IILLD 1nLCk¥Ŧ lLs baslc sLaLemenLs are LhaLť

1Ŧ ehavlor musL be derlved from a LoLallLy of coexlsLlng facLs
2Ŧ 1hese coexlsLlng facLs make up a ƍdynamlc fleldţƍ whlch means LhaL Lhe sLaLe of any parL
of Lhe fleld depends on every oLher parL of lL
3Ŧ ehavlor depends on Lhe presenL fleld raLher Lhan on Lhe pasL or Lhe fuLureŦ ƍ1hls ls ln
conLrasL boLh Lo Lhe bellef of Leleology LhaL Lhe fuLure ls Lhe cause of behavlorţ and LhaL
of asoclaLlonlsm LhaL Lhe pasL ls Lhe cause of behavlorŦƍ
1he fleld ls Lhe llfe spaceţ whlch conLalns Lhe person and hls or her psychologlcal (or behavloral)
envlronmenLŦ 1he psychologlcal envlronmenL ls Lhe envlronmenL as Lhe person percelves and
undersLands lLţ and as relaLed Lo hls needs and quaslŴneedsŦ Many ob[ecLs LhaL do noL presenLly
concern hlm exlsL only ln Lhe background of Lhe psychologlcal envlronmenL (Lhe CesLalL
1nL LIILŴSÞACLŦ WhaL do you lnclude ln your fleld of percepLlon and acLlon? lf youƌre luckyţ Lo
some degree your llfe space ls deLermlned by youŦ lor oLhersţ lLƌs largely deLermlned by your
envlronmenL and Lhe people youƌre ln assoclaLlon wlLhŦLlfe space lncludesť
O 1he places where you physlcally goţ Lhe people and evenLs LhaL occur Lhereţ and your
feellngs abouL Lhe place and peopleŦ Cne parL of Lhls ls Lhe places you lnhablL every dayţ
or aL leasL regularlyŦ AnoLher parL ls places youƌve been Loţ buL go only very occaslonally
or may never go back Lo agalnŦ
O our vlcarlous llfeŴspace (my Lermţ noL Lewlnƌs)ţ lncludes Lhe world you Lravel lnLo
Lhrough readlngţ movlesţ 1vţ whaL oLher people sayţ eLcŦ
O 1hen Lhere ls also your own personal menLal llfe spaceŴŴLhe places you lhablL ln your
mlndţ your fanLasy worldţ eLcŦ 1hls was of greaL concern Lo !ungţ alLhough he dld noL use
Lhls Lerm for lLţ buL of less lnLeresL Lo Lewln who was mosL lnLeresLed ln our soclal
O hhWhen youƌre plannlng whaL Lo do Lomorrowţ your llfeŴspace ls noL Lhe room youƌre ln
now buL Lhe place where you expecL Lo be LomorrowŦ our presenL locomoLlon ln LhaL
expecLed envlronmenL lnvolves decldlng on one course of acLlon raLher Lhan anoLherţ as
a resulL of vecLors LhaL lmpel you ln one or anoLher dlrecLlonŦ
1he person and Lhe psychologlcal envlronmenL are dlvlded lnLo reg|ons LhaL undergo
d|fferent|at|onŦ 8eglons are connecLed when a person can perform a |ocomot|on beLweeen
LhemŦ LocomoLlon lncludes any klnd of approach or wlLhdrawalŴŴeven looklng aL a preLLy ob[ecL
or away from an ugly oneţ or llsLenlng Lo llked muslc and avoldlng dlsllked or unlnLeresLlng
muslcŦ 1hey are sald Lo be connected when commun|cat|on can Lake place beLween LhemŦ 1he
reglon LhaL lles [usL [[ouLslde Lhe llfeŴspace ls Lhe fore|gn hu||Ŧ 1he person ls a dlfferenLlaLed
reglon ln Lhe llfespaceţ seL aparL from Lhe psychologlcal envlronmenL by a boundaryŦ A barr|er
may block Lhe locomoLlon called for by vecLorsŦ A barrler exerLs no force unLll force ls exerLed
on lLŦ 1hen lL may yleldţ or reslsL sLronglyŦ Pow rlgld lL ls you can flnd ouL only by exploraLlonŦ
ou may have a plan LhaL anoLher person doesnƌL llkeţ buL you donƌL know how sLrongly heƌll
reslsL your carrylng lL ouL unLll you LryŦ An lmpasslble barrler ls llkely Lo acqulre a negaLlve
valence and may lead Lo curslng or aLLacklng lLŦ
An awakened need ls a sLaLe of Lenslonţ a readlness for acLlon buL wlLhouL speclflc dlrecLlonŦ
When a sulLable ob[ecL ls foundţ lL acqulres poslLlve valenceţ and a vecLor Lhen dlrecLs
locomoLlon Loward Lhe ob[ecLŦ Lxcesslve Lenslon may blur Lhe personƌs percepLlon of Lhe
envlronmenLţ so LhaL he doesnƌL flnd a sulLable ob[ecL Lo reduce Lhe LenslonŦ
(l sometlmes Jo oo octlvlty lo wblcb people bove blq sbeets of popet ooJ Jtow tbelt owo
pbyslcol llfeŴspocesţ complete wltb oo loJlcotloo of bow tbey feel lo eocb ploceŦ 1beo eocb
petsoo explolos bls ot bet Jtowloq to bolfŴoŴJozeo ot so otbetsŦ 1bls teoJs to qlve qtoop
membets oo ooJetstooJloq of tbe otbets tbot tbey mlqbt oevet bove boJ otbetwlseŦ)
our percepLlon of yourself and your relaLlonshlp wlLh yourself shlfLs as your llfeŴspace shlfLsŦ
Pow do you go abouL changlng your llfeŴspace when you do so? lf youƌre a member of a groupţ
your llfeŴspace as a member of Lhe group ls a developmenLal process of some klndŦ
A llmlLaLlon of Lewlnƌs meLhod of dlagrammlng Lhe llfe space was dlfflculLy represenLlng ƌs llfe
space as a facLor operaLlng ln Aƌs llfeŴspaceŦ

A need ls Lewlnƌs baslc moLlvaLlonal concepLŦ lL may arlse from a physlologlcal condlLlon llke
hunger or may be a deslre or lnLenLlon Lo do someLhlngŦ needs release energyţ lncrease
Lenslonţ and deLermlne Lhe sLrengLh of vectors and va|encesŦ
O A system (reg|on) |n the person ls sald Lo be ln a sLaLe of Lenslon whenever a need or
lnLenLlon exlsLsŦ A poslLlve or negaLlve valence ls Lhe aLLracLlon or repulslon LhaL a
reglon ln Lhe psychologlcal envlronmenL has for someoneŦ
O A pos|t|ve va|ence exlsLs when Lhe person Lhlnks Lhe reglon wlll reduce Lenslon by
meeLlng presenL needsţ whlle a negaLlve valence exlsLs when Lhe person Lhlnks Lhe
reglon wlll lncrease Lenslon or LhreaLens ln[uryŦ
O A vector ls a force LhaL arlses from a need LhaL acLs on Lhe person and deLermlnes Lhe
dlrecLlon ln whlch he or she moves Lhrough Lhe psychologlcal envlronmenLŦ lor every
reglon wlLh a poslLlve valenceţ a vecLor pushes Lhe person ln lLs dlrecLlonŦ WlLh a
negaLlve valenceţ a vecLor pushes Lhe person away from lLŦ
O CfLen Lwo or more vecdLors acL on Lhe person aL Lhe same Llmeţ and Lhen Lhe
locomoLlon ls some klnd of aƍresulLanLŦƍ
lleld Lheory sLems ouL of Lhe ldea ln order Lo explaln behavlor one musL look aL all pleces of Lhe
puzzleţ all dynamlc lnLeracLlons lnfluence ouLcomesŦ ln hls Lheory Lewln deflnes Lhe fleld as Lhe
LoLallLy of coexlsLlng facLs whlch are concelved of as muLually lnLerdependenL (Lewln 1931)Ŧ
1he fleld represenLs Lhe compleLe envlronmenL of Lhe lndlvldualŦ ehavlorţ Lewln bellevedţ
resulLed from Lenslons beLween an lndlvlduals selfŴpercepLlons and Lhe envlronmenL
encounLeredŦ (SmlLh 2001)Ŧ Cnes ºllfe space"ţ or LoLal envlronmenL of Lhe lndlvldual and all
slgnlflcanL oLhersţ had Lo be undersLood and researched ln order Lo undersLand behavlorŦ
Lewln Lhen concluded LhaL as lndlvlduals parLlclpaLe ln many dlfferenL llfe spaces such as famllyţ
churchţ workţ or schoolţ behavlor was represenLed as movemenLs Lhrough llfe spaces LhaL carry
boLh poslLlve and negaLlve lnfluences and are drlven by ones percepLlons based off Lhelr
underlylng psychologlcal needsŦ (uanlels 2003)Ŧ
lie/d theory
Pere we wlll noL enLer lnLo Lhe deLall of kurL Lewln's fleld Lheory (lL ls beyond our remlL)Ŧ
Poweverţ lL ls necessary Lo noLe lLs key elemenLsŦ 1o begln lL ls lmporLanL Lo recognlze lLs rooLs
ln CesLalL LheoryŦ (A gesLalL ls a coherenL wholeŦ lL has lLs own lawsţ and ls a consLrucL of Lhe
lndlvldual mlnd raLher Lhan 'reallLy')Ŧ lor kurL Lewln behavlour was deLermlned by LoLallLy of an
lndlvldual's slLuaLlonŦ ln hls fleld Lheoryţ a 'fleld' ls deflned as 'Lhe LoLallLy of coexlsLlng facLs
whlch are concelved of as muLually lnLerdependenL' (Lewln 1931ť 240)Ŧ lndlvlduals were seen Lo
behave dlfferenLly accordlng Lo Lhe way ln whlch Lenslons beLween percepLlons of Lhe self and
of Lhe envlronmenL were worked LhroughŦ 1he whole psychologlcal fleldţ or 'llfespace'ţ wlLhln
whlch people acLed had Lo be vlewedţ ln order Lo undersLand behavlourŦ WlLhln Lhls lndlvlduals
and groups could be seen ln Lopologlcal Lerms (uslng mapŴllke represenLaLlons)Ŧ lndlvlduals
parLlclpaLe ln a serles of llfe spaces (such as Lhe famllyţ workţ school and church)ţ and Lhese
were consLrucLed under Lhe lnfluence of varlous force vecLors (Lewln 1932)Ŧ
Pall and Llndzey (1978ť 386) summarlze Lhe cenLral feaLures of kurL Lewln's fleld Lheory as
ehavlour ls a funcLlon of Lhe fleld LhaL exlsLs aL Lhe Llme Lhe behavlour occursţ
Analysls beglns wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon as a whole from whlch are dlfferenLlaLed Lhe componenL
parLsţ and
1he concreLe person ln a concreLe slLuaLlon can represenLed maLhemaLlcallyŦ
kurL Lewln also looked Lo Lhe power of underlylng forces (needs) Lo deLermlne behavlour andţ
henceţ expressed 'a preference for psychologlcal as opposed Lo physlcal or physlologlcal
descrlpLlons of Lhe fleld' (opŦ cltŦ)Ŧ
ln Lhls we can see how kurL Lewln drew LogeLher lnslghLs from Lopology (eŦgŦ llfespace)ţ
psychology (needţ asplraLlon eLcŦ)ţ and soclology (eŦgŦ force flelds Ŷ moLlves clearly belng
dependenL on group pressures)Ŧ As AllporL ln hls foreword Lo kesolvloq 5oclol coofllct(Lewln
1948ť lx) puL lLţ Lhese Lhree aspecLs of hls LhoughL were noL separableŦ 'All of hls concepLsţ
whaLever rooLŴmeLaphor Lhey employţ comprlse a slngle wellŴlnLegraLed sysLem'Ŧ lL was Lhlsţ ln
slgnlflcanL parLţ whlch gave hls work lLs pecullar powerŦ
1he concept
LeLƌs sLarL wlLh a slmple sclence experlmenL (Lhls really ls relevanLţ so sLay wlLh me for a
momenL please)Ŧ
ouƌll need Lo slL down for Lhls oneŦ ouƌre slLLlng? CoodŦ nowţ whaLƌs keeplng you ln Lhe chalr?
Wellţ Lhere are Lwo answers reallyŦ Cne ls gravlLy whlch ls pushlng you down lnLo Lhe chalrŦ A
drlvlng forceţ lf you llkeŦ
1he oLher ls Lhe chalr lLselfţ whlch provldes an opposlng forceţ pushlng up agalnsL gravlLyţ and
sLopplng you falllng Lo Lhe groundŦ
So lL would seem LhaL whlle you are slLLlng youƌre ln an equlllbrlum of sorLsŦ
1wo forces keep you LhereŦ CravlLy pushes downţ keeplng you ln Lhe chalrţ and Lhe chalr reslsLs
Lhlsţ sLopplng you from falllng Lo Lhe groundŦ
1wo equal forcesţ a drlvlng force and a reslsLlng or resLralnlng forceţ worklng Lo keep Lhe
equlllbrlum or sLaLus quoŦ
Agreed? Ckayţ now leLƌs playŦ LeLƌs say we wanL Lo move away from Lhls equlllbrlum and geL
you Lo fall Lo Lhe floorŦ WhaL could we do?
Wellţ on Lhe one hand we could lncrease Lhe amounL of gravlLyŦ 1he chalr wlll glve way
evenLually and you wlll fallŦ
Cn Lhe oLher handţ we could leave gravlLy alone and declde Lo weaken Lhe chalr Lo geL Lhe
same resulLŦ
lf youƌve followed me Lhls far Lhen youƌve [usL compleLed a force fleld analysls and undersLood
Lhe baslc concepLs of Lhe force fleld analyslsŦ lL also helps Lo explaln why our sclence
experlmenL ls relevanLŦ
ou seeţ kurL Lewln applled exacLly Lhls Lhlnklng Lo hls Lheory of change wlLhln soclal slLuaLlons
Ŵ Lo peopleŦ
May the Iorce be w|th youţ or aga|nst youŦ
kurL Lewln wroLe LhaL ƍAn lssue ls held ln balance by Lhe lnLeracLlon of Lwo opposlng seLs of
forces Ŵ Lhose seeklng Lo promoLe change (drlvlng forces) and Lhose aLLempLlng Lo malnLaln Lhe
sLaLus quo (resLralnlng forces)ƍŦ 1hls ls much Lhe same as Lhe experlmenL we [usL dld and ls
summarlsed ln Lhe dlagram belowŦ

So before change Lhe force fleld ls ln equlllbrlum beLween forces favourable Lo change and
Lhose reslsLlng lLŦ Lewln spoke abouL Lhe exlsLence of a quaslŴsLaLlonary soclal equlllbrlumŦ
lor change Lo happen Lhe sLaLus quoţ or equlllbrlum musL be upseL Ŷ elLher by addlng
condlLlons favourable Lo Lhe change or by reduclng reslsLlng forcesŦ
WhaL kurL Lewln proposes ls LhaL whenever dr|v|ng forces are sLronger Lhanrestra|n|ng forcesţ
Lhe sLaLus quo or equlllbrlum wlll changeŦ
now LhaLƌs usefulŦ Lspeclally lf we apply Lhls Lo undersLandlng how people move Lhrough
change and why Lhey reslsL changeŦ
1here wlll always be drlvlng forces LhaL make change aLLracLlve Lo peopleţ and resLralnlng
forces LhaL work Lo keep Lhlngs as Lhey areŦ
Successful change ls achleved by elLher sLrengLhenlng Lhe drlvlng forces or weakenlng Lhe
resLralnlng forcesŦ
1he force fleld analysls lnLegraLes wlLh Lewln's Lhree sLage Lheory of change as you work
Lowards unfreezlng Lhe exlsLlng equlllbrlumţ movlng Lowards Lhe deslred changeţ and Lhen
freezlng Lhe change aL Lhe new level so LhaL a new equlllbrum exlsLs LhaL reslsLs furLher changeŦ
Ds|ng the Iorce I|e|d Ana|ys|s
Lewlnƌs force fleld analysls ls used Lo dlsLlngulsh whlch facLors wlLhln a slLuaLlon or organlsaLlon
drlve a person Lowards or away from a deslred sLaLeţ and whlch oppose Lhe drlvlng forcesŦ
1hese can be analysed ln order Lo lnform declslons LhaL wlll make change more accepLableŦ
ƌlorcesƌ are more Lhan aLLlLudes Lo changeŦ kurL Lewln was aware LhaL Lhere ls a loL of emoLlon
underlylng peopleƌs aLLlLude Lo changeŦ
1o undersLand whaL makes people reslsL or accepL change we need Lo undersLand Lhe values
and experlences of LhaL person or groupŦ
ueveloplng self awareness and emoLlonal lnLelllgence can help Lo undersLand Lhese forces LhaL
work wlLhln us and oLhersŦ lL's Lhe behavlour of oLhers LhaL wlll alerL you Lo Lhe presence of
drlvlng and resLralnlng forces aL workŦ
1he followlng sLeps are a gulde Lo uslng Lhe force fleld analyslsŦ
ou mlghL flnd lL useful Lo follow Lhe process uslng Lhe lorce lleld AnalyslsAppllcaLlon 1ool
avallable hereţ free of charge of course! ouƌll need Adobe 8eader Lo open Lhe appllcaLlon LoolŦ

1Ŧ Def|ne the change you want to seeŦ WrlLe down Lhe goal or vlslon of a fuLure deslred
sLaLeŦ Cr you mlghL prefer Lo undersLand Lhe presenL sLaLus quo or equlllbrlumŦ
2Ŧ ra|nstorm or M|nd Map the Dr|v|ng Iorces Ŵ Lhose LhaL are favourable Lo changeŦ
8ecord Lhese on a force fleld dlagramŦ
3Ŧ ra|nstorm or M|nd Map the kestra|n|ng Iorces Ŵ Lhose LhaL are unfavourable Loţ or
oppose changeŦ 8ecord Lhese on Lhe force fleld dlagramŦ
4Ŧ Lva|uate the Dr|v|ng and kestra|n|ng forcesŦ ou can do Lhls by raLlng each forceţ from
1 (weak) Lo 3 (sLrong)ţ and LoLal each sldeŦ Cr you can leave Lhe numbers ouL compleLely
and focus hollsLlcally on Lhe lmpacL each hasŦ
3Ŧ kev|ew the forcesŦ ueclde whlch of Lhe forces have some flexlblllLy for change or whlch
can be lnfluencedŦ
6Ŧ Strateg|se! CreaLe a sLraLegy Lo sLrengLhen Lhe drlvlng forces or weaken Lhe resLralnlng
forcesţ or boLhŦ
lf youƌve raLed each force how can you ralse Lhe scores of Lhe urlvlng lorces or lower
Lhe scores of Lhe 8esLralnlng lorcesţ or boLh?
7Ŧ Þr|or|t|se act|on stepsŦ WhaL acLlon sLeps can you Lake LhaL wlll achleve Lhe greaLesL
lmpacL? ldenLlfy Lhe resources you wlll need and declde how Lo lmplemenL Lhe acLlon
n|ntť SomeLlmes lLƌs easler Lo reduce Lhe lmpacL of resLralnlng forces Lhan lL ls Lo
sLrengLhen drlvlng forcesŦ
CrlLlclsm of Lhe force fleld analysls usually focuses on Lhe sub[ecLlvlLy of aLLrlbuLlng scores Lo
Lhe drlvlng or resLralnlng forcesŦ
Some wrlLers suggesL Lhe model applles wlLhln llmlLed seLLlngs and LhaL Lhere are slLuaLlons
ouLslde of Lhese seLLlngs ln whlch Lewln's Lheory may be less appllcableŦ
AL Lhe end of Lhe day Lhe force fleld analysls ls a Lool LhaL may or may noL be useful ln your
slLuaLlonŦ ou can declde Lhls or allow oLhers Lo make a declslonŦ
1he force fleld analysls ls backed by Lhe Lewln change managemenL model and hasţ over Llmeţ
developed credlblllLy as a professlonal change managemenL LoolŦ
lie/d 1heory ku/e
Applylng 'fleld Lheory' for organlsaLlonal change and consulLlng requlres an accepLance of lLs
cenLral premlseŦ Þeople and Lhelr surroundlngs and condlLlons depend closely on each oLherŦ ln
Lewln's wordsţ 'Lo undersLand or Lo predlcL behavlourţ Lhe person and hls envlronmenL have Lo
be consldered as oneconsLellaLlon of lnLerdependenL facLors' (1946ť338)Ŧ 1husţ Lhe noLlon of
'fleld' refers Loť (a) all aspecLs of lndlvlduals ln relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhelr surroundlngs and
condlLlonsŤ (b) LhaL apparenLly lnfluence Lhe parLlcular behavlours and developmenLs of
concernŤ (c) aL a parLlcular polnL ln LlmeŦ
Lewln's fleld Lheory rule sLaLes LhaL 'analysls sLarLs wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon as a whole'Ŧ y galnlng an
overvlew as early as posslbleţ we lnLend Lo broaden Lhe perspecLlve from whlch we as scholarly
pracLlLloners engage wlLh Lhe general characLerlsLlcs of Lhe challenge or opporLunlLy faclng our
organlsaLlonal cllenLsŦ Lewln hlghllghLed Lhe lmporLance of characLerlzlng Lhe aLmosphere (eŦgŦ
emoLlonal Lone or cllmaLe) and Lhe amounL of freedom exlsLlng ln Lhe slLuaLlonŦ
Such an overall perspecLlve counLeracLs Lhe pull Lo repeaL Lhe same unsuccessful aLLempLs aL
change and developmenLŦ lleld Lheory leads us Lo conclude LhaL such a pull Lo repeLlLlon comes
from forces wlLhln Lhe fleldŦ As ouLslders we may be prone Lo belleve LhaL we won'L succumbŦ
1husţ afLer sLarLlng wlLh Lhe LoLal slLuaLlonţ our analysls needs Lo focus on more speclflc
varlables LhaL mlghL be aL playŦ We alm Lo represenL everyLhlng ln Lhe fleld (lŦeŦ people and
Lhelr envlronmenL) LhaL helps or hlnders movemenL Lowards Lhe goals for change and
uslng Lhe fleld Lheory rule ofLen resulLs ln a flgure or some oLher sorL of daLa dlsplay Lo
represenL Lhe psychologlcal fleld and Lhe lnLerŴrelaLlon of lLs parLsŦ Lewln and hls colleagues
(lncludlng early soclal sclenLlsLs aL 1he 1avlsLock lnsLlLuLe) favoured 'Lopologlcal maps'Ŧ 1hese
eggŴshaped dlagrams showed cruclal lnLerŴrelaLed areasţ arrows Lo lndlcaLe dlrecLlon of force
Loward Lhe goal or away from Lhe goalţ and ofLen maLhemaLlcal equaLlons Lo lndlcaLe posslble
soluLlons Lo problemsŦ 1odayţ addlLlonal analyLlcal meLhods (eŦgŦ vlsual and quallLaLlve ones)
are made posslble wlLh lnformaLlon LechnologyŦ
A speclflc crlLerlon for ob[ecLlvlLy when uslng fleld Lheory can lmprove Lhe quallLy of
organlsaLlonal change pracLlceŦ Lewln asserLs LhaL we should alm Lo represenL Lhe fleld
'correcLly as lL exlsLs for Lhe lndlvldual ln quesLlon aL a parLlcular Llme' (1946ť338)Ŧ Lven when
worklng wlLh collecLlve phenomenonţ Lhls dlsclpllne for analysls remalnsŦ We need Lo avold
offerlng preŴdeLermlned soluLlons or geLLlng caughL ln Lhe same fleld of forces as our cllenLsŦ
lnsLeadţ scholarly pracLlLloners Lake Lhe Llme and efforL Lo sLudy Lhe ldlosyncrasles of each LoLal
slLuaLlon and make a represenLaLlon of Lhe forces belng experlenced by cllenLsŦ lrom LhaL
analyslsţ we dlscuss worklng hypoLheses wlLh our cllenLs Lo asslsL Lhem ln changlng Lhelr fleld
(lŦeŦ Lhelr behavlour and relaLed surroundlngs and condlLlons)Ŧ We may also be able Lo
cooperaLe wlLh Lhem on experlmenLs ln movlng Lowards Lhelr change goalsŦ
WlLhln 1he 1avlsLock lnsLlLuLe's archlveţ a sLudy conducLed by uon ryanL and !ean neumann
exempllfles Lhe fleld Lheory ruleŦ 1hey were asked by a uk governmenL deparLmenL Lo sLudy Lhe
organlsaLlonal facLors ln shlpplng casualLles (eŦgŦ accldenLs Lo shlpsţ flresţ groundlngs)Ŧ ased on
an overall vlew of Lhe rlLlsh merchanL navyţ Lhey deslgned a sLudy Lo maxlmlze lnformaLlon
abouL Lhe people and Lhelr envlronmenLsŦ 1hey ldenLlfled lndlvlduals ln roles lmpllcaLed ln
prevenLlng shlpplng casualLles (eŦgŦ capLalns and oLher offlcersţ company dlrecLorsţ agencles for
forelgn workersţ employee assoclaLlons and governmenL agencles)Ŧ 1hey also ldenLlfled
dlfferenL Lypes of companles Lo be represenLed (eŦgŦ conLalner shlpplngţ gas and oll fleeLsţ ferry
companlesţ suppllers Lo drllllng plaLforms)Ŧ lrom analysls of over 30 lnLervlew noLesţ Lhey
ldenLlfled abouL 80 varlables consldered relevanL by lndlvlduals ln varlous roles and from
dlfferenL Lypes of buslnessesŦ A large causal map was made Lo represenL Lhe lnLerŴconnecLed
paLLernsŦ A noLaLlon sysLem lndlcaLed Lhe degree Lo whlch lndlvlduals LhoughL Lhe paLLerns
helpedţ hlndered or were neuLral ln Lhelr efforLs Lo avold casualLles aL seaŦ Worklng hypoLheses
abouL Lypes of organlsaLlonal facLors were ldenLlfled from Lhls causal map and offered Lo
represenLaLlves from governmenLţ Lhe merchanL navy and Lhelr sLaff groupsŦ A plvoLal lnLerface
became apparenL beLween commerclal deparLmenLs and capLalns wlLh Lhelr offlcersŦ
AnoLher example comlng from Lhe 1hlrd SecLor demonsLraLes Lhe fleld Lheory ruleŦ 1he Loplc
concerned how Lo lncrease Lhe raLe of uk governmenL mandaLed lnnovaLlon wlLhln small
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