You are on page 1of 348

1

JAIPUR REGION

STUDY MATERIAL 2008-09

SUBJECT: ENGLISH CORE CLASS: XII

PATRON: Dr. K.P CHAMOLA


(Assistant Commissioner, KVS, Jaipur Region)

CONVENOR: Mr. R.K Sharma, Principal, KV Jhunjhunu.


MEMBERS:

Mr. Ombir Singh (P.G.T English, K.V No.1, Kota)

Mrs. V. Sapre P.G.T English, K.V No.1, Bikaner)

Mr. J. John (P.G.T English, K.V Bhilwara)

Mrs. Sita Chaudhary (P.G.T English, K.V B.S.F, Jodhpur)

Mr. B.M Sonia (P.G.T English, KV Jhunjhunu)

CONTENTS

1. PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER/SYLLABUS 2. BLUE PRINT OF QUESTIION PAPER 3. SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION 4. SECTION B ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS 5. SECTION C LITERATURE/TEXT BOOKS 6. SAMPLE QUESTION PAPERS (SOLVED) 7. SAMPLE QUESTION PAPERS (FOR PRACTICE)

PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER/SYLLABUS


ENGLISH CORE XII 2008-09

(SECTION A) MARKS

20

READING 1. Unseen passage for comprehension 2. Note Making with summarizing 9+3 = 12 marks 5+3 = 08 marks

(SECTION B)

35 MARKS

ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS

3. Short Composition

05 marks

i. ii. iii. iv.

Notice/Appeal Writing Invitations & Replies (Refusal & Acceptance) Advertisements (Classified & Display) Posters

4. Report Writing 5. Letter Writing

10 marks 10 marks

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Letter to Editor Letter of Complaint Letter making enquiries Letter placing orders Job application 10 marks

6. Long Composition (Article/Speech)

(SECTION C)

45 MARKS

TEXT BOOKS/LITERATURE

FLAMINGO VISTAS

30 marks 15 marks

FLAMINGO

7. (a) Answer one extract out of two from poetry. 7. (b) Answer three questions out of four from poetry. 8. Short answer type questions(prose)

04 marks 06 marks

5X02 = 10 marks

9. Answer one long answer type question out of two. (125-150 words) 10 marks

VISTAS

10. Answer one long answer type question out of two. (125-150 words) 07 marks 11. Short answer type questions (30-40 words) 4 X 02 = 08 marks

ENGLISH CORE - XII


Blue Print/Design of Sample Paper 2008
Section Q.1 Type of Question Marks 1M 2M Total marks 20 Testing objectives Comprehension Comprehension Comprehension Vocabulary testing, Vocabulary testing, Study Skills (Comprehending & Note Making) Summarising Skills Providing factual details, organization, fluency and coherence or Providing factual details, organization, fluency and format, Presenting factual details, fluency and coherence or Presenting factual details, format, fluency and coherence Formating, organization, coherence, fluency, or Formatting, organization, Organisation, coherence, fluency or

READING a) VSA 1.1 b) SA 1.2

Q.2

2.1

c) SA 2M a) VSA b) VSA c) 1M VSA 1M Note - Making 5M 35

2.2 Summary Writing 3M WRITING Q.3 (1s1 O ption) Short Writing Skill 5M or or or

(2nd option) Short Writing Skill 5M

Q.4

(1 option) Long Writing Task 10M or (Report writing) or Long Writing Task 2nd O ption (Factual Reporting) (1st o p tion ) Letter writing (Long Writing Task) or Letter or Writing (Long (2n d o p tion ) Writing Task) ( 1s t option) Article (LWS) or (2nd option) or Article (LWS) or 10M 10M or 10M 10M or 10M

st

0.5

Q.6

ENGLISH CORE - XII

TEXT BOOKS a) SA b) VSA c) VSA or or (2nd option) a) SA b) VSA c) VSA Q.7 Any three 1) SA 2) SA 3) SA 4) SA Q.8 All five a) SA b) SA c) SA d) SA e) SA
Q.7 a) (1st Option)

45 2M 1M 1M or 2M 1M 1M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 10M or 10 M 07M
i
. . . . . ...;.... . . ...

Poetry appreciation Interpretation Interpretation or Poetry appreciation Inteqiretation Interpretation Comprehension Interpretation Understanding Interpretation Comprehension Comprehension Interpretation Understanding Understanding and interpretation Content organization Fluency, Coherence, Understanding

Q.9 (1st O ption) Long answer ornd or (2 O ption) Long answer Q.10 (1st O ption) Long answer or Or (2nd O p tion ) Long answer Q.ll a) SA b) SA c) SA d) SA

or 07M 2M 2M 2M 2M

or Content organization, fluency, coherence. understanding Content organization, fluency, coherence, understanding Or Content organization, Fluency, coherence. understanding Understanding Understanding Interpretation Understanding

ENGLISH CORE - XII

SECTION A (READING COMPREHENSION)

COMPREHENSION PASSAGES
SECTION A (Q. No. 1)

READING SKILLS Reading is a skill that can be acquired. Anyone can learn to read better and faster and thereby comprehend in lesser time. Rather than concentrating on words on the page, look for the main ideas, follow the main thread of the ideas consciously at a fast pace. Try to comprehend the overall organisation of the passage in terms of the development of thought. Dont get sidetracked by minor details or examples.

The following points should be kept in mind and carefully noted while attempting the questions on comprehension: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do not be panicky seeing a long passage. Go through the passage carefully and try to get a general idea of the subject the passage deals with. Second reading would certainly better your understanding. So do it. Some difficult words may scare you but do not lose heart. Make a guess and try to relate them to the preceding and the following sentences. Read the questions asked very carefully.

10

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Underline the relevant parts of the passage which can give the answers. Answer to the point. Use simple and your own language. Do not give your comments. You are to display your comprehension and not knowledge. If there is no way out, use words from the passage. Wrong words, if used, will send wrong signals. If you are asked to give a title or heading to the passage, keep in mind the following clues : a) title is hidden either in the beginning or in the ending lines of the passage. b) first letter of each word in the title should be capital letter. c) title should give the main idea of the passage. d) title should be small and brief.

SOLVED EXAMPLES PASSAGE-1


REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL IDEALS

Everybody knows that the education given at present in our universities is narrow and strictly intellectual and is confined to giving instructions in the subjects of set course with an eye only on the student's success in the examination. The physical side of the education is neglected, and there are practically no facilities for. Social life or corporate activities of any kind. Naturally in such narrow grooves, 'there is little opportunity for training the character of the student and developing his personality. In this connection, it will be wise to look up to America, the most practical country in the world. America possesses democracy in education. Education is not a monopoly of the idle rich, of the privilege solely of the bloated and arrogant middle class, but the birthright of every American child. In Europe primary education is free and compulsory, but higher education is reserved only for a few. No attempt is made by American Educationists to dole out education according to

11

social position. It is possible for student to start in the common school and right up to the university. Education in America is frankly utilitarian as it is not either in England or in India. Metaphysics and Latin and Greek occupy a very subordinate place in the curriculum. The almost miraculous success of American business all over the world is due to the strictly utilitarian ideals of American education. In America businessmen generously give away large sums of money. It is not an idealistic generosity which prompts them to do so. But the realization that their education has helped them to make money and so they must give money for giving similar education to others. No American would even dream of encouraging a- type of education without direct social utility. A look into an American university calendar would show that the courses of study offered range from dish-washing to metaphysics. But dish-washing is given more importance than Aristotle. The difference between American and Indian education is that Indian educationists aim at providing merely glorified clerks while Americans want self-respecting citizens who shall be taught to make an independent living in every walk of life. Our unemployed are consoled by being told that "man shall not live by bread alone?" This is not true. The truth is that man shall not live by culture alone. He wants bread first. That is recognized by American universities. So in these two ways we can learn much from America. We must make education cheap within reach of all who are capable of it and desire it and we must make it utilitarian. A man who can do the job of dish-washing really efficiently is a better citizen than a man who writes Babu Piche Lal's English, and murders Shakespeare. In America, examinations have been completely eliminated. Instead of holding examinations and promoting those who receive a certain percentage of marks, the entire group is promoted. The more slowly developing child is given individual attention, and the brilliant child is not retarded. The gifted child is given more work of a creative nature, and is even encouraged to dream, but is never placed in a class of children older than himself, where he may grow self-conscious and lose confidence.

12

On basis of reading the above passage, answer the following questions A1. a) What is the aim of present system of education of India ? Ans.) The aim is to give instructions in subjects of course with an eye only to the student's success in the examination. a) What are the two shortcomings of the social life of a student? Ans.) The two short comings are- no opportunity for training the character of student and to develop his personality as there are no corporate activities. b) On what grounds can we say that American education is utilitarian in nature ? Ans.) The courses of study in America offer a range from dishwashing to metaphysics, but dishwashing is given more importance. Education without direct social utility is discouraged. c) What is the great distinction between American and Indian education? Ans.) Indian education aims at producing merely glorified clerks. Our unemployed are consoled by being told that "man shall not live by bread alone!" Americans want self-respecting citizens who shall be taught to make an independent living in every walk of life. They recognize that man needs bread first. d) Americans treat the gifted child on different norms. What are those? Ans.) The gifted child is given more work of creative nature, is encouraged to dream, never placed in a class of children older than himself, where he may grow self-conscious and lose confidence. e) What can Indians learn from the American system of education? Ans.) Education is birth right of every child. It should be utilitarian. Education should produce self-respecting

13

citizens capable of making an independent citizen. Eliminate exams.

g)

Write the synonyms of the following words : (i) (ii) (iii) Opportunity - chance Miraculous - wonderful, supernatural, divine Eliminated - removed

h)

Write three facts from the passage that speak about the success of business in America Ans. (i) Utilitarian ideals of education. (ii) (iii) Businessmen generously give away large sums of money for education. Not idealistic generosity-realizes that education helps make money so they must give to others.

PASSAGE-2
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. As religious people believing in God, we are all aware of the influence of prayer in our individual lives. It is true our temples, gurdwaras, churches and mosques reverberate with the prayers of the devout on festive occasions and even in the course of daily life. When individuals face dire situations, often they are led into prayer, their faith thus opens for them a source of comfort and encouragement in their hour of need. 2. But how does this nation, as a collective entity, exercise its faith in prayer? It may be recalled that during the freedom struggle and subsequently after Independence, the Father of the Nation, used to lead the people in prayer on matters affecting its destiny. The men of different faiths used to take part in such meetings, which gave them a sense of purpose and also a sense of solidarity as people sharing one destiny.

14

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Since the Mahatma fell to the bullets of an assassin, no one else probably came forward to provide leadership to an exercise of prayer at the national level. No doubt, people of all faiths had organised prayers at their places of worship in the aftermath of national tragedies like the Gujarat earthquake or the Orissa cyclone. The hijacking of an Indian plane with its passengers to Kandahar in the recent past had moved this nation to pray. The whole nation, again, had taken to prayer en masse on two other earlier occasions-when Amitabh Bachchan fell seriously ill and also when Mother Teresa was on bed. Man's need for prayer is as great as his need for bread. As food is necessary for the body, prayer is necessary for the soul. I have not a shadow of doubt that the strife and quarrels with which our atmosphere is so full today are due to the absence of the spirit of true prayer. True prayer never goes unanswered." wrote Gandhiji. According to Vasudevan, secretary of the Rajghat Samadhi Samiti, all-religion prayer meetings are held every Friday at Rajghat from 4 p.m. to 5.15 p.m. It is said that the act of prayer changes people and situations. There is a general impression that prayer is an act of seeking favours from God for selfish ends. It is as if all praying people are only interested in taking their shopping lists to their maker! Far from it. The very act of praying teaches one to empathise with those who suffer. It broadens one's vision and outlook . It builds up one's character by imparting a sense of responsibility towards other people and situations. The latest example of a praying nation comes from the United States, which is often labeled as too materialistic. Speaking at the National Prayer Breakfast at Washington in the second week of February, President George Bush praised Americans of all faiths for turning to prayer in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. He said he had spent much time "on bended knee" since terrorists attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing more than 3000 people. Regardless of the religious affiliations, people in the affected areas showed an exemplary sense of tolerance in the hour of tragedy. All differences of religion, ethnicity, race and language were forgotten as volunteers got busy assuaging the pain and sorrow felt by the victims. The American example has several lessons for India which is also a pluralistic society. It has demonstrated that differences of religion and ethnicity need not

15

stand in the way of the nation unitedly facing all its challenges. If it is true that all religious faiths teach tolerance, humility and the value of helping neighbours, then the religious leaders of this nation could also engender unity and oneness of purpose by coming together periodically to pray for the nation. And when they focus on the fact that all people, regardless of their differences, share one common destiny, there could be greater communal harmony. Such a consciousness ought to pave the way for peace in society. (M.P. K. Kutty) (a) Answer the following questions : (i) When do people generally pray ? Why ? 9 Marks 2 Marks

When individuals face dire situations, often they are led into prayer, their faith thus opens for them a source of comfort and encouragement in their hour of need.
(ii)

What is the importance of the nation praying as a collective entity? 1Mark It gives them a sense of purpose and also a sense of unity as people sharing one destiny.

(iii)

Give two examples from the recent times when the nation was led to pray for a cause ? 1 Mark The Gujarat earthquake/the Orissa cyclone or any other. How does the act of praying influence mind and Personality? 2

(iv) Marks

The very act of praying teaches one to empathise with those who suffer. It broadens ones vision and outlook. It builds up one's character by imparting a sense of responsibility towards other people and situations. (v) What lesson does the American example demonstrate to

16

India ?

3 Marks

The American example has several lessons for India which is also a pluralistic society, it has demonstrated that differences of religion and ethnicity need not stand in the way of the nation unitedly facing all its challenges. b) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the ones given below : 3 Marks (i) unity (para 2) solidrity
(ii)

conflict strife commendable exemplary

(para 4) (para7)

(iii)

PASSAGES FOR PRACTICE PASSAGE-3


1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks Three worrisome aspects of national life demand drastic measures as early as possible. These are: exploding population, rampant corruption and an administrative system which is among the worst in the world. Ever since Independence, these three problems have been pushed under the carpet because they require tough decisions. 1. Even as the country's population has crossed the one billion mark, our leaders continue to twiddle their thumbs. The socalled national population policy, announced with much fanfare recently, is an unmitigated farce. After talking about a dozen concerns pertaining to the health of women and children, it again puts "emphasis on voluntariness in the area of family planning. But experience of the last five decades shows that Indians population problem is of such a

17

2.

3.

4.

magnitude that mere recourse to persuasion and propaganda-which means voluntariness-is just not enough. There is urgent need for a centrally-sponsored nation-wide scheme of incentives and disincentives-a carrot-and-stick policy. Needless to say, an incentive-disincentive scheme would initially cover the organised sector, which means employees of the Central and state governments as well as the public and private corporate sectors. The incentivesdisincentives would entail monetary rewards, promotions and concessions relating to the education of children, housing and transportation. The details are not difficult to work out and have been written about ad nauseam. Corruption has been corroding the very innards of the Indian nation. First, there is need for an attitudinal change. We should eschew the despicable habit of throwing up our hands in despair and lamenting that nothing can be done about corruption. Because of the innate avariciousness of human nature, it may be difficult to eradicate corruption, but it can definitely be reduced. For this, it is equally important to remember that we must attack corruption at the highest echelons of power because, like liquid, it flows from top to bottom. The Central Vigilance Commission is there to check corruption among bureaucrats. But what about corruption among ministers and parliamentarians who occupy a higher position than bureaucrats in the hierarchy of power ? It is here that the Lokpal comes in, an ombudsman-like institution independent of the government which would also cover the office of the Prime Minister. There is also need to strike at the root cause of corruption by breaking the corrupt politician-businessman nexus. Politicians take black money from businessmen in order to fight elections. If there were state funding of political parties, this need would, to some extent be obviated. Considering that the quinquennial expense of elections in India is estimated around Rs 1000 crore, it, means that there is an annual need of just Rs 200 crore for state funding of political parties. For a country of India's size this is a manageable amount. Several advanced democracies, the USA and Germany among them, have state funding of political parties.

18

5.

6.

An atrocious administrative system is not only retarding the country's economic progress but has also become the average citizen's nightmare. At the time of Independence our leaders blindfoldedly adopted the colonial type of administration left behind by the British and imposed it on the nation. In the last five decades, despite a constant clamour, there has not been a single piece of administrative reform, with the result that the situation has been going from bad to worse. Three administrative reforms should be introduced immediately. One, no file should be required to move more than three levels before a decision is taken. Two, there should be 'a moratorium on government recruitment till the size of the bureaucracy is reduced by 30 per cent over 10 years. Three, the foolproof security of service in government jobs should be rescinded. But, considering our pusillanimous leadership, who will bell the cat? (Aruind Bhandari) Answer the following questions briefly in your own words as far as possible : (i) What are the three worrisome issues faced by the present day India? 1 Mark Why has the National Population Policy not been effective in reducing population so far ? What is the author's suggestion in this regard? 2 Marks Who should be targeted first for reducing corruption? What is the role of Lokpal in this context?2 Marks What is the root cause of political corruption? What measure can be taken to reduce this ? 2 Marks Mention the main reforms that can be adopted to strengthen the administrative system in India? 2 Marks

(a)

(ii)

(iii) (iv) (v)

(b)

Find wards from the passage which mean the same as the ones given below : 3 Marks

19

(i) (ii)
(iii)

severe scale greediness

(Para 1) (Para 2) (Para 4)

PASSAGE-4
1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks The advance of knowledge is often a mixed blessing. Over the past 60 years, nuclear physics has been one obvious example of this truth. Over the next 60 years, genetics may be another. Today, enterprising firms offer, for a fee, to tell you about your genes. They claim that this knowledge will help you live longer and better. You might, for example, have extra check-ups to detect early signs of the diseases that you are most at risk of contracting, or you could alter your diet to reduce that risk. If your chances of a long lifespan are not good, you might buy more life insurance, or even retire early to have enough time to do what you always wanted to do. Selecting our children raises more profound ethical problems. This is not new. In developed countries, tile routine testing of older pregnant women, combined with the availability of abortion, has significantly reduced the incidence of conditions like Down's syndrome. In some regions of India and China where couples are anxious to have a son, selective abortion has been the ultimate form of sexism, and has been practiced to such an extent that a generation is coming of age in which males face a shortage of female partners. Selection of children need not involve abortion. For several years, some couples at risk of passing a genetic disease on to their

20

children have used in vitro fertilisation, producing several embryos that can be tested for the faulty gene and implanting in the woman's uterus only those without it. Now couples are using this technique to avoid passing on genes that imply a significantly elevated risk of developing certain forms of cancer. Since everyone carries some adverse genes, there is no clear line between selecting against a child with above-average risks of contracting a disease and selecting for a child with unusually rosy health prospects. Thus, genetic selection will inevitably move towards genetic enhancement. For many parents, nothing is more important than giving their child the best possible start in life. They buy expensive toys to maximise their child's learning potential and spend much more on private schools or after school tutoring in the hope that he or she will excel in the tests that determine entry to elite universities. It may not be long before we can identify genes that improve the odds of success in this quest. In the case of sex selection, it is easy to see that couples who independently choose the best for their own child can produce an outcome that makes all their children worse off than they would have been if no one could select the sex of their child. Something similar could happen with other forms of genetic selection. Since above-average height correlates with above-average income, and there is clearly a genetic component to height, it is not fanciful to imagine couples choosing to have taller children. The outcome could be a genetic arms race that leads to taller and taller children, with significant environmental costs in the additional consumption required to fuel larger human beings.

The most alarming implication of this mode of genetic selection, however, is that only the rich will be able to afford it. The gap between rich and poor, already a challenge to our ideas of social justice, will become a chasm that mere equality of opportunity will be powerless to bridge. That is not a future that any of us should approve.

21

But avoiding this outcome will not be easy, for it will require that selection for genetic enhancement is either available to no one or accessible to everyone. The first option would require coercion, and since countries will not accept that others should gain a competitive edge, an international agreement to forego the benefits that genetic enhancement can bring. The second option, universal access, would require an unprecedented level of social assistance for the poor, and extraordinarily difficult decisions about what to subsidise. (Peter Singer, TOD)
(a) Answer the following questions briefly in your own words

as far as possible : 9 Marks (i) How does the knowledge offered by some enterprising firms help people ? 1 Mark (ii) How can genetic selection help couples avoid from passing on the cancer affected genes to their next generation ? 2 Marks (iii) Mention two positive effects of genetic selection. 2 Marks (iv) What are two main adverse effects of genetic selection? 2 Marks (v) Why is the universal access to the selection for the genetic enhancement not an easy option for nations to accept ? 2 Marks (b) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the ones given below : 3 Marks (i) (ii) (iv) innovative moral high (Para 1) (Para 2)

22

PASSAGE-5
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks

1. Our ancient sages and forefathers had taught us the importance of three qualities as essential requisites to preserve our culture eternally. They relate to our intellectual, emotional and physical aspects involving moment to moment transactions. They are fearlessness, non-attachment and non-violence. 2. The most important among the three is fearlessness. Whenever our culture or our values are threatened, we should have the courage to stand against the inimical forces. The conflict between truth and untruth or right and wrong, is a phenomenon that has baffled people right from the beginning of creation. Many times, we feel that wickedness is over-running righteousness. But we should realise that this is temporary. Ultimately, truth alone will win. This is the law of nature. The main weapon in the battle for the victory of Dharma (Righteousness) is fearlessness. This is essentially a state of mind. 3. To develop fearlessness, we have to shed our ego that often clouds our mind and intellect. First of all we must develop a firm conviction in the principles and beliefs, we value. We should then remain ready to sacrifice everything that we hold dear to us. Some people merely sacrifice their possessions, that too mainly for the sake of name and fame. That is not true sacrifice. Giving up one's ego with a spirit surrender or submission to the unseen power of Almighty to attain fearlessness is true sacrifice. We understand submission as mere obedience to our superiors or others in authority, forgetting our basic responsibility that we should resist any attempt from any quarters to impose wrong practices and unrighteous acts. 4. Fearlessness can be attained only if another equally important quality like non-attachment can be cultivated. This calls for discrimination (Viveka). The ability to distinguish between the permanent and the temporary is called Viveka. There is no attachment to any person or a thing, be it a family or property. But this value comes only when we seek for higher levels of knowledge

23

5.

6.

(a)

(b)

to attain wisdom, which is different from the skills or techniques or literary proficiency. Supplementing both these qualities of fearlessness and nonattachment is the ability to remain non-violent under all circumstances. Non-violence is not limited to the physical body. One should practice non-violence in speech and thought too. It calls for immense will power. Jains as a community led by their monks have shown clearly the path of non-violence in day-to-day life. When we combine fearlessness and non-attachment with nonviolence, we unleash forces which can bring down even powerful armies and mighty empires. Take the case of the United States of America, which had a fearless leader like Abraham Lincoln, who galvanised the urges of the people against slavery for freedom. Mahatma Gandhi inspired us for freedom from foreign rule by inspiring us through fearlessness, non-attachment and non-violence. However, epics teach us that it is impossible to correct men like Duryodhana. In such cases, use of force is not only necessary, but it also becomes mandatory. The physical punishments parents mete out to their children for a positive purpose also cannot be considered as violence as long as no love is lost in the relationship. (Adapted-D. Narsimha Rao-HT) Answer the following questions briefly : 9 Marks (i) What are the three essential requisites according to the passage to preserve our culture eternally ? Of these, which is the most important ? 2 Marks (ii) What is fearlessness an important weapon against ? How ? 2 Marks (iii) How can fearlessness be cultivated in a person ? 2 Marks (iv) What is non-violence? Is violence always wrong? Explain. 2 Marks (v) How does the combination of the three requisites described in the passage help preserve our culture ? 1 Marks Find a word from the passage which means the same as each of the following : 3 Marks (i) a thing which is needed for a purpose. (ii) that can be morally justified. (iii) to release something powerful.

24

PASSAGE-6
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. Memory is what defines our lives, our personalities, our very existence. The dictionary defines memory as the faculty by which things are recalled or kept in the mind, the recovery of one's knowledge by mental effort. But for most of us memory is just the ability to recall facts and figures, the faces of people we know and the recollection of things in the past. But memory is far more complex than this. Without memory, as in the case of amnesia, the personality changes and is distorted without any point of reference. Memory is" of vital importance in defining our personalities as it enriches our lives with complicated personal remembrances. Without this we turn into walking zombies. As people grow older they often suffer memory loss in some form or other and diseases like Aizheimer's can obliterate memory centres of the brain, making the sufferer into a different, less coherent and irrational personality. 2. Science has discovered that there are many different types of memory and we can lose one kind and still retain others. Human beings have a long term memory and a working memory. Working memory is the ability to recall telephone numbers, addresses and relevant information such as those needed in our daily lives. Many elderly people seem to lose this form of memory while still retaining their long term memory. Even perfectly normal people may have only one part of the brain active under stress or illness. In addition to long term memory and working memory, there is also recent memory, semantic memory (the memory of facts) and episodic memory (the memory of something which actually happened), explicit and implicit memory and source memory, which enables us to recall from where we learnt certain facts. A loss of source memory seems to affect most people at sometime or the other. 3. Without memory we become different people. It is what most elderly people fear, but it need not be so. Unless illness is the cause for memory loss, participating fully in life can make a world of difference. Scientists, musicians, writers, doctors, architects, engineers and artists, all use their brains and memory

25

centres to maximum effect. In fact anyone who is absorbed in some sort of work or project, or hobby whereby the mind is stimulated and used, can keep the memory in good working condition. Reading and paying attention to what you are reading, learning poetry by heart and taking a deep interest in the world around you, stimulates memory. We must also learn to breathe deeply. 4. If the brain does not receive sufficient oxygen for the process of cerebration, hallucination and negative psychic reactions occur. Yoga tells us that for good mental health and emotional stability, we need to be good, deep breathers. Without memory we are nothing. Our closest family members are nothing to us, we are alone, drifting in a world of which we appear to know nothing. The preservation, dignity, empathy, love depend almost entirely on the preservation of memory. (Adapted-Nergis Dalal-HT) (a) Answer the following questions briefly : 9 Marks (i) What is the true definition of memory ? How is it different from the layman's interpretation of memory ? 2 Marks (ii) What is the importance of memory? How does the absence of it affect our personalities? 2 Marks (iii) What kind of memory loss do old people generally suffer from ? Does this mean they lose memory completely ? 2 Marks (iv) How can one keep one's memory in good condition? Give at least two points. 2 Marks (v) How is the preservation of memory important in our personal lives? 1 Mark (b) Find words from the passage which mean the following : 3 Mark (i) to remove all signs completely (ii) to make something more active (iii) to keep something in good condition or in original state

26

PASSAGE-7
1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. Sarah Riley works in the heart of London. Her working day is filled with meetings, phone calls, project deadlines and all the other responsibilities of corporate life. She is good at her job and his steadily progressed over the last six years to her current position as marketing consultant for a large communications and marketing firm. 2. It is a demanding job but well paid and Ms. Riley loves it. Yet for the past year and a half, she has been leaving her job every Wednesday evening to drive to the coastal town of Brighton, where she spends the rest of the week and part of the weekend working as a junior barber in a city centre salon. She does not need the extra money nor is she planning a career change. The fact is that like a small but growing number of workers, Ms. Riley has simply decided that two careers are better than one. 3. Dual careerists (also sometimes called sunlighters) are not contractors who work for several clients or moonlighters who take on extra-jobs for money. Instead, they are people who are actively committed to more than one career. Celebrity hybrids, such as singer/actress/children's author, Madonna and even actor/champion poker player Ben Affleck are known for having more than one career on the go and it is a trend that experts say is gathering force among office workers. 4. Ms. Riley is now completing her NVQ Level 2 barber training, "I have always been interested in men's hairdressing and I find it quite creative." She says, "I would often look at someone's hair-style and think. I can do that and one day I just decided to do it. Initially I enrolled in an evening course, which gave me a very basic grounding and a chance to see if I could actually do it. When I realised I could and that I enjoyed it, I decided to train properly." 5. City and Guild recently conducted a forward-looking analysis of the trend and concluded that increased life expectancy and pension under-funding will lead to longer working lives, while the rise of (particularly on-line)

27

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

technology will mean people can re-train while holding down their current jobs. This creates an encouraging climate for dual careerists. The study predicts that the 1.2 million people who currently have two or more jobs will double in the next 20 years. Like Ms. Riley, the majority of dual careerists work parttime. But executive assistant Nicola .Wright, 27, who has a full time job as a P.A. opted for an additional career when faced with the prospect of otherwise having to give up her childhood passion for dance. She decided to train as a dance teacher in the evenings and week-ends and has spent the past six years establishing her own dance school in Portsmouth, along the Coast from Brighton, while holding down her original job. For her, top notch organisational and time management skills and the goodwill of her employers were fundamental in helping her realise her ambition. However, taking on two careers can require almost superhuman determination and efficiency. Apart from the training there are administrative chores like completing taxreturns which many people with more than one employer are required to do. "It is exhausting," Ms. Wright admits. But despite their punishing schedules both Ms. Riley and Ms. Wright maintain that being able to do creative jobs, makes them appreciate their mainstream jobs even more. As Ms. Riley explains, "I have always wanted to live by the sea and have a country life-style. In Brighton I live within walking distance of my job. I can go home for lunch and feed the dogs and on Sundays I can go for country walks. But I also have my city life with my London job with the salary, friends and social life that goes with that. Both jobs really complement each other". Prof. Peter Nolan, Director of the Future of Work Programme, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), points out that the notion that people are becoming less interested in holding down a career in favour of quality family life is a myth. There is in fact, he argues, a revival in the desire for a career. Statistics show that the length of time people stay with employers hasn't changed much, but the number of different and /or additional jobs people do in their working lives have been growing significantly and this is linked to

28

people being offered more flexible working hours. Parttime work no longer conforms to the stereotype of being temporary, insecure of a stopgap. Often it is a secure, longlasting career and changes in employment law over the years mean that the benefits and rights make it comparable to full time work. It seems that doubling your careers could also double your freedom. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage answer these questions. 9 Marks (i) Who is Sarah Riley? What is the nature of her job? (ii) Who are dual careerists ? Mention some dual careerists. 2 Marks (iii) Where has Ms. Sarah Riley been going every Wednesday evening and why ? 2 Marks (iv) What did the City and Guild conducted analysis state? 2 Marks (v) What is the opinion of Ms. Wright about dual careers? 1 Mark v (b) Find words from the above passage which mean the same as: 3xl=3 (i) very tiring (para 7) (ii) provided money for (para 9) (iii) adaptable (para 10)

PASSAGE-8
1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. My father gets a faraway look in his eyes that's unmistakable. As he looks towards the horizon and his eyes seek out the bright flashes of snow-capped peaks, we all know what he's thinking. Mountain tops have always had that magnetic effect on him. 2. As I grew up I inherited some of my father's restlessness. I know many people think there must be some compulsion for the son of Edmund Hillary to climb mountains. They assume that I need to compete, or measure up as if there was some strong mark on stone that says, Thou shall climb mountains - and in particular Everest, whether you like it or not. But for me it's simpler than that. I think families are like factories : some manufacture lawyers

29

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

while others produce landscape gardeners. The Hillary family is a limited production mountaineering establishment. Today at the age of 48, I am a determined mountain man : love to climb them, love to dream about them. I have been on more than 30 mountaineering expeditions, from the Himalayas to the Antarctic. And yes I have climbed Everest - twice. I treasure the same things that drew my father to climbing - great feeling of friendship and trust among people who work together, sense of pleasure and excitement, especially in dangerous places where your life depends upon making the right call. I guess I am luckier than most because I can fall back on all that my father has taught me. One devastating day in 1995 this advice saved my life. Just below the summit of the mountain known as K2 or the "savage mountain' of the Himalayas - there is a steep ice channel called - "The Bottleneck'. I was among a party of eight climbers heading for the summit, with just 400 meters left to climb. Perched there, 8200 meters above sea-level and looking east along the northern edge of the Karakoram Mountains to the Tibetan Plateau, I noticed curls of ominous cloud began to move in suddenly and quickly with great force. As the weather worsened, I became very concerned. I stopped. Something didn't feel right. At that moment I clearly heard my father's voice. Down. Go down. Stick to your guns. Peter. Then, from above me, I heard another voice - a woman's. "Come on up. Use the red rope". Alison Hargreaves, a fellow climber, was encouraging me to join her. Not for you. Peter. Was that my father's voice again ? The unsettled feeling in me grew stronger. Finally I told Jeff Lakes, my climbing partner, that I was going down. He too was feeling unsure, but decided to go on ahead. As I headed down, I looked back at Jeff a couple of times, until a thick, threatening cloud blocked the view. Soon, the same fastmoving cloud would engulf the summit and plunge me into an isolated world of terror. Don't be afraid to make your own decisions. Don't be afraid to stand alone. That was my father's voice.

30

8.

9.

10.

11.

(a)

Alone in body but not in spirit I descended. But with fear tapping upon my shoulders, I was caught in the frightening situation of the rising storm. The flanks of the mountain were out of control and so, perhaps, was I. Fear makes you careful. Fear makes you good. Fear, my father told me, is not something you manage. So I seized on what I could control : a well-clipped descender and a taut rope. For hours I continued to go down rope after plunging rope - every rope one closer to the ice ledger at Camp-2. When I awoke in my tent the next morning, it was silent, sunny, still. I alone had successfully descended from the summit pyramid of K2 that night. The seven above were dead. Life in a famous family has its advantages and disadvantages. Lunch with Indira Gandhi or a trip to the North Pole with Neil Armstrong are one - although a rather extraordinary - side of the coin. The other can be a battle with identity and independence. When I am 80 years old myself, I know I will more than likely still be greeted with, "Wait a minute, you're Ed Hillary's son !" But my father is quite a man and I am proud of him. On the basis of your reading of the above passage answer these questions. 9 Marks (i) What does the son read in his father's eyes ? 1 Mark (ii) State any two qualities of the father that have rubbed off on his son. 2 Marks (iii) "The Hillary family is a limited production mountaineering establishment"... What does the author mean by this? 1 Mark (iv) In what way does the author consider himself more fortunate than other mountaineers? 1 Mark (v) What was the father's opinion about Fear'? How did it help the author? 2 Marks (vi) What was the fate of the seven companions who climbed the K2 summit ? 1 Mark (vii) Being a celebrity's son has its own limitations. What are those? 1 Mark

31

(b)

Find words from the above passage which mean the same as each of the following : 3x1=3 (i) to be as good/successful as expected (para 2) (ii) sitting on high and dangerous position (para 4) (iii) tight and completely stretched (para 9)

PASSAGE-9
1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. Millions of men and women, thousands of leaders, a succession of social, religious and political movement-it is impossible to draw up a full list of the makers of India even on a limited 1000-year basis. All that can be attempted here is to present a few representative names, some of them inspirational still. All of them remind us of the course we have traversed, and how we have come to where we are. Let us make a start with the best ever Indian. 2. Implied in Toynbee's assessment was the deduction that Gandhi was not just an Indian phenomenon. No doubt India derived unequalled benefit from his leadership. By fitting the freedom struggle into the framework of a philosophy of justice and fairness, he achieved for India a stature that was denied to other countries, including China, that won independence around the same time. That the stature was quickly lost by the governments that came to power on the labours of Gandhi is a different matter. The decline of India did not amount to any repudiation of Gandhi. Indeed, it was seen as a consequence of the betrayal of Gandhi by his supposed followers. 3. The true measure of his impact on history is that it is not dependent on the successful completion of his mission in India. The others who soldiered on with him in the epic war of independence Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel included - will be remembered for what they did in India and for India; they were essentially Indian personalities. So, for that matter, was Jinnah whose life's work boiled down to the creation of a state on what rapidly proved to be a dubious premise. 4. Gandhi soared above them all because he dealt essentially with ideas and theories relevant to all mankind. Like Buddhism, Gandhism lost ground in the land out of which it evolved. But,

32

like Buddhism, it has been embraced by distant peoples who see in its tenets the promise of a meaningful life. It was as though Gandhi's involvement with India was merely incidental to his larger involvement with what he persistently called Truth. Raja Rao put it pithily when he wrote: "For Gandhi India was only the symbol of a universal principle. All countries were, for Gandhi, India." When we look at him in this perspective, we realise that it was his universality, the transcendent quality of his life and thought, that made Gandhi Gandhi. 5. He will be greater than not just Stalin and Hitler - two characters who are rather too one-dimensional to be contrasted with the vastness that was Gandhi. Gandhi personifies the greatness of the time-honoured proposition that Love is superior to Hatred, that Good is better than Evil. Great personages of history who based their "greatness" on Hatred and Evil, on conquests and oppression, have all gone under. The Byzantines and the Ottomans, the Mongols and the Mughals, the British and the Spanish once strode the earth as if they owned it. Today only Britain and Spain survive, and that as second-class entities confined to Europe, Alexander, the first king in history to be called "The Great," died a lonely death as a disillusioned and defeated man at the incredible age of 33. Nothing of his greatness remains today even "in his native Macedonia which is now but an appendage to the horrible tragedy of Yugoslavia. 6. Greatness built on murder and acquisition passes. Greatness rising out of compassion and service abides. The Buddha abides. Christ abides. The great unknown thinkers of the Upanishads abide. Gandhi carried that tradition through to our times. He might have been let down by the "Gandhians" who, armed with political power, have turned India into a mess. That too is parallel to the way quarrelling Buddhists, exploitative Christians and latelyintolerant Hindus have been letting down their preceptors. But their smallness does not detract from the true greatness of the sages who opened the path of enlightenment for them and for the world. They abide because they gave without taking. They were not men of arms. They were men of ideas. Parithranaya sadhunam, they appear from age to age. They appear to teach us that the world can be conquered, not with force, but with ideas. It was the lesson of this Millennium too - taught by the man of the Millennium.

33

(a)

(i) What did Gandhi achieve through his philosophy of justice and fairness ? 2 Marks (ii) How will Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel be Remembered? 2 Marks (iii) According to Raja Rao, what did Gandhi represent? 2 Marks (iv) The author talks of two types of greatness. Which one is much appreciated and admired? 2 Marks (v) What was the lesson of this millennium? 1 Mark (b) Pick out words from the passage that mean the same as : 3 Marks (i) continuous decrease/fall (para 2) (ii) strong effect (para 3) (iii) rose quickly (para 4)

PASSAGE-10
1. 1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follows : 9 Marks Development journalism is the backbone for a developing economy. Heritage publishing is the citadel on which the transition from developing nation to developed country rests. India is in such a transition stage. According to the Prime Minister this goal can be achieved by 2020. The effort for making India a developed nation are fully geared up on so many fronts be it highway laying, technology upgradation, IT, telecom, aeronautics and transportation. But to create informed public opinion on the issues pertaining to development initiatives for a meaningful debate is what development communication should cater to. This holds particular relevance for people's participation in the transition phase of taking India from a developing mode to a developed economic power. Information dissemination has several shades, ramifications, delivery mechanism and intended spinoffs. There is plenty of news in the country through the electronic, print and internet media. There are lot of programmes and columns dedicated to current affairs and latest developments in various fields. However, a dedicated, singular, uni-directional and unflinching endeavour to inform, educate, retrieve and redirect information to the people is a work of the Publications Division of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. The 21 journals brought out by

2.

34

the Division include 13 editions of Yojana in 13 different regional languages covering all the regions of the country. The Yojana group of journals are an effective two way linkage between the policy makers and the beneficiaries on development initiatives across the board. i) The English- and Hindi editions of Kuruskhetra dedicated to rural upliftment is one of its kind among developing and developed countries put together on grassroots issues, the great visionary Jawaharlal Nehru, once during a visit to Kurukshetra district of Haryana with the brain child behind Indian Planning, Dr. Mahalanobis, found a unique farm development project taking shape in the region. Nehru immediately wanted dissemination of such information and that is how the Kurukshetra journals were born. ii) The Bal Bharati in Hindi is one of its kind pertaining to children's literature which emphasises on healthy development of the body and the mind for the young ones. Ajkal in Hindi and Urdu is touching its 60'" year with a revered literary tradition. Employment News is probably the largest circulated single newspaper in India and that too belonging to the government. It brings hopes and aspirations as well as career guidance to millions of young people all over the country. iii) And all these range between Rs. 5 and 7 which come under the lowest range of affordable prices. Added to this is the range of books produced by the Division under the 'Builders of Modern India' series, 'Cultural Leaders of India', Gandhiana including multimedia CD and e- book, biographies and books on art, history, culture and heritage. That makes the Publications Division a unique repository of India heritage in the annals of which one can trace speaches of Presidents and Prime Minister of country and great classics including 'Poverty and Un-British Rule' by the legendary Dadabhai Nauroji, ' 1857' by Tarachand. iv) Who says Indian heritage and culture is under threat due to the proliferation of satellite channels and the internet beaming programmes with an over dose of titillating entertainment? As long as Publications Division stands aloft holding the Indian heritage in its mighty chest, the jewel in the crown will shine as a beacon light.

35

A.I . i) What is meant by Heritage publishing? Is India a developing or a developed country according to this passage? 2 Marks ii) How are the various editions of the YOJNA useful? 1 Marks iii) Which paper mainly deals with the career guidance and job opportunities? 2 Marks iv) What useful work is being done by the Govt. Publication Division? Name any one of its great publications? 2 Marks v) What are the challenges to the future of Indian Heritage and culture? Give any one specific example. 2 Marks B. Find out words from the passage which have similar meaning: lx3=3 1) Change (Para 1) 2) A great deal (Para 2) 3) Respected (Para 4)

COMPREHENSION PASSAGES
SECTION A (Q. No. 2)

NOTE-MAKING AND ABSTRACTION How to make notes? Read the following steps for making clear and concise notes quickly :

Step 1Step 2-

Read the passage to get a gist of the passage, to know what it is about, i.e., the theme and subject of the passage. Read carefully, underlining or mentally making a note of the main ideas it deals with.

36

Step 3Step 4-

Make a note of the main ideas roughly. Add the sub-points which supplement the main points. There is no need to give example especially if there are too many.

How do I present my notes ? Do not write complete sentences instead use brief, clear phrases. Make points with the use of symbols an abbreviations, use proper indentation.

What is the format that I can use ? You can use different kinds of formats depending on the theme of the passage. It could be serial or sequential such as flow charts, piecharts, etc. You should also use some abbreviations and contraction which are easily recognizable.

NUMBERING AND INDENTING:

Main Heading
1. Sub Heading 1.1......................... 1.2.. 1.3. 2. Sub Heading 2.1......................... 2.2.. 2.3. 3. Sub Heading 3.1......................... 3.2.. 3.3.

37

SOLVED EXAMPLES PASSAGE-1


Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks In Democratic countries, any efforts to restrict the freedom of the Press are rightly condemned. However, this freedom can be easily abused. Stories about people often attract far more public attention than political events. Though we may enjoy reading about the lives of others, it is extremely doubtful whether we would equally enjoy reading about ourselves. Acting on the contention that facts are sacred, reporters can cause untold sufferings to individuals by publishing details about their private lives. Newspapers exert such tremendous influence that they can not only bring about major changes to the lives of ordinary people but can even overthrow a government. The story of a poor family that acquired fame and fortune overnight, dramatically illustrates the power of the Press. The family lived in Aberdeen, a small town of 25,000 inhabitants in South Dakota. As the parents had five children, life was a perpetual struggle against poverty. They were expecting their sixth child and were faced with even more pressing economic problems. If they had only one more child the fact would have passed unnoticed. They would have continued to struggle against economic odds and would have lived in obscurity. But they suddenly became the parents of quintuplets, four girls and a boy, an event which radically changed their lives. The day after the birth of the five children, an aeroplane arrived in Aberdeen bringing sixty reporters and photographers. The news was of national importance, for the couple had become the parents of the only quintuplets in America. The rise to fame was swift. Television cameras and newspapers carried the news to everyone in the country. Newspapers and magazines offered the family huge sums for the exclusive rights to publish their photographs. Gifts poured in not only from unknown people, but from baby

38

food and soap manufacturers who wished to advertise their products. The old farmhouse the family lived in was to be replaced by a new $100,000 home. Reporters kept pressing for interviews so laywers had to be employed to act as the spokesmen of the family at press conferences. The event brought serious changes to the town itself. Plans were announced to build a huge new highway as Aberdeen was now likely to attract thousands of tourists. Sign posts erected on the outskirts of the town directed tourists not to Aberdeen, but to 'Quint-City U.S.A.' The local authorities discussed the possibility of erecting a 'quint museum' to satisfy the curiosity of the public and to protect the family from inquisitive tourists. While the five babies were still quietly sleeping in oxygen tents in a hospital nursery, their parents were paying the price for fame. It would never again be possible for them to lead normal lives. They had become victims of commercialisation, for their names had acquired a market value. The town itself received so much attention that almost every one of the inhabitants was affected to a greater or leis degree. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using at least 4 recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5 Marks (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3 Marks Answer (a) Power of Press in Democracy 1. Chances of Abuse of Freedom of Press 1.1 suffering to indiv. 1.2 disturb pvt. life 1.3 overthrow govts. 2. Story of Aberdeen fam. 2.1 Location : (i) town in S. Dakota (ii) pop.25,000 2.2 Details about faim. : (i) poor/eco. prob. (ii) 5 children (iii) gave birth to quintuplets4 girls & 1 boyonly instance in America. 2.3 Life permanently changedprob. begin

39

3.

(i) arrival of 60 reporters & photographers (ii) privacy gone (iii) money offered by newspapers, mag. (iv) gifts from people & manufacturers (v) proposal for a new $ 100,000 home (vi) AppmL of lawyers Effect on AberdeenProposal 3.1 inflow of tourists 3.2 city renamedQuint-City U.S.A. 3.3 quint museum

4.

Conclusion 4.1 Victims of commercialisation 4.2 all inhabitants affected 4.3 not possible to restrict freedom of press Abbreviations used 1. govts. -governments 2. eco. - economic 3. appmt. appointment 4. indiv. - individuals 5. pvt. -private 6. fam. - family 7. inc. -increased 8. mag. - Magazines (b) Summary In democracy, freedom of press is very important but it can be abused. At times not only governments can be affected but even the lives of ordinary people. One such example is of an Aberdeen couple in S.' Dakota whose life changed the day they gave birth to quintuplets, the first of their kind in America. They became rich and famous, received costly gifts and lot of publicity all at the cost of their privacy. The city was renamed as Quint-City, a museum and highway was built. Ultimately not only the family, but the whole city also paid a heavy price for commercialisation.

40

PASSAGE-2
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks The work which Gandhiji had taken up was not only the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a social order based on truth and non-violence unity and peace; equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do, was either join it or wish it success and give it their moral support. In establishing the social order of his pattern there was a likely possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and at some stage or the other, the 'haves', have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done by and large, through the use of physical force. The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing maximum material satisfaction possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be suchit is possessiveness, still, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many. If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods, which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of spiritual values for purely material ones. The paradise of material satisfaction that is sometimes equated with progress these days neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man could be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who have' for the benefit of all those who 'have-not' so that, instead of leading to exploitation and

41

conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration and progress of society respectively. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using at least 4 recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5 Marks (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3 Marks Answer (a) Gandhis Dream'Establishment of Social Order' 1. Gandhi's wk. 1.1 pol. freedom 1.2 estd. social order based on 1.2.1 truth & non-violence 1.2.2 unity & peace 1.2.3 univ. brotherhood 1.2.4 max. freedom 1.2.5 more diff. 2. Pol. freedom 2.1 fight against forgn. power 2.1.1 join 2.1.2 wish success 2.1.3 moral support 3. Social order-diff. 3.1 man's possessiveness - prop. 3.2 diff. to change attitude 3.3 raves' to yield's have-nots' 3.3.1 diff. to accept 3.4 desire for max. material satisfaction 4. Egalitarianism - based 4.1 not poss. by a few or all 4.2 but renunciation of goods 4.3 Spiritual values subst. material varies 4.4 Material satisfaction 4.4.1 equated - progress 4.4.2 achieves 4.4.2.1 neither peace 4.4.2.2 nor progress 5. Acc. to Gandhi 5.1 trusteeship 5.1.1 benefit who have-not'

42

5.1.2 end exploitation & conflict 5.1.3 lead to progress of society 5.1.4 incentive for amelioration Abbreviations used 1. wk. work 2. pol. political 3. estd. established 4. univ. universal 5. max. maximum 6. diff. difficult (b) Summary Gandhiji wanted not only to establish political freedom but also to bring a social order based on truth and non-violence; unity and peace; equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. The achievement of political freedom was easy because it was against aforeign power and everyone gave moral support to it. In establishing the social order of his pattern there was a possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people. Moreover, a new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property. The 'haves' to yield place to the have-nots Mahatma Gandhi showed us the acquisitive nature in man could be changed by the ideal of trusteeship by those who 'have for the benefit of those who have not.

PASSAGE-3
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks For those who failed to keep pace with the advances in mountaineering equipment in the past two decades, it's a whole new world of synthetic marvels that may just have taken the sting off taming Everest. Take boots. Earlier, climbers used heavy leather shoes with soles that were hobnailed into the uppers. An hour before the start of the expedition, they needed to be waxed to make them waterproof. No wax meant instant frostbite. And if the boots were left outside the tent, they would be frozen, making it extremely difficult to slip the feet in. The only solution was to sleep with the boots inside the sleeping bag. Today's boots come lined with the magic of plastic. They don't freeze and are lightweight. The One Sport Everest is extremely warm, with a lining of Alveolite insulation and another layer of Alveolite in the built-in over-gaiter. And they weigh less than a kilo. The sleeping bag is the key to survival in the Death Zone of

43

26,000 ft and above. Earlier, the bags were stuffed with goose feathers. Today, they sidestep the down-versus-synthetic conundrum by swinging both ways. While feathers are layered next to the body for warmth, the synthetic, quick-drying Primaloft, lies on the outside for its moisture-shedding properties. The old faithful ice-axe was wooden with a steel head, sturdy, but heavy and undimensional. Not any more. The latest ice-axes are made of titanium and are feather-weight. They also have curvatures and teeth that allow a climber to be suspended, in mid air with only the ice-axe for support. Similarly, pitons and ice screws have transformed-all are titanium. Another area where a revolution has been quietly at work is oxygen cylinders. If one doesn't believe in Reinhold Messner's code of bagging the summit by "fair means", take heart. The old days, when cylinders weighed 10 kg, are over. The state-of-the-art Russian-built oxygen systems consist of a stiff plastic mask, a regulator and an orange steel Keviar gas canister. They weigh less than 3 kg. Not only are they lighter, but they also have more capacity. In fact, everything has changed. The tents are lighter, sturdier and can breathe. The mittens with fleece inners assure frost-free security. Even the food is precooked and dehydrated. All one needs to do is add water and heat. Camp cookers too have become lighter, smaller, and more efficient. A steel-mesh bull's eye in the middle of the ultraefficient LP gas burner keeps the flame roaring when the wind is doing likewise. But the handiest feature is its integrated starter. No more the temperamental matches. Just open the valve, flick the index finger, and.... Houston, we have ignition. Technology can keep you in a better frame of mind, but as Captain M.S. Kohli, who led the Indian team in 1965, says, "In the end, you still need to climb that mountain." (a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using at least 4 recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5 Marks (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3 Marks

44

PASSAGE-4 Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks So often these days we hear and speak of the conquest of nature, 'the taming of river', the war against insects' and so on. Often these phrases are used without consciously attaching any values to them, but they have underlying them an attitude of hostility towards Nature and Nature's creatures, a view point which seems to assume. Nature as an enemy that needs to be vanquished. Alternatively, Nature seen merely as a 'resource' to be 'exploited' take the maximum out of it, regardless of what this does to natural processes audio other creatures which depend on these processes It is this attitude which sees fellow humans too as a resource to be exploited, or other human communities as enemies to be conquered. There is a growing back of sensitivity and respect for our fellow creatures. This attitude is being drilled into a child by social forces, which can only be countered by environmental education. Yet, sadly, in most cases this is not done. What is done is talk about the food web and the energy cycles and ecological balance and how removal of any elements disrupts the whole system, and how this can affect human beings too What this approach lacks is the essential interaction with Nature and with other humans. Indeed in many environmental activities the opposite takes place. A classic example of this is making of a herbarium, of even worse, and insect collection, as common in both formal and non formal education in India. A child is often encouraged to pluck leaves and flowers and run after butterflies with a net, and is part of a large group of children similarly marauding a patch of nature within it. Such a child is not likely to develop any strong feeling of respect for nature, or for the individual "specimens" pressed in the plant file or trapped in ajar. It is even worse when the activity is also competitive, LC., who collects the maximum. A lot of knowledge may be gained, but it is gained in a value system which emphasises exploitation and conquest, not sensitivity and respect. Learning under a tree, (Santivana) rather than in a classroom, is indeed the Indian tradition, is far more effective and long lasting. The alternative is to take up activities where ecobalances, ecological diversities animal behaviour, human plurality and other

45

such concepts and systems are introduced with the stress on their intrinsic worth. Materials, processes, living beings do not exist only for human use, but more importantly they are worthwhile in themselves. A frog is as much in love with its life as the human child is with its mother : the feelings of the frog must be respected. The final thrust of environmental education seems to be embodied in the vital question : 'Am I doing something which disrespects or violates some other creature's right to live and live freely ? If I am, what can I do to minimize the damage I am causing ? Once again, the Indian tradition of ahimsa comes out as infinitely more relevant then much of what we learn in modern education. (a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using at least 4 recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5 Marks (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3 Marks

PASSAGE-5
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks Self-reliance is a sure key to success and happiness. A self-reliant person always depends upon his own energy, capacity to work, prudence and the resources. Therefore, a self-reliant person is master of himself and the circumstances as he does not depend on others. Such a person is always calm, sure, confident and selfpossessed. He is firm, prompt in action and even ready to face any challenge, and fertile of resources. While others who are not independent, are surely much handicapped. It is really a slavery to depend on others for help, guidance and aid or resources. And a slave is always at a great disadvantage. A person is most happy and satisfied when he relies upon his own strength, power and resources. He even walks without crutches or outside support. Self-reliant people have always been found sure, self-assured, decisive, optimistic, free, independent and bold. They do not suffer from indecision or delay. They are rich in expediency, quick in action, and steadfast in decision. Their will-power is very strong, their resolutions unfailing. They are the makers and masters of their destiny. They never blame fate, circumstances or the tools for they make their own tools and use them with greatest

46

skill and concentration which is at their command. Their work, their creations and achievements bear the stamp of their personality. They are original in ideas and in shaping things and events. They achieve what they will because they are selfdependent, resolute, single-minded and self-controlled. They know well their strength and weakness and so use their energies and resources in such a way as never to expose their weakness. And when they achieve their victories, their ambitions and goals, then their joy in an unalloyed bliss for the glory is not to be shared by others. Self-reliance is the best support, the best tool and the shortest way to success. Lord Budha said "You are both friend and enemy of yourself. The heaven and hell lies within you. It is upto you what you choose. You are your own lamp, guide and staff. Never depend on others. Be the maker of your destiny. Help yourself and the world will help you". It reminds us of the famous saying "God helps those who help themselves" All successful men and women have been self-reliant. They achieved what they desired because they did not depend on others. They ran fast and in time on the roads of self-reliance. A man walking with the crutches of others help cannot think of running a race, he cannot compete, he is sure to end with the crutches. (a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using at least 4 recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5 (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3 PASSAGE-6 Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks In ancient India, during the Vedic age, women were given education in the same way as men. It was during the Muslim period that women began to be kept in strict puma . Neither were there proper arrangements, nor did the parents dare send their daughters out to receive education. During the freedom struggle, it was realised by our leaders that without active participation of women in the freedom movement, India

47

would never become free. Since then the necessity of educating women has been increasingly felt. Women have to play an important role in the development of the country. If we want to make democracy successful, women must be educated. They are the builders of happy homes. It is in their lap that the children receive their first lesson. As the mothers are, so will be the children. Moreover, certain professions are most suitable to the nature of women. Women make the best nurses. Primary education can be given only by women. There are many other professions in which women can play a very important part. In a nutshell the progress of the country depends upon female education. We must give up our conservative outlook. The need of female education was never so great as it is to-day. All now accept the necessity of giving education to women. But there are differences of opinion on the type of education which should be given to them. Indeed, it is a very important issue. Should boys and girls be given the same kind of education ? Or should there be different type of education for boys and girls ? If we decide to give different type of education to girls, then of what type should it be ? These are the questions which must be answered. Wrong type of education can cause greater harm than good to our girls. Some feel that women should be given a different kind of education from the one given to boys. Women have to discharge their duties as good mothers. Their education should be such as may enable them to run their homes efficiently and make them good mothers. Their sphere of activity is entirely different from that of men. So must be their education. Another question is whether there should be co-education or not. Opinions differ widely on this issue. There are men who strongly advocate co-education at all stages. On the other extreme are those who are deadly against it. But the truth lies in between these two extremes. Boys and girls may be educated together in primary and university classes. But co-education in high school and inter classes is full of dangers. We should take full advantage of co-education as well as safeguard ourselves against its evil effects. This will be the best policy for giving education to women. Q. A. Make notes on the passage using appropriate abbreviations. Also supply an apt heading. Q. B. Make a summary of the passage.

48

PASSAGE-7
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks Rising prices are causing a great concern to the Indian economists at the present moment. It is true that prices can never remain stationary. A certain amount of fluctuation is inherent in the very nature of prices. In a developing economy, they usually display an upward trend. But if prices keep rising persistently, they cause great hardship to the people. They spare neither the rich nor the poor, neither the producer nor the consumer. They make economic activities uncertain and unstable, causing great unrest in the minds of the people. Inflation is a self-accelerating process. It is a phenomenon that feeds on itself and initiates a very vicious cycle. Rising prices drive people to demand increased wages and salaries. Since such demands are resisted in the beginning, they resort to pressure tactics like strikes and demonstrations. But such tactics only decrease production and aggravate the situation. And if the demands are met, there is a fresh spurt in prices. All benefits accruing from additional income are neutralised. Then fresh demands are raised and this cycle goes on. The fixed-income groups like salaried people, wage-earners and pensioners are the most helpless victims of inflation. As prices rise, their real income gets eroded. The additional dearness allowance which the government sanctions from time to time proves of no use to them, because their purchasing power actually goes down. Inflation induces businessmen to invest their money in non-productive assets like gold and land whose real worth is not affected by rising prices. High prices also adversely affect the exports of the country and distort the balance of foreign trade. Numerous factors can be cited to explain price rise in India. First, our economic planning has suffered from serious drawbacks right from the beginning. During the various Five-Year Plans, while the public expenditure persistently increased, the production targets-were never realised. This forced the Government to resort to deficit financing. There was a rapid increase in the money

49

supply without a corresponding increase in production. The resulting imbalance inevitably led to inflation. The taxation policy of the government has also contributed to price rise. A sound policy of direct taxes would not only have yielded higher revenue but also have enabled the government to give relief in indirect taxes, which invariably lead to inflation. Defective tax structure has encouraged tax evasion and led to the accumulation of black money. This is an example of evil multiplying evil. The parallel economy in our country that thrives on black money and smuggling has always encouraged rise in prices. Steep rise in the population of the country after independence is another major factor responsible for causing inflation. During the last thirty years alone, the population has gone up by about 75 per cent. Rising population multiplies demands for all kinds of goods and services and leads to an all-round price-hike. Slow increase in agricultural and industrial production, faulty distribution and marketing system, and an unprecedented hike in oil prices in the international market can be cited as some other important factors that have aggravated the situation. Our agriculture has been rather slow to respond to innovations. Industry has been faced with shortage of inputs like coal, power, raw materials. But even the things produced are not properly distributed. Majority of Indians have no community consciousness. There is no organised consumer resistance to price rise. Instead, our masses get scared by the rumours of scarcities and tend to hoard as much as they can. This further intensifies the crisis. Indians also believe in ostentatious living. They indulge in wasteful expenditure that directly affects the prices. Q. A. Make notes on the passage using appropriate abbreviations. Also give an apt title. Q. B. Make a summary of the passage.

PASSAGE-8
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follows : 8 Marks Occasional self-medication has always been part of normal living. The making and selling of drugs has a long history and is closely linked,

50

like medical practice itself, with belief in magic. Only during the last hundred years or so has the development of scientific technique made it possible some of the causes of symptoms to be understood, so that more accurate diagnosis has become possible. The doctor is now able to follow up the correct diagnosis of many illness- with specific treatment of their causes. In many illness of which the causes remain unknown, he is still limited, like the unqualified prescribe, to the treatment of symptoms. The doctor is trained to decide when to treat symptoms only and when to attack the cause. This is essential difference between medical prescribing and self-medication. The advance of technology has brought about much progress in some fields of medicine, including the development of scientific drug therapy. In many contries public health organization is improving and peoples nutritional standard has risen. Parallel with such, beneficial trends are to which have an adverse effect. One is the use of high pressure advertising by the pharmaceutical industry which has tended to influence both patients and doctors and has let to the over use of drug generally. The other is the emergence of the sedentary society with its faulty ways of life: Lack of exercise, overeating, unsuitable eating, insufficient sleep, excessive smoking and drinking. People with disorder arising to self-medication and so add the taking of pharmaceutical of the list. Advertiser go to great length to catch this market. Clever advertising aim at chronic suffers who will try anything because doctors have not been able to cure them, can induce such faith in preparation, particularly if steeply prized, that is will produce-by suggestion-a very real effect in some people. Advertisement are also aimed at people suffering from mild complaints such as simple cough and cold which clear up by themselves within a short time. These are the main reasons, why laxatives, indigestion remedies, pain killers, cough mixers, tonics, vitamins and iron tablets, nose drops,. Ointments, and many other preparations are found in quantity in many households. It is doubtful whether taking these things ever improves a person's health, it may even makes it worse. Worse, because the preparations may contain unsuitable ingredients; worse because the taker may become dependent on them; worse because they might be taken in excess; worse because that may cause poisoning and worst of all because symptoms of some serious underlying cause may be asked and therefore medical help may not be sought. Self diagnosis is a greater danger than self medication. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, in points only, using sub-headings. Also write at least 4

51

(b)

recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary (minimum 4). Use a format you can consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title to it. 5 Marks Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.
3 Marks

PASSAGE-9
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks Medical experts have cautioned against extensive use of aluminum cookware and foils, especially for acidic food preparations containing tamarind, tomatoes and green leafy vegetables which could lead to aluminum toxicity and consequent nerve disorder. The use of aluminum cookware should be limited and their use for making acidic food preparations should be avoided as they increase aluminum leaching into food warn scientists from National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad. Chronic exposure to high levels of aluminum through food and water could lead to nerve and brain disorder such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, they say. Studies at NIN have shown that chronic exposure of rats to high aluminum and calcium defiant diets lead degeneration of nerves and impairment of some brain functions. Earlier studies too have linked high aluminum intake with dementia and bone diseases. Keeping in view evidence of a link between high aluminum content in drinking water and senile dementia and Alzheimers disease, a reduced intake of aluminum by kidney patients and elderly persons is advisable. NIN scientists say in a report that they have also advised regular monitoring of aluminum in blood for dialysis patients. Patients with kidney disorders are particularly susceptible to aluminum is present in water, soil, plants and cooking utensils. It is added to drinking water as aluminum sulphate at the treatment plants, while soil contamination with it leads to accumulation in vegetables. It is also used in medicine such as antacids, analgesics and antidiarrhoeals in food and food activities, foils, wrapping papers and cookware and in water purification processes. NIN studies showed especially green leafy vegetables, spices and in the form of 'Sambhar' contribute significantly to aluminum uptake.

52

Aluminum containing food additives are generally used as buffers, neutralising agents, dough strength emulsifying agents for processed cheese and thinkers. Studies on experimental rats also showed that deficiencies of certain minerals such as calcium and iron enhances aluminum absorption and accumulation in tissues over a long period. Recent reports indicate that most individuals consume aluminum daily from natural resources. Additional aluminum is injected through pressure cookers, roasting pans, frozen dinner trays, foil wrappers. The use of aluminum in packaging food is on the increase and is becoming a potential source of contamination. Studies also show that certain dietary factors such as citrate and nutritional deficiencies of essential minerals such as calcium and iron significantly enhance aluminium absorption and accumulation in tissues. Aluminium toxicity is greater when there is calcium deficiency in the body. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum 4). Your notes should be in points only. (b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words only. Suggest a suitable title.

PASSAGE-10
Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 8 Marks We have been talking about the evils of child abuse for the last 10 years in this country. But the number of working children seems to be increasing. Instead of building up a groundwell of public opinion against child labour and for compulsory primary education, we are still talking about child labour as being necessary for the survival of the family. The debate has not changed radically in the last 10 years. The result is that children continue to work in the most hazardous conditions and compulsory education is still a dream. The presence of child labour in hazardous industries is a gross violation of human rights. If children are not dying in explosions, they are dying a slow but sure death in the glass, brassware, lock, slate, balloon, brick-kiln and other industries.

53

With their power employers of child labour get away scot-free. If at all compensation is paid, it is the state that dishes out the cash. Not only are children working in hazardous industry, they are also engaged in the most hazardous processes in industries which adults do not want to touch. In the glass industry children are primarily engaged in removing molten glass from the furnaces. Since the furnaces are designed for adults, the child's face is almost touching the wall of the furnaces. It is not all. Accidents happen all the time and most of them go unreported. Doctors refuse to treat injured and severely ill patients. A common complaint I heard from workers in all the industries I studred- glass, lock, brassware, pottery and gemstone- was that doctors tell them to come back to them for treatment when they are better. Doctors refuse to treat severely injured patients, as they have to necessarily report medico-legal cases. What then is going to be the fate of Indian children? Will Rohtak become another statistic or yesterday's news? Are we still going to justify child labour in India as an economic necessity for the family? The children who are found working are those that are able to work. What about the children who are too ill or injured working in hazardous occupations? The word "hazardous" is not defined anywhere, not in the Constitution of India and in the Child Labour (prohibition and regulation) Act 1986. Child labour has to be banned uniformly. Or will the state take notice only when it becomes an international issue, as is the case with the carpet industry? Child labour in hazardous industry at least needs to be banned by a residential order or something dramatic and serious like that. The message needs to get home to all employers of child labour that this situation just cannot continue. Parents also cannot be allowed to justify sending their children to work in such industries on the grounds of poverty. A massive countrywide campaign needs to be launched-like the campaign on the girl child-staling clearly the punitive action which would be taken if children were found to be employed. We cannot wait for the perfect programme to be developed before child labour is banned in hazardous employments. The word "hazardous" needs to be defined and defined now. If all work is considered hazardous then let all work be banned for children.

54

1. 2.

On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it using subtitles and at least 4 abbreviations. Give the passage a Title. 5 Marks Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words, using your notes. 3 Marks

55

SECTION B Advance Writing Skill


Question -3. Short Composition of not more than 50 Words- 5 Marks.
1. Notice 2. Designing Posters 3. Advertisement 4. Invitation There will be a choice students will be asked to do one task out of two.

Notice
Format
- 1 Mark

1. Name of the Institutions/Organization 2. The word NOTICE 3. Heading 4. Date of issue 5. Writers name 6. Writers Designation 7. The notice must be placed in a box.

Content

- 2 Marks

The content should answer

56

1. What is to be organized 2. Who is organizing it ? 3. When is it being organized (Date & Time) 4. Where is it being organized (Venue) 5. Target group 6. Last date of submission of names and to whom(if applicable) 7. Agenda of the meeting (if applicable)

Expression
fluency.

- 2 Marks

Include coherence and relevance of the content with grammatical accuracy and

Points to remember
1. The purpose of notice is to inform a large number of people, member of an organization, participants of some event, children of school or even general public. 2. It should be attractive 3. It should have a suitable eye-catching heading 4. It should have all information clearly & precisely given 5. The name and designations of the issuing authority should be reflected 6. Use of I and You should be avoided use third person 7. The word limit exceeds only up to 25%. However beyond this Note that upto 1 mark may be deducted for exceeding the word limit. If a candidate exceeds the word limit by one or two words, mark should be deducted. If he/she exceeds the word limit by three or more words, one mark should be deducted.

57

Sample Notice
You are Raj Khosla, secretary of the English Literacy Association of Memorial School Jaipur, Write out a notice for notice board inviting names of those who would like to participate in the proposed Inter-House debate, oratorical and elocution contest.

MEMORIAL SCHOOL, JAIPUR NOTICE


4th June 2008 INTER HOUSE DEBATE COMPETITION All students of classes VI XII are hereby informed that English Literacy Association of the school is organizing an Inter House Debate and Elocution Competition on 23rd June in the school hall from 9 am Onwards. All House prefects are requested to submit 4 names from each house to the undersigned. Raj Khosla Secretary P.S. Some notices may not adhere to the word limit as their purpose is to give maximum information to the students. You may touch upon the following topics.

1. Inviting names for participation in functions & competitions 2. Excursions and Trips

58

3. Informing students about Events 4. Seeking contribution, Cooperation, Attention 5. Lost & Found 6. Miscellaneous/general/outside school (Announcements, Admissions, Submission of applications etc.) 7. Sales & Purchase (Tender Notice).

EXERCISES
1. Write a notice for the school notice board inviting contributions for the Bomb Blast victims. Sign yourself as Secretary. Students union, DPS Jaipur. 2. In response to an appeal of the Prime Minister of India, you have arranged a charity show in your school in the cancer patients of the country. Write out a notice informing students about the school and seeking their cooperation for the success of the Charity show. 3. The Student Council of your school has decided to organize an excursion to Goa for the students of classes XI & XII during summer vacation. As president of the council. Write a notice telling the students about this excursion and inviting their names for joining it. 4. You are Rahul/Reena. As president of two students council of St. Francis Sr. Secondary school, Surat. You have invites a visiting American Ballet Troupe to give performance in your school on the occasion of its Golden Jubilee celebrations. Write a notice informing the students about this event. 5. The Principal of Kendriya Vidyalaya, Jhunhjunu has asked The Head Girl Shivani to put a notice on the school notice board requesting the students of

59

the classes VI-IX to maintain silence during The coming exams senior students. 6. You are the sports captain of your school. Your school is playing against Birla Public School Pilani is the Zonal Volleyball Finals. Write a notice for your school notice board inviting your school students to come and watch the tournament & cheer the team. 7. Mr. Kapil Poonia has lost a handbag is a bus while travelling to school in from Mumbai Central to V.T. Bus-stop. He puts a notice in the Lost & found column of a newspaper. Draft his notice giving all necessary information. 8. The American Centre Library has changed its timings and days of opening from 1st August 2008. The Library in-charge Mr. John puts up the notice outside the library. Write the notice. 9. Imagine you are the secretary Basant Vihar Housing Society, Laxmi Nagar, New Delhi. Write an ad for the local newspaper inviting tenders for sports equipment and games for colonys children. Mention all necessary details. 10. You are administrative officer of Bansals Academy, Kota. You have to draft an admission notice to be inserted in a youth magazine inviting applications for admission to various courses offered by the institutes. Write the notice giving all the necessary information.

POSTERS
INTRODUCTION/FEATURES

Posters
1. Are part of notices and part of advertisements 2. Spread a social message/create awareness among the general public about some event of common interest

60

3. Dont have a fixed style or format 4. Are artistic and eye-catching 5. Dont follow a strict grammatical pattern like advertisement. 6. Have emphasis on visual appeal and layout 7. Maintain brevity and clarity as the space is limited 8. Are used for highlighting cultural shows/exhibition/social problems or any other issues. (A) LAYOUT Eye-catching & visually attractive A catchy/suggestive title in the form of a slogan/short verses/dialogues Matchstick figures Letters of different size and shape Proportionate spacing etc.

(B) CONTENT The theme or subject of the poster Details associated with the theme Essential details like time, venue and date (if applicable) Name(s) of the issuing authority, organizers etc.

(C) EXPRESSION Sequence of the matter

61

Appropriate and accurate language Creativity in terms of content and design.

Q.No-1- Poster brought out by the Delhi Police to step up vigilance against bomb explosions.

IS THERE A BOMB
Ticking away

NEAR YOU
OBSERVE YOUR SURROUNDING CAREFULLY
REMAIN VIGILANT
IF YOU SPOT ANY SUSPICIOUS OR UNCLAIMES OBJECT AT A CROWDED PUBLIC PLACE INFORM POLICE IMMEDIATELY DIAL : 100

DELHI POLICE
Police Public Cooperation for a Safer Delhi
E-mail : - delpol@del2.vsnl.net.in

62

Q.No.2- Design a poster against the ill-effects of plastics on the environment. Suggest the alternative solution as well.

NON BIODEGRADABLE BURNING CAUSES AIR POLLUTION DUMPING POLYBAGS POLLUTES ENVIRONMENT

TOXIC CHEMICALS CAUSE LUNG

Instead use
PAPER BAGS JUTE BAGS CLOTH BAGS

PROTECT ENVIRONMENT STAY HEALTHY ISSUED BY PRESIDENT ENVIRONMENT CLUB DELHI

Solved Exercises
Q.No.3- You are going to contest the election for the post of the president of the students council of your school. Design a poster for your voters impressing upon them why they should vote for you. You may use slogans.

63

VOTE FOR Mr. X

YOUR PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE FOR STUDENTS COUNCIL AND GUARANTEE BETTER SPORTS FACILITIES BETTER DISCIPLINE IMPROVED INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS REGULAR STUDIES BETTER CANTEEN FACILITIES
SO OPT FOR A FRIENDLIER PRESIDENT YOUR OWN Mr. X COME TO THE SCHOOL AUDITORIUM AT 9:00 A.M. AND VOTE FOR KNOWLEDGE

64

Q.No.4- Design a poster in not more than 50 words about the Need for Regular Exercise. You may use slogans.

Want to have A Healthy Life In Todays World of Pollution Then

EXERCISE-TODAY AND EVERYDAY


Once you decide, its not difficult CHOICE is YOURS YOU CAN
Some Benefits * Walk in a park, Lawn *Jog On the road, garden *Swim- in the nearest swimming pool * Play- your favourite sport *Workout-Aerobics, machines * A strong heart * More stamina * Better concentration * Disease-free life

AND See yourself turn into a happier livelier human being


ISSUED BY HEALTH FOR EVERYONE SOCIETY

65

Q.No.5- Make a poster in not more than 50 words on kindness to animals to be displayed at main public places in your city. Make an appeal to people to show kindness to all animals.

BE HUMAN
BE KIND TO ANIMALS THEY GIVE US SO MUCH THEY CANNOT SPEAK BUT THEY FEEL PAIN AS MUCH AS WE DO SO THAT YOU ARE A HUMAN AND NOT A BEAST

BE KIND

DOS- YOU CAN *Take an injured animal to hospital *Give water and food * Check others from being cruel and inhuman *Be vegetarian * Be kind to beasts of burden

DONTS- DO NOT * Tease stray animals * Keep birds in cage

Remember animals are an integral part of our ecological cycle. They add beauty and variety to our earth ISSUED IN PUBLIC INTEREST BY WORLD WILDLIFE FUND

66

Q.No.6- Make a poster advising people to stay away from tobacco, smoking, drugs and alcohol as they lead to addiction and poor health.

SAY

NO.

TO ALCOHOL, DRUGS, TOBACCO AND CIGARETTES LET THEM NOT TAKE YOUR LIFE AWAY THINK OF THE PRICE YOU PAY GIVE YOURSELF A NEW DAY

Take charge of your life today Think of your loved ones Do not give them tears for everyday

IT LEADS TO
*LUNG CANCER *ORAL CANCER *ASTHMA *HEART FAILURE *DEATH

STOP
*SMOKING *DRINKING *TAKING DRUGS *CHEWING TOBACCO

ISSUED IN PUBLIC INTEREST BY PUBLIC FORUM ANTI-ADDICTION

67

Q.No.7- Make a poster advising people to follow Traffic Rules.

JUMPING RED LIGHTS COULD COST YOU YOUR LIFE

During 2007 hundred died in Road accidents while jumping Red Lights 200000 drivers were prosecuted
Traffic Police Jaipur

ISSUED BY TRAFFIC POLICE JAIPUR

68

Q.No.8- Make a poster advising people not to pollute the air we breathe.

LET US NOT POLLLUTE THE AIR WE BREATHE


WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY-5TH JUNE, 2007

WAKE TO A SPARKLING MORNING WHICH IS FULL OF FRESH AIR AND CLEANLINESS

BROUGHT OUT IN PUBLIC INTEREST BY JAIPUR TRAFFIC POLICE

69

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE 1. Times Eye Bank wishes to increase awareness among youth about blindness and the importance of donating ones eyes. Draft a suitable poster. 2. Design a poster to launch cleanliness Drive Campaign in the area surrounding your school. 3. As the manager of Ample Coaching Centre run by you, prepare a poster calling attention of students desirous of attending IIT, CPMT, RPMT, AIIMS Coaching to join your coaching centre. 4. Conservation of energy. 5. Blood donation Camp. 6. Save water, Every Drop is precious. 7. Eco-friendly Diwali. 8. Collection of funds for slum children.

70

ADVERTISEMENTS
Word limit- 50 words Marks 5 INTRODUCTION
To publicize some product or some service available with somebody. To be published in newspaper, magazines, aired on T.V. or radio. Displayed on bill boards etc. Mean for max. Number of people. Content is brief, words limited and sentences not necessarily grammatically correct. Information in digital, abbreviated and short forms is acceptable No designs or visuals. They are in square/rectangular format.

TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENT

CLASSIFIED 1. Categorized into columns according to different classes. 2. Less space, more economical. 3. Written in short phrases and words.

DISPLAY/COMMERCIAL 1. Designed for commercial purpose 2. More space, more expensive In terms of the advertising

71

4. Language- simple & concise.

Costs. 3. Visually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines. 4. Witty expressions and picture or sketches. 5. Varying font size or shape. 6. Language: colourful & lucid

ESSENTIAL DETAILS (Commercial Advrt.)


Name of the company/ institute/ organizers, etc. Details regarding the product/event/educational course, etc. Special offers or discount, if any. Address of the company/institute/organizers, etc.

SAMPLE-(Classified Advertisement)
Begin with wanted or Required. Post and no. of vacancies. Name of the company. Age and sex of the candidate Qualifications & experience Other details (optional). Pay scale & Perks. Mode of applying. Wanted
A smart, confident PA/ Stenographer for a leading export house graduate, 25-30 Yrs old, typing speed 40 WPM, short hand 100 WPM, Preference to computer expert, salary negotiable, Apply with complete bio-data up to 15 May 2009 to Secretary, Orient Export House, T.Nagar New Delhi110016

72

Contact address and phone no.

For Practice
1. You are personal Assistant to G.M. ABC Metal Tools Company. Your General manager has asked you to draft an advertisement for local daily in the classified column for the post of 2 Electrical Engineers.(in 50 words). 2. You are Sumita/Suresh running a telephone booth in the central Market, Bhopal. Give a suitable advertisement for a telephone operator in Situations vacant column of Bhopal Times offering attractive remuneration.

TO LET
Begin with Wanted or Available

TO LET On rent Sanganer JDA, II Floor Two B/Rs, Lobby, Balcolony, fully furnished, well ventilated. Walking distance from market, Expected rent Rs 3000/- (Fixed) company lease preferred, Contact Mahesh Sekara 1A/21, Sanganer.

(On rent)

(On rent)

Type of accommodation [I,II,III or ground floor B/Rm, lobby Balcolony etc.]

Brief description (See property) [ fully furnished, well ventilator walking distance from..]

Rent expected, etc. [expected rent Rs fixed, negotiable, company lease preferred]

Contact address and phone no. [your add./mob.No./phone no. etc.]

73

For Practice 1. You want to let out a portion of your house, Draft a suitable advertisement giving detail to be published in the TO LET column of a newspaper giving your contact no. 2. You are Naresh/Nikita of 212, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur and wish to let out a portion of your newly built house. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for publication in the TO LET column of the Hindu, giving all necessary details.

SALE & PURCHASE For PROPERTY/VEHICLES/HOUSEHOLD GOODS. Begin with [For sale/Purchase or Available/Wanted] Type of vehicle * model/year of manufacturing * colour, accessories etc. * condition/Mileage done Type of property * Size, Floor, No. of rooms * Fixtures & Fittings * Location and Surroundings FOR SALE
Available Maruti 800 DX, 2004, White sparingly used, scratch less, self driven, stereo, AC fitted, beautiful upholstery no expense, Negotiable, Contact Mahesh 9828580061. For sale Vaishali nagar, JDA Flat SFS II, ground floor, Two B/Rs,DID with full interiors, Car parking available, East/Park facing, Best location, Reasonable price, contact A.B.Singh 9814360028 PROPERTY SALE/PURCHASE Quick sale LG washing Machine TC 1129, 2004 purchased, White, excellent condition, fully automatic, under warranty, owner going abroad, Attractive price, Contact G.P. Sekra, 720086.

Household goods * Brand, model year of manufacturing * Specify material * conditions * Price offered/expected/Negotiable * Contact add. & Phone no.

74

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION Name of institution/ its past record Courses offered, duration Eligibility condition Facilities & fee structure Last date for registration Contact address and phone no. BITS, PILANI announces the commencement of its courses in Japanese, French and Urdu, 3 month duration, Eligibility- Sr. Sec., Excellent faculty, computerized training, incentives for early birds, send in your application by 28 July 2008 or Contact Admission Controller 596324.

MISSING(PETS) Begin with MISSING Brief physical description [Name, breed, age, colour of skin] Identifying features Since when/from where missing Reward Contact address & phone no. MISSING
2 Yrs old pet dog Scabies, white colour with black stripes for a week, hole on left ear, limps neck, informer suitably rewarded. Contact- R.K.Gupta, 8/10 Bajaj Nagar, Jaipur, Phone no.-259938

PERSON
Begin with MISSING

MISSING
My brother 10, 42, fair and White complexion, wearing blue shirt & white shorts, grey stockings & black shoes, since 15th August 2006, mole on left check, speaks English Fluently, robust health, look handsome. Contact9414142614

75

Brief physical description [Name, age, height complexion and built

Clothes and other identifying features

LOST AND FOUND

Begin with LOST or FOUND Specify item Brief physical description When/where found or lost Reward, if any Contact address and phone no.

FOUND! FOUND! FOUND!


A green coloured briefcase, White line route No-420, Laxminagar to Connaught Place on Wednesday between 3 P.M. to 3:30 P.M., Name inscribed in golden letters. ContactPurnima 304, Laxminagar, phone no.- 212356

TRAVELS AND TOURS Begin with Package Available Name of travel agency Destination and duration
TRAVELS & TOURS AVAILABLE Package for Mauritius, 3 nights 4 days, breakfast and dinner, stay at 5 star hotel, sightseeing included, Rs 10000 per head, special discount for booking till 10 July, 2008. Contact- Laxmi Travels 4567092868

76

Details of package food/boarding lodging, sightseeing etc.

Cost and special discounts Contact add. & phone no.

MATRIMONIAL

Begin with ALLIANCE INVITED Brief description [Caste(Girl/Boy), age, height, complexion, education, employment, salary]

MATRIMONIAL ALLIANCE INVITED For Sikh girl 29/160, 56, fair complexion, M.Sc. Physics, Employed as Professor, Salary in 5 digits, No bar, send recent photo, Box 1035, Indian express, New Delhi.

Contact address and phone no.

Questions for practice


1. You are P.C.Jain of Dwarka, New Delhi. You want an English tutor for your daughter. Write an advertisement to be published in the classified columns of The Times of India. 2. You are R.L.Verma of C-204, Shakti Apartments, Sector no.-5, Dwarka, New Delhi. Being a retired lecturer of English, you need part time tuitions.

77

Write out an advertisement to be published in the SITUTATION WANTED column of the HINDUSTAN TIMES. 3. Your daughter is 23 yrs. Old. She is tall, slim, beautiful and fair complexioned, trained PG teacher in English in a Govt. school of Rajasthan. Draft a suitable matrimonial advertisement for her to be published in The Hindustan Times, New Delhi. 4. You want to dispose off your land at Okhla near Delhi. Draft an advertisement suitable to be published in The Hindustan Times, New Delhi. You are Kirpal Singh/Maneesha of Chandni chowk, Delhi. 5. Write a suitable advertisement about letting your newly constructed house invent all the necessary details. 6. You are Arjun/Anandi of 202, Lawarence road, New Delhi. You youre your briefcase while travelling by bus from Lawarance Road to Red Fort, Delhi. Draft a notification to be published in The Indian Express under their column LOST & FOUND including all necessary details.

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENT

Main Characteristic :
Design for commercial purposes More space, more expensive in terms of the advertising costs. Visually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty expressions and pictures and sketches. Varying font size or shape. Language colourful and lucid.

78

Proportionate spacing with appealing overall arrangement.

Essential details :
Name of the company/ institute/ organizers, etc. Details regarding the product/event/educational courses, etc. Special offers or discounts. Address of the company institute/ organizers, etc.

SOLVED EXAMPLE
1. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

WELCOME TO

79

ORIENT CLASSES
Where success is sure

Classes commencing from Date Time Venue : 25 July : 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. : SS Block, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi.

Excellent faculty Transport facility available Now wash the whitest Audio visual aids provided. with NOORI SOAP Proven track record
Economic cheapest in the market Easily available in different sizes Does no harm to the clothes Cleanses the dirt and dust away Stock readily available

Contact :- Orient Institute Pvt.Ltd. Ph:- 3629234

2. You have set up a clothes- washing soap unit recently. Draft a

suitable advertisement to be published in the Local Daily for the promotion of your soap.
For Trade Inquiries, Contact:

M/S NOORI SOAD FACTORY Jahazpul, Hissar (HARYANA) Phone :- 016672-333303 Mob:- 9811884414

80

81

EXHIBITION/INAUGURATION

7th INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR- 2008


DATE TIME : : 23 JULY, 2008 9 A.M. TO 8 P.M. PRAGATI MAIDAN DISPLAY PROFILE Books For all age groups Computer software & CD ROMs Teaching Aids

VENUE :

15% o Disc unt

Organizers International Trade Authority

Sponsored By All India Publishing House

82

QUESTION FOR PRACTICE


[Commercial Advertisements] 1. You want to launch a new Shampoo. Construct an advertisement giving details of the product and launching after in about 50 words. 2. As a travel agent, construct a suitable advertisement offering an attractive package to Kullu-Manali. 3. Construct a commercial advertisement for the inauguration of a boutique/health club/sports complex, etc.

INFORMAL/FORMAL INVITATIONS & REPLIES


There are two types of letter of invitations a. The formal letter of invitation b. The informal letter of invitation Attributes of the Formal letter of Invitation i. It is written in Third Person. ii. Simple Present Tense is used iii. There is no signature iv. The address is given on the right side at the bottom. v. RSVP a French word (repondez sil vous plait)- please reply is written at the bottom left side. vi. This category contains. a. Name of the sender b. Time and date of the event c. Some formal expression request the pleasure of the company of or Solicite your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion of -------- or Seek your auspicious presence at ---------------

83

d. Venue e. The reason of the invitation

Solved examples formal Invitations.


1.
Mrs. and Mr. Satish Mehta
Solicit your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion Of the marriage of their grand daughter

NISHI
(D/o Mrs. and Mr. Sharad Mehra)

NARENDRA
(S/o Mrs. & Mr. L.K.Kashyap) On 18th October 2008 At 7:30 p.m. At INVITATION BANQUET HALL Model Town, Jaipur

RSVP Virendra Mehra 7120011, 7210012

With best complements from All Relatives

84

2.

Mrs. and Mr. Rajkumar Gupta Seek your auspicious presence At the GRAND CELEBRATION Of their son Rohits admission To the

AIIMS
On 13th August 2008 at 6:00 P.M. At

LISTAV BANQUET HALL


K-18 Shalimar Bagh Delhi 110052

RSVP L-18 Karol Bagh Delhi 110058

Compliments from Friends and Relatives

85

Ph- 7012131, 7025141

86

Question for practice (Formal)

1. Your school is organizing its Annual Sports Day. Draft an invitation to be sent to the parents. 2. Your grandparents are celebrating the golden jubilee of their marriage. Draft an invitation for friends and relatives. 3. A fast food restaurant has been opened in your colonys shopping centre. Draft an invitation card. 4. Swapana Srivastava is holding a birth day bash at her residence 6, Rouse Avenue, Delhi. Draft an invitation to her friends.

REPLIES-ACCEPTANCE/REFUSAL [FORMAL INVITATION]


Acknowledge the invitation Express thanks in Third person. Mention acceptance/refusal (specify reason) Be brief and specific

EXAMPLES
Refusal (Formal) C-2, greater Noida U.P. 26th June 2008 Mrs. and Mr. V.K.Nair thank Mrs. and Mr. Bhartiya for the invitation to the inauguration of their showroom GALAXY on Sunday 30th June 2008 at 10:00 a.m.

87

at B-2 Pitampura, Delhi. However, they express their inability to be present on the occasion due to a prior engagement. With Best Wishes Nairs ACCEPTANCE (FORMAL) 15 Rose Gardens Bangalore 26th June 2008 Mrs. and Mr. V.K.Nair have a great pleasure in receiving the invitation from Dr. Kapoor for the workshop on Child Care being held on 30th June 2008 at his clinic B-9-UV, Keshav Puram, Delhi from 9:00 a.m. onwards. They confirm their presence with thanks.

EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE 1. You have Abhinav/ Akrite. You have received an invitation card from your close friend to attend the marriage his sister. But unfortunately, you cannot attend it due to your precious commitment. Write him expressing your inability to attend the marriage ceremony. 2. Your friend Mr. A.D.Bhalla has invited you to attend a marriage ceremony of his daughter Sangeeta on Sunday, the 30th June 2008 at 8:00 P.M. Write a formal reply accepting the above invitation.

88

INFORMAL INVITATION
REFUSAL, ACCEPTANCE ATTRIBUTES OF INFORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION It is written in First person. Different tenses are used. The salutation is Dear------ and Name.

The complimentary close is Your sincerely. The date of writing is given but no need to mention the year. Writers address is given There is no inside address No reply is asked for but the last sentence suggests that a reply is expected.

EXAMPLES 1. Suresh has been selected for Electronic Engineering in IIT, Delhi. He has decided to have a party for his friends. Write an invitation giving details of venue, time and date.

89

Dear Friends Do join me for an Evening Bash at my residence 26, Rafi Marg, New Delhi on Sunday, 29th May at 6 P.M. This is to celebrate my selection for Electronic Engineering in IIT, Delhi. Looking forward to meet you all. Suresh

2. Mamta grover is holding a get-together and lunch for all Mahila Samiti members and friends at her residence on 1st November at 12:30 P.M. Draft an invitation for the purpose. Friends I request the pleasure of your company at a get-together and lunch on Saturday, the 1st November, 2008 at 12:30 P.M. at my residence. All the Mahila Samiti members will be joining us for an informal chat on Sundry topics regarding the welfare of colony. Mamta

ACCEPTANCE (INFORMAL)

15, Tilak Palace New Delhi 28th October, 2008 Dear Bantty

90

Many thanks for the invitation to the marriage of your daughter Sangeeta to be held on 1st November, 2008 at 7:00 P.M. at Residency Hotel. We shall be delighted to attend the same . in case, we can be of any service to you, do write to us unhesitatingly. Yours sincerely Manav

REFUSAL (INFORMAL) C-56 Ankur Bhawan Jaipur 20th October, 2008 Dear Bantty I would have loved to attend the marriage of your daughter Sangeeta on 1 st November, 2008 at 7:00 P.M. at your residence but, unfortunately, I will be away to Kanpur for a week during this period. Kindly convey my heartiest blessing to the couple. Yours sincerely Manav EXERCISE

91

1. Write an informal letter to your friend inviting him on the house-warming ceremony of your newly constructed house. (1.1) Write an acceptance and refusal letter to the above. 2. Write an informal letter of invitation to your friend inviting him and his family to BHAGWATE JAGRAN. (2.1) Write an acceptance and refusal letter to the above.

Report

A factual description

Can be written for i. School magazine ii. Newspaper

i. Description of places ii. Description of objects iii. Description of a process

Words limit 100 to 125 words Marks allotted 10 marks Time available 8-10 Min.

DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
FORMAT CONTENT EXPRESSION - 1 MARKS - 4 MARKS - 5 MARKS

92

It should be written as a first person account A report gives a description of an event. Hence it should be prepared in the same order in which the event has happened. A report should be to the print and clear.

REPORT FOR A SCHOOL MAGAZINE

School activities may be published in a school magazine.

FORMAT Give a title/ heading to the report. Writers name, class & section.

CONTENT Factual information about the school activity/event, date time, venue. Sequence of programme, event. Information about chief guest/ judges/ participant. Highlights of the event. Kind of organization, people responsible for program arrangement. Result if describing a contest or conclusion.

REPORT FOR A NEWSPAPER

93

[ Political news, sports, accidents, natural disaster, crime etc. are usually subjects for news reports] FORMAT A. Headline. B. Date & place of occurrence before beginning the report C. By a correspondent or an agency as its source. LANGUAGE & STYLE Format Passive voice is preferred. - What, When, Where and how (highlights) and other relevant

CONTENT

information/ details. EXPRESSION Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spellings. -Coherence & relevance of ideas and style.

SUGGESTED VALUE POINTS 1. Road accidents/Fire accidents, robbery, Train accident


Headline What, When, Where. Give reasons. Details in brief. Eye-witness account Casualties, damages etc. Action taken role of police, fire brigades, local people.

94

Relief measures.

2. Cultural events/ Sports events/ celebrations


What, When, Where Date, venue objectives Name of the competition, level, topic Chief guest, special invitees Inaugural ceremony, welcome. Audience response. Message by the chief guest. Vote of thanks.

3. Camps/ Visits/ Exhibition


Place, destination Organizer Duration, date etc. Number of persons/ Visitors etc. Description as applicable. Theme & type of exhibits Sightseeing, scenic beauty, etc. Purpose and nature of camp.

95

Activities undertaken.

4. SILVER/PLATINUM JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS.


What When Where Platinum/ Silver jubilee celebrations Cultural progammes/inter-school competitions. Dignitaries present Audience response. Any other relevant details

Examples of a report for the school magazine


1. EARTHQUA CAUSES INEXPLICABLE LOSS BY LAV, XII-A It was republic day when people were lost in gaiety and merry-making. School children had gone to their school to participate in RDay celebrations. At about 10. A.m. We felt the earth shaking. The rumbling sound sent a shiver round on spine. The earth quake lasted for two minutes but in these two minutes lakhs of people in Bhuj, Surat Ahmedabad and Kutch Lost their lives. It was of a very severe intensity. It shook almost the entire Northern India Bhuj, being the epicenter of earthquake, was wiped off completely. Huge buildings were raged to grounds. There was a heavy loss of life. People

96

were rendered shelterless in the cold winter. Govt. foreign countries and social organizations rose to the occasion. They sent money, blankets, food, clothes and medicines. Teams of doctors from all around and mechanical paraphernalia to remove the debris reached the spot. But it was not sufficient. People were in grave misery. They miserable condition was inexplicable.

2. HOW I SAVED A BOY FROM DRAOWNING By Anju, XII-B On a hot summer day the students of our class decided to enjoy at the bank of Karnal-lake. Reaching there on our bikes, we sat down under the cool shade of the trees on the bank of the lake. Then we started running after the other. One of us slipped and fell into the water. He was drowning. I, at once, ramped into the water swam to the boy and brought him on the bank. His body was swollen with water. He was unconscious. One of us ran to his parents, informed them and took him to the hospital. The doctor pressed out the water out of his stomach. He praised us for bringing the boy to the hospital well in time. A little delay could be fatal. The boy came to this senses. His parents reached the hospital and thanked me profusely for saving their childs life. I felt an inner joy saving a precious life.

97

EXAMPLE OF A REPORT FOR THE NEWSPAPER 3. Children Theatre Workshop Held. Jaipur, May 19: Natya Kala Sangam organized a Childrens Theatre workshop from 1st May to 18th May. The age limit was from 7 yrs. To 17 yrs. There was no training fee and the registration was open only on one day from 9 am to 11 am. Since there were only limited seats available, registration was done on first come first served basis. As you can understand I was one of the. The children were divided into 2 groups according to their ages. The younger children were taught the basics of only acting. How to deliver dialogues, where to pause how to give modulation to ones voice were some of the things included in it. Older children were taught many more aspects of drama like creating the script of a

98

play from a story, innovating dialogues from imagination, basic of direction, stage management, effective use of props etc. In the last week children were divided into different groups, each was assigned a separate play which had to be put up. Parents were invited and results were there for all to use. --- Bhasker Correspondent 4. 5 Killed in Anaj Mandi-Fire in Ganganagar By- Manjeet Bawa, staff reporter News Times Ganganagar, May 19: At least five people died in district Ganganagar on May 19 and many got injured when a fire engulfed five shops in the wholesale grain market of Ganganagar on Thursday afternoon, Onlookers said that it began with an explosion from a nearby transformer. First there sparks in the transformer, which later, started flying into adjoining shops. The blaze spread swiftly in the congested area trapping workers in the basement area of the shops. The stored dry grains proved to be a fast medium for the spread of the fire. The chief minister has announced Rs. 20000 as compensation to the kill of each dead. Those injured will also be compensated. An inquiry has been setup to look into the cause of the explosion in the transformer.

5. TRAFFIC JAM Gurgaon : 23rd May, 2008 For students of D.A.V. Public school, Rohtak boarded a Haryana Roadways bus (No- HNN 3369) at sample for Rohtak. When the bus reached near the school, the

99

said students pleaded that they be dropped down there. Instead, the driver accelerated the speed and reached bus stand. There was an exchange of hot words between the students and the roadways staff thereupon, the students rushed to the school and raised a hue and cry against the excesses done to them by the roadways staff. The students came out of their classes, collected at national highway and jammed the traffic. They started raising slogans against the general manager, Haryana Roadways. Some students even threw stones at the glass panes of the buses. The police rushed to the spot. The traffic could be resumed only after the S.P. and the Dy. Commissioner gave full assurance to the students that the strict action would be taken against the errant driver and the conductor. -A report by Seema Chawla-Press Reporter Times of India

6. CAREER COUNSELLING PROGRAMME (Atul a reporter from Career Times) Jaipur : 24th May, 2008 A one day Career Counselling programme was organized in our school by Careers India, Jaipur on 23rd May, 2008 at 10:00 P.M. Students of class X, XI and XII some of them along with their parents attended the programme. Students of Sr. classes from some other schools also attended the lectures delivered by the experts in the fields of food technology, fashion technology and media management. Students of Science Stream took very little interest in food technology and fashion designing. The students of Humanities stream and commerce stream showed interest in media management. They were stick to learn of the vistas opened them. They learnt that they could be journalists, editors and news telecasters. Some of the parents put questions to know more of avenues opened for their words. It was a very

100

nice programme. All had a word of praise for it. In the end, the principal thanked the professionals for sparing their valuable time for the students.

FACTUAL DESCRIPTION Value points


1. Description of Places Purpose Travel, article, geography lesson, letter to a friend. 1.1 Spatial description in all its vividness so that it is easy to visualize as location, features, special qualities, food, recreational activities, local people, art and craft monuments of cultural, historical and religious importance of language etc. 1.2 Language can be rich and figurative with the use of colourful adjectives, verbs 2 phrases. 1.3 Be selective, dont give unrelated details in paragraph. 2. SCHOOL BUILT A NEW COMPUTER ROOM By Snahil, XII-A

One week ago the school became the proud owner of 20 sophisticated sleek computers. They are IBM compatible Models complete with Central Processing Unit (CPU), key board, printer, terminal and mouse. They have various applications running on the system like basic language programming, spread sheet, word processor, etc. some video games have also been loaded to generate interest among the students and teach them how to use the various units. The machines are kept in air conditioned room which has to be kept dust-free. So shoes are taken out and the main room is separated by a glass screen from the entrance. Two computer teachers have been appointed who have already started

101

teaching us the theoretical portions of the syllabus, mainly the computer language. The other one is teaching us the keyboard and mouse. When the school installed the machines many of us had seen the computers from such close quarters for the first time. It was a thrilling experience.

2. DESCRIPTION OF OBJECTS Purpose: Advertise a product, users manual, stolen goods to a friend etc. * Topic sentence * External features/ look/ Colour/ design/ texture/ material * Finer internal details- machinery, special benefits etc. * How it is used.

EXAMPLE
NON STICK COOKWARE Non stick cookware is made with a patented process by which the high quality nonstick coating is affixed on to a hard anodized surface, which makes it most durable. It comes in many useful shapes and sizes to suit your different cooking needs. All are made from heavy gauge, pure virgin aluminum for fast and even heat conduction. The pans are well balanced with sturdy, stay cool handles. The bottom and outer sides ae hard anodized to give you a surface that will not tarnish, pit or corrode and will stay looking new for years.

102

DESCRIPTION OFA PROCESS Purpose


: Scientific experiments, recipes; natural phenomena etc.

Aim/purpose Stepwise details connected with appropriate sentence linkers. Introduce variety of verbs, both in active and passive voice, to mark different stages in the process.

1. HOW TO OPEN A SAVING BANK ACCOUNT

First thing to do is to choose a bank which is in your campus or nearby and get the saving account form, the form has to be filled neatly. You will need 3 passport size photos. So keep them ready. The form has to be introduced by somebody who has an account in the bank. You can take help of one of your teacher or a person from your locality. This signature and all your details will be checked by bank people and then they will ask to deposit Rs. 500 to open the account. You can go after two or three days and get your pass book and cheque book. From then on, you can keep all your money in your bank account.

2. ADMISSION PROCESS IN SCHOOLS In Delhi the system of admission in various schools for KG classes is by lottery or by screening through interviews. Advertisements start appearing in various newspapers from November onwards for the availability of registration forms.

103

The age requirement is generally mentioned; some schools take children of 4 yrs and above for KG classes while other accept children of 5 yrs and above for class 1. Schools have different process: some require the forms to be taken and filled then and there itself while other give enough time to fill the details and submit them proof of residence, birth certificate, photos of child are some of the important documents required. In metropolitan cities because of long distances, transportation is a great problem. So many schools cater to areas within 10 Km. radius only, or many screen in applications according to area mentioned. The child along with the parents in then called for interview. General awareness, muscle control of hands, confidence and ability to communicate are some of the qualities observed. Selected candidates are then informed, either by post or told to check at the school notice board. This kind of composition can be handled in three styles depending on the requirement of the question. 1). First Person narration: - If the question asks, Describe how you prepared a cup of tea, first person narration will be required, style- casual and language simple and clear intelligible. 2). As instruction: If the question asks for the description of a recipe or an experiment, a direct style will be required, e.g. Measure four cups of water in a pan---. The sentence will be relatively short. 3). In passive voice: If the question asks how tea is made, the process is described in passive voice, e.g. Four cups of water are measured in a pan--

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

104

1. Your school has celebrated library week. As the Head/Boy Head girl of your school, write a report on it to be published in your school news letter. 2. During the kargil conflict the arts club of your colony had organized various cultured activities to collect funds for the victims families. As the secretary of the club. Write a report for your Daily Samachar about these activities and how you utilized the funds collected. 3. Your school has added a new spacious and well stocked library to its possession. Write a brief, factual description of it for the This years Addition Column of your school bulletin. 4. Jagats father tells him the correct way of preparing for competition. Write the instructions- and directions for him. Hints: Look out for ads. Get admission forms, prospectus by post. Study systematically. Dont just read, practice a lot. Increase speed, concentration, accuracy.

5. Your clubs wants to stage a play during the school annual function. Your teacher explains the process of staging a play to your class mates. Write the process on behalf of her. 6. Write a report on Price Hike of Essential Commodities in about 125 words. (Factual description)

105

7. You have attended a meeting where in a number of people spoke about the increasing crime rate in India. You are Pravesh/Parvati, a reporter from The Indian Express Delhi.Write a report to be published in about 100- 125 words expressing your views and suggestions. 8. You are Rajan/Leela. As a responsible citizen you have organized a campaign on Say no to Polythene Bags in your locality. Write a report for publication in your school magazine. 9. Radhas younger brother is going to take his Board Exam. He wants to know how examination in written paper is held. Radha decides to explain the process to him. Write the process description. 10. Write a brief description in about 125 words about your physics laboratory.

Q.No. - 5.

LETTERS
Word Limit Time available Marks allotted Distribution of marks - 150 Words - 15 Minutes - 10 Marks - Format Content - 2 Marks - 4 Marks

Expression - 4 Marks

TYPES

106

1. Personal letter 2. Business letter 3. Official letter 4. Letter to editors 5. Application for jobs.

Personal letters are informal letter written to Friends, Relatives and known persons. As per our syllabus we have to study the following categories. Business or Official letter Letter to Editors Application for jobs.

BUSINESS OR OFFICIAL LETTERS (FORMAL)


Under this heading we study the following types of letters. 1. Letter for making enquiries, asking for and giving information. 2. Letters of complaints 3. Letters of placing orders & sending replies 4. Letter for making requests. 5. Miscellaneous business or official letter.

A GENERAL FORMAT OF BUSINESS/OFFICIAL LETTERS 1. Senders Address & Date 1. Delhi Public Library Shyama Prasad MrkhMarg Delhi-110006. 2nd March, 2009

107

2.

Addressees Address

2. The Sales Manager M/s Jiwan Publishing House(P)Ltd. 24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj New Delhi-110002

3.

Salutation

3. Sir/Madam

4.

Subject

4. Sub: Order for Books

5.

Content

5. It would be much obliged on your part if you could kindly send me the following books by VPP. These are urgently required. ------------- - - - - - - - - - ------------

SUBSCRIPTION

6. Thanking you

SIGNATORY

7. Yours faithfully Sd/ (Harish Kumar) Chief Librarian

108

Enclosures (if any)

REMEMBER

For salutation
For a friend For a relative For others For strangers For official authorities For business Letters : Dear Ashok/My dear Ashok : Respected : Dear----: Mr. Mittal : Sir/Madam : Dear Mr./Mrs..

109

For complimentary close For principal/Teachers For official, Business, Editors,Unknown persons : Yours faithfully For a friend For a relative For acquaintances/ stranger : Yours truly : Yours sincerely, yours ever : Yours affectionately : Yours obediently

SOME USEFUL HINTS 1. Letters to the officials: a. Reveal your identity b. Write your purpose directly c. Request for action/compliance etc. 2. Letters to the Editor: a. Draw the attention (raise the issue) b. Problem & its effect c. Suggestion if any 3. Business letters:

110

a. Quoting reference number if any b. Purpose/complaint/argument, etc. c. Polite tone.

Dont Forget

1. Senders address should be on the top left hand corner without any punctuation marks. 2 Date can be written in the following way 1st March, 2008 March 1, 2008 3. The subject of the letter should not exceed 6 words. It should be the gist of the entire letter. 4. Salutation in formal letter, the word Dear should not be used. Salutation can be Sir/Madam 5. The body of the letter should be in 3 or 4 Paragraphs. The language/words used be simple. Be brief and to the point. Paragraphs should be linked to each other with all necessary details. 6. There should be no apostrophe in Yours and Y should be capital and f in faithfully should be small. 7. In case of enclosures, it should be written below the name [ subscription] as Encl.. 8. If the content of the letter is totally irrelevant to the question asked, Zero will be awarded even if the format is correct.

111

9. In the case of letter of complaint, the model number, date of purchased and the nature of defect should be mentioned clearly.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

MAIN POINT

1. Must be lucid, to the print and precise. 2. Mention the problem-personal/social issues 3. Explain its intensity 4. How the problem affected people. 5. Why should the problem be solved at the earliest 6. Your suggestion.

Solved 1. Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper about the commercial use of residential premises in your city.

112

A-30, Rathore Enclave Vikaspuri New Delhi 2nd March 2008

The Editor The Modern Times New Delhi

Sub: Commercial use of residential premises in the colony Sir This is to bring to the notice of the concerned authorities that unrestricted construction of shops and godowns is going on in the entire greater Kailash are of the city. The basements are being converted into offices and the ground floors are being renovated to become shops and markets. Very soon the colony will go the way of Lajpat Nagar and face traffic sharks and noise pollution. Already the security and peaceful living of the residents of the colony is under threat from continuous inflow of unknown people. The entire change of scenario is being done by a few unscrupulous land owners with the active connivance of the building authorities. It seems the laws have become redundant and are being violated with great regularity. I expect the concerned authorities to take head of the matter immediately before it becomes too late. Yours faithfully Sd/ (MAMTA JAIN)

113

Unsolved exercise

1. Write a letter to the Editor, The Times of India, Mumbai expressing your views on how the standard of performance in sports can be improved in India. 2. Write a letter to the Editor, The Hindustan Times Delhi giving your views on frequent breakdown of electricity in your locality. 3. You are Ramesh/Reema of 20, Sarvodaya, Lucknow. Write a letter to the Editor, Nagrik Times to draw the attention of traffic police Department to the lawlessness among bus drivers and conductors.

LETTER OF COMPLAINT
MAIN POINTS 1. Reference to the receipt no. date of purchase, details of the items. 2. Nature of the problem 3. Reference to warranty 4. Request for repair/replacement at the earliest.

1. You are Anjan Sen/Anita Sen staying at 11, Subash Park, Allahabad. Last month you got an inverter installed at your house through Small World of

114

Lajpat Nagar, Allahabad. Now you find that the inverter is not working and the local electrician who examined it at your request found some technical defect. Write a letter to the dealer asking him to replace it immediately under the terms and conditions of the deal.

Sol. M, Subhash Park Allahabad March 4, 2008 The Dealer M/S Small World Lajpat Nagar Allahabad

Sub: Defective inverter - regarding Sir On 12th February 2008, I got an inverter of Electro-Com make, model no 26 T 5 installed through your shop. The first time the electricity went it took over but the very next day it refused to function. The electricity who came to repair it cold that the inverter has some technical defect and must be replaced. I am sorry to say that after having spent so much of money, I am not able to avail of the facility Kindly replace it immediately according to the terms and conditions of the deal. Hoping for early action Yours sincerely

115

Sd (ANITA SEN)

EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE 1. You are Radha/Anil of 162, Kakataya Nagar, Hyderabad. Last week you bought an automatic washing machine VIP from Modern gadgets Nampalli, Hyderabad. Now you find that the machine is not cleaning well and making an unbearable noise. Write a letter to the dealer complaining about the same and requesting him to change the washing machine at the earliest. 2. Write a letter to the commissioner of police requesting him for a ban on the misuse of loudspeakers in your locality as it causes nuisance and disturbance.

LETTER MAKING ENQUIRIES

1. Reference to the advertisement 2. Express interest in joining the course 3. Mention the information sought. 4. Reference to the enclosures of a self-addressed envelop and a bank draft.

116

1. You are Akshaya/Kajol of 123, Parade Ground Road, Secunderabad. You are interested in doing short term course in computer programming during your summer vacation. Write a letter to the Director, Computer World, Powar, Mumbai, inquiring about the duration of such a course and the terms and conditions for admission.

123, Parade Ground Road Secunderabad 20th March 2008 The Director Computer World Powai(Mumbai). Sub : Seeking information about computer course. Sir With reference to your advertisement in the Times of India offering short term courses in computer programming I went to know certain details about the same. I have recently passed my XII examination in the humanities stream. I have a very basic knowledge of computers and want to learn programming in my free time. I want to know if I am eligible for the course which your institute is offering. Also let me know about the duration of the course, fee structure and mode of payment. Since Im free in the evening only, can join an evening course, if you have one ? Let me know all these details at the earliest so that I can decide accordingly Thanking you

117

Yours sincerely Sd (KAJOL)

EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

1. You are Aman/Aarti of 119, Church Road, Kanpur. You are interested in doing a short term course in Public Speeking for your personality enrichment during your summer vacation. Write a letter to the Director, personal centre Sector 22, Chandigarh, inquiring about the duration of such a course and the terms and conditions for admission. 2. Your cousin Priyanka is just completing X Standard and had sought your advice to opt for science orcommerce group. Write a letter giving guidance to select the group in standard.

PLACING ORDERS AND SENDING REPLIES

MAIN POINTS

118

1. Reference to subject mentioned 2. Kind of order, details thereof (brand, size number, cost etc.) 3. Mode of payment. 4. Deadline for delivery of goods.

1. You are Mr. N. Madan, the manager of Hotel Akbar International, Jaipur. You want to place an order for seeds and plants with Dilkhush Nurseries, Jaipur. Write a letter of order.

The Manager Hotel Akbar International Jaipur 2nd March 2008 The Proprietor Dilkhus Nurseries Jaipur Sir Ref- Talk with your sales Representative regarding purchase of seeds, plants and cut flowers. Sub :- Placing order for seeds & Plants. The hotel management is glad at the interest shown by your sales Representative in negotiating the deal of supplying various flowers and vegetable seeds to our hotel on a regular basis. We hereby place an order for (1) seeds of seasonal vegetables (2) Seeds of exotic flowers (3) Indoor and

119

outdoor plants (4) cut flowers. (The details of each can be had from our office-horticulture in-charge) We believe that you are a reputed company dealing in many important and exotic plants and your supply will be timely and of consistently good quality. The payment shall be made on the last day of every month. Thanking you Yours Sincerely Sd/ (N.Madan)

2. You placed an order with M/s Kanchan Hosiery Words, Railway Road, Ludhiana for the supply of Sweaters, jerseys and other hosiery goods. The peak season for the sale of hosiery goods is going to be soon over. But they have delayed the execution of the order. Write a letter to them cancelling the order. M/s Tirupati Readymade Garments Sec-6. Central Market Dwarka, Near Delhi 1100067 16th February 2008 M/s Kanchan Hosiery Works Railway Road Ludhiana Sir Sub: Cancellation of the order no KNW/238 dated Jan 30, 2008

120

We placed an order with you on 30 Jan, 2008 for the supply of sweaters, jerseys and other hosiery goods. We requested for the urgent supply. But we regret to inform you that we have not yet received consignment till date. All our requests and reminders in this connection have gone unheaded. You have neither sent the goods nor have you accounted for this under delay. In this way you have put us to a great inconvenience. As it is peak season for the sale of hosiery goods, our customers are returning away. This has affected our reputation a let. In these circumstances, we have arranged for the goods from some other company. You are therefore, requested to treat our order as cancelled. However, if you premise to dispatch the goods in time in future, we may resume placing orders. Thanking you Yours faithfully Sd (KRISHAN PAL) PROPRIETOR

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

1. The Principal of Kendriya Vikyalaya No-5 Jaipur asks the Head of the Music Department Mr. Mohammad Salim to place an order for buying musical instrument with Jhankar Music Shop, Jaipur. Write the letter. 2. Ramona Jayadev of 6, Napean Road, Mumbai is a busy career women having very little time for shopping. She orders from the Worlingoons Home Shopping catalogue offer seeing their ad in the paper. Write the letter.

APPLICATION FOR JOB

121

MAIN POINTS Source of information Request for job Bio-data Enclosures COACHING INSTITUTE AT PITAMPUR AdvertisementRequires Part-Time Tutors for primary/middle classes. Graduates/under graduates with excellent academic record can apply. Write to Career Point, A-50, Pushp Enclave New Delhi.

Q. Sameer narang sees the above ad. In the Morning News and decides to apply for the job. His address is 16, Jawahar Nagar, New Delhi. Sol. 16, Jawahar Nagar New Delhi. 17 Feb 2008 Career Point A-50 Pushp Enclave, New Delhi. Sir Sub: Application for the post of Tutors.

122

This refers to your advertisement published in the Morning News dated 13th February,2003, I wish to submit my application for the post of tutor for primany classes. I am doing my graduation B.Sc. and have taught primany school children earlier also. I hope my interest in teaching and previous experience of the same will hold me in good stead for the job. I would be happy to hear from you. I enclose herewith my complete bio-data. Thanking you your faithfully Sd (Sameer Narang)

Bio-Data
1. Name 2. Fathers Name 3. Mothers Name 4. Date of Birth 5. Permanent Address 6. Postal Address : SAMEER NARANG : Sh. A.K.NARANG : Mrs. NALINI NARANG : 8th JUNE, 1988 : A-50 KAROL BAGH, DELHI : SHANTI TUTORIALS G.T.ROAD, NEW DELHI 7. Qualification: School level - X-65%, XII- 72% College level - B.Sc. I year 68%

123

8. Professional Qualification 9. Experience

: Computer knowledge : Taught tution to class IX and V Children for two yrs.

10. Salary Expected 11. Reference

: Rs. 10000 approx. : a. Dr. Anik Sharma(BDK Hospital) b. Dr. Rajesh Verma(BDK Hospital)

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

1. Ad.

JFC Finance requires female receptionist, young, pleasant personality,Apply withfull particular to Manager, S308, Dhaka chamber, Kolkata.

Q.Monika Sah sees the above advertisement in Career Times and decides to apply for the same. Her address is 6-Ganga Devi Market, Kolkata.

2. Ad.

Lab attendant required for a Senior Secondary School. Applicant must be Secondary pass. Apply to the Chairman, Annie Sr.Sec. School, Manipur.

124

Q.Kavita Nath of 9/8 Downer Street Sees this ad in the paper and decides to apply. Write the application.

3. Ad.

Required Boys/girls for Have alldepartment store. Young, active and polite people preferred. Write to manager, have all Departmental store.

Q.Sameena sees this advertisement published in the Local News Aurangabad. She decides to apply. Her address is 38, Stadium Area, Aurangabad.

Advanced Exercises

1. The problem of corruption is increasing in India with a rise in consumerism and inflation. Mr. S.K. Singh, a lecturer in Physics. Writes a letter to the editor of Our India expressing this views on the steady decline in moral values of Indians. His address in save India Forum, Patna. 2. Repeated strike of doctors leaves patients at the mercy of god. Mr. kaushal who had a bitter experience recently when he fell sick and had to be admitted to a hospital writes a letter to the Editor of The patriot narrating his tale of woe and generating public opinion on Why shouldnt essential services be banned from going on strike ?.

125

3. Indian international public school, Kanpur, a privately run school has increased fees twice in one session much to the inconvenience of the parents. The parents write a letter to the school authorities through the Chairman, parents Teachers Association, complaining about the un-proportionate like and requesting them to reconsider their decision. 4. Sagar Chauhan writes a letter of complaint to the director, Telephone Nigam because his phone has been out of order for several weeks and not been attended even after several reminders, His address is 21/6 H Scheme Gomti Nagar, Lucknow. Write his letter. 5. This summer vacation you are planning to visit shimla. Write a letter to travel agency in shimla requesting them to book you a room in a five star hotel. Give other detail of your journey and facilities you require there. Sign your name as Leela/Mohan , c/5 Assam. 6. Ad. SCHOLARSHIPS April 30 : Inlaks Scholarships Applications from graduates for scholarship by Inlaks Foundation for projects or studies in any subject in UK & USA. Contact : - Inlaks Foundation, P.O.Box No. 2108 New Delhi.

Manisha is a very brilliant student who has completed B.Sc. Chemistry Honors from Delhi University. Her friend shows her this newspaper cutting. She enquires from them (in the form of a letter) more details about the scheme. Her address is 63, Press Enclave N.D. write her letter. 7. Madhumita Rai of Nehru colony, Delhi is interested in taking up a career in acting. She decides to send her resume to CINEVISTA FILMS,P.O. Street, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi. Write her letter.

126

8. You are Vinesh Jain of 27-G/Raja Mandi Agra. Write a letter to the president of your Municipal committee drawing his attention to the problem. 9. Write a letter to the Editor of the Indian Express, New Delhi complaining about the frequent break down in the supply of electricity in your locality. 10. You are Apoorva/Arpita. You bought a Mixie from Ganesh Electronics & Electricals, Gandhi Marg, Nagpur. It does not function properly. Write a letter to the Sales Manager of the shop complaining about the defect and asking for immediate replacement or repair as necessary.

ARTICLE WRITING
Output may be descriptive or argumentative in nature. It could also be a speech, an article for publications in a newspaper or a school magazine or an essay. Word Limit Marks allotted Time available DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Format Content Expression - 1 mark - 4 marks - 5 marks - 150 -200 words - 10 marks - 20 minutes

127

Value Points 1. Organise your ideas on the subject concerned. 2. Add sub points to the main points 3. Draft or create from your own experience. 4. Substantiate your argument if you are writing on a debatable topic. 5. Transcode & incorporate diagrammatic information into your comnposition. 6. An argumentative composition generally contains Introduction to the issue. Causes/reasons of its occurrence. Facts and data related to the issue The outcome /results of it. Suggestions/ measures to improve the situation.

ARTICLE FOR A NEWSPAPER


It may express opinion on current affairs, national and international issues, social matter, student related affairs. It explores and analyses the given subjects and draws conclusions. Format: a. Heading b. Three or four groups c. Name of the writer.

128

Content: a. Property structured b. Opening paragraph should be introductory in nature. c. Second para should contain the main discussion. d. The last paragraph should include conclusion. Expression : a. Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spelling b. Coherence and relevance of ideas and style. To enforce strict discipline in school and colleges is a great problem now a days. As Mohan/Mohini Writes an article for the Hindustan Times Delhi. About the problems and your views on punishment as a corrective measure. DISCIPLINE By Mohan 1. Discipline is a means of keeping things in order. It is absolutely to the growth and development of an individual and health society. It is indispensable for everyone in all spheres of life, i.e. at home, school, playground, society, army, public life and everywhere. It must be inculcated early in life. Students life is the seed time of life, hence, the value of discipline in academic life can not be understands. the value of discipline in the political ,social and a notion of discipline people can size to the limits of the sky. Earlier corporal punishment was awarded at school to bring an erring scholar to the right track."Space the road and spoil the child" is not the maximum now. Proper counseling and guidance. By parents and teachers can help the students to maintain the discipline. Punishment physical and financial cannot be a punitive way to reform the students. 2. You are very much concerned about the wastage of money and manpower due to the frequent election in your country. Write an article on the urgent need to have a suitable Government.

129

ELECTION EVERY YEAR__WHO PAYS ? By Somia. This is a question which every sensible and thinking India is asking these days who is paying for these repeated Elections? Of course, the people of media. Its the taxpaying money which is being spent, rather wasted on unnecessary election expenditure. It seems bringing governments down and announcing elections every now and then, has become a favourite pastime of politicians. For months nothing happens in offices due to canvassing and discussion of the politics. Days are given off during election time, all machinery is employed in conducting election and development of the country comes to a standstill. Every new government inducts a mammoth ministry, announces several populist policies at the cost of development and improvement of countrys economy. I think the citizens of India are also partly to be blamed. It is they who do not give a clear mandate to the country. Coalition government only increases the chances of buying and selling of ministers, encourage corruption and instability. It is high time our citizens learn to elect honest, deserving candidates who can give a clean, stable, five year government and take the country into a new era. 3. Shatanu jain a student of G.V.A.Public School feels highly worried when he wonders what he will do after 'his class XII exams. He writes an article for a newspaper on "Education of today- How Relevant"?

ARTICLE FOR SCHOOL MAGAZINE


Format:a) Heading b) Three or Four Paragraphs

130

c) Name, Class and Section of the writer Content:- organize into introduction, main subject and conclusion as always in essay like composition. Language & style should match the subject. Style may be serious or light even humorous if the subject permits.

Ques:- You have organized a Drug Addiction Rally in your school in collaboration with Lions Club. Write an article in about 150-200 word for your school magazine.

DRUG ADDITION
By Radha.
Scientific and technological advancement has enabled man to attain many things which were considered impossible in the past. Man is bringing joys as well as sorrows for mankind. He invented many drugs which could treat and save us from many horrible, deadly diseases. But becoming an addict to drugs and narcotics is to fall into the death trap. Most of the students start taking drugs as a matter of fashion or out of a craze for experiment. They want to reach the dreamland of their imagination under the intoxication of drugs. But once they become addict, they cannot stop their use. Most of those who start taking drugs are socially maladjusted people. Some people think that occasional use of drugs will not make them addicts but they end up as habitual drug takers. Some students who do not come up to the expectations of their parents, feel small and start taking drugs. Let us take a pledge to delight their evil of drug addiction with truth and nail.

131

The sale of drugs in the open market should be banned. The government should use all the advertising media to educate the people about the harmful offer of intoxication drugs.

2. You are Malika/Manju of class XII. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on Aping of western culture by younger generation.

APING OF WESTERN CULTURE BY YOUNGER GENERATION. By Malika/Manju We are living is an age of globalization and liberalization. The industrial culture which dominates the culture of the civilized world is materialistic by nature. Our youth are bound to be affected by it. They cannot afford to live in isolation. The western culture is reflected in the attitudes of the people especially the younger generation. The glamour of big cities attracts than to visit beer-clubs, pubs and late night shows. Very easily in life, they exposed to too much violence and sex through cinema, television or internet. India, the birth place of RISHIS, MUNIS, and God has always been a source of spiritual solace for the world. People from other countries especially from England, America & Canada came to India to find peace of mind. But our modern youths are hankering offer the western civilization and fashion like mad people. They have no regard, no respect for our age long culture, customs and traditions. To them these things have become old-fashioned and outdated. Our youths have forgotten the real purpose of life. In their clothes they cannot be distinguished whether he is a boy or a girl. They have no corner for sympathy for poor parents and others. But the fault lies not with them but with us. Our poverty, large scale prevalent corruption, communal tension and religious fanaticism have led our youths to drift to western cultures.

132

SPEECH
It consists of the words spoken by a person to a gathering. The address, the language and style are determined by the occasion and audience. As a concerned resident you are worried about the harmful effects of insanity conditions in your truth. Write a short speech on the necessity of sanitation to be given at the morning assembly time in your school.

CLEANLINESS IS NEXT TO GODLINESS By Kishor Kala.


Honble Principal, Judges, Teachers and my dear friends I wanted like to draw your kind attention to the insanitary conditions that prevail in our town. We throw our waste and garbage just outside the house. Huge garbage dumps are formed, outside. These dumps attract mosquitoes, flies, pigs and stray cows. This is a real ground for transmission of diseases. There are shallow ponds infested with mosquitoes. This breeding ground of mosquitoes further adds to the spread of deadly diseases like malaria, meningitis dengue etc. There is no cleaning operation to remove all this garbage. The authorities seem to be indifferent and least concerned to the plight of citizens.

133

The irony is that even the city hospital is not spread. All the waste from the hospital is thrown just outside the gate which creates awful hygienic condition. Basic civic amenities are not looked by the municipalities and the basic needs not fulfilled. Insanitary conditions are appalling and incidents of deaths due to disease are high. There is no sense of cleanliness among citizen. There is a need to create awareness about the ill-effects of bad hygiene. The non-governmental agencies should help to educate the ordinary citizens by arranging one day programmes. We can also create this awareness by educating the people living in slums near our schools and helping them to take up preventive measures. The government should help by making an effort to fulfill the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter for all citizens.

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

1. You are Vinod/Vimla. You are worried about the hike in the prices of essential commodities like gas, pulses vegetables etc. Write an article on this in about 200 words for publication is a local daily, suggesting certain steps to curb price hike.

2. You are Malik/Manju. You have interviewed many school students and their parents regarding the hectic schedule of academic coaching that the students undergo in different coaching centers. You are much concerned about the

134

neglect of the training is sports & Arts for the students. Write an article to be published in a magazine on this issue.

3. You are Vaishali/Vinod. This year your school arranged a special cultural programme on the theme services and sacrifice in commemoration of the International year of volunteers. Write an article about this cultural programme for year school magazine.

4. You have just come back from a factory which employs children and have witnessed the awful conditions of their workplace. Write an article advocating a total ban on child labour which is to be published in the Times of India.

5. You believe that India vast cultural diversity, multi-nationalism, regional variations and contributions are enriching and contribute positively not only to the nation but at the international front also. Write an article on India-her Glorious Past and Golden Future in about 200 words.

6. Aruna is the cultural secreting of her school. She has been asked to present a brief report on the co-curricular activities of the school for the Annual Day. Write an article for your school magazine in about 200 words.

135

136

SECTION-C
LITERATURE/TEXT BOOKS
FLAMINGO- (POETRY)- 10 MARKS Q.No-7(a). One out of two extracts based on poetry from the text to text comprehension and appriciation. 4 Marks

Q.No-7(b). Three out of four short questions from the poetry section to test local and global comprehension of text. 3x2=6 Marks

Content Expression

- 1 Mark - 1 Mark

137

My Mother at Sixty-six Kamala das

Gist of the poem: The poet is on her way to the Cochin airport, after having visited her ancestral house. She is accompanied by her aged mother. She looked at her mother sitting by her side. The mother, advanced in age, was dozing and seemed pale like a corpse. She was possessed by fear and pain, but she managed to divert her mind by looking out of the window of the vehicle. Outside the window, the trees by the road side, seemed to be racing in the opposite direction. She also saw happy children rushing out of their homes. Reaching the airport, the poet was standing a little distance away from her mother. She looked at her mothers face again. She seemed as pale as a late winter moon. The poet felt an ache, a fear, which, for the first time, she had felt back in her childhood. She became speechless. She could only manage to say see you soon Amma and she forced herself to smile.

Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow:

I.

Driving from my parents home to Cochin last Friday

Morning, I saw my mother..

Put that thought away, and Looked out at young Trees sprinting, the merry children spilling Out of their homes,

138

1. What did the poet see? 2. What is the mothers face compared to and why? 3. Why does the poet look out at the sprinting trees and the merry children spilling out of their homes? 4. Identify and elaborate the figure of speech. 5. Why are the trees spoken of to be sprinting? Answers:

1. The poet noticed her mother sitting beside her, dozing openmouthed, her face pale like that of a corpse. 2. The pale face of the mother is compared to that of a corpse, dull and lifeless. 3. The poet is filled with pain, looking at the ashen face of her mother. To distract her mind from these deadly thoughts, she looks out at the sprinting trees and the merry children spilling out of their homes. 4. The figure of speech is simile. The ashen face of the mother is compared to a corpse. 5. Looking out of the window of the moving car, the poet experiences a visual illusion. The trees seem to her to be racing back II. after the airports security check, standing a few yards away, I looked again at. ..smile.

1. 2. 3. 4. Answers:

What is the mothers face compared to? What is the poets childhood fear? What is the familiar ache the poet refers to? Why does the poet smile?

139

1. The face of the poets mother looked wan and pale. It looked dull like a late winter moon. 2. The childhood fear which the poet refers to is the fear of being distanced from the companionship of the mother. 3. The familiar ache is the poets childhood fear of being separated from her mother. This ache now haunts her in another way. The current fear is that the mother is very old and that she is inching closer to death. 4. The childhood fear threw the poet into disillusion. She tries to compensate her wan mood by flashing a deliberate smile. III. Short answer type questions: (30-40 words)

1. What did the poet do to recover from the death thoughts about her mother? 2. How is death contrasted with life in the poem? 3. What is the childhood fear which the poet speaks of? 4. How do you explain the smile on the lips of the poet when she waits at the airport?

Answers: 1. The wan and pale expression on the face of the her mother, floods her mind with thoughts of her impending death. She succeeds the necessity of switching her mind, by looking out of the window of the car. Outside the car, she sees the trees racing back in a direction opposite to the movement of the car. 2. The poet indirectly introduces symbols to contrast life with death. The pale and corpse-like appearance of the mother is analogous with death. On the contrary, life is demonstrated by the introduction of the racing trees and the merry children spilling out of their homes. 3. When she was a girl, the poet too had the customary fear of being separated from her mother through marriage or through other circumstances. This is a subconscious fear which lurks within and haunts her without warning. 4. Thoughts of having to bade good bye to her aged mother, throws the poet into inhibition. She finds it difficult to accomplish the formalities associated with parting. Instinct tells her it is probably that last time she sees her mother

140

alive. She tries to compensate her incapacity and depression, by flashing a deliberate smile on her lips.

IV. Extra Questions: Unsolved 1. What were the poets feelings at the airport? How did she hide them? 2. The poem talks of a commonplace experience which has deep significance. Comment. An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum -Stephen spender

Gist of the poem: The poet pictures an elementary school classroom located within a slum. The school is located in a slum notorious for unhygienic atmospheric conditions. The children in the school are visibly poor and dirty. Their carelessly attended faces resemble rootless weeds. Their faces are gloomy. The poet picks out some individual children. He sees a tall girl, whose head is drooping down. A thin boy, with narrow eyes, resembling that of a rat, is reading aloud his lesson. The skeletal boy has inherited a juvenile disease from his parent. At the back of the class, the poet spots a sweet child, lost in dream. The poet imagines that the dream is probably about a squirrel which leads a carefree life within a tree-hole. The slum is a far cry from the habitat of the squirrel. On the pale walls of the classroom are displayed donated pictures which are a stark contrast to the slum. The pictures are of different themesShakespeares head, a cloudless sky at dawn, a gigantic dome and green, flowery valleys. There is also a map, which is a profitless reminder to the inhabitants of the slum that it is their world. The windows of the classroom are not opportunities which open their

141

lives to betterment. They are vague and expose only a narrow street within their slum, lying beneath a nondescript sky. The slum lies far away from places of natural beauty, like rivers and mountains. It is also out of reach for men like politicians, who propose empty promises. Shakespeare, maps, ships and sun are only temporary visual means of escape for these children. They live within holes where the darkness of the night is replaced by the darkness caused by fog. The children are skinny and their skin expose their bones. Some of them wear crude, poorly mended spectacles. They spend their maximum time in an atmosphere of gloom. Only people like governor, teacher, inspector or visitor can give them a relief from this ordeal. Without help, the maps would not seem to them to be windows of opportunity. On the contrary, they would only be tombs of loss of hope. The poet exhorts us to break their shackles. He wants us to lead them to green fields, set their foot on golden sands and open to them the world of books. He concludes that history belongs to them, who live in the light and not in darkness.

Read the following lines and answer the questions that follow: I. Far far from gusty waves these childrens faces. Like rootless weeds, the hair torn around their pallor other than this. 1. How do the faces of the children look like? 2. How does the poet describe the tall girl? 3. Explain: paper seeming boy with rats eyes.

142

Answers:

1.The faces of the children are dull and emaciated like rootless weeds. 2. The tall girl has her head drooped down. Probably she is so malnourished that she cant hold her head upright. She is also bowed down by the burden of responsibility. 3. The undernourished boy is thin as paper and has inane, narrow eyes like that of a rat. His hungry eyes are greedily searching for food.

II. Unless governor, inspector, visitor, This map becomes their window and these windows.. .history theirs whose language is the sun.

1. What does the poet want the influential people to do? 2. Where does the poet want the children to be taken to? 3. What is the underlying message of the poem? 4. Explain: history theirs whose language is the sun.

Answers:

1. The poet wants the powerful people to release these children from their vicious circle and expose them to the beautiful world of opportunities which lie outside. 2. The poet wants that these children should be rehabilitated. They should be accommodated in clean and healthy atmosphere. They should be allowed to drink deep in the fountain of education.

143

3. The poet is grieved at the gross injustice meted out to the slum children. He expects the government and the society to give them their due rights. 4. The poet concludes that only people with optimism and perseverance will get etched in the annals of history. The sun stands for optimism and perseverance.

III. Exercise: (unsolved)

On sour cream walls, donations. Shakespeares head Cloudless at dawn, civilized dome riding all cities A narrow street sealed in with a lead sky Far far from rivers, capes, and stars of words.

1. What are the things that the poet sees in the school classroom in a slum? Where did they get them from? 2. What is the contrast between the classroom in a slum and the donations in the room? 3. Briefly describe the plight of the slum children. IV. Surely, Shakespeare is wicked, the map a bad example, With ships and sun and love tempting them to steal

1. Why is Shakespeare wicked and the map a bad example? 2. Comment on the description of the slum children by the poet. What is his attitude towards these children? V. Short answer type questions: (30-40 words) 1. Why is Shakespeare wicked and the map a bad example? Shakespeare is a symbol of knowledge and the map is a symbol of material progress. These are wicked

144

because the slum children do not have access to both due to their impoverished conditions. 2. What does the poet wish for the children of the slum? The poet wishes that the slum children should be removed from their world of inhibition and exposed to fresh lands and better pastures. Social justice should be meted out to them and education be made universal.

VI.

Extra questions: (unsolved) 1. Give a brief description of the children in an elementary classroom in a slum. 2. What is the dichotomy between the life of the slum children and the world shown in the maps? 3. What does the poet wish to be done for the slum children? Keeping Quiet -Pablo neruda

Gist of the poem: In the opening lines of the poem, the poet exhorts all to keep still, for a brief while. He asks us to cease all activity, at least for a time period taken to count one to twelve. For the first time on the face of the earth, no language should be spoken and even our arms should not be moved. It would be an enchanting moment, without hurry and animation, when all of us would experience a strange togetherness. This static state should have impact around the world. Fishermen in the deep waters, would not kill whales. The men gathering salt, will get time to look at their miserable hands. Laborers, who toil in hazardous industries, will wear clean dress and walk in the shade. The poet clarifies that this silence should not be confused with inactivity. He is all for life and not for death.

145

He proposes only to stop our restless instinct for movement. If we sit still, perhaps a powerful silence would prevail over us. It would provide us a relief from the sadness of not knowing anything about us at all and our constant companionship with death. In this regard, our earth can teach us a valuable lesson. At night, a deathlike stillness prevails over the earth. However, it springs back to life by morning. The poet concludes that it is time for him to go, but we should continue to be still for a little while more.

Read the following lines and answer the questions that follow:

I.

Now we will count to twelve And we will all keep still. And not move our arms so much.

1. Why does the poet want us to keep quiet? 2. How long does the poet exhort us to be silent? 3. What is the poets opinion of normal people? Answers: 1. The poet wants us to keep quiet so that we can do a self analysis. 2. The poet wishes that we become still only for a brief time-only time taken to count one to twelve. 3. According to the poet, a temperamental mobility is rampant in normal people. Nothing can force us to sit quietly for some time. II. It would be an exotic moment Without rush, without engines,. Would look at his hurt hands.

146

1. 2. 3. 4.

What does the poet mean by an exotic moment? What kind of feeling would this exotic moment evoke? How does the fishermen harm nature? What sublime impacts would keeping quiet have?

Answers: 1. A psychosomatic silence would have a transcendental effect on us. 2. The exotic moment will evoke a feeling of solidarity with our brethren. 3. Fishermen harpoon whales. The whale population is gradually getting depleted. It imbalances nature. 4. Keeping quiet would prompt us to introspect. It would be a sublime moment, when we would identify ourselves with nature and our fellowmen. Fishermen, who hunt whales, would regret their folly and abstain from causing ecological imbalance. It would consolidate and unify all men. III. Exercise: (unsolved) What I want should not be Confused With total inactivity. threatening ourselves with death.

1. According to the poet, what is the difference between silence and inactivity? 2. What graceful experience would we have, if we ceased our instinctive motion? 3. What do we fail to understand, although we live for a long time on this earth? 4. To what does the poet compare lack of self awareness? IV. Short answer type questions: (30-40 words) 1. What do you think the poem is about?

147

It is about a transcendental experience, which is triggered by ceasing all mundane activities. Such experiences would evoke feelings of solidarity with our fellowmen and apathy for our reckless attitude towards nature. It is an elementary stage in self-realisation. 2. What do we fail to realize when we get marooned in mundane pursuits? Men are too busy to find time to introspect. We pass away without realizing ourselves. According to the poet, this ignorance of our real worth, is a truck with death. V. Extra questions (unsolved) 1. List a few rash activities that man indulges in. 2. Does the poet advocate inactivity? If not why? 3. What lesson can the earth teach us?

A Thing of Beauty -John Keats

Gist of the poem: The poem is a tribute to beauty. The poet says that a thing of beauty is a source of joy for ever. The grace of beauty increases with the passage of time. It would never lose its worth. Beauty is like a place of solace and comfort, providing quiet rest, sweet dreams, health and relaxation. On every new day, we fabricate fresh flowery links which bind us to the beautiful earth. This is despite the depression, lack of noble values, gloom, unhealthy experiences and darkish regimen which we undergo every day. In

148

the midst of all these negatives, there is always some beautiful thing in our life, which dispels the darkness in our lives. The poet specifies a few stock objects of beauty. They are the sun, the moon, a shady area providing protection from heat to the simple sheep, the daffodils and the green world they live in, cool streams which give relief from the hot season and a clearing in the middle of a forest, rich with scented flowers. Equally beautiful are the lives of great men who have passed away and stories and legends which we have heard or read. Such things are an endless source of immortality.

Read the following lines and answer the questions that follow:

I. A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases, it will never Pass into nothingness; but will keep .bind us to the earth.

1. What pleasure do we derive from a beautiful thing? 2. How does the poet prove that the value of a beautiful thing is permanent? 3. What does wreathing flowery bands mean? 4. How does a thing of beauty keep a quiet bower for us?

Answers:

149

1. A thing of beauty boosts our spirits and gives us joy. It has a soothing impact on our mind. 2. The value of a thing of beauty is eternal. It is never exhausted. It will never fail to rejuvenate us when we feel the direst need. 3. We can never alienate ourselves from nature. Every day, we create fresh bonds with the beautiful things on the earth. 4. Our lives are rife with pain, worry and suffering. A thing of beauty comes as a pleasant interlude, refreshing and soothing us. Whenever we want to be emotionally refreshed, the thing of beauty is ready at hand.

II. For simple sheep; and such are daffodils With the green world they live in;.. .fountain of immortal drink.

1. List some beautiful things the poet has mentioned. 2. How are the mighty dead immortalized? 3. Comment on the concluding lines of the poem.

Answers:

1. Some beautiful things that the poet speaks of are daffodils, streams, mid-forest ferns, lives of great men and literature. 2. The lives of great men have an enchanting beauty about them. This beauty has immortalized them and imprinted their presence in history. 3. The poet concludes that things of beauty have the boon to immortalize us. Unlike temporal things, the joy given by beautiful things are eternal.

150

III. Exercise

Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth Of noble natures, of the gloomy days .dark spirits.

1. What causes despondence in human beings? 2. How does a thing of beauty help us to be happy? 3. Explain the figure of speech in the lines.

IV. Short answer type questions: (30-40 words)

1. How do things of beauty bind us to the earth? Our lives are marred by pain and suffering. Things of joy will revitalize our lives. Therefore we glue ourselves to the earth which is abundant in such beautiful things. 2. How does the loveliness of a thing of beauty increase? Things of beauty like nature, art and literature are deep bountiful. The deep we dive into this world, the more we realize their immortality perennial character. They can never be wiped out from the face of the earth.

V. Extra questions: (unsolved)

1. How is the world of nature different from that of men? 2. List some beautiful things that give us eternal joy.

151

A Roadside Stand -Robert Frost

Gist of the poem: Road side stands are crude constructions by the road side, selling petty things to the commuters. The poet speaks of a shed which was constructed by the road side, as an extension of an old house. It stood beside a road on which traffic sped at great speed. The seller, sitting in the road side stand expected some sympathy from the traffic. He did not beg for a loaf of bread, but for some hard cash, which could support his poor life. The traffic sped with a single minded focus on some destination which lay ahead. The traffic never stopped to express any interest in the items displayed for sale. At times a vehicle would stop at the road side stand and the prospective customer would only express disgust at the way the sign boards mar the beauty of the countryside. The stand offered wild berries and golden squash for sale. At times the commuters behave in a mean manner to the sellers. The sellers say that they dont like to promote their business at the cost of humiliation. They explain that they have set up their stand at a convenient distance from the city. They expect only to get some cash which would expand their lives and enable them to aspire the phenomenal life depicted in films. A piece of news claims that these people are expected to be rehabilitated. They are to be accommodated near to the theatre and the store in the city. The rehabilitators claim that these poor do not have to think for themselves any more. The industrial routine will teach them to sleep all day and destroy their sleep all night. The poet experiences tremendous pain, looking at the awesome expectation of the sellers. They sit at their window, looking out with expectant

152

air for some prospective customers. At times a car would stop only to enquire what the prices of the things are. Another would stop to turn his car around or to ask for direction. Sometimes, a stray traveler would stop to ask for a gallon of fuel. The poet wishes that he could put this entire poor out of pain with one stroke. The plight of the poor puts the poet out of ease. He prays that when his mind comes round, we would help him to ease his pain. Read the following lines and answer the questions that follow:

I.

The little old house was out with a little shed In front at the edge of the road where the traffic sped. ..sinking and withering faint.

1. Where was the shed put up and for what purpose? 2. Prove that the sellers were men of self respect. 3. What are money and cities compared to? Answers:

1. The stand was put up as an extension of a house, by the highway. The seller intended to earn some money. 2. The sellers did not demand charities. They asked the travelers to give them some hard cash in return for their produce. 3. Money is compared to the sap that flows through plants and cities are compared to flowers. II. Swarm over their lives enforcing benefits That are calculated to soothe them out of their wits

153

..sleeping at night the ancient way.

1. What will swarm over whom and why? 2. How did the greedy good-doers plan to exploit the poor people? 3. Why wont the poor people have to think about themselves any more? Answers:

1. The greedy good-doers would entice the poor to sell their lands with empty promises. 2. The greedy good-doers wanted to encroach into the material and emotional privacy of the poor and settle them in crowded unhealthy places. 3. The sponsors promise abundantly and vouchsafe to take care of all their needs. These are mere snares to lure them into danger.

III.

Exercise: (unsolved)

To put these people at one stroke out of their pain. out of my pain.

1. How did the poet plan to remove the pain of the village people? 2. The poem ends on a pessimistic note. Do you agree? If so why?

IV.

Short answer type questions: (30-40 words)

154

1. What did the poor folk offer for sale? Did the city dwellers stop to buy them? The poor people offered wild berries and golden squash, but the city men were not fascinated. 2. What did the greedy good-doers plan to do to the poor people? The greedy good-doers planned to cheat the poor of their lands and fling them into unhygienic and congested territory. They would brainwash them and deprive them of their clean habits.

V.

Extra questions: (unsolved)

1. What was the aspiration of the poor people? 2. How can the pain of the poet be put an end to?

Aunt Jennifers Tigers Adrienne -rich

Gist of the poem: The poet speaks of an old woman named Aunt Jennifer. Aunt Jennifer has curtains in her room, featuring exotic pictures. Etched on them are tigers, leaping through deep green forests. They look fearless and proud. Aunt Jennifer is doing some knitting job, moving her fingers through the wool. In stark contrast to the power of the tigers, she experiences weakness in her fingers and finds it

155

difficult to pull the knitting needle. The reason for the heaviness in her fingers is the weight of her uncles wedding band which she still wears on her hand. The poet concludes that even the corpse of Aunt Jennifer, will continue to wear the symbolic objects, like the wedding ring, connected with her marriage. They will continue to exert authority and influence over Aunt Jennifer. Even death cannot release Aunt Jennifer from her bondage. On the contrary, the tigers which she created on the panel, will continue to move swiftly-proud and fearless even after Aunt Jennifers death.

Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow:

I.

Aunt Jennifers tigers prance across a screen, Bright topaz denizens of a world of green. They do not fear the men beneath the tree They pace in sleek chivalric certainty.

1.How are Aunt Jennifers tigers described? What are they? 2. Why are the tigers called denizens of a world of green? 3. What do Aunt Jennifers tigers represent?

Answers: 1. Aunt Jennifers prancing tigers are talked of as denizens of a green world. They are extremely agile and shine like topaz. They are ignorant of fear and pace with purpose. The tigers the poet refers to, are pictures of tigers created on a curtain. 2. The natural habitat of tigers is the thick, green forests.

156

3. The tigers represent freedom which everyone longs for. Aunt Jennifer represents the marital constraints which most women undergo. The tigers also stand for male chauvinism. II. When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid.

1. Why are the hands talked of as terrified? What figure of speech has been used? 2. Do you think that marriage was an ordeal for Aunt Jennifer? Elaborate. 3. How does the poet contrast Aunt Jennifer with the tigers?

Answers: 1.The poet wishes to signify that Aunt Jennifer was an enslaved housewife. He uses the figure of speech transferred epithetwhere terrified hands in actuality stand for a terrified Aunt Jennifer. 2.The poet talks of Aunt Jennifer as a terrified house wife. The poet says that she was subjected to ordeals, to which she willingly succumbed. Even death cannot release her from her serfdom. She seems to be in a stunned calmness, even when she lies in her death. 3.Aunt Jennifer was a terrified lady throughout her conjugal life. Even in death she seems to be in a terrific meditation. On the contrary, tigers are swift, brave and carefree. They are also permanent, while Aunt Jennifer is temporal.

III.

Exercise: (unsolved)

157

Aunt Jennifers fingers fluttering through her wool Find even the ivory needle hard to pull. The massive weight of Uncles wedding band Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifers hand.

1.Why does Aunt Jennifer find the task of pulling the ivory needle very hard? 2.Why is the wedding band referred to as massive? 3.What kind of a person was Aunt Jennifer?

IV.

Short answer type questions: (30-40 words)

1.What is the embroidery created by Aunt Jennifer symbolic of? Aunt Jennifer is a terrified and submissive lady. She finds substitutes for her life of terror by creating things opposite to her character. She releases her free spirit by embodying the courage she lacks, on to the tigers. The embroidered tigers on the screen are symbolic of courage and freedom. 2.What is the theme of the poem? The theme of the poem is the notorious gender conflict. It is a criticism of male chauvinism. It also brings out the concealed, suppressed and vibrant inner life of Aunt Jennifer, which finds expression in the creation of tigers.

V.

Extra questions: (unsolved )

1. Draw a sketch of Aunt Jennifer. 2. The poem is not only a criticism of the gender struggle, but also a revelation of the vibrant inner life of Aunt Jennifer. Comment.

158

159

COMMON LITERARY DEVICES USED IN POETRY


1. SIMILE It is a literary device used to bring out literary effect by comparing two things using the words as, like or so.

Example: Her face ashen like that of a corpse (My Mother at Sixty-six)

2. METAPHOR It is a literary device in which the comparison is implied, and comparison is made without using words as or like.

Example: The paper seeming boy, with rats eyes. (An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum)

3. CONTRAST It is a literary device used to bring out literary effect by speaking of the differences between two things.

Example: A narrow street sealed in with a lead sky Far far from rivers, capes and stars of words. (An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum)

160

Narrow street and lead sky are contrasted with rivers, capes and stars of words.

4. IMAGERY It is a mental picture, created by using suitable words.

Example: The merry children spilling out of their homes (My Mother at Sixty six)

It creates a mental picture of happy children rushing out of their houses.

5. SYMBOLISM It is a person, object or event representing a more general quality or situation. It establishes a general association between two things.

Example: The tiger in Aunt Jennifers Tiger is a symbol. The general qualities associated with a tiger are courage and power.

6. PERSONIFICATION It is a literary device, in which an inanimate object is spoken of as having life.

Example: And such are daffodils and the green world they live in. (A Thing of Beauty)

161

Usually animals or human beings are spoken of as living. Here the word live is associated with daffodils.

7. TRANSFERRED EPITHET It is a literary device used to highlight a thing, associating the adjective or adjectival phrase with a part of the thing than the general thing.

Example: Of all the thousand selfish cars that pass. Here the adjective selfish is meant to refer to the drivers of the car. However, instead of drivers, the poet used the adjective in connection with the car. (A Roadside Stand)

162

FLAMINGO-PROSE

1.

THE LAST LESSON


-Alphonse Daudet

MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON :


1. France was defeated by Prussia during the Franco Prussian war in the year 1870. 2. Two French districts of Alsace and Lorraine passed into Prussian hands. 3. Order came from Berlin to teach only German language in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. 4. The present master M. Hamel who had been teaching in the school of Alsace delivered his last lesson. 5. The narrator, Franz, was very late for school that morning. 6. He was afraid of being scolded, Moreover he had not learnt his lesson on participles. 7. He was tempted to play truant from school but finally decided to go to school. 8. On arriving at school he was met with an unusual silence like Sunday morning. 9. The whole school looked strange and solemn, Mr. Hamel wore his best dress which he donned only on special occasions.

163

10.The village elders were seated on the usually empty backbenches. Old Hauser, the former mayor, the former postmaster and several others were present. 11.Mr. Hamel made a startling announcement that it was the last lesson he would give them. 12.From the following day only German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new master would come the next day. 13.Franz could not say the rule for participles and stood silent. however, Mr. Hamel did not scold him. 14.Franz understood the lesson that day and found French very easy for the first time. 15.Mr. Hamel told all present that French was the most beautiful language in the world, the clearest and the most logical. He asked them to guard it among them and never forget it. 16.They had lesson in grammar, writing and in History. 17.At the stroke of twelve Mr. Hamel dismissed the school. Before that he wrote on the black-board "Vive La France1" Long live France.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-SOLVED (30-40 WORDS.)


Q 1. Why according to you, was little Franz afraid of being scolded? Ans. Franz was afraid of being scolded that day because he had not

164

prepared his lesson on participles which Mr. Hamel was going to test that day. Secondly, he had reached the school very late that morning.

Q 2. What three things in school surprised Franz the most that day? Ans. Franz was surprised to note that the school was unusually calm and quiet as Sunday morning. Mr. Hamel wore his beautiful occasional dress and thirdly the village elders sat quietly like school children on the back benches that usually remained empty. Q 3. What used to be the usual scene at Franz's school? Ans. Usually, when the school began, there would be great hustle and bustle, opening and closing of desks, lessons repeated loudly in unison, teacher's ruler rapping on the table. The noise could be heard even out in the street. Q 4. How was the learning of the boys like Franz neglected in Alsace? Ans. The people of Alsace would put off learning till tomorrow. Parents put their children to work on a farm or at mills in order to have more money. Mr. Hamel got his flowers watered or gave them a holiday. Q 5. Those who were in class, suddenly realised the importance of French language. Why did this happen? Ans. Mr. Hamel called French language as the most beautiful, the most logical and the clearest language in the world. He said that

165

their language was the key to their prison. Then the people realised the importance of French language.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-UNSOLVED. 30-40 WORDS.


Franz was very late for school that morning. What was he tempted to do on being late?

Q 6. Why were even the villagers present in the school room on the last lesson morning? Q 7. What was put up on the town hall bulletin board on the morning of 'The Last lesson'? Q 8. How did the opinion of Franz about his teacher change?

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-SOLVED ABOUT 125 WORDS.


What in your opinion, is the main theme of the story 'The Last Lesson'? Do you think it has a universal appeal? Ans. The main theme of the story is linguistic chauvinism of the proud conquerors who show an excessive or prejudiced support for their own language. It also shows the pain that is inflicted on the people of a territory conquered by them by taking away the right to study or speak their own language and make them prisoners in their own land of birth. The story also highlights the

166

attitudes of the students and teachers to learning and teaching. The story theme has a universal appeal even though the story is located in a particular village of Alsace in France which had passed into Prussian hands. Taking away mother tongue from the people is the harshest punishment.

TWO LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS)


Q 1. Describe the feelings, emotions and behaviour of Mr. Hamel on the day of 'Last Lesson'. Ans. Mr. Hamel in the dress for ceremonial occasions. Talked of the French language as a proud French man. (iii) grammar, (iv) Explained everything with great patience writing, lesson in History. Sat motionless in the chair fixing

everything around in his mind. (v) Thought of leaving next day made him

sad, chocked, his voice became emotional. (vi) France!" (vii) leaning sadly against the wall dismissed Mustered courage and wrote "Viva La

the Class with a gesture.

Q 2. What Order had come from Berlin that day? How did it effect the life at school?

167

Ans.

(i)

The order was - only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.

(ii) (iii)

Had far reaching effect on the life at school. Mr. Hamel teaching French for the last forty years would deliver his last lesson that day.

(iv) (v)

The teacher dressed in his best clothes. Old villagers quietly sitting at the back of class room.

(vi)

Everybody in class realised the importance of French language.

(vii) Mr. Hamel solemn and used gentle tone. (viii) Those present in class very attentive and eager to learn. (ix) (x) Mr. Hamel's appeal to preserve French language. Mr. Hamel overwhelmed with emotions in the end.

168

2.LOST SPRING
-Anees Jung

(STORIES OF STOLEN CHILDHOOD)


PART I-SOMETIMES I FIND A RUPEE IN THE GARBAGE.
1. Saheb a rag picker searches for gold in the garbage-nothing else to do. 2. Came to Seemapuri in 1971 from Dhaka, Bangladesh as their homes and green fields were swept away in storms. 3. Barefoot Army of boys roaming in streets every morning, seen by the writer. 4. Staying barefoot not a tradition but the outcome of perpetual poverty. 5. Seemapuri, colony of rag pickers, on the periphery of Delhi, but still in wilderness. 6. Food more important than identity for survival. 7. Garbage to them is gold- they get their daily bread, and a roof though broken. 8. Saheb works at a tea stall for Rs. 800/- but not his own master. Part II - "I want to Drive a Car." Mukesh wishes to be a motor mechanic. Dreams a mirage in Firozabad. Firozabad - famous for bangle making, generations engaged in the job.

169

People unaware of the law, subdued, suppressed and exploited. Living conditions miserable poverty stricken, unhygienic

surroundings. People suffer health hazards and attribute to destiny. Boys, girls of all ages along with parents engaged in bangle making. Poverty kills initiative and the ability to dream. The vicious circle of middle men, sahukars, police and politicians is their world. Children not allowed freedom of occupation. Mukesh dreams and determines to become a motor mechanic.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-SOLVED 30-40 WORDS. Who was Saheb? What did he do for a living?
Ans. Saheb was a rag picker of Seemapuri and had migrated from Bangladesh in 1971. Besides rag-picking, he used to look for gold in the garbage dumps of the big city for a living.

What did living in Seemapuri actually mean?


Ans. Living in Seemapuri meant being subjected to extreme poverty. People had lived there for thirty years without an identity, without permit, only concentrating on the matter of food.

170

What does Anees Jung attempt to bring out in her story 'Lost Spring'?
Ans. Anees Jung wants to show the grinding poverty, traditions and circumstances which compel and condemn the children to a life full of misery and exploitation.

What is illegal that none of the bangle makers of Firozabad know?


Ans. The bangle makers do not know that employing children in bangle-making is illegal. If the law is enforced strictly 20,000 children will be released from working at hot furnaces with high temperatures.

Why do the bangle-makers fail to organise themselves into a co-operative?


Ans. The young bangle-makers have fallen into the vicious traps of middlemen. They are afraid of the police. Moreover, there is no leader among them to help them see things differently. Even their fathers at home are tired.

171

Unsolved Questions-Short Ans. Type (30-40 words.) Questions for practice. What was Saheb's full name? What is ironical about it? Anees Jung says 'Saheb is no longer his own master? What does she mean? 'Seemapuri is on the periphery of Delhi yet miles away from it metaphorically'. What does the writer mean by this? Which two distinct worlds of the bangle makers does Anees Jung see? 'His dreams loom like a mirage'. Whose dreams are being referred here and why are they compared to a mirage?

172

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (ABOUT 125 WORDS) Comment on the hardships of the bangle makers of Firozabad with special emphasis on the forces that conspire against them and obstruct their progress.
Ans. Life and poverty are synonymous for the bangle makers of Firozabad. For generations these people have been engaged in this trade working around hot furnaces with high temperatures. In spite of hard labour throughout the day, some of them have to sleep with empty and aching stomachs Poverty and hunger, social customs and traditions stigma of caste and the intrigues of powerful lobby that thrive on their labours combine to keep them poor, uneducated and hungry. The money lenders, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of law, the bureaucrats and the politicians all are responsible for their abject poverty. They fail to organise themselves into cooperative due to lack of a leader. They can talk but not act to improve their lot.

173

TWO LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS) 'Saheb is no longer his own master Mukesh insists on being his own master'. Discuss with reference to 'Lost Spring'.
Ans. (i) (ii) (iii) Saheb a young rag-picker from Seemapuri. looking for gold in garbage dumps for survival Roams the streets with his friends an army of barefoot soldiers. (iv) (v) Poor, hungry but free like morning birds. Gets a job at a tea stall and has a regular income food no problem.. (vi) But no longer his own master. lost the carefree look.

(vii) Works for longer hours - exploitation makes him sad. (viii) Muksh, son of poor bangle maker of Firozabad. (ix) (x) (xi) No school education due to poverty. Dreams of being a motor mechanic. Wants to drive a car. on being his own master in-spite of

(xii) Insists

unfavourable conditions.

Q 2. Describe the plight of child workers of Firozabad, who are exposed to the worst health hazards.
Ans. (i) Firozabad - bangle making town.

174

(ii)

Besides the grown ups, over 20,000 children illegally engaged in bangle making.

(iii) (iv)

No body cares for the law in Firozabad. Employment of children in glass and bangle industry continuous unabated.

(v)

Children working in exceptionally high temperatures in dingy dark rooms.

(vi) (vii)

Eyes adjusted more to dark than the light outside. Many losing eyesight before becoming adults.

(viii) Mind numbing toil killing all dreams and hopes of child workers.

175

3.DEEP WATER III


-William Douglas

MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON :


1. William Douglas talks about his fear of water and how be overcomes it. 2. 3. He decides to learn swimming. Terror and hatred for swimming past childhood experience

at the beach of California, accounts of drowning from mother. 4. Opportunity at Y.M.C.A. pool safe, shallow with a gradual

drop. 5. Paddled comfortably in the pool with the assistance of

water wings gained confidence. 6. One day, however, faced misadventure thrown by a strong

boy into deep water of the pool. 7. Nightmarish experience went down to the bottom,

frightened but not out of wits. 8. 9. Made three vain attempts to rise to the surface the pool. Panicked, felt suffocated, could not cry.

10.Fear immobilized him, limbs deaden and unresponsive, finally fainted. 11.Blackness around, no terror, no fear, no-panic. 12.Revived found himself lying on stomach vomitting. 13.Avoided water for many years thereafter.

176

14.Again wanted to swim-haunting fear prevented him from fishing, canoeing. 15. Engaged an instructor to learn to swim. 16. Piece by piece Douglas was made a swimmer. 17. Swam across lakes and islands to ensure terror had left. 18. Douglas conquered his fear of water. 19. 'Will to live' is stronger than fear of death. 20. The narrative - a saga of courage, grit, patience and determination.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-SOLVED 30-40 WORDS. Why did Douglas decide to learn swimming in the Y.M.C.A. Pool?
Ans. The Y.M.C.A. Pool was safe. It was only two to three feet deep at the shallow end and nine feet deep at the other. Moreover, the drop was gradual. So he decided to learn swimming in the Y.M.C.A. pool.

Q 1. 'I had an aversion to the water when I was in it', says Douglas. Why did he have an aversion to the water?
Ans. At the age of three or four years Douglas Had visited the beach in California along with his father. he had held his father tightly, even then the waves knocked him down and swept over him. He was buried in water and was breathless. He was terrified and

177

since then had an aversion to the water.

Q 2. What was the misadventure that happened with Douglas?.


Ans. Douglas reached the pool early one day and was waiting for the others. A big, stout boy came there and tossed Douglas in the water and he began to drown.

Q 3. What made Douglas feel under water, that he was alive?


Ans. Douglas felt paralysed under water, even the screams in his throat were frozen. Only his heart and the pounding in head made him realise that he was still alive.

Q 4. What valuable lesson did Douglas learn from his terrifying experience in the pool water.?
Ans. Douglas learnt that there is terror only in one thing that is fear of Death. All we have to fear is fear itself. Will to live is greater Than fear of Death.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-UNSOLVED 30-40 WORDS.

178

What does Douglas mean to say by the words 'piece by piece, he built a swimmer'? What did Douglas do to conquer the residual doubts about his fear of water? The instructor was finished. But I was not finished? What does this refer to? Explain briefly. Describe the series of emotions that Douglas experienced while engulfed in the mass of yellow water. How did Douglas feel when all efforts ceased?

179

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (ABOUT 125 WORDS)

Describe how the instructor made a swimmer of William Douglas?


Ans. The fear of water had become a handicap to Douglas. In order to overcome this fear of water he engaged a trainer to learn swimming. For the first five days he made him go across the pool an hour a day with the help of a rope attached to his belt. The trainer held on to the other end of the rope. Then he taught him to exhale under water and inhale through raised nose. he made him kick his legs to make them relax. Then he asked him to swim. Finally he could command his legs. Thus piece by piece he made a swimmer of William Douglas.

TWO LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY) How did Douglas conquer the fear of water?
Ans. (i) (ii) Douglas faced misadventure, terror set in. Tried to over come fear.

(iii) Engaged an instructor. (iv) Initially took help of ropes water wings, later left them. (v) Went fishing canoeing etc.

(vi) Frowned at terror, everytime it came. (vii) Went all alone to Conrad Meadow.

180

(viii) Swam in Warm lakeshore and back.

When did Douglas start fearing water?


Ans. (ix) The water waves knocked down young Douglas and swept over him at Californian beach. (x) years. (xi) Clung to his father, breath was gone, father laughed. (xii) Douglas terrified at the overpowering force of water. (xiii) His introduction to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool. (xiv) Misadventure at the pool. (xv) Thrown at the nine feet deep end of the pool by big boy. (xvi) His efforts to rise to the surface failed. (xvii) Rescued in time. (xviii) This experience further strengthened the hold Douglas filled with fear age- three or four

of fear on his mind.

181

4-THE RATTRAP
-Selma Lagerlob

MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON :


1. A man went around selling small, wire rattraps. 2. Not profitable so started begging and stealing. 3. Dressed shabbily, hungry, given to meditation on his slow walks. 4. One day struck with an idea - The whole world a big rattrap. 5. Amused by the thought of people trapped circling around the bait. 6. One might the rattrap peddler sought shelter in old crofter's roadside cottage. 7. Entertained by the crofter with card game and supper. 8. Next morning, crofter was away, peddler came and stole his money. 9. Peddler escaped into the forest rattrap, heard sound, followed and reached Ramsjo iron mill in the darkness of night. 10.Permitted for the night stay in the mill. 11.The rich owner of the mill on his routine round to the forge, noticed the ragged man, mistook him to be Niles, his old acquaintance. 12.In expectation of money, the peddler did not clear his mistaken identity.

182

13.Refused iron master's invitation to his manor house. 14.Could not refuse iron master's daughter, reached the manor house as the captain Von Stahle on Christmas Eve. 15.Iron master satisfied to have an old acquaintance. 16.When peddler clean shaven, well dressed looked different, iron master realised his mistake. 17.Thought of calling the sheriff. Then ordered the peddler to get out at once. 18.Daughter pleaded to allow the peddler stay and enjoy the festival time. 19.Christmas eve passed, the peddler ate food and slept the time out. 20.Next morning the news of a rattrap seller robbing old crofter reached the father and daughter. 21.Returned from the church sad and worried. 22.Valet informed stranger left, leaving behind Christmas gift for Edla Williamson'. 23.A small rattrap with thirty kronors for the crofter. 24.Nice treatment returned with equally nice behaviour.

183

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS-SOLVED 30-40 WORDS.


How did the rattrap seller manage to survive?
Ans. He made rattraps of wire and went around selling them. Since the business was not much profitable, he would beg or steal in order to survive.

Q 1. How did the peddler repay the kindness and hospitality of the roadside owner?
Ans. The peddler left the cottage but returned again, broke the window pane and stole the thirty kroners from the pouch hung there.

Q 2. Why could the peddler not come out of the forest?


Ans. The forest was big and confusing. The paths turned back and forth. He realised that he had been walking around in the same part of the forest.

Q 3. Why did the peddler decline the invitation of the iron master?
Ans. The iron master mistook the peddler to be an old acquaintance. The peddler did not want to clear his identity in expectation of money. He realised going to the manor house would be inviting danger.

Q 4. What hospitality did the peddler enjoy at the manor house?


Ans. The peddler was bathed, shaved, cleaned, dressed in a good looking suit, was supplied whole shoes. He was served meals and allowed to share Christmas festivities.

184

Short Ans. Type Questions-Unsolved. Word limit 30-40 words. What thought took hold of the tramp's fancy? What was the ambition of the Ramsjo iron mill owner? what did he do to achieve it? What was the sentiment expressed by the tramp in the letter that he left for Edla? Why did he sign himself Captain Von Stahle? LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (ABOUT 125 WORDS) SOLVED.

The story 'The Rattrap', explores the idea that human beings possess the innate tendency to redeem themselves from their dishonest ways if motivated. Discuss.
Ans. The inherent goodness can be aroused by love compassion and understanding as in the case of the rattrap seller, who made his living by stealing, thieving and begging. Once he happened to stay at night in a crofter's cottage who was very nice and hospitable to him but he stole the crofter's money and escaped into the forest. He somehow reached the iron mill, where the iron master mistook him for an old acquaintance and asked his daughter to bring the peddler home. She took great pains, looked after the peddler, fed him well and was kind to him. She gave him a suit and invited him for the Christmas next. All this gave rise to the virtues and humaneness innate in him and also helped him to redeem himself from his dishonest ways of stealing and begging.

185

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY)

1. Bring out the contrast in the attitude and behaviour of the ironmaster towards the stranger before and after he realises his mistakes. a. Ironmaster moved to see his old regimental comrade in a pitiable state. b. Insists that the old comrade should go home with him c. The stranger declines the invitation. d. The ironmaster sends his daughter Edla, with a big fur coat to persuade him . e. Just before breakfast the ironmaster thinks of feeding him well and providing him some honourable job. f. Iron masters behaviour takes a U - turn seeing the wellgroomed stranger. g. He expresses his displeasure on realising his own mistake and demands explanation from the peddler. h. Peddler defends himself well. i. Ironmaster call him dishonest and threatens to call the sheriff. j. Finally asks the peddler to quit at once.

2. How did the rattrap seller amuse himself with the thought that the word is a big rattrap? Nursed the idea that the word is a big rattrap.

186

Amused by the idea that its riches and joys. shetter and food heat and clothing acted as bait used in the rattrap. Enjoyed thinking of people getting trapped or those circling around the bait. Stole crofters money and fell into the forest trap. Later reached the ironmaster's house to be trapped by the sheriff. Finally came out of the trap due to sympathy understanding and love of the ironmaster's daughter.

5-INDIGO
-Louis Fischer

MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON :


1. Author Louis Fischer visits Gandhi at Sevagram. 2. Mahatma Gandhi at national congress convention. 3. Raj Kumar Shukla a poor peasant wanted Gandhi to visit Champaran. 4. Gandhi went to attend meetings at Cawnpore and other parts in India. 5. Shukla accompanied him everywhere begging him to fix a date for Champaran. 6. Finally both reached Patna by train . 7. Welcomed by J.B. Kriplani at Muzzafarpur. 8. Briefed by Malkani and other lawyers.

187

9. Sharecroppers to plant indigo on 15 percent of the holding for rent. 10. Gandhi contacted the lieutenant governor. 11. Self reliance and courage taught the common men. 12. Gandhi got summons to appear in the court. 13. Demonstration of thousands of peasants around courthouse. 14. British officials called Gandhi for help. 15. Gandhi's trial postponed decision withheld for several days. 16. Gandhi protested against delay. 17. Took up humanitarian and national service. 18. Lieutenant Governor ordered to drop the case 19. An official commission was appointed to inquire in to the indigo sharecropper's situation. 20. 25 percent money was refunded by the British planters and estate were abandoned. 21. Upliftmentment of Champaran sanitation of the community. 22. March to cleanliness. 23. Peasants freed from oppression of officials. villagers - schools health and

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS) SOLVED


Q.1 Who was Raj kaumar Shukla ? why did he went to meet Gandhi? Ans:- Rajkumar shukla was a poor peasant from Champaran he wanted to meet Gandhi to complain about the injustice of the land lords in Bihar he wanted Gandhi's help.

188

Q.2 Why did Gandhi decide to go to Muzzafarpur before going to Champaran? What sort of reception did he get there and why was it unusual? Ans:- Gandhi decided to go to Muzzafarpur to obtain more and complete information about the peasants conditions than Shukla was capable of imparting he was given a warm and grand reception. The unusual thing was that a government professor harboured him in his house.

Q.3 Why had the sharecropper peasants to pay compensation? Ans:- British landlords were interested in synthetic indigo to get more profit .they asked the peasants to pay compensation for being freed from the 15 present long term contract made earlier

Q.4 What made the British realize that the Indians could challenge their might hitherto unquestioned? Ans :-Gandhi was summoned to appear in the court at Motihari. Thousands of peasants crowded around the courthouse in spontaneous demonstration Gandhi helped the officials to regulate the crowd. The British then realised the Indians could challenge their might hitherto unquestioned.

189

Q.5 How did Gandhi teach his followers a lesson in self-reliance. Ans:- During Champaran action Gandhi 's lawyer friends wanted C.F. Andrews to help them. Gandhi opposed the Idea and motivated them to rely upon themselves to win their unequal fight instead of showing the weakness of their heart.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED) 30-40 WORD

Why did Gandhi chide the lawyers who represented the interests of sharecroppers of Champaran? Why did the prominent lawyers who had come primarily to advise Gandhi change their agenda? How did 'civil Disobedience triumph, the first time in modern India?

Long Ans. type questions (125 words) solved. Q 1. "Indigo sharecropping disappeared". Which factors helped to achieve freedom for the fear-stricken peasants of Champaran?

190

Ans. Gandhi visited Champaran on receiving reports of exploitation of poor sharecroppers at the hands of British planters. He began by trying to get the facts. British landlords as well as commissioner of Tirhut were non- cooperative. Gandhi and his lawyer friends collected depositions by about ten thousand peasants. Notes were made on other evidence. Documents were collected. After four protected interview with the lieutenant governor an official commission of inquiry was appointed to look into sharecroppers situation. The huge quantity of evidence went against the planters. Finally, a settlement of 25 percent refund to the farmers was agreed on. Peasants recognised their rights and learned courage. Within a few years the British planters gave up their estates. Thus indigo sharecropping disappeared.

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY)


Q 1. Ans. 1. Made appeal to teachers. 2. Primary schools opened. 3. Got a doctor to improve health conditions. 4. Kept watch on Ashram's financial accounts. 5. Tough self-reliance and freedom from fear. 6. Paved Indian mind for an independent India. What steps were taken by Gandhi to solve the problem of social and cultural backwardness in the Champaran village?

191

7. Peasants were taught ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation.

Q 2. Ans.

Describe the sharecropping system in Chamapran.

1. Big indigo estates in Champaran. 2. Owned by British planters and worked by Indian tenants. 3. Tenant peasants had to grow indigo on 15 percent of the land by an old long-term agreement. 4. Entire product used as rent by landlords. 5. System irked the peasants who were helpless. 6. Later synthetic indigo reduced the price of natural indigo. 7. British planters forced Indian peasants to give compensation for release from long-term contract, opposed by peasants. 8. Long struggle under Gandhi's leadership. 9. With British planters returning 25 percents compensation and their leaving the estates, sharecropping system comes to an end.

192

6-POETS AND PANCAKES


-Asoka Mitran MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON: 1. Gemini studio founded by S.S. Vasan, the most influential film producing organization in the early day of film making 2. Truck loads of pancakes bought for use at Gemini studio . 3. Group of nationally integrated make-up men. 4. Make-up department worked in hierarchy, the chief, the senior assistant and the junior. 5. The author Asokamitran stored newspaper cutting in files. 6. Subbu - the no.2 at Gemini studios 7. Subbu -a cheerful character - gave directions composed poems wrote novels performed subsidiary roles had genuine love for others and also close to the boss but on roll in the story department 8. An extremely talented actress flew over the sets her career ended. 9. Story department closed as lawyer's film 10.Gemini studies - favourite haunt of poets and visitors. 11.Trunk Bushman's Re-armament Army consisting of 200 members of different nations. 12.Presentation of two plays - 'Jotham Valley' and 'The Forgotten Factor' - important, impressive features - showing sunrise, sunset with a white background curtain. 13.Stephen spender, an editor and poet visited Gemini studies. 14.Audience dispersed in bafflement failing to understand the visitor. 15.Author out of Gemini studies - picked up 'The God that failed' for fifty Paise.

193

16.Book written by six eminent writers.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS ) SOLVED Why was Gemini studies a place of national integration in India ? Ans. There were people from various communities. First, the make up department was headed by a Bengali, then a Maharashtrian . He was assisted by a Dharwar Kannadiga, an Andhra, a Madras Indian Christian an Anglo Burmese and the local Tamils.

Why does Asokamitran call Subbu " a Charitable and improvident man"? Ans. Subbu had genuine love for anyone he came across. His house was permanent residene for dozens of relations and acquaintances. hence the writer calls him charitable and improvident. How did the people of Madras and members of Gemini studios respond to the plays staged by moral Rearmament Army? Ans. People were terribly impressed. The two plays 'Jotham valley' and 'The forgotten Factor' ran several shows. For some time to come almost all Tamil plays presented the scene of sunrise and sunset in the manner as shown in the plays. What does the lesson convey about the literary taste of the staff of Gemini studios as for as English poetry was concerned? Ans. The staff at Gemini studios was quite simple. the only English poets known to them were words-worth and Tennyson. The more literate ones knew of Keats, Shelley and Byron. Very few knew about Eliot. Why was Gemini studios a favourite haunt of the poets? Ans. Gemini studios had an excellent mess which supplied coffee whole day long and most of the night. It provided satisfying entertainment required for poetry where everyone enjoyed and praised Gandhi over a cup of coffee.

194

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORD ) UNSOLVED


What was the fiery misery of those subjected to makeup? Why were all the people of Gemini studios against communism? How was the mystery of the English visitor to the studio solved?

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY)

Subbu was a many sided genius, who gave definition and direction to the studio in its golden years. Elaborate. Ans. Subbu a man of genius had a separate identity at Gemini studio. He was always cheerful and willing to work for others. He was loyal to the principal and used all his creativity to his advantages. He gave direction and definition to Gemini studio. he composed story poems and novels and carved beautiful characters. He was a highly capable literature writer. He was an amazing character and actor but never aspired for leading roles. Subbu was a charitable and important person. He supported dozens of near and dear ones. He was quite close to the Boss and was taken as No. 2 of the Gemini studio.

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY)


The staff at Gemini studio enjoyed hosting the MRA while the visit of the English poet remained an unexplained mistery. Discuss. Ans. Saff of Gemini studio had nice time hosting MRA MRA presented the plays 'Jotham valley' and 'The Forgotten Factor' Gemini family of six hundred saw the plays over and over again. The first-rate sets and costumers used in the plays were highly appreciated.

195

They were terribly impressed by the manner the plays depicted the scenes of sunrise to sunset. A change from the usual collection of crowd players. Visit of English poet just the opposite. Poet very English, very serious, unknown to the staff of Gemini studio. No body understood what the poet said. Audience dazed and silent by the unfamiliar accent. The audience and the poet both parted in utter bafflement. His visit remained an unexplained mystery. Asokamitran retired from Gemini studios, but retained his taste for literature. How ? Ans. Asokamitran out of Gemini studio with plenty of free time on his hands but no money. Literature attracted him most . Hunted for new books on footpath in front of the post office. Found a pile of books for fifty paisa each - ' The God that faild'. He read the essays printed in the book contributed by six eminent men of letters.

196

7-THE INTERVIEW
-Christopher Silvester

MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON :


Interview - a commonplace of journalism - invented - invented a little over 130 years ago. For some people - interview - a source of truth while for others - an intrusion in their lives. Others feel interview diminishes them. V.S. Naipaul feeds people lose a part of themselves. For Kipling it is immoral, criminal and vile. Despite drawbacks interview is supremely serviceable medium of communication. Brings clearest impressions of our contemporaries. Interviewer holds unprecedented position and influence. Interview extract of Umberto Eco. His books stress on non-violence and peace. His narrative style of writing - a marked departure from regular academic style. Umber to Eco wrote five novels and over 40 scholarly works. Became famous after 'The name of the Rose'. Associated with academic community. 'The Name of the rose' - a serious detective novel - enjoyed a huge audience. 10 to 15 million copies. 'Miami Vice' or 'Emergency Room' on T.V.

197

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS ) SOLVED


How can the importance of interview be justified in modern journalism? Ans. The interview is the most serviceable medium of communication today. It has become a commonplace of journalism. We can know about celebrities through interview. What are some of the positive points about an interview? Ans. It is supremely serviceable medium of communication. It provides a vivid impression of our contemporaries. It equips one with the things related to life and progress. 'Umberto Eco's written output is staggeringly large and wideranging? How? Ans. Umberto Eco is a versatile Genius, a prolific writer. He has written on wide ranging subjects such as literary fiction, academic texts, essays children's books and newspaper articles. He has 5 novels and 40 non-fiction works to his credit. How has Umberto Eco become popular among the general public? Ans. Umberto Eco's novels made him popular among the people in general. Ten to fifteen million copies of the novel 'The Name of the Rose' were sold. Why did the American publisher think that the novel 'The Name of the Rose' Won't sell well in America?

198

Ans.

The novel 'The Name of the Rose' Dealt with a period of

medieval history. The publisher did not expect very good response in America because the Americans knew nothing about cathedral. People were ignorant about the medieval part.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS ) UNSOLVED


1. 2. 3. What does V.S. Naipaul feel about interview? What secret does Umberto Eco point out to What did Umber to Eco mean by empty spaces?

Mukund Padmanabham? How did he make use of them? Long Ans. type questions (points only) What kind of writer is Umberto Eco? What sort of writing does he have to his credit? Ans. Umberto Eco is a versatile writer. He had already acquired formidable reputation as a scholar for his ideas on semiotics literary interpretation and medieval aesthetics before he turned to non fiction writing. He had a narrative style of writing. He has writings like literary fiction, academic texts, essays, children's books, newspaper articles to his credit. He believes in non-violence and peace. He has written five novels and more than forty non-fiction works.

199

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY)


Why do some celebrities despise interview? Are they justified? comment. Ans. 1. Feel unwanted intrusion in their lives. 2. According to Naipaul people are wounded and lose a part of themselves. 3. Lewis Carol is horrified by the name of interviewer. 4. Kipling terms it immoral, criminal. 5. H.G. Wells refers it as an ordeal. 6. To an extent justified - being victims.

200

8-GOING PLACES
-A.R.Barton MAIN POINTS OF THE LESSON : 1. Schoolgirls, Sophie and Jansie returning from school. 2. Sophie wanted to open a boutique but Jansie doubted, as money was required. 3. Sophie thinks to earn money by working as a manager, an actress or a fashion designer. 4. Jansie advises Sophie to be sensible. 5. Sophie - imaginative, wished to go and see unknown places. 6. Told brother Groff - her meeting with Danny Casey - young player. 7. Sophie shared secrets with Geoff. 8. Father chided Sophie but Geoff supported. 9. Family went on their weekly pilgrimage to watch the United. 10.Danny Casey scored the second goal for 2-0 victory. 11.Sophie in high spirits, Geoff happy, father celebrated at pub. 12.Jansie eager to know about Danny Casey, Sophie wanted Jansie to keep it a secret. 13.Sophie walked down the canal waiting for Danny Casey imagined him coming, was excited but there was no one. 14.Sophie dreams an imaginary meeting with Danny Casey - asking for an autograph, remembered his sweet voice, shinny eyes and his tall person.

201

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS ) SOLVED


Why does Jansiewant sopline to sensible? Ans. Jansieknew Sophie's family background and financial position, She knew that both of them were earmarked for the biscuit factory. Sophie's dreams were big and needed a lot of money and experience for their fulfillment. Sophie had neither. So, Sophie asks her to be sensible.

Who was Danny Casey? Why did Sophie talk about him? Ans. Danny Casey was a young Irish player of the first United team. She was infatuated by this sportsman and took him to be her lover and so wanted to date with him. Why was Sophie Jealous of Geoff's silence? Ans. Geoff was grown up and spoke little. Sophie was jealous of him as she wanted to share his secret thoughts. She craved for his affection. Jansie and Sophie, in spite of being friends were poles apart in their approach to life. How? Ans. Jansie and Sophie were poles apart in thinking and temperament. Sophie was an incurable dreamer and escapist. On the other hand Jansie was realistic and practical she knows big things require money and experience money and experience which they didn't have. Why did Sophie not want Jansie to know anything about her meeting with Denny Casey? Ans. Sophie knew that Jansie was 'nosey'. She was very inquisitive by nature. Sophie did not trust Jansie as she could not keep a secret. She could spread the rumour in the whole neighbourhood.

202

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS ) UNSOLVED

1. Did Sophie meet Danny Casey personally? 2. What was her father's reaction to her story as opposed to her brother Geoff's? 3. Why did Sophie go to the canal after dark? Was she really going to meet Danny Casey?

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (100 WORDS) SOLVED

1. What impression do you form of Sophie on reading the Story going places'? Ans. Sophie is like any other teenager having her own dreams and fancies. She is an escapist. She is an escapist. Her ambitions have no relation with the harsh realities of life. She wants to have a boutique, be an actress or a fashion designer. She develops a romantic fascination for Danny Casey who is a young Irish footballer. She indulges in hero worshipping. She becomes sad when Casey does not come. She suffers because of her dreams which are the creations of her own mind.

203

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (POINTS ONLY) FOR ELABORATION :


1. Comment on the social background and the life of the people in 'Going places'. Ans. 1. Helpless, hardworking law abiding, middle class people. 2. Sophie's father and brother work hard at their jobs, mother busy with the house hold chores. 3. Geoff is an apprentice mechanic. His jacket is shapeless. 4. Sophie's father lacks sophistication. 5. There is stove in the same room where dirty washing is piled in a corner. 6. All these indicators confirm their lower middle class family background. 2. Sophie was a dreamer, an escapist. How? Ans Sophie was given to fantasies. 1. Walked by the canal along a shattered path in the late evening. 2. Imagined Casey coming, excited. 3. Watched for him, imagined asking for an autograph. 4. Sad while waiting and knowing he would not come. 5. Inventing explanations to satisfy her family.

204

(VISTAS)
1.THE THIRD LEVEL -Jack Finnery
In "The Third Level" Jack Finney describes how he found himself on the third level at the Grand Central Station. The authorities as well as others swore that there were only two levels at the Grand Central. But the narrator claimed to have been on the third level and seeing the old world charms of 1984. His psychiatrist friend called it "a waking dream wish fulfillment. The third level was a medium of escape for Charley from the harsh realities of modern life. It provided him a base where he could interweave fantasy and reality.

Q. 1

Do you see an intersection of time and space in the story "The Third Level? A free play between fantasy and reality in "The Third Level" makes the story transcend all barriers of time and space. Thus Charley strays into 1894at the third level and then gets back to the 20th century. Sam transports himself to Galesburg, Illinois in 1894 and yet his communication with Charley in the 20th Century brings about a convincing intersection of time and space.

Q. 2

How did the psychiatrist explain Charley's flight to the non-existent "third level'? The psychiatrist explained that Charley couldn't obviously have reached the third level as it didn't exist at all. He was of the view that fear, insecurity, war, worry and the like, made his tensionridden mind work out an escape route for himself. The third level was a creation of his own imagination and waking-dream wish

205

fulfillment i.e. Charley's experience of the third level was a rationalization of his dreams and unfulfilled wishes of the subconscious mind. The flight never took place as the whole episode was a figment of his imagination. Q. 3 'Yes, I've taken the obvious stem. 'Why does Charley term meeting he psychiatrist as an obvious step? The moment Charley talked about his coming across the nonexistent third level, everybody got alarmed and felt that he needed to see a psychiatrist. Under the circumstances, it was plain and clear that he should seek an expert's opinion to rule out any psychiatric problem. Hence he terms it as 'an obvious step.' Q. 4 Why did the psychiatrist's analysis make Louisa lose her temper and how did the psychiatrist appease her? Louisa and Charley were leading a happy married life. So, the wife couldn't tolerate the psychiatrist's observation about Charley being an unhappy man. However, her anger subsided when he moved on to say that he was referring to modern man's unhappiness in general. Q. 5 What was Charley's state of mind as he comes back from the office? Why did he decide to take the subway from the Grand Central Station? Having worked late at the office, Charley was fatigued and bored. He wished to return to his loving wife, Louisa and to the comfort of his home, as fast as possible. The bus would have taken longer to cover the distance, so he decided to take the subway. Q. 6 How did Charley reach the third level? In his hurry to take a train back home, Charlie came to Grand Central from Vanderbilt Avenue and took two flights of stairs to

206

reach the second level from where his train was to leave. He got lost while ducking into an arched doorway, which led to the subway and he found himself into a tunnel. The tunnel took him to another flight of stairs at the end of which he found himself on the third level at Grand Central Station. Q. 7 What does 'the third level' symbolize? Third Level symbolizes man's yearning to delve deeper into the world of imagination as an escape from the world of harsh realities. It stands for his quest for 'the fabulous ordinariness of a bygone age' that was free from the modern razzle-dazzle, sophistication and material comforts but exuded peace and tranquility. Q. 8 What does Grand Central Station symbolize? The Grand Central Station symbolizes the labyrinth that this world is with its intricate and tangled pathways. The network of passages is so complicated that rather than reaching the destination, one keeps on moving up and down all one's life to look for entries and exits. Q. 9 'Now I don't know why this should have happened to me'. Charley wondered why out of the whole tension-ridden world, he alone took a flight to the 'third level'. Why do you think, it happened to him? The level of sensitivity and power of imagination vary from person to person. Caught in the web of monotony, dull routine and fast life, Charley finds it difficult to cope with such a life. So on the wings of imagination; he takes a flight to the non-existent world. Q. 10 What does Charley compare Grand Central Station to? Why? Charley compares Grand Central Station to a tree. Just like a tree grows putting forth new leaves and branches and spreading its roots, Grand Central Station seemed to him to be pushing out new

207

corridors and staircases. The comparison of the numerous doorways, stairs and corridors of the station to the roots of the tree is odd yet quite graphic and convincing. Q. 11 Give a description of the 'third level'? The general layout of the third level was more or less similar to that of the second level. But it had comparatively smaller rooms, fewer ticket windows and train gates. The information booth in the center was wooden and it bore an old look. One could spot a small Currier & Ives locomotive with a funnel-shaped stack on this level. Everyone in the station was dressed like 'eighteen-ninetysomething.' Q. 12 What sort of dresses and appearance did Charley come across on the third level? Charley came across men and women wearing 19th Century dresses. Men supported fancy moustaches, beards and sideburns. Tiny lapels, four-button suits, derby hats and pocket gold watches seemed to be in fashion. Women went about wearing fancy cut sleeves, long skirts with high-buttoned shoes. Thus, at the third level, Charley was puzzled to see people in old fashioned clothes and hair-style. Q. 13 If the third level was just a product of Charley's imagination, why wasn't it rosier than reality? Ordinarily imagination adds colour to reality and makes it look larger than life. However, the non-existent third level was a lackluster place because Charley's imagination took him to the past. Somewhere at the back of his mind there was a yearning for the fabulous ordinariness of the bygone days. He was looking for

208

tranquility and not any razzle-dazzle of the modern world. Hence it lacked rosiness. Q. 14 How did Charley confirm the specific date of the era that he had passed into? On reaching in third level, Charley was quite puzzled to see a strange looking platform and an outdated locomotive. Even the people seemed strange with their old-fashioned hair-styles, clothes and shoes. To do a reality check, he looked at the newspapers on sale at a kiosk and fond a copy of newspaper "The World" carrying a lead story on President Cleveland. Clearly, he had got 'transported' to late 19th century. Later on, he confirmed from the Public Library files that the newspaper was dated 11th June, 1994.
Q. 15 Why did Charley run back from the third level?

When Charley produced the modern currency to pay for the two tickets to Galesburg the ticket clerk accused him of trying to cheat and threatened to hand him over to the police. This made Charley sense trouble and he turned away and got cut of the third level fast, lest he was arrested and jailed. Q. 16 Why could Charley not reach the third level again? Charley could not reach the third level of Grand Central Station because despite his best efforts he failed to locate the tunnel that had taken him to this level earlier. A more rational explanation is that he could never experience the same level of consciousness which had transported him earlier to the third level of Grand Central. Q. 17 What do you understand by a first-day cover? The value of a newly issued stamp increases if it has the postmark of the date of issue on it. Therefore the stamp collectors buy new

209

stamps on the very first day of its sale and paste them on selfaddressed envelopes and post them. These envelopes are called the first day covers. With just a blank paper enclosed inside, they are never opened. Q. 18 Why was Sam attracted towards Galesburg? Sam, who was a typical city boy, was fascinated by Charley's description of Galesburg, Illinois, as a wonderful town with big old frame houses, huge lawns and tremendous trees lining the streets. He was so bogged down by the tension and burden of modern life that he thought of escaping to the 'peaceful world' of Galesburg of 1894 with long summer evenings and an easy going, peaceful life. Q. 19 How did Charley come to know that Same hand found the third level? Charley came across first day cover that he had never seen in his collection earlier. It had his grandfather's Galesburg address and it contained a note written by Sam mentioning that he had found the third level and was in Galesburg since two weeks. This was a solid proof that Sam had found the third level. Q. 20 Sam's letter to Charley from Galesburg showed that he was quite happy there. He had taken a fancy to the quiet, simple and peaceful life there away from the hurry and worry of New York. He liked the way people enjoyed music, dance and socializing. It was a perfect place for his hay feed and grain business. He even invites Charley and Lousia to come over to Galesburg through the 'third level.'
Q. 21 Why did Sam buy eight hundred dollars of old-style currency?

What did he think of this bargain ?

210

What apparently seemed to be a foolish bargain was considered to be very profitable by him as he had sold his materialistic earnings to buy fulfillment of his soul Moreover, eight hundred dollars was enough to start hay, feed and grain business in Galesburg. Q. 22 Why does Charley say, 'he (Sam) certainly can't go back to his old business'? Charley knew that though it was less profitable, the quiet business of hay, feed and grain would given Sam a greater sense of satisfaction. Moreover, being a psychiatrist he had no scope of reverting to his own profession as in 1894 a psychiatrist would be absolutely redundant. By 1894 the science of psychiatry was in its infancy and psychiatrists were relatively unknown. Q. 23 Do you think that the Third Level was a medium of escape for Charley? Why? War, Worry, insecurity and fear keep on gnawing at the modern man's mind all the time. This helplessness and frustration leaves man baffled and at a loss to know how to face life. It is then, that he looks for 'a temporary refuge from reality.' Pursuit of hobbies like stamp-collecting diverts his attention temporarily and gives him some comfort. The fast pace of life, overwork and subconscious apprehensions had made Charley much too uneasy and restless. He yearned for peace, tranquility and serenity. Like many and serenity. Like many others, he too turned to philately but probably, the degree of relief that this hobby provided, was not sufficient to calm him down emotionally. Hence the redoubled efforts of his subconscious mind for escape resulted in his flight to the third level-a level of existence, which he associated with tranquility. His psychiatrist

211

friend, Sam, also diagnosed Charley's claim to have visited the third level, as 'a waking dream wish fulfillment.' Hence, the third level was undoubtedly, medium of escape for Charley. Q. 24 Bring out the contrast between the world the Charley lived in and the one that he strayed into. Charley lived in a world full of insecurity, fear, war and worry-a world where the fast pace of life always left man running a race against time. As a result everybody had in their mind, a desire for escape. The world that he strayed into, on the other hand, lacked in sophistication of the modern world but it was free from the complexities of the modern life Simplicity, Tranquility, peace and serenity pervaded this world. People lived in big old farm houses with sprawling lawns. The streets were lined on both sides with massive trees with their branches forming a canopy. People had ample leisure time and liked to socialize with each other. There was no mad rush and the world was not torn with war. In fact, even the First World War was two decades away. The two worlds of Charley, thus stood in complete contrast with each other.

212

2.THE TIGER KING


-Kalki As soon as the Tiger King was born, astrologers have foretold that one day he would actually have to die. The chief astrologer predicted that the death of the Tiger King would come from a tiger. He must be particularly careful with the hundredth tiger. At the age of twenty the Maharaja started out on a tiger hunt. His tiger hunt was highly successful and he was able to kill ninety-nine tigers. There remained just one more tiger to complete his tally of hundred. On the third birthday of his son, he brought a wooden tiger for his son. While playing with that tiny little wooden tiger, one of the slivers pierced his right hand. Infection flared in his hand he died after an unsuccessful operation. In this way, the hundredth tiger took its final revenge upon the Tiger King.

Q. 25 Who was the Tiger King? Why did he get that name? His Highness jamedar-General, Khiledar-Major, Sata Vyaghra Samhari, Maharajadhiraja Visva Bhuvana Samrat, Sir Jilani Jung Jung Bahadur, M.A.D., A.C.T.C. or C.R.C.K. who is the Maharaja of Pratibanhapuram was better known as the 'Tiger King' because he was crazy about killing tigers and had killed one hundred tigers just to disprove an astrological prediction. Moreover, he was as ferocious as a tiger. Q. 26 Why do you think, the author goes into detailed identification of the Tiger King through a variety of titles? Does he really mean to honour him? Kalki, the author of the story, has no intention of praising the king, Infact, immediately after addressing him with a variety of titles, he

213

brings an anticlimax by telling his readers that his name is 'shortened to the Tiger King'.Here is a perfect example of pathos. Q. 27 Why does the author introduce the supernatural element in the story and makes a child of ten days to speak? The author introduces the supernatural element by making child of ten days to speak to impress upon the reader that the prince is a prodigious child and has extraordinary power. However, the strange ending of the story tells us that the divine dictates must prevail. Q. 28 Why does the ten-day-old prince Jung Jung Bahadur utter the words "Let tiger beware" When the astrologers predicted that death would come to the new born future king of Pratibandapuram through a tiger, the new-born prince growled, "Let tigers beware!". What he meant to say was that he would not be afraid of tigers. Instead tigers would be afraid of him when he grew up for he would wipe them out to disprove the astrologer's prediction. Indeed when he comes of age he does wreak havoc on the tiger population of his own kingdom and that of his father-in-law. Q. 29 Do you think the author of the story "The Tiger King" has faith in astrology? Give reasons in support of your answer. The State astrologer believes that '' the hour of the bull. Taurus, the sign under which the prince is born and Tiger (Leo) are enimical towards each other. So the prince should beware of tigers. The king's death through a tiger shows that Kalki believes in astrology. Q. 30 What is the significance of child's utterance "Let tigers bewared"? Do you find some oddity here?

214

The statement "Let tigers beware!" becomes significant because when the prince grows up he really becomes a terror for tigers and in a short span of about fifteen years kills ninety-nine of them. The oddity lies in the fact that a child barely ten days old speaks these words. Q. 31 What is the underlying idea behind the author's detailed description of the bringing up of the Tiger King? The princes during the pre-partition days almost all over India were brought up on purely English lines because the Britishers wielded a great deal of influence on the functioning of the princely states and they wanted to impress upon them that only things belonging to the English are the best and worth emulating. The author here satirizes and ridicules the attitude of the Indian royalty. Q. 32 Do you agree with the Maharaja's statement, "You may kill even a cow in self-defence?" Did the king kill tigers purely in selfdefence? The Maharaja's argument that one may kill even a cow in selfdefence is certainly justified and tenable. But the Maharaja did not kill tigers in self-defence. He killed them with the express intention of proving the State astrologer's prediction wrong which is unreasonable and illogical. Q. 33 What did the State astrologer say he would do if the hundredth tiger were also killed? The state astrologer was so sure of the veracity of his prediction that he announced that he would cut off his ceremonial tuft, crop his hair short and become an insurance agent if the king was able to kill the hundredth tiger, too. The import of his words was that it

215

was inevitable that the Maharaja's death would be caused by the hundredth tiger. Q. 34 Do you find any moral lesson in the warning given by the astrologer against killing the hundredth tiger? The astrologer's warning contains the moral lesson that there is a limit to committing a sin. The Maharaja's cup of sin was full to the brim with the death of the ninety-ninth tiger. So, the death of the hundredth tiger was bound to be catastrophic. Q. 35 Do you find any element of irony in the statement. "It was celebration time for all the tigers inhabiting Pratibandhapuram? kalki writes that, "It was celebration time" for the tigers of the State because tiger hunting by anyone except the Maharaja was banned. A proclamation issued to this effect stated that if anyone dared to even fling a stone at a tiger, his entire wealth and properties would be confiscated. However it was no celebration time for the tigers because the king indulged in systematic wiping out of the tigers. Thus the statement is ironical. Q. 36 Comment briefly on the relations between the king and his subjects citing instances from the story "The Tiger King." There was no love lost between the king and his subjects. The king was eccentric and whimsical and did not care for the welfare of his subjects. Most of the officers and minion too were not really loyal to the king and were busy grindling their own axe. That they were cowards and obeyed him only out of fear can be proved by the hunters decision to hide the truth about the death of hundredth tiger and the dewan letting loose an old tiger in the forest for the king to hunt, lest he (the dewan) lost his job.

216

Q. 37 What did the high-ranking British officer wish to do? Was his wish

fulfilled? The high ranking British officer wanted to kill a tiger to flaunt his dare-devilry in front of his compatriots. In reality he was a cowardly man. When he was denied the permission or hunting he sent a word to the king that he would be quite happy if he was allowed to get photographed with the dead body of a tiger killed by a king. However, his wish remained unfulfilled.
Q. 38 Why did the Maharaja and the dewan of the state decide to send

gifts of expensive diamond rings to the Duraisani? Maharaja manage to save his throne?

How did the

The Maharaja had annoyed the visiting senior British officer over the issue of tiger-hunting and 'stood in danger of losing his kingdom itself.' So, the Maharaja and the dewan decided to placate and pacify the officer through bribe by sending gifts of expensive diamond rings to the 'Duraisani', the wife of the British officer. Contrary to the kings' expectation, the lady kept all the rings and sent him a note of thanks. Thus the Maharaja, though poorer by three lakh rupees, managed to save his throne. Q. 39 Why did the Maharaja's tiger killing mission come to a sudden standstill? What happened when the Tiger King had killed seventy tigers? Within ten years Maharaja's tiger hunting spree had resulted in the killing of seventy tigers however his tiger killing mission came to a sudden standstill because the tiger population became extinct in the forests of Pratibandapuram. Kalki jokingly remarks that the reason for the disappearance of the tigers was that either they were practicing birth control of committing hara-kiri or had probably

217

fled from the forests of Pratibandapuram as they wanted to be killed by the British hands only.
Q. 40 When the tiger king broaches the topic of marriage, what does the

dewan mean to convey by saying that the kings' "ancestors were married to the sword." Even in the state of mortal fear and bafflement, the dewan does not fail to pay his compliments to the valour of the king's ancestors, who were all brave warriors and skilled swordsmen and advises the king to marry his gun i.e. be as valorous as his ancestors.
Q. 41 Why did the Maharaja suddenly decide to marry? Whom did he

wish to marry ? What did the Maharaja do to find the required number of tiger to kill? The Maharaja suddenly decided to marry because firstly, he was of marriageable age and secondly, he wanted to kill thirty more tigers in his father in law's state in order to complete the tally of hundred tigers. For this reason he wished to marry a girl in the royal family of a state with a large tiger population. Q. 42 Explain : "It seemed easier to find tiger's milk than a live tiger". Milking a tiger is next to impossible for he beast would kill anyone who dares to do so before he could reach anywhere near themilk bag. Thus the expression to milk a tiger is used of a pice of work or situation that is impossible. Kalki uses a hyperbole to suggest in a comical way that finding a tiger in Pratibandapuram was more unlikely than the possibility of milking one. Q. 43 What were the two restricting outside forces that checked the kings in those days from doing exactly what they wished ?

218

The two outside restricting forces were the Britishers and the Indian National Congress. The kings could not afford to annoy the Britishes for fear of losing kingdom, and in the event of excessive discontentment among their subjects they could fall a prey to the Indian National Congress. Q. 44 Why did Maharaja order the dewan to double the land tax ? How did the dewan respond to this order ? The Maharaja called the dewan and ordered him to immediately double the tax of the villagers who had informed him of a tiger in the forest because despite his best efforts he was unable to locate the beast. This infuriated and frustrated the Maharaja. The dewan was terrified out of his wits and requested the king to review his orders because the doubling of taxes would result in widespread is contentment among the people and there was a grave danger of the State falling a prey to the Indian National Congress. Q. 45 Why and how did the dewan take the tiger the tiger into the forest ? The dewan had hidden at his home an old tiger which had been brought from the People's park in Madras. He feared that if the Maharaja did not get a tiger to hunt, the result would be catastrophic and he would lose his job. Therefore he and his aged wife dragged the tiger to their car, shoved it into the seat and took it straight to the forest where the Maharaja was hunting. Q. 46 Do you think the prediction made by the State astrologer "was indisputable disproved"? Give reason in support of your answer.

219

The State astrologer's prediction came out to be true, without doubt. He had made two predictions, firstly, the prince is born in the hour of the Bull and "death comes" to him "from the tiger". At the later stage he warned the king against killing the hundredth tiger. Both the predictions came true. Q. 47 Why does the king think of giving up tiger hunting after his hundredth victim? The capricious and the whimsical king resorted to tiger hunting with the express intention of proving the State astrologer wrong. Moreover, he was aware of the dangers involved in tiger hunting, so he decided to stop tiger hunting after his hundredth victim. Q. 48 How did the Maharaja feel on killing the hundredth tiger? How did he decide to celebrate it ? Why was the Maharaja overcome with elation when he thought he had killed the hundredth tiger ? The Maharaja was overcome with elation on having killed the hundredth tiger because his vow had been fulfilled. By killing the hundredth tiger, he thought the prophecy about his death had been disproved. On his command, the dead body of the hundredth tiger was taken in a grand procession through the town and buried. A tomb was erected over it. Q. 49 What did the hunter decide to do when they realized that the tiger was not dead and why ? or Who actually killed the hundredth tiger ? Why ? On finding out that the aged tiger had not die of the Maharaja's bullet but had only fainted from the loud report of gun, the hunters

220

decided that the Maharaja should not come to know that he had missed the mark. They feared that they would lose their jobs if the Maharaja came to know of the fact. So, one of the hunters shod dead the tiger from a point of black range. Q. 50 Why did the king go to a shopping center in Pratibandapuram ? What did he buy there ? or What did the Maharaja but as birthday gift for his son ? The Tiger King went to the shopping center to buy a birthday present for his three-year-old son. He wished to give his son a very special gift on his third birthday. He bought a wooden toy tiger as a perfect birthday gift for his son. Q. 51 How did the king's arm become seriously infected ? The King's arm had got infected from a prick caused by one of the slivers on the wooden tiger. In one day, the infection got flared in the Maharaja's right hand and in four days it developed into a suppurating sore which spread all over the arm. Q. 52 What are you comments about the life led by the minions ? Were they loyal to their king or they just feigned to be so? Can a parallel be drawn between them and the state of affairs in the modern Indian political set up? or How would you describe the behaviour of the Maharaja's minions toward him? Do you find them truly sincere towards him or are they driven by fear when they obey him ? Do we find similarity in today's political order ? The ruling Indian class during the British regime was often ruthless, atrocious, eccentric, whimsical and conceited. They were

221

idiosyncratic and refused to see reason. The Tiger King in no exception. The king feels happy when he is informed about the presence of tiger would have completed his mission of killing the hundredth tiger. He immediately announces a three year exemption from all taxes for the villagers, but when the tiger is not traced for a few days he thinks of doubling the taxes with immediate effect. The mounting fury of the king at his failure makes many officers lose their jobs. As a matter of fact there is no love lost between the king and their subjects. Under such circumstances one can't expect the minions and the officers to be sincere to the king. The officers obey the king not because he is the sovereign authority but because they are cowards and fear they would come to harm if they disobeyed the king. They fawn before him obsequiously lest the king dismisses them or have them arrested or killed, should they earn his wrath and displeasure. For example, the dewan, in order to save his job, brings an old tiger for the king to hunt and fulfill his vow. Likewise the hunters choose not to inform him of the survival of his hundredth victim and instead themselves kill it from a point blank range fearing the king would be very furious if they broke the news to him. Even the state astrologer is afraid of predicting the king's death, till the king himself tells him to 'speak without fear'. Thus most of the officers including the dewan are mere time servers and air at grinding their own axe. The situation today is virtually the same. Everybody in the ruling class and the serving class is busy serving his own end Noody exhibits the courage to bring forth the truth and ......... and sycophancy are the order of the day. Hence a clear cut parallel can be very conveniently drawn between then and now.

222

Q. 53 How did the Tiger King meet his end ? The wooden toy tiger the king had got as a birthday present for his son had been carved by an unskilled carpenter. It had a rough surface with tiny slivers of wood standing up like quills all over it. One of those slivers pierced the Maharaja's right hand and although the king pulled it, his arm got infected. In four days, it developed into suppurating sore and spread all over the arm. The king died while being operated upon. The King's death is ironical but not surprising for the reader who is, in fact, looking forward to it. Having 'killed' the hundredth tiger the king is jubilant for he has fulfilled his vow and disproved the prediction of the royal astrologer. He is now at ease for he think, he cannot die of a tigers' attack. No wonder, he orders the 'dead' tiger to be taken in a procession through the town and gets a tomb erected over it. All this while he does not know that the hundredth victim was not killed by him but by other hunters. That is indeed quite ironical. Death is lurking around him and the king is unaware of it. Again, it is ironical that a king who has killed one hundred tigers and is bold and fearless dies of a mere 'sliver' on the body of a wooden tiger. Thus, nemesis overtakes the king ultimately and ironically death does come to him from a tiger.

223

3.JOURNEY TO THE END OF THE EARTH -Tishani Doshi


In the present chapter in "Journey to the End of the Earth" writer Tishani Doshi is describing the journey to the coldest, driest and windiest continent Antarctica in the world. According to the author Antarctica is a place that trapped the world's Antarctica history. Even it provides inspiring educational opportunities to the students also. It is a place to go to understand the earth's present, past and future.

Q. 54 How did the author reach Antarctica? What hurdles did she have to cross? Ans The author reached Antarctica after travelling over hundred hours. She had to travel by a car, an aero plane and a ship, 'Akademik Shokalskiy'. In the process she had to cross nine time zones, six checkpoints, three bodies of water and at least as many ecospheres. Q. 55 According to your, what is the significance of the author's giving details about the various hurdles crossed by the "Akademik Shokalskiy" before reaching Antarctica? The details of the hurdles like time zones, checkpoint, water bodies etc. highlight the arduousness of the journey, which in turn raise the curiosity of the reader to know more and more about the Antarctic region. Q. 56 What were the first emotions of Doshi on reaching Antarctica? Why? Ans On reaching Antarctica, Doshi's first emotion was relief to see its expansive white landscape and uninterrupted blue horizon. The

224

feeling of relief was followed by profound wonder at Antarctica's immensity, its isolation and its strange relationship with India. Q. 57 How would you describe Gondwana? Ans Gondwana was a huge amalgamated super continent in the South that circled around the present day Antarctica, six hundred and fifty million years ago when human beings had not evolved as yet. The present day India and South America continent are breakaway parts of this continent. It had warm climate and thrived for 500 millions of years, but change as we know is the law of nature. The entire planet must have suffered sudden cataclysm (violent disaster) resulting in Gondwana's disintegration and formation of present day India, the Himalayas and the South America. Q. 58 In your opinion, What could be the reason for the disintegration of Gondwana? Ans Gondwana Flourished for millions of years, but change as we know is the law of nature. The entire planet must have suffered sudden cataclysm (violent disaster) resulting in Gondwana's disintegration and formation of present day India, the Himalayas and the South America. Q. 59 In what respect, Tishani Doshi's encounter with Antarctica is a chilling prospect? Ans For a sun-baked South Indian like Tishani, being face to face with ninety percent of earth's total ice volume was a mind-boggling and chilling prospect. It had a chilling effect not only on the blood circulation and her metabolic functions, but also for her imagination. Q. 60 What makes Tishani Doshi write that she felt as if she was walking into a giant ping-pong ball?

225

Ans

Conditioned by the crowded streets of Madras, swarmed by countless head of men and women and the riot of colours all round, Doshi finds herself face to face with the whiteness of ice and its plain smoothness, devoid of malls and billboards in just about hundred hours of journey. Thus, her comparison of the snowy surroundings with the whiteness and the smoothness of a ping-pong ball is most appropriate.

Q. 61 Why does the author feel that the 'prognosis' for the human being is not healthy? What is the impact of human civilization on earth? Ans Man has committed the unpardonable sin of defiling mother earth. His dominance over nature, coupled with over population and the unmitigated burning of fossil fuel" is creating a thick blanket of carbon dioxide around earth, which is hazardous and life threatening for all the flora and fauna. The resultant increase in average global temperature, depleting resources, receding glaciers, collapsing ice shelves and increasing townships have only aggravated the problem. The future of mankind, in fact, all life on earth is bleak. Hence, the author is correct in saying that the prognosis for man is not encouraging and healthy. Q. 62 What are the indications for the future of mankind? Ans Ever increasing villages, town, cities and mega cities, depleting ozone and increasing carbon dioxide and global warming, melting ice caps and shield - these and scores of other similar indicators point to a grim future for mankind, indeed all life on earth. If drastic steps are not taken immediately at the global level, the world may be staring in the face of its inevitable end, too soon.

226

Q. 63 Why do you think Tishani Doshi considered her programmme "Students on Ice" a success? Ans It was on reaching Antarctica that Doshi felt really alarmed about the threat of global warming when she saw with her own eyes the polar ice-caps melting, the glaciers retreating and the ice shelves collapsing. Hence the programme has been really educative for all, and thus was a success. Q. 64 How would your describe the process of photosynthesis? Ans Energy is an essential constituent of flora as well as fauna. The term photosynthesis is related to plants and it is the process with the help of which they convert water and carbon into food by using energy from the sunlight. Q. 65 What will be the ill-effect of further depletion of ozone layer? or What are phytoplanktons? In what way are they useful? Or In what way can the further depletion of ozone layer disrupt the entire food chain of the South Seas? Ans Depletion of ozone layer, which protects us from the sun's harmful rays, will adversely affect the activities of the phytoplanktons. These single-celled plants nourish and sustain the food chain of entire Southern Ocean and use the sun's energy to assimilate carbon and synthesize compounds. Any further depletion in the ozone layer will hamper their activity, which in turn is going to stand in the way of the growth of marine animals and birds, and the global carbon cycle. Q. 66 In what respect is Tishani Doshi's experience of Antarctica full of epiphanies?

227

Ans

'Epiphany' is a Christian festival in memory of the Magi visiting baby Christ on January six every year. The Magi brought memorable gifts for the baby. Doshi too goes back with memories of Antarctica; she is never going to forget. So, her visit was an epiphany.

Q. 67 At 65.666 degrees south, the 'Shokalskiy' could go no further. What prevented the ship to go any further? What did the Captain instruct all the passengers to do? Ans At 65.666 degrees south, the 'Shokalskiy' could go no further because it had got wedged into a thick white stretch of ice between the peninsula and Tadpole Island. The Captain decided to turn around and head back north but before that he instructed all aboard to climb down the gangplank and walk on the ocean. Everyone enjoyed this unique experience. Q. 68 Why is it necessary to remain fully equipped while walking on ice? Base you answer on the details of the kit given by the author? Ans While walking on ice the troupe was fully kitted out with Gore-Tex (type of spiked boots that help in walking on ice) and glares (sun glasses). The spiked boots protect us from falling down on ice which might result in injury and the glares protect the eyes because the sun glare can injure our eyes particularly the retina. Q. 69 Does your study of the article give you a feeling that man is his own great enemy? Ans In his 12,000 year long stint on the Earth so far Man has caused untold harm to th planet, its environment and bio-diversity. His activities and the so called progress of his civilization has spelt doom for the flora and fauna so much so that his own existence is endangered. If the ozone layer is depleting, global warming is

228

increasing, polar ice is melting, glaciers are receding, floods are droughts are recurrent; Man is to blame for all this. Thus, it is not unfair to say that man is his own great enemy-an impression we form from Doshi's article "Journey to the End of the World."
Q. 70 "It was nothing short of a revelation: everything does indeed

connect. "What revelation is Doshi talking about? Ans The scene of Crabeater seals stretching and sunning on ice floes where Doshi and her school students landed on the Antarctica was a revelation for her. Human beings and seals were as close to each other as stray dogs are close to us in our towns and villages. Human existence and the survival of 'all other species, is interrelated and interdependent. The sooner Man learns this, the better. Q. 71 "The world's geological history is trapped in Antarctica." How is the study of this region useful to us? Ans Antarctica landmass, which was an amalgamated southern super copntinent called Gondwana-dates back to six hundred and fifty million (10, 00,000 x 650) years. This landmass centered around present day Antarctica. Human being was non-existent then for their civilization is merely 12,000 years old. The climate then was quite warm and the landmass flourished with a large variety of flora and fauna. However, at a later stage when the dinosaurs got wiped out and mammals began to appear, the landmass disintegrated into countries and India, the Himalayas and the South America were form and got fixed in their present position. This left Antarctica frigid and desolate at the bottom of the earth. Today, it holds key to the significance of cordilleran folds and pre-Cambrian granite shields, ozone and carbon layers as well as evolution and extinction. It can help us understand better the formation of

229

continents and mountains like the Himalayas as we find them in the modern world. Q. 72 What is Geoff Greens reason for including high school students in the "Students on Ice" expedition? Ans Since the school student's impressionistic minds are more ready to absorb, learn and most importantly act, Geoff Green thought of taking high school students on a voyage to Antarctica. His aim was to help the students study and examine the Earth's past, present and future. The programme provided them with inspiring educational opportunities so that the future generation of policy makes could through this life changing experience foster a new understanding and respect for their planet. Q. 73 Why is Antarctica the place to go to, to understand the earth's present, past and future? Ans Six hundred and fifty million years ago the present day Antarctica was surrounded by a giant amalgamated southern supercontinent called Gondwana. Thus Antarctica belongs to ancient geological era when human beings had not yet evolved, the climate was warm in the continent and supported a huge variety of flora and fauna. The dinosaurs had been wiped out and mammals were beginning to evolve. At this juncture, the Gondwana got separated into countries and shaped the globe as we see it today. Today Antarctica, the mysterious white continent on the South Pole holds the key to the past present and future of the planet. It is in a way responsible for the formation of Cordilleran folds and preCambrian granite shields as well as the appearance of South America, India and Himalayas on the face of the earth.

230

No human markers - billboards and building are to be seen here, yet this continent is live and kicking with a variety of living species like the penguins, seals, midges and mites existing there and countless marine species thriving in the salt water under its sheet of ice. Since the planet is unravaged by human population, and civilization, it remains relatively pristine. Its ice-cores hold more than halfmillion-year-old carbon records which are so crucial for the study of the past, present and future of our planet. Thus it is a perfect place to study how little changes in the environment can have big repercussions. Thus, Tishani Doshi is very right when she say, "If we want to study and examine the earth's past, present and future, Antarctica is the place is to go".

4.THE ENEMY
-Pearl.S. Buck

It is the time of the World War II. Japan is at war with America. An American prisoner of war gets washed away to the doorstep of a Japanese doctor Sadao. The choice is very hard for Dr Sadao and his wife. Should they hand him over to the police or save him from dying? Being a doctor, Sadao gives top priority to save the life of a dying man. Not only does he save him but also helps in escaping to freedom.

231

Q. 74 Who was Dr Sadao ? Where was his house situated? Dr Sadao was a renowned Japanese surgeon trained in America and equally noted scientist who was perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. His 'square stone house' was situated on rocks above a narrow beach that was outlined with bent pines. Q. 75 Give two reasons why Dr Sadao was not sent abroad with the Japanese troops? Dr Sadao was not sent abroad with the Japanese troops firstly because the General was ailing and might need an operation any time and secondly because Sadao was perfecting a discovery which was likely to "render wounds entirely clean". So his presence in Japan was indispensable.
Q. 76 Sadao "had waited to fall in love with her (Hana), until he was sure

she was Japanese." Why did his do so? Sadao's father was a downright Japanese traditionalist. If Sadao had made a wrong choice regarding marriage, his father would never have given his assent to the marriage and would have never forgiven Sadao. Sadao loved and respected his father and did not want to annoy him. So he waited to make sure about Hana's identity and did not want to marry her in a hurry in America without getting his father's approval. Q. 77 Who was the 'misty figure' that had been washed ashore in front of Dr Sadao's beach house". How did the doctor and his wife establish his identity? Ans The 'misty figure' that had been washed ashore in front of Dr Sadao's house was an American prisoner of war was fatally wounded. It appeared that he had been badly tortured and shot and

232

his flesh had been scraped by the dangerous spiky rocks near the shore. Dr Sadao and his wife were able to establish his identity as a U.S. sailor from the faint lettering on his battered cap that spelled 'U.S. Navy.' Q. 78 Why did blood start flowing out of the wounded man as soon as Sadao touched the wound with his fingers? Ans The blood started flowing freshly from the wound as soon as the doctor touched it because it was a gun shot wound which had not been tended for quite sometime and had reopened as the rocks on the shore had torn it further apart. Q. 79 How and why did Dr Sadao stop the bleeding of the injured man on the beach? What dilemma did Dr Sadao and his wife have to face soon after? Ans Medical instinct and ethics made Dr Sadao stanch the bleeding of the American prisoner of war. He immediately packed the wound with the help of wild sea moss to stop the bleeding momentarily. But soon he and his wife found themselves in a dilemma-should they save the mortally wounded man or hand him over as a prisoner, for he belonged to an enemy country.
Q. 80 What makes Hana comment? "We must think of the children and

your position'? Ans Hana is a devoted house wife and fears that the presence of the American prisoner in their house could lead to their arrest as traitors and bring shame for the family. It could also adversely affect the children's future and the doctors' career. So she expresses strong reservation about sheltering the American in their home.

233

Q. 81 What makes Dr Sadao comment, "This man must have extraordinary vitality"? Ans The American prisoner of war was bullet-ridden and his survival under all adverse conditions was nothing short of a miracle. Any otherman would have collapsed due to gaping wounds, excessive bleeding and excruciating pain. So the doctor rightly says that the man has 'extraordinary vitality.' Q. 82 Why do you thing Hana believes that the man (the American P.W.W.) is a 'menace, living or dead'. Ans By bringing the American prisoner of war in the house, Dr. Sadao have given shelter to an enemy. Now whether be dies or survives, they have rendered themselves liable for punishment. If he dies Sadao will have failed as a doctor and if he survives, the doctor can be arrested on charges of harbouring an enemy. Thus, Hana rightly fears that under all circumstance the American is a menace. Q. 83 "Could it ever be well to help an enemy"? What does you reading of the story " The Enemy" tell you ? Ans All the servants in the Sadaos household are critical of the American's presence in the house which sets Hana thinking about the wisdom of their decision to save and shelter Tom, the American prisoner of war. But viewed from humanitarian grounds, the decision to shelter the enemy, treat and nurse him was justified. Q. 84 How did Hana wash the wounded man? Why did she have to do it herself? Ans After laying the wounded man's breast bare by untying the knotted rugs, Hana soaked the small clean 'towel' with hot water and washed the wounded man's face and body carefully. She kept on washing him until his upper body was quite clean.

234

Hana had to do all this herself because Yumi, the children's nurse had categorically refused to wash a 'dirty white man'. Do you agree with the observation of the American professor, 'Ignorance of the human body the surgeon's cardinal sin? I do agree with this observation. A surgeon's main field of activity is the human body and if he does not have its thorough knowledge, he has no right to operate on it and if he does so, he is committing a "cardinal sin." It is nothing short of committing a virtual murder.
Q. 85 Why does Dr Sadao mutter the words 'My friend while treating the

American prisoner of war? Ans What is ironical about his words? When one is deeply engrossed in one's work, one becomes oblivious of the surroundings and often mutters a few words aloud. It is often something going on in one's mind. Dr Sadao also mutters the words 'My friends' in a similar manner to the nearly unconscious American prisoner he is operating upon. It is Dr Sadao's habit to murmur to his patients. All doctors are trained to talk to their patients to elicit response from them and to comfort them. Q. 86 Give details of the two things that happened on the seventh day after the wounded American was brought into the house by Sadao. Ans On the seventh day two important things happened as far as the Sadaos were concerned. Firstly, all the servants gathered their belongings and departed in the morning without having discharged their duties. Secondly, in the afternoon, Hana saw a uniformed messenger enter the house with the General's message. Q. 87 Why did messenger come to call Sadao? What did Hana think about the visit of the messenger?

235

Ans

The messenger had called on Dr Sadao to inform him that the old General was in pain again and needed his care. However, Hana thought that the servants had betrayed them and the messenger had come there to arrest them for sheltering as American.

Q. 88 Why does the General not want to be treated by a doctor trained in Germany? Ans According to the General, the Germans are ruthless and don't care much about human life whereas the Americans are sentimental and value life so he does not want to be treated by the doctors trained in Germany and prefer Dr Sadao because of his dexterity as a surgeon and his humaneness. Q. 89 How did the General offer to help Sadao get rid of the American? Ans The General offered to send his own private assassins to Sadao's house to help him get rid of the American. He further informed the doctor that they were capable assassins, and without much aid and noise would kill the man by causing internal bleeding. They would also dispose of the body, he assured Sadao. Q. 90 What is an absolute state? Why was it necessary for the ruler to keep assassins? Ans An absolute state is an autocratic dictatorial state ruled by a despot (a ruler with absolute power) where opposition of any kind is not tolerated. Japan, during the days of the Second World War was an absolute state and it was necessary for the rulers to keep assassins to silence and wipe off discontent or opposition against their dictates. Q. 91 Why was Sadao not able to talk to the General about the assassins for quite some time?

236

Ans

Dr Sadao was not able to speak to the General about the assassins as he had been operated upon and the doctor was not sure whether the patient would survive or not as his gall bladder was much involved. However, when the General recovered after a week, there was no need to talk about them as the American prisoner had been made to escape by him.

Q. 92 Why did Sadao feel that the General was in the palm of his hand? Ans Dr Sadao felt that the General was in the palm of his hand i.e. he was under his control because he was indispensable for the General's well-being and survival. The General did not trust any other doctor. Thus, Dr Sadao safely confides in the General's wellbeing and survival. The General did not trust any other doctor. He knows that if he is arrested and tried for saving and sheltering an enemy sailor, the General will in his own interest, see to it that no harm comes to Dr Sadao. He feels that he is safe in informing the General of the American prisoner's presence at his home. Q. 93 Gazing out to the sea from where the young man had come, Sadao was reminded of some other white men he had known. Who were they and what did Sadao remember about them? Ans As Dr Sadao stood gazing at the sea, after the wounded American's escape he is remembered of a few persons he had met during his stay in America. He is reminded of the dull professor and his silly talkative wife where he had met Hana; his anatomy professor who insisted on 'mercy with the knife' and his fat and slatternly landlady. Q. 94 If you were Dr Sadao, what would you have done to the American Sailor?

237

Ans

I would have also done all I could to save the sailor from the jaws of death. Once he was fully recovered, I would have handed him over to the police to let the law decide his fate. This way I would have been true to both my profession and my country.

Q. 95 There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices

between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the story you have just read. Ans Sometimes an individual finds himself face to face with the predicament of choosing between the needs of a helpless person and his duties towards his country. The dilemma brings about conflict of interest in this mind and he finds himself in Dr Sadao's situation. As citizens of Japan, The Sadaos are expected to be loyal to their country and thus surrender the American fugitive 'prisoner of war' to the police, but there is a world beyond a narrow vision. The doctor in Sadao cannot allow the wounded Tom to die in front of his eye, if he can save him.

5.SHOULD WIZARD HIT MOMMY? -John Updike

In 'Should Wizard Hit Mommy?" John Updike presents the worldview of a little child. Jo warmly responds to her father's story-telling. But she can't excuse Roger Skunk's mother for making poor little Roger smell bad again.

238

Her hero must smell like roses and must not stink at any cost. So she wants her father to make a little change in the story. She wants him to tell a different story in which the wizard takes a magic wand and hits Roger Skunk's mommy.

Q. 96 Father has felt empty after two years of story telling to Jo. What

idea do you form about his skill in the art of story telling ? It would be wrong to say that Jo's father is a bad story teller. In fact, with all his histrionics, sound effects and gestures, he is quite effective in the art. His only problem is that his stories lack variety and he ends up telling the same old story again and again with slight variation here and there. He feels empty because he has been telling stories for over two years now and has quite naturally run short of ideas. Q. 97 Do you think the father in the story is, more or less, an alter ego of the author, as far as the childhood is concerned? John Updike's childhood was tortured by 'psoriasis' and stammering and he had to suffer humiliation and ridicule at the hands of his classmates on account of this. Like him, Jo's father too recalls certain moments of 'humiliation of his own childhood. ''Thus the father more or less, was an alter ego of the author.''
Q. 98 What was Roger Skunk's problem? How did he get rid of it?

Roger Skunk was a delightful child. His only problem was that he smelled awful. As a result nobody liked to befriend him and play with him. He got rid of his bad smell with the help of wizard who cast a magic spell to change the smell into that of roses.

239

Q. 99 Why did the woodland creatures avoid Roger Skunk ? How did their behaviour affect Roger ? The woodland creatures avoided Roger Skunk because of his awful smell. As soon as they saw him coming they would cry "Uh-oh, here comes Roger Stinky Skunk and they would run away. Roger Skunk would stand there all alone and weep silently. Q. 100How was Jo affected by Jack's story telling ? Jo would be immensely engrossed in the story. She liked the way her father used to tell story particularly his dramatization of it, through gestures and changing voices. She also liked the predictable way the story would unfold for it allowed her to make guesses, draw conclusions and ask questions. The whole world of the story would come alive before her and she would twitch and turn in excitement as the story progressed. Q5 This was a new phase, just this last month. 'What new phase is the story "Should Wizard Hit

referred to here in Mommy"?

Children's physical and mental growth is very speedy. Earlier Jo used to accept father's word about magic etc, but now she has started having apprehensions about such spells. She has become more inquisitive and less credulous. Q. 101What impression do you form about the little girl Jo when she protests against her father's mistake of using the name Roger Fish for Roger Skunk? Joe, Like all children has a flair for listening to stories in rapt attention. In fact she creates in her mind a simultaneous visual image of the story her father is narrating to her. So, she can easily detect any

240

deviations or an error made by her father and does not hesitate to check and confront him. Q. 102Why does the wizard instruct the Skunk to "Hurry up"? The wizard asks Skunk to hurry up because he is used to living alone and does not like company for a long time and secondly he was keen to have his full payment for the task performed. Another reason can be that he could not stand Skunk's smell for long. Q. 103How did the woodland creatures react to the Skunk's new smell? What did Skunk feel about the new change ? The woodland creatures found Roger Skunk's new smell to be ''so good''. They gladly took him in their fold as a friend and played with him many games. Naturally, Roger was happy to have been accepted by others as their friend Moreover, his inferiority complex had disappeared. Q. 104After the Skunk started smelling of roses Jo "thought the story was all over." Why did she think so ? Viewed from a child's angle, Skunk's smelling of roses is a befitting ending for the story, because first, Skunk's long standing desire has been fulfilled and secondly he is able to do what is dearest to his heart-play with other woodland creatures. Q. 105Why in you opinion is the smell of roses obnoxious for the Skunk mother "or How did Skunk's mother react to his new smell ? Nature keeps its own balance and has its own way. The Skunk's smell is obnoxious for other creatures, but certainly not for other Skunks. Skunks are born with this particular smell and any deviation is violation of Nature. So the mother Skunk does not like the rose

241

smell of Roger Skunk.. She believes that what is natural is not disgraceful. Q. 106The Skunk accepts Mom's order like a tame lamb and follows her to the wizard without demur, but Jo chooses to differ from her father with regard to changing the rose smell. How would you account for this difference in attitude between the two ? Ans Roger Skunk as a character symbolizes Jack's own personality as a child. He loved and obeyed his mother very much. She in turn taught him courage and self-regard in dealing with his hurt and humiliation on account of his psoriasis and stammering. Thus, Skunk is as unquestioningly obedient as Jack himself was. Jo on the other hand is a happy-go-lucky child of four who has no upset and humiliation to deal with. She is naturally inquisitive and is curious to know more and more. It is not surprising that she is full of questions. The attitudes of both Skunk and Jo are shaped by their life experience. Q. 107Why did Jo not approve of Skunk's mother scolding him for his new smell ? Jo was very happy to hear that Skunk had got rid of his awful smell and had been accepted by the woodland creatures. She did not like Skunk's mother scolding him for his new smell because Jo thought it was a pleasant smell and the one that had won Skunk so many friends. Skunk's mother, she thought, was wrong in scolding him for his new smell. Q. 108What is the under lying idea behind the wizard's taking the beating and tamely changing the rose smell? Ans By making the wizard take his beating by Skunk's mother quietly, Jack and through him the author wishes to bring home the idea that

242

mothers are always right and that we should accept what is natural. The wizard also sees the point and tamely changes Skunk's rose smell into his original Skunk smell.
Q. 109 Why does mother Skunk hug and pat her son as he prepares to

sleep ? Ans The obedience shown by Roger Skunk impresses the mother and she pats and hugs him as he prepares himself for sleep. The idea behind her action is that obedient children will always be loved and patted by mothers. The mother's gesture is also an expression of her satisfaction at her little one getting back his Skunk smell. Q. 110 What inference do you draw from the narrator's statement, "eventually they (woodland creatures) got used to the way he (the Skunk) was and did not mind it at all" ? The woodland creatures learnt the lesson that what is natural is not disgraceful and should be accepted as an integral part of one's being. One should not hate or avoid others because of something they cannot help. One should instead be courageous and tolerant enough to accept is. This is how the woodland creatures got used to the way Skunk smelled. Q. 111What is the moral issue that the story raises ? Although "Should Wizard Hit Mommy?" reads like a typical bed time story elders tell little children, it does raise a moral question Should parents always decide what is best for their children and should children always obey their parents unquestioningly ? Roger Skunk is a very obedient child but he feels very sad and upset because he smells so awful that nobody wants to befriend him and play with him. One day he gets a change to get his bad smell replaced with the smell of roses. He feels excited about the change

243

for everyone likes his new smell and readily agrees to play with him. However Roger's mother does not like the change. For her, Roger was better off with his original smell. So, she makes the wizard restore Skunk's original smell. Roger meekly accepts his mother's decision and other children get used to Roger's awful smell and dont complain about in any more. But the narrow world view of the little girl, Jo likes to spell out the slogan of equality for all. She believes in the axiom "Tit for Tat". She feels that mothers is wrong in getting her son's original smell back and wants her to be spanked by the wizard for her mistake. Her father, who has modeled Skunk's story on his own story, strongly defends the mother Skunk's decision. Thus, the author through this story raises a moral question of how much authority parents should exercise in teaching their children what is wrong, what is right, what they should do and what not. Since, there is no single correct answer to the question, he leaves it for the readers to answer it on the basis of their beliefs, cultures and values. Q. 112Why is an adult's perspective on life different from that of a child's ? As the child grows into maturity his perspective and vision of life change gradually. A child views things at superficial and sensory level but a grown up's vision is realistic, reflective, philosophical and even psychological. Viewed from the study of the story "Should Wizard Hit Mommy?" Jo, a child of four, like most children of her age, prefers to live in dreams and fantasies. She is hostile by nature and would like to wreak vengeance on Skunk's mother and wants the wizard to retaliate.

244

She is annoyed because the father refuses to accept her suggestion. The father has a mature perspective and sees beyond the surface and explores the philosophical and moralistic aspect of the entire situation. The wizard had unwittingly interfered with nature and had thus done a great deal of harm and deserved to be punished. According to him the punishment meted out to the wizard is well merited and retaliation is out of the question. Thus the story makes it clear that the perspective of a child and that of an adult is totally different.

6. ON THE FACE OF IT -Susan Hill


This is a play featuring an old man Mr Lamb and a small boy named Derry. Derry suffers from a complex. He gets one side of his face burnt and always remains withdrawn and defiant. He doesn't like to be near people as he can't stand their uncharitable looks and remarks. Mr Lamb himself has a tin leg but has a very positive attitude towards life and people. He shows the right way of judging men, matters and life to young Derry.

Q. 113 Why does Derek want to go back home as soon as he comes face to

face with Mr. Lamb? Derek climbs over the wall to enter Mr. Lamb's garden hoping that it is empty. However, when Mr. Lamb startles him with his

245

presence, Derek feels embarrassed at entering the garden without its owner's permission. Moreover, he is afraid that like most other people, Mr Lamb will also find his scarry face repulsive. So, he wants to go back as soon as he has come. Q. 114What terrible complex does Derek suffer from ? One side of Derek's face was severely burnt away by acid. As a result he looked very ugly. Nod\body liked to look at him, love him, be friend him and play with him. This made Derek suffer from an acute lack of self-regard and rejection. Q. 115Why does Derek feel that Mr Lamb has changed the subject? Do you agree with Derek ? Give reason in support of you answer. Derek feels that Mr Lamb has changed the subject because instead of responding to Derek's conversation about being ugly and unwanted, Mr Lamb starts talking about apple picking and jelly making and asks for his help. Q. 116Why does Derek not like being with people ? Derek is full of self-reproach and rejection on account for an acidburnt side of his face. He doesn't like being with people because they constantly remind him of his ugliness and stay away from him. He does not like to see people being afraid of him because he is ugly Instead of feeling loved and wanted like the other children, he feels rejected and unwanted. Q. 117What does Derek feel Mr Lamb must think of him? How does Mr Lamb surprise him in this context? Derek feels that like other people Mr Lamb would also feel scared by this burnt down face and pity him and out of repulsion would want him to go away. However, he is in for a surprise when Mr

246

Lamb welcomes him to his garden and tells him that he is interested in him.
Q. 118 How would you explain Mr Lamb's expression, "I'm old, and

youre young? You've got a burned face. I've got a tin leg. Not important."? What Mr Lamb wants to make Derek understand is that everyone has one or the other reason to hate and dislike oneself and feel inferior to other but such a feeling is disastrous. It does not really matter how one looks. What is important for one is to accept who or what one is and live life fully. One must have a positive attitude and not allow any complexes to block one's way to a life of happiness and fulfillment. Q. 119 Why do kids call Mr Lamb 'Lamey-Lamb'? How does he feel about it ? Mr Lamb has an artificial leg of tin. His real leg had been blown off in a bomb explosion. Since he walks with a limp, children of the neighborhood call him Lamey-Lamb i.e. lame Lamb. Initially he must have felt bad now he feels that the name suits him and does not trouble him. He has got over with the handicap. Q. 120Do you think Derek's attitude towards life would have been different had he been lame instead of having a burnt face? Derek thinks that Mr Lamb can cover up his handicap by wearing trousers, so his attitude towards life is different and if he had been lame he would have led a normal life. But he is certainly wrong, because his problem is psychological. People would still have made fun of him and Derek would have remained frustrated because of his lameness and negative attitude towards life.

247

Q. 121Why one green, growing plant is called a weed and another 'flower'? What does Mr Lamb mean by this statement? Mr Lamb is a staunch believer in the inherent oneness and equality of all the species created by God and repudiates (rejects) man-made differences these seem to be superficial and unimportant.
Q. 122 "It's all relative. Beauty and the beast." what does Mr Lamb mean

by this statement. Mr Lamb means to say that different people have different viewpoints to look at the same thing. Some find a thing beautiful, others find it ugly. It all depends on one's outlook and attitude. It is, therefore, important to adopt a positive attitude to everything in life just like the Princess Beauty who loved the monstrous Beast in the fairy tale but the beast, although he was a prince, failed to discover his reality. The point is that you are not what you look like, but what you are inside. Q. 123Why does Derek say he doesn't care if no one kisses him? Derek suffers from an acute sense of self-hatred and rejection on account of his burnt face. He feels he is too ugly to be liked and loved by anyone. So out of frustration he says, "I don't care if no one kisses me." He feels really bad when his mother, too kisses him on the good side of his face because she has to as a mother and not because she really loves him and accepts him as he is. Q. 124"So you will. But the world won't. The world's got a whole face, and the world's there to be looked at." When Derek says that no one will ever love him because his is going to continue to remain ugly on account of his scarry face, Mr Lamb tries to comfort him by saying that it does not matter if Derek's looks won't change for the better as it is quite possible that

248

people's attitude towards him will change and they may accept and love him. Moreover it is no use for Derek to go on complaining of his being ugly when there is so much beauty in the world to be explored and appreciated. Q. 125What concept of the world does Mr Lamb propound when Derek asks him if his old garden is a world ? On Derek asking if his old garden is a world un to Mr. Lamb, the latter replies in the affirmative saying it is his world when he is in it. He then goes on to explain that his garden is not the only 'world', the world is where one is. That is a unique concept of the world. Q. 126How have people been sermonizing Derek about his burnt face? How does Derek feel about this sermonizing? Since Derek has a particularly low self-regard due to his burnt face, people have been advising him to brave his handicap and change his outlook. They have been advising him to take inspiration from those who are in pain but never cry complain or feel sorry for themselves. He is also advised look at those people who are more severely handicapped than he is - the blind, the born deaf, the mentally retarded and those confined to wheelchairs and think that he is more fortunate than them. Derek does not like this sermonizing for he feels that it, or for that matter anything else, cannot make his face change from an ugly one to a handsome one. Q. 127Do you think that through the incident to buzzing/humming of bees the author wants to be tell us that life treats us the way we treat it. Do your agree ? If so, why? The author brings about the incident of buzzing/humming to bring home the point that life treats us the way we take it. Music and

249

noise coexist and if we choose music in life we lead a life full of cheer and if we pay heed to the nose alone our life is a bundle of frustration. Q. 128Why does Mr Lamb narrate the story of a man who locked himself in a room because he was afraid ? Mr Lamb tells the story of a man who had locked himself in a room because he was terribly afraid of everything in order that Derek could realize that recoiling into oneself and building a shell around does not help. What Derek needed to do was to shed his fear, complex and self-hatred and live life fully. Q. 129What is Mr Lamb's daily routine ? Mr Lamb lives alone in a large house with a huge garden. During the day he has neighborhood children visiting him for crab apples, pears, toffee and jelly. So he is busy picking apples and pears, tending his bees, making jelly and toffee. Apart form this, he likes to talk to the children who visit him. He also likes to read books and reflect. Q. 130 Why doesn't Mr Lamb have any curtains at the windows ? Unlike most people Mr Lamb does not have any curtains at the windows of his house because he is not fond o f them. He believes that curtains shut things out. Instead he likes to experience the alternating phases of light and darkness and he likes to hear the wind. Q. 131Why does Mr Lamb feel Derek is not lost altogether ? Mr Lamb has heard Derek only complain, bemoan and spitting hatred for himself. He does not seem to like anybody or anything. So, when Derek says that he likes when it is raining and hearing it pitter-patter on the roof, Mr Lamb discovers that the boy does have

250

some interest in life and remarks, "So you're not lost, are you? Not altogether" ? Q. 132hat does Mr Lamb tell Derek he can do ? Mr Lamb is sad to see Derek, a fourteen year old boy, give up on life just because he got a side of his face burnt by acid. He tells Derek that the latter has got two arms, two legs and eyes and ears, a tongue and a brain with which he can get on in life like any other boy. He could even do better than most others only if he so chose and set his mind to it. Q. 133Why does Derek ask Mr Lamb if he has any friends ? What answer does Mr Lamb give him ? Derek has noticed that Mr Lamb lives alone in a big house. He also knows that the neighbourhood people are not very kind and friendly to him and the children call him lamey-Lamb. So, out of curiosity he asks Mr Lamb if the latter had any friends. In reply Mr Lamb says that he has got lots of friends and that everybody knows him. People come to him and sit in the garden in summer and in front of the fire in winter. Kids come to him for toffee, apples and pears. Q. 134"There are some people I hat." How does Mr Lamb react to this statement of Derek ? Mr Lamb believes that hatred is Man's worst enemy. So when he hears Derek say, 'There are some people I hat, ' Mr Lamb remarks that hatred would do Derek more harm than any bottle of acid for acid had burnt only his face but hatred can burn him away inside. Indirectly he tells Derek that hatred is unnatural and hence injurious to mankind. The natural instinct is love which is a panacea for all maladies.

251

Q. 135"What kind of a world that be." Which world is Mr Lamb referring to here ? Why does he disapprove of it ? Here Mr Derek si questioning the rationale of a world as proposed by one of Derek's neighbours when the boy had come home from hospital. The neighbour, a woman, had said that Derek ought to have stayed back in the hospital because he would have been better off with others like himself. She believed that blind people only ought to be with other blind people and idiot boys with idiot boys. Mr Lamb strongly disapproves of such a world as it would do more harm than good. According to him, it would make people with handicaps more miserable and more hurt. They need a world of compassion where those without handicaps accept them as their own and love them and help them overcome and forget their handicaps for fulfilling and wholesome life. Q. 136Do you think Mr Lamb believes in universal brotherhood ? Give reasons for your answer. Mr Lamb makes a vital statement that he is prepared to share all his belonging with others. He believes that everything one has is God's bounty and God belongs to all. Thus it is not wrong to say that he is a strong believer in universal brotherhood. Q. 137What is Mr Lamb's fear about Derek's going back home ? What light does this throw on Mr Lamb's life and character ? Mr Lamb feels Derek would never come back to him. This is what has been happening to all his little friends in the past. This apprehension brings out the terrible loneliness Mr Lamb suffers from and his desperate longing for company. Q. 138How does Mr Lamb's conversation transform Derek ?

252

Drek is indeed a very sensitive but brave and courageous boy. His long conversation with Mr Lamb helps him overcome his inferiority complex and poor self-regard. He no longer hates himself for his ugly face or others for disliking and avoiding him for his ugliness. Now he feels what he thinks is important and wants to explore and experience the world around him.
Q. 139 What idea do you form about Derek's mother from your brief

encounter with her in the second part of the play ? Derek's mother is an unintelligent lady whop has failed to understand her son's tragedy. Derek clearly speaks a different language having different nuances but she is not able to comprehend them and fails to read between the lines. Like other, she is also repelled by the burnt side of Derek's face and kisses only the good side. s Q. 140What makes Derek observe that,".If I don't go back there, I'll never go anywhere in this world again"? Derek has rediscovered the joy of life thanks to Mr Lamb. He strongly feels that he must do something for the lonely old man. He makes the statement in question to tell his mom how important it if for him to go to Lamb because he has promised to return unlike other little friend of the old man. Moreover, Derek feels that he can live a meaningful life only by furthering Mr Lamb's mission. Q. 141What significance would you attach to Mr Lamb's silence at the end of the play ? Every individual in this world has special tasks allotted to him which must be performed. The old and decrepit Lamb needed someone to carry on the good work he had started. Fortunately for him, he finds Derek as his successor. Now, a lot of burden is off his

253

head and he can die peacefully. He becomes silent in order to experience fulfillment and peace. He is silent because perhaps he is already dead when Derek calls him. Q. 142The actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment is often much less than the sense of alienation felt by the person with disabilities. What is the kind of behaviour that the person expects from others? Both Mr Lamb and Derek suffer form physical impairment. Mr. Lamb has an artificial leg made of tin and Derek has a severely burnt face-both the experiences must have been terribly painful for the respective sufferers. However, we see that Derek suffers not just on account of the paid or inconvenience caused by his physical impairment but also from an acutely low self-regard, self-rejection and his notion of how much people hat him for being ugly. His loneliness and suffering are aggravated by his feeling that nobody loves him and wants him. He suffers pangs of alienation within his family, too. Even his mother, he believes kisses him not because she loves him but because she has to as a mother. In some way or the other this behavior of people like Derek stems from people's gross in difference to them, their hatred and dislike for handicaps and deformities and their utter lack of concern and compassion. The words of sympathy they utter are actually an expression of their fear of looking at somebody so ugly and horrible and not out of any genuine concern and empathy. The victims of impairment do not want empty words of sympathy and pity, for they feel more hurt when people continue to remind them unwittingly of their being handicapped and impaired. Instead

254

they need time and space in which they can leave behind their handicaps and live life as fully as possible. The best others can do for them is to accept that handicaps and impairment do occur in life and that they still can lead a highly productive and meaningful life. People must not make fun of other's handicaps and impairment and must never make a false display of their sympathy and concern for those braving any impairment. Instead they should help such people live as wonderful a life as possible by creating appropriate opportunities and environment. This is how Mr Lamb himself has successfully overcome his impairment and the consequent mental block and complexes. This is what he has done for Derek, too. Q. 143What is the significance of Derek' words, "I thought it was empty .. an empty house" in the play? Derek says these words to Mr Lamb when the latter sees him entering in his garden by climbing over the boundary wall. Mr lamb is not surprised at this because he is quite used to children coming to his garden to steal and eat apples, pears etc. But Derek has ventured into the garden out of curiosity. He had supposed that the garden was empty, but it was not. So when Mr Lamb accosts him, Derek is embarrassed and wants to go back but not before explaining that he had not come there to steal apples, an explanation Mr Lamb very readily accepts. Derek's words are significant in that they point out to his terrible sense of frustration, loneliness and 'isolation' on account of his severely burnt face. These words also prompt Mr Lamb to spill out his loneliness, too, towards the end of the first scene. They go a long way in Mr Lamb's, (and the reader's) understanding of Derek's

255

character and Mr Lamb's subsequent efforts in helping Derek come out his inferiority complex, poor self-regard and self-rejection. These words are a bitter reminder of the bitterness that has crept into Derek's mind due to other people's dislike and hatred for his ugly face. They are a desperate cry of a fourteen year old boy for love and acceptance.

7.EVANS TRIES AN O-LEVEL


-Colin Dexter

In 'Evans Tries An O-Level' Colin Dexter describes how Evans proves that all attempts of the prison officers like Jackson and Stephens and good-for-agiggle Governor failed to stop him from escaping. All precautions have been made to see that O-Level German examination in prison arranged for Evans doesn't provide him with a means of escape. But in spite of all this, it is Evans who has the last laugh.

Q. 144 What kind of a person was Evans?

Ans

Evans was a habitual and 'congenital kleptomaniac'. Currently he was serving a term in the Oxford Prison. He had been imprisoned earlier also and had broken jail thrice He was a master planner. He was very sociable and knew how to keep intimate contacts at the

256

right quarters. In the words of Governor, he was a pleasant sort of chap with no record of violence. Q. 145How o you account for the fact that Evans selected German only for his O-level examination. Ans One can find two obvious reasons for this choice. First of all he was the only candidate offering this subject and secondly he had an excellent rapport with the German tutor who would eventually be instrumental in his escape. So he rightly opts for German. Q. 146What different queries does the Secretary of the Examinations Board make from the Governor before conducting the examination for Evans and why? Ans Being apprehensive about the smooth and fair conduct of the examination and the safety of the invigilator, the Secretary enquired from the Governor regarding availability of a suitable room. He also wanted to know if the candidate was violent and whether he could be kept 'incommunicado.'
Q. 147 Why was Evans known as 'Evans the Break' by the prison officer ?

Ans

The prison officers call Evans, "Evans the Break' because he is a habitual jail breaker and before coming to Oxford Prison he has broken jail thrice. However, the expression also serves the dramatic purpose of giving a hint to the reader about the shape of things to come.

Q. 148 Why do you think Evans does not become conversant with German in spite of having been taught for more than six months? Ans Evans does not seem to have learnt much about German as the teacher has to explain the meaning of simple German expression like "Guten Gluck" (Good Luck)s. This is because the teacher was

257

an accomplice of Evans and as a matter fact; they were making plans for his escape from prison. Learning German was a non-issue. Q. 149Who were the two visitors Evans received in the morning of the day of his examination? Ans The two visitors Evans had at 8.30 a.m. on the day of the examination were the two prison officers namely Mr. Jackson, the senior prison officer of the Prison's D Wing and a burly, surlylooking man called Stephens, who had been only recently recruited.
Q. 150 Knowing fully well how sharp Evans is, shouldn't Jackson have

told him to remove his 'bobble hat' in his presence? Ans Jackson is credulous and gullible and believes Evans when he tells him that the 'Bobble hat' is a sort of a 'lucky charm' for him and may stand him in good stead during the examination. So he does not order Evans to remove it and thus commits a blunder, which costs him dearly later on.
Q. 151 What made Evans clip his hair short?

Ans

Evan's escape from the prison was a well thought of plan. The duplicate McLeery who was to invigilate during the O-level German examination had short hair. In order to give a practical shape to their plan Evan's hair had to look like McLeery's, hence Evans clipped them short.

Q. 152Which traits of Evans' character are exhibited form his understanding about Jackson that he had "a tiny core of compassion for him"? s Ans Evan's character analysis is superb. His psychological insight coupled with keen sense of observation makes him rightly analyse Jackson to be compassionate at heart, so he very correctly assesses that Jackson has "a tiny core of compassion for him".

258

Q. 153 Why do you think Jackson tells Evans, 'Nobody in his senses would take any chance with you '? Ans Brushing aside Evans's protest against bugging his cell, Jackson tells him that chances could not be taken with him as he had already broken the prison thrice and such a prisoner can never be depended upon. Q. 154Escape from the recreational Block would have been much easier. Why did Evans not try to escape from there? Ans Success of master-planning lies in surprise and doing the off-beat. When the prisoners are in the Recreation Room, all prison authorities must be extra alert. Evans wants to give an unexpected jolt to make his plan a success, so he does not try to escape from the Recreational Block. Q. 155Why did the Governor instruct Jackson to search McLeery? Ans The Governor asked Jackson to search MrLeery, the invigilator, just in case he has brought something unwittingly which might prove to be a potential weapon that Evans could use to hold him a as 'hostage and try escaping from prison. Q. 156McLeery had a small semi-inflated rubber ring. What explanation does McLeery give about it? What did it actually contain? Ans Regarding the small semi-inflated rubber ring, McLeery tells Jackson that he is suffering from hemorrhoids (piles) and the tube helps him when he has to sit for a long time. Actually, the tube contains pig's blood which was treated properly against coagulation.
Q. 157 The Governor granted Evans' request to shift Stephens from the cell

during the examination and it proved to be a big blunder. Do you agree? Support your answer?

259

Ans

Gullible as the Governor was, he saw logic in Evans' request to shift Stephens from the cell to avoid distraction for the examinee. Since all possible precautionary measures had been taken, the Governor saw no harm in conceding to the request. However, it proved to be big blunder as it gave opportunity to the criminals to successfully execute their escape-plan.

Q. 158Who do you think made a call regarding a correction in the question paper? What did it really want to convey? Ans At 9.40 a.m. the Governor got a call from the Assistant Secretary with special responsibility for modern languages regarding a correction in the question paper. Presumably, it was an accomplice of Evans in the office of the Secretary of the Examinations Board who wanted to tell Evans that after his escape from the prison he should go to Hotel Golden Lion. The information was meant for McLeery also.
Q. 159 What significance would you attach to the supposed phone call

from the Magistrates' Court? Was it genuine or just a ploy of Evans' gang? What was the purpose of the call? Ans The phone call was a hoax. The master planners had once again misled the gullible Governor by telling him that it was a call from the Magistrate's office demanding a prison van and a couple of prison officers in connection with a remand case. As a matter of fact the van was needed to make the final escape of Evans from the hotel possible. Q. 160Why did Evans drape a blanket round his shoulders? What did Stephens think about it? Ans In between intervals of Stephens' peeping into the cell, Evans was changing into the parson's dress to look like McLeery. However,

260

the top collar and the black front of the dress kept slipping off the stud. So, in order to conceal his efforts to keep them in place, Evans draped a blanket round his shoulder. Stephens was misled into believing that Evans was feeling cold. Q. 161Three minutes before the examination was to be over at 11.22 a.m. there is a call for Stephens from the Governor. Is the call genuine? What is the underlying idea behind the call? Ans The call was not genuine as the Governor tells later that at 11.22 a.m., he was busy trying to get in touch with the Examination branch. The underlying idea behind the call was to take Stephens away for some time to enable Evans to give finishing touches to his make up so that he looked like McLeery. Q. 162After having seen McLeery off, why did Stephens choose to have one last look at Evans? What did he see in the Cell? Ans Very conscientious and obsessive about his duties, Stephens decided to have one last look at Evans before going for a cup of coffee. A rude shock awaited him as he opened the peephole. He saw a man with short hair presumably McLeery in a poor of blood sprawling back in Evans's chair. Q. 163What did Evans (disguised as McLeery) tell the Governor when the latter offered to take him to the hospital? Why was the question paper shown to the Governor? Ans McLeery clamoured (demanded loudly) to be taken in the police van to follow Evans as he knew where he had gone. He insisted that he did not need to be hospitalized as he was all right. He showed the question paper to the Governor to impress upon him that Evans had befooled everybody.

261

Q. 164A photocopied sheet had been carefully and cleverly superimposed over the last (originally blank) page of the question paper. What was its real purpose? Ans The real purpose of the cleverly superimposed photocopied sheet on the question paper was to give the final details of the escapeplan to Evans. It was also meant to make the authorities believe that the wounded man was actually 'McLeery' and that he wanted to help them rearrest the escapee. Q. 165Jackson is really a 'Moron' and careless enough to mistake a stranger's voice on phone to be the Governor's. Discuss. Ans An officer, who is an important part of the prestigious Oxford Prison, should have kept his eyes and ears wide open and shown vigilance. His mistaking a stranger's voice on the phone to be the Governor's and calling Stephens excitedly shows how immature he is. He really is a moron, playing into the hands of the master planners.
Q. 166 Out of sheer frustration the Governor tells the police officer to take

the wounded man with him because, he's the only one 'who seems to know what's happening.' Don't you think by doing so he is behaving like a moron himself ?s Ans The wounded man, Evans, is right before him. Agreed he is disguised as McLeery, but the Governor who has spend a number of years in this line should have learnt to examine criminals minutely rather than getting flustered. Thus he plays the greater moron than his subordinates by letting Evans escape. Q. 167Who is Carter? What does the Governor want him to do and why? Ans Carter is the detective Superintendent whom the Governor has summoned after the supposed escape of Evans. Governor wants

262

him to accompany the injured man as he is the only one who seems to know what's happening and may be in a position to help in locating the escapee. Q. 168By presuming that Evans had kept the "clerical paraphernalia" hidden in the cell, what obvious blunder is the Governor committing? Ans The Governor is still taking everything on its face value and is thinking the thoughts fed to him by the criminals. It is surprising that even, the most seasoned officer does not doubt the antecedents of McLeery and fails to come to the conclusion that McLeery is an accomplice of Evans and it is he who has smuggled in the clerical paraphernalia. Q. 169"Careless leaving that question paper behind .." Was it really careless on the part of Evans to have left the question paper in the cell? Ans It was certainly not a careless blunder. Everything was a part of the master plan to confound the prison authorities, particularly the Governor. He was allowed to trace Evans because the planners knew that they have a cover for every eventuality and in the long run Evans leaves the Governor wringing his hands and runs away. Q. 170Is the Governor justified in considering Jackson as a stupid person? Ans The Governor is not justified is considering Jackson as a stupid person because he himself has become a victim of the master plan of Evans and his accomplices. He wrongly believes that Jackson has searched the cell carelessly and has failed to notice the clerical paraphernalia and a weapon hidden there. Q. 171 In spite of strict vigilance, how did Evans' friend manage to give the material for disguise in the cell?

263

Ans

Despite all vigilance, Evans' friend disguised as McLeery, the invigilator, managed to smuggle the disguise material into the cell with ingenuity. He came wearing two person's dresses with black fronts and collars. Apart from it he also brought an extra pair of spectacles with 'pebble lenses.' All this was passed on to Evans when Stephenss vigilant eyes were watching from the peep-hole.

Q. 172 How did the Governor mange to reach Evans in the hotel? Ans The Governor finally realized that it was Evans who had gone out with Carter and that he was impersonating McLeery. He thought about the six digit reference (index number and center no. 313/271), put the two together and with the help of 'Ordnance Survey Map for Oxford shire' reached the hotel.
Q. 173 When Evans enters the hotel room after having had a stroll, he

finds the Governor sitting comfortably in the room. On seeing him he feels he 'has just caught a glimpse of the Gorgon." Is his surprise genuine or feigned? Give reason in support of your answer? Ans The surprise is feigned because Evans himself had left the question paper and the correction slip in the cell that led the Governor to the hotel; as a matter of fact Evans was expecting him in the hotel. However, he pretended to be caught unaware to befool the gullible good-for-a-giggle Governor still further. Q. 174Who do you think is the drive of the van who eventually takes Evans to freedom? Ans The driver of the prison van who finally throws dust into the eyes of the Governor and leads Evans to freedom is McLeery because whenever he utters a word; the writer does not fail to add that he spoke in a 'broad Scots accent." The driver too has a 'broad Scots

264

accent.' Hence there is hardly any doubt about McLeery being the driver.
Q. 175 When Stephens Comes back to the cell he jumps to a conclusion

and the whole machinery blindly goes by his assumption without even checking the identity of the injured 'Mcleery". Does this show how hasty conjectures can prevent one from seeing the obvious? How is the criminal able to predict such negligence? Ans Hasty conclusion and conjectures can blind and rob one of one's discretionary faculty. They steer the course of one's thinking into a particular direction, logical or otherwise. Thus, when Stephens hastily concluded that Evens had made good his escape, after wounding Mcleery not even the most experienced officer saw the whole incident, in any other light. The entire machinery, including the Governor, sympathized with the supposedly injured McLeery, sprawling in a pool of blood. Smart, far-sighted, calculating and scheming as Evans was, he had expected such a reaction from this pack of a 'good-for-a-giggle' officers. He knew they would not use their brains and would see the whole incident with Stephens' eyes. Having a good psychological insight and being an experienced hand in working out such maneouvers, Evans could predict such negligence on their part. Q. 176While we condemn the crime, we are sympathetic to the criminal. Is this the reason why prison staff develops a soft corner for those in custody? Ans Crime is condemnable, but not the criminal. Nobody is a born criminal and invariably circumstances lead a person to crime. Most of the prisoners in custody have one pitiable story or the other to tell. Thus the prison staff, who meet the convicts daily and

265

constantly interact with them develop a rapport with the prisoner. With the passage of time they begin to identify themselves with their pains and suffering and usually become sympathetic towards them. They tend to ignore their irregularities and do some apparently harmless favours to them. Something similar has transpired between Evans and the Oxford Prison authorities, particularly the Governor and Jackson. The Governor has great regard for Evans' intelligence and his presence of mind and in the author's words Evans and Jackson are 'warm enemies' and that somewhere in his heart Jackson had a tiny core of compassion for Evans. Thus both have a soft corner for Evans. Their sympathetic attitude towards Evans proves that though against crime they had no aversion for the criminal.

266

8. MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD
-ZITKALA-SA AND BAMA.

This unit presents a good account of two autobiographical episodes pertaining to the lives of the two women. Both women belong to the marginalized communities. In the first account there is a Native American woman, born in the late nineteenth country while the other is by a contemporary Tamil Dalit writer. The Cutting of My Long Hair is the first part in which Gertrude Simmons Bonin describes her heart-sending and woeful tali of cutting her long and beautiful hair. She is dragged meralissly though the goes on crying making forceful requests not to adopt such harsh attitude. According to the Indian tradition the cutting of hair is worn either by the mourners or cowards. In those days there was a reverse hatred and prejudice towards the Native American cuture and women. Zitkala-sa wrote articles criticizing the unsocial dogmas, prejudices and discrimination prevalent in the society. In We Too Are Human Beings Bama is the pen name of Tamil Dalit women from a Roman Catholic family. She has published three main works on autobiography Karukku(1992), a novel Sangati(1994) and a collection of short stories Kisumbukkaaron (1996). This is the excerpt taken from Karukku that mean palmyra Leaves which are like double edged sords. By a feticitous pum, The Tamil word Karukku containing the word Karu, embryo, or seed also means freshness and newness. She also suffers from inequality and caste discrimination.

MAIN POINTS 1. THE CUTTING OF MY LONG HAIR (i). In the Breakfast Hall, Gertrude simmons taken to Carlisle Indian school, feed first day an embarrassing, Breakfast sell sings, girls appear in the dining room in stiff shoes and tight fitting dresses, unknown to the table manners, feels uncomfortable, watched by a strange

267

woman. Third bell sings, everyone picks up his knife end fork. (ii). Cutting the long hair Pale face women talks about long hair of Zudewin and Zitkala-Sa, Judewin requests to submit & discuss their fate, Zitkala-Sa decides not to submit but struggle. (iii). Shingling the long hair Zitkala-Sa creeps up the stairs, enter a large room unnoticed, gets herself hidden in dim room, everybody looks for her, women, girls enter the room, search and drag out, carried downstairs, tied fast in a chair, cried & resisted, at last gave in, long hair shingled like cowards, None to console her. 2. WE TOO ARE HUMAN BEINGS- BAMA.
(i). FEELING THE UNTOUCHABILITY- not yet heard people

speak of untouchability, certain small events made her feel untouchability, enjoyed all sights on her way to school. Sees the landlord watching threshing activity, community people at work, Bama watches everything, just then sees an elder carrying green banana bhaji held by string without touching, elder goes to the landlord, bends low; extends the packet, landlord starts eating, Bama narrates the incident at home, her brother Annan explains the man from a lower caste & landlord from the upper caste, everybody believes they would be polluted if touched by the low caste people.
(ii). SIGHT OF A LANDLORD(iii).

HER REALIZATION- Bama in a rebellious mood, why

poor people bow before the rich; cruel persons, feelings of human beings matters a little that they had amassed some money & poor should bow before them.

268

(iv).

HER BROTHERS ADVICE- Birth in this community

never ives dignity, stripped of all that, study & progress can throw away these indignities, work hard & learn left deep impression on Bama, devoted to her studies and stood first in class, people became friends, hard work helped Bama fight against inequality.

SHORT ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS[SOLVED] Word limit- (30-40 words)


Who was Zitkala-Sa? Where was she born? Ans. She was native-American Indian woman. She suffered discrimination on the basis of her caste and nationality. She belonged to a marginalized community. What does Zitkala-Sa mean by Eating by Formula?. Ans. It means a set pattern of eating. There go three small bell at fixed intervals mean for completion of different activities before students start eating. After a man addresses, the eating will start. 3- The Lesson depicts two different accounts of two distinct cultures. Write down the commonality of theme between the two. Ans. The first account refers to a bitter prejudice against the Native Americans by the white skinned European settlers. They treated them as herds of animals. In the second account, a Tamil Dalit woman felt perturbed to see the upper caste people humiliating lower caste people. 4- What advices did Annan give to Bama to get honour and dignity for her people?. Ans. Annan advised Bama to Study hard and learn all she could since aducation was the only thing to do away with all inequalities. She did the same and attained repute.

269

5- How did Bama feel when Annan told her about untouchability? Ans. Bama was restless and upset to see harsh treatment for dalits. It was disgusting to consider some human beings as untouchables. She hated the discrimination. 6- What is the theme of the extract The cutting of my Long Hair?. Ans. The narrator was Native American (Red Indian) woman. She was a victim of severe prejudice which prevailed against Native American culture and woman. She had long heavy braids of hair which was not permitted in the school. Her, hair were cut short. The extract is a protest- against that oppression. 7- What does the little WE TOO ARE HUMAN BEINGS denote? Ans. The narrator recalls her childhood days. She saw, felt and experienced humility of being untouchable. The event of an elder from her community who bends low before a landlord upset her. She felt sad, disgusted and angry. She wanders why the elders of her community should serve the upper caste landlords. 8- What does the little of the unit; Memories of Childhood bring to light? Ans. This unit presents autobiographical episodes from the lives of two women. Both are from backward communities. Their childhood gives us a picture of their relationship with the previliged classes. The first account is by an American Indian woman, the second is by a Tamil Dalit writer. There is commonality of theme in both of them, the element of oppression and injustice.

270

LONG ANS. TYPE QUESTIONS (SOLVED)

1. How did Annan advise his sister Bama regarding untouchability and what was its effect on her?
Ans.- Bama narrated the funniest scene of an elder man holding

the packet by the strings. He bowed down before the Landlord. This made Bama much angry. She thought that they were also human beings like other human beings. Bamas elder brother was a University student. He told Bama that they were born into the community of untouchables. They were never given honour, respect, dignity and recognition. He advised her if they worked hard and studied with care they can go a long way. They can shun out all discrimination and other cast inequalities since all are human beings. He encouraged Bama to study hard to gain dignity and friends. His words had a magical effect, many people became her friends.
2. What did Zitkala-Sa do when she came to know that they were

going to shingle her hair out? How was she overpowered? Ans.- Zitkala-sa was an American Indian girl. She was troubled, perturbed and embarrassed in her school since she was quite unknown to the white peoples ways. When the dining started, she ran upstairs as her friend Judewin had informed her about the intentions of school authorities to cut the long hair of the students. She decided to struggle hard herself under a bed in a dim room. There the windows were covered with dark green curtains. She lay huddled in Dark corner. Soon she heard voices calling her names. Woman and girls entered the room. The room was filled with light. But she was dragged downstairs and tied fast in a chair. She cried loud and shock her head, forcefully they took the scissors and Zitkala-Sa felt the blades scissors against her neck. She heard them cut off one of her thick braids. Zitkal-Sa

271

lost her spirit and stopped struggling. But none came to console her.

Questions For Practice


Short answer type questions (30-40 words)

1. What warning did Judewin give to Zitkala-Sa?


2. What did Zitkala-Sa do to escape from the ordeal of having the

hair shingled? 3. What are the indignities she had been subjected to after being taken away from her mother? 4. What did it take Bama half an hour to reach home? 5. What is the secret of success in Bamas life?

Long Ans. Type Questions (Unsolved) 1. How did Zitkala-Sa resist in the cutting of My Long Hair? How did she fed after her hair been shingled out? 2. How does Bama represent the issue of untouchability in the lesson,Memories of my childhood? How does she get success? 3. What evidence do you find that Zitkala-Sa was totally unaccustomed to the ways of the whites?

272

English Core Code No. : 301 Class XII Sample Question Paper- I
Time Allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 100

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:
(i) The paper is divided into three Sections-A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory, (ii) Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully. (iii) Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions. (iv) Please write down the serial number of the question in the answer sheet before attempting it. SECTION-A (READING SKILLS) 20 Marks

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 12
1. The youth is a dynamo, an ocean, an inexhaustible reservoir of

energy. But this energy cannot be held in prison. Its basic

273

nature is to flow, to express itself. The youth energy on the basis of the nature of its expression can be divided into four categories.
2. The

vast majority of the youth today are with the life is learn, earn, burn and and

establishment, whose formula of

enjoy. It means that learn to operate the modern devices

employ them to earn the maximum amount of wealth to the point of burning the natural resources of the earth, as well as yourself out, and then enjoy your own funeral. This category of youth is intelligent, skilful and hardworking but it lacks insight and foresight. They are self-indulgent and any sense of a moral code of conduct is alien to their nature and something foreign to their texture and way of life. Neither are they able to see in depth, to find out whether there is a deeper meaning and purpose to their human life, nor have they the capacity to look beyond the tips of their nose to find out the consequences of their way and approach, where it is leading them to. They are the ends unto themselves and enjoyment is the motto life.
3. The second category of youth in nature and approach is the

of their

same but as it is less privileged and less qualified and skilled, it has lesser opportunities for earning and enjoying. Such youth rebel against the establishment for this gross injustice being meted out to them. This opposition takes various forms. When it is well organised and systematic it may take the form of political opposition and even go to the extent of expressing itself in violent ways. The various insurgent and terrorist

274

groups the

world over are its manifestations. When the it remains content

opposition is not so intense and organised,

with giving verbal expression to its resentment periodically.


4. The third section of youth is a sober and thoughtful class of

people, which objectively observes and studies the phenomenon of development and trend of the world. These youth find that man in his insatiable thirst for consumption has become blind and lost the sense of distinction between milk and blood. Today man in his mad rush for exploitation is sucking the blood of mother earth and nature, leading to their destruction and is thereby digging his own grave. This responsible category of young people is looking for an alternative model of development based on co-operation between man and man. This development based on mutual love, friendship and harmony is not only sustainable but leading to endless prosperity mutually. To bring about his natural revolution from death-movement to life-movement is the aim of this group.

5. The fourth and most vital group of youth which is going to

usher humanity into the third millennium and act as the pioneer for the future development of planetary life is engaged in evolving a new way of life and releasing a new principle of global consciousness through a fundamental research in the science of life. The science of life is a new branch (rather, stem or tree) of knowledge which takes the whole man into account without dividing him into subjective and objective halves of spirituality and physicality and does not treat him either as a refined (thinking) animal or an

275

ethereal entity, having its base in some other non-physical world. It, rather, recognises man as a basic unit of conscious life which has got immense, practically inexhaustible, possibilities and potentialities for evolution, development and growth. As per the Vedic formula, man is the mircoin his cosmos and his fullest flowering and unfoldment lies identification with the cosmos.
6. This is the perfection of human life which leads to the

realisation and establishment of harmony and order between man and God, the divine, between man and nature, the earth and between man and man, the entire creation. To the extent and degree this new order enforces itself, the old disorder and chaotic jumble created by mutilated vision of man recedes. This process paves the way for the new and golden dawn tomorrow with the advent of the third millennium.
7. This is a period of transition unprecedented in human history

where an old order,

because of inherent contradictions, is vision and a

collapsing and a new one on the wings of a new

creative spirit is emerging, leading to the birth of a new world in a new age. The burden of this golden future is being borne by the sons of humanity, the sons of the earth and the fathers of Gods that'our youth are. This is their privilege, this is their glory, this is their destiny. The youth is overwhelmed with this bestowment of grace in the form of the crown of divine responsibility placed on his head by the time. At the same time he is proud and confident of carrying his mission of establishing

276

a new life order to utter fulfilment in the third millennium. May God bless the divine flower of mother earth. J.N. Puri: 'The Tribune' 1.1 Answer the following questions briefly: (i) What is the most prominent quality associated with youth? 1 (ii) Explain the formula learn, earn, burn and enjoy'. 2 (iii) Give the merits and defects of the pro establishment youth. 2 (iv) How does the energy of youth rebelling against government express itself? 1 (v) What is modern man doing? How does the sensitive youth react to it? (v) How is humanity likely to be ushered in a new millennium? 1
1.2

Find words in the above passage which convey a similar meaning as the following: 3

(i) rebellious (Para 3) 1 (ii) that cannot be satisfied (Para 4) 1

277

(iii) spirituaiyfairly like (Para 5) 1

2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 8 The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came to the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, cancer of intestinal tract, piles, obesity, diabetes, hiatus hernia, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones. These dietary fibres include cellulose hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, plant gums and mucilages. All these dietary fibres have a and chemical specific chemical structure but varying physical insoluble in water. The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbages, green pears etc. leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches,

properties. Some of these are water soluble, whereas the other are

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because

278

of it these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. undergo fermentation in the colon. In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. These are many reported beneficial on experimental effects attributed to the dietary fibres are based The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may

evidence and epidemiological data. These beneficial effects in prevent ing coronary heart disease may differ in exhibiting the properties but the mechanism of its action is attributed to its binding to bile salts and preventing its reabsorption and in decreasing cholesterol level in the circulation. These fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are often recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the "methi" seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are containing vegetables. Since dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon, the diet having less fibres is fibres may play a associated with colon cancer and the dietary role in decreasing the risk of it. The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. relieves constipation. Therefore, high fibres intake prevents or effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum-

279

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time, there is less time for exposure Therefore, there is less Pectin, mucilages of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. time for bacteria to produce harmful substances.

and gums retard gastic empting. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the requirement range. This phenom high-fibre diets have enon helps in keeping a check on is that the of lower co-efficients obesity. Another reason, in helping to decrease obesity somewhat

digestibility. Thus, the net energy released to the body is a little less than that from other diets containing high animal foods. The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, their proper absorbtion. zinc and others and, therefore, preventing proportions of

This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency, especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres.

The procedure adopted for dietary fibres estimation is cumbersome and complicated and the values may depend upon the method used. All values for dietary fibre may be which can be chemically defined. considered as approximate. This is because dietary fibres are not a single entity It is suggestted that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable. -Rakesh Singh, The Tribune'

280

2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings 5 and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations-minimum of four (wherever necessary).

2.2 Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words. Also give a suitable title to it. 3

SECTION-B (ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS) MARKS


3. Sumit Bandopadhaya of 38, Salt Lake, Kolkata wishes to sell pet dogs. He drafts an advertisement for publication in the Classified Ads 'Dogs & Kennels' section of a newspaper. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words giving the details of breeds of dogs, their age, number, range of rates and contact address. 5 OR The International Book Fair is being held at Pragati Maidan between 14 Nov.-19 Nov. 2004. As the school librarian write a notice informing students about it. 4. You are Mani Aiyyar of 19, Red Cross Road, Trichy. You have just seen an autorickshaw full of school children overturn as it is hit by a speeding truck. Write a report for a local newspaper including details of number of people injured and the extent of damage caused. (Word limit: 100-125 words) 10

35

281

OR You are Sunil Joshi, Head boy, City School Bangalore. The new wing of your school has just been converted into a study centre, comprising a spacious library and well furnished reading rooms. New books have also been added. The Editor of your school magazine has asked you to write a factual description of the library including details like its seating capacity, facilities and the kind of books available. (Word limit 100-125 words) 5. Vinod Pinto sees an advertisement for career counselling in vocational courses. He wants to know more about the various vocational courses available after S.S.C.E. So he decides to write a letter to Digital Informatics, 25, Temple Road, Indore to find out more details about the courses available, fees, timings, mode of payment etc. Write this letter. 10 OR You are really concerned about the ways in which the advertisements in the media are targeting children for their own ends. As Sudhanshu, of 123 Diplomatic Enclave, New Delhi, write to the Editor of The Hindustan Times protesting strongly against this hard core marketing. 6. Priya sees a group of women protesters demanding reservation for women. At home she notices pampering of boys by mothers. She feels pained at the gender bias and decides to write an article on 'fair treatment to girl child' for a social magazine 'Outlook' (Word limit: 200 words) 10

282

OR During this morning stroll his hears anxious parents deliberating about the problems of their wards who are to take the public exam shortly. At school canteen, he finds the ' harassed teenagers complaining of their parents' phobia for better marks in examination. He ponders on the question for whom are examination so tryingparents or students? Write Mohit's article on the Burden of examinations on parents and children for the school magazine 'Dawn' in not more than 200 words.

SECTION-C (TEXTBOOKS) MARKS


7 (a). And such too is the grandeur of the dooms We have imagined for the mighty dead; All lovely tales that we have heard or read; An endless fountain of immortal drink, Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink Questions (a) Name the poem and the poet of these lines. 1 (b) Explain: 'the grandeur of the dooms'. 1 (c) What is lovelier than "all lovely tales that we have heard or read"? 1 (d} What is the source of the 'endless fountain of immortal drink'? 1 OR On sour cream walls, donations. Shakespeare's head,

45

283

Cloudless at dawn, civilized dome riding all cities. Belled, flowery, Tyrolese valley. Open-handed map Awarding the world its world.

QUESTIONS
(a) What is the colour of the classroom walls? What does this colour suggest? 1 (b) What do these classroom walls have? 1 (c) Which two worlds does the poet hint at? How is the contrast between the two worlds presented? ?

(b). Answer any three of the following in about 30-40 words each: 2x3 = 6 (a) Why are the young trees described as 'sprinting'? (b) What alternative does Pablo Neruda suggest instead of indulging in wars? (c) How will cunning and greedy people soothe the rustics out of their wits? (d) What do you learn about Aunt Jennifer's tigers on reading the poem?

284

8. Answer the following in about 30-40 words each:2x5 = 10


(a) How would you regard Mukesh's father's life and achievement? (b) How far had Franz progressed in French? What factors were responsible for this? (c) How did Douglas initially feel when he went to the Y.M.C.A. pool? What made him feel comfortable? (d) How did the Indian peasants react to the new agreement releasing them from sharecropping arrangement? (e) What explanation does the author offer for Subbu having enemies? 9. Give an account of the peddler's meeting with the old crofter. How does the peddler conduct himself? .What light does this episode throw on human nature? 10 OR How does Umberto Eco pursue his philosophical and academic interests? How does he make use of 'interstices' ? What are the distinguishing features of his non-fictional style? 10

10. How can you say that Dr Sadao's father was a Japanese to the core? 7 OR What problem did Roger Skunk have? How was it solved?

285

11. Answer the following in about 30-40 words each: 2x4 =8 (a) What did the note inside the first-day cover reveal? (b) How did the Dewan react to the Maharaja's declaration: "I have, decided to get married"? (c) Why does the author call her two-week stay in Antarctica ca chilling prospect'? (d) How, according to Mr Lamb, can one overcome sense of hurt or humiliation caused by remarks at one's physical disability?

286

English Core Code No. : 301 Class XII Sample Question Paper- I Marking Scheme
ANSWERS
1.1 (i) The most prominent quality associated with youth is energy. (ii) It means 'learn' to operate the modern devices, 'enjoy' one's own funeral. (iii) They are intelligent, skilful and hardworking but they lack insight and foresight. Being think deeper. (iv) It may take the form of political opposition. Sometimes these rebels become violent and activities. ( v ) Modern man is exploiting mother earth and nature to the extent of their destruction and consequently his own. The sensitive youth are looking for an alternative model of development based on mutual love, friendship, co-operation and harmony. indulge in insurgent and terrorist self-indulgent they do not follow any joys and do not moral code of conduct. They are confined to present 'earn' wealth by

employing them, 'burn' the natural resources as well as oneself and

287

(vi) Humanity is likely to be ushered into the third millennium by evolving a new way of life and releasing a new principle of global in the science of life. consciousness through a fundamental research 1.2 (i) insurgent (ii) insatiable (Hi) ethereal.

2.1 Notes

1. Defn. of dietary fibres 2. Importance


(a) low incidence of .ieart liseases and cancer (b) removes constij>ation (c) checks obesity, diabetes, caries etc.

3. Characteristics
(a) include cellulose, lignin, pectin etc. (b) specific chem. structure (c) solubility (i) some sol in water (ii) others insoluble in H 2O

4. Sources
(a) cereals and grains, legumes (b) fruits with seeds, citrus fruits (c) carrots, cabbages, green leafy vegs.

288

5. Properties
(a) not digested/absorbed by enzymes of stomach/small intestines (b) hold water - get swollen - act like sponge (c) add bulk to diet - increase transit time in the gut (d) undergo fermentn in the colon.

6. Action Mechanism
(a) bind bile salts - prevent reabsorptn (b) decrease cholesterol level in circuln (c) decrease post prandial glucose level in blood

7. Adverse Effects
(a) preventg absorpon of metals (b) nutritional deficiency - lesser minerals

ROLE OF DIETARY FIBRES


Dietary fibres are indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods, which result in low incidence of many diseases. These fibres include cellulose, lignin, pectin, plant gums and mucilages. They have a specific chemical structure but different physical and chemical j properties. Some, are soluble in water while others are insoluble. Cereals and grains, legumes, fruit with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbages and green leafy vegetables are rich in fibres. Being indigestible they add bulk to diet and increase transit time in the

289

intestines. Since they hold water, they get swollen and act like sponge. Some fibres undergo fermentation in colon. They bind bile salts and prevent its reabsorption. They also decrease cholestoral level and glucose level in blood. Since they prevent absorption of metals and minerals increased dietary fibres may result in nutritional deficiency.

290

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENT DOGS & KENNELS


Adult Pekinese and Dachshund, Scotch Terrier Pups, nine in all, three each of a breed are available for sale. Age of pups - 3 to 6 and inoculated, both months; adult dogs 1V to 2 years - fully trained

male and female, imported blood line. Only genuine dog lovers need Contact: Sumit Bandopadhayay, 38, Salt Lake, Kolkata. Second Option

NOTICE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY FOR Book-lovers

The International Book Fair is being organised at Pragati Maidan as per details given below: Dates Time : 14 Nov. to 19 Nov. 200X

: 2 pm to 9 pm

Latest publications and rare books will be on display. All students are requested to attend. Chetan Swaroop 9 Nov. 2006 Librarian

291

4.

SPEEDING TRUCK HITS AND RUNS


Mani Aiyyar

Trichy, 7 March In yet another hit and run accident, a speeding truck struck against an autorickshaw full of school children. The head of driver of the auto bumped into the wind screen. As he lost control, the vehicle overturned and the road was littered with bags, books, waterbottles etc. A number of children were thrown off and two hit the railing on the pavement. People rushed to save them. Fortunately they had received only minor injuries. The truck driver utilised the opportunity and sped away. Second Option

THE NEW STUDY CENTRE


Sunil Joshi, Head boy

The school has added another feather to its cap by converting the new wing to a Study Centre comprising a spacious hall for library with 90 stacks of open shelves and about 60,000 books. The three reading rooms are well furnished with moulded chairs, gloss-top tables and velvety carpets. One of the reading rooms is for newspapers and periodicals. The other is for the faculty members. The third is reserved for self-study where we can carry our books and read. All the reading rooms are welllit and have curtains to ward off the heat. The covers of newly arrived books are displayed on a notice-board. The magazines and periodicals

292

have their beautiful, transparent covers and are placed at specifc places and stands. Since the open shelf system has been introduced, it has become easier to locate the books. In case it is not on the shelf, it can be requisitioned with the help of catalogue card. The librarian is ever ready to help us.

5. First Option: Attempt yourself.


Second Option .

123 Diplomatic Enclave New Delhi

The Editor

The Hindustan Times


New Delhi IS March, 200X Sir Sub: Hard Core Marketing Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I wish to draw the attention of the authorities strategies. Advertisements are launched in such a way that children are the targets of the advertised goods. Consumerism has made inroads to such an extent that all out efforts are made to entice them into and parents to the malpractices that are being carried on by the media under the guise of marketing

293

becoming prospective consumers. Then there are numerous awards attached to schemes - all very dear to the hearts of young children. Parents who love and fondle their children yield to their insistence. The child and through him the parents are easily exploited by the advertisers of sports goods, shoes, confectionaries, textiles, fast food and fizzy drink Manufacturers. I think, before approving the advertisements for public display the authorities should take note of its precise effect on children and check the errant agencies from committing such Yours truly Sudhanshu malpractices.

6.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

For centuries the girl child has been a victim of misplaced notions and an object of ridicule and discrimination. Even educated people consider boys superior to girls because they are stronger physically, mentally and emotionally. The mothers fondle, cajole and coax the boys and scold the equally intelligent, and rather more industrious girls due to the misconceived notion that the family propagates only with the male child. These orthodox and retrograde views have forced the grown up women to raise the banner of protest and demand reserva tion for women. In fact, women are so suppressed and depressed in the countryside that any project of women uplift is impossible without giving them special treatment. It is only in the elite urban groups that the feats of girls

294

and women are applauded. In the educated middle

classes we find

girls and women competing with boys and men in every sphere studies, jobs, administration or politics. Yet, the condition of girls in 60% urban homes and 90% rural homes is still pitiable. Our constitution provides for equality of sexes and no discrimination or gender bias should thwart the progress of girl child. We have to change the social milieu and force the traditional, orthodox, retrograde and backward looking people to change their point of view and treat boys and girls equally by providing them equal opportunities for studies, creative sensibilities and developing physical stamina. They will find the girl child more hardworking, patient and understanding. Second Option

EXAMINATION PHOBIA
Examinations are an ordeal, a hellfire for the children as well as their dear parents. They do not welcome it, yet they have to face this necessary evil year after year. The aspirations of the children are high and the parents are so involved with the performance of their wards in examination that both are tense. Since the portals of higher education and technical / professional education are open to students with good grades, parents expect their children to perform wonderfully well in the examination. They try to egg their wards on by indulging in comparisons of the attainments of their siblings with those of their friends or neighbours. Thus they cause a psychological strain on themselves besides overburdening and harassing their children. In their myopic state they forget that only one student can top the class. Every child cannot get the highest

295

marks in each subject. Sometimes these pressures drive students the brink of mental breakdown. Many students commit suicide because they fear that their performance may not match their parents' expectations. The need is to inculcate proper and potential.

to

perspective in parents

as well as students. Let the students try to display their real talent

7(a). (a) The poem is


(

A Thing of Beauty'. The poet is John Keats.

(b) The magnificence that we imagine for our mighty dead forefathers on the dooms day. (c) The beauty of daffodils, rills and musk-rose is more enchanting than all lovely stories that we have heard or read. (d) The endless fountain of nectar (immortal drink) pours into us from the heavenly bliss of nature. Second Option (a) The colour of the classroom walls is 'sour cream' or off white. This colour suggests the decaying aspect and pathetic condition of the lives of the children in a slum-school. (b) The walls of the classroom have pictures of Shakespeare, buildings with domes, world maps and beautiful valleys.

296

(c) The poet hints at two worlds: the world of poverty, misery and malnutrition of the slums where children are underfed, weak and progress and prosperity have stunted growth. The other world is of

peopled by the rich and the powerful. The pictures on the wall suggesting happiness, richness, well being and beauty are in stark contrast to the dim and dull slums. (b). (a) The poet is driving to the Cochin airport. When she looks outside, the young trees seem to be walking past them. With the sprinting. The poet speed of the car they seem to be running fast or trees. (b) Instead of indulging in wars, the people must come out in their best dresses with their brothers. They should go out for a walk under nothing. the shady trees and enjoy themselves doing

presents a contrasther 'dozing* old mother and the 'sprinting' young

(c) The greedy people will pose as 'good-doers'. They will swarm over the lives of the poor rural folk. They will make plans to extract more cruel than the maximum profit from them. These people are

wild beasts of prey. Their only aim is to mint money and earn huge profits by befooling the innocent rural people. They will themselves 'sleep all day' but 'destroy their sleeping at night'. (d) Aunt Jennifer's tigers were created in the panel by her own hands. They appeared to be prancing (.jumping) across a screen. topaz. They were They looked sleek. They were bright like yellow They paced in 'chivalric certainty'.

majestic and courageous. They didn't fear the men beneath the tree.

297

8. (a) Mukesh's father was born in the caste of bangle-makers. His father went blind with the dust from polishing the glass of bangles. He is an old and poor bangle maker. He has worked hard for long years, first as a tailor and then as a bangle maker. He has failed to renovate a house or send his two sons to school. (b) Franz hardly knew how to write. He had not learnt his lessons properly. He wasted time on seeking birds' eggs or going sliding on the Saar. Books seemed a nuisance to him and a burden to carry. He had put off learning till the next day thinking he had plenty of time. (c) Unpleasant memories of the past were revived and childish fears were stirred. In a little while he gathered confidence. He paddled with his new water wings. He watched the other boys and tried to imitate them. He did so two or three times on different days. He began to feel comfortable. (d) The sharecropping arrangement was troublesome to the peasants. Many of them signed the new agreement willingly. Some resisted and engaged lawyers. Then they came to know about synthetic indigo. The peasants wanted their, money back. (e) The author suggests that it might be because of his intimacy with the Boss or because his general demeanour resembled that of a sycophant. It may have been due to his readiness to say nice things about everything. 9. One dark evening the peddler reached a little gray cottage by the roadside. He knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. The

298

owner, an old man without wife or child, welcomed

him. He was

happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness. He served him hot porridge for supper and gave him tobacco for his pipe. Then he played cards with him till bed time. The host told the peddler that in his days of prosperity he worked on land at Ramsjo Ironworks. Now his cow supported him. He sold her milk at the creamery everyday. He showed the peddler the thirty kroner notes he got as payment that month. Then he hung the leather pouch on a nail in the window frame. Next morning the crofter went to milk the cow, and the peddler went away. However, he returned after half an hour, broke the window pane, took the money out of the leather pouch and put it back on the nail. This episode shows that in loneliness, human beings crave for company, for social bonding. Secondly, temptations can overpower the greatest philosopher. The peddler who calls the world a rattrap is himself tempted by thirty kronor.

299

SECOND OPTION
Umberto Eco has many philosophical interests. He pursues them through his academic works and novels. Even his books for children are about non-violence and peace. They are the same bunch of ethical and philosophical interests. Eco has written more than 40 scholarly nonfictional works. Among them is a seminal work on semiotics. He prefers to be called an academician. He participates in academic conferences and not in the meetings of pen clubs and writers. He identifies himself with the academic community. He declares that he is a university professor who writes novels on Sundays. Umberto Eco shares a secret with the interviewer. He thinks that if we eliminate the empty spaces from the universe the world will shrink. It will become as big as a fist. Similarly we have a lot of empty spaces or interstices in our lives. He works in these empty spaces and uses them to his advantage. Umberto Eco has evolved a distinct non-fictional style. It is different from the regular academic style which is usually 'depersonalised and often dry and boring.' Padmanabhan finds a certain playful and personal quality about his scholarly work. Eco admits that his essays have a narrative aspect. This narrative style of his scholarly works was fully developed later on in his novels 10. Dr Sadao's father had high dreams about the future of Japan. There was no limit to their future as it depended on what they made it. He never played or joked with his only son. But he spent infinite pains upon him. For the sake of the best possible medical education, he sent

300

his son to America. Sadao met Hana there, but waited to fall in love with her until he was sure she was Japanese. His father would never have received her unless she had been pure in her race. Their marriage was arranged in the old Japanese way only after Sadao's father had seen her when both of them had come home to Japan after finishing their education. He was a Japanese every inch. The floor of his room was deeply matted. He would never sit on a chair or sleep in a foreign bed in his house. The quilt was covered with flowered silk and the lining was pure white silk. In short, everything here had been Japanese to please him.

SECOND OPTION
Roger Skunk smelled very badin fact so bad that none of the other little woodland creatures would play with him. Whenever Roger Skunk went out to play, all the other tiny animals would cry: 'Uh-oh, here comes Roger Stinky Skunk/ Then they would run away. Roger Skunk would stand there all alone. Two little round tears would fall from his eyes. Roger Skunk walked along very sadly and came to a very big tree. There was a huge, wise, old owl on the topmost branch of the tree. He told the owl that all the other little animals ran away from him because he smelled very to know what bad. The owl admitted that he did so. Skunk wanted

he could do and cried hard. The owl advised Roger Skunk to go to the wizard who lived in the dense forest over a little river. The wizard too observed that the Skunk smelled awful. He asked what his he wanted. Roger Skunk told his problem. The wizard found magic wancf and asked Roger Skunk what he wanted to smell like. Roger thought and said, "Roses". The wizard chanted a

301

magical spell. There was a smell of roses all around the house. Roger Skunk now smelled of Roses. 11.

wizard's

(a) The paper inside the first-day cover was not blank. It contained a note by Sam, written from Galesburg on 18 July 1894 and addressed to Charley. It revealed that Sam had company of it. (b) The reaction of the Dewan is quite funny and amusing. He thinks that the Maharaja wants to marry him. He says that he has already two wives. The Maharaja clarifies-that he does not want to marry him. He wants a tiger. The Dewan interrupts him saying that his ancestors were married to the sword. He might marry the gun if he liked. He added that a Tiger King was more than enough well. for that state. It did not need a Tiger Queen as found the third level and had been in Galesburg for two weeks, enjoying the carefree, song and music loving people there. He third level as it was worth advised Charley to keep looking for the

(c) It was a frightening possibility owing to the stark contrast in physical parameters. The author, a South-Indian, lived under the hot sun. Antarctica has 90 per cent of Earth's strained. (d) Mr Lamb does not provide a straightforward solution. He says that in the street kids shout "Lamey-Lamb" at him. Still they come to his garden. They are not afraid of him because he is not total ice. Not only circulatory and metabolic functions but even imagination is

302

afraid of them. He simply ignores their comments. He concentrates on other things.

SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER-II

SECTION A [READING SKILLS]

20 Marks

1.

Read the following passage carefully : The word "ragging" conjures up visions of horror in the hearts of many a prospective boarder of college-hostel. So many tales of torture and humiliation have got associated with the practice of 'ragging" that it is virtually impossible to look at this practice from any angle other than that of disapproval. Ragging means perpetrating of insult, humiliation and torture upon the freshers by the seniors. The former apprehend that they are in for a series of practical jokes and constant teasing at the hands of the latter. There is no way they can escape this unpleasant fate. The status of one's father or the standing of one' family is no surety against rough handling of their body and mind by the big guys of the hostels. These guys run the show in the hostels and nobody-neither the principal nor the warden dares to interfere with their ways. Ragging has not always been the nightmare it has now become. Ragging originated in the West as a sort of initiation rites. The fresh entrants to colleges/hostels were initiated into the manners and way of life of the hostel by their seniors. The latter had also gone through their share of ragging at the time of entry. It was now their turn to have some amusement at the cost of the freshers. They would tease the freshers about their look or about their manners. Abnormally tall or short students would be easy targets as also the fat and the lean. Students wearing glasses would have their glasses snatched away and made to read for the seniors. Sometimes the seniors would insist

303

that the freshers bow before them and greet them with folded hands. The fresher would face a major calamity when eatables brought by him from home would be consumed by a battery of senior students within a few minutes in his presence. His protests would invite teasing, ridicule and charges of selfishness. Ragging frequently consists of mock-interviews and mock-trials of the freshers. The seniors would constitute themselves into an interview board and would interview the freshers one by one. The latter would be asked detailed questions. There would be probing questions about the sexual experience or exploits of the freshers. Any attempt to evade the questions or circumvent them will invite snubs and ridicule. A fresher who resists the attempts of his seniors to ridicule him would become a target for special harassment. He might be charged of stealing an article of a senior and would be put on a mock-trial. The Jury constituted by the seniors would act as the accuser, the judge and the punishing authority. The accused may be pressurised by verbal instructions or physical threats into admitting his guilt. Defiance would result in sure convictions. The convict would be asked to polish the shoes of his seniors for a week or wash their clothes. A boarder who dares complain to the warden would become a target of guerilla warfare. He would be constantly harassed by some gang of the seniors. Ragging is indeed a nightmare for the subjects as they go through the ordeal. But it does have some positive effects on the freshers. Those who endure it with courage get emboldened. They get used to facing hardship and unpleasant situations. They build up a reserve of fortitude in their personality. The roughness and toughness of the impersonal environment do not rattle them so easily. It is not unoften that the perpetrators and the victims of ragging become best of friends in course of time. Their friendship is all the more enduring for the initial feelings of hostility they have experienced in their first encounters. Ragging also enhances the self-awareness of many students who are too much obsessed by their own ideals and pursuits such as cranks or bookworms. A moderate amount of ragging induces the fresher to behave in socially acceptable ways and abandon his eccentricity. Of late, ragging has degenerated into simple torture of the innocent at the hands of sadistic element among the senior boarders. The latter, who might have been the products of unhappy childhood, would seek their revenge on the emotional and sensitive youth by straining their nerves and endurance.

304

Ragging, an amusing practice in the olden days, has degenerated into an unmitigated evil. It can no longer be put back on rails. Attempts of many educationalists to temper ragging with affectionate banter and repartee have not met with any notable success. It has become a synonym for torture. (Discursive)

1.1

On the basis of your reading the passage answer the following questions briefly:
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Why does the writer disapprove of ragging ? 1 In the past ragging was merely a fun. How? 2 What happens to a fresher who wears a brave face against his seniors ? Give two instances of punishment. 2 What is the better side of ragging for those who go through this ordeal ? 2 How has ragging degenerated into torture recently ? 3

1.2

Find out words and phrases from the passage which mean the following : 3 (i) committing (para 1) (ii) (iii) finding a way of overcoming or avoiding unusual behaviour (para 3) (para 6)

2.

Read the following passage carefully.

8 Marks

Noise is defined as 'sound without value' or any sound that is undesired by the recipient. Noise can be measured by a sound meter and is expressed in a unit called the 'decibel (DB). High intensity of Noise pollution is caused by many machines man has invented during his technological advancement. While modern household gadgets such as mixer-cum-grinder, vacuum 'cleaner, washing machine, coolers and air conditioners greatly enhance the levels of sounds and the potentially harmful to health, loud speakers disturb the students in their studies and the peace of the locality. Similarly, loudly played radios, TVs, telephones and pressure horns are other major sources of noise pollution. Printing presses, small scale industries, trucks, buses, trains, autos, motorcycles, aeroplanes, social and politics gatherings, all contribute to the noise problems in almost all the larger cities of India.

305

Noise causes disturbances in the atmosphere which in turn interferes with the system of communications. They affect our peace of mind, health and behaviour. Sudden loud noise can cause damage to the ear drum and the tiny hair cells in the internal ear, whereas prolonged noise results in temporary loss of hearing or even permanent impairment. It causes headache, irritability and impairs reusing. It is known to flame the skin, constrict stomach muscles and produce ulcers, heart disease, high blood pressure, nervousness and other defects in sensory and nervous systems. It is difficult to completely get rid of the malady of noise pollution in the current electronic age. However we can adopt certain measures to minimize the intensity of the noise pollution. Legislation and public awareness are essential. Nobody should be permitted to create noise in silent zones or during night. Noise producing vehicles should be prevented from plying on the roads and their use of pressure horns should be entirely checked. Here the horticulturist can help a lot. They can suggest adequate varieties of vegetation which can be planted around factories, hospitals, educational institutions, public library and. houses which may reduce sound pollution and also may minimize the pollution. But lot of hue and cry due to pollution is caused by pesticides that has been prevailing among the residents living in the industrial areas and their surroundings and other inhabitable parts for a long time. The genesis is that when the bad smell and the noise and other machines in the manufacturing process become inevitable, the workers have to suffer a lot. Pesticides do kill the harmful insects, rodents but plants are adversely affected. These plants are rather helpful to absorb the extra noise prevalent in the atmosphere. It is our moral duty to preserve the atmosphere from noise so as the keep ourselves away from many harmful effects of noise pollution. In reality man is responsible for his degradation.

2.1

On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using recognizable abbreviations and symbols. Use a suitable format and write an appropriate title for it. 5 Marks 2.2 Write a summary based on your notes in about 80 words. 3 Marks

306

SECTION: B [ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS] 35 Marks 3. A parttime computer engineer offers his services for a suitable part-time job. Prepare a classified advertisement for a local newspaper in about 50 words. 5 Marks OR Design a poster advertising the opening of a new school called Happy Academy. Highlight some of the facilities being provided. 4. You are Pankaj/Parvi. The other day your happened to attend a seminar on Case of Reducing the Retirement Age in Public Sector from 60 to 55, organised by the Rotary club of your district write a report on the seminar in about 100 words for publication in the Times of India. 10 Marks OR You are Rajat/Ranjita. The other day you participated in an inter-school debate competition as a contestant, orgznised by Lions Club of your area, in which you spoke for the motion and stood first. The topic for the debate was In the opinion of the house free education upto Secondary level is the fundamental right of every Indian child. Write a report on this event in not more than 100 words for publication in your school magazine. You are Deep Chand/Deepa, a resident of 25, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi, Write a letter to the editor of a national newspaper criticizing lavish spending on marriages. (150 words) 10 Marks OR You are Deep Chand/Deepa, a resident of 25, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi. Write a letter to the Director, Doordarshan, New Delhi, suggesting some improvement in T.V. programmes. You are Mansi/Manav. Write an article for your Vidyalaya Journal Science-Alert On the topic Changing Life-style

5.

6.

307

Invites Diseases word limit 200. 10 Marks OR You are Mansi/Manav. You feel that this age of consumerism has given a boost to plastic money. Write a speech to be presented in the morning assembly of your school on Advantages and Disadvantages of credit Cards, Word limit 200. SECTION : C [TEXT-BOOK] 45 Marks

(i) (ii)

7. (a) Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow: Perhaps the earth can teach us as when everything seems dead and later proves to be alive. Now I will count up to twelve and you keep quiet and I will go. What are the lessons that the earth can teach us ? 1 What symbol of nature does the poet use to make us comprehend this lesson ? 1 (iii) What does the poet mean to achieve by counting upto twelve? 1 (iv) What is the significance of keeping quiet ? 1 OR When aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie. Still singed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made, will go on prancing, proud and unafraid. (i) Why are aunt Jennifers hands described as being terrified? 1 (ii) What impression does one get about the character of aunt Jennifer? 1 (iii) How does the poet describe the tigers made on the panel by aunt Jennifer? 1

308

(iv)

What do the last two lines suggest? 1

7. (b) Answer any three of the following questions briefly: 3x2 = 6 (i) What are the things of beauty that the poet refers to in the poem, A thing of Beauty ? What is their gift to us ? (ii) What is the reason for putting up a road side stand ? Did it achieve its goal ? (iii) What do the parting words of the poet to her mother and her smile signify ? (iv) Why is grandeur associated with the mighty dead? 8. Answer the following in about 30-40 words each. 5x2 = 10 (i) What are the circumstances that conspire to keep Mukesh and families like his engulfed in poverty? (ii) why was the British government baffled after having served Gandhiji summons to appear in court ? (iii) Who was subhu? What was it that distinguished him? (iv) What is so distinctive about umberto Ecos writing style ? How does he find time to write so much ? (v) How did the peddler get the idea of the world being a rat trap and why did the idea amuse him ? 9.Answer one of the following in about 150 words. The story Deep Water is a saga of courage and perseverance. Elaborate. 10 Marks OR Recount what made the peddler finally change his ways ? 10. Answer one of the following in about 150 words. 7 Though the play On the Face on It, ends tragically, yet it leaves one feeling strangely optimistic. Elucidate. OR Describe the character of Jack as described in Should Wizard Hit Mommy. Answer the following questions briefly : 4x2 = 8 (i) Why was Charlie filled with a longing to visit Galesburg ?

11.

309

(ii) (iii) (iv)

Why had Dr. Sadao Haki been retained in Japan and not sent out with the troops ? Why does the writer consider a visit to the Antarctic of great significance ? What was common about the experiences of Zitkala-Sa and Bama ?

MODEL ANSWERS

SECTION : A [READING]

Answer :

1.1.

(a) The writer disapproves of 'ragging' because it has recently been associated with torture, humiliation and persecution of the freshers. 1 (b) In the past 'ragging was a fun because it was confined to teasing of freshers by seniors. For example, spectacled students would be compelled to read without their spectacles or they would be asked to run errands for the latter. 2 (c) A fresher who wears a brave face undergoes punishment. One, he might be charged of stealing an article of a senior and second, he would be asked to polish the shoes of his seniors for a week or wash their clothes. 2 (d) The better side of ragging is that the freshers buildup a reserve of fortitude and they develop the capacity not to complain of rough and tough social environment later. 2

310

(e) 1.2. (i)

Ragging has recently degenerated into torture because there have been cases of deaths due to it. 2 perpetrating (ii) circumvent (iii) eccentricity 3

2.1 Ans. A) Title : NOISE POLLUTION 1. Definition of noise 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. Effects 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. Remedies 3.1 3.2 3.3 creation of silent zones. growing vegetation preserving the atmosphere disturb, in atmos. harmful to health damages nervous and sensory system Snd. without value msmt. decibel units high pitch harmful indust., vehicles, domestic appliances

Key to Abbreviations: 1) 2) Snd -Sound msmt- Measurement

311

3) 4)

disturb.-Disturbances atmos, -Atmosphere

2.2

Ans. Summary/Abstract on notes. Noise is sound without value and is measured by a sound meter and is expressed in a unit called the Decibel. Noise pollution is caused by domestic appliances, vehicles and industries. It disturbs the natmosphere and damages nervous and sensory system of human beings. This problem cannot be removed completely in this age of technological development. Yet some remedial measures can be adopted. During night silent zones can be created. Horticulturists can suggest adequate and suitable noise absorbing vegetation to be planted around crowded and noisy places. Legislation and general awareness is essential.

SECTION : B [ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS]

3. Ans.

SITUATION WANTED
A well experienced computer engineer just returned from U.S.A. seeks a part time job for repairing computers. He is well versed in Hardware and Software techniques. All defects of machine can be set correct within few seconds. Give a chance and avail of the best opportunity. Please contact Gupta 4/5, Ashok Vihar. Phase I, Delhi or ring 22940588. OR

312

Ans. OPENING! OPENING! OPENING

HAPPY ACADEMY, ALIGARH


An English Medium Kindergarten School, University Road, Opening at Aligarh

Admission Open for:


Pre Nursery, Nursery and K.G. Classes

Special Features
* * * * * * * * Centrally Located Building Well Furnished and Fully Ventilated Rooms Well Qualified, Experienced and Dedicated Staff Playway Method of Teaching Focus on Propogation of Human Values School Transport Facilities at Affordable Rates Reasonable School Fees Timing-.9.00 am to 2.00 pm.

Registration Open Contact School office between 9 AM and 12 Noon Principal

4. Ans. SEMINAR ON RETIRMENT AGE


Pankaj/Parvi

313

Last week the Rotary Club of the district organised a seminar on 'Case for Reducing the Retirement Age in Public Sector from 60 to 55' in Patel Auditorium at 4 pm. The Cabinet Secretary and the President of CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) and a few VIPs were present to answer various queries raised by the reporters of some newspapers and public men who attended the seminar. The Cabinet Secretary pointed out that the reduction in the Retirement Age in Public Sector from 60 to 55 meant creating more jobs to fight the staggering rate of unemployment in the country. The number of unemployed youth was increasing day after day and they were facing great hardships. They became the easy targets for vested interests who charmed them into antisocial activities. A press reporter pointed out that generally people growing old beyond 55 had a vast experience which was beneficial for the organisation they served. The Secretary clarified that they could become more beneficial for their families and the public alike since by that time they could sustain themselves economically. It was a question not of economic progress but of survival for all.

OR Ans.

OUR SCHOOL GETS FIRST PRIZE IN INTER-SCHOOL DEBATE


It is a matter of great pride for the School that Rajat/Ranjita who represented it in an inter-school debate as a contestant organized by the Lions Club stood first. The competition was held in the Lions Club Hall yesterday at 11 am. The topic for the debate was 'In the opinion of the house, free education upto Secondary level is the fundamental right of every Indian child'. Rajat/Ranjita stressed the need of education for all because it was the key to all the evils and superstitions prevalent in the

314

society. If all knew their rights and duties, thousands of maladies causing sufferings to the people would be eliminated. It was the moral responsibility of the government as well to provide free education upto this level because by this level, thousands of students drop out of school for one reason or the other. India was a welfare state and it was in keeping with it that the Goverments responsibility became all the more desirable. Rajat

5. Ans. 25, Vasant Vihar New Delhi Date : 2 March, 2008

The Editor The Hindustan Times New Delhi

Sir,

Subject : Wastage of money


You will earn sincere gratitude if you kindly publish my letter in 'Letters to the Editors column of your esteemed newspaper. The letter pertains to lavish spending on our marriages.

315

Lavish spending on marriages is a vulgar display of wealth. It benefits nobody. A lot of money goes to dogs. Lavish spending creates a lot of heart burning and inculcates unnecessary competition. Parents who can not afford this are compelled to take loans and there by become slaves to the banker. For a days show life long sufferings are invited. To keep up respect and to maintain outward show money is wasted. Lavish spending on marriages is a stigma and a curse for the poor. Moreover, it increases the hunger and greed of the parents of the bridegroom. Bickering and quarrels follow and they sometimes culminate into divorce. Despite many losses it goes unchecked. It is detrimental to our economy. Hard earned money can never be spent lavishly. So it is black money that makes the show go. So lavish spending on marriages is a social stigma. It must be checked ruthlessly. Laws framed against- this must be used harshly. The people who spend lavishly should face social boycott. Multimedia should raise' its voice against this social evil. Young boys and girls should come forward to register their resentment and protest against this evil practice. I do hope publication of this letter will create some right thinking in the minds of the parents and the Would be couples. Thanking you, Yours sincerely,

Deep Chand

OR
Ans. 25, Vasant Vihar New Delhi 2 March, 2008

316

The Director Doordharshan Parliament Street New Delhi.

Sir,

Subject : Suggestions for TV Programmes

I would like to bring to your kind notice the fact that many T.V programmes telecast by Doordharshan have lost their interest and effect. Many of these programmes were produced twenty or thirty years before and have lost their appeal and relevance in the changing scenario of familial and /or social- values. Today, you'll agree, is the period of competitions, information technology, globalization etc. If the viewers do not keep themselves abreast of the changing topicality of the modem things, they seem to lag behind in the mad race of life. Then the invasion of cable TV has left many of us behind in the innovative techniques of serials and the current topicality of their themes. To elaborate, modern serials like Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi, Kaun Banega Krorepati, Cheppar Phar Ke, have been found to be more appealing than Nukkad and Buniyaad etc. If a survey is conducted, Doordarshan serials will definitely be least desired to be seen than those produced by Star Plus, Sony, Zee TV. etc.
Consequently, I request you to take steps for some improvements in T.V programmes telecast by Doordarshan in the light of what has been stated

317

above. Thanking You Yours sincerely Deepa.

6. Ans.

Changing Life Styles Invite Diseases


Manav (Class XII)

There was a time when people did not even know about diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart attacks etc. But now these diseases have become so common place that we need to take the matter seriously and look for the root of causes. One of the reasons why World Health Day is celebrated every year is to create awareness about common health problems the world over.
Doctor Markend Patel, MD (medicine), says," There are a no. of reasons which cause a variety of diseases. Allergic problems, asthma, bronchitis. skin allergies are the problems caused by the pollution of the atmosphere which again is result of mindless cutting of tress. Hence, we breathe in polluted air . On the other hand, problems like hypertension, heart attacks, and diabetes are caused due to mental stress. Disease may be any but reasons are generally the same. Our changing life style is taking us towards a slow death. Hectic schedules, change in food habits, smoking, consumption of alcohol, lack of exercise are just a few reasons which must be addressed in a right way. He further says," In order to take preventive measures, one should exercise at least for half an hour four

318

times a week.Walking is the best form of exercise. There are so many jogging parks in our city." Along with the exercise schedule, people need to stop consuming alcohol and chewing tobacco. Even kids are found to be addicted to cold drinks, chocolates, ice-creams etc. Due to excessive consumption of sweets, they may develop diabetes in future. Instead of cold drink, one can have fresh lime juice and coconut water. Green leafy vegetables and fruits can keep you healthy. People have become more conscious about their health .which is positive sign. General awareness regarding prevention has increased due to exposure in the media. There are many health clinics in city which help- to prevent these diseases. All said and done. ' Prevention is better than cure' should be our motto to lead a good and healthy life.

OR

SPEECH :

Advantage and Disadvantages of Credit Cards


Ans.

Good morning, today I take this opportunity to express my views on the advantages and disadvantages of Credit Cards. Mobile phones and credit cards have more or less become status symbols. But if public opinion taken they call credit cards as a necessity. They are a boon for the ready convenience when you go shopping or to a restaurant. Yes, just flash your card sign and walk out.
But remember these credit cards generate 'easy money' syndrome and lures us into the trap of consumerism and as a result into debts. But if one is careful with ones expenses, these cards really come handy without having to worry of carrying cash. Credit cards should not be used as a 'Free Card'. Remember its just postponing payment and that too with an interest amount. It is wise to settle a credit card bill in full,

319

as the credit charges tend to be extremely high ranging from 2% to 3% per month.The biggest hurdle one faces is to choose the right card from excess of offers from various 'financial companies and bands. Before opting for a card just verify its acceptability, eligibility, fees, other charges, credit period and cash advances etc. Master and Visa cards arc widely accepted compared to Diners and American cards. Global credit cards will be convenient for people who are on frequent foreign tours. Credit card users have to consider their need before going for a card. Foreign and private banks give a higher credit limit so their cards become a functional accessory while shopping or entertaining. Public sector banks offer low entry fees, longer credit periods and lower credit charges and their cards are liked by 'value for money' persons. It is all very well to be a member of plastic age as long as we are a prudent spender. Like all good things in life, a credit card privilege has to be enjoyed.

Thank you. Manav/Mansi SECTION : C (TEXT BOOKS) 7. (a) Ans. (i) The earth can teach us that a moment of calm and quiet leads to better productivity. In the same way a monent of inactivity leads us to better action. (ii) The poet uses the earth and autumn as symbols to make us comprehend this lesson. (iii) By counting upto twelve and keeping quiet the poet means to achieve a sense of togetherness. In the silence of peace we will have time to introspect and give our lives a purpose. (iv) Keeping quiet is significant as it ends all destructive activities and brings in a sense of togetherness.

320

OR (i) Aunt Jennifers hands are described as terrified because they tremble and refuse to work under the oppressive authority of her husband. (ii) She is feeble, submissive and oppressed at the male hand. She wants to free herself from fear and oppressive authority of her husband. (iii) The tigers are described as powerful and fearless creatures prancing and jumping around. (iv) The last two lines indicate male chauvenism and that the male in society will go on enjoying unrestricted authority without any fear like tigers on the panel. 7. (b) Ans. (i) The poet refers to the sun, the moon, old and young trees, flowers, water streams, grandeur of the doom of heroes etc. These beautiful things give us joy and remove the pall of gloom from our spirits. (ii) The poor villagers put up a road-side stand to earn and feel some city money in their hands to improve their lives. It did not achieve its goal as no passers-by stopped their cars to buy things from the stand. (iii) See you soon Amma, the poetess last words to her mother and her smile are meant to assure her that here was nothing wrong. She did not want her mother to feel sad, depressed and ignored. She gave her hope to live. (iv) Grandeur is associated with the death of great kings and warriors who embraced death feartessly and sacrificed their lives fighting in the battle-fields for noble cause. 8. Ans. (i) The bangle makers of Firozabad have got stuck in the vicious circle of proverty, injustice and exploitation. Sahukars, middleman, keepers of law, bureaucrats and

321

politicians all expoit them together making the bangelmakers helplessly resign to their miserable fate. (ii) The news of Gandhijis summons to appear in the court spread like wild fire and Champaram was black with peasants who had come to support their champion. The British govt was baffled as it failed to control the huge crowd without Gandhis help. It became impossible for them to arrest Gandhi and put him behind bars. (iii) Subbu was No. 2 at Gemini studio, always ready to serve his boss. His ability to find a solution to any problem and to keep a smile on his face even after having given a flop distinguished him from others. (iv) Essays and text books are generally written in impersonal style. But Ecos writings had a personal and playful aspect in them. He found time to write so much as he used interstices (empty spaces) effectively. (v) The rat-trap seller got the idea from his own rat-traps. He thought as cheese and pork are baits to lure rats, so the good things in life serve as baits to trap humans. This idea of degrading the world as rate-trap amused him as the world had never been kind to him. He had always been a poor man.

322

9. Ans. The story 'Deep Water' is a saga of courage and perseverance. It is an autobiographical account of William Douglas. The author recounts his fear of water following an incident in which he had been swept away by a wave. His fear was further aggravated when a bully pushed him into the deep side of a swimming pool and he nearly drowned. But slowly and steadily he overcame his fear through determination and strong will. His conquering this terror with an adamant and undeterred single-mindedness and relentless efforts, reflects upon the possibility of man's conquest over his destiny. The incident stirred in him a sense of intrepidity and ignited in him a spark of dauntless courage. The lesson also teaches us that it is not death but the fear of death that terrorises us more. Moreover, brooding over the past saps out all the confidence of an individual. Perseverance can help us, not only take up the challenges of destiny but also to defeat its evil designs. Deliberate, planned efforts can help in getting over the feeling of fear. It is therefore, imperative to make such efforts. OR Ans. The peddler in the story, The Rattrap', a tramp once, revealed a completely different side of his character with a number of changed factors. The ironmaster's daughter, Edla persuaded the peddler, whom her father mistook to be a captain from his regiment, to share his Christmas lunch at their house. She could make out that he was no captain but a run-away from prison. Even after he had been shaved, changed and bathed, he didn't look a captain in anyway to the ironmaster-but his daughter prevailed upon him to allow him to stay and share their Christmas dinner with them. She showed him sympathy and allowed him to stay in a place where he could rest and feel secure. Even though she knew his

323

real identity, she, made him feel like an honoured guest. Edla's trust and compassion brought a drastic change in the peddler's mind. His conscience urged him not to let her down. It was evident from the fact that when the ironmaster and his daughter returned from the church service, the attendant told them that he had left thirty stolen kroner in a rattrap along with a letter. He requested that the stolen money be returned to the rightful owner and had also mentioned about her goodness the whole day long and he didn't want her to be embarrassed in the Christmas season by a thief. The rattrap was a Christmas present from a rat who would have been caught is this world's rattrap if Edla Willmanson had not treated him like a captain, for once he realised that he too had an identity, he too was a man worthy of concern and compassion. 10. Ans. Though the play, 'On the face of It ends on a tragic note, yet it leaves the reader with a sense of hope. Derry and Mr. Lamb's meeting was a chanced meeting - a very short meeting but it had a deep impact on Derry. Initially Derry was just preoccupied with his disfigured face, had lost all selfconfidence and he sought solitude, away from the sneering glances of the people. It was his meeting with Mr. Lamb that he was motivated with the fact that beauty was relative and he enjoyed everything that God made-even the weeds in the garden' and the 'bees singing'. Mr. Lamb had infected him with a love for life and the curiosity to discover the simple joys of everyday living. Derry, was earlier withdrawn with the idea that people were afraid of him because of his ugly face. It was Mr. Lamb who made him feel that he had arms, legs, eyes, ears, tongue and a brain-he could get on the way he wanted. The old man had taught him that one can ignore the unpleasant and learn to discover the beauty in things. Towards the end, it was what he had heard Mr. Lamb saying that mattered to him more than what his family had to say. OR

324

In the story, Should Wizard Hit Mommy?' Jack has been portrayed as a man who is neither very perceptive, nor very sensitive. Self absorbed and self opinionated, the bed time story that he tells his four year old daughter every night has assumed the proportions of an irritating ritual He tells her a story that follows one basic plot with different animal characters. The story of the skunk that did not have any friends reminds him of his own lonely childhood with its humiliations and he is irritated to find that Jo does not agree with the ending that he has planned for the story. This wonderful evidence of Jo's inquisitive progressing mind and intellect completely escapes Jack, so intent on getting on with the story as planned by him. His answers to her questions are short and peremptory and he fails to notice that her question about whether the old wizard could die could be a sign of an inner fear. It is also apparent that in a way Jo's constant questioning and her non-acceptance of Jack's ending of the story appears to be a threat to his authority, for do not adults know best! Jack feels threatened by Jo's attitude and when he finds that she is restless after he has come downstairs, he uses the ultimate weapon of adult authority-does she want him to spank her, he asks. Jack exemplifies the impatience and insensitivity that adults display in their dealings with children and the intolerance they exhibit if they feel that their authority is being questioned, along with the adult habit of imposing their opinions on children and discouraging any queries. 11. Ans. (i) Galesburg was charlies dreamland. He had spent his childhood there. He believed, 1894, it must have been a haven of peace on earth. With summer evenings twice as long, there was no rush, no hurry there. So the place held a great fascination for him.

325

(ii)

The old general had an ailment involving his gall bladder. Dr. Sadao was treating him with medicine. But a surgery could become necessary and the General did not have faith on any other doctor. So, Sadao was kept in Japan. (iii) Antarctica was the place to go to in order to understand the earths past, present and future. The climate is changing and Antarctica may become warm again. But a visit to Antarctica makes us realise that the danger is real. (iv) Though the two women were born in distant lands separated by seven seas, they suffered exploitation, injustice and humitiation at the hands of the rich and powerful. Zitkala Sas long hair was cut against her will and Bama was pained to see that the high caste people treated the dalits like their salaves.

326

ENGLISH (CORE)
Time allowed: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100

SECTION A: READING

1. Read the passage given below and answer the question that

follows.
12 Marks

With technology leveling the field, women today have more opportunities than ever before. When physical strength was a major factor determining life, the masculine would dominate. Now, enabled by technology, anyone can get empowered to go farther.

Gender-based discrimination has seeped into every aspect of our lives. Your functioning as a human being need not be determined by your gender. But culturally, tradionally, we have established these things insuch a hardcore, straitjacketed way that we think this is all nature, whereas gender based segregation is a purely socialconstruct. Women need to unburden themselves of the cultural baggage that they have come to bear for thousands of years.

Most importantly, women need to guard against the tendency to become like a man just because of the cultural baggage that seems to convey that anything masculine is somehow superior. Actually,

327

the very idea of deciding what is superior or inferior is very masculine. If you look at life, everything has a role to play.

The reason why the masculine has been more important till now is because all these thousands of years of our existence, our focus has been survival. Just going and getting food was such a hard task. Now you can just go into the supermarket and buy whatever you want.

For the first time, we can relax our survival attitudes a little bit Once we do that, well find that what is naturally feminine reveals its true significance. However, modern societies are not relaxing their survival instinct; whether it is a car or a home or whatever, we are just raising the bar.

Right now the whole world is ruled by economics. When money is the only important thing, the masculine becomes the most dominant part of our social structure.

For the feminine to really flourish if it has to flow, we need to create a society where there would be room for music, art, love, care and compassion; not just economics. A home, a social structure, a whole is not complete unless the feminine also finds full expression.

Today, everybody is ambitious. But there is a way to achieve success without being fired society be ambition because that is a foolish way. If you are concerned about everything around you, you will naturally

328

do your best; you will not hold back anything. That is a womans way of operating. That is the best way to operate in the world.

When you operate out of personal ambition, you may do a lot of things, but not necessarily towards your own or anyone elses wellbeing. Global warming, for example, is a consequence ofunbridled human activity. If we continue like this without any concern for what is around us, neither man nor woman will be left.

If the feminine found more room for expression on this planet, may be our stock market would not hit 20000, but generally people would smile more, be a little more happy, a little more loving, life would be a little more beautiful.

After all, it is in pursuit of human wellness that all activity is done. But that has been forgotten because that is the way of the masculine that it just goes on in one way; it will not think about the surroundings. The feminine is not trying to go anywhere; the feminine is happy where it is. If these two aspects are in balance, we will go somewhere but we will also enjoy where we are right now. That is what needs to happen in the world.

329

(A) (i) What has given to the women of today more opportunities than before? (1 Mark) (ii) Why do women tend to become like a man? (1 Mark)

(iii) Why has the masculine been given more importance till now? (1Mark) (iv) What type of society shall we create so as to give feminine a chance to flourish? (v) What is the womens way of operating in this world? (2 Marks) (2 Marks)

(vi) If these two aspects are in balance. Mention the two aspects that need to happen in this world. (2 Marks)

(vii). Pick out words from the passage that mean the same as the following.
a. To set apart or isolate

(Para-2) (Para-7)

b. A feeling of sorrow and pity for someone in trouble

c. Unrestrained

(Para-9)

(3 x 1)

330

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that

follow.

9 Marks

Mobile telephony is increasingly taking the shape of a mass movement in India. The country is adding eight million news subscribers every month. With over 260 million consumers, we are now the second largest market in the world. Today, the mobile is an essential device for the masses, a sea change from the times when it was regarded as a luxury. Telecom is a rare sector where tariff have gone down despite inflation reaching a three year high of 7.5 per cent. Call charges have fallen by about 95 per cent from its 1997 level of Rs 16. At Re 1 per minute, Indian mobile tariff is the lowest in the world, despite the fact that taxes and levies still account for as high as 30 per cent of revenues. An average American pays around Rs 13 per minute. UK and France have a rate of around Rs 7-8 Brazil, which is often compared to India, has a call rate of more than Rs 6 per minute. People often wonder how this seemingly impossible task of cutting tariffs on a continuous basis has been achieved. The dream story of Indian mobile industry has been about constant innovations to achieve hyper growth and bringing down costs. In 2004, a unique business model of a outsourcing networks and IT applications to strategic partners was tried out. This business model not only helped optimize cost but made the cost structure

331

more predictable. Today, this has been replicated by other operators in India and globally. Rapid network roll-out and deep distribution has been the mantra for Indian operators. Today, the mobile network covers over 70 per cent of Indias population. The mobile companies have been able to create a deeper retail footprint than FMCG marketers. What has also helped is that the price of handsets has also come down tremendously. Mobile tariff innovations over the years have played a beg role in the rapid penetration. Free incoming calls, lifetime-prepaid cards, recharge coupons as low as Rs 10 were all innovations which opened the service to a huge mass of potential customers. Along with the sharp drop in the rates, there has been increasing simplification and transparency in the tariff plans. It is not just the local tariffs that have beaten Indias inflation though. Long distance and roaming rates has also seen bursts of huge cuts. While national long distance rates have fallen from a peak of Rs 24 to Rs 1.50, international long distance rates have dropped from Rs 96 to a low of Rs 7. Roaming rates have fallen from a high of Rs 10 to Re 1. Broadband rates too have been cur rapidly. In fact, customer additions in broadband have taken off by more than 50 per cent during the last one year alone. Indians are heavy mobile phone users. An average Indian talks more than 500 minutes in a month, which makes India second among all nations on mobile phone usage. Two important demographic changes have made this possible. For millions

332

migrating to urban cities, it is the only means of keeping in touch with families and friends. The other important change lies in the fact that 25 population lives in India. Telecom continues to beat inflation hands down. But its not just about beating inflation. The sector is effectively adding to everyones purchasing power by slicing off cost of communication continuously and significantly. Add to that the sectors ability to create opportunities for direct and indirect employment all around. By making communication affordable and widely available, the sector is aiding the productivity of even the remotest farmer and shopkeeper in the country. In fact, we have just started realizing the huge multiplier of speed, efficiency and productivity effect that the sector has on other sectors of the economy. The telecom sector will face a stiff challenge of coping with increasing inflationary pressures on all its input costs to maintain the affordable tariff levels in the next few years. However, the good news is that the sector will continue to overcome any recessionary or slowdown trends in the economy, as there is still another 800 million population to be covered as well as the pentup desire of a billion Indians to connect with each other.

333

(A). On the basis of your reading of the above passage,


make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. (Min. 4)

(5 Marks) (B). Write a summary of the passage in 80 words using the


notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

(3 Marks)

SECTION B: ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS

(35)

3. Aakash Dia, the Registrar of PG Regional College, Hyderabad

puts in an admission notice (Electronic Engineering) for publication. Write the notice for him specifying eligibility, last date of receipt of applications and other necessary information. (5 Marks) OR Ravi Jakhar lost his original certificates in AP express while coming back from his interview at Hyderabad to New Delhi. He gives an advertisement in the Lost and Found column of a leading English daily giving necessary details. His contact address is 101, Kailashpur, New Delhi.

334

4. Animesh Choudhary, a staff Reporter with Express News in

Delhi reports about a childrens film festival being held in the city to mark the successful completion of ten years of Newspaper in education programme of the Times of India. Write his report. (10 Marks) OR You are Anagha/Abhishek. As a responsible citizen you have organized a Clean and Green campaign in your locality. Write a report in not more than 125 words for publication in a magazine.

5. Parul

Mishra of 173, Shastri Nagar, Kanpur, sees an

advertisement and decides to apply for the post. The requirements for the job are graduation in any science subject, knowledge of English and computer skills. Write the application to the Personal Manager, Alisa Chemists, Pal Road, Bareilly. (10 Marks) OR In your locality the road lights have not been working for the past few weeks and also the drains are not covered, causing a lot of inconvenience and posing danger to life. Write a letter to the Health Department of Corporation of Chennai requesting them to attend to the problem.

335

6. Prashant Mishra, a student of Delhi Public School feels highly

worried when he wonders what he will do after his class XII exams. He writes an article for a newspaper on Education of today-How Relevant? Write the Article in about 200 words. (10 Marks) OR Informtion technology has revolutinised the lives of the citizens on this planet. India is also making rapid strides in this sphere. Being much encouraged by this advancement Ritu/Himanshu writes an Article on The Information Technology Revolution. Write her/his article in about 200 words. (10 Marks)

336

SECTION-C : LITERATURE

( 45)

7. (A) Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases, it will never Pass into nothingness, but will keep A bower quiet for us, and a sleep Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

(I). How does a thing of beauty remain a joy forever?

(2)

(II). Mention any two sources of joy which a thing of beauty provides to us. OR Fisherman in the cold sea Would not harm whales And the man gathering salt Would look at his hurt hands (2)

1.

What does the poet expect of the fisherman and why? (2) What will the man gathering salt do? (1)

2.

337

3.

What do the hurt hands imply?

(1)

(B) Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each. (i) What is suggested by the image massive weight of uncles wedding band? (ii). What image does the poet use to describe the beautiful bounty of the earth? (iii). The walls of the classroom are decorated with the picture of Shakespeare buildings with domes world maps and beautifal valleys. How do these contrast with the world of these children? 4. What do the parting words of the poet, Kamala Das to her mother signify? 8. Answer the following questions in 30-40 words. of his family? Why did Edla still entertain the peddlar even after she knew the truth about him? Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25 percent refund to the farmers? (5x2=10) How is Mukeshs attitude to his situation different from that

338

Subbu is described as a many side genius. List four of his special abilities. Why do most celebrity writers despise being interviewed? 9. Answer the following question in 125-150 words: Gemini Studio? OR What changes did the narrator find in the school when the order from Berlin came?
10. Answer the following in 125-150 words. Draw a character sketch

(10)

Why and how was the Moral Rearmament Army welcomed at the

of old Mr. Lamb. OR What precautions were taken for the smooth conduct of the O level German examination in prison and why? (7) 11.Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each. be identified? (B). What was the authors first emotion on setting foot on the Antaretica continent? What was it followed by and why? (C). Name some of the novelties and oddities in the street that attracted Bame. (D). What arguments does Charley offer to show his disagreement with the psychiatrists diagnosis? (4x2=8) (A). Who is the hero of the story The Tiger King? How may he

339

MARKING SCHEME SECTION A: READING COMPREHENSION PASSAGE

NOTE : No mark(s) should be deducted for mistakes of grammar, spelling or word limit. Full marks may be awarded if a student has been able to identify the core ideas. If a student literally lifts a portion of the given passage, as an answer to a question, no marks to be deducted for this as long as it is relevant. 1. (A) i) technology ii) because of the cultural baggage that conveys that anything masculine is more superior. iii) because for thousands of years of our existence, our focus has been survival. iv) create a society where there would be room for music, art, love, care, compassion; not just economics. v) concerned about everything around, will naturally do best, withhold back anything. vi) we will go somewhere -- we will also enjoy where we are right now. (B) i) Seeped ii) Compassion iii) unbridled.

340

2. Note :- If a student has attempted only summary or only notes, due credit should be given. 1 mark allotted for title be given if the student has written the title either in Q2 (a) or Q2(b) part. Minimum 3 main headings and 3 sub-headings to form content.

Main distribution Title Abbreviations (Min 4 with or without key) Content (subheadings and notes) Summary should include all important points. Content - 2 Marks (1) (3)

Expression - 1 Mark

SECTION B : Advance writing skills Note: The objective of the section on Advanced writing skills is to test a candidates writing ability. Hence, expression assumes as much importance as the content of the answer.

3. NOTICE : format Content - 1 Mark - 2 Marks

Expression - 2 Marks

341

ADVERTISEMENT: Content - 3 Marks

Expression - 2 Marks

4. Report writing: Format (title & reporters name) Content Expression 5. Letter Writing Note : - No marks are to be awarded if only the format is given. Credit should be given to the candidates creativity in presentation of ideas. Mixing of both traditional and new format is not permitted. Format 1. Senders Address. 2. Date 3. Receivers address 4. Subject heading 5. Salutation 6. Complimentory close - 1 Mark - 4 Marks - 5 Marks

342

Content

- 4 Marks

Expression - 4 Marks Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words, spellings-2 Marks Coherence & relevance of ideas and style
6. Article Writing

- 2Marks

Format(Title and writers name) Content Expression

-1 Mark - 4 Marks - 5 Marks

Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words, spellings- 2.5 marks Coherence & relevance of ideas and style - 2.5 marks

SECTION C: LITERATURE NOTE: The objective of the section on literature is to text a condidates ability to understand and interpret the prescribed text through short answer and long answer type. Questions, Hence both content and expression in answer to the given question deserves equal importance while awarding marks.

7. (a)(i) - a thing of beauty is a source or constant joy.


-

Its beauty increases.

-2 marks

- Never passes into nothingness/emptiness. (any two) (ii). Sweet dreams, peaceful breathing, health and comfort. -2 marks

343

OR (i) - not to harm the whales -2 marks

- Peace/ togetherness may prevail/ to protect the earth (ii)- he would look at his hurt hands introspect/ will stop all Work. -1 Mark

(iii)- hurtful/hostile activities of man/symbolic of unending toil/ work. -1 mark

(B). Short answer type questions (poetry) Content Expression - 1 Mark - 1Mark

(Deduct marks for two or more grammatical /spelling mistakes.) Value points1) -Signifies the ordeal of Aunt Jennifer -it was the massive weight of the cruel experiences of her married life. OR Symbolises the unbreakable bond of marriage between husband and wife. (2 marks)

344

2) Wreathing a flowery bed, gloomy days, noble nature, dark spirits,

sprouting a shady bun, daffodils with the green world, sprinkling of fair music rose blooms, mighty dead. (any four) (2 Makrs)
3) - They have no facilities to fulfil their dreams.

- live in slums which are a completely different world. - they live in very miserable conditions cut off from any assistance
4) emotional attachment with her mother

(2 Marks) (2 Marks)

- reassure her that they would meet again

8. (A) Mukesh, an ambitious boy, wants to learn to drive a car and be a motor mechanic. - high aspirations, does not want to remain in his family business. (2 Marks)

(B) being sympathetic in nature, she thought that the man needed love and sympathy. - Thought that the peddlers condition was caused by the worlds attitude of neglect towards him. (C) because he intended to defeat the landlords - refund was less important than the fact that the landloards had been obliged to surrender part of the money and with it, part of their prestige. (D)- He was a good poet - film making was a very easy task for him. (2 Marks) (2 Marks)

345

- he was an amazing actor. - he had genuine love for everyone (2 Marks)

(E)- because they take it as an unwarranted intrusion into their lives or feel that it somehow diminishes them. (2 Marks)

9. Content - 5 Marks Expression- 5 Marks

Value points - Gemini studio was a warm host - MRA was a counter movement to international communism. - MRA presented two plays- Jotham Valley and the Forgotten Factor - The Gemini family of 600 saw the plays over and over again. - It was something different from their regular schedule of Jamil drama. - Mr Vasan played into the hands of MRA, so it was welcomed. - Any other relevant point. OR (any four) [10]

346

- Order had far reaching effect on the life of the school. - German to replace French language. - School unusually quiet. - M. Hamel in his best clothes. - Hamel patient and not cranky as before. - Villagers present in the classroom. - Hamel patiently delivered his lectures - Appealed to preserve French. - Little Franz could understand easily. - Everybody regretted not having paid attention to French earlier. (any five)

10. Distributions of marks Content Expression Value points - 4 Marks - 3 Marks (any four) [7]

- Mr Lamb, protagonist, dominates the play from beginning to end. - Impresses us as a sensitive, watchful, kind, considerate and sympathetic person. - Quite gentle, accommodating and protective, more concerned about boys wellbeing than apples. - Victim of alienation due to his physical impairment. - A modern communicator & psycologist who believes in drawing out the best of an invidual. - Has pragmatic approach.

347

- He exhibits Christ like grace even in his fall with the ladder. OR - Known as Evans the Brave had escaped prison three times, was taking O-Level German exam in prison. - The two heavy gates of D-wing of prison were locked securely. - Prison officer, Mr. Stephens watched his activities every minute from the peep hole. - Mr. Jackson, the Incharge, in constant touch with governer on phone & the governer himself listened to the conversation in cell. - Evans not allowed to have any visitors or tellers - All potential weapons such as knife, scissors, nail file and razor removed from the cell. - The contents of suitcase of invigilator, Reverend S. Mcleery were also thoroughly searched. (Any Four)

11. a. -The Maharaja of Pratibandhpuram is the hero. -identified as His Highness Jamedar, General, Khiledar, Major, Satyavyaghra, Samhard, Maharajadhiraj Vishvabhuvana Samrat Sir Jilahi Jung Bahadur, MAD, ACTC, CRCK. Tiger King. (Any three titles) (2 marks) b.- felt relief for she had been travelling for 100 hours.

348

- followed by wonder at the large size of the continent, its loneliness and at how once India & Antaretica were the part of same landmass. (2 Marks)

c.- the performing monkey, the snake charmers snake, the cyclist who had kept on biking for three days the spinning wheels, the Maanyaata temple and the huge bell ringing there, the pongal offerings in the temple. (Any four) (2 Marks) d. almost everyone wants to escape from the stress, tension, fear and worry of the modern world but these people do not wander down into any third level or Grand Central Station -His grandfather, who started stamp collection didnt need any refuge from reality as during his time things were pretty nice & peaceful. (2 Marks)