SnnucrrlRAr', ExcrxnERrNG

tr'onuul-,AS

. IIORSION . IMPACT . COMPRESSION . TENSION BENDING

FOUNDATIONS

. . BNAMS ' FRAMES . ARCIIES IIRUSSES PLA.IES . PIPES AND TUNNELS . RE||ATNING WALLS

ILYA MrriHBr,soN, PII.D'
ILLL]SITRATIONS BY LIA MIKISLSON, M.S.

MCGRAW.HILL LONDON MADRID NE$,YORI< CIIICAGO SNF'RANCISCO LISBON CITY MILAN NES'DEI,HI SAN JUAN SNOUL MEXICO SINGAPORT SYDNEY ITORONIIO

.'..

Library of Congress Catatoging-in-publication
Mikhelson, llya.

Data

Structural engineering formulas / ilya Mikhelson. cm.

To my wif e and son

p.

tsBN 0-07-14391 1-0 1. Structural engine€ring-Mathematics. TA636.M55 2004

2. Mathematics_Formulae. L Tifle. 2004044803

624.1'02'12-4c22
copyright

@ 2004 by llya lvlikhelson. AII rights reserued. printed in the united states of America. Except as permitted under the united states copyright Act of 1 976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval svstem.

without the prior written permission of the publisher.
1

234567 890

DOC/DOC 01

0987654

lsBN 0-07-14391 1-0
The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry s. Hager, the editing superyisor was stephen M. smith, and the production supervisor was sherri souffrance. The art director for the cover was Maroaret Webster-Shapiro. Printed and bound by RR Donnelley McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please write to the Direator of special sales, Mccraw-Hlll Professional, Two p enn plaza, New york, Ny 1 0121-2298. or contact vour local bookstore.

This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing a minimum of 50% recycled, de-inked fiber. Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw-Hill companies, Inc. (,,MccrawHill") from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Mccraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting lo render engineering or other professional services. lf such services are reouired. the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.

:-

CONTE
Preface

N

s

Acknowledgments Introduction Basis of Structural Analysis
Tables

1. Stress and Strain.

Methods ofAnalysis
't.1

Tension and compression Bending Combination of compression (tension) and bending Torsion Curved beams Continuous deep beams Dynamics, transverse oscillations of the beams Dynamics, impact

1.2,1.3
'1.4

1.5 1.6 1.7

1.8-1.10 1.1',t,1.12

2. Properties of Geometric Seciions
For tension, compression, and bending structures For toFion structures

2.'t-2.5
2.6

Statics
3. Beams.
Diagrams and Formulas forVarious Loading Conditions
Simple beams Simple beams and beams overhanging one support Cantilever beams Beams fixed at one end, supported at other Beams fixed at both ends Continuous beams Continuous beams: settlement of support Simple beams: moving concentrated loads (general rules)

3.1-3.3
3.4 3.5

3.6,3.7
3.8, 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.'12

CONTENTS
Bsams: influencs lines (exampl€s) Eeams: computation of bending moment and shear using influene lines (examples)

CONTENTS
3.13,3.14
Stress distribution in soil Settlement of soil

8.3

8.4,8.5
8.6 8.7

3.15,3.16
Diagrams and Formulas for Various Static Loadlng Conditions Diagrams and Formulas for Various Loading Conditions
5.1

Shear strength of soil; slope stability analysis Bearing capacity analysis

4, Framos.
5. Archos.

4.14.5

9. Foundations
Direct foundations Direct foundation stability; pile foundations Pile group capacity

9.1 9.2 9.3

Three-hinged arches: support reactions, bending moment, and axial force Symmetrical three-hinged arches of any shape: formulas for various static loading conditions Two-hinged parabolic arches: formulas for various static loading mnditions Fixed parabolic arches: formulas for various static loading @nditions Three-hinged arches: influen@ lines Fixed parabolic arches: influence lines Steel rope

5.2,5.3
5.4, 5.5

Pile capacity Rigid continuous beam elasti€lly supported

9.4 9.5-9.7

5.6,5.7
5.8 5.9 5.10

IV

Retaining

Structures
10.1-10.5

10. Retaining Structures
Lateral earth pressure on retaining walls Lateral eadh pressure on braced sheetings; lateral earth pressure on

6, Trusses.

Method of Joints and Method of Section Analysis

basement walls

10.6

Method ofjoints and method of section analysis: examples
Infl

6.1,6.2 6.3,6.4 11. Retaining Structures
Cantilever retaining walls; stability analysis Cantilever sheet pilings 2.1 Anchored sheet pile walls 11.1

uence lines (examples)

7. Plates.

Bending Moments for Various Support and Loading Conditions

| | Rectangular plates: bending moments and defloctions (uniformly distributed load) | Rectangular plales: bending moments (uniformly varying load) | Circular plates: bending moments, shear and defloction (uniformly distributed load) |
Rectangular plates: bending Rectangular plates: bending moments (uniformly distributed

moments

11.2 11.3

load)

7.2-T.s
2.0

V.

Pipes
1

and Tunnels
Bending Moments for Various Static Loading

7,7,1.9
7,g

2. Pipes and Tunnels.
Conditions

ilt.

Soils and Foundations
8. Soils
Engineering properties of soils Weighumass and volume relationships; flow of water in soil 8.1
1

Rectangular cross-section

12.1-12.5

3. Pipes and Tunnels.
Conditions
Circular cross-section

Bending Moments for Various Static Loading

8.2

13.1-13.3

ONTENTS
Appendix
Units: conversion between Anglo-American and metric systems Mathematical formulas: algebra l\4athematjcal formulas: geometry, solid bodies Mathematical formulas; trigonometry Symbols

u.1, u.2
M.1, M.2 M.3, M.4 M.5, M.6 s.1
This reference book is intended for those engaged in an occupation as important as lt is

PFIEFACE
interesting--{esign and analysis ofengineering structures. Engineering problems are diverse,
and so are the analyses they require. Some are performed with sophisticated computer programs; others call only for a thoughtful application of ready-to-use formulas. ln any situation, the

informationinthiscompilationshouldbehelpful.

ltwillalsoaidengineeringandarchitectural

students and those studying for licensing examinations.

llya N.4ikhelson, Ph.D

ACI(NO-wLEDGNIENTS
Deep appreciation goes to Mikhail Bromblin for his unwavering help in preparing the book's illustrations for publication. following order:

INTFIODUCTION
Analysis of structures, regardless of its purpose or complexity, is generally performed in the

.
The author would also like to express his gratitude to colleagues Nick Ayoub, Tom Sweeney, and Davidas Neghandi for sharing their extensive engineering experience.

Loads, both permanent (dead loads) and temporary (live loads), acting upon the structure are computed.

.
o

Forces(axisforces,bendingmoments,sheare,torsionmoments,etc.)resultinginthestructure
are determined.

Special thanks is given to Larry Hager for his valuable editorial advice.

Stresses in the cross-sections of structure elem€nts are found. Depending on the analysis method used, the obtained results are compared with allowable or ultimate forces and stresses allowed by norms.

.

The norms of structuEl design do not remain constant, but change with the evolving methods of analysis and increasing strength of materials. Furthermore, the norms fof design of various struclures, such as bridges and buildings, are different. Therefore, the analysis methods provided in this book are limited to determination of forces and stresses. Likewise, the included properties

of

materials and soils are approximations and may differ from those

accepted in the norms.
AII the formulas provided in the book for analysis of structures are based on the elastic theory.

L. including: Precast concrete for Underyround Construction. and buildings. He is the author of numerous other publications.About the Author llya Mikhelson. has over 30 years'experience in design. tunnels. and teaching design of bridges. and Bu ild i ng Stru cture s. STFIESS and STFIAIN Methods of Analysis .D. subway stations.. Tunnels and Subways. Ph. research.

L. *ato i o=6. it is necessary to comparc the computed stresses with existing norm reouirements.1 Axial force: N. o.. =€. Case b/ Deformation: Ai = a.1-1. N Stresses:o. b) -.sectional area. compressi Stresses PP 6. o.l. EEAEEA ^ 0. nooKes law Temperature 6=t€.At"L . P uo. =d. ' 2E' : A. conditions. Ao =b-b. k=--. a ^=0. o.A'"A .=-i. n Case a/ Keacrron: Axial A. At0 < 0 compression srress.=TL. L=-L=-L. Detbmation: Diogroms a =11(zr-*).at'EA ^-O*L!.= r.=. To evaluate the results. (cross).F. e. o.STRESS and STRAIN TENSION and COMPRESSION eight Tables 1. 0 = coefficient of linear expansion Ato > 0 tension stress. A = cross . (along). "=i. force N =-R (compression). lrl-k'"' n nA k(n-l)+l For A. T"0 lt'=4-lj Where T"0 md re original and considered temperatures.4t08.. =L-L.r =62 =-61. 2FA W = yAL = weight of the beam E = Modulus of elasticity ^ =-'}L.=IY-L 2E Axial force : tension. b I . = YA(L_x). e"= ratio: 6 +4.uPa.atoE A. r=0.€=-: . A^ =c^b=-b:-b. Defomation: _-_4*-* ta.!=f( t__x). Poisson's u=litl L€. -Rcr'AtoERo.1 2 provide formulas for determination of stresses in structural elements for various loading 1. Y = unit volume weight.

=o E+ h l+E ffi. ri" =#=#. ='tv ='c T---_]______T 'u* --T. + 80x6 = 84 12 1. [r] = 58. Shape W 14x30.n"ion" 9rj I ll-e Stresses diogrom v=f r. _ .84x2.54=35.3048 = 437..8 -diagram: t.85x2.2MPa I .27 0 x 2.Compression :- . | .978cm Flange lvloment of inertia rr-q..A1.5 4' -- l2l 1 2 -3cm" o o'^... "+ j Stress diogroms oM3V r22S2A - t-- - ".0inr =42..Vo. L=6m ^.=0. o" = 6.85in'? =8. =t "".541 =688.2 and 1.154cm thickness d = 0.Fiq-lsvl -11"" Stress diagrams =*T.. Compute: o..) I \4 civen.448 I 0. Section modulus S= 42.'+4r' l/'_ The principal stresses and maximum (min) shear stresses lie at 0 4378'6 22 * 8o = 4t.54'? =57.€ E E A-E. 1. .3a BENDING bcndtngslfcss.54=0.26cm1 Weight of the beam ro = 30Lb /ft = 30x 4.215 MPa< 196.E_'E IBEIEEEE -g4gLBH PtrE ""€ F*R RH=EEItr ^3VM _-T=--" 6.9 MPa < 58. -T Note. "" o".385in =0.4378x 6..2 Example.0 kN/m'?=177...m "!4.o.9 MPa t!-^tfg{^-L.t-=r-. -:l l/r/o'4r': .27jrn = 0.STRESS and STRATN Tables 1.094cm Flange thickness t=0.cm) 688. # u lzl I o.4378 kN / m Maxjmum shear (min) stresses: Load P=80kN Allowable stress (assumed) [o] = 196. = 29 hn' = 29 \x 2." -diagram: =+r=+!I.r_ ".". (DL P 22 tvt o.""" -diagram: q =*+.097cm2 VS T=- Depth h=13.730in=6..sv F---iq-E."."* *-------= Sheor Solution.72 kN/cm': =177215. lt I t %l^ I l. 1..rT A+l: 84 2 DT _ 0.385x2. L ue0d am fd o.Z =? Moment diogrom Principal stresses: I..97x100(kN.9 MPa Required.6 T..26(cmr) 17. Jnetrstress: Area Web A=8. ?f----r: in''ti"o-ii-.54 = 0.0x2. 24 o.84in=13. =0.Tension ". "".=-{ {".54=1'7. o-diagram: t-tliagram: s _ 121.."* and x.U. ".b Stresses in x-y oy = plane: 0.686cm width b=6.97 kN .730x2."" il/ =t.1t90 kN/crn' - llJ900 kN/m' = 18..3t kN zi.zll I 45' to each othcr.. M= -. O ___ S -diagram: i =I t.8 N /m = 0.2 MPa. I oM3V T 22S2A _rt-+_ e-. Bending o--. ljra..

case shown: ^ For ^--^ -L^. M. LM.dl lt-t)\ r).) """.-.-Yll .-Y'./ ol t Iiu. Mr=Msino.. =!((h )rl.d \2 2) .l . for y=9.)I' _y l.=Mcoscr.M( cosq+ s.=.h 2 0.. = Stress: 'f=-s fsindJ .h zl z / L\+ ) b(h' _. b/ Tl lr =0.] [l!l o-r = r.[fh I r.b al b/h'z .L' ') :!L. E^. ly Deflection in direction of forc" f ' A= UI{ +{. h \''l t-'l -l )l I l n two directions Bending moments. /h t) 'r.) bh'14 ') x= . A P' L' 3Et.STRESS and STRATN BENDING She ear VS str(ess: T=- I. = ' P. M.b t2 -thr. = PyLcos d..b lt-t)' I I v.+Y )l=. -i-bt l fh r) r.-or {Lsin o. = lEr ==- . L. M=PL For case shown: M. tvomentduetoforce e' V=nln4 + nt'. tl I MIY'9'0 \r"lr) Neutral axis: tanB=Ia1uno. f Case ') i[7-'"'J 6v(t' ..

M. z"=!. tension o.STRESS and STRATN COMBINATION OF COMpRESSTON (TENStON) and BENDTNG uompressron (Tension) and bending 1.= Jr) A.4 stresses: o=* t Yt tYr. i" =r/i7a.=P e". A I.. S.. M. kL ..s.= = 12' ''=-r' t'= 6 ' n Neutral axis: i' i' y.=P hb' b. -ilj1. (kr)' v R.= n'EI for 1. Axial compression (tension) and benl Stresses: compression o. N' P.b../^:.' e.= P. moment and ma..* NM"NA^ A S.)n. 1.rr ffi ]-i f ll -lil {l t '+ + {+ x Euler's formula: +) lt li ^ . where R" is the elastic buckling strength.'. "Y "r' i. I"" 6=_t:+." = A-q'tJ P" NMoNa.. | .h. ^ b. a=u..^ Saj. ^ h.=lz. t.h. stress: -1r o. deflection due to transverse loading -9- . .M A s. .. ^{lb where : Mo and Ao: max.lJ PM.

S.=T..5m. =Ir. >b.. Dr b: b3 . moment M.0 123 1.ncl =312.'745 * _ 180.' I. Assumed: \.. =c. br 4.0 0. =".rl t*^l{'. M. t) ln point l: tr =T.859 L789 1. c2 1.. Bar of rectangular Str.958 kN/cm'? = 69580 kN/m'? = 69.5 1.742 3.b.'743 c/. =60cm.4s6 0.58 MPa 180 .. !-=4= br 5. I b.294 0. b/.t^. !=i::=O.66 - 13.. fido Io=-=. cross-section ..0 8..s Bar of circular cross-section Stress: .'klo r\.bl S. g =-l' .0 n Gl.# -TTE] fl" = ". 10. ^ rdl So=-:" twisr: eo h=70cm. +I.t0. inpoint 2: . .16'. . =30cm.742 h/b>10 0.457 0.. '+l.c2=c1.27 = c. br =5 5cm Material: Steel.9=M.) o/. r =i=T 40x{100) IY1L1II1= 6.40x(100)x1. ' = b.M'L. = 40 kN 'm Angle of - 180". -c ..75 4.""") .4s6 2..u". 7.. c. h hr ="":" t..t23 3.6l = 2 212v I.5 Example.5=tt9tjuu =574 85 cml' =.5 cma. h.L 6. i \rndt Stress: t. GI.000 cl 0.5a = 825.. h. r=ts-F--t-{ F_h- Profile consisting of re cta n g u I a r c ro s s .9.91274.-=.>b. +I..795 3. =40cm.150 0.=t.0 0. 3. twist: - 180' rc ' M'L.789 2. Torsion civen. I ) q' -p-"n . bz=2'5cm.J /h a..STRESS and STRAIN roRStoN Table 1. Compute '[* and q" h1n Sofurion.493 o. t. lI.14 _ For 800x3161.zr2 5'5a = 2024'12 cma f . g\ Eot lLnox n Clo Where G = Shear modulus of etasticity lt=9=z+r b2 2. lrrto b. = -crbi . (i. Required. h. l. h. = c.h5. =M'.-I' i=n n=3 b.. r40 2.2d'.=3161.=z. cr =2.b1 I..aH. for profile see Table 1 5c lr.no 6ov? 5l ll-T-r '* .e..80 0. b. +t.123 0.$l = 2. Angleolrwist: s.66cm4 t..04 I'..012.740 0.1..790 0. 10.b'. = t' [dJ" t. M L.208 1. L = 1. cantilever beam.60 0. . -c.0 10. r.346 0.*l l. <10.5cma.5x(100) tr !<to: I. br =4'5cm. =b.'.Ol . Argle of =!!r linpoint sr go t.o1800.0 0.s e c t i o n s Ceometricproperties: -l .+I. I=r D rr h->ro: . G=800kN/cm'? =8000 (MPa) Torsion =0. [J'' EF 'F-i- l"-tir*r .

-Ro bh bhc R" _ P .--ln+./n'-a z\ r d = diameter For beams with circular cross-section: *.c R. cross-section.R forallcross-secrionlypes.I of o' '. =-.-.5. y c=R_Ro A. Io ._R" 'A. ' - M y-R.STRESS and STRAIN CURVED BEAMS Cu rved bea m (lransverse bending ) Stresses: o. SreSSCS : N. N=P. R For case shown: hl c=--j! A..Tension "*o C u '' -Compression O^ = rve d bea m (axialforce and ^. M o-R" -+ 'AA.2PR R"-Rb " bh bhc Rb _ -' Note. A =Ar +Ar.. . M=2PR.''r no=nlr-'l*l l6\R/] L f ..c h"_ "" _le tA' lf :<0.( | r) n.cRo Forcaseshown: c=R-Ro. "+o " . P zPR R. M R.

* forcenterofspanandsupport Solution.0m.xljwL= 0.888x0. c=0. compute Z.* = ct.6 "9 t ts o (J t d . x 0. D. do and d.0 = 128 4 kN d = aa x0.3 = 0 kN/m'] = 0 71 0 At center of support: I Z = D = cr.".E6tl X ^e +N . oP E= r a o . Atcenterof Z span: "tl =D = a.e 'l "7 .b' dh Example. Continuous deep beam Given. h=2.3 = -6043.5L=0.186x0.5x 3.. Beam L=3. w=200kN/m Required.036x0.5x3.STRESS and STRAIN Tabl.0=133 m x0 5L = 0 124x0 5x3'0 = 0 19 m 7 I 3N E'l 6n 'qae MPa (tension) o..428x0.3 kN/m'? = -6'04 MPa (compression) U .8 kN d= oo d0 = cdo x0.0 = 0 05 m [..9 .= ctd x w / b = -9.H o o o.0 = 0-9tt4 m do = 0(a.065 x 200 / 0. d. x w / b = 1 065x200 I 0.5wL = 0.6 9^ll 8 =!' xo o h.656x0.5L = 0.0m.3m.5x200x3 0 = 55..5x3.q E.iEA [i . m UJ { '0 ".5L = 0.t vt c nl o 6 . x0.5x200x3. thicklessb=0'3m.

l 11 . = T ma A.= 3"#I'*r .4oment c=amplitude.----'r.STRESS and STRAIN DYNAMICS.- a.t I. c=1Ai a>b MaximumShearfor V =/P+P \'1 Stress: M o= jje. M.8 Tables 1.) .. min. DEFLECTIONS: g A.[ry. sec'/ \ aA =Max. I v stress: t=\* S \.l tFORCES: N r\\- + P.r =Static deflection due to Load p l'-Weight oftheload. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF THE BEAMS NATURAL OSCTLLATIONS OF SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE FREEDOM 1. =7 ?eFI 1__?---l | ..b =(Pr q).=3 ( ^^.1 2 only consider computation methods for elastic systems 1 SIMPLE BEAM WITH ONE POINT MASS 1 Dettections Y ffid. Maximum Bendins Moment: Mnu =(+. lvlaximum Bendins Moment: Mh"* i-t--*-f-.t) P..8-1.cml g=981 . .1. M"""' !-cravitationalacceleration. \=. I | Maximum sheari "Forceofinertia: =. deflection due to Force P - Force of inertia.-.t(r) = Static deflection due to Force P= 1 il = acceleration For shown beam: Maximum Bending l\.".t] t Maximum shear: v.t l)eflectionsN ffi*^ | --1---Deflections- \\-rz!- I Forceofinertia: C=4+ =[tP-t.

in[&] \c.-l \co. Ie o = frequency of natural oscillation.' .r *f ) ' *-!r./ l=4=ZnN= c0=amplitude.STRESS and STRAIN DYNAMICS. T= periodoffreeoscillarron. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF THE BEAMS DIAGRAM OF CONTINUOUS OSCILLATTONS Equation of free continuous oscillations: y = csin (rot + <po ) Where: ou =initial phase of oscitlation. t=time. . & l. Qo =rcsinl e =initiat deflection v0 =beginner velocity of mass.[k/ 2m]'. e = 2. T =2ja I 0t o = frequency of free oscillation. mass and rigidity T = period of free oscillations. E DIAGRAM OF DAMPED OSCILLATIONS Equation of free damped oscillations: y = coe co *t. sin ( rot + <po =initial amptitude F-----'-=vo + yok 2m )' of osciilafion " . O" = -./ .7 1828 k = coetficient set according to material..j Q0 =initial phaseof oscillation. t. =logarithmic base./.. ro= a/r/ rn. . For simpte beam - .

TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF THE BEAMS FORCED OSCILLATIONS OF THE BEAMS WITH ONE DEGREE FREEDOM SIMPLE BEAM WITH ONE POINT MASS qY TORCES: l' -weishtoftheload.A*(rl Equationof forcedoscillations: y=c e-'' " . c=amplitudeof forcedoscillation..11 rp-Frequency of force S(t) A. :jj!]]f((D'-a-J *. Load P= I Ar = Pi .i" f bl .* -A*(p) Aq(p) +A$G) +Ai =Static deflection due to Load P ll =Forceof inertia.po1+-ffQ costpt . c=ko. q' =A'1'-A-5"o. e-t' " sin (ot + g0) =free oscittation.i forced oscillation e0 = beginner phase of oscillation.or. [*=oS'li g \ sec-) Assumed: S(t)=5q.r(.STRESS and STRAIN DYNAMICS.. k" =# q.. e=2...rt Astr 1 A. T = period of oscillations. sec_/ [_ .l' . = coefficient set according to material.1.v e=logarithmicbase.) = Static deflection due to Force S Ai =Static deflection due to Pi . tvtass. S(t) =vibrating force./f'-ql'*[k (o"l rUJ') Lm \il 1: ko = lf k = 0 (damped oscillation is not included -_L t-tt . \co. /e=sgf "t ) .pt c.t = Static deflection due to ) A.A. co =c. = co=amplitudeof :k y0 = beginner deflection freeoscillation. . mass and rigidity o = frequency of natural oscillation. DEFLECTIONS: m=1..77828 g=gravitational acceleration.in1rt*. T = 2n / or kn =dynamiccoefficient.

loo kN . k -j.U KD =-1==_- . A=19.625 Jg P EA.-{t.4 . Beam W12x65.. = Maximum stress in the cable: 6=_(t+ko) o= A p (i*k^)= ' 40 19. Computedynamicstress Solution.0cm. L=3. For stresses see Table 1. = = J ".) cm. MD Bending For shown beam: B=11 . forsudden deadstop PI PL 40x3(r\(l0lr) t. velocity o=5m/sec cable: diameter tl=5.0m.54' = 20147.0 = 195x4. ?249rji922? 2. IMPACT Elastic Table 1.625 A (l+2.24 kN/cm'? =212400kN/m'=212.81 m/sec'? P Weight of beam (concentrated load): tt N = 2.4 s =21.g49kN/cm'? =79490kN/m'? =79.025 48E1.11 Dynamics.11 Dynamics.=533in4x2.9\=7. @lumn: a' = Pt' .ff-r Crane cable Dlmamic shear: Vu = t ko . Required. Sudden dead stop when the load Dynamic coefficient: P is going down.= 306*100 1440. 4". 35 Bendingmoment V..m O It Dynamic bending moment: P =I! k 51r"".54' = 20 1 47.3 Table 1.9 in3 =87 -9x2.STRESS and STRAIN DYNAMICS.KD. Stress: o whete: o: descent's velocity. Steel. impact design Axial compression Example. ='Dgt acceleration.1 Load P=20kN. L=30m.8457 kN g: A*= deflection resulting from static load W= weight of the structure W = 65 Lblftx3. Crane cable civen- Load P=40kN.448/0. Compute dynamic stress B: coef'ficient for miform mass o cm tsor snown sorution.3048=2845.- Pr O: ku-lo ' I . h=5cm Required.1' EA 20t47. g =9.6y 1q. " 20x(l' 100) PL' =0. go P lr)mamrc stress: o=-. impact Example. 48x 20147. " 48EI.625 cm'. Bending Given.20.6 kN/cm'] t= strking earth's velocity.45 MPa ' A = area ofcable cross-section . A.54o =22185 cm* Section modulus S = 87.6 kN/cm'? . vg Modutus of etasticity [r = 29000 krp/ iDr = ^". .543 =1440 lvf odul us of elasticity E = 29000 kip / in: ' - 4 cmt 29000-\!j8222 2.6' 22 I 85 PL^I p .. Momentof inertia I.4 MPa . o=Y.

p (compression) E= Modulus ofelasticiry for colum A= rea ofcolum cross-section Motor mounted on the beam D)namic coefficient: kD - -' r-4'.) t=.k.centrifugal force causing vertical tt A = bem's deflection by force P = of motor attachment. n : revolutions per minute. rn r blallc slress: 4 = mq'?l part .STRESS and STRAIN DYNAMICS. Kesonance: Stresses: Q=O. [. : mass of rotative motor : radius ofrotation .Ij 48EI. uwamlc stress: ' o--.lt vibration of the beam. .. F... o)- -=# t^=# Y beam's hee vibration tiequency. IMPACT Elastic design Cylindrical helical spring: column buf f er spring D= n average diameter d = spring wire's diameter : number of effective rings spring wire G: Sheu modulus ofelasticity for Dlnamic coefficient: Dlmamicstress: 'A o=.E [ ' I PA \secl I at the point T-i A motor's weight.: .K. 2"=f {r+rr") . o)t s-frequenclof force l.L 45.J JOo ) l. PL o=-" 45. (I | _ lorshowncase: A=. n=r.

NOTES q PFIOPHFITIES OF GEONIETFTIC SECTIONS .

r. COMPRESSION.289b.| S bhr brh -.: Su'-r"r* #. I l8ar . b6 hh2 S -. y.(By.' L-^ h= l. bjh . SQUARE ^4 A-ar. c. tz " 6(hcosa+bsina) . t.hh(h'cos'a'b'sin'a).PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC SECTIONS for TENSION. bh' ^12'12"3'.. B.zr ./r2 o.c.= o.+ b.-3-=o. -o'r.= * * frr-nr $.hl+ -29 .. J t_ . = -!- .-1h cosa 2' I b sina). and BENDING STRUCTURES 2.1 { l. .. S _ bh (h?cos':a t b) sin2 a) . .nr.:. z..=b aH']+ B. Jh ' brc. r. _ *:== L2 6J2 3J2 4l 0.= S.c. h2h r._'---[il t. - y".h). r. 11.= + SOUARE 2.)+Bco.=1 ^1 'tfr-*' A. I."=. rtTY ll x.o.:tsa.42a.= l.r I 1.=t"-i.fu. s.-0.B.:B-a.: * *$o-nr.zlea RECTANGLE 3.... .= . 4.= tffi| T---T'-'-'1---:-T t"i--| rlY l NONSYMI\. S.t. ) -a. L. . . RECTANGLE ry' r-T+1 I T--]lr- Axis ofmoments on any line through centerof gravity A= bh.I'd(l-" * '[ *'l' .) ' rt " ur' .^ . " o. b.IETRICAL SHAPE A=bc. r.. Ais of moments on diagonal ffi* -l].zso\6'"oJ* btin'al A= ah + b(H .= t-? .(2H 2(aH + Brcb+ I.28ch. fe' 6.t l-" r-T--?--. +a(ho +h.^2 ^ a-.= d'sina 48 0.. avl- t tt^ t..

aes.'] . = 1.. hh2 . . . 2(b h. -t.PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC SECTIONS for TENSION.r= -.l lr lr t.'"lf'r'"nt-" jj______:!-. ) bhr .. bh' -" J6''\ .lfr1U-xo]'-trx] l. . =. = hh) bhr ._ ".0. 1 =:rr. v.t(rn .-b. -b. L' . d =1(b. =#=0. RECTANGULAR TRIANGLE ^ bh cL . and BENDING STRUCTURES 2.".) 2(h I b..2 7. bhr 221636 .(v.3L *tq'-2. ANGLE with equal legs . bb hh L A =-bh . A. -tr. COMPRESSION.* md I.bhbrht r-= _:+= ' 3^12 h | = -72' " 0. "= S".1xo tun:po r^= -lrlr'-y."r' . cosa= -. hb' = I"cos2a + I*sin2a + 2I*rsina cosa. =:-(forbase).4(b*hJ.cos45" A= (b _ h._ h2+hr x. t2' " 4' 12 ' r" .236h h 10. = I. L' sln. b'h' Lc3 -v' 361: 36' or: Ir. -r)'].t)' y - h2+htt[t 2(2h - t)cos4f ' t'= hrr-2c -E-' t"= llzc'-z1c-tY .b.) = rr(uj+ul) J6 S.(lorpointA)..) tyj -u.)_ r(h _ b r.236h. = J!' r{) l*y= Producr ol inertia abour (moy. hb(b. lt)l rro =Jh .* ]ty''l 2') c= y..

= r.3 n=jtu+u"'. _h.PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIG SECTIONS for TENSION.(b"+3b. s" = 0. r_= S. Iy = 0.598R'? = 0.'bJ . " 96 ' *u')= 48' 24' 4 2 K=- K__- d=_. 0. s"" =I'luotto-). ) "ry J-Z--h "r\7-" I 12.541R" r. s*.456R= 0.= 0.828d?.625Rr. REGULAR POLYGON wilh n sides @ I .= _h'(b. . = Iy = = 0. and BENDING STRUCTURES 2. REGULAR HEXAGON A = 2. "'= =n'('llno').263d.':=$f: x.+b:) . '*. r.p). = S. I.54lRa = 0. COMPRESSION.+4b"b. n 2sin4 2tan! 22 nuR'{r2R {{tzni+a'l= A{6R'+a'l r. = = 0. = Sy = 0. r.ltd^a^a360' A-_na-col-. a= 2J(R'-Ri) -ffi' 33 .*+up3ay 6(bo +b.l0q5dr.) ' '" 3o(b.638R4 = 0.866d'.0547d4. x xt .690R.0.06da. REGULAR OCTAGON A= 0. 14. r'161r..=ffin.257d. I. =L(. 13.

J*cosa). r=r ="" ft_8") 'D 64' J It. 1 =-p{1r-r.s76R. O.. = y. Half of a CIRCLE 0. u l.= t. s. = dR #=0.a2an.in degrees). s". = 0. = 0.03843R" y= 0.= r. = I" = d= -ror bottom. --'K{ m-Ti 7.OrrOo. top.r*' CIRCLE nno d= = ffi.il_rq ! ' -dJ 6 / 5 ' =5 ) =_{l*C \ l1 .'ru. ?= 0.00686Da.-. y.2122D. a. ^ 8 ' 2 '" 8 ' (d . -n4 E=i. k= eg b=2Rsina.ora.xtz(!)' o.0--l F l-x n="" 4 *n7 (r-E').o. and BENDING STRUCTURES 16. r^ =4t' . COMPRESSION. y6= 0... -35- .) >' I g. I.PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC SECTIONS for TENSION. = 0. I.|= I" 0.= 0.785R'. o = {E. 20. TH|N R|NG (t<<D) A= rDr. = . Segment of a f= o.4 -l-'l-./F. I \H/ I t-dJ l----... = . r"= 18. -hl+ = 'il8 ' . J(p y" =rR.07135R4. r\ =r y =_.rsor[!)' -ro. rQz e.2878D.--\^FHl-.in radians measue.3926D'r. S.351D. nl L=-." . t!= 2a-sin2a. o.7853D']r.0548eR'. 0. = r" = r.zszo'. I. r. s= 2Ra. HOLLOWCIRCLE 2.-l\-T ts I 17. 0. A= n7 I i o-zn -l l-{r.

) 3Aa2 .5 21. = t*t j = fr(uu'*u. " 32a3b 105 3s 24. s. = ]{u-z. HOLLOW ELLIPS Aa2 11+#42-" |ffir. STEEL WAVES from circulararches W A=(irb+2h)t.a.l).). -I-Tu IrT-T-il! 4 6') t 8 ^ 2r. STEEL WAVES from parabotic arches -tr6ffi4" l*i I r= !tea+s. u. r"= o4 hr 25.--:-Ta PARABOLA ^ 4ab . l..) 4ab' t) 4a'b ab' -Fl-E[-" t-*? v I il. r...ri).= j{n-t). fi-("u'-u. r.ot).1 I zab' Ab' .zt).l tr. 't75t75"71 -. b. |@a-u.. r'.).= ff(ur'i-u.. =}{r'*.ui)... (zb' . ELLIPSE 'l lt{Tr-* |-7z'i-\ I l. h+t . = jtr*r. . t. lt . 23. r'.).r. t= r. and BENDTNG STRUCTURES 2.= 3a J f I oa'b l2Aa'z . = h-b. rbh'zt. 8Aa2 . I = ratb 46416'6416 rabt _. Segment of ff(u'a-uia.ut). _=_ A= -aD. Ab ^ ). COMPRESSION.= _= 5" = ra'b Aa ' 32 8 32 8' ba '' r 4 4' 22.= s"= a fr(u'r-uiu.PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC SECTIONS for TENSION.

6 Cross.1888 d3 h the middle ofthe sides l.-d At all points ofthe d. /s.1 154 d" S. ^ "' 16 t[ d.208 a In the middle ofthe sides ffi n=3.2 h '' .1850 dr In the middle ofthe sides l.1075 da S. = 0. =0. "' u. in the middle ofthe long side 0. = 0. =0.21 bl Angle Channel Structtral Tee l=n. n=1.PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC SECTIONS 2.1404 a S."" = M. I=1. Position of xd". \=1. outside perimeter I. ) e "@ "Flrl- At all points ofthe perimeter ry H W ShaDe @ r. (r.0 I t2 T n=2.F""' '-rh -lhkj S=' I L n=2. =0.section Moment of inertia (It) Elastic section modulus (S. = 0.14b-bJ - tbl -bi ) - ^r.15 .=+ (dl-di)=r.) ^ -' nd' tc.

NOTES 3. BBAI\{S Diagrams and Formulas for Various Loading Conditions .

o '* ='+ ^ Pa2b2 3EI.1 ''-v D *D ..1 L*a 2E1 at center -r-J+ '_l+ Morient ro4Pi \Mfrf |H '.heor | tfr*r-Fl .* =Pa between loads _ Pabt -4a'\ 24F.SIMPLE BEAMS The formulas provided in Tables 3. a.aL h D _D " *qIPl Momerlt "I- v.o"l o -o . _D ir@i j'"'j st'"o. DT '2 1p I z at center ^ PIJ 20.n=*.22Er at center pr2 24EI I "2 r ..1 to 3 3.lilffi"'*i Sheor l'u. L I Dr2 6g1 Dr2 \>t >t / at point of load at point of load 6EI'- '..b L' '' I. qJ2 M. and shears (V)*are to be used for elastic or variable cross-sections BENDING MOMENT DEFLECTION Theformu|asfordeterminationofdef|ectionandanglesofdef|ectioncanon|ybeused for elastic beams with constant cross-sedlons ANG LE OF DEFLECTION t___L_{ 1' Lr B- r-i--F-ir Mofnent 4 lqryl tr%rd'r . q md 0b in radians beams with constant bending moments (lV).1 1o-for determination of support reactions (R)' -fti=Jl]fi:o LOAOINGS SUPPORT REACTIONS No. Sheor t R_ =: "2 P PI -* pTl pr2 - 48Er r1 = 19 =-:a 6EI I ''M-o D -' '2 D at point of load at point of load I b.I."*u=*. I luo-entl 1.

=K= 2 .. A'.. c r L l\ LL) ^r =l ) I L\ u(r*'ru' +). R "q-__ac " " 24EI R c'L'l +-lx.R 64b | 6Er aI x=a "\-_'ba 24EI nr= wca c{b-a) 2L L fi =4a(L+b)-c'? . ^ I | ln*l| I Sheor '----VIrlIIIEnv2 " ?a wa" 2" al ^ wa'L/- w] N#u.: 2't L-x I ^" wx { Lt-2Lx' + xt ) \/ 24Fr o -wdrr " 2' rr M.d | ruv2 p-' "2 Pn Pil 19r'4Er P]j t2." 48EI n load w =5 kN/m=0 Required" Compute V=R.t rradim *= til = t =1 45x10 " .""" U..l--C") " 6Er iwi ffi I Momenr lMoment -l I l 2') l-. 15IF. I lshqor '\M. L=10 m "2 =71175'6 cma 29009:1!8222 05 kN/cm M.SIMPLE BEAMS LOADINGS SUPPORT REACTIONS 3.J DI 1-333 Moment of inertia l=1710 ina x2'54a lllt. wabc/. O=O"=Or *L 5"lo v .5mm n ..zqql 24x20147.6x71175 6 I Moment srr"o. I Mo*nent i wcb "L .* = PL ^ 2 PL 1J38 PL. .2 Example. I ^ = wa'tf. ^wL "2 I M wt at @nter ^5wU 384 at center WU ET 24El SqI[ruIIFl I l\u* ^wL "2 |n]-'*i_ft".2 -_25 on wr.2 DEFLECTION 5 BENDING MOMENT 4 ANGLE OF DEFLECTION Table 3.65Er ^ PA 2n2 +l ' 48ET n ^ PA 2n'+1 Dr =-.45cm=4. Simple beam W14x145..5xlo'? M jjji-= =62..5kN m 88 s 005x(1000)" =0.5.*. Computation of beam Pn 6 civen. =Sofution.*t'= ^'*-:94 gI 384 2ol4'7'6x71175'6 o ott(tooo). | M. M.tomeftll = 201 Modurus of elasticitv E = 29000 kip/in': Uniform distribution 47 6 kN/cm'? lruqtrry.

24F.= ri (8w.536 0.500L to x=o."" 0.SIMPLE BEAMS 3. L 4". + 7w" 360Er ) o _ w. Moment I at center I I ln - w(L-a) at wL' 86 center wa' 5 - wl-o 384 EI D.|}.8 1. Moment -wL "6 -wL "3 M-"" = *?=0.0 i-.I | '7 I ffii -*--t4rll ffi M =*I. T-q JZi at cenler c r-29 Ts ar *1 1Y2.* sh"o.5l9l .4 0.3 DEFLECTION ANGLE OF DEFLECTION NOTES I ! LOADINGS SUPPORT BENDING MOMENT REACTIONS .*l 'wi I llTtrrr.2 o.6 0.-- @ L + -l I r'. r--\ 8"..1 rqIIUPi v. l3 X "09 1130 c% 0.519L 8 wli 360 EI q. =Dr =-.ymol wnen x=u.16"0 rr _.L 6 I-r(7w. 12 at @nter ) wLI 2OEI | 92FI IITrrrx vrllTFn* iql][ryi lshuo.500 ={wa+ub)L-.555 0. +2w0. \u*.".llTffi- i iuo-"nt t' ."..n"Ju'* *.tJ - l- I lv2 wa o. | :-...064wli 9J3 =nno65): 7wC 360 EI CI t.1. +8w" 360EI l llTh"*-. ^"6 " '. I iquuPl I Sheor \ Mmr I D _ 2wu +wb. when x =0.=r5il .)//L when x = 0. r t-rirrrfllnh#-l .508 8"00 ^ " ^" u.b- N/ wlf.tr.520 sff 0.

NOTES SIMPLE BEAMS and BEAMS OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT LOADINGS SUPPORT 3. i o.-0.=*[".....=1 3l vllrrrrrrr sheor ||| I rr rrrrr1t2 t' =1-31 : For overhang: \L/ For overhang: ffi # R=Pl "I..abfa-b) ]EI\L/ when x=a ^ " M. d.w .L ^ 6EI/h\2 : /^\2 I r---__.".-Mo ... =-0..-..IJ M. " M"L. =-R" when M^L.--F . For overhang: For overhang: F--l---T--j Moment I wa2 2t.^ l ^ wa-(a+Ll 6El l-.__-__1 Mombnt . "2 *" (4L+3a) a= .I ^ M"L ' 6EI . M..1' "---."..-2r2 *" A . Mr = -Pa a=-{L+al 3EI' Between supports: PaI r r)= ' -" " P (2aL + 3a') 6EI PaL ' *r=t+ A.423L ^ ML " 3F.*) Between supports: .-l --"*.)vbl - |Trrrrrrrrrrrrrr ffit Ll when x =0.577L 6EI PaL " "n - 3EI . =-M^3 "L "t.&. ' =M^! M. I x=0 6EI when x = 0. I.4 BENDING MOMENT DEFLECTION REACTIONS ANGLE OF DEFLECTION E.577L ^ " ^- wa-L 12F.1 wa-L 6EI .. " 6EIf.* =M...nI Sheor lruo jff\. ffi R. I M.5L o --Mu I. 24F.0642EI x = 0.0321 EI x = 0._ I ). ..-...l v R"=+ Ro M.

Sheor R= *L 2 o 3OEI 24EI .WL EI ^wu 6EI *'lilTtrrrr*! .5 OF DEFLECTION {at f roe end) I Moment D -D I M. otl \'- J ^ Pa2 2Et R =wL ..NOTES LOADINGS CANTILEVER BEAMS REACTION 3.* =-Pt prl 3EI r)=:-= zEI pr: mttrr"* sh€or TIIIIIIIIIIIIn ) lu6ot i I i P D _D M.* =-Pa Dol A =::-/rr -") " --._=_Y .

" =IwL l0 M.' = *" 33.. x=-L I sh"o. SUPPORTED AT OTHER LOADINGS SUPPORT REACTIONS 3.6Er' -' ' 2 Ra= :.NOTES BEAMS FIXED AT ONE END. ar ^" lM2L ..* =tff.. at fixed end Mr = Rrb A. 2.= -. Mo 2L M" = -+ .6 at x=0.r 4 -- - 426.625L 185EI atx=0.553L 4r9EI' .= ar x=0. ' =-L*f I28 *t' a-^. '= Pa':b':(la+4b) t2uEl ' '. at fixed end 8 U. at Doint ofload R" Rb 5 8 ? M" = -: .579L 19281' R^ 2 =?wr '5 rvl.r lf 2 - aI flxec eno R. ". at fixed end M"L. i .6 BENDING MOMENTS AilD DEFLECTION It^ " =-Ptl+ll 2L" .. . at Point of load .

NOTES

BEAMS FIXED AT ONE END, SUPPORTED AT OTHER
LOADINGS SUPPORT REACTIONS BENDING MOMENT IAT FIXED EtID)

3.7

R"

_

3M. (L'

-b')

T:

M"=+l l-ll , I i. - L '"',1
M"

M [

/h\'?]

when b<0577L

R=

--*T-b2)

3Mo

(f

=0,

when b=0.577L

v "=-!n[r 2l

3f

\L/l

!]'.].

when b>0.5771

^ 3EI "L' ^"U3EI
Sheor q rTITlTlTlTITlflTlT[m

M"v =:=

1FT

I

v2

,:F4

lFT

t

f,

M"t=--.-

1FT

"Illml | ,n"o,
.,
Vr

I

3EI

\r'IIIIUIIIIIIUIIIIIIIvz

oc'.-

R ,3EI
I-2

M =-:::

lFT

t--'------'+'
1l Moment I
I

L

^

]EI

c

I sh"o.

I

llMffiMfiffi

vz

NOTES
LOADINGS

BEAMS FIXED AT BOTH ENDS
SUPPORT REACTIONS

3.8

BENDING MOMENTS
AND DEFLECTION Prhz p.2h

4-{-l
vtffi
t ' ;

, o lPb.t
b

P=LP(3a+ blb:
LT

M't"L' =--*i
M, = -", 'L' A,

M.

=--*:"

MolN.-L---lllMu
Shdr Shepr l'Mr
I I

Moment

R=- P/a + 3b)a'

tp"2kl

t

"

at point of load
at Domt

. ' =.3tiEI

pa'b'

ol load

|

...r

M^

=M, =-

*"
12

1

uoN***Juo

M,

=: '24
wLo

.

at center

A =-.

384EI

at

center

R"
Rb

7_
20

3,
20

na.=-*t'. M,=-*t' "20"30 *f at x=0.452L u,' = ' 46.6 *t' atx=0.475L A-..=
764ET

wlo at x=_ L a=_. 768EI 2
wa(L-0.5a) M" -Mo
L
[4omqnt .,,-2 nr^

L
Mu

" =- 6'

*"

(:-+E+t.sE')
(E-0.758')

_ wa' *,"2LL *

-Mo

M,

=-

.-,^2
J

*"

't.

NOTES
LOADINGS

BEAMS FIXED AT BOTH ENDS
SUPPORT REACTIONS

3.9

BENDING MOMENTS
IAT FIXED ENDSI

M^ =tr,t,

=-wcl13-E:1 24'
.c l=1

u =rafr-!i)-"1(r-e,) 4 \ 2') 24'
at center

^

6Mnab
r.r

v"=$!{2"*u)
v, =p("-zu)
wh"n

-

6M^ab

r:

*=!: M"=0,

Mo=-ry-q

.
^
yb

'v

12EI

6EI

a
I2EI
6EI

"L'

"I:

I
vr

Sheor

I

lTlTfffffflltTlTfffmv2

ffi'
I

^
I

6EI

4EI
L

"L'
6EI

Moment

-

"v

Mn=a

)FI

00052+. Bending Moment (M).536wI-. Vr = Vs = 0.0.0772wL?.393wf. i.10 Deflection (R).607wf. =% =0.375wL Mr = Mr = 0'070wf . and R.375wL ^T T^. at 0.uo i'u'iujt i"il .l u'Wu.I in the middle of the spans Ro R" Rb =Y =0. j Moment L_______L_L______J-_J T*" i Rb =% +V3 = 1.46awf-. at 0375L fromR" mdR. @ R" = R" = 0. =0.393wL. (A) R" =Vr =0. V: =Vr =0.0364wf . I lw$e/iwwi I ''u' i i\u.080wf .0772w1j. V: =Vr =0. EI . M. =0. =.oOosIf .625wL n46U. =V.*" i.100wf A*" =0. .400L fromR" andRo Mo nffi.0714wf Mt=M4=0. Luo R"=Vr=0.143wL. Mt=M4=0. EI' =!' E . T. Shear (V). T* lrLrtti. T^o . at 0. Mo A= =* 0 125wli 0. @ =R.0. V. =0.1071wl'z.393L fromR" md i M.d". al 0.928wL ffi I i*i i lru. Ro = Ro = 1.446L ftom R. at 0.0052-Ji.-r 4 ar 0. . R" = 0. R" 1^" I V: = % = 0. =M" =- 0. E.OOOZS #. EI 0.500wf Mr =Mr =0. Vr+V. lutl i'MzlMi FuwMiryt I Moment I tM'a M- | Mr =0.440L from R.536L fromRo md Ro Mo =Mo =. at 0. and Ro in the middle of spans I and in the middle of span 2 3 n= A= O.* =O.*"..600wL.400wL ffi' .100wL.400wL. V.NOTES CONTINUOUS BEAMS Support Reaction 3.250wL.393L fromR" and R" o.025wf .0069i-:-. =Mr =0. =1.

107 0.0m 6 cmo I.645 -2.+4ffi9!x0: = -r27 4 7 kN cm = -l2 ?5 kN' m FOUR EOUAL SPANS rtMc= 1.1 1 is provided for computing bending moments at the supports of elastic continuous beams with equal spans and flexural rigidity along the entire length.583 -r. Moment of inertia L=6.400 0.286 0.571 0.400 0.756 0.643 -2.689 0.12kN m "v Mc= = -1.11 Bending moment at support : v =t% a.172 -2. Settlement of beam support Given. k.400 3.431 Mr= -0.688 4.429 3.029 -2.57 | 0.CONTINUOUS BEAMS SETTLEMENT OF SUPPORT Table 3.107 1.029 0.688 -0. (600)" at- sotution.1 l5 0.584 3.584 4.571 -1.429 -2.645 0.400 -2.583 0.6-" :" :i" x0. ?' ^" = -2. Compute bending moments M" and M. 3.6x11862..8 cm THREE EQUAL SPANS Required.500 3.643 -0.600 -2.600 1.607 M"= Mc= -1.643 -2.6 ^ -' "=k"+ A.608 .8=l9l2.20147.=285 ina x2'54a =11862 r4= 20147.643 Mo= FIVE EQUAL SPANS -0. The bending moments resulting from settlement of supports are summated with the bending moments due to acting loads. SUPPORT A D E CONTINUOUS BEAM Table 3.608 0.0 kN' cm=19.335 *2.000 -1.11 Continuousbeams momqnt COEFFICIENT IWO EOUAL SPANS K Example.335 -2.6 kN/cm'? r. M" EI .=3.600 -1. v Bendlng where k:coeffrcient.607 3.500 Modulus of elasticity E = 29000 uiv Seftlement of support tin' =PW!!Y- B: AB = 0.571 4.689 -2. I l5 Mo= -0. A = settlement of support. Threeequalspanscontinuousbeam W12x35..600 M.431 3.756 -0.t72 0.

12 NOTES Table 3. t". il 3 I ^l-qEgEt r E F t E: -< = E.. 5 P F e H Ite :.. r T Ei. It = = e.1. 65 X E6.7 kN I o E .-b)+r. =a. e=z. d=2m J o o E.aE3 = Eb . b=3 m. Centerof gravityof loads (off load Pr): Bending moment I &. . SimPle beam. '<:X= :^Xg -g x UJ c{F 3 93 >gE6 do FF 6 on6c s h E E..=80tN' Ip.I.fi.Ex :3!6 lno l-r o ) {' Eo E o = / ie. P+=100kN. =+zOttN a=4m.t . Z Z H \ F E 3 M-* = Ro [l . . sE:68 .4 kN + 3) !EHF+#==$ EeE F A i . EE: xxE! Fft!o F-.47 (ls = 204.s-(3+4)=0. (r.2)] /30 =80+7240130=326.e u passes offthe span Load P1 nu.9 E \ = 80+[120x (30 100(30-3 - 3) +80(30-3 . u.) n. = and P2 moves F overthe left support E Il -r. E n -l i * . Load P. = xr!-9lrl \) )) b) = +zo(rs-0.SIMPLE BEAMS 3. ^ =tp = (80x++t20xz +100x10+80x14)/ 420=32801420=7 '8 m el2 = 0 4 m U .*. f i'ri u I oi E H H e e . .olo.4) -[40x(4 +80x3] = 2464 2 kN m J 'o e5leg ^] xE B -e e E E E =3 i* E . \z z) End shear +P.!-. P.to. H * o n o * F 9:l Required.+)/30 zsa.L FgEE P5E E s E i p€ S EE -6465 3 3 . Pz=80kN.. . 30 t _\ o E o .:l-tt.12 Example.)lIq R.3 . I v. (L-b-c)+P5 (L-b-c-d)]/ L -3) + I o f( _1 0 . L30 o-o- u =42014 -40=*roro 9iu-. passesoffthespanand P3 movesovertheleftsupport u o (. Movingconcentratedloads Given. ! E ul I(p.l- v^ +[r. L = 30 m o U q=40kN. c=3m. Pr=120kN. Compute maximum bending moment and maximum end shear t Solution.Eeiisg!g 3E I * *: f E e .f ll "rT-j f 6..:odo 6:^ For maximum end shear load P2 is placed over the left support q t_ -9 (9 --t . =42otl -80=-r8.".: .r]= - 0.Ea? EsIl :=:.=- c q P ^.8 m..

't47 0.032 o.086 0.0 .063 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.136 78 92 xlL CX 0.050 68 0.9 0.'188 '1.1 0.9 0.O " _LL=nT1_*i= .5 0.1 0.128 0.096 0.8 0.1 o.r 0.2 0.3 o.2 0.096 0.0 Me = 0" xLxP 0.7 0.3 0.081 0. lrl xlL d.5 xlL (.4 0.144 0.009 0.144 0.1 0.1 0. 0.125 1.13 Rt- RB Me =o(*xLxP r--F---.6 0.0 0.8 0.0 xlL C[x 0.BEAMS NOTES INFLUENCE LINES (EXAMPLES) 3.

NOTES BEAMS INFLUENCE LINES (EXAMPLES) 3.14 .

A ..ts69 E o o tt o = ) lu o v.! o E 'ib "ll gF* E o I o 9 F G .NOTES BEAMS o uJ 3.= Lo{ gE I F 0. r r{} F:b . t u .15 l J lt z lu o uJ z o o E ++ >\ o ^l TI ^^ z (9 o o o I il. A^ ll o I <J -E oa zu _= -< o o ux Iu oI I o q ^O <: s B z o U <rE .v. ! H -E(nE E9 o..

o
uJ

BEAMS

3.16

:
f J r

z

llJ

o

z
ul

i k{_
EI-II =l
E
"fl

oi

0;

iI
tl

il

ll

=

o-i ^1 oj- ^illl

o =
f

>f fT
,c roo 6.E oo qm

ut
U'

F r.{

zu, <ur J
Fq.

uJ< *x ^ut

zz

---.

z
o
uI

o o

z
o
q

o c
J

<ilY>-9 B,tr _-o

{5H '.BE
o
E

<q += eO

o

c Eo

E -:E l:f

o

z
o

;

:{ 5>o lltl f{<

F
0.

o

=
T

;EI -E@
EE 3E oo [6
-73o-

o o

NOTES

4. FFIAI\{ES
Diagrams and Formulas for Various Static Loading Gonditions

FRAMES

4.1

NOTES
fhe formulas presented in Tables 4.1-4.5 are used for analysis of elastic frames and allow computation of of bending moments at corner sections of frame girde6 and posts. Bending moments at other sections
frame girders and posts can be compuled using the formulas provided below' For girders:

o o
o =

z

i'l jp

rr M">Md, rr,, =r3,,,-[Ytr-*1+rnr.]

o o o

z

F
+

Llr lr 'ls! ,l= ld>

'i
rl

-

+"

tplfi+ f i fl- j" l ,,.1*9
',^
,,

-#ITE

z
o

tr
For posts:

M.

<Md.

rr,|,,-, =rri|!,MeG)

-[!cI4'*+v"]

o
J

A H
Ll l-{ tl

lf M"=Mo=M.,
M,(-) =M:(,)

=M"t"t-M,

o
F-

-(H t-M"or)
represent, respectively, for frame girders and posts the bending

o
Where: M!,,, and Mf,-,

F f

o o a
o

E

;l
-fTITITITFI

moments in the corresponding simple beam due to the acting load'

x

is the distance from the section under consideration to corner

c

(for the girder)

andsupport

aor b

(foraPost).

o

-r-

a

o
J

la -lY r,l+ dl.l +lS Elil ;i * tE +
.l

^

l1
'^

1rl+

lats Tl+

E13
I

il>ll
F
+

It

"!

.t T i(lr ^-l - ?E.E.I "i El- Jl = €l- rl F -v,l drf B ll't .'. il d ^_l -"-LT +Eirl | N*g*
lC
+" Bil^i d, 'l
l

- Tlc

!lr

l'l

N *

: }r>

>-

o
lr tt
o
U'

= d,

>ll
>

->

lla

t

=
H E -f-FfTtTtTn
-77 -

o

: o

" . R -' *tu. =-Hh+M" =-923x3+7 8!3 =-19'877 kN Mo I u o f t kN m =-Hh+Mu =-923x3+10'653=-17'037 Bending moment at Point of load n.l. "l r ' M:=+ ' L tt J l '. =9.0371 = 34.NOTES Example.* . Compute support reactions and bending a 36712x3 _n I.l _[ p.031 112-4) + r7. sotution. Frame5inTable45.*l il -lr l9 !l! 6la vl+ +l+ T l* *l* I ! r .57 kN I o o L Ro = P-R" pab. a=4m' b=8m moments Required.l+6-28'z+6k =13.h .l tv o.2 Given. L=12m' h=3m Posts W10x45. =r"-[M.8t3 kN. m -t'7. K=iI= aRo F = =1=0. lr =248 ina x2'54a =10322 cma z l^ lo! Girder W14x82. -i-i9z rl \llN LIN 6l.uo'! .::f ! L n t0322"n-w.to !ll f l' z z o J F F l= -i^ ll E4 E- ll ll all <- Load P=20kN. _ = roil. lz=882inax2'54a =36712 o o o o o i Elx.'E 1> =": r. olN ll *lr -t oa si ol Al /.-Morr--a)+M".40i u o lr o a:E o t (9 o I -79- . n. Analysis of frame FRAMES o o cma 4. kN. 3 n=. " 2L _ 5k-l+28(k+2) (k+2)(6k+1) =7.m Mo kN m =R"L+M" -Pb=13'5'1x12+7 8i3-20x8=10'653 m M..23kN " _ Pb.i+lJ | fl lle lN ul *l ol* d ll dl+ il rr #l gl il .1' fl s+l 5l :.rt= z :rrz1o-sso*z) 6k+l kN = 20-13'5? = 6'43 pab _3 20x4x8 .877 .

: ? J +l s f :ln 6l +l'j jl+ *lr rlJ l* Tl! ! lN i Frt :--l 3l^{l^ dl.i?l =l hl dl* fil til r- " o o tl rl o = + t o t o : o o o a .1. o o J f i| flr . vi =: ? ? g vl^ slr . 9 g. I -=l! | | i-l o! o o o = d L o 6 >'l= f j -i..+>> r& t ol#il l-eE.lrl gl ul qt= or =lJ ll >1. il" j il tl]l <l.""tt.i d o J + o .NOTES ^t FRAMES o 9 a = o o o o o C 4.lN + I :6 'II gl E i> i T F. f F o at.3 z z z o !l+ . o o o .

<a tl: > I o.- EIH +.. - >"6 T p.-I olll a > t.l^ a <" aa g tl tr H 5 l { { E It -ITTTITITN -82- tt -83- . lN iltl -la 8 f ". I E.l^ a =' -1-= r6 allo€ L ? > o 7 et { o ? ts |= E { n o 2 F o t F ! a.4 IN ll Flo llll a | + tlrrr : F t+ 4 '' > z--.(' I ct a trtl \_1/ o U i 'l :^ €lN @l@ | -t qla . t4 | :ld tl r>glK {t .l< ^lE ri 1-ll e a{ <!.NOTES o o a FRAMES .+ < -t+ ll | 4. { I !c> l- I -19 E -i- *i il*t a" . tl >15 .:< ^-l = .

L d = coefficient of linear expansion 22 steady heat (+Ato) M" = 3E! h'(l+k) \ I'k*.')[I-*!)o 2/ at' M. =-+ tr. k=I..ot lr^=-1r. =-M-. oo Ph ru.h '2"I.. Steady (+Ato) M.t.o.=.=*9 Mo=-] ph M"=+ -.ffl'k fr+L)a. Cx. fll'k "=-h'(l+k).5 M" =-+.+.r.. =-Iv.FRAMES NOTES DIAGRAMS and FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADTNG CONDTTTONS 4.. k= = coefficient of linear expansion . y. oo PB M"=-d! t.at' " h'(l+k)\ 2 ) v ' .=*+ t"=. o. =-$r[L]"a* 2 h'\2) I'h I'L M.

NOTES 5. AFICfIES Diagrams and Formulas for Various Loading Gonditions .

wilh constant or variable cross-sections Table 5. IMo =-R"L+pxn =0. Section Shear Where =Racos0-Hermq-iq"otq hft Bending moment: Mo = k (x. ^2f k the axis force Nk and the shear \ Horizontal reactions: in Tables 5 2-5 9 These formulas can also be applied in analysis of arches shown Bending Axial moment Mr = Re xr -Ha yo +Mo -IPr Len 'ar 5-rrl. H^ force Nr = Ra sinQ+ Ha Vt cosQ -lP. HB=HA=H. BENDING MOMENT ANd AXIAL FORCE Vertical reactions: 5.yo) lM = Rox* -Hyu. sinQ Ix=Ha-HB=0. n^ =r!b. =R. : rrra1. =P"2d .n4o \ kftl or Ml Tied c and Vou Nk = Vk"sinQk +HcosQ*' = bending noment and shear in simple beam for section x.jI ' =][pf \2 )-r dL ' L l. *. IMn =-nut.c-n"!=g. r !--" t^.5-.t^ L =N.l.'l includes formulas for computing in any cross-soction =PlL.+Px. IM" =RoL-p(L-x")=s. ft" =p. Axial force: Vk =Vk'cos0k-HsinQu' + ucosq. Ru n^ =rf.=[*^ -lr]s. . l? ' ) N" Rishr I t. =0.THREE-HINGED ARCHES NOTES bending moments in elaslic arches Tables 5.1 IM" =RoL-P(L-x")=0. Horizontal reaction: lx=-H" Force N. !. =n.9 are provided for determining support reactions and SUPPORT REACTIONS.ft = n^ !-^-o-r[!-*"]=0. 4 \ Left !-s"i=0. or Mk=Ml -Hvk ' lcosQu ai =distance from load P to point k Shear: Vu =l R'^ ^l^al \Letl /\ -IP -HsinQ* or I v-diogro.1-5. =0..

=9'939 Ro =R" =IL lvrm = | load w=2kN/m Ho. Requirod.=S{16. n^ =iwl-=ixzx2O=15 kN e- I 1 .l tanq.2x5x0. kN m =iF r.46 kN V.zs. . \r ) ltln-r+ y.345 = 13. N.170.345+ 12. =9.2 Example.zrs 778] = | r' I Ra =aw|.345' Distribution cosQ..-=la. ^4 =f*f *" =?(28.939=0.r^ rtlu =r.939 .-w. = 28. ll=o. H.-ir.5x0. -Ei ).. A *^ . s^ =H" Rs =:wL '.1 M. -€'. . = Ro sinQ.ly E2\ _ g L+\gm-!.) =e|{26. x..k-nk)' H" J{ .=ffi n. and shea \ ?.+ni^\ Mk J =-lwf.=Rocos0. .. = 15x0. axial force N.38kN #5t 4 *^=-. 4x4'z+20'1 4f'+t m. support bending moment MA .-n. r'.(zle.o lP o. H^ =H" =t.=J-= 3 wli =12'5 kN =I-=a=o. n^=. ='1?o' . + Ho cos Q. ] sin Q./-'tm.-n.x2o2 sorution. x.s-4+3. L20'"f4 .=15x0.367 Q-=20. -n.cosQ. sinQ.1 1) = 6. )-26._HosinQ.. circulararch 2 inTable52' L=20q f=4m.f2 R"= *f2 zL -.11m II \ BENDING MOMENTS wLl. =r?.= 1t0-5)/(14.NOTES Table 5.-n-).) m.939_|2'510.345_2x5x0. =) radius R=-=-l. = | i-x. compute support reactions RA and bending moment *r^=""=* 2 M.. Symmetrical three-hinged arch Given.2 SYMMETRICAL THREE-HINGED ARCHES OF ANY SHAPE FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS 5. = f t'te.* *ttu)' =P* B -90- -91 - .w. =-?[8.12t r t. \ +Ra LOADING9 REACTIONS SUPPORT A -(14.t-o'2s'z )-2x0'25-0 #Ls(€.t{o.s-4)=3..x.

=n^=- 48f wlllllnhn-. *"=$ H. * *) -n.] =-awf" ^12 Hu=l*t r. =:wL ^ ai w u.1. +El )-'r. -Ei. -6i. -8. H^=n"=fr *^=-$.. r R. =S1r{e. n.. -zq.r 2 _ JIIIItrnn* [:€. +s(8.=R^ = *' v^ =ffPe^* a(si..] '| R- =:wL ---r2 WL n- =*(zB*-n.)+n. r.SYMMETRICAL THREE-HINGED ARCHES OF ANY SHAPE FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS LOAbINGS REACTIONS SUPPORT 5.=$ir€*-n*). =ft .=Mol- .). -Ei. M.3 BENDING MOMENTS R. -e.

2sa) =-e.s kN m] iiir il (L-x)x _4x3(20_t=---F--' 5)xs . Parabolic arch 3 in Table L=20m.l+r) B1 .1 g>l v = PL It riii ill lae .ra.L"L I rra. *E. =0958 P = 20 kN BENDING MOI\4ENTS M" and M" Required._.r gf L' ' ') 4 RA 5wL - wL 24"24 "'" k M" =Rof -Hof HA = H.= 15x0 287 iii \ 287=I =Re cosO. * q* lt = -"\.= IL[+e .=:wI_.70.r.4 Example. n^ -PL.TWO_HINGED PARABOLIC ARCHES N Table 5.and u shear V" (atpointofload) solution. l+1).zs L -:(o.4 q 5 4ffL-x)x 't: l.=16. 4x3(20-2v5) -^. k:l Er_ ' E. . r. ^". (E ' 8 L - 2E' + E" t) ' ' ).5P!u [r .l = :]4j l9 x r^fo. cos0.A=-KL9-zr. bending moments ll NMIIITIIIITITITTIIITIIIITIT! W axialforce N. =l5x5-10.-. l6f M. 8 f'. Two-hingedparabolicarch ' 5.0228 "f . =Roa-Hny.75x2 25 = 50 81 kN m 1 3 3l R. compute suppon reacrions Ro and H^. = | .z-o.=l--:k '" + l0'75x0 958 = 14 6 kN = Ra sin 0" + HA cosq. l=3m. R-= ^8"8 H=H^=-K wL M.zs - 2x0. sinQ" Concentrated 4f(L-2x) load t=0.A. >.coso* civen.tr-_". = 0.4 o T E s FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS Equation of parabola: 5. ".ZS -.rr. E=i=--=O. SUPPORT REACTIONS | D= ^ K=-.zs) +0.L 5PL.. ==(r-k). LOADINGS ' t5 B Fortledarch: D=.-sr.7s kN f.' 11 8 L: 4f 20I 20 8 f +ro.dy= 4f(L-2x) t-q=d* L' Coefficients: Forregulararch: tano\=-I_=--. N.=$tr-t) 15 20 8 k =f2' ^. =P" -q -" R-=P: . .r. -Hosin0* =15x0'958-l0'75x0 kN R. =0287.1 !ii Ho =H" .' Q.zs .251 + 0.25"] = 10.:r (a . lo tt 1 \ lwl" \16 64 i iil M. x=a=5m. ll :ii =zo2?- 5=tsttl L n^=R"=* tt1 Ho =Hu = rr.

.TWO-HINGED PARABOLIC ARCHES F'ORMULAS for VARIOUS $TATIC' LOADING CONDITlONS LOADINGS 5 505 REACttOI'tS SUPPORT BENDING I.. Mc =.792wf1 Ro =Ru:Q .. R"=-R^ .. Ru=-Rn u"=$-N.=-*' ^6L .. -_ 15 -----X Ft=8 f'L .A.. Hr = R" =-Ra Ulc = - 0..f2 "' = fF +15F 0.r H=wf 2.0357wf'? - 0'714wf Hs = 0'286wf 6 R^=-. =Iii+r50"' R.|OMENTS R^ =-.Hf EI. Hn Ru=-R^ 0'401wf M"=-0.286wf3 . wf n=2 M" =rl--yr1 .0159wf'? =- Hs = 0'099wf R^=-.

=awf "14 M^=.3 wft ' RA RB =qi(1+2q)P =6'?(1+28.20 - €. f =3m. -.+'x0. wt' rtpz rvro \' -\ *u Y)9j lir lii Iil llr 3 il li Ru= R^=-.t.t=oO 20 *Rl LOADINGS 1 6 = r . L t=20=.FIXED PARABOLIC ARCHES N Table 5. bending moments M.5: H=P15Lt'e: 4f" rr. Fixed Parabolic arch Fixed parabolic arch +MA 4f(L-x)x rx=lc/cos9x L.r-=I!e.t .)P le-rll n.^ =p*eift)" Mu =PLB'q... Compute support reactions RA and HA. q=]=o+.58x3-13'82 = -2'06 T iir ll kN m r.6 o T E s FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS Equation of parabola: 5.280 *f' 19 M. [..- .6 y= Example. kN BENOING MOMENTS sorurion.+[t+oo1t+o+x06)]=13'es ( I + 2E' l1l I )] " ti" l.zY M^=Mu=Mc=0 s +' x[l + 3x0 6( i + 2x0'o )] = I 0's8 kN kN. n^ 1l =fe[r+e -.r ) + (l+E(.2'*.lr-lell l ' t . ^14 ^ =.63 =-13.82 2 2"' H^ = e' [r :q = )x)O2 rJl..)]=]?90. lt .L-x -'L SUPPORT REACTIONS Distribution load w = 2 kN/m Mo and Requhed.= *f' " 280 140 5l u. lrii ^ . dy 4f (L-zx\ 'una= dx Given.E: =-2x?0' xg.95x10-2x8x6-10. x=€L=8-. 2 in Table 5 6 L=20m. ' . =-*t' E. -n^ =--WI wt_ wi_ +L M.=t.E -tJ For 03(S0.m itl l! M" =Roi-wx8x6-HAf -MA = 13.

B ^ =* oEt. =R^=- WL M^ =M- =.4 f)L ' ZIL 1{ FI -" "_c 4f L .= -' _ 6EI..- 1EI ' 2L D _D -N tvt = tvt - __ 45 Er. 15 EI" 2fL "L tvl."192 184 .7 BENDING MOMENTS RA P "2 sPT :::-: 1 M^ =M- =JL PT. )wu l28f wl. OFI ^L" ^L ]FT #.-f\).=--. -/\ -. r" ti -. ?DI H= 64f '64 w .a\ w fillnnrn* R.FIXED PARABOLIC ARCHES FORMULAS for VARIOUS STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS LOADINGS SUPPORT REACTIONS 5.

x.8 1. Line Rsl I Infl. b!' -un a. yk. =---=----*-.THREE-HINGED ARCHES NOTES INFLUENCE LINES 5.r u" ^ =JslnQk. L.D+xL.lanp-cotor L." ll I l1 llr Infl.u- =-----. uine vk ll iil lI flr Infl.f .tanB . Line H fii dl u. Line R4 lli ttit lir li '[l. Infl.

55 0.05 0.0118 0.ii = SixLxPu = -0.0 0.0052 -0.35 0.0320 -0.70 0.30 0.425 0.1 Infl.9 Example. 8 a=l=0..001 6 0.04'10 fir .00 0.1655 0.0246 0.76 Infl. Usinginfluencelines.0678 -0.o127 *0.0032 0. 5i4.80 655 56 04 o. bending moments M" and M* m. M=SixLxp \ oRDTNATES oF tNFLUENcE LtNEs (Sr) Mo.N Table 5.0960x-l:x l2 = 4.2344 o.242 0.061 0.0960 0.061 0 MA 0.0480 0.20 0. =---:.0305 0.1320 0.0052 -0.0M0 -0.0418 0.1940 0.0016 -0.0080 0.896 o.939 0.1 Mr =Ra xr-He Yr-Ma =10'752x8-4'608x6'4-30'72=25 -Ho 0. a axialforce No' and shear Sotution.60 0.45 0. Line kN'm H 0.0120x40x12 = -5.'1320 -0.0960 0.0 104 - . cosQu =9'357 -0.1Line.25 0.608 kN lu r40 t 0.0468 0.752*0 857-4 608x0'514= 6'745 kN cosQ* -0. i1 x.2295 0.2295 o. L=40nr" f=10m.216 0. = 19.972 0.0184 0.648 0.21 60 0.993 H 0.compute bending moment H^' suPPort Rn=S.352 0..000 0. x-l x R = 0.0085 0. I .75 0.0034 *0.0498 0.0 Mc 0.0 4f(L-2x) 4xl0(40-2x8) -^ tanQ=-t-=--FQr ll =30.718 0.0246 0. tt^ ' = S.li Si xlxPt = -0.9 civen.0'102 L xPo = 0'896x12 = 10 752 kN 0.0395 -0.Ldx af(L-2x) Required.xP. 5.0127 0..0368 -0.2160 0.0 0.575 0.0080 Itr i.0528 -0.M" -0.1 0 RA 1.0625 -0. Equation of pa€bola: l\=lc.0 SrxL 0.0 0. 4xl0(40-8)8 .40 0.0090 -0. H=S x!"P.0 o.85 0.500 940 i I Nr Irl Vt =Rr 514+4 608x0'857 =9'475 kN = Ra sin0r +He cosQr = 10 752x0 sinQ.o'174 0. oy L' 4f(L-x)x y= ---.0215 0.50 0.0090 -0. Fixed Parabolic arch o T E s FIXED PARABOLIC ARCHES INFLUENCE LINES .0640x40x12 = 30 72 kN m kN m 805 M. xr=8m Concentrated load in point k Pr = 12 kN supportreactions Ro and tanQ= .0102 -0.0610 0. sin0k =0 Ro = S.o28 0.90 0.icosor.illl illll o.031 2 Me = .960.0 0.yr =-----=b.15 0.65 0.0120 -0.0305 0.+ x L 0.1 0.95 1.0120 -o. l]jl {ii Jill o.0034 0.007 0.444 o.784 lL.2.0085 0.0473 0.1 0.

N* =uE1+n. Ato <0 (compression) d = linear coefficient of expansion Hr_N.* = *Ij /8 . =+ Hi_N. M . Att =T.o. H.* GI. f = rope sag due to natural weight.EA. s =. Deflection ytu =M. if: Ato >0 (tension).* H Tsmperature: N.ulrr Bending moment M./tJ +lf ' ltT YJ Forces and deflection: ll ) lit --= Jo2nrl' n +f * (elastic deformations are not included) il {ii .'EA i/ (elastic deformations are included) E = modulus of elasticity.oot-o-/+\r* Rope deflection w = uniformly distributed load.STEEL ROPE .Hi =t# .lr --= t N. (f = I / 20. R=wLl2 .t-Tj. A =area of rope cross-section tii !iL tit =fi'+ni R=reaction. L) s = length of rope.Ato.iil . =d.

TRUSSES Method of Joints and Method of Section Analysis .NOTES 6.

-. cosc[o +LoLr = 0. .tp "=fr lRAa -0.').b). =Prb (tension).5 L4 .L. = f -(r.sinc. and the loads acting on the truss are represented as forcos mncent€ted within the truss joints. RB = Method of Joints and Method of Section Analysis are used to @mpute for@s in truss elements without joint.').b J Posts: -U' P' Pb Pl 6d Load on upper Load on lower chord: chord: Mambsr Folcoa =iL(pl +p. = -LoU. \rJolntg Jolnt Lo R^ dr. IJrL. 4 =(a+2d)sincr. +r"'). *r.2+(r..L. +ri )(a +o)] (comprosslon or tension) . lV=U.'! Roa+(P. L. L..!::\.' +rf )(a a)= o. +p.o =9.4+(n'+r. u. LeLt =Logr'ooroo (tension)' UrL. .h* Soctlon 1-1 n^ -!(4. Ix=-L0L1 +LrLr=0. Method of Joints is based on the equilibrium of the forces acting within the right Method of section Analysis is based on the equilibrium of the forces acting from either ths left or the ofthesection. (I*=0.1 Tables 6.TRUSSES METHOD OF JOINTS and METHOD OF SECTtON ANALyStS EXAMPLEA 6.Li Lowerchord: L Vertical Diagonals: End ' Ur-Lr*t Lo IL".. L jUt = -f.4 provide examples of analysis of flat trusses.io oo (compression) .s+(p. relying on the computer. lY=R^+LoU.-nf -0. +p5b)]. Iu=O) LoU' The truss joints are assumed to be hinges. IV=0.L"=LoLr (tension) tanp=. U'L.o 7. Legend Upper chord: U Posts: Ui . )X LoL.1-6.b) :+ +(r.Lrr. + F- lMo = u. ..I.

o =Pi.urr.b )d = o.u. .l =Pj. = UrL.L. + u.sino.2 Joints Section 1-l (cont.-. =(a+3d)sino. -g r1-.in 0? (tension). = -L.TRUSSES METHOD OF JOINTS and METtIOD OF SECTION ANALYSIS Ei. = 4 Y. IMo (J2L3 - R^a + (nj +rj)1a + a)+ +(nj + el )(a +zd) = o. Sectlon 2-2 r. -Pro = 0 (tension).L.L. P. sin cr. U. =l[R^a -(pJ pib)(a+d)-(pj +p. Pj =P.b)(a+2d)] (compression). + RA2d -(PJ +Rb)d = o.L.U. - UrL.t. cos lx L.L. +RA?d -(PJ +P. y = u.r.L.'=Pi. +U. 6ension1.) Pt I l1 Forcss r. UrL. = U. + u. !M. sinc. = u.b. = -LrL. sin c. LrL' UoL. = o. = UrL.. UrL.r grtrr rinct. +LrL..L. l'.L. -p.MPLEs Msmbor 6.. u.A. . LrL. coscl2 (tension).h. =YrY. Joint Lz t U. LrLo = P. =i-fRoza-(rl +rf )al trz' r IY ltrLl P. c.L. =(a+2d)sinB ryjhr IM". . = -po26 -iPI + Pi)d (compression).b Pro = o. - UoL.L.u. = Prb. t-.

l- I _l o uJ J = ul o = uJ J lt L- 9 z 'f -L .NOTES TRUSSES 6. x g J L u --S.3 .

=. ComPutation of truss 6. Truss3inTable6. Prt =Prt =4kN.4 civen.0.4. Poo =5 kN Required.447 tanoc=a=2.Lr =:::1'd(-Pj ' = 03728(-3 + + 3 P"b + 2xPr" + 3x ei ++xfrb ) 3 3 kN (tension) + 2x 4 + x 5 + 4x 4) = 14'53 o t! ITJ UoLr =-gr. Compute forces in truss membere using influence lines sorution. =-14'57 kN (compression) = o osoc/l DSOJ/1. z ltl J I = J o := 117 - .4350. ==L"' ^=T=t ei * z u -!^^ zd x + -Jq.667 x3 =12'33 kN (compression) P"o ) G u E t-.083x(5x3 + 4 x4 +3x5 + 2x4 + 3) = kN (tension) x U. Load: Prb =Pob =3kN.t-' = axa (Sx er" +4x Pf +3x Pob + ZxP'o + 4 73 = 0.5L) P.o = 5 + 1. 2dZx2dtt 2=9- .333x4+ 0. d=2m. = h ' h(0.TRUSSES Example.)L) ^u.x d x h(u.=ot. a=63.o 2 P. h=4m costx =0.. h L=IZm.

PLAT rS Bending Moments for Various Support and Loading Gonditions .NOTES 7.

Plate hinged along edge Plate free along edge' t------$f\J -120..].. CaseB !<2 a L. )M ". =+[(l-up.do..". Mo.121 Plate supported on column .9 provide formulas and coefficients for computation of bending moments The calculations are performed for plates of 1 meter width loads' The plates are analyzed in two directions for various support conditions and acting Units of a<b measurement: Distributed loads Bending ): kN / m) moments (M): kN m/m (u caseA 9>2 a Plateshouldbecomputedinone (short) directionasabeamof length L=a ptatesnoutObecomputedintwodirectionsastwobeamsof lengths Formulas for bending moments computation .0".] Support condition Legen d: :|rs\ssss Plate fixed along edge.a. 'FT )M. M.b Where: w =uniformly distributed load G".".0. r1p -u. =p. j-7.0. tsT )M.Fo = coefficients from tables for Poisson's ratio Pr =0 Bending moments for any Poisson's ratio p: Mi. +(p-pr. =cro wa b M..RECTANGULAR PLATES N o T E S CASE A: h :>2 a BENDING MOMENTS CASE B: 7.1 h a in elastic plates' Tables 7.o.=a 5d lr=l (h \a : <2 \ ) i Mo(a) =(ra w a b.b.) v'" '"i --fftr-ulr l-r_ . = po.w.a.w.. )M.

0066 0.0361 -0.0294 1.5 1.0709x0.0 .1m.0084 0.0469 0.5x2.1 da 0.0148 0.0310 -0.0319 0. = powab = -0.4 '1.0678 -0.0125 0.0454 4.0189 0.0235 0.1= -0.3 1.0165 0.5 solution.0361x0.0196 -0.0217 0.0399 0.0480 0.0695 -0. t=0'04m.14 -0.o476 -0.(o) 1.M88 0.0694 -0.0096 0.0226 o.0363 0.0 1.0240 0.0703 -0.0254 0.2.0056 o.0214 0.0485 ([b 0.o147 0.0432 -0.0269 0.0485 0.0365 0.6 1.1= -0.0633 -0.0910 kN'm/m = -91'0 N'm/m 1.0558 -0.0080 0.0 1.0667 -0. M.0625 -0.0635 -0.9 2.04'12 -0.2 Fo Plate supportg b/a=1'4 b/a 1.0034 0.5 1.0214 0.0625 -0. M*"i kN'm/m = 81 4 = o"wab = 0'0323x0'8x1'5x2'1 = 0'0814 Morb) = obwab = 0.3 Poisson'sEtio P=lrt=0 N'n/m Requlred.0133 0.0599 'L3 1.0268 0.0267 0.0309 0.0180 0.0324 0.0 't.0298 0.0709 -0.0657 -0.01.01 18 p" Glvon.6 1.0245 0.oo47 0.026s -0.8 1.0169 -0.0074 t. =p"wab = -0.1 1.0208 0.4 1.8 0.0506 -0.0097 0.2 1.0534 -0.6 '1.0488 -0.7 1.0480 0.0188 0.1 1.". Elasticsteelplate3inTableT.0711 -0.7 '1.0 1.0308 0.0266 0.0588 0. b=2.2 .0169 0.0452 0.0199 0. load w = 0'8 kN/m'z 1.2 0.01 18 -0.0165x0'8xi'5x2'1= 0 0416 kN m/m = 41'6 N m/m 1.9 2.0316 0. M.1787 kN'm/m = -178'7 N'm/m M.0302 0.0261 0. Mo(r).0330 0.0242 0.0473 0.5m.0321 0.0030 0.9 2.0228 -0.n.RECTANGULAR PLATES BENDING MOMENTS (uniformly distributed load) Examplo.0040 0.0 1 0.8 -0.4 1.0612 -0. computebendingmoments Mo1"i.0269 M".0323 0.0675 -0.0421 -0.0424 0.0109 0.0292 0.8x1.8x1.0146 0. Computation of rectangular plate' b S 2a 7.0193 0.5x2. Uniformly distributed a=1.(").

0292 -0.5 '1.0'140 0.0120 -o.0316 0.0326 0.1 9-0.0 .7 0.0441 1.0443 o.0404 F#4 1.0872 -0.0334 0.0526 -0.0313 0.0075 0.0556 -0.1 -0.0196 0.0420 0.0444 0.0638 -0.0273 0.8 t.0808 -0.9 2.8 0.101 0.1 0.0735 -0.0198 0.0102 -0.0338 -0.0214 0.0192 0.0560 -0.4 0.2 1.0273 0.03'13 1.0 1.0120 0.0 1.0228 0.0231 0.0349 0.0357 0.0334 0.4 5 0.0893 -0.0043 0.0242 1.0236 3 1.0 1.0172 0.6 1.0688 -o.034'1 { 1.0189 -0.9 2.0248 o.0142 0.0553 -0.0484 -0.0202 -0.0565 -0.RECTANGULAR PLATES BEN Dl NG MOM E NTS (uniformly distributed load) c[b 7.0359 o.0086 0.0'102 0.0378 0.0357 0.0226 0.0417 -0.0610 0.0333 0.2 1.5 1.0413 -0.3 1.0489 -o.0348 0.0843 -0.4 0.0142 0.0230 0.0269 0.0169 0.086 0.0332 -0.0350 0.0292 0.0401 0.0 1.0892 -0.6 1.0820 -0.0064 0.0620 -0.0225 0.0442 -0.0073 0.0054 0.0208 0.0056 0.0082 -0.0303 0.0203 0.0076 1.0234 0.0432 -0.0445 2.0433 0.0169' -0.8 1.0190 0. 1.0157 0.6 F#g.3 Fo Plate support b/a 1.0760 -0.0165 0.0062 0.0350 -0.0668 -0.0235 0.0040 4.0701 -0.0892 -0.0545 -0.0 1.0506 -0.0772 -0.0462 4.0867 -0.0142 -0.0210 0.01 19 1.7 0.

0280 0.0372 -0.4 0.0397 -0.0161 0.RECTANGULAR PLATES BEN DING MOM PIate supports b/a 1.0438 -0.0531 -0.0262 o.0123 0.0450 0.2 0.0249 0.0'198 -0.0464 -0.0093 0.0289 0.0046 1.0226 0.01 16 0.0707 0.0290 0.4 1.1 -0.0080 0.0452 -0.0218 0.0208 0.0556 -0.7 0.6 -0.0341 0.0'130 0.5 1.0266 1.0423 -0.0195 0.0162 0.o2u 0.0214 0.0689 0.0530 -0.2 3 0.0107 0.5 1.0287 1.0279 0.0555 -0.0400 0.7 0.0 .0708 -0.4 0o 0.0212 0.0475 -0.0186 0.0180 0.0229 0.0 1.0240 -0.0565 -0.0312 ^0.0400 -0.0267 0.8 1.0172 0.0274 1.0131 -0.0583 -0.0468 1.6 1.0204 0.0597 -0.0392 ws T\ 14 1.0200 0.0242 1.0417 4.0284 0.0179 0.0473 -0.0'103 1.8 1.0092 0.0660 0.0206 -o.9 2.0354 -0.0254 0.0179 0.0481 -0.0242 0.0376 0.0491 -o.0069 0.5 -0.0212 0.0146 0.0 1.0288 0.0146 0.0694 -0.0226 0.0388 0.0190 0.0052 0.0577 -0.0447 -0.0060 0.028'1 0.0530 -0.9 2.0081 0." R 7.0177 -0.0200 0.0417 -0.9 2.0362 1.0 1.0285 0.0588 -0.0'183 -o.0113 -0.0'194 @ 1.0599 -0.0594 -0.0158 0.0098 17 1.0570 -0.0210 0.0208 0.0152 -0.O -0.0439 -0.0 1.0396 0.8 1.0198 0.0621 -0.0181 0.0408 -0.0't42 0.1 ENTS (uniformly distributed load) 9.1 -0.0325 -0.0417 -0.0187 0.0484 -0.0316 0.0205 0.

270 0. 1..0102 -0.".0362 0.162 -0.171 -0.0510 -0.o.0097 0. oq o.0 1.0362 0.0609 -0.0095 0.O -o.168 -0.B 0.0397 -0.03't1 t\ M0. c[^ 0.v.8 0.0562 -0.0 -0.146 o.094 -0. Mo.0094 0.094 -0.0102 0.4 1.00552 0.0930 -0.0059 F" -0.4 5 BENDING MOMENTS (concentrated load at center) =c".086 0.P.0457 0.0700 -0.244 1.0636 0.- 7.5 0o (Ib 0.0389 *0.179 1.".0314 -o..=9".040 -0. =co.0070 0.r062 -0.0761 -0.0079 0.022 -129- .1 t 15 -0.156 0.080 0.0421 0.0712 -0.o.0771 -0.030 TffiT -l'4 + v "1 0.1 ENTS (uniformly distributed load) cx.214 0.0 1.138 0.RECTANGULAR PLATES BE Plate supports N Dl NG MOM b/a 1.0574 0.'149 -0.0099 0.0448 -0.0519 0. M.143 0.14'l 0.0492 0.108 0.0099 0.132 0.055 -0.176 L--i---l lP ' 1.0510 -0.100 0.5 1.P.4 1.8 2.3 0.0100 1.074 -0.0 M.126 -0.0279 1.0 '1.128 1.162 0.082't -0.092 0.290 0.1 0.135 =9t'P p" Pr Plate supports b/a "-t 1.0556 0.108 0.1 155 0.146 0.1 -0.130 0.1000 # .0087 0.076 2.0853 -0.0540 0.4 0.0457 0.0658 -0.0853 -0.6 ruL tt).0354 -0.P.

8 0.0432 0.0158 0. =cr.130 H 0.1148 0.0165 0.0022 0. and Mo(u)..0106 0.o.0048 0.1526 0.9 0.1444 0. =240000 Erasticstiffness D= .w.1606 0.2326 0.25m. w. = Elastic stiffness 0'1078x0.2x2.0 0.0 0o(") 0o(o) G.0180 0.o.1578 0.1339 0.5 0.0209 0.0016 0.0307 0.0540 0. Elasticplatel inTable7.0080 0.0162 0.0870 0. a.0581 0.0421 0.1435 0.0005 0. -2800 kN/cm2 ct11"y and crr.1367 0. .02't8 0.7 0.1314 0.=c.0202 0.002 kN/cm'? Where Ai E = Modulus of elasticity p = Poisson's ratio D Required.7 0.002Y: 'I' OU = o.54'.1606 0.1486 0.'1 198 0. (.0270 0.185 o.5 '1.0131 0.w.0079 0.0'164 =Inw h4 i-=0. ( uniformly distributed load ) Example.0146 0.". Modutus of etasticity E = 4030 Poisson's - a$0: ! 18222 2.0578 -131- . Computation of rectangularplate.0323x02x2.'1092 0.". = coefficients for Poisson's ratio lrr = 1/ 6 ratio P=Pt = l/6.0100 0.0194 0.0606 0.1069 0.5 1.". Compute bending moments M0.". Mr.0093 0.0364 0.1007 0.8 0.(ul 0r(o) 1lo r'I 0.0706 0.0468 0.1091 kN m/m = I N m/m Plate supports alb 1.0625 0.g m 0.'1078 0.0122 0.1097 0./b=0.0947 0.2 kN/m'? = 0.'t498 0.0547 0.0117 0..1011 0.1444 0.0418 0.0'141 0.1198 0.1174 0.0263 o.0037 0.1214 0.w.0294 0.0'159 rl: 0.0592 0.9 0.154'l 0.1470 o.0151 0. b4 i.018x0.0059 0.1639 0.RECTANGULAR PLATES N o T E S b(2a a=1.0126 0.0168 0.001 1 .1132 0. kN m/m=32.0126 0.o) = cxowb2 = Ao t = plate thickness.") =o.6 0.0406 0.9 0.0030 0.b'. M0.7 0.0'148 0.7 N m/m 109.2073 o.0729 0.0689 0.0955 0. = ?800t10t.b2 Given.b2. =cx'o.:.0119 0.0157 0.6. .0388 0.r2(1-F') 12l 1-(l/6)' load Ao={o w:.0977 0.1031 0.0140 0.1m.155 0.1038 0. deflection A0 Solution.25'z=0.0036 070 0.25' = 0.0152 0.8 kip/in'l - BENDIN G MOMENT S and D E F L E C T I O N S Mo.0089 0.1462 0.0589 0.o172 0.0866 0.8m.0500 o. o6.0343 0.0889 0.0947 0.0769 0. t=0. b' = b4 Ar=II w.6 0.0 0.. M.1552 0.b'?.0247 0.0063 0.0739 0.* .o.1386 0.0479 0. E.:s cm = 3. deflection at point i Ar=Ir."wb2 =0.1121 0.0050 0.o275 0.0986 0.tr D=lr(llD I Uniformly distributed w = 0. =d.0078 0.0490 0.0289 0. b=2.Et' .1 0.".1016 0.o.8 0.0581 0..0327 Mo.0367 0.0142 0.0063 0.0172 0. M0.6 0.

024'l 0.0614 -0.0247 0.0533 *0.NOTES M.=o.0250 0.o't77 -0.0387 1.0709 -0r0739 -0.0182 0.2 4.0248 0.="" RECTANGULAR PLATES BENDING inOMENTS (uniformly varying toad) 7.0228 -{.0194 o.0522 -0.5 '1.0469 -0.0396 -o.0211 0.5 0.0178 0..0178 0.0163 0...3 1.01 14 1.0598 -0.0 0.0521 -0.0 1.0429 -0.0246 0.o142 0.0517 4.0535 --0.0644 -0.0242 0.0588 -0.0652 -0. r.2 -0.1 0.0172 0.0522 -0. * 't.0533 1.0244 o.0677 -0.0153 0.0132 0.0435 -0.0241 -0.1 0.0161 0.0502 -0.0357 -0.0529 0.0588 =0.0515 -0.0432 -0.0178 0. 0b 0.0198 0.0536 0.0249 1.0502 -0.0172 0.0510 -0.0535 -0.1 -{.0538 1.0'180 4.05'14 -0.0538 -0.0229 0.02'16 1.0244 0.0236 0.0180 0.4 0..0 1.1 (+ M<o=e"00.0554 1.0477 4.4 1.0650 -0.0553 0.0514 -0:0598 0.0239 (+J.0271 0.0765 .0519 4.0 1.0243 0.0640 -0.0633 -0.0.0128 0.0245 0.0390 -.0538 -0.0216 o.4 0.0250 1.5 1.0480 -0.0418 -0.0194 0.7 * (+).0145 0.0257 0.3 1.4 1.".0153 0.013'1 Mooy =0o p" - a b) 2) Fo Plate supports b/a -0.0248 0.0262 -0.0 120 t.0117 0.

1 0.1 -{..1412 308 7. -0.0060 0.0353 -0.0538 -0.0053 0..0205 (xb 0.0302 -0..2 1. .0758 0.0037 0. M.0184 0.) Plate supports Fo 4.0477 -0.0506 Plate supports bla 1.0718 0.0241 0.(+) * [+). * (+).0290 -o.0372 -0.0 (I^ 0.0600 6 1.041 1 .0019 0.0231 0.0271 -0.4 -{.0206 0.)=p.0810 0.1222 -0.0156 0.0227 -{.0785 -0.0470 -0.0509 -0.0508 -{.0422 -0.02s5 -{.0233 F" 1.0446 -0. -o.*.0692 -0. M.0448 -0.0042 0.0276 .0556 -{.0350 -0. ". * 0.5 4.(.5 -0.2 1.0569 -0.b \ .0530 p.0504 -0.0 1.0072 9.0137 0.0376 t.0221 0.5 E 0.1 143 0.".067? 0. [+) F.*.0562 -0.0025 0.0431 1. p" -0.0576 -0.1790 M.(.0336 -0.0422 -0.(")=r.1740 -0.0628 14 1..1675 -{.0634 0.0237 -0.(.0160 0. M..135 - .)=p.="" 5 RECTANGULAR PLATES BENDING MOMENTS (uniformty varying toad) = e.3 -0.0580 -0.0240 -o.0577 4.0120 0.0184 0.8 r (+) MrF)=sr.oo47 0.0332 -0.0 168 -0.0826 0.0718 0.003'1 r.0057 0.2 1.0190 0.3 -0.1600 -0.0042 o.[+ bla '1.0218 0..0206 0..0229 0.3 0.0063 1.0387 -0.)=p.0204 -0.0 1 M.(") = cq 0..0357 -0.0876 4.NOTES t.0598 0.0112 0.1412 --0.0173 0.0510 -0.0495 -0.0137 0.0302 3 0.0565 0. * (+).0233 0.0562 -{.=o.0332 f -0. * [+) .0012 0.1069 -0"1003 -0.0790 0. 0b 0.0200 -0.0 1.0382 .* a.1510 1.0168 -0.0090 0.0380 -0.

D= t2(t-1t'z) p=f. . = Poissonls ratio E Moment.(l +3p)p.] ll1 rr. 'r2ra*2M' p v* =-3p . y* =-zrnlp =ftlr+u-(3+p)p.] Vi A Pa2 . R=+. ^=ab('-e')' "="G') ^' Etl .] V. = circular plate's radius r = circular seclion's radius t =thickness of plate moment . R =support reaction A = defloctiqn at conJer of ptate trI. = Dj-l lotr. = ^ (l+u){t-o') " 16n' M.* -o'J..qc uo*(r-o-Jl.) . sheaf and deflection diagrams = modutus ofelasticity ' ] Forrnulas p=:.. 3+p-(r+ :p)p'] ^ a= Pa2. moment V& = radial shoar = radial Mr = tangential .. p=wnaz. .r. ./s+u . = fi [r +u .9. r=wna pr.CIRCULAR PLATES BENDING MOMENTq St{EAR a and DEFLECTrdN 1unitomiyritstriOut"O MR toaat 7.r_ R=d. ..

NOTES 8. SOILS .

=_-_5l u'=_-_E-' Where: ko = coefficient of lateral earth e=voidEtio(Table 82) pressure (Table 1 Crashed stone Gravel sand Coarse-grained sand Medium-grained sand Fine-grained sand Dustlike sand Coarser than 10 mm Coarser > 50 o/o than 2 mm >50% >50% > 50 > 75 < 75 o/o Coarser than 0. sticky and plastic clay soils. = relative density ( Table 8. engineering ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SOILS SOIL TYPE SOIL PARTICLES 8. respectively . Less than 0. = total mass and mass ot water and solid matter.conductedforspecificconditionslfthesemethodsarounavailablo' use of data provided in the norms may be accoptable' Cohosive soils lgneous and sedimentary stone compact soils. M. V".1 mm 0 1) o/o D. V".sorLs NOTES properties of soils are determined through laboratory For purposes of structural design.respectively W.water. compact.////8i w Vs Ws Ms M % V. V.25 mm Coarser than 0. M* and M.0 Mw ryqFF} .005 mm ThemodulusofdeformationandPoisson'sfatioofsoilcanbedeterminedusingthefollowingformulas: Coh6sionless solls (l+2k^)(1+e) (l-ko)(l+e) .0 Ww Moss Nr Vo Vw Mo.solidmatterandvoids. *d V" = = total volumeandvolumeof air.1 mm Coarsgr than 0. respectively.2 ) as guidelines' Soil properties found in Tables 8 2-€ 7 are provided only o/o COMPONENTS OF SOIL Volume Weight Wo. W* and W" total weight and weight of water and solid matter..5 mm Coarser than 0.1 WEIGHT IN ORY SOIL stzE experimentsandfieldresearch.

Unitweioht *= &. Darcy's Law. gravel sand Coarse-grained sand Medium-grained sand Fine-grained sand Sandy loam Sandy clay Clay ko cm / sec 1. respcctively.l0* to 1.il Td W+W V 10. Velocity of coEFFtcrENr oF pERMEABtLrrv (ko) o = kr . 7.10j to 1. Relativedenstty: D.A .10r l.1ggo7o w. watercontent 5. p" v. where: ko = coefficient of permeability.in otld eo = 63x1rur.sotLs WEIGHT / MASS and VOLUME RELATtONSHtpS 8. o.tOO yo=M* . Spsclflc gravityofsollds: "=t=*. w..i .i.=V"+% o7o c.loj to l.10r 1 10-3 1 10J 1.10-7 1. minimum and Unltma$: e=+ er=+ FLOW OF WATER in-pla€ void ratio of the soil./\ = M.=62. void ratlo: 3.i(l+e)l)d=ry. +V" 9.yunit weight and unit mass ofwater Whsre: saturation' 3=&-.tOOU 6. hy&aulic i =: = Actual vslocity: gradient (slope).4H. "t. Flow rate (volume to Where: A = area of the given cross-section of soil < 10-7 . Dryunltmass: T*. V=V.100% Where: em. 8. p* =1000kdm3 ( at normal lomDeratures) v=-. 1.2 1.i__ko.= e*-eo .81 kN/m3.10-5 -. Poroaity: n =& 2. Dogreeof tOO X .166 Y" and p" = 4. V.*=r=l* or Where: n and e = soil's porosity and void ratio.uk". p6r unit time): q = kp ."= q/v. 6_ = M. flow: SOIL TYPE Crashed stone. Dry unltwelght: =-=: l+w v wl . respectively. tl*.Tr" and To = maximum. minimum and in-pla@ dry unit weight. M.e. l0{ .41b/ft3 or 9. pY* =Y.10{ to 1. respectively.

=f (e. cos0.SOILS NOTES STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL Method based on elsstic theory Concentrated load Boussinesq equation: 8. ) Approximate method ' Where (B+ . B< z = depth 0 = angle of intemal L friction . P --:---------:-i22 tan O)(L +22tffi9)' . -e.3 d =-- 3P ^ Zrcz'll+ft/zl'I L' T rr il' Where Oz = vertical stress at depth z concentrated load P = Uniformly distributed load O-=- '"lt*1*t"1'l' 2w o. cos0. O. *rin0. -sin0. =approximate vertical stress at depth z P =total load B =width of footing L=lengthoffooting.

= life of the structue or time for which settlement is required te : time to completion of primary consolidation .s(kPa).L cri = coefficient from Table 8.5 15.76.4 l= Line or.167 o.0(m). zlB --2.(kN). ho = h.189x149.2or.= 1. = c. oao H. r=s./a 0. h' =h' =1.500 1.167 0..ot - o. E' =40000(kPa)' 9z = 0'72 B.9 Alternative Settlement ofloads on clay due to ormulas S='o "[H]' l+eo' eo e 84.l-[ oa" = 6p 6'10 = 185.4 1 Sand: p=9.0(s8. B=3(m).0(m)< 0 48 yo =Tr co.=6.561 0.3 = 0'2c. P.4(n).5a Yi = y. 3 =Line o" Sandy clay: 0=0. v. ) (kPa) u=Poisson'sratioforsoil Sandyloam: 0=0.944 H1 0. =1 0(m)<0'4B F' =o'10 (Ior t of h.layer . =%ho .500 0. seeTable8'5a) 0. r(m).72 oa Ht =dixo""' (fora' zi . o" (kPa).6 33.9 12.0 23.i . 2 =Line 0. u(m).2o. E.2 (kPa). oa = o(. L = length of footing ution. = fi" = h. o. =op-or.5 Assume: z of =6.1= H = thickness ofthe consolidating clay layer o" = 0. c" = o.4 42. 0os con 0ou a oa. (kPa) Seftlemenl: Where s=io i=l r. =1. (kPa) 8.4+118.01-Y19-r 1A t.0x19'6) = 29'5(kl'a) 0.4 Examole.'t67 o. Settlement of soil.0x17.o = Yoho = 17'7 \2'0 = 35'4(lfa) Es = modulus of defomation of soil )t12 -" '0=l.(tNlm'.4+42.4 = 149. = 25000(kPa)' Required. or.o: ^ S=t.0)ffi=0.4 SOILS SETTLEMENT OF SOIL Method based on elastic theory 8. . ho =2(t). h<0.2xY'1.57.0103(m) t.2 -35.2(5. (xi L/B=54l30=1'8 o" (kPa) 141.48 0oo Ht7 natural soil Pressure: 0.282 0. = 4.391 18. o" =5 . B<L B = width of footing .2d" oq - additional vertical pressue at the mid-height oiven. Method based on elastic theory' unirs: B(m).7+3.NOTES Table 8.72 Settlement of loads on clay due to second ary consoI idation s.833 1.0(m).6 25.0065+0.8 = Settlement: 0. op = fr P. .207 o. I Ds + temporary load ( live load ) = weight of shuctures + weight of footing and surcharge to the middle of hi layer zi =distance from footing base Lower border of active soil zone for vertical load P" has been adopted as 20% of I n=numberof h-heightlayers.2 31.s.0' o =0.794 0. Compute settlement of soil under footing sof mit weight of soil Engineering properties of soils are determined by field and laboratory methods & = total vertical load.0018=0. (m/ .189' 28.(-).3 primary consolidarion.2o.8+S+..1 (ho + z. Clay: B=9. H' =5(-).5 29. = 0.9 21.4 0. log(t.0(ton/m' ).0 58.157 = initial void ratio ofthe soil in situ the total pressue acting at midheight the consolidating clay layer - 5'5 = void ratio ofthe soil corresponding to z.h.2+11. = 2.. /t" ) .8(ton/rn')=lz r(tNlm').833 2. s.0(14t. H2 zs = 4'5 26 1. - = ffi 3000 = t 85.

Sa Method based on. hr k*.. k.. k. o o = compressive stress applied to trea ofa soil subgade S a unit = settlement of unit axea of a soil subgrade = Winkler's coefficient ofsubgrade reaction (force per length cubed) k.. Winklor.s hypothesis Settlement Where S = k. =K. =___:r "' h.. EE "' =1. +k*...sotLs SETTLEMENT OF Coefficient di TableS. . .k*" k*.

2c.NOTES For slop6 stability analysis. = c+otanQ t" = shear strength c = cohesion Where o = effective intergraaular normal pressure 0 = angle of intemal tanO = coefticient friction offriction SLOPE STABI LITY ANALYSIS Factorof safetyforslope F. +Rl"'.) and Winkler's coeffici6nt for some types of 6oil l 8.21. it is necessary to compute the factor of safety for 2 or 3 failure suffaGs with different diameters.' i l=n 8i = weight of mass for element ci = cohesion Qr of soil = angle of intomal friction H = depth safetv depth ofcut cosQ ofcut t"' .6 (k*) Soil type Crashed stone.5 to 1. Wh6re t*Q.8 i=n le. gravel sand Range E. sotLs possible Modulus of doformation (8. y l-sin$ . The smallest of the obtained values is then acceoted as the result.r.S. cc-oc (MPa) Ranse k* (Nlcm3) 90 75 - 150 Coa6e-grained sand Medium-grained sand Fine-grained sand 40-45 35-40 25-35 15-25 10-30 -'120 Sandy loam Sandy clay Clay 15-30 60-90 46-75 30-60 30-45 25-45 SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL Coulomb squatlon: t.

6x20=1409kN/m'? p.8x0.78.42>.m.42 kN/m3 kN. 5€g * lE e1€E i gtY'.7 8 I 2500 = 4. elB=0.=20 Loads P=2500 Required. Compute factor of safety for footing aeF li ?: j" /+7! .a 3t* NF (. M=500kN.4TBNy=20.€:.$. B. Bearingcapacityanalysis civen..2m..: b g z > lrL o v.fio o a U E aU'rolcol o *E z oO DF iiE o X Rtr eE ?z o$ g3R33e3 R gooFooin N .Ee E =.4x20. Rectangularfooting. e=500/2500=0..213. = q. I P = | 409 x3. smoothbase 0=300.7 Example. i E-L 2 o < flg i Solution.1. . B=3.6=0. EO q o@ q^' .6x2. N" =20.En . R.{p'6y'c11'sro}3D3 F11codo3 6u1:oeg 153 - e .6 m. Granularsoil. L. Y=130 Lblft3 =130x0.= i E ri ili:.NOTES Table 8"4 8. € E * -' s . L=2.43 > 3 aEi€i'nF =ia :IE-. a3i'ai-82 Ei-g.L .28.E EsF 3 5E F E p Ff ro r* . Lt-L_ r=-J1 oo o u = r! \ mS d* d6 F l_l oo | oo LJf 'ct o qqqac! FOOoO OU uo!]cnpeu .42x2x20.1571=20.. N.3.06 Bearingcapacityfactors R" =0.8 m. = o. . BIL=1.rt=TDrNq+0. c=0.1+0. q.

FOUNDATIONS .NOTES 9.

.1 l.FOUNDATIONS EIRECT FOUNDATIONS Tables 9. Ivt. wtere A=B.=fttf*ll-. =H". including pedostal and base pad W.. assume qd =0 (soil cannot fumish any tensilo resistanc) . Wher6 & =P+W +2W.=L* pYv"IM.AS.. The footing is supported by the piles: Fores acting on the piles are @mputed and compared with the pile €pacity provided catalogs.B-2tM tl \ \' ! 2P" 2P.- 3(P.7 @nsider two cases of foundation analysis. in the Individual column footlng Wall footing Contact prgssurg and sqil pressurg dlagramg rwo-wayaction: e.1-9.L . One-way action t"=*. pile capacity can be computed using the formulas provided in Table 9..L.t+rra ^v P = load on the footing from the column Wr =weight of concrete. ll.4. The footing is supported directly by the soil: Maximum soil reacton (contact pressure) is determined and @mpared with requirements of the norms or the results of laboratory or field soil research. lf ne@ssary. s. 9.. q*=++AS. = weight of soil tf qd : 0. q* =--= x.

. y=-b.5a2 8b'? n 27a 8b Y:]1" * Yii0 = &*l! 13.6x2. L=2. f Factor of safety against overturning: F..5a2 8b2 12 9a .6m..x-M_.-v.5 W.2+136.048 m3 H = 200 kN = 0.)(*)' .h sotution.'=t6' y=b.2a o_P.FOUNDATIONS NOTES Tables 9. t = H #jfr = = ffiffi =+s .0'5a-y+=&-M.L =3.8 =10.(k) Mo. 13. sliding.4 P q^b =223. y=0.4.3 pire2: x=-0. F S. M. =moment with respact to x and y m respectively x. 9. 2250 200x3 + 225 a. = P+ L.m Factor or sarety asainst overturnins .:)' &= n total vertical load acting on pile group number of piles in a row = = number of rows of pile M.2 Example.u. 6..+..25a = t3.s P f =IE=2250x0 =* ' zoo 4 Example 9.-=A o.3 pirel: x=-1. = +* 4.B' /6= 6.2-136.2 DIRECT FOUNDATION STABILITY Factor of safety against P.=+4.*=rrg+ 6ga3 = 223.1 and 9. factors of safety against sliding and overturning = P.T 'M..5a.5a.-M.5a Foundation olan and sections )(y)'=2.S.5a)-l= 6.4 f= coetficient of friction between base and soil f = 0.5a'2 8b') D -M. h=3 m = = total vertical loaO. NItl'5"*Yi-b-& 13.B/2.4-0. +2W.^ . q^* = IM. = 2250 kN. Allowable soil contact pressure o = 360 kPa = 360 kN/m':.2 . = M. p. y axos. B=3. &=J.2a: n=4..6 < 360 kPa PILE FOUNDATIONS Distribution of loads in pile group Axial load on any particular pite: I-.08 m" s" Loads P. Direct foundation in Table 9. p. Compute contact pressure. M" = 225 kN m.3 pire3: x=0. Example 9.+(1.5a. = = moment to resist tuming turning moment = 359.y ri--rilr- ' n.M. 9a*M" 8b M. \2 ^ ^f.8 m. m=3 s.1u. = distance from pile to respectively y and x axes. =M+)H..4 = 86'8 kPa Factorof safetyagainstsliding M.1 Reinforced concretefooting.5a).1uy Yn*' lvro(r J Requir€d. " = !j )rr Given. q"'= P.l.21 Z(x) =2 3L(0. !U = total horizontalforces A= B..

I(r)' I(vl' n=7.3 84a' 14b' 21 28a Maximum and minimum axial load on pile: * l4b p M D=u+l+ls='. m=3.= + . M' I Pilel: x=-2a.m-S"-S"' n(n+l)a.lL+ .$}= & .(b)' =vr.o= +.m Np = capacity of single Pile 0 For cohesionless soil Es = 1./ I' / :e \(n-l)m+(m-l)n n.2b of loads in pile group vl I +-l . -+.'d---*. R= :1.-r. y=b. p.FOUNDATIONS 9.2b: S = \' /" .i. I(. ' 7. p. S =-\'=l4b -' 6 6 PILE GROUP CAPACITY Where Ne = capacity of the pile group Ee = pile group efficiency v Ne = Ee n'm : No Converse-Labarre equation E- ' =l-l\90.l .o .s='.+"| I - X --r-. y=0. d = diameterof piles.YL..3 NOTES Distribution Example 9.42a ' 14b' pitez: x=0.3-\:.m t lL: t.7 -'lnexampleg. &= + * Yi ?' .f=2.- I . -ffi n.M' 7.4) .=28a.m m(m+l)b n -Y 6 6 1t1+t\a. center to center .Yr. - Foundation plan and sections Axiat toad on any particutar pite: P P' '' = n.0 =mctand/s (degrees).84a' Y':'o= 21.3 [(")'+(2a)'+(:a1']=6'14a'z =84a2 Z$)' =2. s = min spacing of piles.3 84a' 14b' 2l l4b pile3: x=3a.'t 1(1+l\h. y=-b.

1 O.PE G o.9.Y 5. . .9 '<9 5.E.r" 9. i gEE E E! ..rr-F t.o'a HXO . b 'l:illoZ- I 5 s ooY .. c z o F: '-/ -.-:=o-9 14 i" o{ E i^ E\ Eo a-.O ll -di*F e nE &.i' gEE d E ..I .J .d rr^ 6l*" fi E.F .= < o .4 o o '6 cfr <6 o 9o !E E_o ie .r =o EE'68 = t E -F frb*$Eo EsbPo EC'88E.6 e *9./ ..FOUNDATIONS .6 ? EE q'H. 3b' .*c HJ."3 o€ 6e oii g-c* F'!EE o-tb:E O-:X.'.S vv i{ o E'SH :&* g$u g. 'ol t.'Ft 'g -o oE o6 3t' p .\E o | '€ ./ oi {:i c= zl d=4 lt* ffi ' UE FF -. Itt U^ ------l r --J7\.e i rlii-ltirl cyq'u>H p o i !e A }{ E. .EEt --.P E*h =s-E ii ri . €obF9 oq=oF Egho: E E ' E F f EEF oEEraG -dulirl EVZ< llllA $ FJ 3 = tFi --}| =9.q-.

973 Bending moment: Mi=o.890 0.005 0.001 0.b.855 0.007 0.927 0.22 0.33 0.(o) 0.907 o.008 0.11 0q(o) 0q(r) dq(:) 0.33 o.(r) 0.014 -o.050 btL 0.0 0.07 0.881 Soil reaction: b/L 0.031 0.016 -0.01 1 0'(:) 0.8.009 0.w 0q(:) 0.11 0(u) 0.408 1.33 0.0.020 0u(:) 0.07 Shear: Sheor diogrom Y=a"frt .'11 .919 0.I-7 *-(r) 0. h.900 0.961 0q(o) 0.008 0.003 0.799 0.0 0. Iength and depth ofthebeam.t btL Moment diogrom 0.w.L o'(r) -0.494 1.006 0.858 0.22 0.006 0.001 0. {/T/ q Where E.0 0.FOUNDATIONS RIGID CONTINUOUS BEAM ELASTICALLY SUPPORTED The following method can be applied on condition that 9.889 0. = modulus of deformation of soil Uniformly distributed load lw) qi=c[q(i).t.298 1.030 -0. L and h=modulusofelasticity.247 0.905 1.009 0.024 -0.016 -0.018 0.000 Mo M! 0.928 Soil reoction diogrom 0.22 0.014 0.w.010 0.07 .037 -0.004 0.846 0.041 -0.014 -0.respectively E.0 0"(t) -.019 d(r) -0.000 0.012 -0.006 0.(r) 0.023 -0.o27 -0.832 0.026 0.b.o12 0.5 : L < 0.

004 0.628 0.005 0.308 .P G'{r) d'(.192 0.07 -w w w I .1 84 0'"(:r +0..083 -0.(r) 0.P.040 0.036 0.048 0.(:) 0.P.400 -0. =c..046 0.298 .072 .. ct--(2) -0.33 0.208 b/L 0.034 0.1 1 0'{ol 0.085 0.082 0.FOUNDATIONS RIGID CONTINUOUS BEAM ELASTICALLY SUPPORTED Concentrated loads M.087 0.404 -o...(:) 0..030 ttv --1o..019 0.314 -0. tl Bending moment: M.) 0.L d'{:) 0.0.395 -0.018 0..0.385 /41 k1' 0.129 Shear: Mo Y=4.432 -0.07 Shear: b/L 0.500 -0.038 0.197 -0.088 0.043 d-(r) 0.059 0.216 0.33 0.069 Sheor diogrom -0.156 -o.500 -0.372 0(ol -0.=o.604 0. diogrom -0.384 -0.6't6 .002 Moment diogrom 0.044 0.051 0.003 0.402 -0.1 66 Sheor.016 9.302 -0.063 0. 0u(:) -0.408 0'(t) -0.138 0.134 0.(o) 0.{+) 0.144 .130 0.L b/L 0.404 ..(r) 0.081 0.1 1 0..|9'l +0..22 0..032 0.33 Y=oq.) 0.396 -0.) +0.0.07 0.092 0.596 0.(r) 0.zzrf 0.003 Moment diogrom 0.017 0.002 0.201 +0.11 *v(0) -0.078 -o.1 +0.053 0.500 d(.500 -0..086 d.096 0.046 0.006 0.131 0.22 +0.050 0.22 0.07 +0.6 Bending moment: b/L 0.33 0.P 0'(.416 -0.22 0.003 0.1 96 +0.

b/L=033 E = 3370 kip/in'? =3370x6.22 .191 +0.lTs23sl+o=6a12 Mo = c'.211 5 Bending moment: M. Mj.034 +0.134 0.605 +0.22 *.07 +0.7 Example.144 Sheor diogrom V.156 Sheor diogrom .432x200 =-86..372 +0.444 d.004 +0.015 +0.142 -0.404 +0..' 0.r. b/L 0.006 +0.144 -0.073 -0.33 0.J P btL 0.416 -0.P.t ) d.584 V. +0.) 0.584 +0.(r) +0. b=2m.077 -0. civen. lP h-o.'191 +0.036 +0.079 +0.1 1 0.. Vi.159 -0.071 -0.) o'(.)xP = 0 568x200 = 1i3'6 kN vl =-0.862 0.006 +0.L 0.'184 Y=0.201 +0.166 0.'138 0.1 1 -0.395 -0.060 -0.P ol--(3) -0.'196 +0.032 V3R sofution.17 1 J -"*-J M6 -0.856 +0.156 0. 0..065 d.396 +0. concentrated loads P = 200 kN {rrl 'l I i? ffi lP Fo.1'l 0'(o) -0.058 0-(r) 0.075 -0.166 -0.33 0.038 0. L=6m.075 0.07 +0.023 r0.(0)xPxL = -0 06ix200x6 = -73 2 kN m M3 = o(.1 84 su(z) +0.11 +0..163 0.025 Shear: Y=o..'i L=-4 10.-=T-r-\ M3 Moment diogrom -0.L Reinforcedconcretefooting.-(4) -0.130 o. Rigid continuous footing 4 in Table 9 7 9.615 0.004 "lt+:rlY Mo Required.22 +0.".33 0.169 -0.172 -0.33 0.834 +o.=d. =a-.1 96 -0.(o) -0.7 loads Bending moment: M.005 +0.4 kN v--v .048 0..P.nnr*l P b/L 0. = 40 MPa.061 0.1 38 .(o) -0. h=1 m.07 -0.052 0.r 'P G"(.176 -0.404 o'(r) +0.568 +0.605 +0...(3)xPxL = 0'038x200x6 = 45 6 kN m V.(.FOUNDATIONS RIGID CONTINUOUS BEAM ELASTICALLY SUPPORTED Concentrated Table 9.432 d"{t) +0.372 +0.384 +0. checkinsconditionr L<0.568 +0.005 40.019 0.(:t 0.396 +0.S h €/Er . Compute Mo.07 Moment diogrom Shear: b/L 0(r) +0.Y 0.004 +0.1 86 0...136 0.' = cr"(.8948=23235 MPa E.004 'w I . . -0.384 +0.385 .q.61 5 0'(o) 0.22 0. 6<Ozxlxl.126 -0.

NOTES LO)LL. FIETAINTNG STFTUCTUFIES .

[.st. Ke = coefficients Where K" = Kp PI = soil's plasticity index coefficient of active earth pressure coefiicient of passive earth pressure = Coulomb theory K"= cos'(q-cr) t.s)'t"(a+p)l cos'o.t'(o-p) 1 L'-t/*.cos(c+6) cos'(4-a) t. K". F'(o.t". The three known coordinates on the graph are Type of soil Sand Sandy loam p 0.! 6 t-tr Where Oh md o" = lateral and vertical stresses.233 log (PI) .(P-")l Coulomb earth pressure Q .sin O .)r\eyH 6 = angle of friction between wall and soil (6 = 2 /30) Where Y= unit weight of the backfill soil p = angle between backfill surface line and a horizontal line G = angle between back side of wall and a vertical line EARTHQUAKE cos'(q-o-cl) e = arctan lkn / (1 - k" )] kh = seismic coefficient. the methods thal have popular in engineering practice are those based on analysis of the sliding prism's standing balance' This The magnitude of the lateral earth pressure is dependent on the direction of the wall movement.(CI-D). the active pressure is the smallest' and the Correlation between lateral earth pressure and wall movement Po the largest.12 = angle of internal friction of the backfill soil r" =U.29 0.". =vertical acceleration coetficient . ^ ^ -r.1q-b). kh = AE I 2 AE = acceleration coefficient k -173.)l("Ylt.37 0. correlation is represented graphically in Table l O l 10.31 \.19 + 0.for clays Ko.for sands Ko = 0.RETAINING STRUCTURES LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE ON RETAINING WALLS Coefficients of lateral earth pressure: K0 = coefficient of earth pressure at proved most For determining the lateral eadh pressure on walls of structures. rn=U. among the forces and reactions acting between the soil and the wall the soil construction experience shows that even a minor movement of the retaining walls away from pressure in many cases leads to the formation of a sliding prism and produces active lateral Sandy clay Clay 0.cos(o-6) l'-\/-. As the graph demonstrates.Po passive pressure and Pe. respectively Poisson's ratio ."lP:O] Ko= P 'n cos'zo.1 rest: Ko = 5 =.41 = lateral earth pressure at rest Alternative P" = active lateral earth pressure Pr = passive lateral earth pressure formulas: Ko = 1.

r.2 kN/m'? r Unit weight of backfill soil Y = I l5 lb /ft = 1 l5x 0 1571 = 18.6 3f486 ."f+s"-ll.+:o*d)= | \ 2l K. 6=0 and 0=0: = 61.un.+z. lxl 0 . \ zt n= o'n p.+z.61\ l0 Rankine earth pressure K.l-sinO I fsino-.2cf<* PnH = 0..= " K- 1* sin O = l+sinOtan'[or' -9') 2) \ L_ = 8._t-t-l-2q V .56x pn = KoyH + 2c= ran.04 + 486.39x1 8.88=7182 Pa =7.2. Compute active and passive earth pressure per unit length ofwall: Pn.41x10 = 2547. Cohesivesoil. L I\ !2/ o. Po. I = f run I [23. B=0 les 1-.-.5prh = 0.73 = 269 Passive earth pressure: kN 't.2 kN nr++"tun[+:'+]l d. . + K.48 m ^-j+t_.5 z.61 kN/m D K"FI . P" = 0.5K -1Ll- ' .) Resultant force per unit length of B/ Passive earth pressure p'.61x8.-H= N 7 R/ l-f 2cVTE Cohesive soil A/ Active earth pressure pr =K"yH-2cd! Where c = unit cohesive strength of soil 486.4+ 4x7 .=u. ^^_ocosB-r/cor'p-.Kp Aq'AlI N---t' r. A- ++" t*[+s'+9J :[n.Jrq .uoi+s'*9ll \ 2 )) .5pnh 2.4 kN lm 8. do cosp- p-cos'q Solution..2 Example.u"l+s +9]l . 2x1.ro l.2xl .2 Table 10. Active earth pressure. l. = KnyH .so 486.r-l+s"-fl \ wall P" = 0. Assumed: Exam a=0.^/H' Pn = o. H = l0 m Given.tunl+s' *91*o. | 4s.73 m = 0.=------. angleoffriction Q=26'' Cohesion c=150 lb/ft'] =150x47.2JL56 = e.2. = un'[+5" 1'9 ] \ 2t '') LH) AA p.61 xl0=3.= ' o. 2l 2t pn = If o=0.ry RETAINING STRUCTURES NOTES Table 10.5x61.4 + 2x7 :ln. 6=0) The wall is assumed to be vertical and smooth 10.2x7.s ' or' * * '"j n :. K =ran'[+s" 9l=tun i+5' 4l=o. 6=0. Retaining wall 1 in LATERAL EARTH PRESSU RE ON RETAINING WALLS Rankine theory ({[=0.] x 10 + 0. '-p " r I or" 1 * 1 20"1- 2.2>1.5K.l.1 kN/ml Required.2JdJ9 61. = u. * z" . L t n.un' I 2) [ 2.os I K"=cosp+ cosp+ cos'q /cos'B Kp=cosF? h.sfz.

333x (18 . I 177 - .5 = 160.d. || +s" -9 l.l8 kN m' = 9.o. $!E c E o o. :z a:l.v"Xi < "i oiFiF : o d: = 0. Po = o.78 m tf.8x1.:t<" (y-"y.3::xls(6-4)' ^ 0. H = 6 m 300.3 "'=---::Pj-= I IY .5h* =0.01 o 1 Z cr->o -dF d.0 + + 78.un.5x4=2 m t( oVVd-o .-==ua.30'l.5K"7(H -h* )'? = 0.3 il .::: 2l 2t | P.5Y*h'.5 x 0.. slL+:i e^4o ot >€iij . a = 12..33 + 78 160.{ ul I . <nllilllll ioiol*o.0 + 48. ! ! Tl !l^" c r <ls Required" Compute active pressure per unit length of wall: a f sorution.3 kN = 1.3. Hh6-4 =l+h*- .d.\. Pd.0 kN . h" =4 m.0x2 +21.+P. Retaining wall 3 in Table RETAINING STRUCTURES 10.." )hi" = 0.> .81)x4' = 2l 8 kN h4 =r= o U IY F E = 1. r rl o -i\ r a-l Y |. o-:-l l *l = 0.rm. i .+P.0x4.l-=).--O S^= :' sii r !l a o El a ll - _ o rr - - . h : 7 "l r. = = 48.+Rd.1 or" .= 0. cohesion 10.y(H -h" )h. 12.a Given.8 q+ P. n L .5x0. p.67 +48." rl .33 P" = m 2 1. x' .0 kN ttu < .9. rl .81 kN/m3 P" .t' I( ill I 4.5 kN ) 0 to trt h4 d-33 =_:!=. = K.3 Example. Backfill soil: Angle of friction Q = Unitweightof backfill soil Ground water: Y.NOTES Table 10.81x4' = 78.H_ " il a" sL.J .5x9.33 m = 0. d. K o L d" >-l > Tl1 Ttf . + Pr + Pi = 12. J 3 Fi* .=1. =-''^:*u s=..333x18(6-4)x4 tq=q.rl o a^ !l^l dl _ " +1o.

"?ll E E 6 + ..-l o€:.:.-+10.i"1 +l N \_l!?:g . F J -'179.o u o lu t o tt u.sl >-l >- o .F6Riiul oL. o'd3 5 g d oil ori EE o o o." .E-9E <V}ZY.e--6d*6 - s -lN g .-+€ le+. pil --l L.oYo'83 Lilll d -o*--.:x ilil= !2.€z--\!?e V sv]. 3 ! : I llJ -a E}F -F XME llll.NOTES llll o 6 RETAINING STRUCTURES Er6 rr o!-.+o.l a 3 E A F E !J E u. .il -eF =rt E 6. !2" hh ! I o o o ai o-i r Er! El !4 i.-f+gr . 10.4 FFc T =l. .ilil"^S d-F '-: :ia+t.s.

i "-i-EEEllllE l +t N'E d=l "J_ -id A.-Fl d E El-l ts -l^e rl : 6-o__r_Flld F - oa l*_ -l .E g d i . fl.' ." <VRo &q-e ( o r .lLu g ERqK4A tt ll l: € h 'E g ll 2 = < F u.E. q v'-.l .^ldv 10.NOTES ll o!!: RETAINING STRUCTURES t^:: l.i_ E € d*=:l €^':o-.5 G'F lf.:oo 'li ll r ta-tE Eo"Eb-!! E 9l:-rJv Esl. ii + .. x VqXEI'e Lg rl-- +1r E trotr-l+ -il-ll b^rb^E z o u tr tt 3 o ul u 0- I F G.. -lo E o 3 SeHrlE-' : 3 (. i x a. UT J ur F J .

* = 0./' "" "'V:r. . -183.. / Stiff-fissured clay: pb = 0.5K"t: .sKlhj ^h . d" =+ Maximum bending moment: r. d" _-: t Maximum bending momenti M.42h Active earth pressure: P" =0.128P"h.4yH LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE ON BASEMENT WALLS Active earth pressure: p" =O. = unconfined compressive strength. d^.RETAINING STRUCTURES LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE ON BRACED SHEETINGS 10. = 2c I Soft to medium clay: pb = c yH-2q.=&\[r*?\ 3h ['" 3 Vrh El" o =h E ..6 Empirical diagrams of lateral earth pressure on braced sheetings a/ b sand: p" =0. q..a-.65yHtm'l / \ 45"-g 2) q.--0.2yH to 0.

9 o N a €l + >lx '^lL I lu J . o "P Frl '.' .1 +t+ ElE t- oil-ilE :Fo-:=r-. 9 3t€ e.8 U.1 I :ole" hl 3 F. z (J la 'l VI 'il Hlr b o ( 9) q o o I e htlN Ft4 Nl...el^.1.w li o -Egii-:--E---.>- -.r . . IJJ o o .F 6. J J > ij g -:_N. o o o o o o E c E o .od >to-o ." 1 - ol9 9t. g t € 3tP IE : a B gE.. e E ii EIE _t a .3 F : F U t g.3 -.bE'n="^ o Q E.rlN E E.lqs-'l cbxlE c:_-6r!> ilAE .E o -185- . o o o o a I E U q ll E .o '.=t3tl a" I F..=t lA F " f slH > ^-: 3 Il: '"] r rr q e o P 6lE o' + r^r E a EIE * * .: B > el oE.t H E 5tE A I *f EIT --.'c ni o E x t! il: N ! E >1.E =* F :6E+h:F -o*kFdF e o 2 = g.-tl l^Eo Edld T ul I at..3 3 e 3 ttii.NOTES r :srl-P \ RETAINING STRUCTURES --tF- 11.

254yt6(Do-2.).l r*Z(?) = zre.n. = 0.96 m m = point of zero shear and maximum bending moment 394.=.'tx8. = tm'[+s' -9.) = o =0 Equation to determine Do: lMo zzo.3-0.]+z4. (8.) = = o.2Do =1.3 m.98 = 24.H -r-- 0. r'. t=o D =(1.. -.3 =9.26D o ef {*o.)' =0 (f .3. . R = 0.= t [+.5K. = O (condition of equitibrium) -r".5(Ko.- =R (H [.Ko)T2Qo-74 *.5K"^1. (o.s 1r.16*rO..K.)y."^.Y.. *.'. \ 186 - .4) Do for factor of safety at 1 5 to 2 0 Earth pressure: (K" .+)* z+. =0.031(Do -2.18 Maximum bending moment r.H' = 0.l*e.5(Ke K. ) . c. K' '*'(*" -!)=.307x18x10'? = 276. kN.2 r B=0. 6=o (r..4)Do for factor of safetyat 1.fi] 4H+3D -' ^ -\ -'oH +4o.5 to 2 0 Using method of trial and error: assume Do =8. z..e6Do *26.:[f 8.o.98)' =t96. H = l0 m RETAINING STRUCTURES CANTILEVER SHEET PILINGS Equation to determine the embedment (D0 ) : 11.5x0.0 e(l"o. (!l =' rn r.5K.o u* -os(r..5K"^YH' P -0. o(=0. = 0. P..f"n? [ 3 where d=pilediameter = 0.-K-)YdDi ' 3{4H =r. z.T..68(Dn +r.(2 )+P.(or. )' )' = 921.o." ""'[or' -1L] ="''(or'-!)= = For single Pile r".283x1 8x 10x0.)* v. D = l. zs+ xr e xs +.96 kN. *fj o-(K..-..o) . P: =o..-r")rzi [5J (.283\lgyl0 3. )Yr P.19 =393.2 to 1. Q.H2. * r.YrH )': z' zt= )T.-r.5x3."=P[H+.-11-e ") -\ 3l \3 jro.2x8.: '(Kp. ) ="'.2.+ zz \.254x t6 D = (1.rrt. Compute depth D and maximum bending moment M. / : 1t p I sorution.ro. -. Q.iG.(? ".NOTE Table 11. -]) -* Jro. *.0 + 301.) P. tm' (+5' n Q.2 Example.. Cantilever sheet piling 2 in Table 11. c.o.3 K. r". Soil properties: =0. Tr =18 kN/ml Maximum bending moment % =16 kN/m3 Required.. =32".l:z' \ + zz ) ($ + o. (Dn =0. =340. = 0.(Do-2.5x0. IVto '."* per unit length of sheet piling M.f o.rs * t. +3D") r.)vri 6(4H+lD[ | Given..2 to I.

..-. Y2c48xl8 V(K' -K.948x 18 N ..'r. : l+lr l'"ll oi + N 3(ts+t. Y r.5v 2. * i|.5K".)-0s1r.8 kN P.. "' =r*'f\ +so+91=.1 . :!+a Gl.o.fi"Tn- ".)(4*. I +F + I =0. -K. Anchored sheetpilewall in Table 11.2 ) (r s .1 m o z - ! i e. (ll + t.(2.!6 Fot =32' : x = 0.m/m Y if. 4-p. l3 o"=r.. J .T. = m' f +s' "' \ -9 l-.333x20x1. R(H-d+x )+r.+6)+ Bo x(}t.K" )y.+x8.46 = 301. it EII e X o T ts N. a il': il x+ o il Nilo ^l a o E ll g o F B N bT. i[.* = = (q { *r.2x7. cz =0. r....... Soil propedies: 0.'' Nl^ I Example.rrr.+e.-r . + & ) = o..)Y.87 kN {assumed a U R = 527.5K". > .+2..". compute deprh D ano Solution.E ---- .E =.13fl5-r.2) = 744. )i.@=7.059H = 0.3.5 x 0. _ 0.a. .059x15 = 0.^\i I O o r".9b. =#HE (H-a-1) =o'r!#frirt =o = ul I lv+ N -oNl'":.4 kN o *d VE v] .4 +80.N I :a +.it I o *l:' I s' slo + \i +..885 )+ T = (Pr + P. -p.^IEE"nxE n-o< Htr>d F+ .* + (f) o o . I l> tl^ lo< | Fa {r5 .-14 I = o.2+0.2) 1.t:* .885 xc Ivr.l v't vl . ' p: (H -d)(2H +d) 3(H+d) - 1. 3 z ) -' \ 527.+e.ro. =r.. = 0. = tan' | +s' ( +r" -9 =. H=15 m Given.. v =lJ . (d.un' \ 2) f +s' -4)=o.d) = 0.5K".333 x20x (rs + r.g48xt8x4 46' = 2019.86-80. E --lNlNl )z l ci Forces per unit length of wall P. lll u E u ffsL +sx! -t ++. rr ll4 oiil _Nl F.r. Requrred.z > -l .- -a d I N o er^. = 0. (H + d) (H .dt = 0. -."n"rl"l""i..2) lel lli E F l'-|tr." -r".8 + 744. 2l 'z)--" 1 K.2 )(2x t5 + N 9 t * E 6El^^li^ -lTlv.7 4 + 4.t + * +. 2) l.)*r(+r-d+2.'rl or-dx . R(r5 -1. E^-O h':o o: !xE g !V - J 9 X I 19 :E tFt-j-.2Do =1.3 RETAINING STRUCTURES '. 02 =320.5(Ke /4J+i44l+sot3-jot-87 0.46 kN - R = 4. =18 kN/ml '*.r. *.5x2.74=80.r* t tol = o. =30'.5x0. y. 1 + 1. ^i E B qP"i.*".t a+ +.58m.rro.307x20x15x1.58=9.) *r. T. K". =2.s48 V Jld Nl+ ^^ Yl.t.w- NOTES Tablo 11.13 Q2 kN. F 9+c *+o :F o . ro*.+.2': = 4..5x0.bE or{ c 'Ft. ^L=20 kN/m3.:. D= l.. =0. s za. 46) -0.4 kN . tit E ll.rrHz.+al - ro..'"..| r . cr =0.lJ"oo. K..un'[+:"*14 2) 2 )]=r. .

P TUNN and IP rS ELS Bending Moments for Various Static Loading Conditions .NOTES Lzr L3.

=-ia. .=--.TUNNELS RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION This chapter provides formulas for computation of bending moments in various structures with rectangular or circular cross-sections.PL 192 7 v-=v. I. =. +M =tension on inside of section q*w ri w(2k+3)-ak ': ' M.h I. The formulas for structures with circular cross-sections can also be used to compute axial forces and shea6.=M^=M.24 k'+4k+3 lYl =lvlj =--.".1 . PT 4k +g PL 24 k'+4k+3 : 4k+6 FOr K=l 1? M =M.=. The tables contain the most common 12. =-:-1. including underground pipes and tunnels.r2 k+3 M =M. 12 K'+4k+3 M =M.t92 Pt .L €ses of loading conditions. : . 12 k'+4k+3 For q=Y ffio .-.. =-12 k'+4k+3 t? c{2k+3)-wk M =M. The formulas provided are applicable to analysis of elastic systems only.=M.

.2 llh-i( l2(k+l) rt FI FI F F H f Mo =M" =lfo =\{" For k=l and h=L M" =M. -M" -.l25ph' =_I:: 24 ) - 0. ^ D=:-n-_a-_b-_l 2h' \ pbak -2b \ ) 270a . Mo = o.5 (M" + Md M.=-lPh'. For -. +ak+l) M -M. M-=M --llph/ 160 480 uo = o.Ph't(2k+7) '"b o0(k.I- NOTEST TUNNELS REC TA N GU LA R CROS S- SECT IO N 12.s77(Md -M" )] a = P" I ltotr' 60h'\ -L2t.o64ph'? -[M" +0.P!'!(lk+S) and h=L 60(k':'4k+3) k=l M'=M. -:u'I 45a (. =M^ =M.

H 66667x2.sL rt cr.5._ 1 i m) 24 \ ll 25340) )__125. 24lr n) wL'c. o. L=4m._rgol)=*.l=rro_10'r+.'.=5.) r. hr =10 cm.\ +jNl. 24\r m) .m 24 \r m) M.9l l* o' l= ''o-10' I t. M.{. = --l ' 24\ r m) dr =138k' wt-'l.=Vo. cx4=27k2 +88k+21 .76 12m kN.m 12 12 *L' f 3k*t _gr) _ _r20x4' [:xs+t r qqz'] M .2 kN.. tlc3 =81k' +148k+37 c: = 78k'?+205k+33. wL'z/3k+1.. = M. Mo. h.]*c'1.". -^t -n r.e2 kN. = M. =-. =-17..\_t20ta'z(l"s+ 2802 t o. 24\r m) 24t r lvri< *". =-li . 25340 =-6.24 f 1. = *f . "' =-r{ m--l2ox4:.m " = --l 24[ r m) wL'l:t<+t o..a.=_:fr1*s. *.=-9[U-b)=-roz. .lt<+t .56 kN.m Mn.=-"1'i1-o. H=25 m.. g.L 8333x4 m= r=2k+1=2x5+1=11 = 20(k+2) m= zo(k+2)(6k' +6k+l) 20(5+2)(oxs' +oxs +t) = zs:+O ffi tv or = 138k2 +265k+43 = 138x5'] +265x5+43 = 4818 t . Compule bending moments Sotution. )r. 7 in Table 12.^=-iwti . .u.= J=--EJJJCm l. m) "' 12 -m kN.3 Th Table 12. =_ 24 \ ll 25340) =_l19." lvi.=Moo=Mu.3 I'L Rectangular pipe Example. =-.rr^ ' 24\r m) 24 !ll 251401 y".++r<n m. ) = +7.0. M.PIPES AND TUNNELS REC TA N GUL AR CROS S_S EC TI ON 12."'J=+2. =OOOO/Cm l2 m=zo(k+z)(6k'+6k+1) +M =tension on inside of section '1212"1212 lt=-=- Uniformly distributed load w = 120 kN/m Required. "' 24[ r m) M ee2 Mno =-*f .wL' cro i.m \r m) M" lt M. *-1!lL]= 24[r m) 24 \ll 25340] -22.24 kN. 24\ r m) _ wt-'(:l*t cr. l _tvl ' 24\r -ml 1r4. =lQ s6 r2 r2 r =2k+1 I1 b =1 m (unit length ofpipe) Ir bhi loox2or Ir 4 .44 "" 24\ r m) Mo.3 Given.24 kN.m =-'"l. = \.t2 tl+l -''. o.m . wf-'f 24\ r *a.bhi looxlor l. k=I='--'" I. concreteframe.1. 1 +265k+43. . =_wL'f :t<+t "' -. oc: = 78k'? + 205k + 33 =78x52 +205x5 + 33 = 3008 = 81k2 + l48k + 37 = 81x5'? + I 48x 5+37 =2802 r.I.. Ml =-*f 1.) .' = . "' l2 m n.

=Mun =0 .12k+61 H F h H (p 6m. =fr.t" = st*sg of. =M" =M.. ="r=-?.24(k+6)r Ira" =Na..AND TUNNELS RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION m' 12.h2 L FI H M.1 .. = -PL Mae = Maz = r" 9k'+ 11k+6 =0 Mon =Mon M.=M" =-Ph'z. 20(k+6)r N. -Ph: jk+29 Mo.t" = 1. tt| t-t Mr.f. =Pl.r A M. =__T-Pht .=Mon=0 In.! r 12 . "'=d.. = Mor 'om2 oh: Mao=Mo..l4lls ml l5k'+49k+18 ml 49k+ 3o ml ml Mur = Mrz = -rr ry R M" = M. P!' 7k+31 Mo. =M.

241n. ph'ftzL+ot..Ph'(2 o'l " 24|n. =!--. mJl. a. n2 n) M Mf Mo. M.:l +6k+l). ]. "' !p 4 <r?h crr ct2 241 *o. tz m Ph c[1 tz m . =-Ij-. l.. 24 ^h2 o m -20(k +2)(6k'z "..5 m=zo(k+2)(6k +bK+l p\ t-{ l. 241 n.n. "' 24( m) n. 24fn. u. ) l. M. ph'I zt+3t .r. ry 03 = 120kr + 529k2 +382k+ 63 cr" = l20kr +61 1k'z +558k+87 "'12m"-12mVl .) ^h1 \4 .. m) v". ) 24\ n2 m) .=-Ph'f . m) ) F' t-l E y =-Ph'[ 2 *o.. = (:t+zl cro l =36k3 +203k' +192k+29 =-d s. m) ^^' _ph'( 2 0. 24 7k+31 . o.2 *o. =Ill:g]j M. n. I ool my 1 I = l20kr +278k'?+335k+63 . M.:1. 241 n. ^" .4 a.. n2 -^) ) 1 P h2/6 M. _ ph'( t. M.) 24\ n2 -n) E + p9 --Pht Mo. ptr'( M. I A st<+sq..-o. =360k1 +742k'? +285k+27 ph'f I ^. =24kt +50k2 +99k+21 az = 144k3 + 298k'] +l 09k + 9 crr =36k3 +169k'? + 120k+21 crcr Muu _ pht - l. = r y" =Ph'f. ...TUNNELS R ECTAN G U LAR C ROS S-S E CTI ON 12. c. =-Ph'i.'^)""'. m) ' 24[n. '.a.*.

41lpR'] +u.5wR 0 0 M -u.5pR 0 -0.5pR +0. tl)pK- -0.1 b.208pR' -0.029pR' -0.5pR -0.OwR -0.625pR'? -r.=a5' 0.PIPES AND TUNNELS CIRCULAR CROSS_SECTION .OpR 0 0 M \T 0.25wR'? 0 -0.292pR1 -0.5wR 0 0 -0.0pR 0 0 +0.41 2pR' +0.r)pK -l.J /)pK' 0 0 +0.589pR' M N 0 0 0 0 0 -pR 0 -pR 0 -pR 0 -pR 0 -pR 0 .588pR'? -0.25wR'] 0 -0.u /+v : 13.25pR'? 0 -0.5wR +0.=t gd cr Loading condition = 135" a=1800 M N +0.029pRr -0.5pR -l.25wR'? 0 +0.5wR l.25pR? -0.25pR' 0 +0.=90' b= 1 3s' I I :-\\ +N +M =tension on inside of rang + Tension Compression c=900 l-0.

3 16y.092TR': Buoyoncy Forces M 0 0 0 0 0 N -0.066y*R' +0.077T.045yRr +0.R 0 +0.152y-R' -0.027TR1 +0. respectively .001Y*R' +0.R' +1.06lyR'? -0.4811.279y*R N -0.1511*Rl +0.r2z\R-'? -0.744y.51*R'? -0.1881.021^fR2 -0.042yRr -0.12\y.R' +0.03OyR' -O1l(wP2 -0.091y-Rr +0.366y*R'z +0.003yR1 +0.R' +1.R 0.653y"R' +0.026y-R' -0.320y-R' +0.090y*R'? 1.5T*R'? 0 +0.191T-R': +0.R' t0.2 CI Cr=0 d=45" crc = 900 = 1Jl' o=180' M N +0.366y-.646y*R': 0 L0y*R'? -l 154v 0 R2 - I .0lOyRl -0.128y*R' r0.021yR'? +0.016T."R2 0 T and Y* = unit weight of soil and liquid.821y*Rl -0.125T"R2 -0.176T*Rr +0.567Y-R' 0 M +0.PIPES AND TUNNELS CIRCULAR CROSS-SECTION Loading condition 13.R'? -0.02lyR' 0 0 -0.51* R'z 0 0 0 /vR(1-co€a) M N +0.

) N= Ril lp +5p.3 l8P +1.225P +0. =p: r.732pR +0. l37PR -0.842pR +0.035PR f0.1 82PR +0.378pR' +0.r. N=pR =-f t*-n) .".3 l8PR +0.043PR *0. =f (*-n).TUNNELS CIRCU LAR CROSS-SECTION Loading condition 13.308pR'? N +0.378pR 1.in If p.007pR' -1.) ' " l6 M.' =-f *f {r *n.57OpR -0.043pR'? -0.=0 cL= 45'.354P -0.25pR -1.3 I 8P 0 -0.25pR 0 -0.5P r.+7p.3 I 8PR N 0 -0.25pR -0.5P +0. I 14PR -0.".482P +1.354P .0P M +0.48SpR 0 M -0. I 82PR +0.0.3 = 90" ct (. =+-X(5p.442pR'? -0.225P -0.) u.3 18P +0.0P +0.035PR -0.5P -0.=p.154P 0 +0.0.919P +0.500PR N .154P 0 -0. cr = 135 a=1800 M +0.

NOTES APPENDIX .

092903 (m'?) cm') = 0.*.856 (m' ) I square mile = 2-5898(km2 ) m') m') = 10.816 127(m'/ ) t acre = 4046.30795 (yd') I cubic centimeter(cm') I cubic meter (mr ) = t - tO' (-m' ) I cubic foot (ft 3 ) = 0.1 Units of Length millimeter ( mm ) I inch(in). foot=1233. t square foot (ft') = 0.6093(km) Units of Area sQuare millimeter (mm'?) t square inch (in':) = - oa5.a82(m') I gallon = 3.15591. ) I square yard (yd' ) = 0.19599( I square kilometer (t<m') = t o' I hectare(ha) = yd') lo' (m') = o.00006102(inr ) cm') = 0.03937 (in) o 3e371in1 I centimeter(cm) = 10(lm) I foot(ft)= l2(in)= 304.) I square meter(m' ) = tOt (mt) 1.264112 gallon I liter(r-) = t369(s-' ) = 0.8(mm) l(cm)= I decimeter(dm) = l0(cm) = I meter(m)= tO6(cm) = 100(m) I yard(yd) = 3(ft) = 0.76(ft') = 1.001(m') .UNITS CONVERSION between ANGLO-AMERICAN and METRIC SYSTEMS Metric Units Conversion Factors u.:t(ft') L)-^0. I o(mm') Im'? ) = o.064(mm' ) lm3)= 0.3aa(m) t(m) = L0e0+(yd) tsssl.elaa(m) t mile = 1760(yd) = 160e.06l02(in') m') = 1.0283 168s (m3 ) I cubic yard(yd3 ) = 0.6214 mile I kilometer(km) = 1000(m) I mile = 1.t'.785412 liters(L) m')=:s.'.76a5ss (mr ) O'(m') ) I cubic kilometer(k-' ) = 100 (*' I acre .25.4(mm) I (rnm) = 0.ot(tm' km') = 0 3861 square mile Units of Volume cubic millimeter (mr ) 1 cubic inch (in3 ) = I 6387.ool5so(in') 1 square centimeter (cm') tOgl*t. t(tm)=:ztt(ft) l(km)=0.

o7s2e (tg I cm') (kg / cm') = t+.18a(kg) (lb / rt') = 4.i per unit area I kip = a53. = 6.8947s7 (MPa) +7 33s261p. I r (lb/ft )=l l\. respectively .l+:or8 (kip/in' ) 1 I megapascal(MPa) = 1000(kPa) (Pa) = 0. kilopascal(kPa) = i000(Pa) = t 1i576'? r(kip/in') t(tulrt' L(kip/ft') 1(MPa) = o.) kilogram(kg) = tOoo(g.UNITS CONVERSION between ANGLO-AMERICAN and METRIC SYSTEMS Metric Units Conversion Factors Units of Mass milligram(mg) t omce = 28. 1(kPa) = I 0.8l = o. )= = 47. kg(force)=9. Stress.0r 846 (ks / m3 ) l (lb / yd') = o.020s85 (b / ft') I gigapascal (GPa) = I 000 (MPa ) OS.in) = o. l02(ke) (kN) = 6.se+757 11Po.4ass +33161L*7*. Modulus of Elasticity I pascal (Pa) = I (N / m'?) 1 I (lu/ in' ) = o.t 12e351|r' l -.2243 1(lb.448222 1 (N) Force per unit length kilonewton(kN) = 1000(N) kip = 4.se3z76(ks/ n3 ) Units of Force I newton(N) = 1 1 kg(mas)/(m/sec') 1(rb) = 4.m) unitweisht: t(lS ti')=O t5zl(tN m ) 1(kN/m3)= 6 366(lb/ftr) Units of Pressure.355818(N.5e2(ks) ton(t)=1000(kg) l ton(2000 rb) = 907.ta5s3311671"'.453se2(kg) Mass per unit length u.34952 (g) I pound(lb) = 0..896444(kN) I I I l(lblft)=t+ 59391x7-) l\.81(N) (kN) = 0.s8026(kPa) l(kPa) = 0.1 124 ton (rb.4oment of force (N) - 0. I meganewton ( MN) = 1 000 (kN) Gravitational force: I ton (2000 lb) = 8.02(kg/cm') = too(rca) Temperature: T: =:(Ti -320) where Tj and Tf are Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.2248(lb) 11o t(N) or 1 = I ks(mass)ls.8s243 (ks / m') Mass per unit volume (mass density) r (lb /rC ) = 16.23 (16 71n') I btr = 1.ft) - 1.126315 7 -.448222(kr{) 1(lu/ in) = t2s.0208s5(tiplit') I atmosphere(atm) = I (tgl cm' ) = t(ma) t (tu I in') = o.2 crm(g)= lesg1tt.

l. N log.). Ji log" = ln = ns1r. ln x =-:log.< Example: ('. (o+r)t=(o+r)ot "!= PERMU P.6+s'".l=-1. lgl00 = 2 log"x'=m -l log..log" y Ig0... e log"(x y)=log"x+log"y = log" x = 2.(n (n -mJ1 n>m P.3.MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS ALGEBRA POWERS a'' M. = Va"' '{a' = Va (u') (u)' \. - l-i!1J - 69 P= numberofpossiblepermutations. lg10 = 1g1=0. x hx=ff=2.bl I (a u)'" =u' o' .6 Vb=6.s=(b+c)a'" a"=1. .u1 1ot LOGARITHMS =antilogarithm..0l=-2. = n. ' 1.3o2sss n!=1. n=logarithm (log) g6pr. lg0.u 16E vb '{b VVa ='"i/a a' a.2) -10 numberofpossiblecombinations.2. when a+0 ('6I =dr i=fi log"N=n a=base. J2- fll' \e.(t. ln x = 0.r 1. \J . Exampte: Where.1 ROOTS a. m-t) " l. C= n = number of things given.2 3 tex .4...t.1. t). m = number of selections from n given things.:+./ TATIONS COMBINATIONS =..434294.n (n+l)!=(n+l)n! FACTORIAL 0!:r.(n.o = lg = J-=.(n -2).7 18281828459. Vx m log"x lg x = lg e.

a. y. I b.=E .a3\ Determine D.b" .-' a 3 -l-iJJ Il u:u: c0.6J. a.-j'6ld-'1e -J./Jq q= I arccos.42 432-aB.alt -412.column Equation of the 2nd degree xt+px+q=g Equation of ihe 3rd degree xr =Yr a 3 Determinant: xt+u2+bx+c=0 . similarly by replacing the z.=i[4q.b+c a If D=0: y.-i. - j b.= . .aI + D. =iJ:/lpl 1-) -co'e. D=l " i -l f L o.2 (alb)'?=n'?+23616' ar +3a2b+3ab'] 3r-U']=(a+b)(a-b) t br sr +63 =(a+b)(a... * rb': a(n -1) (n2a" I +. a)11 at2. u..and I all. D...b" = (a -U)(a"-r +a"'b+a" +. ar.a22.. v..a2t. ir /.=-.alr -al ..+ab'" +b" ) ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS Linear eouations a|x +apy+afz = br Third-orderdeterminants: a2\x+a22y+a2rz=b1 L3rx + a32y + allz *- bl D. a. D Dt) o.a22. z=-D. arL.a2l. o. u... x=:t v=-.t-i"6 '22 ru0") rf D 0: v..r- NOTES(a +b)' - MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS ALGEBRA A LG E B R A IC E X P R E S S I O N S M.orcs{q+t20').b-\l/ \21 l 2^l q=-a --a. Tab+b') 3b3 (a+b)' a" = n" * u".=r.columns by the b._H -216- .6* a a(n-l) u".6. and D.. r. a..

5236d' A. =rr(r+L) =-v[' *b' * t FrustumofCone L=Vr'+h' /.. =2n.d=generatedsulace V= volume.C" = 2nrh = 2nr(r+h) . =nrL.../e1.- 6 \4 ) . A =surfacearea' Cone V=a.+nr) A'.MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS GEOMETRY SOLID BODIES M.189r' .5(R+r) L =!F'-l)+1" 3 Pyramld Sphe V=-ft'=4.b. A. =2(a b+a d V= -r-n 3 c+b c) A.+. -{n1'?=nd'? Frustum of Pyramid Segmentof a sphe V="bl's:+hr /2 \ I v=1(A +a.p L p=0.+r.) .h 3 = 1nd' 6 = 0.:_ Triangular Ptism y=I!(n.c A.( h \ \ 3/ =I(s'+4h')-2rrh Cylinde Sectorofa Sph€re v = 1d'h 4 A' .. Cuboid A=cross-seclionarea.A.3 A. a..

+r +./t' ./r'+(h. =tdh sliced Cylinder Barrel v = 1d'n 4 v=an(zo'+a') 12' A." r^ -- -h.MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS GEOMETRY SOLID BODIES zoneofa Sphere M. (x . x' a.t .4 Ungula v =In(:a'+:t'+tr') =n(zrh+a'+b') A'" = Znrh v a. + ] t' +..t. = = ( 3. A. y' b- b' 16'-d =rF a *d e=*<l Parabola c.2 -a. b=0: x2+y2=1' X.'h 3 A. . . =rr[hr +h... . I I 2 2T\ F---rJ' v=-x(L-x) -L- Af . +(y-bJ =r 6 =&-!L Xr If a=0. . h'- ) A.l l4l J I =rdh (Equations) PLANE ANALYT c cEOMETRY Lin€ Y =lu+b -Xt = 1un. a" = c a V.

. ^ .0.COS 2 u+B d-R coso +cosB .2 z col 2 2 l .cos [3 ^ sin (B+a) cototcotlj= " ' ' sino sinp .)U ) _ l .-l ^ cotlfi=- 2cota sin 3cr = 3 sin cr .=l | I (c+P) = sin0 coso. ^ {I lsln-.r '. c[ sind l-coso.:---I .cos 0 cos 2cr = cos' ct -sin2 d cr 2tan0.lrn_ cot(x l+tanr0 z = ^ a-B o-B Slnc{ r Slnp=Zsrn-.lan.unto cos cx slnd B tand. 0.) -c[ ztan ^ '| lan-r0 .cotcr.MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS TRIGONOMETRY BASIC CONVERSIONS M.6t "i--r '22 COSct-COsP.4sinr ^ 3tancr-tmro IanJCI=1-3tan'a ^ cotr cotj(x=.. ranc=cosd cotd--cosd sln0 sin I | I I I I seco= cosecC= I cosd I - sin2c+cosr0=l | I -1-=t*.fl cot'z0.tilp tan COt aX c()t t1 cos (cr + P) = sss 61. c-0 2 0-p 0-B sin(at0) cr. 2 l+cosd sincr cos sln ct = ct t-cosct l+coscl 2 = cr sinc I l cosc li+.tcoscr'sin =]-=t*"ot'o sln c[ cttmB tanldtbl= ' " l+tm0.c)( cot.2cor .0 | cos3d=4cos3u-3cos(x .0 cosO-cos --sln--:ta 2 2 ' '. sin P cotl0:tbl= tan zG + | cot0tcotd sin 2c[ = 2 sin d.*a 2 1-coscr sinc \l-cosc --1 .5 sino. 2Stn- sina-sinB=2sssgj-q lanc{ttanlJ=' cos -222 .223 .-3cotct JCOt.cos 2 2 l+tunrl 2 tan0= . cos P T sin o.

5000 1. 2 t.+cotB tan tI+ tanP .5 = 1.0 ! 2 = 0.MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS TRIGONOMETRY BASIC CONVERSIONS M.0 Ji =1.6 sinc co5P=151n{o-B1+]sintcr '22 P) tan0 ^ tan 0(+ tanB tanb=' cot0+cotp cot0.rrro (p -o( 90'1 cr 180'+d + sin Cx 270" + a 160' -a sm9 cos -sln d +cos(x +cos 0 cos cl -smc[ + cos cl q + srn c[ -cos0 ttan o( tsin 0 +cot d tan I q -tmcr cot 0{ +cotd +tand . -2 = 0.rrro 1.sinB = lco.+ sin cr = J7.8660 T h I 2 0.tanLt=' tan(x+cotB cos or.] cos(o-BJ '22 sin ^ cot(x cotP= u.0 r. '22 -]cos(o +0) ^ cot{x+tmB coto(.0 f 3 =o.oro .0 tm(x cot cl 0.0 cos c[ 1.(o-9.225 -Ian 0 -cot o[ cot t cot cr + tan o[ .sros sin d 0.orB = -l.os(u +B).0 f 3 =r.A 2 = 0.s000 t.sin (+so + or) cos(+50 +cr) cos2c -sin:B-q6s1a+B1 cos(o p) cosa-sina = 'D ct') 0' 0.0 :.7321 t& 0.0472 3 I 2 = r.0 30' 1<0 600 90' c[(rad) ! 6 = o.7011 = lJ-6bbt) = 0.7i2 I 1.szza ! 4 = 0]8s4 L =t.

[.m) " about the z . Volume (cm'.8Im/sec']) i Radius of gyation (cm) k*. Mo Dynamic bending moment (kN.y uis (cmo ) " aboutthez-zaxis(cm*) \ ln Polar moment of inertia (cm. m) Cohesion (Pa) e Eccentricity (cm) g Gravitational acceleration (S = 9.z uis (kN . m) w Vertical distributed load (kN/m) o Direct stress (Pa) r Shear stress (Pa) z" Shear strength (Pa) y Unitvolume weight (kN/m3) p c Poisson's ratio Coefficient of linear expansion (l/grad) Unit mass (kg) Deflection (cm) p A Q Argle of intemal fiiction tanO Coefficient offriction . To Supportreaction Radius (cm) Settlement (cm) Diameter (cm). aboutthey-yaxis (kN. Force (kN) Modulus of elasticity (MPa) Forsteel: E=2. Winkler's coefficient of subgrade (tNlcm') n Porosity (%) K.m) M.m) " M.m') w Z c weight (kN) Plastic section modulus (cmt ) . Strength (MPa) R S S S" S" S. "F) V (kN). x axis (cm ) For steel: G =77221MPa Horizontal support reaction (kN) Moment of inertia of section about the neutral axis (cmo) about the x - " " Shear aboutthey-yaxis(cm3) aboutthez-z axis (cm3) Temperature (nC.l05MPa Modulus of defomation of soil(MPa) Centritugal force (kN) Shear modulus ofelasticiry (MPa) Elastic section modulus about the neutral axis (cmt) abour Lhe x - { G H I l. Force (kN) x axis (cm') " about the y .) Kn Coeffrcient ofearth pressure at rest K" Coefficient ofactive earth pressure Ko Coefficient ofpassive earth pressue Coefficient ofseismic aclive eanh pressure Spm length (m) Mass (kg) Bending moment about the neutral axis (kN. Cross-sectional area (cm2 ) NOTES s.m) N Axial force (kN) P Applied load (kN) Q Euler's force (kN) p Horizontal disrributed load (kN. L M M " M" aboutthex-xaxis(kN.1 (kN). Area.T SYMBOLS A D E E.

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