links with the Paris [acobins and charged some of their leaders with sedition. Ireland posed even greater problems to the British government because Catholics and Presbyterians, both excluded from the vote, joined together in the Society of United Irishmen in 1791. In the United States, opinion fiercely divided on the virtues of the French Revolution. In Sweden, when Gustavus III (r. 1771-1792) was assassinated by a nobleman, the king's son and heir, Gustavus IV (r. 1792-1809), believed that the French Jacobins had sanctioned the killing. Spain's royal government suppressed all news from France, fearing that it might ignite the spirit of revolt. This fear was not misplaced; even in Russia, for instance, 278 outbreaks of peasant unrest occurred between 1796 and 1798. One Russian landlord complained, "This is the self-same ... spirit of insubordination and independence, which has spread through all Europe:'

Terror and Resistance
The execution of the king and the arrest of the Girondins did not end the new regime's problems. The continuing war required ever more men and money, and the introduction of a national draft provoked massive resistance in some parts of France. The new republic's armies fought not only in Europe and within France but also in the Caribbean, where a major slave uprising threatened French control. In response to growing pressures, the National Convention set up a highly centralized government designed to provide food, direct the war effort, and punish counterrevolutionaries. Thus began the Terror, in which the guillotine became the most terrifying instrument of a government that suppressed almost every form of dissent. The leader of this government, Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794), aimed to create a "Republic of Virtue;' in which the government would teach, or force, citizens to become virtuous republicans through a massive program of political reeducation. These policies only increased divisions, which ultimately led to Robespierres fall from power and to a dismantling of government by terror.


Why did the French Revolution of a constitutional



stop with the installation monarchy?


The Guillotine' Before '789, only nobles were decapitated

if condemned

to death; Assem·

were usually hanged. j. I. Guillotin, equalization

a professor of

anatomy and a deputy for the Third Estate in the National bly, first proposed tion,leading Another suggested that a mechanical device be constructed association invented

of the death penalty. He also for decapita· with his name. The the guillotine. Its

to the instrument's

Assembly decreed decapitation physician,

as the death penalty in june '79'.

A. Louis, actually

use began in April '792 and did not end until '98" when the French government abolished the death penalty. Although operation inhumane. it was invent· disturbed ed to make death equal and painless, the guillotine many observers; executioner the guillotine its mechanical somehow

and efficiency-the Nonetheless,

merely pulled up the blade by a cord and then fascinated as much as it repelled. painted on snuffboxes and even serving as a

released it-seemed

Reproduced in miniature, and china, worn as jewelry, toy, the guillotine celebrated

became part of popular culture, and vilified as the preeminent
(Reunion des Resource, NY.)

as the people's avenger by supporters

The British Reaction to the French Revolution
In this caricature, political james Gillray satirizes the French version of liberty. Gillray produced How would you interpret thousands of caricatures. the message of this print? (© Copyright The Trustees ofThe

of the Revolution
Musees Nationaux/Art

symbol of the Terror by opponents.

British Museum.)




The French Revolution and Napoleon

Terror and Resistance



War, and Slavery


Setting the course for government and the war increasingly fell to the twelve-member Committee of Public Safety, set up by the Convention on April 6, 1793. When Robespierre, one of the Montagnards, was elected to the committee three months later, he became in effect its guiding spirit and the chief spokesman of the Revolution. A lawyer from northern France known as "the incorruptible" for his stern honesty and fierce dedication to democratic ideals, Robespierre remains one of the most controversial figures in world history because of his association with the Terror. In September 1793, another demonstration organized by Parisian militants demanded that the Convention "put Terror on the agenda:' Although he originally opposed the death penalty and the war (he also opposed slavery), Robespierre took the lead in implementing emergency measures, including death for those, such as the Girondins, who opposed the committee's policies. At the same time, he maneuvered to clamp down on popular demonstrations. Like many other educated eighteenth-century men, Robespierre read the classics of republicanism, from the ancient Roman writers Tacitus and Plutarch to the Enlightenment thinkers Montesquieu and Rousseau. But he took them a step further. He spoke eloquently about "the theory of revolutionary government" as "the war of liberty against its enemies:' He defended the people's right to democratic government, while in practice he supported many measures that restricted their liberties. He personally favored a free-market economy, as did almost all middle-class deputies, but in this time of crisis he was willing to enact price controls and requisitioning. The Convention had organized paramilitary bands called "revolutionary armies" to hunt down hoarders and political suspects, and on September 29, 1793, it established the General Maximum on wages and the prices of thirty-nine essential commodities. In a speech to the Convention, Robespierre explained the necessity of a government by terror: "The first maxim of your policies must be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror.... Without virtue, terror is deadly; without terror, virtue is impotent." Terror was not an idle term; it seemed to imply that the goal of democracy justified what we now call totalitarian means-that is, the suppression of all dissent. The Committee of Public Safety did everything possible to ensure its control. It sent deputies out "on mission" to purge unreliable officials and organize the war effort. In the first universal draft of men in history, every unmarried man and childless widower between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five was declared eligible for conscription. Revolutionary tribunals set up in Paris and provincial centers tried political suspects. In October 1793, the Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris convicted Marie-Antoinette of treason and sent her to the guillotine. The Girondin leaders were also guillotined, as was Olympe de Gouges. The government confiscated all the property of convicted traitors. The government won its greatest success on the battlefield. As of April 1793, France faced war with Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and the Dutch

Republic--:-allfearful of the impact of revolutionary ideals on their own populations To face this daunting coalition of forces, the French republic tapped a new and poten source of power-nationalist pride-in decrees mobilizing young and old alike: "Thi young m~n will go to battIe; married men will forge arms and transport provisions women will make t~nts and clothing and serve in hospitals; children will make bandages: ~o~geswere set up In the parks and gardens of Paris to produce thousands of guns, anc citizens everywhere helped collect saltpeter, a rock salt used to make gunpowder. The powers allied against France squandered their best chance for victory il 17~3, when the French army verged on chaos because of the emigration of nobh offIc~rs and the problems of integrating new draftees. At that moment, Prussia RUSSIa, nd Austria were preoccupied once again with Poland. Catherine the Grea a abolished Polan.d's constitution of 1791 and joined with Prussia in gobbling ul generous new shce~ ~f Polish territory in the second partition of 1793 (Map 16.2) When !adeusz KosclUszko. (1746-1817), an officer who had been a foreign vol unteer ." ,the War of Amer~can I~d~pendence, tried to lead a nationalist uprising Cathennes army struck agam. ThIS time, Russia, Prussia, and Austria wiped Polaru comple~ely off ~he map in the third partition of 1795. "The Polish question" wouk plague international relations for more than a century, as Polish rebels flocked tt any international upheaval that might undo the partitions. While Russia, Prussia, and Austria feasted on Poland, France regrouped ant by the end of 1793 had amassed through the new national draft a huge fightinj force of 700,000 ~en. The French first stopped the advance of the allied power and then moved mto the territories of its enemies, aiming to carry the gospel 0



Boundary of Poland in 1772 To Austria

rn To Russin
Map 16.2 TheSecondandThird of Poland, 1793 and 1795 that Partitions included In 1793, Prussia took over territory gained 3 million new inhabitants.

1.1 million Poles, while Russia

Austria gave up any claims to Poland in exchange for help from Russia and Prussia in acquiring final division an additional including corporated million

Bavaria. In the Polish subjects, in2

of 1795, Prussia absorbed

those in Warsaw; Austria million

Poles and the city

of Cracow; Russia gained another mined never to use the term

Poles. The three powers deter-


of Poland

again. How had Poland faller

prey to the other powers?

This painting.en the. bo~ks. The fact that she holds an instrument of battle suggests that women might have been active participants. in engravIngs and paIntIng. whose primary job was to apprehend runaway slaves and ensure plantation security. St. Under the Convention. Domingue (present-day Haiti) was the most important French colony. Domingue. from '793-'794. Her Roman appearance signals that she is not a contemporary Frenchwoman but rather the representation of an abstract quality. and in 1793 they signed an agreement DFrench o 100 200 miles with Great Britain. Oil on cloth. 1793-1794 Even while war raged in Europe and the Caribbean. In February 1794. As one deputy explained.000 slaves. pamphlets. On loan from the Musee du louvre. Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety encouraged efforts to win hearts and minds to the republic back home. Occupying the western half of the island of Hispaniola. marked the first anniversary of the fall of the Bastille. Domingue on the trolled the rest of the island and had entered on Eve of the Revolt. slaves in northern St. To restore authority over the slaves. engravings. posters. Twice the size in land area of the neighboring British colonies. (Musee de 10Revolution Francaise. 1791 Great Britain's side in the war with France. Domingue as a reward for his efforts. but without any suggestion of battle. most French revolutionaries did not consider slavery a pressing problem in 1789. which conSt. The Festival of Federation on July 14. La ubene. "This regime [in the colonies] is oppressive. offered freedom to individual slave rebels who joined the Spanish army as long as they agreed to maintain the slave regime for other blacks. and 28. by a woman. sculpture. and as statues in festivals. 1790. wearing a Roman-style toga and holding a pike with a Roman liberty cap on top. with the spontaneous planting of liberty trees in village~ and towns. the National Convention formally abolished slavery and granted full rights to all black men in France's colonies.s. The few thousand French republican troops on St. Domingue organized a large-scale revolt. Jeanne-louise (Nanine) Vallain. now France's enemy in war. The Republic of Virtue. on letterheads and seals. it was inhabited in 1789 by approximately 465. Vizille. chamber pots. but it gives a livelihood to several million Frenchmen.) .6 The French Revolution and Napoleon Terror and Resistance 615 revolution and republicanism to the rest of Europe.Chapter . the French Caribbean colonies also produced nearly twice as much revenue in exports." In August 1791. I-r-'-r--' DSpanish o 100 200 kilomctrrs declaring British sovereignty over St. the well-known Representing Liberty Liberty was always represented bya female figure because in French the noun is gendered feminine (/a liberte). Inv. ~nd old claSSICS were revised. captures the usual attributes of liberty: she is soberly seated. the French commissioner freed all the slaves in his jurisdiction in August 1793 without permission from the government in Paris. The French eventually appointed Toussaint governor of St. changed sides and committed his troops to the French. This action infuriated white planters and Caribbean Sea merchants. Foremost arnon them was the figure of Liberty (an early version of the Statue of Liberty now in New Y?rk harbor)~ w_hichappeared on coins and bills. and to prevent complete military disaster. "La Marseillaise" (named after the soldiers from t~e city of Marseille who first sang it)-placards. in part because the armed forces in place were small and in part because the British navy controlled the seas. Songs-especially the new national anthem. is a late-nineteenth-century version of the same figure. paintings. the ex-slave Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743-1803).000 free people of color. even everyday crockery. given to the United States by the French. and playing cards conveyed republican slogans and symbols. The Statue of liberty in New Yorkharbor. MRFD1986·4. The French army proved less successful in the faraway Caribbean colonies. the government sponsored state competitions for artists to awa .000 whites. Despite the efforts of a Paris club called the Friends of Blacks. The slave population had doubled in the French colonies in the twenty years before 1789. public spirit and make clear how atrocious and ridiculous were the enemies of liberty and of the Republic:' h At the center of this elaborate cultural campaign were revolutionary festivals t at first emerged in 1789. 30. To encourage the production of patriotic ~nd ~epublIcan works. Spain. This regime is barbarous but a still greater barbarity will result if you interfere with it without the necessary knowledge. Domingue were outnumbered. To complicate matters further. One of the ablest black generals allied with the Spanish. These actions had the desired effect. Hundreds of new plays were produced. the Legislative Assembly in Paris granted civil and political rights to the free people of color.

singing a royalist song-all these actions expressed discontent with the new symbols. f state schools at the primary the Catholic church and tried to set u~ adsystehm0 to replace those the Catholic I I b t it lacked trame teac ers d and secon d ary eve s: u t 0 ortunities for learning how to read an religiOUSorders prOVided. . ay to names reca ll1g e h Joseph. and they had their own ways of dissenting. Birth. ld t a e paign because the deputies feared It wou ur . not the parish church. bl' ence antirepu ican. h ft of the republic was through the . IS eof the overthrow of the monmonarchy an d to rna ke the republic sacre. I d . the republic. even t h oug h t h e pope h a d con d emne d . -------t~~~~~--~~---4~~--~~------------~----------------------~--~~ Terror Resistance 617 and Pluviose (roughly equivalent to February) recalled the rain (la pluie) of late winter. tee b st way to ensure. h . ing of the repu ICon ep ernoer z-c. Th e C omrrutuee of Pubhc Sa ety n rural devout populations agamst . 1793. volutionized In October 1793. . rituals. . and policies. ten-day decades provided only one day of rest every ten days and pointedly eliminated the Sunday of the Christian calendar. gave w . madame-mig t I en I .~~ occasion. and trying to force ev~n those clergy G 0 t :hurches became storehouses for abandon their c1erical. (In 1816.~'__ ~ __ ~6~16~--~C~h~a!p~te~r~'~6~_!Th~e~F~~~n~Ch~R~e:VO~IU~t~lo~n~a:nd~N~a~~~I~eo~n~ I \ 48-1825) who was a deputy and an associate of ainter Jacques-LoUiS David (17 .vocatlOns and ~o~~~ff ::a contractors. or Mane. especla IIy teo Id est ma Ie. dowt °t ~lish a cult of reason to supplant step in de. d S e people changed their names or . Marriage became a civil contract and as such could be broken. The medieval statues arms or grain.I write may ave urn . . and daily life. celebrated th~ first ~~~~v.. uprooting liberty trees. culture. e ti al system wou rep ace Some hope d th e res IV . But the army promptly dispatched the rebels. of daily life became politicized. t h e government revo k ed t h e rig h t to d ivorce. carrying statues of the Virgin Mary in a procession. I Even t h e measures Id lace the Christian one. C uccessive revo Iutionary Iegis Iatures aIso ch ange d t h e ru Ies 0 f fami Iy Iifie. Charlotte Corday. ) Inone 0f its most influential actions. ab an d onment. Other forms of resistance were more individual. metnc system. 't e (citizen) mstea. They initiate d a campatgn. derived from nature-for examp e. . . Twelve mont s . state secondary schools as had ~~ ublican rograms failed. . Organized resistance broke out in many parts of France. Christlamty. revolutIOn:? ed to' Enlightenment ideals rather changes symbolized adherence to the repu IC an . Sue lie (Brutus. . II' h roes of the ancient Roman repub. d . The new divorce law of September 1792 was the most far-reaching in Europe: a couple cou ld d'rvorce b y mutua I consent or fior reasons sue h as i as insanity. hiding a priest who would not take the loyalty oath.Chri . and blue that was to become th gkd ( badge made of ribbons) with had to wear a coc a ea. which occasionally turned into spontaneous demonstrations or riots over high prices or food shortages. I It took control of education away from and compulsory for both boys an glr s. for example. One young woman. in the columns of his paper The Friend of the People. Resisting the Revolution By intruding into religion. Gracchus. Year . suffered from the hard conditions of life that persisted in this time of war. udied in church schools ten years earlier. More enduring was the new metric system based on units of ten that was invented to replace the hundreds of local variations in weights and measures. 0 f th e ltd' 0 ISSO aw t he measure. . w I e rose into the sky. PIP fifth as many boys enrolled in the h di inished In 1799. ild mes Bibhca an sam • gave their chi ren new names. and marriage registration now happened at city hall. of speec -vous lor the colors. The arrest of the Girondin deputies in June 1793 sparked in several departments insurrections that if coordinated might have threatened the central government in Paris. Corday fervently supported the Girondins. the National Convention passed a series of laws that created equal inheritance among all children in a family. t: true patriots used the informal . death. or criminal conviction. Th e state took responsibility for all family matters away from the Catholic church. on Y one. assassinated the outspoken deputy Jean-Paul Marat in July 1793.:feFrance-was devised in July 1789. tne fi 0 es It d the de_Christianization camrisnarnza I ha . of exactly thirty days each received new names . battering. a bonfire consumed archy.~. t e u uret make primary schoohng free d The ConventIOn vote 0 education 0 f t h e young. I dated from th e b egmm. almost all aspects Although many of the ambitIOUSrep h Ptricolor-the combination of red. h . or their stones were hd I beheaded Church bells were of kings on t he racad e 0 f Notre Dame cat e ra f. D' id ai ed to destroy the mystique of P f I planmng aVI aim Robespierre. A father's . ts' names such as Jean. man Ion (Protestant as well as Cathohc). t duced a new ca en ar to rep h the Convention in ro bli S t mber 22 1792.were· e dd overnment use In the ultimate nr dismantled and church treasures ~elte . in particular. Thousands of men and women took advantage Ive un h appy marriages. h roes or flowers and plants. Long breadlines in the cities exhausted the patience of women. tu and citoyen or CI oyenn . was constid ere d ari I aristocratic an d h . The calendar remained in force for twelve years despite continuing resistance to it. . In pnncip Ie. and by 1793 everyone h C "you" or the title monsIeur or elf. As a result. om . including girls. of de-Chnstlamza church buildings to the highest biId. Using rorma orms . took over fes iva . had constantly demanded more heads and more blood. the republic inevitably provoked resistance. figh t to C ravor one child . tion . even co~o~:. and police spies reported their constant grumbling. ld I the Catholic church altogether. and she considered it her patriotic duty to kill the Montagnard deputy who. Cornelia). Other countries in Europe and throughout the world eventually adopted the . of time and space were re . extremists . After the government retook the city \ than to Catholicism. d H' F stival of Unity on August 10.. The five d ays left at teen d 0f t hId ca en ar year were d evote d to specla I fiesnva Is caIIed h . h id tify someone as an anstocra . Pierre. eta e sans-culottides. In front of the statue of Llbert\'1 a cloud of three thousand white doves the crowns and scepters of royalty. Shouting curses against the republic. Instead of seven-day weeks. tl that included closing churches . Many women. selhng Y h h d taken the oath of loyalty to der. S' . white.

. I' ~~ a eled ultrarevolutionaries"-in isian po ittcians=were dd Next came the other side the ". The society urged harsher measures 11: . and allowed onl two iud ~um er 0 Jurors necessary of political crimes expanded t: in I J ~mlendts: ~cqUittal or death. to take the oath of ousan to orty thousand clergy who refused a eglance emigrated. Barges loaded with prisoners were floated onto the Loire River near Nantes and then sunk. for example. Even the low estimates reveal the carnage of this catastrophic confrontation between the republic and its opponents. were suspici f II b . the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women played a very active part in sans-culottes politics. the Revolutionar Tribunal c . mary peop e nsked th '11' if any discontent.8 Chapter . in Paris and among deputies m th C . Ih . resistance took the form of guerrilla bands. the deputy "on mission" there ordered sixteen hundred houses demolished. Robespierre tried simultaneously to exert the Convention's control over popular political activities and to weed out opposition among the deputies.000 and higher. P' e gut ~tme I they expressed of 1794 to twenty-six a day in the sum~l:r .~IS ro~e.d e en of June. republican soldiers had turned back the rebels. oyan orator and. d I" arreste an executed. one of the centers of the revolt. ose critics were once fact a motley collection of local Par' . resistance turned into full-scale civil 1793.. including a number of priests." . M:~ le~~~:t 1794. tion of the Terror. n.. the e cases worsened A law d.000 French people' most of tehcoul~t~y. By the fall. "There is no more Vendee. ..6 The French Revolution and Napoleon 619 of Lyon. however. s one argued. First to be suppressed were women's political clubs. the prophecies of ou 0 e rea ized The R I' " o f the Girondin victims of 1793 had remark d " . The rate of execution . Founded in early 1793. as one Even after the rnaj or threats to th .w:~ ~alled because they favored moderaDanton (1759-1794) gb he popular deputy Georges-Jacques . his nm e ational Conve t" N ernment pressure. With the arrest and execution of these Ie d . . eaten everything we have and now they want to take our bodies [in the draft]:' The uprising took two different forms: in the Vendee itself. yet Robespierre and his inner circle had s or Ig tmg t . . Following the orders that you gave me I have crushed children under the feet of horses. Controversy still rages about the rebellion's death toll. peasants. The ~oll for the aristocracy and and thousands emigrated Thirty t: d g n~bles penshed under the guillotine. many were tied together. I g porn m national politics. ~vo ution.. for conviction. in nearby Brittany. but overall the experience was 40. One rebel group explained its motives: "They [the republicans] have killed our king. a handful of m '1 b ~. artisans. under govtreason and sentenced them to d th.. sold the goods of our church. and weavers joined under noble leadership to form the Catholic and Royal Army. em rvmg in the reg' f rnai near the borders with foreign . mspire discouragement" Ordi I' Ism an seeking to . I Ictan. First. th N . shoved into freshly dug graves. chased away our priests. . n senous me itations. against the republic's enemies and insisted that .. Both sides committed atrocities. h ing. 1794-1799 In the atmosphere of fear of conspiracy that these outbreaks fueled.000 to 250. The name of the city was changed to Ville Affranchie (Liberated Town). At the small town of Machecoul. t every turnin . from five a day in the spring though the military situation improved At'th e p~httcal atmosphere darkened even defeated the main Austrian arm d . peop e-one out of every fift F h I as suspects between March 1793 dAY rene peop e-went to prison the clergy was especially high.. In the Vendee region of western war. made so many enemies that they could The Terror hardly touched man t fF undeniably traumatic Across th y par s 0 ranee.. ow. was a igh-living.ca~e. the deputy Jean-Baptiste Carrier supervised the drowning of some two thousand Vendee rebels. wo~en have a voice m politics even . the rebels massacred more than a hundred republicans. e emergency measure D fi h . and republican soldiers massacred thousands of others. a ety moved against Its critics e onventton Most f th . cue d s an enng patriot" " d" . e " was devounng Its own children:' e committees power h d b I" Terror continued and in som a een e im mated. the Committee of Public S D '. doom for the Revolution seemed ab t t b a Iiz: m "Pans. at least two thousand (including many The Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror. A republican general wrote to the Committee of Public Safety claiming. n t e spnng of 1794. Between March and December France. order to limit agitation in the street Th deouti womens po itical clubs in s about natural differences between th . hi high-spending excitable politi A pierre. IOn. unlike Robes . which united to attack a target and then quickly melted into the countryside. ' once a mem er of the Committee f P bli fnend of Robespierre despite the St iki .Terror and Resistance 6. As many as 300 000 I on 0 co a oration ran high. e onvention abolished 'I' . onvicted him and his friends of ea . a counterrevolutionary army organized to fight the republic. 0 U IC Safety and a the Revolution's most flamb t n ng contrast m their personalities. The Convention cracked down on popular clubs and societies in the fall of 1793. A Women are ill suited for elevated thoughts ad' edlr. Montagnards themselves. Great Britain provided money and underground contacts for these attacks. In one especially gruesome incident. e war were worknot afford to loosen the grip of the Terror. if they did not have the vote Th C . citizens. h IOns 0 major insurrections or enemies. will engender no more brigands:' "Infernal columns" of republican troops marched through the region to restore control. French armies decisively to Brussels and Antwerp Th y an a vanced through the Austrian Netherlands . ti . The category . t~e official Terror cost the lives of at least . military courts ordered thousands executed. and shot. massacred women who at least . For several months in 1793. Includ'ed aml:n u t'hen:. Special courts sentenced almost two thousand people to death. it has perished under our free sword along with its women and children . re uced the b f. Estimates of rebel deaths alone range from about 20.. Many thousands of republican soldiers and civilians also lost their lives. the accused the right of legal I duce passe in June 1794 denied counse. booming voice had swayed opinio . the Vendee rebels stormed the largest towns in the region. Danton was . including administrators and National Guard members. e eputbles called on biological arguments " e sexes to olster th . . .

a satellite of f ming-create t e ne tionary penc h ant or rena France. Yet becau his power rested on his military prowess. a violent bac as h n~. 1m. In 1798. the Terror were peasants or or 1 .e t 1. On July 27. The Directory government hoped that French occupation of Egypt would strike a blow at British trade by cutting the route to India and thus compensate Franc' for its losses there years before. d . Thirty thousaru people were killed. Tha~ks to some early military successes and links to Parisian politicians. ment maintained itself by alterd 1799 the DIrectory govern Between 179S an . away from the Parisian centers of power. In Paris bands of young dandies picked fights with know Iacobins and disrupted theater performances with loud antirevolutionary songs. While politically weak at ho. I~b in Paris. ' The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte The story of the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) is one of the most rernar able in Western history. . and political divisions within the republican lea ership gave Bonaparte the opportunity to change the course of history. ilit bands that had tacit support from the Y National Convention prepared yet beaten.mcally. n d I 1795 the French swarmed id hich France then annexe . bU~dth~t h RPPeactionNewspapers attacked kl k as the Therml Orlan . It released hundreds of suspects an~ arrandge a e d them with their opponents.edirectors. and often murdered by par~mdlI . '" d 'f " Former 0 icia s an oca [acobins Re error. and the cornman er 0 tionary Tri una mans. I th "White Terror" replaced the ht France m particu ar.~n . t p e massacred at Lyon in November . Robespierre tried to most of the National Guard too b k his i The next day he and scores of kill himself with a pistol but only ro e IS Jaw. .. o~ . h et another list of deputies to be arrest~d. people banded together and petitioned to reopen churches closed du ing the Terror. The French had encourage. His astounding succe: in the Italian campaigns of 1796-1797 launched his meteoric career.r?Jo however. ts" in the National Convention and th st notorious terrons It arrested some 0 f e mo hiders abolished the Revolutionary h W·th· the year t e new ea put them to d eat. I d b the Pans City governmen armed upnsmg . With an arm of fewer than fifty thousand men. Iong With hiIS followers on t h e comrm f the Parisian National Guard. generals like Bonaparte became practically indr pendent.9~0. Year . f human blood:' The new government the Robespierrists as tigers thirsting or d t mporary truce in the Vendee. and 83 were shot rn one day unng. e di nary working people. t failed to save Robespierre when . and thousan s . and his soldiers discovered a slab of black basalt dating .I I. Bonapart was named commander of the French army in Italy in 1796. an y Ittee the president of the Revolu. and when th: French went elsewhere. they broke into a church to hold services with a prie who had been in hiding or with a lay schoolteacher who was willing to say Mas Amid increasing political instability. Clergy were singled out in nuns) were executed. bi f I al bodies an rep lace purged [aco ms rom oc .. Th e who remame me. i The Directory regime never succeeded in establishing a firm center that could appe to a majority of voters. settmg u~ a tw body-the Directory-headed by fi. appeared before the ConventIOn Wit the shouted him down and ordered him Many feared they would be named. besoierre i Thermidor (July 1794) did The men who led the attac~ ?n Ro esplerr: m ened nonetheless because of not intend to reverse all his policies. In sout eas ern ffl' . Bonaparte took France's leading scientists witt him on the expedition. He mollified the Directory governmer by sending home wagonloads of Italian masterpieces. he defeated the Piedmontese and the Austrian: He molded the army into his personal force by paying the soldiers in cash taken a tribute from the newly conquered territories. Continuing warfare. only recently released from prison as a presum Robespierrist. of Public Safety.~econstituted French army invaded largely successful war effort abroa .and the NI~tlOn:!r~~ngto the revolutionary calendar). An arrested a d ib I· P . In 1795. the upheavals caused in the rest. the Irish to time a rebellion to coincide with their planned invasion. in the end he could not survive defeat ( the battlefield. h did 11in the yearly elections of depunately purging royalists and Jacobms w 0 I we continued the Convention's ment h ties. Creating an Authoritarian State X ------------------ followers went to the guillotine.:. abohshed t d h w Batavian Republic. Popular demonstrations met severe Tribunal and closed the Jacobm C.. I d I I Jacobin leaders were harassed. and sent him across the Mediterraneai Sea to Egypt.. Helvetic Republic (Switzerland~. he office of stadholder. Iro. gave Bonaparte com mand of the army raised for that purpose. the British mercilessly repressed the revolt.:." . the Directory set aside its plans to invade England. h ··1 r zones· 135 pnes s wer particular in t e CIVI w~ . e repression. these triumphs would ultimately what extent was it simply a response to a natIonal emergency or a reflection of deeper problems bring to power the man who would with the French Revolution? dismantle the republic itself. Yet many victims of 1793. and Roman Republic soon followed. Twice as many regular British troops (seventy thousand) a fought in any of the major continental battles against Napoleon were required t( put down the Irish rebellion. o-house legislature and an executive another constitution m 1795. w I. n the Austrian Net h er an.. th Vendee revolt. Ii I \I !i I d were im risoned. .a~ . REVIEW· What factors can explain the Terro. If necessary. J I 1794 Conflicts within the Committee The final crisis of the Te~ror cam:~~n~:n left ~obespierre isolated. which were added to Parisia. A over France. was a penniless artillery officer. th new aut h ontles. museum collections (most are still there) after being paraded in victory festivals. Military victories made the army a parallel and rival force to the state. . s. and the troops felt greater loyalty to their units and generals than to tt republic.of Europe by t impact of the French Revolution. Robespierre 1794 (9 Thermldor. The Cisalpine Republic (northern Italy).ar . It would have seemed astonishing in 1795 that the twenl six-year-old son of a Corsican noble would within four years become the suprer ruler of France and one of the greatest military leaders in world history. and-with the revoluinto the Dutch Repubhc.e y k the side of the Convention.

Disillusioned members of the government saw in Bonaparte's return an occasion to overturn the constitution. Bonaparte arrived in Paris at just the right moment. which eliminated direct elections for deputies and granted no independent powers to the three houses of the legislature. Bonaparte had set France on a new course toward an authoritarian state. with the right to pick the Council of State.s~O~~y his horse shows the fright and energy of the moment. and many government leaders wanted to revise the constitution of 1795. "How can there be order in the state without religion?" he asked cynically. On November 9. Napoleon is a. "When a man is dying of hunger beside another who is stuffing himself. Millions had abstained from voting on the new constitution." (The state continued to pay the salaries of clergymen. Once the army disembarked in Egypt. saved Bonaparte's coup by summoning troops guarding the hall and claiming that the deputies had tried to assassinate the popular general. Year VIII. In October 1799. Though nominally Catholic. But under the new constitution of 1799.) from 196 B. however. ld . Napoleon Crossing the Alps at st.1799 (18 Brumaire. of calm andd~~~~~sau. Called the Rosetta stone after a nearby town. David painted this propagan IS I~ I _ after one of his former students went to the guillotine on a trumped-up charge of plotting to as~as sinate the new French leader.) The pope thus brought the huge French Catholic population back into the fold. which drew up all laws. written in both hieroglyphic and Greek. he cannot accept this difference if there is not an authority who tells him: 'God wishes it so:" In 1801. Bonaparte's coup appeared to be just the latest in a long line of upheavals in revolutionary France. The deputies of the legislature who engineered the coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire picked Bonaparte as one of three provisional consuls because he was a famous general. it enabled scholars to finally decipher the hieroglyphs used by the ancient Egyptians.6 The French Revolution and Napoleon 623 r \ I Ii 1\1 Napoleon as Military Hero In this painting from 1800-1801. (Reunion des Musees Natlonaux/Art Resource. and a hastily assembled legislature voted to abolish the Directory and establish a new three-man executive called the consulate. Napoleon slipped out of Egypt and made his way secretly across the Mediterranean to southern France. political apathy had overtaken the original enthusiasm for revolutionary ideals. . Bonaparte and his advisers chose the legislature's members out of a small pool of "notables:' Inside France. he was named First Consul. With his army pinned down after its initial successes. Davld became a kind of court painter for the new regime. The former organizer of republican festivals during the Terror. however. Resistance to the Directory was growing. Within the year.C.d the French of Napoleon's heroic military exploits.:. the British admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the French fleet while it was anchored in Aboukir Bay. But when Bonaparte stomped into the meeting hall the next day and demanded changes in the constitution.The Riseand Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte 622 Chapter . NY. and Catholicism was officially recognized as the religion of "the great majority of French citizens. both Catholic and Protestant.whll s .E. a title revived from the ancient Roman republic. president of the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house). Napoleon held no deep religious convictions. The pope validated all sales of church lands. 1800-1823) ended a decade of church-state conflict. Jacques-LouIS Davi e. he was greeted with cries of "Down with the dictator:' His quick-thinking brother Lucien. The soldiers ejected the deputies. the conspirators within the Directory government persuaded the legislature to move out of Paris to avoid an alleged Jacobin plot.picture. Bonaparte's most urgent task was to reconcile to his regime Catholics who had been alienated by revolutionary policies. and Napoleon gained the pope's support for his regime. Bernard. a concordat with Pope Pius VII (r. by the revolutionary calendar).

Napoleon set up a referendum to approve him as First Consul for life. and they banned "offensive" artistic works even more frequently than their royal predecessors. rench SOCIety. became vice p:esident of t ~ Sen. More than one hundred of them were deported and seven hundred imprisoned. and then in 1804. He met frequently with scientists. with the pope's blessing. thou hast great allies. In his imperial court. histories. Domingue and reimpose slavery. jurists. Napoleon staged his entrances carefully to maximize his personal presence: his wife and courtiers were dressed in regal finery. To assist him. he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon introduced a comp~ete hierarchy of noble titles. a leading figure in the Terror. His f chief of staff.prefects. appeared of the revolt sword in hand. In 1800 the plantations produced one-fifth of what they had in 1789. France itself proved more pliable. ranging from princes down to barons and cheval' TItles could be inherited. Thy friends are exultations. refusing to allow those who opposed him to meet in clubs or influence elections. Like the kings who preceded him. And love. In 1802. 1814 ' percent . He created the Bank of France to facilitate government borrowing and relied on gold and silver coinage rather than paper money. where he died in prison.he scientific part of the expedition to Egypt. and man's unconquerable mind. Domingue.WdIt~ Nap?leon as the ultimate patron.e and con~dence fro~ . Scientists. and the newspapers that remained became government mouthpieces." declared Napoleon's adviser Abbe Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes. Government-commissioned architects built the Arc de Triomphe. His favorite painters embellished his legend by depicting him as a warrior-hero of mythic proportions. the Stock Exchange. m ers In . The vicious fighting and flight of whites during the slave revolt had left the island's economy in ruins. . agonies. Joseph Fouche. and in 1804 proclaimed the Republic of Haiti.ate In 1804. Believing that "what is big is always beautiful:' Napoleon embarked on ostentatious building projects that would outshine even those of Louis XlV. They arrested Toussaint and transported him to France. and he was announced with great pomp-but he usually arrived dressed in a simple military uniform with no medals. Government censors had to approve all operas and plays. were military men.ronage and personally chose as senators the nation's most illustrious generals. He severely limited political expression. and stories abounded of his unflagging energy. The minister of police. When a bomb attack on Napoleon's carriage failed in 1800. became minister of war.The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte 62 Napoleon centralized state power more effectively than kings or revolutionaries had before him. In 1802. A decree reduced the number of newspapers in Paris from seventy-three to thirteen (and then finally to four). . "must come ::o~l abfo. In 1802 Napoleon sent French armies to regain control of St. which had been weakened by yellow fever. Napoleon's bureaucracy was based on a patron-client relationship.below:"Napoleon applied this basic military model . Domingue slave in appears in his general's uniform. Napoleon used the Senate to dish pense hIS ~at. rich men. paintings. Alexandre Berthier or ex. In 1808. . Toussaint became a hero to abolitionists everywhere. mmisters. The remaining black generals defeated Napoleons armies. Some of Napoleon's closest associates marne into hIS family. and artists. engravings. and the chemist Claude Berthollet who had o~gantzed t. a potent symbol of black struggles to win freedom. and former nobles. but all Napoleonic nobles served the state in one wa~e~s. Fouche suppressed evidence of a royalist plot and instead arrested hundreds of former Jacobins.) successful Wind Napoleon also worked hard at establishing his reputation as an efficient administrator with broad intellectual interests. The New Paternalism "Authonry. (North an organized independence Picture Archives. Toussaint L'Ouverture The leader of the uprising St. Napoleon relied on men who had served with him in the army.ample. Toussaint. and even slaughterhouses. o. he took a step toward creating a new nobility by founding the Legion of Honor 95 of whose me b . The one place that escaped Napoleon's grasp was St. fountains. His face and name adorned coins. fascinated by turning many of his contempointo raries in Europe as well as the New World a chaotic slave rebellion and ultimately movement. kept political dissidents under constant surveillance. ombining anstocratic and revolutionary values in a new C SOCIal ~erarchy that rewarded merit and talent. 1805). This portrait one of the earliest histories Marcus Rainsford's Historical Account of ' the Black Empire of Hayti (london. He personally appointed prefects to directly supervise local affairs in every department. Napoleon cultivated personal symbolism. a former slave who educated himself. and public monuments. His arrest prompted the English romantic poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850) to write of him: There's not a breathing of the common wind That will forget thee.

.g f Holla:d He proclaimed his twentyinstalled his younger brother LOUIS hmg 0. the code sharply curtailed women's rights. ic J hi had borne no c I ren. Napoleon himself encouraged the foundation of private charities to help indigent mothers. Corinne (1807). however. but he could not tolerate criticism. often in the form 0 esta es tb fits He made his older brother. to w om p of Rome:' famil d th workplace had to be NbaP . "She is a machine in motion who stirs up the salons:' While exiled in the German states. Napoleon gave h. Napoleon aimed to modernize French society through science. Despite Napoleon's accommodation with the pope. the same year he Joseph. f 'I aped the greates ene I ' Napoleons own ami y re. °hleodn. especially among the poorest classes in the fast-growing urban areas. When explaining his desire to banish her." Some of the most talented French writers of the time had to live in exile.) ther To go along with their new titles. Naples in 180 . Francois. At the same time. children under age sixteen who refused to follow their fathers' commands could be sent to prison for up to a month with no hearing of any sort.The Riseand Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte Chapter 16 The French Revolution and Napoleon 627 Napoleon's Coronation as Emperor . pope PiusVII gave IS essmg "fi f N oleon crowning himself? (Erich Lessingl but Napoleon crowned himself. The next in 1810 marrie~ the eighteen-year: ~~nc:t:on immediately gave the title "king year she gave birth to a son. Napoleon hoped such measures would discourage abortion and infanticide. while leaving public decisions to men.aw ener lished his sister aro me a h th th ne of Spain Napoleon wanted . s riage. Napoleon succeeded where previous governments had failed in unifying and standardizing France's local law codes. The Civil Code also reinforced a father's control over his children. The code's framers saw these discrepancies as a way to reinforce the family and make women responsible for private virtue.Rene de Chateaubriand . sell or mortgage her own property. Her books were banned in France. but heh~lcde 0 in '1809 he divorced her and . Called the Napoleonic Code as a way of further exalting his image. Marie-Louise of Austria. He closely monitored the research institutes established during the Revolution. where it had a similar negative effect on women's rights. . Napoleon exclaimed. osep ~ne. 8h h moved Josep to e ro . The French code was imitated in many European and Latin American countries and in the French colony of Louisiana. and provided equal legal treatment for all adult males. Id P .8 Napoleon orc es ra e ) ing his wife at the ceremony In 1 04. sometimes intervening personally to achieve political conformity. ruler of the newly estabhs~ed ~. The ~:d l reesta IS e m critical element in his vision of paternalism was the new Civil Code of 1804. For example. w en e. but he alone controlled any property held in common. but a wife could petition for divorce only if her husband brought his mistress to live in the family home. A wife could not sue in court. I k d an heir In thirteen years of marto establish an imperial snccession. Not until 1965 did French wives gain legal status equal to that of their husbands. which revolutionary legislation had limited. and one of his decrees made it easier for women to abandon their children anonymously to a government foundling hospital. a wife convicted of adultery could be imprisoned for up to two years. his Wile. the code required fathers to provide for their children's welfare. whose heroine is a brilliant woman thwarted by a patriarchal system. many royalists and Catholics still criticized him as an impious usurper. it defined and ensured property rights. He considered most writers useless or dangerous. betlhieeVsea~:h~aya~~a~r~~t~:as::. In contrast. and On Germany (1810). Divorce was still possible. or contract a debt without her husband's consent. The state required all workers to carry a work card attesting to their good conduct. NY. The best known of them was Germaine de Stael (1766-1817). What is the sign! cance 0 ap Art Resource.is f~vorite generals huge ano ' f t in the conquered terntones. and it prohibited all workers' organizations. hi bl ' to the ceremony e can role in it.e~ ~~e aut~ority of the state. The new paternalism extended to relations between employers and employees. guaranteed religious liberty. ' oy' of Italy in 1805 and estabas E' e de Beau arnaiS vicer three-year-ol d stepson ugen her-i I G al Murat as king and queen of . in dom ofNa les in 1806. an account of the important new literary currents east of the Rhine. At the same time. -Iouts David shows Napoleon crownIn The Coronation of Nopo/eon andjosephme (180S-1h807t)' ItacdQuthees event and took the only active entire . (h be seen seated behind Napoleon. Cr nd brot er-m. "good for nothing under any government. fortunes. The law obligated a husband to support his wife. Napoleon continued the central government's patronage of science and intellectual life but once again put his own distinctive paternalist stamp on these activities. Madame de Stael wrote a novel.

she the intellectual from Napoleon's des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource. Napoleon won striking victories against the Austrians at Marengo and Hohenlinden in 1800. fought for France. .. The learned ages have always een e that we owe almost all our misfortunes . he commandec 700. Napoleon could usually take these on one by one. By maneuvering diplomatically and militarily. In 1805. he again trounced the Austrians.000 men. between 70. '11" 1813-1814 Military service was 0 a between 1800 and 1812. Europ . another ~II 10nb. France lost many ships.' but he preferred monar~h~. Napo eon an. t h e rene . and be. One opponent said that Napoleon's presence alone was worth 50. The battle of Austerlitz. When the attempt to retake St. e warne . When Napoleon came to power in 1799. Napoleon considered the peace with Great Britain merely a truce.ll~ty he men' who rose through the ranks T . effectively ending hostilities in Europe for a time.1 "three-quarters to morale" and I tt ibuted his military success mobile army. He gathered the largest possible army for one great and decisive battle and then followed with a relentless pursuit to break enemy morale altogether. Jacques Necker. desertion was rampant. Britain agreed to the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. In hilSview. Prussia. which served as a buffer against the big powers to the east-Austria. 1805. military tide turned against Napoleon. and it lasted only until 1803. ff re young am ItiOUS. Britain dominated the seas but did not want to field huge land armies. followed by ages of destructIOn. She published literary XVI's finance minister.) (1768-1848) " he stron man who has saved us from the admired Napoleon as t. Russia. the British lost no vessels. By 1812. often considered Napoleon's greatest victory.e Napoleon s other person did. the British navy once more proved its superiority by defeating the French and their Spanish allies in a huge naval battle at Trafalgar off the Spanish coast in 1805.. Domingue failed.000 Austrian soldiers at Vim in Bavaria in 1805_ After marching on to Vienna. Once the Austrians had withdrawn.The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte Chapter . I than the armies of other powers. t the Enlightenment's excessive d fend Chnstlan va ues agams d stood the nee d to e . Napoleon inspired almost fanatical loyalty. One of Napoleon's greatest advantages was the lack of coordination among his enemies.. edg .6 The Frenc!l Revolution and Napoleon 62~ Germaine de Stael Ofneo the most fascinating intellectuals "I of S her time. Conscription the rest to leadership and supenonty 0 tw ty to twenty-four were drafted I b rs: 1 3 million men ages en b th provided the arge num e . In any given battle. After reorganizing the French armies in 1799. forcing them to agree France's Retreat from America to peace terms.s~-~elling novels CrIticism.000 and 180. a~d an~ political. and Russia. Austria took up arms again when Napoleon demanded that it declare neutrality in the conflict with Britain. He fought alongside his soldiers in some sixty battles and had nineteen horses shot out from under him. Napoleon abandoned his plans to extend his empire to the Western Hemisphere and sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803. b attention to the power an. (Reunion allowed to reside in Pans. Napoleon united all the armies into one Grand Army under his personal command. but their renowned admiral Lord Horatio Nelson died in the battle. as th. The daughter the wife of a Swedish diplomat. fr patriotic uty an bi . however. F h army had higher mora e h. Building on innovatIOns mtroduced by ith ractics and strategies based on a highly Napoleon revolutionized the art of war :'.. a to become 0 icers we '. n " 1'1 e Was at My Feet": Napoleon's Military Conquests .. regime.000 troops. Only in 1813-1814 did French morale plummet. Napoleon remained invincible. Consequently. On land. Napoleon promptly captured 25.' the re ublican governments before him. for example.000 men. Chateaubnand wrot~ IHs e d "It is to the vanity of know 1d mystery of faith. who had been joined by their new ally. hi G nius of Christianity (1802) to raw reliance on reason. . de Stael frequently and influential whenever encouraged dissidents criticized regime.d d a means of SOCiamo I I . A brilliant strategist who carefully studied the demands of war. The French republic had already established satellite regimes in the Netherlands and Italy. d atic and continued to restrict t elf most of which rejected conscnptlOn as too ernocr officer corps to the nobility. was fought on December 2. Anne-Louise Germaine de tae seemed to irritate Napoleon more tha~ any of LoUIS Madam.. gNapoleon had not properly underabyss. nd accustomed to the new ways 0 wa. f numbers at the point of attack. not all 01 them French. the first anniversary of his coronation.. he outmaneuvered nearly all his opponents. When war resumed in Europe. NY. however. and the gener· als competed with one another for predominance..

king ItS trade. Nelth~r party kept the bargain. Sardinia Napoleon brought in French experts to work . and founded six new universities. Paul (r. British industrial growth resumed. quadrupled their production. In 1806. Personal negotiations between Napoleon and the young tsar Alexander I (r. suppress monasteries. and their landlords no longer had to care for them in hard times. His actions resulted in a great upsurge of the nationalist feeling that has dominated European politics to the present. Tsar Alexander I had gained his throne after an aristocratic coup deposed and killed his autocratic and capricious father. which were ruled Corsica directly from France. The king's advisers also overhauled the army to make the high command more efficient and to open the way for the appointment of middle-class officers. public works. Wherever the Grand Army conquered. not to promote democracy. After an initial decline in British exports and industrial production. In 1810. and the satellite kingdoms.---. Prussia instituted these reforms to try to compete with the French. and widespread smuggling brought British goods into the European market. In 1807. Napoleon attempted to colonize large parts of Europe. The Treaties of Tilsit turned Prussian lands west of the Elbe River into the kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jerome. 1801-1825) resulted in a hum~l~at~ng settlement imposed on Prussia. Napoleon's Fall Despite Napoleon's repeated successes on the battlefield. Peasants gained their personal independence from their noble landlords. Prussian king Frederick William III (r. Yet tax increases and ever-rising conscription quotas also fomented discontent. his empire ultimately failed because it was based on a contradiction: Napoleon tried to reduce almost all of Europe to the status of colonial dependents even though Europe had long consisted of independent states. The Holy Roman Emperor gave up his title. and on its recommendation he abolished serfdom. subordinate church Consolidation ofthe German and to state. He brought the 290 4tfOmiles disparate German and Italian states together to Jokilomctcrs rule them more effectively and to exploit their resources for his own ends. they were left without land. Alexander began to reject the Enlightenment spirit that his grandmother Catherine the Great had instilled in him. It prohibited all commerce between Great Britain and France as well as between Great Britain and France's dependent states and allies. Napoleon forced French-style reforms on both the annexed territories. Napoleon's additions with handpicked locals to abolish serfdom. 1796-1801). The annexed territories and satellite kingdoms paid half the French war expenses. and Prussia's Polish provinces became the duchy of Warsaw. the system proved impossible to enforce. who could no longer sell them to pay gambling debts. Napoleon inaugurated the Continental System in 1806. The British ruled the seas and financed anyone who woul~ o~pose Napoleon. Yet the lives of the former serfs remained bleak. After suffering a crushing military defeat in 1806. As one reformer wrote to Frederick William "We must do from above what the French have done from below. Napoleon's influence soon followed.C hap t e r 16 The FrenchRevolutionand Napoleon The Riseand Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte 63' After maintaining neutrality for a decade." ' Reform received lip service in Russia.812 religious minorities. But none of these efforts reached beneath the surface of Russian life. and became simply the emperor of Austria. In 1806. and by the second decade of his reign. vations were mixed. law codes. for example. for example. Alexander recognized Napoleon's conquests in central and western Europe and promised to help . Napoleon's victories forced defeated rulers to rethink their political and cultural a~sump~i~ns. Napoleon annexed the satellite kingdom because his brother had become too sympathetic to Dutch interests. or refuse them permission to marry. By annexing some territories and setting up others as satellite kingdoms with much-reduced autonomy. Italy had not been so unified since the Roman Empire. Napoleon defeated the Russians at Friedland. Napoleon once again had turned the divisions among his enemies in his favor. Prussia declared war on France. the French promptly destroyed the Prussian army at [ena and Auerstadt. which were usually ruled by one or another of Napoleon's relatives but with a certain autonomy. calico-printing works. Napoleon's brother Louis would not . which soon included almost all the German states except Austria and Prussia. In the early years of his reign. 1797-1840) appointed a reform commission. which paid the price for temporary reconciliation between France and Russia. In an effort to bankrupt this "nation of shopkeepers" by c~o. Reactions to these innoI allow conscription in his kingdom of the Netherlands because the Dutch had never had compulsory military service. introduce the Napoleonic c:J Areas of consolidation Code. Napoleon's chosen rulers often made real improvements in roads. he established the Confederation of the Rhine. lifted restrictions on importing foreign books. and extend civil rights to Jews and other Italian States. elimiL-J 10 France by 1812 nate seigneurial dues. There was even talk of drafting a constitution.him against the British in exchange for Napoleon's support against the Turks. and education. The one power always standing between Napoleon and total dominance of Europe was Great Britain. The temporary protection from British competition could not make up for French losses in the port cities. . the remorseful young ruler created Western-style ministries. whose trade with the Caribbean colonies had been disrupted by war and Haitian independence. Napoleon established three units in Italy: the territories directly annexed to France and the satellite kingdoms of Italy and Naples. held since the thirteenth century.

and Swedish armies met the French outside Leipzig in October 1813 and defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations.Louise. including 48 generals and 3. His Wife. who were dying of disease or deserting in large numbers. who abdicated when his remaining generals refused to fight.000 troops remained. 1814-1824). Weeks of constant marching in the dirt and heat had worn down the foot soldiers. Napoleon had one last chance to regain power. Napoleon's German allies deserted him to join the German nationalist "war of liberation:' The Confederation of the Rhine dissolved.000 men. the Spanish clergy and nobles raised bands of peasants to fight the French occupiers. and a resurgence of intellectual life in the German universities all eventually connected with anti-French nationalism.. Napoleon had made a classic military mistake that would be repeated by Adolf Hitler in World War II: fighting a war on two distant fronts Simultaneously. In 1807. which got its name from the practice of marking each new member's forehead with a charcoal mark. the allied powers crossed the Rhine and marched toward Paris. called the carbonari (charcoal burners). in November came the cold. Lacking a solid base of support. and Germans. Louis XVIII tried to steer a middle course by granting a charter that established a British-style monarchy with a two-house legislature and guaranteed civil rights." Within a week. But fighting continued. They deserted at the first opportunity.000 men. Swiss. The allies restored to the throne Louis XVIII (r. By December. and the retreat had turned into a rout: the Russians had captured 200. A thriving press. He never reckoned with the one power that no arms could overcome-the enthusiasm of a whole people:' Despite opposition. Napoleon sent 100. Poles. For him the retreat was "the indescribable horror of all possible plagues. Napoleon's humiliation might have been temporary if the British and Russians had not successfully organized a coalition to complete the job. French casualties were 30.. Spanish nobles feared revolutionary reforms. the brother of Louis XVI (whose son was known as Louis XVII even though he died in prison in 1795 without ever ruling).000 horses and had to abandon most of its artillery and food supplies. Napoleon entered the deserted city. Tsar Alexander I made peace with the Ottoman Turks and allied himself with Great Britain and Sweden. Only two major European states remained fully independent-Great Britain and Russia-but once allied they would successfully challenge his dominion and draw many other states to their side. Within a week. only 100. Napoleon himself reported that on November 14 the temperature fell to 24 degrees Fahrenheit. Sensing an opportunity. In southern Italy.000 other officers. But he was caught between returning emigre nobles who demanded a complete restoration of their lands and powers and those who had supported either the republic or Napoleon during the previous twenty-five years. while Russia once again prepared for war. "You realize that we must not recognize as king a free-mason. forcing the royal family to flee to the Portuguese colony of Brazil. the multiplication of Masonic lodges and literary clubs. Lutheran. Russian forces harassed the retreating army. and French morale plunged with worsening problems of supply. Napoleon still had resources at his command. on the road to Moscow. In September. Throughout the nineteenth century. aided by a British army. Napoleon finally engaged the main Russian force in the gigantic battle of Borodino. This daring move proved to be his undoing. Resistance to French demands for money or for draftees eventually prompted that patriotic defense of the nation known as nationalism. the Russians lost 45. intellectuals wrote passionate defenses of the virtues of the German nation and of the superiority of German literature.000 horses and 600. The fighting in Spain and Portugal also worsened the already substantial logistical and communications problems involved in marching to Moscow. by the spring of 1813 he had replenished his army with another 250. the French Senate deposed Napoleon. As the former archbishop of Seville wrote to the archbishop of Granada in 1808. including contingents of Italians. A German soldier in the Grand Army described trying to cook fistfuls of raw bran with snow to make something like bread. including 47 generals. In March 1814. leaving Moscow undefended. Napoleon went into exile on the island of Elba off the Italian coast. Britain sent aid to the Portuguese and Spanish rebels. and the Dutch revolted and restored the prince of Orange. When Napoleon got his brother Joseph named king of Spain in place of the senile Charles IV (r. Prussian. as are all the Bonapartes and the French nation:' Even Napoleon's taking personal command of French forces failed to quell the Spanish. Alexander refused to negotiate. three-fourths of it had burned to the ground. the carbonari played a leading role in Italian nationalism. The Spanish war tied up 250. refused to accompany him. Once again the Russians retreated.. but the victory turned hollow when the departing Russians set the wooden city on fire.000 soldiers. one-sixth the original number. Marie. Dutch.Chapter 16 The French Revolution and Napoleon The Riseand Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte 633 Smuggling British goods was only one way of opposing the French. Germaine de Stael commented that Napoleon "never understood that a war might be a crusade . Joseph Bonaparte fled Spain.000. and a combined Spanish-Portuguese army under British command invaded France. Napoleon . the Grand Army lost 30. The peasants hated French requisitioning of their food supplies. Napoleon invaded Russia with 250. Napoleon followed his usual strategy of trying to strike quickly. heretic. Russian.000 men. The Spanish Catholic church spread anti-French propaganda that equated Napoleon with heresy. In only a few months. One by one. In October.000 French troops and forced Napoleon to bully Prussia and Austria into supplying soldiers of dubious loyalty for the Moscow campaign. but the Russian generals avoided confrontation and retreated eastward.000 troops through Spain to invade Portugal. Austrian. Napoleon controlled more territory by 1812 than any European ruler had since Roman times (see "Mapping the West:' page 635). With British financial support. In the German states. No nations bucked under Napoleon's reins more than Portugal and Spain. In 1812. destroying anything that might be useful to the invaders. 1788-1808). now more pathetic than grand. Napoleon began his retreat. opposition led to the formation of a network of secret societies.

voted in national elections for the first time.. but the army conquered other peoples and gave a leading general the chance to take power for himself. Completely routed. . German.634 Chapter . The revolutionary cataclysm permanently altered the political landscape of Europe. Napoleon's plans for a united Europe.n Inadvertently laid the foundations for the . had made such an impact on world history. met in clubs. imprison. the French Revolution became the 1 mo ern revo ution and in th h mode .000 others from annexed and satellite states died fighting for the French between 1800 and 1815. At first it seemed that he might succeed in separately fighting the two armies arrayed against him-a Prussian army and a joint force of Belgian.man.lcal11s:. They got their first taste of democracy. his model of an authoritarian state. epu res w 0 preferred a more cautious and conservative . waiting for help from France's enemies.' °d av~:ed e~tensiv~ change and sat together in seats to the . Dutch. was a re speaker's le. nationalism. far off the coast of West Africa. Louis XVIII fled across the border. . The French used the new spirit of national pride to inspire a huge citizen army.com/huntconcise.E. The period known as the Hundred Days (the length of time between his escape and his final defeat) had begun. Helena. err ~o ern orms dunng the French Revolution. '. Ge. o~ Dut. t es. Napoleon had no choice but to abdicate again. apoheo. But the ideals of universal education. This time the victorious allies banished him permanently to the remote -··R·E·V·. h~s:U~:::i:":f western Europ~.hln. Napoleon could not maintain his position once he lost in battle. and kill dissidents. mOd~lsOevfentsdunfoldedlbe~ween789 and 1815. but no military figure since Alexander the Great in the fourth century B. however.e·t·o·g·a·in·c·o·nt·ro·.t~ l~s7. this chapter in the Online Study Guide at b df d' ISmap. the duke of Wellington.~S e~on F~enc~ domination.. But the Prussians evaded him and joined with Wellington at Waterloo. e process set t e enduring patterns of all dictat~~s~i~'~I~s~o~~P~bl.d~mocracy. Napoleon suppressed all other meaningful political participation and offered in its place law and order and modernization from above. attracted cheering crowds and former soldiers to his side. and even his inadvertent awakening of national sentiment set the agenda for European history in the modern era. Even the ms left and rIght got their political meaning in this period' "the left" f erence to d ti hf . ISe orts to extend French power sparked resisthemselves as Italian.cal people began to think of Us nineteenth-century spread of national' Ism' F . and British troops led by Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852).C. see t e map activity for e or stmartlns. religious toleration.000 French soldiers and 400. his insistence on spreading the legal reforms of the French Revolution. Mediterranean Mapping the West Europe under Napoleonic Domination 1812 In 1812. and in the case of men. Like many other authoritarian rulers after him.·EW··W·h·y·w·a·s·N·a·p·ol·e·on·a·b·. Napoleon in turn created yet another new form of rule with a long history in the modern era: a police state in which the generals played a leading political role.6 The French Revolution and Napoleon Conclusion 635 iI' I I II I escaped from Elba in early 1815 and. and military ter . French allies c::J ~ French enemies Battle ATLANTIC OCEAN Conclusion The cost of Napoleon's rule was high: 750. 'o. Napoleon quickly moved his reconstituted army into present-day Belgium. .·island of St. The French executed their king as a traitor and set up Europe's first republic with universal male suffrage and a written guarantee of "the rights of man. where he died in 1821 at the over so much of Europe? age of fifty-two. or more e p analyzing thi h . The French revolutionary experiment thus led to democracy and to a kind of totalitarianism. Napoleon had at least nomina' t IfI ' his fatal mistake of invading Russia.terrorism. The losses among those attempting to stop Napoleon were at least as high. ho:~::. and democratic participation could not prevent the institution of new forms of government terror to persecute. Ev~n bef~re he made ously weakened in the Italian and German stat H' ff Y ad been undermined In Spain and seritance almost everywhere As Na oleo . landing in southern France." Ordinary people marched in demonstrations.

Censer. Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution (includes CD-ROM of images and music). Katherine Streip. The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. abolition of. 2004. who insisted that the Revolution continued the process of state centralization undertaken by the monarchy. Vol. s~~ Chapters 19 and 20 of Sources 0if THE MAKING OF THE WEST. d disturbing questions about t e in France between 1789 and 1815 inevita y raise.80S British naval forces defeat the French at the battle of Trafalgar. Tocqueville. Napoleon: A Political Life. R. For primary-source material from this pe~iod. regime democratic I 1 oe militaristic. h stance sa t as a g . Alexis de. 1964. Third Edition.chnm.8'2 Napoleon invades Russia • '789 French Revolution begins • '795 Third (flnal) partition of Poland • '799 Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power In a coup • '79' Slave revolt in 51. . Dominique. 2001. Beaucour. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America. Steven. Harriet Branson Applewhite. so threatening? significance of What was the long-term Napoleon for Europe? ment the only answer to divisive political conflicts in a time of war? The French Revolution and its aftermath-the era of Napoleon-raised these questions and many more.6 The French Revolution and Napoleon 637 ker' right The breathtaking succession of regimes roup to t h e spea er s . bl . Fernand Emile. and Chantal Orgogozo. Interpreting the French Revolution. Darline Gay.com/huntconclse. 2008. Recent works on Napoleon show how powerfully his armies affected every European state. Napoleon signs a concordat with the pope :. Trans. "Levy. 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Liberty. Garrigus. authoritarian style of governCHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. R.edu/revolution Cole.Conclusion Chapter . Bambi Ballard.804 Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France and Issues the Civil Code 'Hunt. Why did the other rulers of Europe find the French Revolution 2. Furet. Andress. Laurent. 1979. The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History . Trans. Equality. David A. Yves Laissus. • . 1760-1800. Women in Revolutionary Paris. Stuart Gilbert. Originally published 1856. See also the accompanying Web site: http://www. 2006. Jack R. Lynn. Napoleon: A Symbol for an Age. Elborg Forster. Napoleon Foundation: http://www. 198 J. 2007.gmu. Trans. • . The Struggle. ed. 1996. 1955.. Suggested References The most influential book on the meaning of the French Revolution is still the classic study by Tocqueville. Trans. "Blaufarb. lence Do all revolutions in the relationship between rapid political change ~n: VlO of conquest or terror? Is a ars name of democracy inevitably degenerate mow or blacks to vote? Is a . 1789-1795.org Palmer. Englund. and Mary Durham Johnson. The Discovery of Egypt. ---- For practice quizzes and other s~udy tools. The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Bell. see the Online Study ?uide at bedfordstmartins. louis XVI of France executed for treason • . A Brief History with Documents. 1998. David. and John D. 2. Domingue (Haiti) • '792 Start of war between France and the rest of Europe.80. Juan. Francois.napoleon. Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East. The Women of Paris and Their French Revolution. Napoleon wins his greatest victory at the battle of Austerlitz • . ending the Terror • '793 Second partition of Poland by prussia and Russia. second revolution of August 10 overthrows French monarchy . eds. 'Dubois.8'0 Germaine de S~ publishes On Germany • . 1990. and Lynn Hunt. Godineau. women. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean. if it d s not allow poor men. Robespierre falls. slavery in French colonies. 2006. 2007. Rafe. TIMELINE • '794 France annexes the Austrian Netherlands.

social relations.) concerns. prostitution.. Peasants and workers streamed into the cities. Most shows the entrance of the Liverpool of the gentlemen scattered to safety. So great were these changes that they are collectively labeled the Industrial Revolution. Even upper-class men and Dramatic and expensive. as well as its driving force. by contrast. but at the time it ficial casualty of the newfangled railroad. Although this revolution did not take place in a single decade like the French Revolution. Industrialization and its by-product became the symbol of the industrial rapid urban growth fundamentally altered age. (Getty political conflicts. large factories. He died within a few hours. the first ofquaint to us now. overcrowding.000. and even the landscape itself. but former and Manchester Railway Line at Edge cabinet minister William Huskisson fell and Hill in Liverpool. The engine seems was hit. impressed evei yone with its size and speed. • 1830. the introduction of steamdriven machinery. twice the original estimate.000 just between 1841 and 1846. Berlin more than doubled between 1819 and 1849. Another engine. railroads were women flocked to see the new engine the most striking symbol of the new indusin operation. Railroads immediately trial age. disease. The sum was enormous. including the duke of Wellington. THELIVERPOOL N ANDMANCHESTER AILWAYINEopened in England to R L the cheers of crowds and the congratulations of government officials. crime. The population of London grew by 130. and drinking all seemed to be on the increase as a result. I . the engine man earned only £54 a year.. The thirtymile-long line required an act of Parliament and cost the private company formed to build it some £800.000 people in the 1830s alone.83' go as fast as twenty-seven miles per hour. To many observers. The New Railroad approached at high speed-the engine could This engraving by H. and Paris expanded by 120. cultural Images. In the excitement of the opening. Pyall from . the hero of Waterloo and now prime minister. George Stephenson's Rocket. and a new working class transformed life in the Western world. some of the dignitaries gathered on a parallel track.

socialism.n) under the supervision of the manufacturer in a large ~orkshop. smoothed. assisted by the children. the Englishman John Kay had patented the flying shuttle. This kind of synergy built on previous changes 11 . when the rapid transformation of European society provided the combusCHAPTER FOCUS QUESTION Howdidthe tible material for a new set of revolutionIndustrial evolutionreatenewsocialand R c political onflicts? c ary outbreaks more consuming than any __________ --' since 1789. The mother and children washed the fibers and carded and combed the. Demands for social and political change came to a head in 1848. water frames replaced thousands of women spinners working at home by hand. political revolts broke out sporadically in the 1820s and again in 1830. enabling them to "throw" yarn across the loom rather than draw it back and forth by hand. manufacturers had an incentive to produce mo~e and cheaper cotton cloth. I The Industrial Revolution French and British writers of the 1820s introduced the term Industrial Revolution to capture the drama of contemporary economic change and to draw a parallel with the French Revolution. When the flying shuttle came into widespread use in the 1760s. steam-driven machines. The cloth was then "finished" (bleached. The claims of the new ideologies. the Industrial Revolution did not have definite dates that marked its beginning or end. such as coal and iron. and communism each offered their adherents a doctrine that explained social change and advocated a political program to confront it.ng-out or domestic system. they lived in a world that was deeply unsettled by two parallel revolutions: the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Ideology. when James Watt adapted the existing model to make a more efficient steam engine for pumping water from coal mines and for driving machinery in textile factories. which weavers operated by pulling a cord that drove the shuttle to either side of the loom. Good opportunities for soc~almobility and relative political stability in the eighteenth century provided an environment that fostered the pragmatism of the English and Scottish inventors who designed the machinery. and the nec~ssary ~~tural resources at home. Using the engines produced. Roots of Industrialization British inventors had been steadily perfecting and adapting steam engines for five decades before George Stephenson built his Rocket. In the first half of the nineteenth century. wove the cloth.~~xtile production increased because of the spread of the puttl. England had a good supply of private investment capital from overseas trade and commercial profits. Cotton textile production skyrocketed.m. Most of these revolts failed. all the new power machinery was assembled in large factories that hired semiskilled men. refers to a coherent set of beliefs about the way a society's social and political order should be organized.. But unlike the French upheaval.-rIndustrializatIon and SocIal ferment - TheIndustrial Revolution in the text~e industry. The father.Io~ated either 10 town or in the countryside. innovations tended to reinforce each other. women. many Europeans began to take notice of the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization and often complained of the consequences. manufacturers supplied the raw materials. Several factors interacted to make England the first site of the Industrial Revolution. liberalism. Conservatism. A key breakthrough took place in 1776. . These early industrialists shared a culture of informal S~ientific education through learned societies and popular lectures (one of the pr~m1Oent forms of the Enlightenment in Britain). but in the eighteenth century it grew dramatically. Since coal fired the steam engines that drove the new textile machines. weavers b~gan producing cloth more quickly than spinners could produce thread. After the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) settled the boundaries of post-Napoleonic Europe and established conservatism as a kind of official ideology on the continent. where new nations emerged. an~ so o. which when perfected could be run by a small boy and YIeldfifteen times the output of a skilled adult weaver working a handloom. Then the mother and older daughters spun them into thread. freeing some agricultural workers to move to the new manufacturing centers. and It included not only textiles but also the manufacture of products Chapter 17 Although Europeans longed for peace and stability in the aftermath of the Napoleonic whirlwind. This system had existed In the ~extIiemd~st:y for hundreds of years. Social and political ferment prompted the development of a whole spectrum of ideologies to explain the meaning of the changes taking place. the revolutionary legacy. Despite their efforts. Under the putting-out system. a power-driven spinn10g machine. ready access to raw cotton from the plantations of its Caribbean colonies and the southern United States. Matthew Boulton. and the new problems created by industrialization and urbanization all posed pressing challenges to rulers. The spinning jenny and water frame. nationalism. a word coined during the French Revolution. such as woolen or cotton fibers. In the following decades. were introduced in the 1760s. textile manufacturing-long a linchpin in the European economy-expanded in the eighteenth century even without the introduction of new"mac.hines a~d f:ctories . Edmund Cartwright designed a mec~anlzed loo~ 10 the 1780s. to families working at home. Manufacturers proved eager to 1Ot~oducesteam-driven machinery to increase output and gradually established factone~ to house the new machines and concentrate the labor of their workers. Elsewhere in Europe. The agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century had enabled England to produce food more efficiently. by Watt a~d his partner. Because population increased by more than 50 percent in England in the second half of the eighteenth century. dyed. and a new working class spread fitfully across Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. and children to replace skilled weavers. except in Latin America and Greece. In 1733. large factories. restored monarchs tried to limit challenges to their rule. By the en~ of the ~e~tury. From their first appearance in Great Britain in the second half of the eighteenth century. The resulting shortage of spun thread propelled the invention of machines to speed t~e proces~ of spinning.

and even pastel s~ades of cotton now replaced the black. When Britain abolished slaver in its Caribbean colonies in 1833. Railroads grew spectacularly In the United States in the 1830s and 1840s as well. The ~p~ead. steam-driven carriag. Railroad building spurred both industrial development and state power (se "Mapping the West. the Indian cit of Calcutta exported to England £2 million of cotton cloth. and Belgians exported seve times as many steam engines as they imported. What. The rapid expansion of the British textile industry had as its colonial cor ollary the destruction of the hand-manufacture of textiles in India. includingPrussia but excludingAustria). both rare in the past. The figures are dramatic: in 1813. iliI5. which depended on private and state funds to pay for the massive amounts « iron.915 5.7.The extension of commerce and. railroad building became a new industry throughout Europe (~ee Takl~g Measure"). nails. baskets. The British pl high import duties on Indian cloth entering Britain and kept such duties very lot for British cloth entering India. Because of this expansion. . when ~he English engineer George Stephenson perfected an engine to pull wago~s along Iron tracks. by 1830. yellow.787 Formation of the Working Class Steam-driven machines first brought workers together in factories in the textil industry. by 1850 continental Europ still lagged almost twenty years behind Great Britain in industrial development. The number of steamboats in Britain increased from two in 1812 to six hundre in 1840. Calcutta wa importing from England £2 million of cotton cloth. the world had 23. the abilityto wage war would depend on the development ?f effective rail networks.' page 679). newly independent in 1830. On« third of all investment in the German states in the 1840s went into railroads. Great Britain . steam power doubled in Britain and increased eve more rapidly elsewhere in Europe.501 ~~~~~~~ 9. thousanc of British engineers defied laws against the export of machinery or the emigration ( artisans. could transport people and goods to the cities and link coal and iron deposits t the new factories. Engines of Change Steam-driven engines took on a dramatic new form in the 1820s. Railroads: however. and the British also began to Austria-Hungary 10 1. Until the 1840s. 1830-1850 ..856 o 10 RUSSia . more than half of Britain's national income came from manufacturing an trade. ordinary people began to wear underclothes and nightclothes. B midcentury. Steam-powered engines made Great Britain the world leader in manufacturing. In all. blue. John Cockerill.. of the ~o~estic system o~ manufacturing is sometimes called proto-industna!tzatlOn to signify that the pr~ cess helped pave the way for the full-scale Industrial Revolution.357 131 France ••••• Germany" ••••••••••• Italy _620 12. One German entreprenei confidently predicted. opened the first continental railad in 1835 with state bonds backed by British capital. more than one million people in Britain depended on the cotto industry for employment. "German states that formed a unified Germany in 1871.. British manufacturers began to buy raw cotton i' the southern United States. In ~he 1830s. Governments everywhere participated in the construction of rai roads.and France? Measure Railroad Lines. schools. Even so. . green.such as glassware. developed only after Stephenson's invention of a steam-powered 10comotIv~. "The locomotive is the hearse which will carry absolutist and feudalism to the graveyard:' But the most obvious effects could be seen in th demand for iron products. heavy machinery. By 1830. Belgium. and guns..do the numbers say about the relative positions of Germany (the German states. did most continental European countries begin closing the gap.. Railroad Lines (in kilometers) _ 1830 _ 1850 Taking Great Britainquicklyextended its lead in buildingrailroads... where slavery still flourished. The best known of them.. . Sorr people expected social and political change to follow. These statistics might be taken as predicting a realignment of power WithinEurope a~er laSO. Placed on the new tracks. red.. the number of steam engines in Belgium quadrupled. or brown of traditional woolen clothing. set up a machine works in Belgiur that was soon selling its products as far east as Poland and Russia. Although Britain consciously tried to protect its industrial supremacy. Between 1830 and 184. White. cotton had led industrial productioi but afterward iron and coal began to count more and more. Belgiur became the fastest-growing industrial power on the continent. Cockerill claime to know about every innovation within ten days of its appearance in Britain. Only slowly. Between 1840 and 1850. as those adopting British inventions strove to catc up. and human labor required to build and run them. gray. before long. and cotton cloth constituted 50 percent of the country exports.500 miles of track by midcentur the vast majority of them in Europe. coal. 10 build railroads in India.Austria-Hungary. The idea of a railroad was not new: iron tracks had been used Since the seventeenth century to haul coal from mines in wagons pulled by horses. including Prussia but not Austria. thanks to such pirating of British methods and to new technic.

t oug C hild en and the work was grueling. economic class W1t. gar dening water and woo . and in Prussia 2 percent. compared to the average life span of forty years throughout England.The Industrial Revolution Chapter 17 Industrializationand SocialFerment 645 rban opulation surge. H1stonans ong as Manchester and Leeds increase p id ushed off the land by the field k came from the eountrysr e. continued to toil at home in cottage industries. Despite increasing industrial growth. aun ry. In 1811 and 1812. Some new industries idled periodically: for example. iron forges stopped for several months when the water level in streams dropped. From these would come the first labor unions.f~heworkPka. of cotton in England captures the dangers of child This 1836depiction of t~e me. factory owners simply closed their doors until demand for their goods improved. . (The term is still used to describe those who resist new technology. h di ti tive culture an tra d 1 10n . p thought that factory wor ers d' h h wn that the number of agricultural enclosures of the . Workdays of twelve al h h family members penorme 1 II a single wage. In the 1840s. wor e . Yorkshire. which forbade large political meetings and restricted press criticism. "From this filthy sewer pure gold flows. k d 11 came to constitute a new SOC1Oy As urban factories grew. to the laborers m t e new ac 0 . or A system of e~ployment that res~m h: ne~ f:Ctories. To restore order and protect industry. d carrymg. wrecked factory machinery and burned mills in the Midlands. they attracted much attention because they created both unheard-of riches and new forms of poverty.n. an . two-thirds of the manufacturing workers in Prussia and Saxony labored at home for contractors or merchants who supplied raw materials and then sold the finished goods. u t~eir own. gamblers. . Peter's with Waterloo. But re~ent . "Here humanity attains its most complete development and its most brutish. The rioters were called Luddites. Some peasants kept their options open by combining factory work with agricultural labor.h f tries In t e past. sixty thousand people attended an illegal meeting held in St. In the 1840s. Eleven people were killed and many hundreds were injured in what was soon labeled the Peterloo massacre (combining St. whose signature appeared on their manifestos. factory workers remained a minority everywhere. Factory Work .st~U:~:ial~::ti~: in Britain.ce. industnes also developed in t C d different tasks. which had begun in the Factories drew workers from e u ThP ul ti on of such new industrial cities . and Lancashire. Entire families came to toil for cottage. after the fictitious figure Ned Ludd. their wor ers grda ua .n d~ ~ labor on farms or in putting-out.) provide a positive or a negative pIC ure 0 Workers soon developed a sense of common interests and organized societies for mutual help and political reform. ren. Do you think the artist aimed to h fficiently than mdlvlduals wor mg on thread muc more e . both men and women. In August 1819. s Like middle class. and ordinary people eagerly bought cheap newspapers that clamored for change.' d I supervision by their employers. here civilization works its miracles and civilized man is turned almost into a savage:' Studies by physicians set the life expectancy of workers in Manchester at just seventeen years in 1840 (partly because of high rates of infant mortality). Peter's Fields in Manchester. for example. In hard times. I eighteent cen ury . whose members were chosen in elections dominated by the landowning elite.' t f factory work? (MaryEvans icture P Library. Most workers. I d d bU1'lding In contrast. d 40 ercent in the 1820s alone. suggesting that a growlaborers actually mcreased dunng d 6 d workers into the new factory system.1700s. brought people together with machines. The print does not portray labor: the child (lower right) ISsweepmg I b t lt does show how machines could produce the churning noise and swirling du~t o. d e pop a 1 . the British government sent in an army of twelve thousand regular soldiers and made machine wrecking punishable by death. factones .' wrote the French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville after visiting Manchester in the 1830s.' . fearing their displacement by machines. a 1Sme 1 t time in the early nineteenth century. One reformer complained that the members of the House of Commons were nothing but "toad-eaters. the term t . and hirelings:' Reform clubs held large open-air meetings. An alarmed government passed the Six Acts. the battle that had ended Napoleon's reign only four years before). factories in England employed only 5 percent of the workers.) Other British workers focused their organizing efforts on reforming Parliament. . It referred woiking class came into use for the firs h k rs had labored in isolated trades: . When the local authorities sent the cavalry to arrest the speaker. They worked in agriculture during the spring and summer and in manufacturing in the fall and winter. in Fr~nce 3 percent.chamzedsP~::~~hile the machine works. panic resulted. and blast furnaces shut down for repairs several weeks every year. h t and now accelerate. Visitors invariably complained about the . bands of handloom weavers. public plunderers. typical even lor c to seventeen h ours were . suppressing the reform movement for a decade. ing birthrate created a larger popu at1:. Even though factories employed only a small percentage of the population. un er c ose th . Unstable industrial wages made such arrangements essential.

ish quarter of London. believing the doctors were pOisonmg the poor and using cholera as a hoax to cover up the conspiracy.000 in that of 1849. and in Russia. as many people as tuberculosis..183~. Residents dumped refuse into streets or cou~tyards. devastating outbreaks of cholera swept across Asia and Europe. France. rotting straw or potato peels because they had no money for fuel to keep warm. women. accounted for this remarkable increase. In Pans. the Factory Act of 1833outlawed the employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills. Men. While cholera particularly ravaged the crowded. I~ Lon~o~. discolor the human saliva. reported that in working-class districts "several persons live in one room in a single bed. Human was~eended up in the rivers that supplied the cities' drinking water. In the 1830s and 1840s. 18. too. In Paris In Apnl . they could not migrate to the new factory towns. Between 1815 and the mid-1830s in France. Europe's population grew by nearly 100 percent between 1800 and 1850. Se:ere crowding worsened already dire sanitation conditions. give white sheep the color of black sheep. even in Russia signs of industrialization could be detected: raw cotton imports (a sign of a growing textile industry) increased sevenfold between 1831 and 1848. rather than births to women already living in cities. 461 people lived in just twelve houses. in large part because serfdom still survived there. the lower ~lasses fewer). The usu~lly fatal illness induced violent vomiting and diarrh~a and left the ski~ blue. and human excrement collected in cesspools under apart~ent houses. the Central Short Time Committee. and landlords felt little incentive to invest their income in manufacturing. sometimes under age six. Nevertheless.did no~ kill.000 cesspools were emptied only once. and children huddled together on piles of filthy. Despite the diversion of water from provincial rivers to Paris and a tripling of the number of public fountains. As long as peasants were legally tied to the land as serfs.. 33. Eastern European peasants burned estates and killed physicians and officials Thou?h de~astating. Water was scarce and had to be fetched daily from ne~rb: fountains. the fine soot or blacks darken the day.t~e ~oorer sections for only a few hours three days a week. were hauling coal trucks through low. while in France and the German states the urban population was only about a quarter of the total. goats. Here. and Poles flocked to German cities. Since the construction of new housing could not keep up with population growth. A doctor in the Prussian town of Breslau (population 111. In rapidly growing Bnt. The reader will complete the picture:' Officials collected statistics on illegitimacy that seemed to b~~ro~t these fears: one-quarter to one-half of the babies born in the big European cities m the 1830s and 1840s were illegitimate. hindering labor mobility and tying up investment capital. it also claimed many rural and some wellto-do vlc. Today we know that a waterborne bacterium causes cholera. as one observer noted. and therefore had less Impact on social relations. or perhaps a whole family. enforcement was lax.tlms. City life and new factories beckoned those faced with hunger and poverty.000 people died in the 1832 epidemic and 20. successfully pressured Parliament to limit the workday of women and children to ten hours. or twice."indivi~uals of both sexes and of very different ages lying together. most of them Without nightshirts and repulsively dirty . and City dwellers often kept chickens. including emigrants from other lands: thousands of Irish emigrated to English cities. and corrode monuments and buildings:' Authorities worried in particular about the effects on families. private companies that supplied water turned on pumps m . In London. and the number of factories doubled.000 died in each epidemic. In 1847 in St.. disease. Parisians had enough water for only two baths annually per person (the upper classes enjoyed more baths. Europe'~ deadliest. In 1830-1832 and agam m 1847-1851. touching the United States as well in 1849-1850. Italians went to French cities. and crime. Urbanization and Its Consequences Industrial development spurred urban growth wherever factories were located in or near cities. m 1835 wrote of. Giles. but at the time no one understood the disease and everyone feared. The advance of industrialization in eastern Europe was slow.The Industrial Revolution Chapter '7 Industrialization and Social Ferment 647 smoke and soot. At midcentury.. but since most did not insist on government inspection.orses that provided transportation inside the cities left droppings everywhere. contaminate the air. A physician visiting Lille. where industrialization had hardly begun and would not take off until the end of the nineteenth century. In 1847. along with the size of the industrial workforce. and use the room for all domestic duties. however. Reformers believed that overcrowding among the poor led not only to disease but also. R~mors and panic followed in the wakes of epidemics such as cholera. as :el~ as dogs and cats. and alarmed medical men wrote about thousands of infanticides. Adults worked even longer hours. Parliament passed the Mines Act of 1842 prohibiting the employment of women and girls underground.. When investigating commissions showed that women and young children. The result was. Tuberculosis took ItS victims one by one. one of Britain's many social reform organizations. to sexual promiscuity.000 victims in 1831-1832 and 1 million in 1847-1851. many European cities ballooned. for example. claiming 250. Great Britain led the way: half the population of England and Wales lived in towns by 1850. The problem was worst in Russia. overcrowding was inevitable. . yet cities grew even with little industry. a crowd of workers attacked a central hospital. the epidemics were catastrophic. geese. in their houses. ducks. it. Massive rural emigration. Their diet consists largely of bread and potatoes:' In Great Britain. illegitimacy. the Ir.000 in 1850). poison many plants. filthy nelghb~r~oods of ra~ldly growing cities.000 .lsh industrial cities such as Manchester. London's approximately 250. one-third of the houses contained no latnnes. The h. Countries in continental Europe followed Britain's lead. so that the air gets vitiated [polluted]. pigs.. a year. and even cattle. cholera .cramped passagewaysin coal mines. One American visitor to Britain in the late 1840s described how "in the manufacturing town. a universal atmosphere of filth and stink:' Suc~ c~nditions made cities prime breeding grounds for disease. yet agricultural yields increased by only 30 to 50 percent. It also limited the workdays of children ages nine to thirteen to nine hours a day and those ages thirteen to eighteen to twelve hours. 7.

hti~h rtehligli08u4s0sgr~yu~s8~a1un~~~. artisans. One German temperance advocate insisted. By the end of the 1830s. not public activities. Catholic religious orders. still less than in Protestant Prussia. Many women viewed charitable work as the extension of their domestic roles: they promoted virtuous behavior and morality and thus improved society. Many societies dedicated themt~~ sionary. women. Organizations such as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals tried to eliminate popular blood sports such as cockfighting and bearbaiting. followed the teachings of John W of En land and in the early decades of the ninegradually separated from the Church f gb . and female reform societie Y .000 prosyards. The English poet Alfred. Catholics and Protestants alike promoted the temperance movement to fight the "pestilence of hard liquor:' The first temperance societies had appeared in the United States as early as 1813. "is no longer tortured amidst the exulting yells of those who are a disgrace to our common form and nature:' Other blood sports died out more slowly.o lme~ le~s I:rs miners. were estabhsh~d. linked sexual disor er WI n boasted of twenty-three pubs in three hundred urban landscape.:::rc:. d every town to main ai education law t h at require Th I ' uthor Prancois Guizot. Lord Tennyson. e awsa. leper which by 1850 enrolled many more wohmen N C'atholic orders.h itals every year Middle-class observers babies were abandoned at foundhng oSdP. w IC r h ff nd fifteen were attending Sunday hild b tween t e ages 0 rve a all working-c Iass c I ren e d f hen few working-class children schools.. especially for . ProtI . Shopkeepers. . bullbaiting had been abandoned in Great Britain. . industries.829.::~s~:ary activity would become istration of India In 1. "One need not be a prophet to know that all efforts to combat the widespread and rapidly spreading pauperism will be unsuccessful as long as the common man fails to realize that the principal source of his degradation and misery is his fondness of drink:' Yettemperance societies also attracted working-class people who shared the desire for respectability. a share of the wealth hearts seethe with hatred of the we blushin I of a coming day of retribution:' about them. n . I I 1833 the French government passed an uplifting the poor and the working c ass. thei male clients Others promoted selves to reforming prostitutes andfcahstlgatlnldg eltr British col~ny of India. Yet women's social reform activities concealed a paradox. / Man for the sword and for the needle she.. . 60 percent of children attended primary school in France. ity i ther parts 0 t e wor . an arm of European Impenahsm an come the perceived indifference Religiously motivated reformers first h. Peasants were specifically excluded from the few primary schools in Russia. lacking in both. I and old-age omes. Laws everywhere codified the . where 75 percent of children went to school. s one of the main prospects for c. According to the set of beliefs that historians call the doctrine or ideology of domesticity. their mouths speak un us mg Y I \ I \ I Reforming the Social Order . By the late 1830s. hospitals. I. medica or Charitable impulses often went hand in hand o reformers to orgamze to help the Pd d: . Police officials estimated that Lon on a ." The law required that all able-bodied persons receiving relief be placed in workhouses.. t tin a primary school. nusProtestant women In Grea~ ~r~t~1n hundreds. I accounts and fictionalized depictions prompted Government repo:ts. t.. fessi I opportunities were severely limited. holic missionary activity overseas increased. and efforts in other countries generally lagged behind those of the British. All else confusion:' Many believed that maintaining proper and distinct roles for men and women was critically important to maintaining social order in general. agncu tura a or . d t. I~~:ols were run by Methodists. they took a prominent role In chanta than men ran schools. " and provide ree e uca IOn " d th masses turbulent and ferocious. with attempts to Impose . One London street d h d 70 000 thieves and 80. A Swiss pastor warned of t~e co:s~. Great Britain sought to control the costs of public welfare by passing a new poor law in 1834. order an ISClP 0 Ine . British women from all social classes organized anti-poor law societies to protest the separation of mothers from their children in the workhouses.The Industrial Revolution Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment 649 . ew colonies. Workhouse life was designed to be as unpleasant as possible so that poor people would move on to regions of higher employment. governments often intervened. with husbands separated from wives and parents from children. f H· d customs Sati-the burning 0 . P~~ee:~~~:form work. The Methodists. they should devote themselves to the home. n lower-class families deemed to be .~r~testan d cultural influence in the nineteenth century. "This useful animal:' rejoiced one reformer in 1839.. who could go to school ~uring the week. Insane as~ urns. school movement. which taught children how to reaS at. or participation in politics through voting or holding office-all activities deemed appropriate only to men. n he f missionary activi In 0 c. d f.. explained . The notion of a separate. pay a teacher.. captured this view in a popular poem published in 1847: "Man for the field and woman for the hearth. Beer halls and pubs dotted the . women should live their lives entirely within the domestic sphere. ~lthough ~omens. Most women had little hope of economic independence. huge revival meetings that lasted teenth century attracted t~ousands. t~:nS~~1~ hi h eached ItSzenit In e .r~. or Wesleyans. and Cat. Popular education remained woefully undeveloped in most of eastern Europe.3~i7s91). and workers in cottage for days.~~:~!~~te:~~~s::~~~e:~~~:. work in professional careers. Temperance advocates saw drunkenness as a sign of moral weakness and a threat to the social order. I h re also saw e uca IOn a Social relormers e sew e . domestic sphere for women prevented them from pursuing higher education.f df to poor boys. both male an ema e. f lower class poverty: "Their titutes. called by its critics the "Starvation Act. estant misslOnanes argue 0 d b li hed by the British adminwidows on the ~u~eral pyres of thei: ~~~b~t~Oli. and by 1835 the American Temperance Society claimed 1. d the United States established Bible. Their members believed that such entertainments encouraged violent behavior outside the arena.d /~h~:~rkers in cities attended religious ~!::i:. d ..~:n~ 1. I flocked to the new enomlna IOn.d ith d inking an crime. d f r the rerorrn 0 In U .e~ lust fo. the government's attitude: Ignorance ren ers e Girls' schools were optional. . When private charities failed to meet the needs of the poor.. .5 million members.

financiers. where they were taught to be religious. and simply cut hair rather than wigs-women continued to dress for decorative effect.) 1848 in France. Thanks to increased literacy. the radical inaptitude of the female sex is there yet more marked . Whether by women or men. Jane Eyre (1847). Distinctions between men and women were most noticeable in the privileged classes. She actively participated in the revolution pamphlets of NY. the insane. shown In one of her notorious Sand published ~~merous works.650 Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment New Ideologies 651 subordination of women.. for example.. Sand's novel Indiana (1832). bureaucrats. Middle. ~\ New Ideologies Although reform organizations grew rapidly in the 1830s and 1840 E found th . the French writer Balzac (1799-1850) cranked out ninety-five novels and many short stories. as a "cheerless :~. an influential early French sociologist. supervising servants. ~hould governments try to moderate or accelerate the pace of change? New I eologies such as liberalism and socialism offered competing answers to' these . Jane Eyre refuses to achieve respectability and security through marriage. n addition to publishing such enduring favorites as Oliver Twist (1838) and A ~h:. How dl~ the new social order differ from the earlier one. plays. Manufacturers. many uropeans b . "As for any functions of government.th. wrote. Thus was born the "Victorian" woman. Whereas boys attended secondary schools. When his father was imprisoned for debt in 1824. the young Dickens took a job in a sho~-polis~ factory. Unlike the fiction of the eighteenth century. writing of the new republic. After working briefly as a political Journah~t. and an autobiography. Like many other women writers of the time. She announced her independence in the 1830s by dressing like a man and smoking cigars. she published her work under a male pseudonym while creating female characters who prevail in difficult circumstances through romantic love and moral idealism. travel Writing. now with tightly corseted waists that emphasized the differences between female and male bodies. the spread of reading rooms and lending libraries. he began publishing novels. and organizing social events. thieves. and they wore long. he set up a home for homeless women and personally ran It ror twelve years. was read all over Europe. ~m msu Ic~ent to answer the questions raised by industrialization and ~r amzation.~ manu~acturing region west and northwest of Birmingham. Pushing himself to exhaustion and a premature death to get out of debt.and upper-class women had long hair that required hours of brushing and pinning up. Many countries followed the model of Napoleon's Civil Code. and aristocratic men and women filled the pages of works George Sand ~n this lithograph IS by Alcide Lorentz (1842). novels reached a large reading public and helped shape public awareness. novels proved to be the art form best suited to portraying the new society and its social ills. starving students. the great novels of the 1830s and 1840s specialized in the description of social life in all its varieties. obedient. Scientists reinforced stereotypes. describes the difficult life of an orphaned girl who becomes a governess.strnas Carol (1843). a figment of the largely male medical imagination. and criminals. For Dickens. prostitutes. Once considered sexually insatiable. the ability to portray the problems of the poor went REVIEW Why were cities seen as dangerous hand in hand with a personal commitment places? to reform. which classified married women as legal incompetents along with children. In 1839.. in support (The Granger Collection. by popular writers such as Honore de Balzac and Charles Dickens. George Sand masculine costumes. an attitude that many equated with moral superiority. and limited to the guidance of the mere family" Novels by women often revealed the bleaker side of women's situations.~~n an~ ~ mournf~l ~lace:' in which tall chimneys "made foul the melancholy . a novel by the English writer Charlotte Bronte. cumbersome skirts. Physicians and scholars considered women mentally inferior. about an unhappily married woman. most middle. ffici s. and accomplished in music and languages. In The Old Curiosity Shop (1841). Advice books written by women detailed the tasks that such women undertook in the home: maintaining household accounts. underworld figures. Although she is in an economically weak position. many of which ~re:" attention to the poverty and misery produced by industrialization and urbanization. often dark colors. and serialization in newspapers and journals. The English author Charles Dickens (1812-1870) worked with a similar frenetic energy and for much the same reasons. 1804-1876) took her social criticism a step further. the only occupation open to most single middle-class women. Auguste Comte. women were now described as incapacitated by menstruation and largely uninterested in sex. workers. Her notoriety made the term George-Sandisrn a common expression of disdain for independent women. which had focused on individual personalities.. no makeup (previously common for aristocratic men). As men's fashions turned practical-long trousers and short jackets of solid. including novels. which was ess u:ban and less driven by commercial concerns? Who should control this new ~:der. he depicts the Black Country. essays.. the usual option for women. The French novelist George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Dupin.and upper-class girls still received their education at home or in church schools.

and tradition must fill the vacuum left by the failures of reason and excessive belief in individual rights. socialism. The abolitionists' efforts finally bore fruit in 1833 when Britain abolished slavery in all its colonies. contemporaries that government could be changed overnight. Napoleon had b~come a tyrant who ruled in his own interests. He called his brand of liberalism "utilitarianism" because he held that the best policy is the one that produces "the greatest good for the greatest number" and is thus the most useful. history. only one in five Britons could now vote. Conservatives blamed the Fr~nch Revolution's attack on religion on the skepticism and anticlericalism of such Enlighten~ent thinkers as Voltaire. liberals emphasized constitutionalism and free trade above all else.n m ~ece. Across Europe. Kings and churches could be restored and former revolutionaries locked up or silenced. The potential for rapid change raised many questions about the proper sources of autho~ity. Bentham and many other liberals joined the abolitionist movement. They saw a logical progresslO. old. and romanticism. as well as all books about the United States. and writers.. In the eyes of most Europeans. The league established local branches. later conservatives believed that religious and other major traditions were an essential foundation for any society.. Go~ernment. Conservatives believed it was crucial to analyze the ro~ts of such tyranny so that established authorities could use t. The political doctrine that justified the restoration was conservatism. he railed against the injustices of the British parliamentary process. When the Tories in Parliament resisted the proposed extension of the right to vote. He sent nearly ten thousand people a year into exile in Siberia as punishment for their political activities. had to be rooted in long experience. were banned by Tsar Nicholas I (r.New Ideologies 653 questions and provided the platform for n~w pOlit!cal ~ovements. or utilitarian. The leaders of the rapidly expanding middle class. Bentham's criticisms spared no Institution. liberalism. t~e Enlightenment based on reason led to the French Revolution. the fa~ily rather than the individualistic "rights of man. French liberals agitated for greater freedom of the press and a broadening of the vote. the abuses of the prisons and the penal code. British liberals pushed for two major reforms in addition to the abolition of slavery: expansion of the electorate to give representation to a broader segment of the middle classand repeal of the Com Laws. The league eventually won the support of the Tory prime minister Sir Robert Peel. They gained their first goal in the Reform Bill of 1832. the state. Like Burke. but the old order no longer commanded automatic obedience. favored liberalism. Liberalism had less appeal in continental Europe.heir. Conservative intellectuals therefore either. The flamboyant Hungarian nationalist Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) grabbed every opportunity to publicize American democracy and British political liberalism. He argued that the revolutionaries erred ill thinking they could construct an entirely new government based on reason.729-179~). of hl~tory to prevent its recurrence. nationalism. liberalism The adherents ofliberalism defined themselves in opposition to co~servatives on one end of the political spectrum and revolutionaries on the other. . whose government repealed the Corn Laws in 1846. these views were taken up and elaborated by government advisers. two Manchester cotton manufacturers set up the Anti-Corn Law League.. that the old hlerarchl~s could be overthrown in the name of reason. The league denounced the landlords as "blood-sucking vampires" and attracted working-class backing by promising lower food prices.11 !. liberals and their supporters organized mass demonstrations. I "II I' i I' i I' I'I )! .I . Burke said. They generally applauded the social and economic changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. and they defended both hereditary monarchy and the authonty of the church. The foremost exponent of early-nineteenth-century liberalism was the English philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Faith. and campaigned in elections. Conservatives benefited from the disillusionment that permeated Europe after 1815. and. 1825-1855). Only the church. Western liberal writings.I i till! !I 1 I . When landholders in the House of Commons thwarted efforts to lower grain tariffs. All change must be gradual and must respect national and historical tra~ltlOns. The old order was now merely.I century.nt history. the British critic of the French Revolution.knowledge. professors. Nmeteent~-century liberals should not be confused with those of the present day. w~th ~tsbloody ?~I!lotine and horrifying Terror. r~jected Enlightenment principles or at least subjected them to scrutiny and skepticism. published newspapers and the journal Tile Economist (founded in 1843 and now one of the world's most influential periodicals). The Reform Bill passed after the king threatened to create enough new peers to obtain its passage in the House of Lords. or tariffs on foreign grain. Considered subversive ideas in Russia. whether Catholic or Protestant. and voting still depended on holding property. composed of manufacturers. the bill gave representation to new cities in the industrial north for the first time and set a precedent for further widening suffrage. merchants. while opposing the violence and excessive state power promoted by the French Revolution. Conservatism The French Revolution and Napoleonic domination of Europe had. Nevertheless.' could provide an enduring SOCial order.d "tun'eless" It had been ousted once and therefore might fall na " again. and professionals. and the educational system. Agitation by groups such as the London Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade succeeded in gaining a first victory in 1807 when the British House of Lords voted to abolish the slave trade. The most influential spokesman of conservatism was Edmund Bu~ke(1. People insisted on having reasons to beli~ve in their "resto~ed governments.shown. ThiS. because industrial growth was slower and the middle classes smaller than in Britain. which intensified between the 1790s and 1820s. except in France. no Ionger "nat ura I" an. which ~vol~edover ~~neratIons. In the mneteenth . all in a fervent nationalist spirit. which in turn spawned the authoritarian ~nd militaristic Napoleon. Although the number of male voters increased by about 50 percent. and that even Christianity co~d be wrI~ten off or at least profoundly altered with the stroke of a pen.:as an era of "isms"-conservatism.

'Tis a wrong impression. interests of male and female workers She h -d 844) dev~~e~ herself to reconciling the poverty and made a reputation re~o r a se~~ ~he fngh~ful reality" of London's published a stream of books and rhlmg on. Like Thomas More. E~gland. er 0. His 1840 book Wh tIe pwor process and eliminate profits made by alone is productive. Saint-Simon was a noble who had served as an officer in the American War of Independence and lost a fortune speculating in national property during the French Revolution. tion. and then left for cotton manufacturing interests in M h g III the offices of his wealthy family's into writing The Condition of the wo~~~ e~. their downtrodden and impoverished employees. Tristan pamp ets urgmg male wo k dd unequal status . the utopian socialists believed that society would benefit all its members only if private property ceased to exist. " man. artists. begun their lifework of scientifically d di g S III the 1840s. women's rights. the Manifesto declare d. or ru mg father and moth Th li toget er in cooperative arrangements and scandalized er. and as their name suggests. arx and Engels emb did ecause t ey believed it would e t all bri race III ustrialization inevitably to the abolition of olol u . . Marx and Engels organized th C o. marriage reform d I more active. He believed that work. or capitalists. where German and h u pursue t eir p liti I' at home. The emancipation of women was essential to Fourier's vision of a harmonious community: "The extension of the privileges of women is the fundamental cause of all social progress" Women participated actively in the socialist movements of the day. Socialists criticized the new industrial order for dividing society into two classes: the new middle class. Scotland. In Great Britain. Socialists believed that the liberties advocated by liberals benefited only the middle class-the owners of factories and businesses-not the workers. Both shared Owen's alarm about the effects of industrialization on social relations. They defended women's working-class organizations against the complaints of men in the new societies and trade unions. Owenites agitated for women founded a feminist newsp~ an . orne followers of and a "he-pope" and "she-po " ve ilim a quasi-religious cult with elaborate rituals h pe. and Charles Fourier. Fourier urged the establishment of communities that were part garden city and part agricultural commune. . they had already ing revolutionary organizations Th ~n ~rst~nl ing the "laws" of capitalism and foster.. eir pnncip es and analysi f hi communists. in 1800 and began to set up a model factory town. To correct the abuses of the new industrial order. Saint-Simon coined the terms industrialism and industrialist to define the new economic order and its chief organizers.I rca interests more freely than bli h d e ornrnurust League' h pu IS e The Communist Manifesto (1848) I ' III W ose name they Marxist and communist revoluti II . Fourier traveled as a salesman for a Lyon cloth merchant. Claude Henri de Saint-Simon. emphasizThe two most influential co . hteventually became the touchstone of . As one woman wrote. Ion a over t e world Limited as was the influence of Marx and En el .unust ai for "th d IS0 f istory were in place'. Robert Owen (1771-1858) founded British socialism... Such divisions tore the social fabric.at property is theft: labor Aft 184 "an pro It are unjust . and class society. Marx st~d'P~os~~~ous German-Jewish families that had cona liberal newspaper until the P Ie. "Do not say the unions are only for men . y n~g on the proletarian revolution and lead exp citation. the socialists aimed to restore harmony and cooperation through social reorganization.. pnvate property. like her they worked to C d ki nstans plea for women's participaP' roun wor mg-class a . A successful Welsh-born manufacturer. and the working class. e own all of the bourgeoisie [capitalist class] and the ascendanc of the the old society based on class con~icts anX~~:tanat [w~rking class]. Many were utopians who believed that ideal communities are based on cooperation rather than competition. a symeastern European intellectuals co Id ers Ism a rves.. forced on our minds to keep us slaves!" As women became . . even though socialist men often shared the widespread prejudice against women's political activism. the central element in the new society. arguing that "th e emancipation of male wo k ers. whose book Utopia (1516) gave the movement its name. and rent i~ter:st rop~ty? fi~rguesth. In Paris. all jobs would be rotated to maximize happiness. many women joined the Owenites and helped form cooperative societies and unions. should be controlled not by politicians but by scientists. They sought to reorganize society totally rather than to reform it piecemeal through political measures.th emseives communists. where he met Engels.to a ress women's . Saint-Simonian ar S. a victim of internal squabbling. S. ritish working conditions. . ti ierre-Ioseph Proudhon (1809-1865) ur ed ssocia Ions.r. p I osophy at the University of Berlin. The experiment collapsed after three years.. roperty Wit communal." She ad r er~ IS Impossible so long and Women Workers. Owen bought a cotton mill in New Lanark. the abolition of classes and without private pro ty" M foundation of a new society without b h per. who owned the wealth. where workers labored only ten hours a day (instead of seventeen. r as women remain in a degraded state. and industrialists.imons brand of socialism de I d '. ans. mg their desire to replace private p . as was common). some socialists began to call h . . pOFPu education. French socialist tions so that they could control th 'k workers to form producers' associacapitalists. While workinz I p~resse It. assll'~lEngland in 1844 (1845). He moved to the United States in the 1820s to establish a community in Indiana named New Harmony. edited P. must aim I . Engels (1820-1895) both sons f rx -1883) and Friedrich verted to Christiani'ty. engineers. and a national trade union. ey Ive~ and worked The French activist Flora Tristan (1801 1 some by advocating free love. . per in ranee The Free Wo S aint. vocated the Universal Union of Men Even though most male socialists ignored T . Owen's experiments and writings inspired the movement for producer cooperatives (businesses owned and controlled by their workers). Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) and Charles Fourier (1772-1837) were Owen's contemporaries in France. collective ownership mmunists were Karl Ma (1818 . Engels had been shocked pathetic depiction of industrial work ':l~. consumer cooperatives (stores in which consumers owned shares).New Ideologies Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment 655 Socialism and the Early Labor Movement Socialism took up where liberalism left off.. russian government su d. In 1832. Three early socialists helped instigate the movement: Robert Owen. Nonetheless.

Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) w convl~ced t~at the. In 1820. The empire included three main national groups: the Germans. Nationalist aspirations were especially explosive for the Austrian Empire. In 1817. a ~ere t e consequences of linguistic diversity within tinued right up to the beginning of th:~. the Magyars of Hungary (which included Transylvania and Croatia). we have no doubt.1). 1792-1835) tried to keep nationalist impulses in check with the help of a secret police force set up on the Napoleonic model.' y IS C re rruruster. as they often did not in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. which included a variety of peoples united only by their enforced allegiance to the Habsburg emperor. When such "nations" do not coincide with state boundaries. Once Napoleon and his satellite rulers departed. Other European rulers forbade unions. nationalist sentiment turned against other outside rulers-the Ottoman Turks in the Balkans. poems. nationalism can produce violence and warfare as different national groups compete for control over territory. which are defined by common language. In eastern and central Europe. us nan goven . Working-class organization. Intellectuals took the lead in demanding unity and freedom for their peoples. death benefits. who together formed the largest group in the population but were divided into different nationalities such as Poles. In 1824. socialists.oke local ~i~~~~~:~:a~y~:~:. Instead than Italian if they came from the regions b d . and Serbs. France. How does the map underline the inhere national borders? Keep in mind that e .~pouted s. struck fear in the hearts of many in the upper classes.1La~guages map of Nineteenth-Century Europe the number of different languages and dia- I~:~: :h~k:~t~:I~d r of linguistic diversity understates they s. the British government repealed laws prohibiting labor unions. Artisans and skilled workers in France formed mutual aid societies that provided insurance. tg~nan. when a student assassinated tl plaY':nght August Kotzebue because he ridiculed the student movement Mett .uch~enophobic (antiforeign) slogans as "If you let your daughter leal rene. . Students. Croats. or even conservatives. Friedrich Ludwig _Albanian Fi~~:~fs~rian Estonian Magyar Baltic [::J Latvian GJ Lithuanian ~ue QBasque Thraco-IIIyrian GRBA: RUSSII § HelJenic [::JGreek UKRAiNIAN Breton Cornish ll~: PORTU B FRENCH ~ SPANISH Mediterranean Sea Map . "The trade unions are. including Napoleon's Civil Code. Nationalism holds that all peoples derive their identities from their nations. socialism and labor organization-like liberalism-had less impact than in western Europe. nationalism began as a radical or revolutionary movement and then evolved in a more conservative direction over time. No evidence of onsplracy was found. In the nineteenth century. and Great Britain. Cooperative societies and workers' newspapers did not appear in the German states until 1848. an upsurge in working-class organization in western Europe. A British newspaper exclaimed in 1834. but Metternich's efforts to nip dissent in the bud worked. middle-class professionals. and the Slavs.~. One of their leaders.~:~!:~:e: '~~Iia~s spo~e Italian ~s their first language. .. who made up one-fourth of the population. and education. even in limited form. They collected folktales. though it maintained restrictions on strikes. cor':lnce: the ~eaders of the biggest German states to pass the Karlsbad ~ecre::~i( ~o vm~ t e stu ent societies and more strictly censoring the press. the most dangerous institutions that were ever permitted to take roof' Nationalism Nationalists could be liberals. The Austrian government under the Habsburg emperor Francis I (r. but they also provoked nationalism in the people they conquered. an some might have spoken better Frenc contradictions of nationalism in Europe' W~rt enng ~ance. . Czechs. The empire also included Italians in Lombardy and Venetia and Romanians in Transylvania. and army officers formed secret societies to promote national independence and constitutional reform. and the Austrians in Italy. Students in some German states established nationalist student societies. linguistic diversity con- ~ahn. and histories and prepared grammars and dictionaries of their native languages (Map 17.paln. The French showed the power of national feeling in their revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. they held a mass rally at which they burned books they did not like.Chapter '7 Industrialization and Social Ferment New Ideologies Socialism accompanied. and sometimes religion. Burschenschaften in the German states and the carbonari in'Ita' were h~ed m an International conspiracy.~::. you might Just as well train her to become a whore" The At' ment led b it hi f . the Russians in Poland. shared cultural traditions. and in some places incited. or Butschenschaften.

a desperate rural population served the Austrian government's end by defusing the nationalist challenge. romanticis turned to folklore and medieval legends. Only a return to Russia'sbasic historical principles. and aim At an external life beyond our fate. however. replaced him. Nationalism also played a Significant role in Ireland. Lord Byron (1788-182£ explained his aims in writing poetry: For what is Poesy but to create From overfeeling.. a fiery Italian nationalist and republican journalist. In 1843. Romantic poetry elevated the wonders of nature almost to the supernatun Nature.rnment u. it would become evident that these different ethnic groups disliked each other as much as they disliked their Austrian masters. Exiled in 1831 for his opposition to Austrian rule in northern Italy. In the 1830s and 1840s. In response. tion. In reprisal. Mazzini founded Young Italy. under Prussian leadership. romanticism glorified nature.o~s of 1848. of as many as 300. Classicism idealized models from Roman history. wrote the English poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850). Most of the ten thousand Poles who fled took up residence in western European capitals. And be the new Prometheus of new man. One of those most touched by Mickiewicz's vision was Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872). Wordsworth greeted the French Revolution with joy. painting. genius. . the tsar abolished the Polish constitution granted in 1815 and ordered thousands of Poles executed or banished. "to me was all all:' It allowed him to sing "the stilI. which had made Ireland part of Gre Britain. a secret society that attracted thousands with its message that Italy ~oul~ touch off a European revolutionary movement. challenging the reliance on reason. a group of writers founded the Young Ireland mov ment that aimed to recover Irish history and preserve the Gaelic language (spoken 1 at least one-third of the peasantry). sad music of humanity. when Polish students and military officers formed secret nationalist societies to plot for change. where they campaigned for public support. Chief among tl romantic arts were poetry. Slaughtering some two thousand aristocrats.lsh masters. Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847). far from any factory-that captured the roman! . and imagination. In 1816. tion characteristic of romantic expression. hoped to force the Briti: Parliament to repeal the Act of Union of 1801. but they could not agree on its boundanes. nationalism took the form of opposition to Western Ideas. Plans for an uprising in the Polish province of Galicia i~ the Austr~an Empire collapsed. It proclaimed these as correctives to the Enlightenme and to classicism in the arts. German nationalists sought a gove." Economist Friedrich List argued that the elimination of tariffs within the borders of the union would promote industrialization and cooperation and enable the uni~~ to compete with the rest of Europe. These concerns came together in an emphasis on the natur landscape. Romanticism in painting often expressed anxiety about the coming industrial ord while idealizing nature. and COl geometric spaces. 1801-1825) faced similar problems in Poland. Classicism celebrated orderly. Romanticism More an artistic movement than a true ideology. Slavophiles sometimes criticized the regime. During the revolutI. and disorderly. however.opposed the "Westemizers. could protect the country against the corrosion of rationalism and materialism.000 people in support of repeal of the union. RUSSian natio~alists. em. which captured the deep-seated em. nationalism ~pread among the many different peoples of the Austrian Empire.crucifi~d nation with an international Christian mission. In most of the German states. crisp lim romantics sought out all that was wild. when Polish exiles in Paris tried to launch a coordinated insurrection for Polish independence. of the Zollverein. tl British government arrested O'Connell and convicted him of conspiracy. but Irish nationalists developed strong organiz tions only in the 1840s. because they believed the state exerted too much power over the church. . and music. Mickiewicz formed the Pohsh Legion to fight for national restoration. The German romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) depict! scenes-often in the mountains. when peasants instead revolted against their noble Pol. In his poem "Freru Revolution" (1809). Good and Ill. a Catholic lawy and landowner who sat in the British House of Commons. or Slavophiles(lovers of the Slavs). The conflict between Slavophiles and Westernizers continues to shape Russian cultural and intellectual life to the present day. however. . fevered.mtmg German-speaking peoples." Like many poets his time. more liberal but smaller states? These questions would vex German history for decades to co~e. whose mystical writings portrayed the Polish exiles as martyrs of a . what about the non-German terntories of the Austrian Empire? And could the powerful and conservative kingdom of Prussia coexist in a unified German state with other.they rebelled against Alexander's successor. Their intellectual leader was the poet Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855). Byron did not seek the new Prometheus among the men of industr he sought him within his own "overfeelmg. In 1830. Prometheus was the mythological figure who brought fire from the Greek gods human beings.The Russian tsar Alexander I (r. economic unification took a step forward With the foundation in 1834. In 1842. In Russia. they argued. The Irish had struggled f centuries against English occupation. More radic leaders. especially Paris. Nicholas 1." his own intense emotions. or "customs union. symmetry. . he published a poem to commemora the "intrepid sons of Albion [England]" who had died at the battle of Waterloo. but rivalries and divisions prevented united action until 1846.' who wanted RUSSia to follow Western models of industrial development and constitutional government. George Gordon. The Slavophiles favored maintaining rural traditions infused by the values of the Russian Orthodox church. who preached insurrection against the English. Austria w~s not part of the Zollverein. London newspapers reported "monster meetings" that drew crow. he remembered his early enthusiasm: "Bliss was it in that dawn be alive:' But gradually he became disenchanted with the revolutionary experiment ar celebrated British nationalism instead. Would the unified German state include both Pruss~a and the Austrian Empire? If it included Austria.

and overshadowing perspectives. All had either changed hands or been c ated during the wars.830S and 1840S? half of the historians:' fascination with the sublime power of nature. Revolt. used a variety of instruments to represent sounds heard in I country. captured a German romantic melancholy. tells of Scottish resistai to the English in the early eighteenth century. he switched to historical nov. misty seasca~es. W. Russia.reaching tance. fo~. Some of his work was explicitly political. his enem were meeting in the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) to decide the fate of pc revolutionary Europe. and various Italian territories. He published Scottish ballads that he heard as a chi but after achieving immediate success with his poetry. the a~chlteet Sir Charles Barry constructed them in a Gothic style reminiscent of the Middle Ages. The Congress of Vienna and Restoration Europe The Congress of Vienna produced a new equilibrium that relied on cooperati among the major powers while guaranteeing the status of smaller states. For example. The car of the writer Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) exemplifies the romantic obsession w history and national identity. for example. and Napoleonic reforms and "restore" their old regimes.. Britain. Lord Byron died fighting for Greek independence. "Here is a man who has discovered scape. Hamburg/The longing which is the essence of Romanticism:' Beethoven's symphonies conve) the impression of growth. them unfavorably With those in the 1400s. Revolt." (© Hamburger Bridgeman Art Library. N. Pugin denounced modern conditions and compared. Prussia. of awe. the Gerrr province of Saxony. according to one leading German romantic. When t~e British Houses of Parliament were rebuilt after they burned down in 1834. the states once part of the Confederation the Rhine. and awakens just that infinite Restoration. and then a massive series uprisings in 1848 threatened to demolish it altogether.660 Chapter 17 Industtia1izatlon and Social Ferment Restoration. Pugin wore medieval clothes at home. it was support for nationa aspirations. These issues were resolved by face-to-face negotiations ame representatives of the five major powers: Austria. This medievalism was taken even further by A. Helena. example. sets m motion the lever of fear. had finally be defeated. especially through the search for the historical origins of national ident The Polish composer and pianist Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) became a power champion for the cause of his native land with music that incorporated Polish f rhythms and melodies. Delacroix traveled in the 1830sto North Africa and painted many exotic scenes in Morocco and Algeria. Friedrich hated the new modern world and considered industrialization a disaster. In his polemical book COl1tra~ts (1836). P~gin. Scott used novels to bring history to for readers all over Europe. The English painter Joseph M. those allied agai him breathed a collective sigh of relief. The towering presence of the German composer Ludwig van . Many of Europe's monarchs hoped to nullify revolution. He painted trees. The French sculptor d'Angers said of Friedrich. of suffering.mus.hoven (1770. for the sky into the disof human David many of the themes most dear to romanticism: and individual and mountains powerful. If any common political thread linked the romantics. Revolution. it seemed. a genre that he helped create.) the tragedy of landKunsthalle. Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Friedrich. and Revolution When Napoleon went off to his permanent exile on St. isolation. a metaphor for the organic process with an ernpha on the natural that was dear to the romantics. w. with nature. The French painter Eugene Delacroix ~179~-1863) chose contemporary as well as medieval scenes of great turbulence to emphasize light and color and to break away from what he saw as "the servile copies repeated ad nauseam in academies of art:' Critics denounced the new techniques as "painting with a drunken broom:' To broaden his experience of light and color. Architects of the period sought to recapture a preindustrial world.Beet. Nature to him seemed awesome.Ical romanticism. communion stretching painter. His Ninth Symphony (1824). of horror. Revolts in the 1820s a especially in 1830 weakened the Vienna settlement.anticipa~ng later artists by blurring the outlines of objects. Turner (17751851)depicted his vision of nature in mysterious. His music. his Sixth Sympho the Pastoral (1808). One contemporary critic claimed that "there is more hisREV lEW Why did ideologies have such tory in the novels of Walter Scott than in appeal in the .1827) in early-nineteenth-century music helped establish the directIOn. Rob Roy (1817). To underline his view. who prepared the Gothic details for the Houses of Parliament. Even as Napoleon had made his last desperate bid for power. employed a chorus to sing the German poet Friedrich Schiller's verses praise of universal human solidarity. and Revolution Caspar David Friedrich. and Fran . Besn redrawing the boundaries of France and determining who would rule each natn the congress had to decide the fate of Napoleon's duchy of Warsaw. the Netherlands.

Metternich and Castlereagh believed that France must remain a major player so that no one European power might dominate the others. SWEDEN AND NORWAY L North Sea E.an. Th tsar of Russia its king .r. Austria's Metternich took the lead in negotiations. ra game territory In Saxony and on the left bank of ::: ~aaxll:men~t ~:7t~. Although his penchant for womanizing made him a security risk in the eyes of the British Foreign Office (he even had an affair with Napoleon's younger sister). he worked with the British prime minister Robert Castlereagh (1769-1822) to ensure a moderate agreement that would check French aggression yet maintain France's great-power status. Pinallv.) Mediterranean Naples- Constanllne - Sea TWO SICILIES KINGD0i( OPTH With its aim to arrange a long-lasting. Where possible.Restoration. and Napoleon's . The goal of the congress was to achieve postwar stability by establishing secure states with guaranteed borders (Map 17.. When the French army failed to oppose Napoleon's return to power in the Hundred Days.d d h replaced the defunct Holy Roman .:a:~a:o~:~~'n~~sr:~k~o~:~:d~s :~~s~e~ne~~I:~: a Ian coast. the allies took away all territory conquered by France since 1790 and required France to pay an indemnity and support an army of occupation until it was paid. ustna now p . the congress simply restored traditional rulers. we en obtained Norway from De kb h d to accept Russia's conquest of Finland .h:~7::e~utch Republic an~ the Austrian Netherlands. not f~rgodtten. as in Spain and the Italian states.German Confederation.2 Europe after the Congress of Vienna .. In this way. both annexed to Fran~e mg years.8'5 The Congress of Vienna forced Franceto return to' • 8 Dutch Republic were united in a ne kl d f hits 17 9 borders.IModcna Cwl.e ovderIt e . France could help Austria and Britain counter the ambitions of Prussia and Russia.esl . The Austrian Netherlands and the w Ing om 0 t e Netherlands' th G the German Confederation which built N I ' e erman states were joined in duchy of Warsaw became the kingdO~ :tpol:~~ eO~t'hs cthonfederation~f the ~hine.A:~~a~~~~ !~:s.' helped prevent another major war until the 1850s. The great powers decided to turn Napoleon's duchy of Warsaw into a new Polish kingdom but made Map '7.::.. . WI e tsar of RUSSia s king. complaining that they used the occasion to divide up Europe. and no conflict comparable to the Napoleonic wars would occur until 1914.2).Th~ kingdom of Piedmont~Sardinia took avoy.d . negotiated peace endorsed by all parties-both winners and losers-it also established a new framework for international relations based on periodic meetings. (Poland wou Id not regam Its independence until 1918 ) in . vari nrnar y.San Marino AIfLANTIC OCEAN Blac The Congress of Vienna An unknown French engraver caricatured the efforts of the diplomats at the Congress of Vienna. now united as the new kingdo f th N h I the restored stadholder Pruss' . This congress system. What elements in this engraving make it a caricature? (Copyright © Wi enMuseum. Revolt. and Revolution 663 662 Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Fer.ucca De'Fuscany --. vanous international trade ut a issues .ment A::Parma B. or congresses. moe et er ands under th Rhi . a the f . or "concert of Europe. which mplre an a so included Prussia Gen~:e~~~:~ra~~~::t :. between the major powers..

to fight the Austrians for Italian unification. Greeks and pro-Greece committees around the world sent food and military supplies. he had foreign books and newspapers confiscated at the frontier and allowed the publication of only two newspapers. the Ottoman authorities hanged the Greek patriarch (head of the Greek Orthodox church). In retaliation for the killing of many Turks. His government then tortured and executed hundreds of rebels. which condemned the "indiscriminate" suppression of revolutionary movements. after the rulers of Austria. governments used religious societies of laypeople to combat the influence of reformers and nationalists. In France. and Russia met and agreed on intervention. the legitimacy of states depended on the treaty system. In Rome. the Austrians defeated the rebels in Naples and Piedmont (Map 17.¥ekilometers wave of mutual atrocities in 1821 and 1822. Too much had changed during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. where rebels urged Charles Albert. Aspirations for constitutional government surfaced in Russia when Alexander I died in 1825. which would ensure divine assistance in upholding religion. a comNationalistic Movements in the b ined force of British. Many Europeans felt that the French Revolution and Napoleonic domination had undermined the religious fabric of society. It was clear that traditional rule could not just be restored in most places. He vacillated. 1815-1830 destroyed the Turkish fleet at Navarino Bay. In reality. The First Cracks in the Vienna Settlement Attempts to restore traditional rule soon provoked resistance. Constantine. The promis~ ~f reform sparked rebellion in the northern Italian kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. and France. which he had abolished in 1814. Prussia and Austria signed the agreement. and in the areas they still controlled. To impart spiritual substance to this very calculated political settlement. but Great Britain refused to accede to what Castlereagh called "a piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense:' Pope Pius VII also refused on the ground~ that the ~a. abolished by Great Britain in 1807. The soldiers nonetheless raised the cry "Long live Constantine. Nothing was spared to crush dissent.pacy needed no help in interpreting Christian truth." Soldiers loyal to Nicholas easily suppressed the outnumbered Decembrists (so called after the month of their uprising). Restoration. with the support of European public opinion. the Turks pillaged churches. Greece was declared an independent kingdom under the guarantee of the three powers. While the great powers negotiated. Prussia. In 1827. Hearing of the Spanish uprising. In 1820. Greece. after all. which had been disbanded during the Enlightenment. An uprising by Greek peasants sparked a 0 p . whom they hoped would be more favorable to constitutional reform. massacred thousands of men. The Greeks held on until the great powers were willing to intervene. not on divine right. and Russian ships Balkans. On the December day that the troops assembled in St.Ii I were resolved. and sold the women into slavery. the church sent missionaries to hold open-air "ceremonies of reparation" to express repentance for the outrages of the Revolution. Ferdinand stalled for time. . For conservative rulers. Tsar Alexander proposed the Holy Alliance. After Ferdinand VII regained the Spanish crown in 1814. was the home of Western civilization. in the effort to revive traditional values. thousands were imprisoned or forced into exile. French. and in 1823 a French army invaded with the consent of the other Vienna powers to support him. the young heir to the Piedmont throne. a few enthusiastic European and American volunteers even joined the Greeks. though next in the line of succession after Alexander. it broke down over internal disagreements.2. The Serbs nonetheless revolted against__ _ _ Turkish rule and won virtual independence by 'j 2. had opened a hole in Metternich's system. Nationalism.i!' 4\H'miles -1817. rebel officers insisted that the crown belonged to another brother. the congress had in fact given birth to a new diplomatic o:~er: in the future. Religion did play a significant role. the slave trade continued in many places until the 1840s. and in 1821. The Ottoman Turks faced growing nationalist challenges in the Balkans. meant renewing the authority of the Catholic church as well. Constantine. Western opinion turned against the Turks. however. Russia. long live the Constitution. Despite the reassertion of traditional religious principles. and justice. In 1830. But when a new parliament met. For the next thirty years. disgruntled soldiers demanded that Ferdinand proclaim his adherence to the constitution of 1812. the papacy reestablished the Jesuit order. for most rulers. nonetheless. peace. the congress agreed to condemn in principle the slave trade. Metternich convinced the other powers to agree to his muffling of the Italian opposition to Austrian rule. Petersburg to take an oath of loyalty to Alexander's brother Nicholas as the new tsar. page 663). rebellious soldiers in the kingdom of Naples joined forces with the carbonari and demanded a constitution. The Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave Russia a protectorate over the Danubian principalities (now part of Romania) and provided for a conference among representatives of Britain. all of whom had broken with Austria in support of the Greeks. Despite the opposition of II "I iI I i Great Britain. Nicholas I used a new political police force to spy on potential opponents and stamp out rebelliousness. and in 1828 Russia declared war on the Turks and advanced close to Istanbul. At the urging of Great Britain. had refused the crown. religion was a necessary foundation for political and social order. In the italian states and Spain. but the European powers feared that supporting them would encourage a rebellious spirit at home.

a sign of submission.666 Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment Restoration. even in Bolivia. 1804-1830 Napoleon's occupation of Spain and Portugal seriously weakened the hold of those countries on their Latin American colonies.) Map 17. see the map activity for this chapter in the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins .8" and .no~ t~~ :~~~~:~~a~~ ~~t:t:si~~:~r. more extreme measures.3 latin American Independence. he had to acquiesce to the formation of a series of independent republics between 1821 and 1823.. h182d4-h1830). who was educated in Europe on the works of Voltaire and Rousseau. Their most important leader was Simon Bolivar (1783-1830).it~.:. an e even The Ultras got the ear of the kin when Ch I brother of Louis XVIII. Panama. views a row of Greeks under the yoke. the Greek painter Panagiotis Zographos worked with his two sons on a series of scenes depicting the Greek struggle for independence from the Turks.~~~h~r~a.600 kilomdtts SlfO I.. and in 1823 President James Monroe (1758-1831) announced his Monroe Doctrine.~~::~'~eC!:~o~~!::~ ::r~:~~~:g c::~ the Ch~mber :nt com~osed of the Ch~mber of Peers. closing the Americas to European intervention-a prohibition that depended on The Revolutions of 1830 Although the restored Bourbon h. With help from newly independent Haiti and in exchange for agreeing to abolish slavery.3). Bolivar liberated the lands of northern South America (Venezuela.. b . most of their colonies successfully broke away in a wave of rebellions between . and eventually Peru and Bolivia) from Spanish rule (Map 17.830. The response was so favorable that one Greek general ordered lithographic reproductions for popular distribution. Revolt. Taking advantage of the upheavals in Spain and Portugal that had begun under Napoleon.opo miles AiJ'-LANTIC OCEAN . Despite the restoration of the Spanish and Portuguese rulers in . the Ultras dem d d . national revolts also succeeded after a series of bloody wars of independence.8'4. Here the Turkish sultan Mehmet the Conqueror. and Revolution 667 I o sbo 1. e~ X (r. which is named after him. . Nationalistic feeling could thus be encouraged even among those who were not directly touched by the struggle. (The Visual Connection.0IeY Mexico BRlTISH_. restive colonists from Mexico to Argentina rebelled.com/huntconcise.. The United States recognized the new states. Ie 0 ensure :!:~t: o~~::~~i. At the same time. nominated by the king. at home it had to confront the gacy of twenty-five years of upheaval. e pus e t rough the Law of . Although Bolivar fancied himself a Latin American Napoleon.~dN. exulting over the fall of Constantinople in '453. succeeded t! the thro:.atl~:ts~:a~i:~:: ~~rd:v:r~:e en an assassin killed Louis XVIII's nephew in 1820. other . and voters in fID~PUtI7' elected by highly restricted suffrage (fewer than 100000 ::Plete :e~~~~a.~~~~i. see the visual activity for this chapter in the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins. Ecuador.839.-ji1 Greek Independence From 1836 to . For more help analyzing this image. monarc y In France worked in concert with the Ie great powers to maintain the Vienna settlement. For more help analyzing this map. Louis XVIII (r 1814-1824) tri d t a measure of ti .com/huntconcise_ HONDURAS / UNITED PROVINCES OF CENT AMERICA o Spanish (=::J Independent countries Date of independence (color indicates colonial power prior to British naval power and British willingness to declare neutrality Th V' ::li:e~~y~ble to maintain their settlement only in areas where th'ey c:uI~e~~::v::~ I II i Across the Atlantic. the son of a slave owner. Brazil (then still a monarchy) separated from Portugal. Colombia. younger the .

h Although t e num er 0 liberties and. they helped put slavery ac on than 3 million slaves were transported to. By 1850. Colonialism became imperialism-a term first coined in the mid-nineteenth century. Slavery was a 0 IS e m colonies in 1848. . it dictated to a defeated South Chinn Sea China the Treaty of Nanking. fearing the reestablishment of a re~u IC. k ' ik ver wages turned into a rebelhon . e: ~~g the remaining French Caribbean trade during the 1830s. ~he end the European slave trade. aiwan bombarding Chinese coastal cities. J' . and Maltese colonists had settled in Algeria. I" uld remain a cornerstone of European in international affairs. The success 0f t h e Ju I rev y hid in 1815 Differences in tradlh ki dom of the Net er an s I . British traders smuggled opium grown in India into China and. .d d ce 'In exchange for its neutrality d Belgium in epen en a conference that guarantee. France invaded the North African country of Algeria in 1830 and after a long military campaign established political control over most of the region in the next two decades. imperialism usually meant more indirect forms of economic exploitation and political rule.' d and the new king extende po mea an Charles X went into exile m Enghl . more than seventy thousand French. Eventually France would not only incorporate Algeria into France but also try to assimilate its native population to French culture. more d I till continued even in the Bntlsh d 1850 an savery s I Americas between 1801 an .839-1842 to Europeans. . an ti d unabate in razi . a drug Treaty of Nanking. d . had manned the barnca es m uiv. and the wholesale destruction of indigenous peoples.' facti ith the 1830 settlement boiled . they extended their dominion elsewhere by annexing Singapore (1819). When the new Latin Amencan repu d Despite British efforts to bk the European agen a. e h and nobility.s av a minority movemen. Although the British granted Canada greater self-determination in 1839. .i1~~~ (COnm)t!. often confiscating the lands of native peoples.1 .. . by bribing local Chinn officials. . direct rule by Europeans. . ted on the Law of Sacrilege.rate tid t! t~e great powers for help. In 1842. Belgian neutra ity wo diplomacy for a century. ng d he lar el Catholic Belgians from the Dutch.. it . b f voting men nearly doubled. Britain retaliated by ~ o. but Great King William of the Netherlan s ap~ea e d i it d Russia Austria. it d the Belgians whose country olution mans igm e ' . At th same time. virtu~l~. . Europeans still aimed to derive economic profit from their colonies. By 1850. and Revolution 66g 668 Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment t obles for the loss of their lands during the Indemnity in 1825 to compensa. In the 1830s and 1840s. d I" I X's cousin LouisI ip . demanding the ab 0Iinon 0 s f Loui -Ph'lippe took strong measures h government 0 ours I in 1833. France also imposed a protectorate government over the South Pacific island of Tahiti. beginning the First Opium War. European Influence Overseas . ms did little for the poor and working classes. slave labor from Africa. no further than mstallmg a more . received a substantial war indemnity. but it had gone h anted to restore the pre-1789 monarc Y those wow .. took sovereignty over the island of Hong Kong.latu~ean I~P 26 1830 After three days of street demonstrations in Paris led to flghtmgldo~ JUd~d' gro~p of moderate liberal lead. and were assured of a continuation of the opium trade. blics abolished slavery in the 1820s and 1830s. imp os.. Spontaneous He ultimately dissolved the legis. ~ho remained mmuscule. Britain and France oppose in .d human bondage con inue t d abolition but it remame American reformers suppor e ' d the United States. They also increased their control in India through the administration of the East India Company. h B iti h colonies Parliament finally agree ·. I . an island off the Malay peninsula. an mora pro As Europeans turned their interest away from the plantation colonies of the Caribbean toward colonies in Asia and Africa. The complaints of religious groups in Britain fell on deaf ears. t e new di French participation in the slave against clandestine slave traffic. . political. . d 150 so iers ie . I ery in the Americas involve a t Llke serfdom in USSla.a I battles in which 500 CitIZensan bli d to offer the crown to Char es ers. 1842 long known for its medicinal uses but increasingly bought in China as a recreational drug. but now they also wanted to reform colonial peoples in their own image. . had been annexed to t . diatel lust because the major European powers Slavery did not disappear imme . Italian. In France.' liberal constitutional monarchy. Such refor .e. When in Sea 1839 the Chinese authorities expelled British mer~ chants from southern China.' Ih h th transatlantic tra ems a d had gIVenIt up. Using the pretext of an insult to its envoy. Some .agree . language.e n h . In contrast. France and Britain continued to extend their influence across the globe.s<.Y J de i I ves dwindled away after 1850. by which the British forced the opening of four more Chinese ports The First Opium War. h silk wor ers stn e 0 f over in Lyon m 1831. . only one in six soldiers serving Britain in India was European. A t oug e d i B '1 Cuba (still a Spanish colony). built up a flourishing market. and Prussia to d i tervention an mVIe. tions. and New Zealand (1840). a private group of merchants chartered by the British crown. quagmire of economic.. ing the death penalty for offenses sue d i osed strict censorship. As many as. 'P . d R volution had broken the hold 0 that died down only when the army arnve. f lavery m ten IS . R . they developed new forms of colonial rule. e msis h French Revolutione h as stealin religious objects from churc es. and religion sep. done major petition to Parliament 350 000 British women signe d colonies. J ly Dissatis actIOn WI . CtlblINr. The East India Company also tried to estab• Ports opened after the lish a regular trade with China in opium. d I blems that worsened over time. votmg ng ts. Colonialism most often led to the establishment of settler colonies.Restoration. The British educated a native elite to take over much of the day-to-day business of administering the country and used native soldiers to augment their military control. Bypassing ito the efforts of the Chinese government to ban the import of opium. w en a . Revolt. . Ph'l' pe duke of Orleans.

a ienatmg The establishment of the republic politicized Scores of newspapers and political clubs reviv d many segments of . destroying staple a girl turns Ireland's single most important crop.. (The Granger Collection. workers. 10 meet a mountmg d fi it th visional government then lev'led a 45 percent surtax on ty e ICI.847 drew attention infected potato plight of Irish peasants when a blight plants. The Irish Famine Contemporary engravings such as this to the one from . urban workers paid 50 percent of their income for a diet consisting largely of bread or potatoes. penalty for political crimes.ageof ~stablished rulers and amplified voices critical of them. boy looks dazed. emperor. where an airborne blight destroyed the potato crop in 1846. and whole families were found dead in their cottages. proclamation government had blocked all moves for of a republic electoral reform. and April Frederick William of Prussia rejects crown of united Germany ~reedom of the press-and agreed to offered by Frankfurt parliament mtro. 1848. th . half-eaten by dogs.duce universal adult male suffrage july Roman republic overthrown by despite misgivings about political parFrench intervention ticipation by peasants and unemployed August Russian and Austrian armies workers. W~::n :~:e~::ee~ ~~~~to. middle-class liberals and conse:: t~atlO. the city set°u Job. meetattraction for the cit.5 percent in the 1840s-but the cost of living rose about 16 percent each decade. The june Austrian army crushes revolution· n~xt day.848 Im. At first the police and the army Albert of Piedmont·Sardinia declares war on Austrian Empire dispersed the demonstrators who took May Frankfurt parliament opens to the streets on February 22. rose. canceling out wage increases.~~~:h. as many as one million people died of starvation and disease.~ubS bec~me a regular and demanded representation .. Seasonal work and regular unemployment were already the norm when the crisis of the late 1840s intensified the uncertainties of urban life.the population. In this illustration.' womens newspapers. German ~ campaign for reform sponsored by th~ cities. Tension between the go d guar With ItSown uniforms and vernment an the worke .848 Imperialist ventures abroad continued even as the revolutionary legacy revived again in Europe in 1848. the government allowed Paris officials to organize a system of "national workshops" to provide those out f i . As in 1789. Louis-Philippe abdicated and November Insurrection drives the pope out fled to England. proper taxes.5 percent in the 1830s and 10. faced with july Austrians defeat Charles Albert fifteen hundred barricades and a furious and Italian forces populace.zenry.al PO~ltICS. June Days died when panicky soldiers opened fire end In defeat of workers in Paris on the crowd. but now class tensions and nationalist impulses sparked outbreaks in capitals across Europe. for example. however. .) . Industrial workers' wages had been rising-in the German states.I:~:l~n con~ol: th~ republic~n governbarracks.~:Sjoi~ ::. On February 24. . and in February 1848 March Insurrections in Vienna. With c~~truction work. Overpopulation hastened famine in some places. Hundreds of thousands emigrated to England. A hastily formed proof Rome visional government declared France a December Francis Joseph becomes Austrian republic once again.Industrialization and Social Ferment The Revolutions of . Louis-Philippe's February Revolution in Paris. and food prices shot skyward. class warfare loomed like a th d rs in e national workshops un erstorm on the horizon. 1848. In the best of times. To address the gnawing probcombine to defeat Hungarian forces lem of unemployment. food shortages and constitutional crises fueled the rebellion. The new republican government Issued liberal reforms-an end to the February Rome declared a republic deat~. The specter of hunger tarnished the Revolutions of . I" e propeasants and landowners. forty or fifty people ary ~ovement In Prague. and Venice. The seeing six dead bodies nearby. the abolition of slavery in the colonies. albeit with wages lower than m ' '1' P a ew w~r sops for women . autonomy liberal opposition turned into a revolumovement In Hungary. wages rose an average of 5. and Canada. the United States. now even those foods were beyond workers' means. ens. resulting in increased unemployment. "The most miserable class that ever sneaked its way into history" is how Friedrich Engels described underemployed and starving workers in 1847. NY. while a starving artist reported up the ground looking for potatoes. Louis-Napoleon elected president of France . especially Ireland. High food prices also drove down the demand for manufactured goods. When women protested their exclusion. Charles tion. ing in concert halls theaters d e grassroots democratic fervor. Out of a population of eight million. and 1851. Crop failures in many countries threatened the food supply. . Corpses lay unburied on the sides of roads. Street-corner activism alarmed ment paid some unemployed yout~. Milan.

provoked panic and street fighting around hastily assembled barricades. Aus~ria. he led a military campaign against.4 million cast.WIth demands for socialism] is lost forever. Only a little blood had been shed for such a high stake. and the great watchwords Liberty. the voters. A few shared Mazzini's Young Italy movement vision of a republic with a strong central government. 12.000 to 110. Suspicious of all demands for rapid change. democratic and nationalist forces prevailed at first in the south. For the next few months republican leaders. Mazzini and Garibaldi fled.-~apoleon Bonaparte. Although revolution had been defeated in Italy. all France has joined against It. established in 1792. which immediately appomted a five-man executive committee to run the government and deliberately excluded kn~wn ~up~orters of workers' rights. The new president of republican France. such as Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882). forcing him to salute the victims killed by his own army. The Prussian army's efforts to clear the square in front of Berlin's royal palace on March 18. These efforts faltered in July when foreign powers intervened. "My heart beat with joy. Yet the revolutionaries' weaknesses soon became apparent. still others urged rule by the pope. News of the revolution in Paris also provoked popular demonstrations in the German states. students marched to "La Marseillaise" and called for a republic. Many leaders of national unification spoke Italian only as a second language. who had been depicted as lazy ruffians intent on destroying order and. .000 were arrested. Although the revolution of 1848 never had a period of terror like that in 1793-1794. Louis-Napoleon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III (r. a "Professors Parliament" was the common sneer. Although Austrian troops defeated Charles Albert in the north in the summer of 1848. it nonetheless ended in a similar fashion. and gold. . The eight hundred delegates to the Frankfurt parliament had little practical political experience: "a group of old women. sent an expeditionary force to secure the papal throne for Pius IX (r. One observer breathed a sigh of relief: "The Red Republic [red being. the king promised to call an assembly to draft a constitution and adopted the German nationalist flag of black. Fraternity were again inscribed on the banner of the movement" So responded one Frankfurt woman to Louis-Philippe's overthrow. In the fall. The next day the crowd paraded wagons loaded with dead bodies under King Frederick William IV's window. It failed. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. while across central Italy the poor and The Divisions of Italy. peasants burned landlords' records and occasionally attacked Jewish moneylenders. associated . Equality. the insurgents drove the pope from the city. and on June 21 it directed that those already enrolled move to the provinces or Jom the army.elected a largely conservative National Assembly in April 1848. 899 to 1: When the numbers enrolled in the national workshops in Paris rocketed from a predicted 10. the government ordered the workshops closed to new w~r~ers.5 million votes out of some 7. In a state of near collapse. partly because of dissension over goals and tactics among the nationalists. Charles Albert played a central role. In March and April 1848.000 eventually were convicted and deported. and the newly recruited mobile guard to fight the workers. Peasants in the south occupied their landowners' estates. In reality. and Revolution Industrialization and Social Ferment 673 Faced with rising radicalism in Paris and other big cities. As king of the most powerful Italian state. red. ~e government summoned the army. Unemployed artisans and workers smashed machines. as the following week came to b~ called. These delegates had no access to an army. Even many workers supported him because he had no connection with the blood-drenched June Da~s. Just ~s his uncle had dismantled the first one. with an authoritarian government that played monarchists and republicans off against each other. Bonaparte's election spelled the end of the Second Repubhc. The NatlO~al Guard. and peasants from the remotest parts of the country hav~ come ~o~rmg in:' The republic's army crushed the protesters. The goal of German unification soon took precedence over social reform or constitutional changes within the separate states. 1848. The workers of Paris responded to these measures on June 23 by taking to the streets in the tens of thousands. Revolt. Armed demonstrators took on the Austrians in Milan and actually drove them out of Venice. the deputies dismissed a petition to restore divorce and voted down woman suffrage.000. In the June Days. and 4. In Bavaria. citizens. women established clubs and newspapers to demand their emancipation from "perfumed slavery:' The advantage lay . and they would soon emerge again with new force. the Bonaparte name promised something to everyone. others wanted a monarchy under Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia. Local princes and even the more powerful kings of Prussia and Bavaria seemed to totter.000 were killed or injured. congregated in Rome to organize the new republic.the memory of the Roman republic and the commitment to unification remained. prope~.' one socialist called them. 1846-1878). (Napoleon I's son died and never became Napoleon Il. 1848 unemployed rose up against local rulers.) Politkal division and class conflict had proved fatal to the Second Republic. 1852-1870). The monarchy had fallen. . Bonaparte g~t ~ore th~n 5. the electorate chose Louis. most of the German states agreed to elect delegates to a federal parliament at Frankfurt that would attempt to unite Germany. Provincial volunteers came to he~p put down the workers. Some nationalists favored a loose federation. The Parisian uprising galvanized Italian nationalists.Chapter '7 Restoration. on the forty-~Ighth anniversary of Napoleon Is coronation as emperor. He had lived most of his life outside Fr~nce: and the leaders of the republic expected him to follow their tune. more than 10. But class tensions and regional differences still stood in the way of Italian national unity. and in February 1849 they declared Rome a republic. but Napoleon III wanted to create a sense of legitimacy and so used the Roman numeral Ill. After some hesitation caused by fears of French intervention. and they dreaded the demands of the lower classes for social reforms. nephew of the dead emperor. When the National Assembly adopted a new constitution calling for a presidential election in which all adult men could vote. In uncertain times. In 1852. most Italians spoke regional dialects. the National Guard.

the Chartism.I . bombarded the city into submission when a demonstration led to violence (including the shooting death of his wife.d ' e et erI an s or Belgium th th I 111 ustrialization and urbanization h d did ' e ree p aces where prospects for revolution actually a d eve. General Prince Alfred von Windischgratz. Frederick William contemptuously refused this "crown from the gutter. joining teamed up with Tsar Nicholas I he ung~na~ rebels. Slovaks.e ouse 0 ommons IS re u rom middle-class liberals. the failure of unification did participation. Beleaguered authorities in Vienna could not refuse Magyar demands for home rule. and RevolutIon 675 Ill! I 'I . No revo. Prussian troops then intervened to help other local rulers put down the last wave of democratic and nationalist insurrections in the spring. ra h Joseph Radetzky defeated the last Ital.!~7~~:~~. Windischgratz marched 70. anhd. While the Frankfurt parliament laboriously prepared a liberal constitution for a united Germany-one that denied self-determination to Czechs. Ethnic.000 in the United States. but this measure alienated the largest noble landowners. Czech nationalists convened a Slavcongress as a counter to the Germans' Frankfurt parliament and called for a reorganization of the Austrian Empire that would recognize the rights of ethnic minorities. The Magyars were the largest ethnic group in Hungary but still did not make up 50 percent of the population. Rejoicing country folk soon lost interest in the revolution. In April 1849.t ramen a ter 1850. Poles. who retained legal authority and control over the armed forces. r in nort ern Italy and h' d With Croats and Serbs to take on th H . when the Frankfurt parliament finally concluded its work.i I I' . Croats. Hungary was '. political. fiery speeches.a~t~al law. First his army crushed the revolution in Berlin in the fall of 1848. which demanded universal manelimination of prope:ty qU:I~~. and the a Parliament. Prussia and Austria.674 Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment Restoration. 1848-1916). ' ISarmy move east.at decome a .. In response to thi b ff fi ' . workers and journeyrn .~e:etra~ulte good: ~an. In the spring of 1849 Gene I C ount ian challenges to Austrian powe . The most powerful German states. and the Hungarian nationalist Lajos Kossuth became a minister in the new Hungarian government. Military force finally broke up the revolutionary movements. Just as Italians were driving the Austrians out of their lands in northern Italy and Magyar nationalists were demanding political autonomy for Hungary. Such assertiveness by non-German peoples provoked German nationalists to protest on behalf of German-speaking people in areas with a Czech or Magyar majority. offering the emperorship of a constitutional. looting.000 soldiers into the capital and set up direct military rule. the leaders feared that doing so woul~ I~g or woma~ suffrage because the movement's Th' a ienate potential SUpporters e Chartists organized a massive cam ' d ' ' public meetings. Metternich resigned. the B can apprentices Ip that dh another. an~ual elections. After another uprising in Vienna a few months later. but their efforts left French served a kind of repubh oCla. The Austrian emperor Ferdinand I (r. In August. Nevertheless. ~n~:. escaping to England in disguise.scape. setting up Chartistl~:'nda a7c::~men too~ ~art by founding female pathetic shopkeepers. Revolt. In December. The initiation of .cbred 1I1tO H~ngary with more than 300.1 I I / . In Prague. a movement that aim. etween 1848 and 1851. and machine breaking. 1835-1848) promised a constitution. and joining Chartist Is. more lasting republic after 1870 N F h prepare t e population for rule without extensive popular con It t: 0 I rene government could henceforth not stop the spread of nationalist id:~s :~odn~h: Ital~. on March 13. federal Germany to the king of Prussia. vernment t e opening it The Aftermath of 1848 The revolutionaries of 1848 failed to achi a profound mark on the political and s I~V~ lands of their goals. watching from a Window). a a conStitutIOn and a parli t fi spectacular failures of 1848 thu hid som. lution Occurred in Great Britain th N h J d significant as ItSpresence. The Austrian government slowly took advantage of these divisions.I I 1 with the princes. The new Hungarian government alienated the other nationalities when it imposed the Magyar language on them. an elected parliament. the Austrian army Russian troops.. Kossuth sought refuge mc ary movements from the inside d h IVI~lOns weakened the revolutionan gave t e Austnan go h needed to restore its position. assumed the imperial crown after intervention by leading court officials. In 1838. organl~l~g boycotts of unsymPeople's Charter refrained from c IJ' fi emperance aSSOCiatIOns. ~ith large the People's Charter signed by th g ~~arades. en 111 0 ernocrane clubs' d I' ness in the lower classes and hId Increase po itical awareAlmost every German state he~e prepa~e t~em for broader political participation. I il i 1 II Ii '1' i. Fears of peasant insurrection prompted the Magyar nationalists around Kossuth to abolish serfdom. Chartists denounced th ' payment of stipends to members of err opponents as seeking "to k th I slavery and political degradati "M socia eep e people in political unions. which included Romanians. a student-led demonstration for political reform in Vienna turned into rioting. a hood suffrage vote b seer eop es arter. and the end of censorship. 1848.tional fl~g at demonstrations d artisans.y British workers joined in political radicals had drawn up the PI' ~~rm Britain 1I1tO democracy. and social conflicts divided the revolutionaries. The s I some Important successes The absence of revolution in 1848 was lust as" . The first blow fell in Prague in June 1848. To quell peasant discontent and appease liberal reformers." Events followed a similar course in the Austrian Empire. In Great Britain. /1 . and Slovenes.ope most rapidly. and torch Ii ~algn unng 1838 and ~839. the military governor. ar movement The very ide f th F kf Ilament and the insistence on br pu di hi ' a 0 e ran urt parshowed that German nationalis: hiS I~g a German na. the Austrian monarchy came back to life when the eighteen-year-old Francis Joseph (r. Social co:flicts and et:t~1 . expected to determine whether and how Germany should unite.practIcal reality. III the German states th I' root~ng of demands for democratic from an academic idea into a po I' e revo utionanes of 1848 turned nationalism . unencumbered by promises extracted by the revolutionaries from his now feeble uncle Ferdinand. and Danes within its proposed German borders-the Prussian king Frederick William IV (r. the Chartists r . it abolished all remaining peasant obligations to the nobility in March 1848. 1840-1860) recovered his confidence. Presented With petitions for c: more an a million people th H fC refused to act.1 ~~C~~:aldistricts.I I ' I Ii II I! I . who preferred Austrian rule to domination by local Magyars.

Revolt.000.000 strong in the 1840s) intruded increasingly in ordinary people's lives. who herself promoted the notion of domesticity as women's sphere. suffrage. In response. As landlords. European states continued to expand their bureaucracies. k been co-opte III 0 I. 1837-1901). . but their names are unknown to the people. fell apart after the June Days. a century later it needed almost 114. the R~ssians [nvaded re~d t:v~~ntrol the provinces jointly. In May 1851. in 1750 the Russian government employed approximately 10.~~p~ r~~~la~ses. some developments touched them all. gE ean revolutionary movements.h h olice surveillance and cenwhere Tsar Nicholas I maintain~d. hmlted(t h r~ted power of the tsar). · tary regu anon 0 cR· classes had won par Iiamen .) . In Apn 1 4 t hlch demanded the end of Russian control . Europe's most important female monarch presided over a rnidcentury celebration of peace and industrial growth that helped dampen the still smoldering fires of revolutionary passion.d t tions to orce ar mounted several gigantic emons ra d d prising occurred. "There are doubtless men capable of leading the nation . and the wor ng d i t the established or er Y e .es in This painting by an unknown artls~ shows Ana IP. New government agencies such as the British urban police forces (10. When workingmen gained the vote and women did not." Aristocrats kept their authority by adapting to change: they entered the bureaucracy and professions. opened the international Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in London on May 1. ki government had alrea d y pro~e I d b th Reform Bill of 1832. Transylvania in opposition to Russian rule. when the increasingly conservative republicangovernment forbade women to form political clubs and arrested and imprisoned two of the most outspoken women leaders for their socialist activities. As conservatives returned to power. These provided no space for political dissent. As army officers. the building . Men in the revolutions of 1848 almost always defined universal suffrage as a male right. the great powers was USSla. and Revolution Chapter '7 Industrialization and Social Ferment 6n The Revolution of 1848 in Ea5~ern Europe atescu leading a group of Romanian revo.. They also held many official positions in the state bureaucracies. But Parliament refuse an . By Augusi~ t f:r~he end of serfdom and for universal manhood ed independence only and those w~o were ~s~d g. and food. p turing districts and associated with va~lOuls uro revolutions in 1848. For all the differences between countries. whereas those of noble families . The French feminist movement. h ded the movemen •w I h ntParis-educated nationalists spear ea h ovement had split between those w 0 wa and various legal and political reforms. the most advanced in Europe. Many women in Paris had supported the new republicand seized the occasion of greater political openness to demand women's rights. and learned how to invest shrewdly. Social conditions also fostered political passivity: serfdom continued in force. and nationality (devotion to Russian traditions). Schoolgirls in Prague had thrown desks and chairs out windows and helped build students' barricades. only to experience isolation as their claims were denied by most republican men. and the Turks moved into Walachia. the uprising was over..ts responslVeness. The Russian schools. turned their estates into moneymaking enterprises.a tlg~ . where they had joined armies in the tens of thousands and applied household skills to making bandages. reflecting the expansion of government powers. the notion of separate spheres penetrated even into working-class life: political participation became one more way to distinguish masculinity from femininity. especially in the Italian states.no u The middle classes in Britain had d .. the aristocracy remained the dominant power in most places. f to revolutIOn among The other notab Ie excep Ion . Although much had changed. Queen Victoria (r.lutionari. the Chartists k of nearly stmu taneo u s II dult Inspired by th e out b rea f P I·ament into granting a a l . And in some German cities. One Italian princess explained. f htldrens and womens wor . workin -class strike movements in the manufacallied themselves in the 1840s Wlt~ .. the police reported people who cleared snow off their roofs after the permitted hour or smoked in the streets. For example. Russia and Turkey ag (The Art Archive. aristocrats put down revolutionary forces.I 8 8 local landowners began to organize meetings. By october. States wanted to take children out of the fields and factories where they worked with their families and educate them. clothing.500 functionaries.Restoration. taught Nicholas's three sorship. they continued to dominate the rural scene and control parliamentary bodies. and the slow rate of industrial and urban growth created little discontent. are in every memory. all signs of women's political activism disappeared. orthodoxy most cherished principles: autocracy t e un I (obedience to the church in religion and morality). Women everywhere had participated in the revolutions. in part because the males the vote. The reassertion of conservative rule hardened gender definitions. A monument of modern iron and glass architecture had been constructed to house the display.

.Chapter 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment Conclusion 679 . and Bohemia Much of 5 d' . P. Industrialization and urbanization continued.784 square feet of ground-floor area covering no less than 18acres. in particular.a es c ear t e interr I ti hl b the development of new industrial site f coal rnt e a Ions Ip etween railroad building and so coa mining and textile production. . m~}or powers sueconstitutional rights. the Crystal Palace offered a government-sponsored spectacle REVIEW Why did the revolutions of 1848 of what industry. Mapping the West Industrialization in Euro e The Congress of Vienna had sought to cla . ~ • Iron ore fields Coalfields I~I ~ ~~ ~~ ATLANTIC OCEAN The Crystal Palace. can rnavia and south d tlclpate. h ope In a band that included Great Britain. . and lingering popular resentments. It was designed by Sir Joseph Paxton to gigantic dimensions: 1. and for some tl h . . fears of overpopulation. t e northern Ger t northern Italy. and 135feet high-772. ceeded in holding back demands for cha . They had not forgotten the threat of disease.._ SWEDEN AND NORWAY . Industrialization lirst spread across northern Eur p. .) was more than a third of a mile long and so tall that it was erected over the trees of its Hyde Park site. desires for or socra re orm proved impossible to contain.. (<0 Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery. workers developed more extensive organizations.85' George Baxter's lithograph shows the exterior of the main building for the Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in london. I~e t e.. and the abundant goods from all nations inspired satisfaction and pride. the region around Milan in ... England/The Bridgeman Art Library. 456 feet wide. . Kent. had brought to the surface the profound tensions within a European society in transition toward industrialization and modernization.In this first phase of industrial develo ment ern ~n eastern Europe did not parpromoting industrialization the map m k h' ~Ithough railroads were not the only factor in . northern ' grurn. One German visitor described it as "this miracle which has so suddenly appeared to dazzle the inhabitants of our globe:' In the place of revolutionary fervor.850 Franceand the region around lyon Bel .. Soon people referred to it as the Crystal Palace. man sates. threatened political and soc' I d mp a lid on the various forces that ra or er.848 feet long.. and socialists fought over the pace of reform. Ing~ NatIOnalist aspIratIOns. its nine hundred tons of glass created an aura of fantasy. The revolutions of 1848. Mediterranean Sea Conclusion Many of the six million people who visited the Crystal Palace display traveled there on railroads and wore the cheaper cotton clothing produced by workers in mechanized textile factories. and liberals. hard work. and technofail? logical imagination could produce. and calls fi .' c. conservatives. .

The Web site Gallica. Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era. Toews. . Karl. Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe: The Political Culture of Limited Suffrage. Joel. Karlsbad Decrees abolish German student societies and tighten press censorship . Third Edition. Tile Making of the Englisll Working Class.ean. 1750-1870. 'Pollard. eds. 200~.819 Peterloc massacre in Manchester. The Communist Manifesto: With Related Documents. Tile European Revolutions. 1. Kahan.ucsb. however. Mokyr. Nationalism: Political Cultures in Europe and America. cholera epidemic begins in Europe II II . The Birth of the Modern: World Society. Laven.) REVIEW QUESTIONS 2. 1998. England . Vol. 1968. and C. Karl ~ and Frledrkh TheCommunlit 1831 Belgium becomes . 2d ed. Mcl. Murray.. Jane Eyre II 1848 Last gmt wave of Chartl!! demonstrations iI Britain. This search for alternatives became immediately evid~nt over the next two decades in the question of national unification in Germany and Italy.847 Charlotte Bront@. 1964. elites hoped to CHAPTER 1. " 182. Documents of European Economic History. Charles X of France and install LOUls-Phlhppe.fr French-Speaking Culture: TIMELINE ' II 1839 First Opium War between Britain and China begins Hobsbawm. Davidoff. Kramer. E. 1848-1851. see the Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins.edu/dickens Gallica: Images and Texts from Nineteenth-Century http://gallica.bo Revolt of liberal army officers against the Spanish crown. Lloyd S. 1775-1865. 1999. David. Jonathan. Famine. Johnson. and Frederick Engels. and revol.' not speeches and parliamentary resolutions. For practice quizzes and other study tools. 1815-1830. see Chapters 20 and 21 of Sources of DIE MAKING OF THE WEST. Greece gains independence from Ottoman Turks. . P.ucsc. Whichof the ideologies of this period had the greatest impact on politicalevents? Howcan you explain this? .830 Liverpool and Manchester Railway Line opens in England. S. rebels ~verth~ow . 1996. 1760-1850. For primary-source material from this period. 2005. The Process of Industrialization. 1700-1850. Stuart. Dickens Project: http://humwww. Britain repeab the Corn Laws. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class. Paul. Leonore. ed. Confronted with :~rernati:es that would be less threatening to the established order. 2004..2009. The Event and Its Terrors: Ireland.834 German customs union (Zol/~erein) established under Prussian leadership II .4 Ludwig van Beethoven composes' his Ninth Symphony II . and Catherine Hall. Christopher John.' Inwhat ways might industrialization be considered a force for peaceful change rather than a revolution?(Hint: consider the situation in Great Britain.. Holmes. and Lucy Riall. 1991. Romantic Chronology: http://english. Thompson.Conclusion 680 Chapter 681 17 Industrialization and Social Ferment . Napoleons Legacy: Problems of Government in Restoration Europe.edu:591/rchrono Sperber. 1789-1848. John E. peasant insurrection in the Austrian province Df Galicia II 'Marx. National unification would hereafter depend on what the Pruss ian leader Otto von Bismarck would call "blood and iron.2004. 183" an independent country British Parliament passes the Reform Bill . eatedl broke through. The Age of Revolution. slavery abolished in the British Empire : . E. Modernity.bnf.com/huntconcise. II II 18"5 Russian army officers demand constitutional reform in the Oecembrist uprising 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna II . J.833 - Factory Act regulates the work of children in Great Britain.ts and revolut~~~ these prospects. The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain. 1987. Alan S. 1780-1850. Suggested References The spread of industrialization has elicited much more historical interest than the process of urbanization because the analysis of industrialization occupied a central role in Marxism..846 Famine strikes Ireland. 2000. offers a wealth of imagery and information on French cultural history. Ed. France invades and begins conquest of Algeria. produced by the National Library of France.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->