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Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Performance of the Dutch Energy Sector based on energy, exergy and Extended Exergy Accounting
K.J. Ptasinskia,Ã, M.N. Koymansb, H.H.G. Verspagenc
Department of Chemical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands b Statistics Netherlands, P.O. Box 4000, 2270 JM Voorburg, The Netherlands c Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Abstract The performance of the Dutch Energy Sector is analyzed using the Standard Exergy Analysis as well as Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) method. Performance indicators based on energy, exergy and cumulative exergy consumption (CExC) are evaluated for three subsectors: exploitation, transformation, and distribution of energy. It is shown that performance indicators based on CExC are much lower than those based on energy and exergy concepts. The EEA method is applied for analysis of four branches: cokeries and refineries, refineries, central electricity production, and distribution and decentral electricity production. The EEA method originally proposed by Sciubba is modified by evaluating the cost-toexergy conversion factor from the monetary value and CExC of the feedstock. It was found that the monetary equivalent of extended exergy is higher than the respective product sales. Finally, it is shown that performance indicators of selected energy branches based on extended exergy are much lower than those based on the CExC. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Exergy analysis; Energy management; Energy policy; Environmental impact

1. Introduction In the last three decades energy efficiency is considered as one of the major components of economic policies in many countries. The efficient use of energy has also now an important place in the public debate. It is generally believed that improvement in performance at different stages of energy systems is a very effective mean to decrease global energy consumption. The importance of energy efficiency is also linked to environmental problems, such as global warming and atmospheric pollution. One of the difficulties with measuring energy efficiency is the lack of consensus on the evaluation of performance of all stages of energy systems, ranging from primary, secondary to final energy use. Energy efficiency is a rather general term and in practice various energy performance indicators are used, usually grounded in thermodynamics or economics. The thermodynamic indicators can measure either the first-law

ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +31 40 247 36 89; fax: +31 40 244 66 53.

E-mail address: k.j.ptasinski@tue.nl (K.J. Ptasinski). 0360-5442/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2006.03.010

The main shortcoming of commonly used performance indicators of energy efficiency is their ‘onedimensional’ character what means a restriction to only one performance aspect. Recently. chemical engineering. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 Nomenclature CEE capital equivalent exergy (PJ) CExC cumulative exergy consumption (PJ) CSt capital stock in year t (mln h) EE extended exergy (PJ) ERE environmental remediation exergy (PJ) Exp product exergy (PJ) FE feedstock exergy (PJ) IST short-term investment (mln h) Kcap specific capital conversion factor (mln h/PJ) LEE labor equivalent exergy (PJ) LEESA labor equivalent exergy due to social account (PJ) LEESkill labor equivalent exergy due to skill (PJ) LEEw man-power equivalent exergy (PJ) PS product sales (mln h) Z efficiency. dimensionless Superscripts h monetary value Subscripts EN EX energy exergy efficiency or the second-law exergetic efficiency. the coupling between exergy analysis and ecology has been presented by Rivero [4]. labor and environmental remediation costs) [2. Exergy-based indicators.J. exergy analysis is restricted only to thermodynamics. have been coupled with Life Cycle analyzes concepts to become a ‘two-dimensional’ indicator. etc. transportation. Ptasinski et al.3]. The economic indicators measure the performance in terms of economic values. whereas economical and environmental aspects are not involved. originally used as an ‘one-dimensional’ thermodynamic indicator. A significant problem with complex indicators is that they have to be based on weight factors needed to compare different sustainability aspects and represent the final evaluation result in the same units. Traditionally. The advantage of performance indicators based on the EEA is that they can be used as exergetic as well as monetary metrics for all stages of energy systems.7] as an extension of standard exergy analysis to include also economic and environmental issues. such as energy prices. such as the cumulative exergy consumption (CExC) proposed by Szargut [1]. Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) has been proposed by Sciubba [6. An important development to couple exergy and economy was the formulation of ‘exergoeconomy’ where efficiencies are calculated via an exergy analysis and ‘non-energetic expenditures’ (financial. The application of EEA has been demonstrated for a single process of ethanol production [8] . Energy efficiency indicators that are ‘multi-dimensional’ have to be demonstrated in order to become the sustainability tools in engineering practice and energy policy. Thermodynamic indicators of process performance based on the second law are nowadays commonly accepted as the most natural way to measure the performance of different processes.ARTICLE IN PRESS 3136 K. agriculture. ranging from energy technology. Similarly. and Rivero and Anaya [5].

as exploitation.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. or distribution of energy. fuel oil 154cST. Large reserves were discovered in the North of the Netherlands in 1959 (Slochteren. 2. other crude oil raw materials. the Dutch energy balance is dominated by trade (see Table 1). diesel-. organic waste gas. kerosene. other oil products. oil aromatics. Dutch Energy Sector: standard exergy analysis 2. lubricants and greases.J. In 1996. The data presented in this table shows the main components of the energy balance. gas. The Dutch Energy Sector A methodological reason to study the energy sector is that flows into and from this sector are relatively homogeneous with a relatively short economic life. as indicated below:    Exploitation Transformation J cokeries J refineries J central electricity and heat production J decentral electricity and heat production J refuse incinerators Distribution J solid fuel trade J oil product trade J distribution of water. and 27 mass flows of energy carriers. fuel oilo15 cST. motor gasoline. diesel-. the 27 mass-flow accounts are grouped into three main categories based on the primary resource:    Hard coal (products): Hard coal and lignite. the energy consumption of the energy sector makes up for almost 20% of the national energy consumption in 1996. The branch of refuse incinerators is not included in the present analysis as no fossil energy carriers are involved. electricity and heat. steam and hot water. natural gas condensate. Other energy carriers: Natural gas. coke oven gas. The total amounts of trade (import and export) exceed the domestic exploitation and consumption. natural gas (2891 PJ) contributed for . The data allows for a breakdown into 8 branches. chemical waste gas. other light oils. namely to the Dutch Energy Sector. LPG/butane/propane. bitumen. other hard coal derivates. aviation gasoline. the procedure for evaluation of EEA is explained and finally the efficiency indicators based on EEA are calculated. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the EEA can be applied at the sector level. Ptasinski et al. On a national level. The Dutch exploitation sector (see Table 2) is dominated by natural gas. Furthermore. The 8 branches are classified in three subsectors. thereby directly being relevant to environmental issues such as natural resource scarcity and atmospheric pollution. electricity. Moreover. exergy. For each of the remaining seven branches. refinery gas.1. blast furnace gas. Crude oil (products): Crude oil. coke. gas-. jet-fuel (kerosene basis). We report here the results of analysis of this sector using the standard exergy analysis in terms of computing the energy. The analysis of the Dutch Energy Sector 1996 is based on mass-flow data published by the Statistics Netherlands [10]. the analysis of the Norwegian society 2000 has been made by Ertesvag [9] based on energy. Groningen). and CExC values of the input and output streams of the sector. Both import and export products are mainly crude oil and oil products. the volumes of natural resources processed within the sector are large. Further. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 3137 ˚ and recently. transformation. exergy and extended exergy. naphtas. whereas some important constituents of these components are indicated in italics. gas-.

oil product trade. exergy and CExC flows for all branches of the Dutch Energy Sector are computed. The hard coal products make up for only 2% of the total production of the transformation sector. Solid fuel trade makes up for only small part. whereas the other half is exported to surrounding countries. The published statistics do not include recycle flows such as biomass waste and other refuse. and electricity. The main feedstock to the refineries. Decentral electricity and heat production involves mainly plants where electricity is a by-product of heat production. processed or directly exported over the Rhine to Germany’s Ruhr area. Much smaller is the cokery branch. electricity and heat (33%). producing products ranging from fuels to chemical input for bulk chemicals (ethylene. natural gas is mainly a feedstock to the energy sector that deals with the distribution of water. a branch within the transformation sector (see Table 3). Table 2 Energy balance for the exploitation sector Input (PJ) Exploitation Natural gas Feedstock Natural gas Stock mutation Total 3029 2891 172 171 1 3202 Total 3202 Output (PJ) Consumption Natural gas Production Natural gas 34 34 3169 3029 90% to the energy balance of the exploitation sector. The distribution sector has large throughput. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 Output (PJ) 3119 2891 6506 4227 1356 À601 12 9036 Domestic consumption Crude oil Natural gas Crude oil productsa Export Crude oil Crude oil products Natural gas Total 3076 2441 1598 À1737 5960 1898 2485 1464 9036 The negative output in this case means production exceeds consumption. propylene). Central power plants use natural gas as main feedstock. exergy and CExC indicators This section presents three efficiency indicators based on energy. and CExC. 2. exergy. Refineries process over 80% of the incoming crude oil. respectively. Analysis of the Dutch Energy Sector based on energy. gas. The natural gas is mainly exploited by the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) that also exploits small amounts of crude oil. based on the annual . The three branches identified (solid fuel trade.ARTICLE IN PRESS 3138 Table 1 Energy balance 1996 for the Netherlands Input (PJ) Exploitation Natural gas Import Crude oil Crude oil products Bunker Stock mutation Total a K. is crude oil and crude oil products. which is concentrated in one organization (Hoogovens). Within the domestic use. 9% is used for central electricity production.2. natural gas and hot water distribution) are represented in Table 4. industries and households both consume 16% of the natural gas produced. Outside the energy sector. Ptasinski et al. heat. Energy. Large amounts of crude oil and oil products are imported. Only half is for domestic use (1598 PJ).J. These products make up for almost three quarters of the total crude oil production of the transformation sector. The last branch is mainly made up by central power plants.

defined by the ratio of production (output) and input are shown in Table 6. [12]. useful energy. secondary. Based on the three different valuations. Comparing the different subsectors. respectively: (a) The average net-calorific values were available from Statistics Netherlands [10]. The energy and exergy indicators presented in Table 6 agree with the efficiency data for OECD countries in ´ ´ 1990 published by Nakicenovic et al. For the entire sector. crude oil. (b) its specific exergy value. the energy ZEN and exergy ZEX based indicators are almost the same.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. A further breakdown into branches shows a higher performance of refineries (ZEX ¼ 0:96) compared to central electricity production (ZEX ¼ 0:42).J. reflecting a ‘cradle-to gate’ history of a feedstock and involving a partial life cycle analysis. Ptasinski et al. diesel. and energy services. it is noted that where the activity does not involve transformation of the feedstock. For the remaining accounts the specific (chemical) exergy values are calculated using correlations for technical fuels by Szargut et al. exergy and CExC flows for the three sub sectors of the Dutch Energy Sector. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 Table 3 Energy balance for the transformation sector Input (PJ) Exploitation Steam/hot water Feedstock Crude oil Crude oil products Hard coal Natural gas Stock mutation Total 75 75 5568 3500 1034 367 352 5 5647 Total 5647 Output (PJ) Consumption Production Crude oil Crude oil products Hard coal products 532 5116 1069 3589 104 3139 Table 4 Energy balance for the distribution sector Input (PJ) Exploitation Feedstock Crude oil Crude oil products Natural gas Stock mutation Total 3 5612 1431 2549 881 10 5625 Total 5625 Output (PJ) Consumption Production Crude oil Crude oil products Natural gas 30 5595 1446 2538 851 mass-flow data of the above-mentioned 27 substance accounts. three efficiency indicators (Z). heavy oil. LPG. The transformation subsector shows lower indicators. The CExC-indicator ZCExC shows significant lower values. [11]: hard coal. and steam. petroleum. which are calculated as explained above. the ZEN and ZEX indicators approach unity. [13] where the whole energy chain was divided into primary. To this end the mass-flow data of every account are multiplied by: (a) its net-calorific value. (b) The specific (chemical) exergy of nine substances have been taken from the database in the software program EcoChem by Cornelissen et al. The exploitation and transportation subsectors correspond to . coke. Table 5 presents the results of energy. This is due to the fact that the net-calorific values and specific exergy values for all present substances are quite the same. final. which is explained by a lower specific exergy value of the product compared to the feedstock. (c) CExC values are taken from the life-cycle information in the software program EcoChem based on cost factors being the ratio of CExC to (chemical) exergy of a feedstock [11]. and (c) a value representing its CExC. gasoline.

The fourth relates to two subsectors: transportation and distribution.91 0. labor equivalent exergy (LEE). In order to address the economical (CEE and LEE) and environmental (ERE) components production statistics are required. The sector classification for which production statistics are composed is different from the physical flow statistics.1—central electricity and heat production.89 0.90 conversion of the primary to secondary energy whereas the distribution subsector corresponds to conversion of the secondary to final energy. E4000. are much lower.615 Table 6 Efficiencies for subsectors of the Dutch Energy Sector Sub sector Exploitation Transformation Distribution Dutch Energy Sector ZEN 0.ARTICLE IN PRESS 3140 K.90 0.474 Exergy 3337 5973 5942 15. Ptasinski et al. .99 0.J. DF23201—refineries.879 Exergy 3303 5407 5904 14. which were presented in Section 2. capital equivalent exergy (CEE).     DF23—cokeries and refineries. E4000.96 ZEX 0.98 0. The Extended Exergy can be calculated from its constituent’s components: EE ¼ FE þ CEE þ LEE þ ERE: (1) The FE component can be computed based on the mass-flow data. The extension of the classical exergy concept by capital and labor equivalents had been motivated by Sciubba by Neo-Classical Economics (NCE) where capital and labor are identified as production factors that contribute to performance. The first three branches are part of the transformation sector.252 CExC 3372 6217 6649 16.87 0. and environmental remediation exergy (ERE).99 0.98 0. No production statistics are available from Statistics Netherlands for the exploitation subsector [10].2. which are not examined in this paper. processing crude oil and hard coal.2/3—distribution and decentral electricity production. Monetary production statistics are available for four branches within the Dutch Energy Sector. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 Table 5 Energy and exergy flows for subsectors of the Dutch Energy Sector Sub sector Input (PJ) Energy Exploitation Transformation Distribution Dutch energy sector 3202 5647 5625 14. The efficiencies of these conversion steps are relatively high whereas efficiencies related to the useful energy and energy services.99 0. 3. EEA of the Dutch Energy Sector According to Sciubba [7] the Extended Exergy contains the following parts: feedstock exergy (FE) being the CExC of feedstock.96 ZCExC 0.238 Production (PJ) Energy 3169 5116 5595 13.

wherein labor costs are specified as gross wages or salary. facilities. maintenance. Value added includes labor costs. and the depreciation on fixed assets.63 1. Thirteen different cost accounts are available to describe the monetary flows into and from the decentral and central electricity branches. (3) central electricity production and (4) distribution and decentral electricity production. The goal of a conversion factor is to express the monetary value of a certain quantity of exergy. social insurance fees.32 5. 3. 4.J. Consumption.g. Refineries 3. Consumption value includes industrial purchases. pension and VUT fees or other expenses social services. e. For cokeries and refineries more detailed information is available: 20 costs accounts are available. defined by the annual influx of exergy into a country divided by the economic variable M2. and taxes and fees. Cokeries & refineries 2. etc. extraordinary costs/revenues. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 3141 Monetary production statistics present monetary flows to and from the branch.and repair costs. CEE. rental costs. storage mutation feedstock. which is a certain amount of money available within a year to a country.07 . energy consumption costs. and trade and other revenues. As a result of the above.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. These flows are categorized as Production. EEA has been set-up for four branches of the Dutch energy sector: (1) cokeries and refineries. Each of the cost accounts is categorized as FE.61 2. The first step is to determine energy and exergy flows based on the mass-flow data. Even more specific information is available on refineries as other company costs are specified as. Ptasinski et al. As this paper does not analyze an entire nation but industry branches. LEE or ERE. Sciubba [7] proposes a national capital conversion factor. The specific capital conversion factor has been calculated as K cap ¼ FEh =CExCFE . In total. The second step is the calculation of the capital conversion factor. (2) Table 7 Energy and exergy flows for four branches within the Dutch Energy Sector Branch Input (PJ) Energy 1. Table 7 presents the results. and other company costs. storage mutation products. Company results includes net-interest. 2. Distribution & decentral electricity production CExCFE (PJ) 5484 5367 564 1728 FEh (mln h) 8929 8650 1309 8759 Kcap (mln h/PJ) 1. conversion factors specific for each branch are used instead of a national capital conversion factor. (2) refineries. aid-materials. monetary production statistics on refineries identify 42 different costs accounts. Cokeries & refineries Refineries Central electricity production Distribution & decentral electricity production 4978 4856 526 1315 Exergy 5334 5221 511 1228 Output (PJ) Energy 4786 4682 232 1265 Exergy 5133 5022 216 1184 Table 8 Capital conversion factors Branch 1. Central electricity production 4. Value added or Company results:     Production value includes sales.

thereby assuming this conversion factor to be branch specific but the same for all EE-terms. More specific. The CEE is estimated by conversion of the monetary values of short. The term LEEh equals the SA monetary value of social cost accounts. energy consumption costs. h (5) where ERE is the monetary cost of garbage and waste processing. The large contribution of feedstock to the overall EE can be seen as indicator for the pressure of the production system on the environment. LEEW. and CExCFE represents the annual cumulative exergy value of the feedstock. Ptasinski et al. As this paper applies EEA on sector (company) level. and labor. is dominated by the feedstock term. Within the production statistics. refineries. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 where FEh is the annual monetary value of the feedstock. Sciubba [7] defined ERE as the estimate of the exergy consumption required to neutralize the impact of waste flows entering the environment. The monetary value of labor. a remediation process to neutralize the annual waste flows of these companies together cannot be designed. skill component. to estimate the CEE.ARTICLE IN PRESS 3142 K. calculated from Eq. and the dependence Table 9 Extended exergy and its constituent components Branch (a) (PJ) 1 2 3 4 (b) (%) 1 2 3 4 FE CEE LEE [LEEw LEEskill LEESA] ERE EE 5484 5367 564 1728 61 61 16 42 2994 2846 2829 2126 34 33 80 52 459 501 153 266 5 6 4 6 [2 [2 [2 [8 [0 [0 [0 [0 410 457 134 232 5 5 4 6 47] 42] 17] 26] 0] 1] 0] 0] 4 8937 8718 3546 4120 100 100 100 100 0 . Skill SA (4) For the computation of the man-power equivalent exergy. cokeries and refineries. fuel costs of transportation. Table 8 shows the CExCFE. freight costs. one account represents environmental costs: garbage and waste processing. and specific Kcap values for the four branches. The term LEE has three contributions: the man-power equivalent exergy (LEEW). LEEh . respectively. the annual consumption of exergy per person is set to 300 GJ [14]. it was not possible to disaggregate the waste flows. and non-process specific. LEE and ERE value. (2). followed by capital. LEE due to skills (LEESkill). has been calculated from Skill the monetary value of labor stock due to skills in year 1996 (process specific wages: salaries. and social accounts (LEESA) LEE ¼ LEEW þ ðLEEh þ LEEh Þ=K cap . The next step is to use the branch specific capital conversion factor Kcap. as part of ‘‘other company costs’’. Tables 9a and b show the values of all terms contributing to the Extended Exergy for all considered branches. For all branches. (3) where IST is short-term investment in capital goods and CSt is the capital stock in year t (1996). The monetary value of the feedstock FEh is the sum of the following company costs for each branch: feedstock. FEh. overhead costs of general management. and storage mutation. as hired personnel and services).and long-term investments by using the capital conversion factor Kcap as follows: CEE ¼ ðI ST þ CSt Þ=K cap . energy. branch 2. it is noted that the man-power equivalent of exergy LEEW makes the smallest contribution to the Extended Exergy. The environmental equivalent exergy is determined as ERE ¼ EREh =K cap . is only available only for branch 2. water. A monetary value on this very specific account.J. of which the calculation has been explained in the previous section. Furthermore.

J. The ZEE indicator is much lower than ZCExC. Conclusions The presented analysis of the Dutch Energy Sector shows that energy and exergy efficiencies of most subsectors are very high but the CExC efficiency is lower.036 8227 20. ZEE ¼ 58%.888 Exergetic scale PS/Kcap (PJ) 6107 5966 1373 2577 EE (PJ) 8937 8718 3546 4120 1. it means that the estimated CExC value of the feedstock. It can be concluded that the thermodynamic performance of refineries (branch 2) is very good. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 3143 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Branch 1 Branch 2 Branch 3 Branch 4 Fig. A new estimate of CExC based on the product sales is calculated as CExCPS ¼ FEh/KEE . For all branches the extended exergy evaluation of the product is much higher than its product sales. (6) where Exp and EE are the annual chemical and extended exergy values. reflecting the capital-intensive character of the branch.064 EE*Kcap (Mln h) 14. (2)). for every branch. is substantially lower. 16%) and capital goods makes up for 80% of the EE of the product. ZCExC ¼ 94%. The branches 3 and 4 present a quite other image. respectively. CExC and EE exergy efficiency for different energy branches. what suggests that CExC should include not only thermodynamics. The performance indicator of considered energy branches can be represented as ZEE ¼ Exp =EE. The values of the capital conversion factor calculated from the product sales and extended exergy as KEE ¼ PS/EE are for all branches lower than KFE calculated from the monetary values FEh and CExCFE of cap cap feedstock (see Eq. Central electricity and heat production (branch 3) depends far less on feedstock (mainly natural gas.11 1. The corrected values CExCPS are higher than those of CExCFE. A comparison between the actual monetary product sales and calculated extended exergy values is shown in Table 10. but the performance of the branch taking into account capital and labor terms.17 8044 7864 1454 2763 KEE (Mln h/PJ) cap CExCFE (PJ) PS of the system on the environment. which implies that the feedstock is underestimated by the monetary system. alternative CExC values Branch Monetary scale PS (Mln h) 1 2 3 4 9955 9606 3185 13.10 0. 1.567 14.90 3. 4. The values of cap CExCPS are also given in Table 10. but also economical and environmental aspects. respectively.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. 1 shows a comparison of efficiencies for all branches based on CExC and extended exergy. CExCFE is too cap cap low. Ptasinski et al. Fig. ηCExC ηEE Table 10 Comparison EE values and product sales. accounting for the exergy consumption of the . but also far more strict. Another aim of EEA is to develop an alternative value for the product sales. As KFE 4KEE .

21(3):223–37. Goteborg. Version 1. In: Cai R. labor. Winhold M. Analysis of cumulative exergy consumption. Exergy analysis of thermal. Xiao Y. editors. Cornelissen RL. Energy 2005. [8] Delle Site C. in economics. through production factors capital and labor. EEA is grounded through exergy concept in thermodynamics and on the other hand. and environmental remediation are estimated by conversion of monetary values. [7] Sciubba E. 421–431.cbs. References [1] Szargut J. The electronic data bank of Statistics Netherlands (see also: http://statline. Moran MJ. China. Rest BAvd. Energy 1996. Such estimation method gives equivalent exergy values.10(1):69–80. Gilli PV. The conversion steps related to the useful energy are not involved. Steward FR.nl). New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. Turkey. Exergoeconomic analysis and evaluation of energy conversion plants. and metallurgical processes.or CExC-based indicators as economical and environmental aspects are taken into account. Tsatsaronis G. Proceedings of the international conference. 1999. 2001. Sciubba E. New York: World Publishing Corporation. EcoChem Bijlage Ketenanalyse. ˚ [9] Ertesvag IS. Ozturk A. ¨ . Tokyo. Istanbul.11:541–7. Therefore EEA seems to be a proper candidate to be used as a multidimensional indicator to analyze performance of chemical and energy transformations. Exergy analysis of industrial processes: energy-economy-ecology. Berg Svd. Moran MJ. exergy. 1. In: Ishida M. Regional and global exergy efficiencies. Thermal design and optimization. Proceedings of the international conference. [10] Statline. 2002.1(2):68–84. which are very sensitive to capital conversion factor. Chalmers University of Technology. Kurz R. The exergoecologic improvement potential of industrial processes. Exergy Int J 2001. p. However. [12] Szargut J. chemical. 1996. Beijing. 1997. Energy 1985. Moreover. The Extended Exergy efficiencies are much lower than those using energy-. and extended-exergy analysis of the Norwegian Society 2000. the presentation of the same energy accounts in monetary as well in exergetic units should contribute to a better communication between engineering and the energy policy fields. Tsatsaronis G.30:649–2675. environmental costs are included in this analysis. [6] Sciubba E. / Energy 31 (2006) 3135–3144 feedstock before it enters the sector. New York: Wiley. [5] Rivero R. Moran MJ. [3] Tsatsaronis G. Biomass-to-ethanol production: an extended exergy accounting analysis. The equivalent exergy of capital. PhD thesis. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Professor Enrico Sciubba. ECOS’01. University of Roma ‘La Sapienza’ for useful discussions on and further explanation of the method used in this study. The application of EEA to the Dutch Energy Sector required some modifications: (a) the definition of the capital conversion factor and (b) the calculation of the ERE. Latin Am Appl Res 1997.ARTICLE IN PRESS 3144 K. Thermodynamic analysis and improvement of energy systems. editors. The high values of exergy indicators are explained by the fact that the presented analysis involves only conversion of primary to secondary and final energy. 1988. Morris DR.27(4):191–205. Enschede. Zhang S. [11] Cornelissen R. [4] Rivero R. Kataoka H. ´ ´ [13] Nakicenovic N. Exergy—a useful concept. 299–304. exergy. Beyond thermodynamics? The concept of Extended Exergy Accounting and its application to the analysis and design of thermal systems. p. Extended exergy accounting: towards an exergetic theory of value. A new general methodology. p. 1986. editors. Japan. Proceedings of the international conference. In: Gogus YA. ECOS’99. [2] Bejan A.J. Energy Res 1987. [14] Wall G. 85–94. Anaya A. Energy. Ptasinski et al.

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