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For all entrance exams First Edition Sandesh Kolgaonkar Editing & Designing Shweta Kapoor SK E books Press, 2006

Not For Sell, Non Commercial Edition

Copyright Sandesh Kolgaonkar. This book or any part thereof.© 2006 . Org ( Linux ) Images : Open Office Library Author : Sandesh Kolgaonkar Reference : Mumbai University Books on Mathematics. Date : 31 / 12 / 2006 sandeshkolgaonkarshwetakapoor . PDF Generator : Open Office . may not be used or reproduced in any manner without written permission of from sandesh kolgaonkar. All rights reserved.

.c > b – d If a < b . L – last no ∑n = n/ 2 x [ 2a + ( n – 1 )d] n – no of terms ....1st term ) Geometric Progression (1.2. a – first no ..3..11.) :∑n = n /2 x [ a + L ] n – no of terms .c < b .111. b < c then a < c If ab < bc then a < c If ab > bc then b > c If a > b . b = c then a= c If a > b . a – first no . b > c then a> c If a < b .. c < d then a ..d If a > b & a.) :nth term of a GP = ar n-1 sum of n term of series in GP a (r n -1 ) ∑n = ----------------(r + 1) a (r n + 1 ) ∑n = ----------------(r + 1) where r > 1 where r < 1 .Arithmetics Relations : ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ If a = b . c > d then a + c > b + d If a > b ..b both positive then 1/a < 1/b x2 = n2 then x = n or -n Progressions : Arithmetic Progression ( 1. d – common difference of series ( 2nd term . c < d then a .

√5 Imaginary No – numbers like √-2. ½.5 . 5 .4. Number System :complex no | |---------------------------------| Imaginary no Real no | |----------------------| Irrational Rational | |----------------------| Fraction Integers | |----------------------| Prime Composite Real No – numbers like 3 . √-7 Rational No – A no which can expressed as ratio of two integers. -8/4 . ½ .0 .Sum of Natural Numbers :Sum of first n natural numbers ∑n = n ( n+1) / 2 Sum of square of first n natural numbers ∑n2 = n ( n+1) ( 2n+1 ) / 6 Sum of cubes of first n natural numbers ∑n3 = [ n ( n+1) / 2 ] Permutation :n 2 p r n! = --------------(n–r)! Permutation is arrangement of terms. Combination :n c r n! = --------------r! ( n – r ) ! Combination is selection between given terms.

4 ➔ A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of digit of given number is ➔ ➔ ➔ ➔ divisible by 3 . 8520. or Numbers having 0 as last three digit . 8 + 1 = 9 . S – Subtraction. ex – 4000. 27 ➔ A number is divisible by 10 if unit digit is 0.no that cannot be divided by any no except itself & 1. all prime no are odd except 2. ex – 416 ( 16 divisible by 4 ). O – of . Composite No – numbers can divided by some numbers other than itself & 1. ex – 81. Test of Divisibility Every even number is divisible by 2 . ex – 10. A number is divisible by 4 if last two digit of given number divisible by 4. 100. 25 Any number divisible 2 & 3 if the number formed by last three digit is divisible by 6. ex – 10. M -multiplication. Prime No . A number is divisible by 5 if unit digit is either 0 or 5. Percentages :a% = a / 100 i.Irrational No . 9/3 = 3 therefore 81 is divided by 3. Simplification :For simplification rule is BODMAS where B = Bracket. ➔ A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of digit of given number is divisible by 9. √3. A -Addition. ex – 2 . If a is x% less than b then b is more than a by [ x/(100 – x ) x100 ]% . 520. 50. ex – 81 . 30 .roots of rational no that cannot be expressed as fraction √5. D – division. ➔ A number is divisible by 8 if the number formed by last three digit is divisible by 8. If a is x% more than b then b is less than a by [ x/(100 + x ) x100 ]% ii.

b)3 = a3 .b ) ( a2 + ab + b2 ) ➢ Identities (a + b)2 + (a – b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2 ) 2 2 ➢ (a + b) .3a2b + 3ab2 .(a – b) = 4ab ➢ In dices ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ am x an = a ( m + n ) am / an = a ( m .b3 ( a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ac Factorization a2 – b2 = ( a + b ) ( a – b) 3 3 ➢ a + b = ( a + b ) ( a2 .Algebra Expansions ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2 (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a .b = ( a .ab + b2 ) 3 3 ➢ a .log a n log a ( m ) n = n log a m log b n = log a n / log a b Surd ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ( n√a )n = a n √ a * n√ b = n√ab n √ a / n√ b = n√a / b m √ n√ a = m n√a = n√ m √ p√ a p = m p √a p = m m √a √a .n ) a0 = 1 a-m = 1 / a m a1/m = m√a ( a * b ) m= amx bm ( a / b ) m= am / bm ( a m)n = a m*n Logarithms ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ax = n then log a n = x log a ( m n ) = log a m + log a n log a ( m / n ) = log a m .

Quadratic Equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 then value of x ∝= ß= -b + √ ( b 2– 4ac ) ---------------------2a -b .√ ( b 2 – 4ac ) ---------------------2a Simple Equation One Unknown term 1x + 5 = 6 can be solved by simple method 1x = 6 – 5 1x = 1 x=1 Two Unknown Terms 1x + 5y = 6 this equation can be solved by factorization or other methods but it is highly impossible to tell exact values of unknown terms. .

b.c length of triangle Square Rectangle Circle ( side ) 2 or ½ ( diagonal ) 2 Length x Breadth 2πr2 Parallelogram base x height Trapezium Rhombus ½ x (a+b)h where a . b – length of parallel side & h – difference between them ½ x product of diagonals Other Rules • • • • • • Diagonal of square = s√2 Diagonal of rectangle = s√ length2 x breadth2 Perimeter = 2 ( length + breadth) Circumference of circle = 2πr Area of sector of circle = ½ x r x l length of circle = ( ∅ / 360 ) x 2πr Pythagoras Rule ( Only for Right angle triangle ) AC2 = AB2 + BC2 Volume & surface areas Cuboid or Rectangular solid Volume = l x b x h cu.Geometry Area Equivalent Triangle Triangle √3/4 x length 2 ½ x base x height √s(s–a)(s-b) or (s – c) where 2s = a+b+c & a.h lengths of the co terminal edges • Total surface area = 2 (lb + bh + lh ) • Length of longest diagonal = √ l2 + b2 + h2 • .b. units • where l.

l – slant hieght Total surface area = (πrl + πr2 ) Sphere Volume =4/3 x πr3 Total surface area =4 x πr2 Angle Measurement Total of Interior Angles in Degrees Triangle Rectangle Square Pentagon Circle Some Facts • • • • • 180 360 360 540 360 In a triangle. Angle made by altitude of a triangle with side on which it is drawn is equal to 90 degrees.Cube Volume = side3 Area of curved surface = 6 x side2 Diagonal= s √3 Right Circular Cylinder Volume = πr2h Area of curved surface = 2πrh Total surface area = (2πrh + 2π2 ) Right Circular Cone Volume =1/3 x πr2h Area of curved surface = πrl where r – base radius . in parallelogram opposite angles are equal. interior opposite angle is always less than exterior angle. . Triangle can have at one most obtuse angle. Sum of 2 interior opposite angles of a triangle is always equal to exterior angle.

r – rate of interest Compound Interest = P [ 1 + (r / 100 )] n Compound Interest for Half Year = P [ 1 + { (r /2) /100}]2n Compound Interest for Quater Year = P [ 1 + { (r /4) /100}]4n When rate are different for different year then Amount = P [1+(r1 /100 ]+.Mathematics Calendar • • • • • • • • • • • • • Normal Year of 365 days = 52 x 7 + 1 day Leap Year of 366 days = 52 x 7 + 2 days 100 years = 17 weeks + 5 days 200 years = 1 week + 3 day 300 years = 2 weeks + 1 day 400 years = no odd day 0 odd day = Sunday 1 odd day = Monday 2 odd day = Tuesday 3 odd day = Wednesday 4 odd day = Thursday 5 odd day = Friday 6 odd day = Saturday Time & Work a) If A can do a work in X days then A's one day work = 1/x b) If A's one day work is 1/ x then A can finish his work in X days Velocity & Distance • Distance Traveled = Speed x Time • If two objects are moving in the same direction... n – no of years . their relative speed = Difference between their speed • If two objects are moving in the opposite direction. their relative speed = sum of their speed • 1 km /hour = 5/18 meters/sec • 1meter/second = 18/5 km/hour Interest • • • • • • Simple Interest = ( p x n x r ) / 100 where p – principle deposite ..P [ 1 + ( n r /100)] .P[1+(r n /100 ] Difference Between Simple & Compound Interest = P [ 1 + (r / 100 )] n ..

16 4 5 36 49 64 81 Roots 6 7 8 9 .82 No 9 10 16 25 Roots No 3 3.41 1.23 2.73 2 No 5 6 7 8 Roots 2.64 2.44 2.Numerical Charts Squares Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Square 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Square 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 Number 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Square 441 484 529 576 625 676 729 784 841 900 Cubes & Other Powers Number ( X) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Square Roots X3 1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1000 X4 1 16 81 256 625 1296 2401 4096 6561 10000 X5 1 32 243 1024 3125 7776 16807 32768 59049 100000 No 1 2 3 4 Roots 1 1.

Multiplication 1 to 10 :- 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 to 20 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 12 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 13 13 26 39 52 65 78 91 104 117 130 14 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140 15 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 16 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160 17 17 34 51 68 85 102 119 136 153 170 18 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 19 19 38 57 76 95 114 133 152 171 190 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 .

We have freely on net and any one can distribute Author is owner of Ebook press. studied Trigonometry. Certification of Mathematics from Bharati Marathi.About SK E Book Press :- launched number of e books on basic study material. Punjabi. Arithmetics. He has Special Ability educational life. Gujarati. Geometry in his University . About Author :- It private home based company launched by sandesh . Algebra. Sanskrit. He knows English. He has . German. Most of books are available from one to another. Hindi.

2006 Sandeshkolgaonkarshwetakapoor .SK E book Press All rights reserved.

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