Presented by: K. Anupama M.Pharm [Q.A] 1st semester Guided by: Mr. R.P.Singh Asst. Professor PPD

What are ‘CAPSULES’ ?
• Capsules are the solid dosage forms in which medicinal agents and/ or inert substances are enclosed in a small shell of gelatin. • Capsule shells are made up of GELATIN based on which they are divided into 2 following types: 1. Hard Gelatin Capsules 2. Soft Gelatin Capsules

• Gelatin or semi solid protein is a transparent protein material that is obtained by the partial hydrolysis of collagen from skin, white connective tissue and bones of animals. • Being a protein, it is digested by Proteolytic enzymes and is absorbed.

5 inch) to deflect the surface of the gel 4 mm without breaking it. .Bloom Strength • Bloom is a test to measure the strength of a gel or gelatin. The result is expressed in Bloom (grades). The test was originally developed and patented in 1925 by O. To perform the Bloom test on gelatin.67% gelatin solution is kept for 17-18 hours at 10°C prior to being tested. T. a 6. • This method is most often used on soft gels. Bloom. It is usually between 30 and 300 Bloom. • The test determines the weight (in grams) needed by a probe (normally with a diameter of 0.


• . Can be used for depot capsules and enteric coated capsule.ADVANTAGES OF CAPSULES AS DOSAGE FORMS • • • • • Hard-gelatin capsules suitable for extemporaneous compounding so that the dose and combination of ingredients may vary depending on the patient's needs More stable than liquid dosage forms Small-particle size so that the dissolution and absorption in body fluids faster than pills and tablets Can cover up the taste and smell unpleasant medicine Liquid preparations can be made with a certain concentration.

• Can not be used for materials that are very efflorescent or deliquescent. • The concentrated solutions which require previous dilution are unsuitable for capsules because if administered as such lead to irritation in stomach. Efflorescent material make capsule become soft while deliquescent material causing the capsule to become brittle and easily broken. • It take a relatively long compounding.DISADVANTAGES OF CAPSULES • Hygroscopic drugs can not be filled in the capsule shells. • The bitter-medicine will cause vomiting and corrosive which are difficult to overcome. .

F.Hard Gelatin Capsule • It is also referred as the dry filled capsule (D. the shell is hard and consists of two sections used for filling dry materials in body capsule. .C) because in this type of capsule. • Parts of a Hard gelatin capsule: 1. The Capsule Body 2. The Capsule Cap • The two parts overlap when joined with the capsule fitting snugly over the open end of the capsule base.



D&C dyes  It is made opaque by adding Titanium dioxide .Composition Of Hard Gelatin Capsules • A typical Hard gelatin capsule consists of the following materials:  Gelatin  Sugar  Water  Color with F.D & C.

.Moisture content • Normally. hard gelatin capsule contain 1316 % of moisture.

Filling tablets or small capsules into the capsules is sometimes useful in commercial production of capsules. . Capsule sealing (optional). Cleaning and polishing the filled capsule. 2. 5. Developing and preparing the formulation and selecting the capsule size. 4. 3. Filling the capsule shells.Process of preparation of filled Hard gelatin capsules • The large or small scale preparation of hard gelatin capsules is divided into the following general steps: 1.

• Weigh the product after capping. • The powder to be encapsulated is placed on a clean sheet of paper /glass/porcelain plate.Filling of Hard gelatin capsules PUNCH METHOD: • Pharmacists may use “punch method” wherein the pharmacists take the precise number of empty capsules to be filled from the bulk container. • Pharmacist guard against filling the wrong number of capsules and avoid contaminating the stock container with drug powder. . • Use spatula to mix the powder. • Empty capsule is held between thumb and forefinger and punched vertically into the powder cake repeatedly until filled.

Hand Operated Capsule Filling Machine They have capacities ranging from 24 to 300 capsules and when efficiently operated are capable of producing about 200-2000//hr. .

Automated capsule filling machines .

. heat welded. or thermally coupled capsule per hour.Capsule Sealing • Hard Capsules may be sealed through: 1.000-150000 gelatin banded. Thermal band  Note: Industrial Capsule sealing machines are capable of producing 60. Heat welding process 3. Gelatin-band 2.

.Cleaning and Polishing • ACCELA-COTA Apparatus is used to clean and polish the hard gelatin filled capsules.

.good bioavailability.accurate dosage. • Larger capsules are used for veterinary use. .ease of filling & production.elegance . the empty capsules ranging in size from 000 (Iargest) to 5 (smallest) are available.stability and . • The aim in developing the formulation and selecting the capsule size is : To prepare a capsule with : .Capsule Sizes • For human use. .

additional moisture is absorbed by the capsules and they may become distorted and loose their rigid shape.g. That is why they are packed with small packets of dessicant materials (e. clay. • If capsules are stored in extreme dry conditions. activated charcoal). . dried silica gel. then some of the moisture normally present is lost and the capsule may become brittle and crumble. • Moisture may be absorbed by gelatin capsule and affect hygroscopic agents present in capsule.Stability of Hard Gelatin Capsule • If hard gelatin capsules are stored in an environment of high humidity.

containing the dissolved or suspected active substance. • Soft gelatin capsules consist of a filling. . and of a onepiece shell.SOFT GELATIN CAPSULES • These capsules are made of gelatin to which glycerine or a polyhydric alcohol such as sorbitol has been added to render the gelatin elastic or plastic like.

or round in shape. • These capsules are pharmaceutically elegant & easily swallowed by the patient. dry powders & even preformed tablets.Properties of Soft Gelatin Capsules: • It contains more moisture than hard gelatin capsules. • These capsules can encapsulate liquids. . pasty materials. • May be manufactured to be oblong. suspensions. • Use hermetic (snug) seal. • They may be prepared from a single or double tone color and may be imprinted with identifying markings. • They may be prepared with opaquants to reduce transparency and render characteristic feature to the capsule shell. oval. • Add preservatives to retard microbial growth.

its physical state (fibrous. and its oleophilic or hydrophilic nature. amorphous. its moisture content.Base Adsorption • Base adsorption is expressed as the number of grams of liquid base required to produce a capsulatable mixture when mixed with one gram of solid(s). or crystalline). • The base adsorption of a solid is influenced by such factors such as the solids particle size and shape. its density. • A practical procedure for determining base adsorption and for judging the adequate fluidity of a mixture is as follows: .

Continue to add liquid and stir until the mixture flows steadily from the spatula blade when held at a 45degree angle above the mixture. place about 100 g of the solid base. • In a separate 150 ml beaker tared beaker. • This should produce a mixture that has a soft ointment like consistency. stir the base into the solid after each addition until the solid is thoroughly wetted and uniformly coated with the base. and using a spatula. • Add small increments of the liquid base to the solid.• Weigh a define amount of the solid (40g is convenient) into a 150 ml teared beaker. • The base adsorption is obtained by means of the following formula – • Weight of the base/ Weight of the solid = Base Adsorption .

• It is calculated by dividing the weight of the base plus the gram of solid base (BA+ S) by the weight of the mixture (W) per cubic centimeter or 16.Minim per gram factor • The base adsorption is used to determine the “minim per gram” factor (M/g) of the solid(s). . • A convenient formula is(BA + S) x V/ W = M/g  Thus lower the base adsorption of the solid (s) and higher the density of the mixture.23 minims (V). • The minim per gram factor is the volume in minims that is occupied by one gram (S) of the solid plus the weight of the liquid base (BA) required to make a capsulatable mixture. the smaller the capsule will be.

Non Polar: beeswax. Butylated hydroxy aniline. mineral oil. ferric oxide • Anti-caking agent: Silicon dioxide • Humectant: Polyol . • pH adjusting additive. PEG 400. glycerine. D.Composition of a Soft Gelatin Capsule • Gelatin • Softener (plasticizer): sorbitol. PEG 3350. xylose. triglycerine. soyabean oil. Water. • Solvents. Propyl paraben. Ethanol. corn oil. Polar: glycerine. PEG. • Flavour and fragrance • Pigment: titanium oxide. PEG. coconut oil. • Dyes.L-α Tocopherol. • Preservatives: Methyl paraben. Sodium benzoate. PPG. Water. EDTA.

Plate Process: Using a set of moulds to form the capsules. . 3. This is the most common process in preparing soft gelatin capsule in industry. Reciprocating die process: It is similar to the above process except that it uses reciprocating dies instead of rotary dies.Preparation of Soft Gelatin Capsules 1. 2. Rotating Die Process: Two continuous gelatin ribbons are brought together between twin rotating dies.

Rotary die Process .

Reciprocating capsule filling machine .

Advantages of Soft gelatin capsules: • • • • • • • Ease of swallowing. Dosage accuracy/ uniformity. Increase in bioavailability Enhanced stability and security Pliable shell Portability . Consistent manufacturing requirements.

Physical tests 2. Moisture permeation test . Dissolution b. Weight variation test • CHEMICAL TESTS include: a. Chemical tests • PHYSICAL TESTS include: a. Disintegration test b. Assay c. Stability testing e.QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS • The Quality Control Tests that are performed for capsules are categorized as follows: 1. Content uniformity d.

Physical Tests  Disintegration Test: This test helps to determine whether the capsules disintegrate within the prescribed time when placed in a liquid medium under the prescribed experimental conditions. .  Weight variations Test: This demonstrates the uniformity of dosage units.

• Dissolution tests include: .In-vivo ( inside living organism) .In-vitro (in artificial environment) .Chemical tests  Dissolution Test: It determines the amount of drug substance that goes into the solution per unit time under standardized conditions of liquid/ solid interphase. • This test is used in the pharmaceutical industry for optimization of formulation and quality control. temperature and solvent composition.

• It shows the distribution of active contents within the production batch.  Content uniformity • It refers to the assay of the individual unit (i. capsules. • It reflects the main active contents in a production batch. tablets injections). .e. Assay • It refers to the determination of amount of specific substance in a drug mixture.

 Moisture Permeation Test: • To determine the degree and rate of moisture penetration by packaging the dosage unit together with a color revealing dessicant pellet and exposing the packaged unit to known relative humidity over a specified time. Stability testing • To determine the intrinsic stability of the active drug molecule and the influence of environmental factors such as temperature. formulative components and the container and closure system. . light. humidity. Then observing the dessicant pellet for color change and comparing the pre-test and post-test weight of the packaged unit.


in/bitstream/123456789/747/1/Revised+ • http://en.wikipedia.niscair.pdf • http://www.References: • .authorstream.res.

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