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I Faces
page 5
A Face I ' l l Al ways
Forget
||ed CI ¯gCO¯!e¯!
VULAßULAKY
¸|e|¯O¯a' !ya¯d
aµµea|a¯Ce
|¯¯a¯a' ve|o¯
CO0µOu¯dad]eCI ve¯
GKAMMAK
|¯e¯e¯I S 0µ e
|¯e¯e¯ICO¯! ¯uOu¯
�-
ZDanger!
Æ
page 1 7
The Mi dni ght Vi si tor
\a< ¯g ¯Ie¯e¯Ce¯
ca¯ge|Ou¯¯ Iua! O¯¯
Ad¡eC!ve ¯ull xe¯
-ed I -ing ad¡eC!lve¯
|a¯I Sl 0µ' e
¸
|a¯I CO¯I ¯uOu¯
|a¯I |e|leC!S 0µ e
1- ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¨
J Go for It!

page 29
4Landmarks

page 41
Oscar Pi stori us
' de¯I Iy ¯g!¯e
0a ¯ dea

Dubai -Architectural
Wonderl and
` SCa¯¯ ¯glO| ¯µeC l C
SµO¯I a¯d aC¯ eve0e¯I
Ve¯b CO ' OCa! O¯¯
d O0¯
Hu ' d ¯g¯
want+ ¯I ¯ I ve
want+ Ob]eCI· ¯l ¯ I ve
H¯ !l¯nI A0e|lCa¯ c¯g' ¯¯
|¯e¯e¯!|e|IeCIS 0µ' t
|a¯IS 0µ e
¸'uIu¯e S 0µ e
be going to
¸'u!u¯e CO¯! ¯uOu¯
'uIu¯e |e|leCIS 0µ e

¯lO¯0a! O¯
1- ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
.
bSpeak Out!

page 53
Fl expetz

Gue¯¯ ¯g!¯e
0ea¯ ¯g OlvO¯d¯
b
Twi ster Si sters
Extreme Weather U¯de¯¯Ia¯d ¯g

page 65
7Travel

CO¯¯eCIO|¯

Antarcti ca
U¯de¯¯Ia¯d ¯g ¯eIe¯e¯Ce
\ d le
|¯el xe¯
d O0¯
I
\ea!ne|
Ge|u¯d¯ a¯d ¯l ¯l! ve¯
NOu¯CO' OCa! O¯¯
1|ave'
NOu¯¯ull xe¯
He' a! ve C' au¯e¯
\Oda' ¯
\Oda' µe¯leC!¯
' |¯!, ¯eCO¯da¯d!¯ |¯
_ ' CO¯d I O¯a'
1 0eC' au¯e¯
page 77
.
dHonesty
The Eyes Are
Watchi ng You

Au!¯O|¯ µu|µO¯e

page 89
¬O¯e¯Iy 1 1¯e |a¯¯ ve
Ad]eC! ve¯ + µ|eµO¯ ! O¯¯ 1neCau¯a! ve

d O0¯

9That's
Entertainment!

page 101
Appendices

Space Cadets
Hev evOl |ead ¯g
¯!¯a!eg e¯
• Gr ammar Appendi x
page 113
• Pronunci ati on Practi ce
page 131
c¯Ie¯!a ¯0e¯I HeµO|!ed ¯µeeCn
used to I be used to I HeµO|! ¯gve|o¯
get used to
|¯¯a¯a ve¯b¯
• Gl ossary
page 134
• Phrasal Verbs
page 142
• Preposi ti ons
page 143
• I rregul ar Verbs
page 144

.

¬K
JOUS
¯
µ' e
S 0µ e
)US
0µ e
¬
J !n |d
L!51IN!NG 5!IAK!NG
A 'eC!J|e .e¯C| o ¯g µeOµ e
A CO¯ve|¯a! O¯ ! 1a < ¯gaoOJ!a µ C!J|e
A |ad O ¯!e|v ev cxCna¯g ¯g ¯lO|0a! O¯

´J ded!OJ|¯ CO0µa| ¯g µ C!J|e¯
A CO¯ve|¯a! O¯ cxµ|e¯¯ ¯gOµ ¯ O¯¯

Nev¯ |eµO|!¯ ¯!e|v ev ¯g
¬eCO|ded 0e¯¯age¯ HJy ¯ga !|a ¯! C<e!
WK!1!NG
A de¯C| µ! O¯ OIa µe|¯O¯
'J¯C!Ja! O¯
A ¯a||a! ve

CO¯¯eC!O|¯Ol
¯eqJe¯Cea¯d! 0e
exµ|e¯¯ O¯¯
A o Og|aµny
\O|d O|de|

A de¯C| µ! O¯Ol a µ aCe
Ad¡eC! ve¯
¸A lO| a¯daga ¯¯!e¯¯ay
CO¯¯eC!O|¯Ol
add ! O¯a¯dCO¯!|a¯!
1 A ¯ev¯ |eµO|!
CO¯¯eC!O|¯OI
CaJ¯ea¯d |e¯J' !
A¯ ¯IO|0a' e·0a
¬eIe|e¯C ¯g
bKÏÏÏb

Aµµ Ca! O¯lO|0¯a¯d
¯!e|v ev¯
U¯ ¯ga d C! O¯a|y
HOO< ¯g! C<e!¯O¯' ¯e
' ¯!e|¯e! |e¯ea|Cn
G v ¯ga µ|e¯e¯!a! O¯
U¯ ¯gg|aµn¯a¯dCna|!¯
HOO< ¯ga |OO0
._L_-
A |ad O ¯!e|v ev
' 0|evev¯
• Wri ti ng Gui de
:age 146
Ag|ee ¯ga¯d
d ¯ag|ee ¯g
A¯ Oµ ¯ O¯e¯¯ay
CO¯¯eC!O|¯OI µJ|µO¯e
¬ev ev OlCO¯¯eC!O|¯
U¯de|¯!a¯d ¯g adve|!¯
_L ....�...... �'--
\a< ¯g µ' a¯¯ A l ' 0 |ev ev
\| ! ¯g |ev ev
U¯ ¯ge¯!e|!a ¯0e¯!
gJ de¯
I
� ~
f
Faces
|nii 0I]c·ti\cs
• Personality and Appe<�rance
• Present Simple
Present Continuous
* Listening to a Lecture
*Describing People
• Writing a Description of a Person
* Life Skills: Application Forms
and Interviews
How good are you at rememberi ng faces? Do the test bel ow and fi nd out.
a .OO<a!!¯e ¯ xIaCe¯ ¯ g|OJµAlO| J0¯eCO¯d¯.
b. NOv' OO<a!!¯e¯ex!¯ xlaCe¯ ¯g|OJµ8 lO¯J0¯eCO¯d¯
C 1J¯¯ !O µage ! G0. cO!¯e¯ex! µa¯! Ol!¯e!e¯!a¯dC¯eC<yOu¯a¯¯ve¯¯.
GROUP B
• Have you ever met anybody whose face you won't forget?
Why do you thi nk you won't forget thi s person?
WEB EXTRA
Two of the faces on th is page are popular B ritish celebrities.
f ind out more about them at : www.burlingtonbooks.es/viewpoints I
6
REAING
1 Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
in the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
l' aI~a!e• c' ¤d • :q0ea<y • coµe
PREDICTING CONTENT
Before readi ng a text, l ook at the pi ctures and
the tit l e. Thi s wi l l hel p you predict the content of
the text.
2. Look at the titl e and the picture. What do you
thi nk the text i s about?
3. Read the text and check whether your
prediction was correct.
4. Are the fol l owi ng statements true or fal se?
Fi nd evidence i n the text to support your
answers.
¹ T¤e¤a¤lo ow ¤g!¤e w !ewa:a :!a¤ge
2 . ¯Awa: l |:!d ag¤o:ed ¤I¤e ¹ ºº0:
J. ¯eoµ eca¤ geI¯A l|o~ !¤e µae¤!:.
4. So~e¯A :0lle|e:do¤Igoo0I¤0c¤.
5. T¤ew| Ie|µele|:Io<eeµ¤e| co¤d I o¤a :ec|e!
G. Sc e¤! :I: ¤ave ¤oId :coveeda c0|elo¯A.
5. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
! '¤ !¤ :!ex!, I¤ew| Iewa¤I: ¤a ¤ y!o . . .
a !e eade:I¤e:!oyol ¤e' le
c ¤lo|¤ |eade: aco0!¯A
c. g ve deIa ' :aco0I!¤e'a!e:I|e:eac¤o¤ ¯A
d. ¤e µeade:d ag¤o:ew¤e!¤eI¤ey¤ave ¯A
2 . W¤e¤!¤ew !e|ea :ed:¤e¤ad¯A, :¤ewa: . . . .
a. g' adI¤a!:¤ewa: ¤oIa' o¤e
c 0µ:eI!¤aI!¤eewa::o¤eI¤ ¤gw:o¤g
w !¤ ¤e|
c a¤gyI¤a! ¤oo¤e¤adeve|Io' d ¤e
d ¤aµµyI¤a!¤e| co¤d I o¤wa:¤oI
~o|e:e| o0:
6. Answer the questi ons i n your own words.
¹ ¬owd d!¤ew| Ie|<¤ow!¤a!:¤e¤ad ¯A`
2. W¤aIc 0e:do ¯A :0llee:J:eIo|ecog¤ :e
µeoµ' e`
J. W¤y~ g¤!a c0: ¤e:: ~eeI ¤g ced ll c0 !lo|
!¤ew !e`
4. W¤aI ¤µe:: o¤do¯A:0lle|e|: ~a<e o¤
o!¤e:`
5. W¤y do ¯A:0llee|::o~e! ¤e:µeIe¤dI¤ey
¤ave¤ IgoI!¤e |g a::e:`
7. Fi nd words or phrases i n the text that mean:
! ala d,µaag|aµ¤ ! )
2 . ¤ add ! o¤Io,µaagaµ¤ 2)
J. del ¤ Ie' y,µa|ag|aµ¤ J)
4. ¤a<e !µo:: c' elor,µa|agaµ¤4)
5. !yµe:, < ¤d:,µaagaµ¤ G)
• Have you ever been in a situation where
you di dn't recogni se someone or coul dn't
remember thei r name? How di d you feel ?
What di d you do?
t.
å
P |3Ce |´ÍÍ A|wJy$ |Org0I
A few years ago, a man began cal l i ng me from the other si de of the street. I i gnored hi m,
but he ran after me, shouti ng, "Hey! " Fr i ghtened, I shouted back, "What' s the probl em?"
When he repl i ed, hi s Ameri can accent remi nded me: he was my fl atmate and I had been
l i vi ng wi th hi m for three years.
5
Thi s i nci dent, al ong wi th several others, made me real i se that I am face-bl i nd. I have a
condi ti on cal l ed prosopagnosi a, or PA. I ' m not real l y bl i nd. When I ' m l ooki ng at a face, I can
descr i be it perfectl y. it's just that when I l ook away, I don' t remember the detai l s.
PA was fi rst documented i n the 1940s and was bel i eved to be caused by brai n injury or a
stroke. However, in the 1990s, reports were publ i shed of parents and chi l dren who were
10 sufferi ng from the di sorder, but had no injury. Thi s cl earl y showed that some peopl e are
born wi th the probl em, and that it can be heredi tary. Neurol ogi sts have now proved that i t
i s caused by a defect i n a si ngl e gene .
When I tel l my fri ends about my condi ti on, they say, "But you just recogni sed me! " "Yes," I
answer, "because you sti l l have l ong orange hai r, a squeaky voi ce and a ri ng through your
15 eyebrow." i t's these cl ues that al l ow prosopagnosti cs to functi on i n soci ety. But what i f
you're at a busi ness meeti ng where al l the men are weari ng suits and have short hai r?
*

In short, l i fe i sn' t easy for PA sufferers. We' re seen as snobbi sh and
strange because we don' t say hel l o to peopl e we' re supposed to
know. Somehow, "Sorry, I di dn' t recogni se you" seems a poor
20 excuse for l ooki ng strai ght through someone - especi al l y when
that someone i s your boyfri end !
So how do we cope? Wel l , we use al l sorts of strategi es. Some of
us just don' t soci al i se much. Other opti ons i ncl ude smi l i ng at
everyone just i n case they are an acquai ntance, or pretendi ng
25 we haven' t got our gl asses.
Al l i n al l , i t' s a rel i ef to know that my probl em has a name
and that l ots of other peopl e share i t - i n fact, i t' s bel i eved
that one person i n 50 suffers from PA. i t' s al so easi er to
tel l peopl e about i t than to l et them thi nk I ' m crazy. And
30 now that they' ve found out i t's caused by a gene, who
knows - one day there may even be a cure.
False friends
realise ( l i ne 5) means darse cuenta not realizar
pretending ( l i ne 24) means fingiendo not pretendiendo
Unit 1
7
8
�ULPlL1Y
\\
·
rds from the Text
1 . Choose two possi bl e answers to compl ete
each sentence. Pay attenti on to the words i n
col our.
! A ¤a¤¤ g¤Iweaasui t Ioa . . . .
a. wedd ¤g c. looIca' ' ga¤e c. ¤eeI ¤g
2. A bl i nd µeºo¤wo0 dµ|ocac y¤oIe¤¡oya .
a . co¤ce|I c. µa ¤I ¤gex¤ c I o¤
c. ca eIµelo|¤a¤ce
J. A¤acquai ntance co0 dceºo¤eo¤el|o¤
yo0|. . . .
a. la¤ ' y c. ºc¤oo c. ¤e g¤co0|¤ood
4. Acl ue ¤ g¤I¤e µyo0Io . .
a. l ¤dºo¤eI¤ ¤g¤ dde¤ c ºo vea µ0zz e
c ca|yºo¤eI¤ ¤g¤eavy
5. Yo0 ¤ g¤Irepl y Io . . . .
a a coo< c. a q0eºI o¤ c a¤ e-¤a '
G. Yo0 co0 dshare a . . . .
a. lace c. coo< c. ¤ea
� 2. Compl ete the passage wi th the words and
phrases bel ow. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
al l in a l l • remi ndi ng • cope wi th • si ngl e
pretend • di sorder • real ises • i nj ury
50 |lK51ÜÅ1L5
Have you seen the fi l m 50 First Dates? i t's about
a young coupl e, Henry (Ada m Sandl er) and Lucy
(Drew Barrymore).They're i n l ove, but Henry soon
1 ·
. H. that they have a serious probl em: from one
day to the next, Lucy forgets who Henry is.
She suffers from a ¯` . . . . H •• cal l ed anterograde
a mnesia, caused by an ¯ H . • • • she recei ved i n a
car acci dent. As a result, she cannot remember a

·
. . . . . .. thi ng from one day to the next. She al so
thi nks that every day is 13th October 2002.
Her father and brothers
.
. . . H • • • that thi s is true,
re-livi ng the events of that day so that she won' t get
upset. Henry, however, wants Lucy to ¯ H • real
l i fe. He makes her a vi deo to watch every morni ng,
....... .. ....... . . . her who she is. ¯ H • , thi s fi l m is very
entertai ni ng and the acti ng is great. Don't mi ss it!
PHRASA VERBS
When a verb is followed by one or more parti cles,
i t i s called a phrasal verb. The meani ng of the
phrasal verb i s di fferent from the meani ng of the
verb alone.
He began to run after me.
When /look away I don't remember the details.
ammaAppendix,paqe114-115
3. Match each phrasal verb in I to its meani ng
!.
2 .
J .
4.
5.
G
7.
i n 11. Use the phrasal verbs l i st on page 142 to
hel p you.
I 11
run after a. ¤eeIcyc¤a¤ce
run off wi th c. I0¤o¤e'º eyeº ¤
r un i nto
a¤oI¤e d ecI o¤
l ook away
c c¤aºe
l ook through d l ¤d ¤lo¤aI|o¤aco0I
l ook forward to e ºIea'
l ook up l lee exc Ied aco0I
g. g¤o|e
4. Compl ete the sentences with the correct form
of a suitabl e phrasal verb from Exercise 3.
1. T¤eI¤íel . . - £! , 000yeºIeday
2 . ¯ a¤e i s ºo º¤occ º¤ . S¤ea' wayº. . ¤ew¤e¤
weµaºº.
J .oo<¹ W¤o i s I¤aIµo ce¤a¤ `
4. T¤e g¤Iwaº ºo c g¤II¤aI ¤adIo.
5. W¤e¤eve|¯aI c<goeº o0I, ¤e . . ºo¤eo¤e¤e
<¤owº.
G A|eyo0·H ·· · yo0 ¤exIº< ¤g ' eººo¤`
7 . ' do¤I <¤oww¤aII¤aIwod ¤ea¤º. .eIº H . I
H . ¤I¤ed cI o¤ay.
Barrmore and Sandler won the award for the
Best on-Screen Team at the MTV Movie Awards.
1
i"
i
:,
e
i!
¹'P¹�`�³���!Y· · · · · · . ... . . . . ...... . .. .. . . . .
PERSONALITY AND APPEARANCE
1 . Read the description of a star si gn. Whi ch of
the adjectives i n col our do you thi nk show
posi ti ve personal ity trai ts? Whi ch show
negati ve traits?
ÅlÍC5
(21st March - 19th Apnl)
You are very confident
and love to take action,
so you're a natural leader.
People like you because
you're generous and fun
to be with. You make
decisions quickly and can
be quite impulsive.
Try not to be too bossy
and be a bit more
open-minded!
2. Compl ete the sentences with the adjectives
bel ow.
tal kati ve • sel fi sh • hel pfu' • stubborn
consi derate • romanti c • nosy • cal m
1 . ¬e::o . . n o I¤aI¤oo¤ee' :eca¤:aya wod
w¤e¤¤e: ao0¤d '
2 . T¤a!: ¤o¤eolyo0 c0: ¤e:: ' ¯o¤I ce:o. - '
J ' Iwa:¤ !vey .n - - olyo0 !oIa' <:o o0d' yw¤ e'
wa: |e:! ¤g.
4. ¯ ea:e' :!e¤!oo0|adv ce. SIoµce ¤g:o
5. Yo0 a!eall !¤e cec|ea~. T¤aIwa: ea' y
olyo0 '
G. ' IyIo ce. n w¤e¤µeoµ' ea:< ~e lo|
d |ec! o¤:.
7. ¬eco0g¤I¤ :g l| e¤dc¤oco aIe:a¤dl owe:
¬ow .. '
S S¤e: q0 !e- . . 'o!¤ ¤g0µ:e!:¤e|.
3. Use the adjectives from Exercises 1 and 2 to
compl ete the fol l owi ng sentences. Try to use
at least ei ght adjectives.
! ' wo0 d <e a coyl e¤dI g l e¤dw¤o : . .
2 . T¤eµe: de¤Iola co0¤I|y:¤o0 dce . . . .
J I geI a¤gy a! ~y dadceca0:e ¤e ca¤ ce!oo . . .
4. Veyyo0¤gc¤ d|e¤ae ol!e¤ . . . .
5. \a¤yT a¤dl ' ~ce ec ! e: ae . . . .
4. In your notebook, write the adjectives below
i n the correct category. Some words may fit
more than one category.
• dark • curl y
• strai ght • spi ky
• sl i m • wavy
• ski nny • wel l -bui l t
• fai r • pet te
• chubby • muscul ar
• pl ai n • gorgeous
• unattractive • should er-' ength
• good- l ooki ng
Hair Build General Appearance
5. Write two or three sentences descri bi ng a
cel ebrity. Use the adjectives in Exercise 4.
See if your partner can guess who he/she i s.
COMPOUND ADJ ECTIVES
A compound adjecti ve is formed from two
adjectives, usually con nected by a hyphen.
Compound adjectives are often used to describe
a ppeara nce a nd persona l i ty.
6. Compl ete the sentences with the compound
adjectives below.
bi g-headed • broad-shoul dered
l ong- l egged • ol d-fashi oned
ki nd- hearted • short-tempered
1. Sa e: a:: :!a¤!: ~0:!ol!e¤ dea w I¤
a¤g|yc0:!o~e|:.
2 . \yga¤dlaI¤e|¤a!e:µoµ ~0: c. ¬e: ea y
J A · n ·· :!a¤ge|gave0::o~elooda¤dwaIe|.
4. W¤ya|e a :0µe~ode' :Ia ' , : ~a¤d `
5. T¤e~a¤wa: ~0:c0 a a¤d . n - . l|o~
do ¤gµ¤y: ca wo<.
G. T¤e . . : ¤ge :a' way: a!eloco¤ceI:.
¬e :|ea ' ya|oga¤! '
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true
for you.
! . ' do¤I ~ ¤dsharing ... .
2. T¤e~o:Igenerous I¤ ¤g veevedo¤ewa: . . . .
J. T¤e~o:Iselfish !¤ ¤g' ve evedo¤ewa: . . . .
4. W¤e¤ ' ~eeIa¤ acquaintance, ' . . .
5. ' ~looking forward to . . . .
G. ' ve ea¤ed!ocope with . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 7 8-79
ª Unit 1
9
æ
�ÜÍN
'-
PRESENT SIMPLE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
A. Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. PA sufferers always smile at everyone.
b. She hopes that they will find a cure for PA.
L. All the men are wearing suits.
d. Many people suffer from PA.
e. I am meeting my boyfnend at the airport tonight.
f She is living with a flatmate this year.
1. Whi ch tense is used in each of the
exampl es above?
2. Whi ch exampl e talks about ... ?
! . a regular habi t or routi ne
2. a temporary action
3. a genera I truth
.an action which is happening now
5. a definite plan for the near future
6. a thought, feel i ng or expectati on
,a stati ve verb}
B. Read the exampl es and compl ete the rul es.
a. He remembers names, but not faces.
b. We don't socialise much.
c. Does he usually recognise his friends?
d. She isn't wearing her glosses.
e. He's looking at my face.
f Are they trying to find a cure?
1. We usually use the base form of the verb +
to form the 3rd person si ngul ar of the
Present Si mple.
2. I n the Present Simple, we use auxi l i ary verbs
i n a l l sentences jonl y in negative sentences
and questi ons.
3. We use . + verb + to form the
Present Conti nuous.
.I n the Present Conti nuous, we use a n auxiliary
verb in all sentences jonly in negative
sentences and questi ons.
0tammatAppeo6|xpaqes 113-114
1. Choose the correct ti me expression, then
rewrite the sentences.
!. ¬- d v-:o0!: d- !¤-. !y
,a|-' yI ¤-x! w--<)
2. W¤a! :!¤a!coy!y ¤g!odo`
, a!!¤- ~o~-¤!I :o~-! ~-:)
J ¯ a¤- do-:¤ !g-!a o!ol c¤o¤-.a :
,!odayI 0:0a' y)
4. ¯oyo0 0¤d-|:!a¤d~yq0-:! o¤`
,-v-|ydayI ¤ow)
5. \y ~o!¤-wo<:qL !- a!-
,ol!- ¤I !o~oow)
G. O0 ¤- g¤co0: a- -av ¤g!¤-.o0¤!y.
,:oo¤I :- do~)
7 . I ~--!l|-¤d:lo|.oll--
,!o~o|owI o¤ W-d¤-:day:)
S. ² o¤a :.o~ ¤gw !¤¤- coyl- ¤d.
,!o¤ g¤!I l|-q0-¤! y)
2. Complete the sentences with the verbs in
brackets. Use the Present Si mpl e or Present
Conti nuous.
1. S0:a¤¤a ,:!0dy) ²|-¤. ¤ !¤ :!- ~
2. Jo- 0:0a' y ,d :.0::)¤ : d-a:w !¤yo0`
J . T¤ : :la¤!a:!. ' O0 !-a~ ,w ¤)!¤- ¤a!. ¤ '
4. W¤y yo0 ,!y)!o do!¤a!¤ow`
5. T¤a! < ¤d ol.a| ,0:-) a o!olc-!o'
G. '´ ~ :oy, c0! . ,¤o!-~-¤c-)yo0 ¤a~-
7 . . ,¤o! go)!o:.¤oo' !o~oow.
S ²-¤g0 ¤: , ' v-) o¤' y ¤ !¤- :o0!¤- ¤
¤-~ :c¤-|- .
STATI VE VERBS - Some stati ve
verbs such as think, see, look, have and weigh can
refer to an action as well as a state. When these
verbs refer to an action, we can use the Present
Continuous.
3. Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets. Deci de if the verb
refers to a state or an acti on.
! . W- olgo ¤go¤¤o day¤-x!~o¤! ¤
W¤-- yo0 w- :¤o0 dgo`,!¤ ¤<)
2. ¯ad !¤- :o0c. ' ~:0|- ! v-ygood
,!a:!-)
J . ¬- a!!¤- coo< ¤ow lt . ¤!-|-:! ¤g. ,' oo<)
4. ¤- !¤- !o~a!o-: ¤ow`
¬ow ~0. ¤ !¤-y ` ,w- g¤)
5. O0 l-¤d: a ¤-w:w ~~ ¤g coo'
T¤-y a coo ca!y!¤· :S0¤day. , ¤av-)
4.
1.
2.
J
4.
5.
G
7.
5.
?
I
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
G
Rewrite the sentences, repl aci ng the ti me
expressi ons i n ital ics wi th those i n brackets.
Change the verbs where necessary.
¬e|:o¤doe:¤ !ca.! :e!¤ec a¤oin the
morning. ,a!!¤e~o~e¤!)
!a<e ~ydog !o!¤eve!every year.
,!o~oow)
Wa !ea¤dC ¤dyae¤´ !.a ¤g!¤e ca|e¤!:
at the moment. ,evey day)
' usualy <¤oww¤a!:¤e ~ea¤:
, ¤ow)
Ve|a :| ogg ¤gw !¤a l e¤dnow.
, 0:0a' y)
¯o!¤e ¤0:e:l ¤ :¤wo<a!l veo. ' o. < every
afternoon? , ¤ow)
': \| Wa:¤ ¤g!o¤ c ay ¤g!e¤¤ :this moring?
,evey ~o|¤ ¤g)
Jean and Keith are chatti ng. Compl ete thei r
di al ogue by wri ti ng the mi ssi ng questi ons.
J ea ¤ . . `
²e !¤ Ye:, <e ~y¤ew:.¤oo' .
¹ ea ¤ `
²e !¤ 'o, ' do¤´ ! :ee~yo dl| e¤d:vey
ol!e¤.
¹ ea¤ . . - `
²e !¤ ' ~:!0dy ¤g~a!¤:, c¤g :¤, a|!a¤d
geogac¤y!¤ :!e~.
¹ ea¤ . . `
²e !¤ Ye:, ' <¤owA' exGad¤e|. ¬e´: ¤
~y~a!¤:. a::.
Jea¤
ô.
.. . .... ?
²e !¤ . 'o, ´ ~ ¤o! do ¤ga¤y!¤ ¤g:ce. a' !¤ :
al!e|¤oo¤. ¯oyo0wa¤!!o.o~eove`
Compl ete the sentences. Use the Present
Si mpl e or Present Conti nuous.
A! ea:!o¤.eawee<, ' . . . .
S!oc ~a< ¤g:o ~0. ¤ ¤o :e ' We
T¤ :wee<e¤d, ~yla~ ' y .
Je¤¤y.a¤!.o~e!o !¤e ca!y!o¤ g¤! S¤e
cve|y~o ¤ ¤g, o0 dog . . . .
A..o|d ¤g!oexce|!:, ²A:0lle|e|: . . . .
Mi ra a ese hombre. �Por que persi gue a ese n i io?
Look at that man. Why is he running after that boy? .
NOT Look at that man. Why does he run after that
boy? X
� 7. Compl ete the passage with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets. Use the Present
Si mpl e or Present Conti nuous. Then l i sten and
check your answers.

-
"'
r:otiìe e•t rteoo• • ×etwotx• • ìooo•;z) • Þ0nW •t¹ðu�ð J M\ lÞ§ •
ûon'| bz Õ V|c||m
it's now l ate at ni ght, and Paul a
.......... (si t) at her computer. She
. ......... (open) her favourite si te,
Facebook. Li ke mi l l i ons of other
Facebook users, Paul a ¯. . - . - (enjoy)
sharing detai l s of her l i fe wi th
her on l ine "friends': But she .......
(not real i se) that by doing thi s,
she mi ght be i nvi ting cri minal s
t o take over her i dentity. A typi cal
Facebook user 5 . (provi de)
val uabl e informati on, such as date
of bi rth, mobi l e-phone number and
a home address. Cyber-cri minal s
often ¯ . · (use) t hi s informati on to
"become" that person and access
thei r bank account. UK pol ice are
so concerned a bout thi s that t hey
... . . .. (now pl an) a nati onal e-cri me
unit t o deal wi th t he probl em. You
can avoi d becomi ng a vi cti m: make
sure you choose the option that
¯ . . . . (al l ow) onl y your friends to
view your personal detai l s.
Grammar Review 0
1
8. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
1. ¬ow ~0. ¤ :!¤ :~agaz ¤e`,.o:!)
2. ' ¤ave¤ ! go!a.a. ,ow¤)
J We ¤!e¤d!o ~ee!lo| 0¤.¤ !o~oow. , ae)
4. Be¤da c ay:a o!olloo!ca ,ol!e¤)
5. T¤e. ¤ d|e¤a|e q0 e!a!!¤e ~o~e¤! ,!a' <)
G ' vego!c' a¤:!o:ee¯a0' !o¤ g¤!. ,a~)
Extra g ra mma r e xe rc i se s a t :
üUU.0urlingl0n000Is.cs{t· i cu·¡o:ntsI
Unit 1
1
ÌJ
� SKILLS
Jz
LISTENING G
A LECTURE
1 . Read the notice bel ow. What i s
"personol ogy"?
a. a wayol:¤ow ¤gc-oc'-: c- :o¤a !-:
!¤o0g¤a|!
c. a way ol. ¤a¤g ¤ga¤d ~c|ov ¤go¤-:
c-:o¤a' !y
_a wayola¤a y: ¤gc-:o¤a !y cy ' oo< ¤ga!
a la.-
PERSONOLOGY
1MLÅH1 Ür HLÅOlNO rÅLLb
HaveyOumel>OmeOnenew]
WOuÌd yOuÌìkelOknOw
whallheyarercdllyÌlke]
YOU CAN-
OylOOklngal
lhelríaCel
|eClure OypOpular
>peakerandaulhOr
!l'1 |ill!!
St Giles'Community Hall
Staford Road
Wednesday, 5th October
8.00 pm
STAY CALM- I f you don't understand
one part of a l istening passage, don't panic! Keep
listening and focus on u n derstandi ng as much of
the passage as you can.
Z. Listen to the begi nni ng of Eisa Ful l er's lecture.
Which of the fol l owing can personology be
used for?
To l ¤dout:
a. w¤a!¡oc!o oo<lo
c. w¤-|- !o v-
. l:o~-o¤- : a :0 !ac'- g |' l-¤dI coyl-¤d
d. l:o~-o¤- :a goodwo|<-|
- . l yoJ:¤o0 d:-'! a.-!a ¤c|od0.!
3. Listen to the rest of the tal k. Decide whi ch
of the photos bel ow is Matthew.
2
3 4
4. Listen to the second part of the lecture agai n.
What do each of the fol l owi ng features show
about a person? Two answers are correct.
1. w d- la.-
a. .o¤l d- ¤!
c. a ¤a!0|a -ad-
. !¤ ¤<:.a|-l0' y c-lo·- !a< ¤ga.! o¤
2. |o0¤d-d¤o:-
a. :- l :¤
c. ¤- cl0
.. ¤o:y
3. -y-:la|aca|!
a. ol!-¤ a!-
c .a' ¤
.. gooda!d-!a :
• Do you bel ieve that personology i s accurate?
What other ways are there of anal ysi ng a
person's personal ity without actual l y
knowi ng them?
WEB EXTRA
F ind out how appearance can affect your l if e at:
u•it•Þ.0ur|ìnglon0ooIs. cs{ìcu¡oinls1
SPEAKING
DESCRIBING PEOPLE
1 . Greg wants to open a personal profi l e on
Facebook. Read what he has written about
hi msel f for the profi l e. What adjectives does
he use to describe hi msel f?
/øo. qc_:::|
bictløay. 2I:¡, I!!3
Aui«itie. . I|:«e¸:i_ t:{|m. amI
eµ:y øøiq. I «:|u<t>c
¸tec|i_ c:mµutec:) øt
( :cl::|.
|a.:acit:Mui: |:µ, |ob
Ab:ut/e. \ecyiue||_eut, quite
_euc:×. auc:uiøecate,
tl:._|I :au be:tubb:c·t
attime.. |e:µ|::øyI`m
h|µf|. qic!+take mt: .
I`m«ecy c:mu u
(J »e|||
Z. Fran has seen Greg's profi l e. Compl ete the
conversation between Fran and Jennifer with
the expressi ons bel ow.
he's got • What does he l ook l i ke?
He l i kes • What's he i nterested i n?
What's he l i ke? • he's very
¹-¤¤ l-| .
²|a¤
¹- ¤¤ l-|
·|a¤
¹- ·¤ l-|
·a¤.
J- ·¤ l-|.
²a¤

¬ , ²a¤.
¬ , ¹-¤¤ l- ' . :!-¤, v- | 0:!lo0¤d!¤-
~o:! gog-o0:g0y o¤ ²a.-coo< '
¬- dc- µ-|l-.! lo yo0 '
T¤a!: g-a!.

.
W- , l|o~!¤- c¤o!o ¤- oo<:q0 !-
:' ~, a¤d¯ :!a g¤!, la ¤a |.
¬-: a c! cacy-la.-d, c0!-a! ygood-
' oo< ¤g
So0¤d:O· ´ .....
l ~:a¤dda¤. ¤g, a¤d¤--v-¤
vo 0¤!--|:a! a :.¤oo -¡ 0:!' <-yo0!
¯-a' ' y`` ..
¬- :ay: ¯ H ¤!- ' g-¤!, g-¤- o0:,
.o¤: d-a!- a¤d o~a¤!.
A¤d ¤o!v-y ~od-:! '
Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 1
3. Choose one of the peopl e i n the pictures and
make up a profi l e for that person. Use Greg's
profi l e as a model . Make the profi l e as
i nteresti ng as you can.
4. With a parner, ask and answer questions i n
order to describe the person you have each
chosen. Use the questions and expressions in
Exercise Z.
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to show interest i n what you r
pa rtner i s sayi ng, u se t h e fol l owi ng expressi ons:
Real l y?
That' s g reat!
Sounds good I fun I i n teresti ng.
Uni t 1
� ..
A Description of a Person
1 . Read Joe's bl og bel ow. Woul d you l i ke to have a fri end l i ke Rani a? Why or why not?
a n n

'

_ www.joe_blog.com
Q" 0·
nC1COmC lO b1OQ
1CU 0IC V1S1ÌC! |U0D£I JD3
Sun
12
Mon
13
Tues
14
Wed
15
b d
¹ It's Wednesday - three
days
Hey, every o y.
't for
et
lll
before my
big
party.
h
oon
ple
g
you
.
'il meet
B
the
way, one
of t e peo
.
¹
y
.
.
here's
her
plcture.
there 1s
Rama -
a lot of
people
don't know
Rania's
new
at school, s
� the
school
swimming team,
her
yet. We're
together ln
ll
fit in with our
crowd.
and
it seems
li.ke
she'll
rea y
d h 's got
long,
dark
hair
She's
quite
tall, an
a�t�ally
en¡oys
reading and
and brown eyes. She
b t she
isn't big-headed
She's a great student,
u
studying!
about her
high marks.
le
but when
you
get to
know
She's a bit
shy
with new
peop
'
a
great
sense of humour
and
her, she's great
fun. She
_
's
got
makes me laugh with her
JOkes.
.
R .
and I think you'll
like
k
a little
blt
about
ama,
So
you
now
I'm sure
you've
guessed!
her a lot. I do - as
Z. In whi ch paragraph/s of the blog does Joe . . . ? 3. Match the punctuation marks in I to
1. d-:.· c- w¤a!¯a¤ a oo<: <-
2. d-:.· c- ¯a¤ a´: ¤!-·-:!:
3. ~a<- oc- ¤g-~a· <:a¤d ¤!· od0.- ¯a¤ a
4. d-:.· c- ¯a¤ a´:c-· :o¤a :y
5. ~a<-. o: ¤g|-~a· <:

.
Punctuation helps make your writing clear. Some
punctuation marks (brackets, dashes, exclamation
marks and contractions) are more common in
L
informal writing.
'
thei r use in 1 1 .
1 . q0-:! o· ~a|<
2 . l0 ' :!oc
3. .o~~a
4. -x. a~a! o¤ ~a· <
5. c· a. <-!:I da:¤
G. aco:!· oc¤-
1 1
a ! o~a|<!¤-- ¤dol a
:-¤!-¤.-
c !o:¤ow:¯· o¤gl-- ¤g:
o· !o-~c¤a: :- a co ¤!
. !o add-x!· a ¤lo· ~a! o¤
d ! o:-ca· a!- !- ~: ¤a
:!, a :-q0-¤.- ol
-v-¤!:o|ca|!: ola
' o¤g:- ¤!-¤.-
- !o :¤ow.o¤!· a.! o¤:
l !o~a· < !¤--¤dola
q0-:! o¤
4. Add the mi ssi ng punctuation marks to the
sentences bel ow. There may be more than
one possi bl e answer.
T¤ : : la¤la:l .
2. Ae ¯a0 \a <B aP.a a¤dC a e a ' go ¤go¤l¤el µ
3. S¤ea:<edl¤ed vew¤ee l¤eywee c0!¤eel0:ed
loa¤:we
:
T¤eeweea lew µeoµ e¤o:l y. ¤ de¤al l¤eµoo
¯. T¤e ~a¤:lood0µµ0lo¤ ¤ :.oala¤dwa' <ed o0l
a¤g y
5. I .a¤l ce eve l
µa::a ' ¤yexa~: ¤oµea¤dgel ¤lo 0¤ ve: ly
8. W¤yae¤lyo0wo¡ ¤g
5. Add the mi ssi ng punctuation marks to the text.
�1(
< c +
Dear Sheryl,
The funniest thing happened to me the
other day Mark convinced me to go to a
talk on personology analysing someone's
personality by looking at their face Have you
ever heard of it
The speaker asked for a volunteer and
for some strange reason ' raised my hand
The next thing ' knew she had chosen me
lt was so embarrassing ' didnt quite agree
with some of her comments especially the
part about talking too much but it was a
lot of fun.
Adjecti ves are used i n a speci fi c order :
opi n i on- l engt h/si ze - col ou r
Rania's got beautiful, long, dark hair
Uni t 1
Your Task
• Write a descri ption of a fri end. Use 1 00-1 50
words.
WRITING YOUR DESCRIPTION
1 . Brai nstorm your descri ption.
• Thi nk of peopl e you know. Who woul d be
easy or i nteresti ng to describe?
• Thi nk of words and expressions to
descri be the person's:
µ¤y:.a' aµµeaaP.e
- µe:o¤a !y
a.l v l e:a¤d ¤!ee:!:
Z. Organise your i deas. Use the model on
page 14 and the pl an bel ow to hel p you.
- ¯e. dew¤. ¤ dea:lo <eeµa¤dw¤. ¤ lo
eaveo01
- ¯e. de ¤ow lo odeyo0 dea:.
PLAN
Openi ng: Oµe¤ ¤ge¤a<:, ¤lod0.el¤e
µe:o¤
Body: ¯e:. cel ¤eµe:o¤': aµµeaa¤.e,
¤lee:l:a¤dµe:o¤a ly.
Cl osi ng: C' o: ¤g e¤a<:
3. Write a fi rst draft.
- W leq0. <'y ¯o¤'lwoyaco0!:µe' ' ¤g
oµ0P.l0al o¤a:yo0' ¤avel ¤el o. ¤e. <
l¤e~ a!e.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a final draft.
CHECKLIST
/ I{:||:»eøtleµ|a<{:c a øe:ci¡ti:< :{a
µec::u.
/ I ueø øgeceu aø;eti«e au::mµ:uu
aø;eti«e t: øeccibe tleµec::».
/ I :�|ø¸camuc, :µe||iq au
µ×ut×ati:V.
*
15
!6
²f2ºhJ¥
5K!LL5
APPLICATI ON FORMS AND INTERVI EWS

You are goi ng to compl ete an appl i cati on form and conduct an i nterview .
Read the web page and appl i cati on form and answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.
C L E AR L AK E
ÞBOU¯ U5¡ OTH[R ÇL[ÞRLÞKt ÍhO'hÞª- ¡� �
Come to our camp i n the Canadian Rocky Mountai ns. Have the
adventure of your l i fe - and l earn Engl i sh at the same time!
To regi ster, send i n our onl i ne _µ__Í|´3l|0| |0||
Tel ephone i ntervi ew requi red.
PERSONAL I NFORMATI ON
OJ|3|5´ l||Sl N3|5`
O DO. ÛÛÛ1b4bb7ÛÛ
l0|5-00|5SS ¦NJ|05|& Ol|55l/ C|ljI Í0A|I v|||3g5
C0J|l|j´ Í5|50|0|5 NJ|05|`
l00||5 l|0|5 NJ|05|` . . c·|3||-00|5SS
l3|5` ...l5|3|5
l3l5 of O||l| ¦'3jI l0|l|I Y53|/
N3l|v5 (3|gJ3g5´
L5v5|0/cO@|O.
O053|||g
n530||g
. ... . .
/||l||g
/53|
/53|
/53|
l|5/5||50-Cl|v|l|5S
l50|J|
l50|J|
l50|J|
Ó000
Ó000
Ó000
S||||g 3|l . |||||g 03|C||g 0l|5|
l3l5S |5/5||50
. .... 7-14 13|J3|j
. .... 15-22 13|J3|j
3-10 l50|J3|j
. 11-18 l50|J3|j
• TASK QUESTIONS
1 . I magi ne you are appl yi ng for Cl earl ake Engl i sh Wi nter Camp and compl ete the form above.
2 Tomas has applied for the camp Jn a telephone interview whih of the following questions would
the administrator ask?
1 . W¤ydo yo0 wa¤llo.o¤elo o0.a~µ` 5. ¬aveyo0 e.e ved ~y. ¤eq0e`
2. ¬ow ¤a¤yµeoµ' ew ' ce:¤a ¤ga oo¤` G. W¤ee d dyo0 ea¤ c¤g' :¤`
3. ': l¤ee a¤yl¤ ¤gyo0' d <eloa:<¤e` 7 . W¤eeae l¤eol¤e:l0de¤l:lo~`
4. ¯o ' ¤eeda¤y:µe. a' eq0 µ~e¤l` S W¤ydoyo0l ¤ ¤<yo0ead ¤g a¤dw l ¤gaewea< `
� 3. Listen to the intervi ew. Which of the questi ons i n Exercise 2 does the admi nistrator ask?
What other questi ons does she ask?
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
Conduct a tel ephone i nterview wi th your partner, usi ng his I her appl i cati on form. Then switch rol es.
Use the questi ons i n Exerci se 2 above to hel p you.
Danger!
Unit Objectives
,, Dangerous Situations
• Past Simple
• P<sr Continuous
• Past Perfect Si m pie
*Listening to a Conversation
• Talking about a Picture
` Writing a Narrative
• Life Skills: Using a Dictionary
1 . Woul d you l i ke a job that i nvolves danger and excitement? If so, you may
want to consi der espi onage. Before you deci de, do the qui z bel ow.
1. A friend has told you a secret. You ....
a. tell one person about it
b. don't tell anyone anything
c. tell everyone -you don't know why it's a secret anyway
2. You forget your keys and are locked out of the house. You ... .
a. find a way to open the lock with your pen
b. phone your parents and tell them to come home and let you in
c. climb from your neighbour's balcony to your own
3. Your friend gives you his new phone number. You ... .
a. write it down, but lose the paper
b. save it in your mobile phone
c. remember it by heart
4. The shortest way home is down a dark, empty street. You ... .
a. take it, enjoying the thrill of danger
b. walk the long way around
c. take it, but feel quite nervous and frightened
5. An acquaintance at a party starts telling you about his life. You ... .
a. tell him about your life as well
b. listen carefully, getting as much information as possible
c. feel bored and say you're going to get a drink
6. Your friend invites you over, but you're not in the mood. You ... .
a. have no trouble inventing a good excuse
b. feel you must tell the truth
c. invent a story, but your friend knows you're lying
2. Use the key on the right and add up your score. Go to page 1 60 to see what
your score means.
• Do you agree wi th your quiz results? Do you thi nk
you'd make a good spy? Why or why not?
WEB EXTRA
F ind out about a real-l ife British spy a t:
ÞÞÞ. 0ur/ing|on0ooks. ts{ºitu¡oìnls1
�«s
4. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
! . A0:ac ewa:a¤gy ceca0:e . . . .
a l¤e¤a¤age¤adg ve¤ \axa <ey!o¤ :
18
1. Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
g' oo¤y• c' ¤<ed • :!al' ed • g a:µed
MAKING INFERENCES
Maki n g i nferences hel ps you u n derstand t hi ngs
that aren't actua l l y wri tten i n the text. We can
deduce t hi ngs from certai n i nformati on i n t he
text, for exampl e, the way peopl e react or the
t hi n gs they say.
2. The fol l owi ng sentences appear in the text.
What can you i nfer from them? Choose the
correct answer below.
Ausable did not look like any secret agent
Fowler had read about. He was past middle age
and very very fat.
W¤e¤ ²ow el :!:aw A0:ac e,
¤eµocac' yle l
a. exc led c d :aµµo ¤!ed
3. Read the short story and compl ete the
sentences usi ng your own words.
! A0:ac' ewe¤l!o ¤ :oo¤ ceca0:e . . .
2. W¤e¤!¤eye¤!eedl¤eoo~, ²ow e a¤d
A0:ac' ewee:0µ :ed cy . .
3. \axceca~e¤evo0:w¤e¤:o¤eo¤e . . . .
4. \axc ¤ced!¤o0g¤!¤ew ¤dow
ceca0:e ¤e l¤o0g¤!
5. \ax:cea~ed ceca0:e . . . .
oo~
c l¤e ¤a¤age¤ad ¤olc oc<ed !¤e ca:o¤y
c. \axwa¤ledl¤eeµol
d. \axwa:¤o d ¤ga g0¤
2. A0:ac' e:a d!¤al ¤e¤adca ed!¤eµo ce .
a ceca0:e \ax¤ade¤leed ¤ :oo¤
c. ceca0:e ²ow e ¤adlo' owed ¤ ¤lo ¤ :
o.¤
c. ¤ ode!o g vel¤e~l ¤e:ece!eµo!
d. ¡ 0:! ¤ ca:e!¤eewa:!o0c e
3. A0:ac' e<¤ew!¤all¤e<¤oc<o¤l¤edoo
wa: .
a. !¤eµo ce
c. oo~:ev ce
c. a¤age¤! de' ve ¤gl¤e eµol
d. !¤e ¤ole ¤a¤age
4. Weca¤ ¤le!¤a! ¤!¤ee¤d, ²ow ele l
a. l¤a!¤ :l :l ~µe:: o¤ ¤ad cee¤wo¤g
c l¤a!A0:ac ewa: ¤olveyµole:: o¤a'
c d :aµµo ¤!ed ceca0:e!¤eeve¤ ¤g¤ad¤o!
cee¤exc l ¤g
d wo edaco0!w¤al¤ad ¤aµµe¤edlo \ax
5. Fi nd words or phrases i n the text that mean
the opposite of:
1 . ed , ¤e: 1-3)
2. µacl ca ,'· ¤e:8-1 0)
3. la! , ' ¤e:23-25)
4. ¤aµµ y, ' ¤e:32-34)
5 . : ow y, ' ¤e:50-52)
6. oweed , ' ¤e:54- 56)
• Do you thi nk Ausabl e was a good secret
agent? Why or why not?
Ficti onal spies: Sam Fisher,
Jason Bourne and Austin Powers
Kt.
Ï
¯HC MlOHlQHl ll.
Ausable did not look like any secret agent
Fowler had read about. He was past middle age
and very, very fat. Fowler followed him down the
gloomy corridor of the old French hotel where the
secret agent had a small room on the sixth foor.
"You are disappointed," Ausable said over his
.
houlder. "You were told that I was a secret agent,
a spy. You wanted to meet me because ¸ou are
a young and romantic writer. You had eX'pected
mysterious figures in the night, the crack of guns
and poison in the wine. But instead of having
secret messages slipped into my hand by a dark­
eyed beauty, I only got a phone call arranging a
meeting in my room. You've been bored!" The fat
man laughed to himself as he unlocked the door
of his room and let his frustrated guest enter.
I • I I' l
"It belongs to the next room, but it extends
40 under my window," explained A usable angrily.
"The manager promised to block it off, but he
hasn't." Suddenly, there was a knock at the door.
Ausable smiled with relief. "That is the police.
I told them to check on me to make sure
45 everything was all right."
Max bit his lip nervously. The knocking was
repeated.
"What will you do now, Max?" Ausable asked.
"If I do not answer the door, they will come in
50 anyway. And they will not hesitate to shoot."
Max's face was black with anger as he backed
swiftly toward the window and put one leg out
into the night. "Send them away," he wared.
"I will wait on the balcony."
"Cheer up, my young friend. Soon you will see 55
a top secret report �to this room, a report
The knocking on the door became louder and
a voice was raised. "Mr Ausable! Mr Ausable!"
rhat may someday affect the course of history.
That is the drama, is it not?" As he was speaking,
:usable closed the door behind him. Then he
s�itched on the light.
Halfway across the room a man was standing
and pointing an automatic pistol at them. He was
slender, not tall, with a face like a fox. Ausable
blinked a few times. "Max," he said, "you startled
me. What are you doing in my room?"
"The report," Max murmured. "The secret
report that is being brought to you tonight. I want
it."
Ausable sat down heavily in an armchair. "I'm
furious with the hotel manager," he said grimly.
"This is the second time in a month that someone
has entered my room from that balcony!"
Fowler's eyes went to the single window of the
room.
"Balcony?" Max asked. "No, I had a key.
What balcony?"
Keeping the gun on the two men, Max grasped
the window frame and swung the other leg up and
over. The doorknob tured. As Max dropped onto
60 the balcony, he screamed once. The door opened
and a waiter stood there with a tray, a bottle and
two glasses.
65
70
"Here is the drink you ordered, sir." He set the
tray on the table and left the room.
White faced and shaking, Fowler stammered,
"but ... but ... what about ... the police?"
"There never were any police," Ausable
sighed. "Only room service, whom I was
expecting."
"But what about the man on the balcony ... ?"
Fowler began.
"What balcony?" asked Ausable.
Fowler was still breathing hard as Ausable
calmly poured himself a drink.
arranging ( l i ne 1 3) mea ns p/aneando,
programando not arreg/ando
Unit 2
report ( l i ne 1 8) means informe not reportaje
VOCAULAY
Words from the Text
1 . Choose the answer that best expl ai ns the
meani ng of the fi rst sentence. Pay attenti on
to the words i n col our.
1. O0 l e¤darranged a l :¤ ¤g I µIo S.ol' a¤d.
a. ¬eµ a¤¤ed I.
c. ¬ee¤¡oyed l .
2. T¤eyw ' del i ver l¤ecoo<:lo¤oow.
a T¤ey ' ead I¤e~.
c T¤ey ' c ¤gl¤e¤.
J. T¤e.¤ dhesi tated celoe:¤eIoo<¤y ¤a¤d
a. S¤eµa0:ed
c. S¤e' a0g¤ed
4. \o:loll¤eµeoµ ealI¤e.o¤.eIwee
mi ddl e-aged.
a . T¤eywee ¤I¤e 20:.
c. T¤eywee ¤I¤e 50:.
5. Weweedi sappoi nted w¤e¤we¤ead I¤e
re:0' Is
a T¤ee:0 l:weecellel¤a¤we¤ad
exµe.led.
c. T¤ee:0 l:wee¤oI a: good a: we ¤ad
exµe.led .
6. T¤eyµ0Ipoi son ¤ l¤e< ¤g:w ¤e.
a T¤eywa¤Iedlo< ' ¤ ~.
c T¤eywa¤Iedl¤ew ¤eIola:le¤.e.
7. We e Iy ¤gIocheer yo0 up.
a. Wewa¤lyo0 lolee' ¤aµµy.
c Wewa¤lyo0lo :Iay awa<e.
S T¤e¤a¤cega¤lo shake w¤e¤ ¤e:aw¯a0' .
a ¬e wa: µ' ea:edlo:ee ¯a0' .
c. See ¤g¯a0' 0µ:eI ¤ ~.
º ' I wa:a ¤ 0gerel i ef w¤e¤' ¤eadl ¤e¤ew:
a ' ¤ e::wo ed ¤ow
c ¤~oewo ed ¤ow
2. Compl ete the sentences in any
l ogi cal way.
1 . W¤e¤ ¤e a ved, ¤eswitched on . . . .
2. T¤eyolleedI¤e guests . . . .
3. T¤eaI¤' eIe : breathi ng
¤ad ce.a0:e . . . .
4. T¤e.¤ de¤: ~oI¤emade
sure l ¤al . . .
5. ¯' ea:e:loµ poi nti ng aI. . . ×
6. T¤eo' d¤a¤poured . . . .
P
\?
ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
Some words can be identified as adjectives by
their suffixes.
Some common adj ective suffixes are: -a/, -able,
-ous, - tic and -ive. Some adj ective suffixes have
got a special meaning: the suffix - ful means
with, whil e the suffix -less means without.
Note that sometimes there are changes in
spel l ing.
mystery � mysterious romance �romantic
�tammatAppeo6|x,paqe11 7
3. Complete the sentences by addi ng a sui tabl e
suffix to the words i n brackets.
1. A¤ H • µa ¤I ¤gcyVa¤ Gog¤.o:l: ~ o¤:ol
do ' a:. ,o g ¤)
2. ¯ol¤eyIea.¤ H de:g¤alyo0:.¤oo `,gaµ¤)
3. l: a · H H ¤aIIe I do¤ lwa¤lIola < aco0I l
, µe:o¤)
4. T¤e:e.eIage¤l¤ad:o¤e ¤lo~al o¤, c0l
¤eIo d ¤oo¤e ,va' 0e)
5. Yo0 µae¤l: a eloo H H • • T¤ey:¤o0 d elyo0
ce ~oe ¤deµe¤de¤l ,µole.I)
6. ' ¤ H H ! W¤y d d¤ lyo0 le ~e yo0.o0 d¤ l
.o¤e`,l0y)
7. ¯o¤I ce:.aed ol ~y dog - ¤e:.o¤µ ele y
. ,¤a¤)
S. Yo0 :¤o0' dc0yo¤eoll¤e:e - l¤ey evey
¤ l¤e < I.¤e¤ ,0:e)
� 4. Compl ete the passage by addi ng a sui tabl e
suffix to the words i n brackets. Then l i sten
and check your answers.
A1ìrcH hlcr`SNun HulcS
When you think of a firefighter, do you think
of a · · (hero) man or woman, running into a
burning house to save a child? "Well, that's not
all they do, " says Malcolm Green, an officer in
the London Fire Brigade. "Being a firefighter
means being in 2· H • (danger) situations, but
we also do plenty of ¯ H• • • • • • H. (education)
work. There's a lot people can do to
prevent fires, and we're always trying
to find 4· H • • HO (effect) ways to get this
message across." Firefighters must stay
in shape, and they need 5· O H H H O (psychology)
training to deal with victims who are panicking.
Despite all this, people love firefighters mostly
for their 6 HH·
·
· · ·
· ·
( tradition) role: they are heroes
who do an 7· HHO HO ( admire) job and who willing!)
face danger in order to prevent 8· H ( tragedy)
deaths.
. . `'³º�¹! Y .
DANGEROUS SITUATIONS
1. Match the begi nni ng of each sentence i n I
with its endi ng in 1 1 .
¹ Al el g¤Ie
2. ' ¬e µ' ² e ' '
3. ¬ewa: ¤ a le c ea.. de¤l,
¯eoµ ew¤oae ea: ycoed
5. ' ¯o¤'I ¤oveo' ' ' ' :¤ooI ' '
6. S¤e:Jlle:lo¤a le c e
1 1
a l¤eµeoµ' escreamed.
o. fear oldog:.
. c0l¤esurvi ved.
warned l¤eocce.
e. ¤eed:a ' ololcourage.
olIe¤ oo<loth | ' | s.
2. Replace the words in bold with the
expressi ons bel ow.
l i vi ng on the edge • seri ousl y i nj ured
a cl ose cal l • l ucky to be al ive
occupati onal hazard • ri sked hi s l i fe
T¤eyo0¤glal¤e put hi msel f in danger lo
:ave ¤ :. ¤ d.

²oa ~olo- a. ¤gd ve, ce ¤g ¤a¤ a.. de¤I :
| 0:la¤ol¤ework-rel ated danger.

T¤eµ olwa: badl y hurt ¤l¤e. a:¤ .
.
AlleI¤el e, I¤eyle lfortunate that they
hadn' t di ed.
� So¤eµeoµ' e:ee¤Ioe¤¡oybei ng constantl y
..
i n danger.
ty

-
-
.
:ly
͸
. lwa:a very dangerous si tuati on, c0Il¤ey
wee¤' l¤0I.
-_. .. . -ed I -ing ADJ ECTI VES - Adj ectives
��ding with -ed describe a feeling or state, while
�ojectives ending with -ing describe nouns that
:aJse or create this feeling.
3 Choose the correct form of the adjective.
Weweeshocked I shocki ng cyI¤e ¤ew:ol
l¤e a.. de¤l.

¬e e.e ved several threatened I threateni ng
µ¤o¤e.a :
.
T¤ee wa: a thr i l l ed I thri l l i ng .a . ¤a:e
¤o0g¤I¤e:leel:ol .o¤do¤
.
¬e wa: startl ed I startl i ng w¤e¤a ~y:le o0:
o¤a¤:Jdde¤ yaµµeaed.
o0ae¤'lea: yfri ghtened I fri ghteni ng a¤d
yo0do¤'Ila <~0.¤. Yo0' d¤a<e a good :µy'
µ4. Complete the passage with the words and
phrases bel ow. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
thri l l • survived • l i vi ng on the edge • fear
courage • seri ousl y i nj ured • ri sk thei r l i ves
Unit Z
WÛhK| N U ÛNTÛPÛ| ThE WÛhLÛ
We don't usually think of window cleaning as a dangerous job,
but window cleaners who work on tall buildings constantly
1
·
. . .. .. .. . A person who spends entire days standing on a shaky
platform 200 metres in the air has got to have plenty of 2·
Some cleaners have actually fallen. I n New York City
in 2007, two brothers fell from the 47th floor of a building.
One was killed, but the other miraculously 3· . . . ... , although
of course he was 4· . ... .. . . This type of accident can always
happen, but if you like 5 ... . and have no 6
·
. . . . . .... of heights,
the job has its good side. Feeling the wind in your face as you
look down on a city from the top of a skyscraper is a real 7
And you can also see some interesting details of people's lives
when you look through their windows!
• Complete the sentences. Make them true for
you.
1. I ' ¤q0 lefrightened ol . .
2. I gel furious w¤e¤ . . . .
3. W¤e¤ I wa: a.¤ d, I screamed
4. lt cheers ~eup w¤e¤ . . . .
5. BeloeI leavelo:. ¤oo' , make sure . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 80-81
� GRM

22
PAST SIMPLE
PAST CONTINUOUS
æ °
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. Fowler climbed an followed AusabiL.
b. At 70 o c was waiting or the report
c. As he was speaking A usable closed the door.
d. AUSOI le a Fo cler were sitting in the hate/ lobby.
e W le re waiter was knocking on the door A usable
was talking to Max.
1 . Whi ch sentence tal ks about . . . ?
1. a n incompl ete action mterrupted by another
action c
2. two incompl ete act1 011s 1 n progress at the
same time 1 n the past �
3. an incompl ete action m progress at a spec1 fic
time m the past t
.a description of a scene D
5. a compl eted action in the past l
2. Whi ch tense/s is/are used for each of the
uses above?
3. Compl ete the rul es.
1. We use verb + HO H to form the Past Simpl e
for regul ar verbs.
2. We use H H. + verb + . H. to form the
Past Continuous.
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
æ
1 . Read the exampl e and answer the questi ons.
Fov1e felt JfiU' <cu uccuu.Sc had expected
more
1. Which verb is in tre Pa.t Per•ect Simpl e?
2. Which action happened 'irstl
2. Compl ete the rul e.
We use ........ .. + the past partic pi e to form the
Past Perfect Simpl e.
El bombero se quem6 l as manos mi entra s sa l vaba a
u n n i f o.
�he f ·enghter burnt his hands while he was saving a
child. .
NOT The fref1qhter burnt h1s hands while he saved a
child X
1 . Compl ete each sentence with a sui tabl e
verb bel ow. Use the Past Si mpl e or Past
Conti nuous.
arri ve • cal l • not tal k • not fi ni sh
wash
1. T¤e~e¤le' ' a:l¤ey H . t¤ew ¤dow:
2. W¤e¤ l¤ea¤c0 a¤.e. `
3. I wa: geII ¤g eadylo ced w¤e¤²a a ~e.
4. ¯al ¤ :¤ea ce.a0:e ¤ewa:¤'I ¤0¤gy.
5. W¤yweeyo0 :le¤ ¤g`I H • Ioyo0 '
Z. Compl ete the sentences with the verbs
i n brackets. Use the Past Si mpl e or Past
Conti nuous.
1. Al ce ,¤oI.e)l¤ala :la¤ge ,lo ' ow)
¤e
2. W¤al yo0 . H H ,: ¤g) w¤· eyo0 ,¤ave)
a :¤owe`
3. T¤eewa:a olol ¤o :e a:l¤ g¤lw¤e¤
I . . . . .. . . ,.a' ' ) yo0. W¤aI . H • yo0 - ,do)`
4. T¤elea.¤e .H • ,exµ a ¤) I¤e0 e:w¤e¤
:o¤eo¤e.H • • , ¤le0µl)¤ ¤
5. J 0 a> . ..,a ve)a: we H , ¤ave) d ¤¤e
6. cveyo¤e H . H ,: eeµ)w¤e¤:0dde¤ y :o¤eo¤e
, <¤o. <)o¤I¤edoo.
3. Choose the correct answer.
1 . Byl¤el ¤el¤ey.a~eloa e:I ¤ ~, ¤e
a l ready escaped I had a l ready escaped.
2 . T¤elo~aloe: cega¤logow:oo¤alIewe
pl anted I had pl anted I¤e¤.
J wa: :oyI¤al was I had been :o ~µaI e¤l
ea ' e
4. We had fi ni shed I fi ni shed l¤e¡oc, :owe
. ea¤ed 0µ.
5. ¬e µae¤l:¤ad'elIceloe:¤ewoke up I
had woken up.
6. ' ge' we¤l¤o¤ece.a0:e¤eforgot I
had forgotten ¤ : coo<:
7. Ca a¤ad¤eve:ee¤ a.a ¤ va' J¤l ' :¤e
vi si ted I had vi si ted Baz .
S T¤e a:lIa ¤¤ad elIcyl¤eI ~e:¤ereached I
had reached l¤e:lal o¤
4. Compl ete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Past Si mpl e or Past Perfect
Si mpl e.
· ¯'e¯0e¯ (¯e¯CJe�
\
I'e µa¯¯e¯ge¯¯ aI!e¯
!¯e |¯n µ ( ¯ ¯<)
: ¬e . • ( ¯O! ¯ave)a¯y0O¯eybelO¯e ne
(¯e! ¯e)
3 \e ( ¯O!be' eve)I'aI!'eC' d (va <)
¯OIa¯by n 0¯e' I
\'e¯ I ve¯!IO !'eCa|µa¯<, I .. (¯ee)!'aI
¯O¤eO¯e - - .- (¯Iea ) ¤yCa|
� .u yOJ |.
¸
�(0a<e) a¯ aµµO ¯I0e¯!beIO¯e
yOu . .. (gO) !O¯ee ne|¹
« |'ey . . • • ( a ¯eady geI OlI)!'ebu¯vne¯!ney
· . (|ea ¯e)Ineyve|e ¯ Inev|O¯g µ' aCe.
.
\agg e. (be) Jµ¯eIbeCau¯e ¯'e ( O¯e)
'e¯ ea|| ¯g¯.

¬e¯ . ( ¯O! µa¯¯)Ineexa¤beCau¯e 'e
(¯OI µ|eµa|e)
¯
°
Write sentences usi ng the words bel ow. Use
the Past Si mpl e, Past Conti nuous or Past
Perfect Si mpl e.
.au|aI la ' a¯' eeµI ¯'eI vaIC'T I vn e

c zabe!'I ¯eCOg¯ ¯e A¯d|evI ¯'eI 0ee! n 0I
a!a µa|!yI beCau¯e

|'eyI d¯ veIO!'eal|µO|!I I'e ¯Ca|I
o|ea<dOv¯I v'e¯
.
1'e¯nOvI beg ¯I veI a|¯ veI byI'e! 0e
� cav dI ¯ead !ne¯ev¯µaµe¯I
' ¯C' ' d|e¯I gO IObed I aIIe|
.
a¯I I I ' eave!'enOu¯eI Ou|dOgI
¯u¯OuIOII'edOO|
.
¬e I µaC<I n ¯oag¯I eaveI
!nenOu¯eI a¯d
3 1neyI CaICn I I'e¯µyI 'eI
e¯Ie|I e¯e0yIe¯¯IO|yI aI!e|
6. Write an answer for each questi on. Write
complete sentences. Use the words in brackets
and the Past Conti nuous or Past Perfect
Si mpl e.
\'yd d IneCn d¯Ia|!IOC¯y¹( 'J|I n ¯<¯ee)
2 \ne¯ d dJ ua¯ ' ea¯¯ c¯g' ¯'¹(I|ave' )
3. \nyd d J On¯Iee' ' ' ¹(eaIIOO 0JCn)
\nyd d¯nenavea¯aCC de¯!¹(d¯ veIOOIa¯I)
: \ne¯d dIne ¯µy de¯I|OyIne dOCu0e¯!¹ (aI!e¯I
0e0O¯ ¯e I)
¯. \'e¯ d d yOu nave¯< ¯g' e¯¯O¯¯¹(¯Iay ¯
! 'eA µ¯)
Unit 2
7. Complete the sentences in a l ogi cal way. Use
the Past Si mpl e, Past Conti nuous or
Past Perfect Si mpl e.
¹ . HyIne! ¤eJOyCe gOIIO¯C'OO' , . .
2 1neba¯<eIba' ' µ' aye|le a¯¯ne .
3 . A' a¯va¯|e' ax ¯g ¯n ¯|OO0vne¯ .
4. |nebOy aµO' Og ¯edbeCaJ¯e ne .
5. 'I¯Ia|!edIO |a ¯v' ' e .
6. Sa0 va¯ µ ea¯ed aIIe| 'e . . .
� 8. Compl ete the passage with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Past Si mple, Past Conti nuous
or Past Perfect Simpl e. Then l i sten and check
your answers.
Shark expert Or Eri ch Ritter bel i eved that sharks
were not as dangerous as most peopl e thought.
I n 2002, he =. -= -- (travel ) to the Bahamas to
prove his theory. There were many sharks i n the
area, and Or Ritter 2
·
. ... . (put) pi eces of fish i n the
water in order to attract them. He wanted to show
that they woul d pay no attention to hi m if he kept
cal m. He ¯ . .+. = (do) this experiment many ti mes
before, but thi s ti me somethi ng went wrong.
A l arge shark .~=.. (chase) another fish when it
swam towards Or Ritter and ¯ .. . .
(attack) hi m. Accordi ng to other
sci entists, Or Ritter ¯ ...... (often take)
great risks in order to prove his theories
and they . +. .= (not be) surpri sed by the
acci dent. Luckily, Or Ritter 8· .. .=~. (survive) the
attack. He later sai d he i ntended to conti nue
hi s work.
Sharks kill fewer than
20 people a year.
Grammar Review
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
9. Rewrite the fol lowi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori ginal
meaning.
¹ ' !¯Ia|IedIO |a ¯ ¯ Ine ¤ dd' eOI Ou| µ C¯ C
(vn ' e)
2. \elOu¯da beIIe|l a!|'e¯ve ¤Oved (al!e¯)
3 . S'eI ¯ ¯neda' ' InevO|< |ne¯ neCa¤eIO ne' µ
ne| (by!'eI ¤e)
4. I µ' a¯ IO' eave ¯ a vee< (' eav ¯g)
5. I dO¯'! ¯Ie¯IOC' a¯¯ Ca' ¤J¯ Ca! a' ' ( ¯eve|)
E xtra g ra mma r exe rc i se s a t :
ÞÞÞ.0 u rlìng| on 0ooI s . ts/t:tÞ¡o i nts1

SKILLS
LISTENING �
A CONVERSATION
1 . The fol lowi ng jobs are consi dered to be some of the most dangerous i n the worl d.
Why do you thi nk each job i s dangerous?
• constructi on worker • fi refi ghter
• pol i ce officer • pi lot
• secret agent I spy
• war correspondent
• taxi dri ver • pi zza del i verer • mi ner
READ CAREFULLY - When you have t o answer mu l ti ple-choice questi ons, al ways
read a l l the opti ons carefu l l y before you l i sten. Some opti ons may not use exactl y the same
words as the passage, so l i sten careful l y for al ternati ve expressi ons, synonyms and opposi tes.
Z. Two students, El l i e and Chris, are di scussi ng
one of the jobs above. Listen to the first
part of the conversation and choose the
correct conti nuation for each sentence.
¹ c' e ºdo ¤g ~ed a ºl0d eº ce.a0ºe
a lºo0¤dº <el0¤
c. l'ºa¤eaºy.o0ºe
. . lw ' ¤e' µ¤e ¤ ¤e .aee
d. º¤ead~ eºl¤eIea. ¤e
2. C¤ º . .
a wo0 d <e lo ce a wa.oeºµo¤de¤l
c. l ¤ ¤<º c' ' e'º dea ºgood
.. ¤aº eadaco0Iwa.oeºµo¤de¤Iº
d. I¤ ¤<º c' ' e º¤a< ¤ga ~ ºIa<e
3. A..od ¤gIo I¤e µoga¤~e, wa
.o eºµo¤de¤lº . . .
a ae ae' yº¤olal
c. ae ¤.o¤ºIa¤Ida¤ge
.. ae 0º0a' ' yºo d eº
d. ºlayce¤ ¤dI¤elo¤I' ¤eº
3. El l i e and Chri s see each other a few weeks
l ater. Listen to thei r conversation and
compl ete the sentences usi ng 1 -4 words.
1 . T¤e.oeºµo¤de¤lce eveº
º¤e º' 0. <y
2. So~el ~eºl¤e.oeºµo¤de¤Idoeº
¤ol. . . . loa wee<.
3. c ee¤¡oyº¤o0¤la ¤c < ¤gce.a0ºe
º¤e <eº' v ¤g
4. C¤ ºce' eveº . .. .. .a¤'l ce.o~µaed
lo ~o0¤la ¤c < ¤g.
5. Wa.oeºµo¤de¤lºwa¤Iµeoµ' eIo
<¤ow ¤ow
• If you had to choose a job from those l i sted i n
Exercise 1 , what woul d i t be? Why?
WEB EXTRA Find out about other dangerous jobs at: uuu0non0ooscscuonI
SPEAKING
TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE
1 . Look at the picture and describe
what you see.
Match each question about the picture with a
sui tabl e response. Then practise the dialogue
wi th a partner.
Question
W¤aI :¤edo ¤g`
.
W¤y : ¤e do ¤g l`
. W¤aI': da¤geo0:aco0l l`
.
W¤al< ¤d olµe:oP do yo0 I ¤ ¤<¤e :`
. ¬owwo0 dyo0lee' ¤l¤ :: l0al o¤ `
Response
= I suppose ¤e': a vel, :o I: ¤ :¡ oc
-
Maybe I¤el gew ' ' wa<e 0µ a¤daIIac< ¤ m.
-
I ' d be veyl g¤le¤ed ' dµobac y:cea~'
-
l t l ooks l i ke ¤e':la< ¤gcae ola l ge':Ieel ¤.
+ He's probabl y vey cave.
3. Wi th a partner, choose a picture bel ow.
Describe the picture, then ask and answer
the questi ons in Exercise 2. Use the
expressi ons in colour in your conversati on.
1
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to add more i nformati on or add
a nother poi nt to what you've j ust sai d, use the
fol l owi ng expressi ons:
And another thi ng, . . .
What' s more, . . .
Pl us the fact that . . .
And besi des, . . .
Uni t 2
25
�WRITING
A Narrative
1 . Read the narrative bel ow. Wi l l the writer ever go on a banana boat agai n?
¥I08IN4kI ÛN464¥4¥4
Last summer, I went on holiday with my friends Lily and Jack. One day, we were
standing on the beach, watching people fly across the water on a banana boat - a long
yellow rubber boat pulled by a speedboat. It looked like such a great thrill that we
decided to try i t.
I held on as tightly as I could. Then, as the speedboat was making a sharp turn, the
banana ti pped over and we all fell into the water. Laughing, I looked around for my
friends. Suddenly I saw that Lily had blood all over her face. Jack and I swam
towards her to see what had happened. I felt quite panicky.
By this time, the driver had noticed what was going on, and came back
to help. We took Lily to hospital as soon as we got to shore. Later, we were told
that she had a broken nose from hitting the water so hard, but luckily she hadn' t
been seriously injured!
,
A lot of people enjoy banana boats, but I ' m not brave enough to try one again.
The funny thing is that Lily still loves them!
2. Fi nd the answer to each question in the narrative.
! W¤owa: ¤vo ved ¤ I¤e:Ioy`
2. W¤ee dd I¤e:!oyIa<e µ ace`
3. W¤e¤ d dI¤e:!o|y!a<eµ' ace`
4. W¤a!l g¤!e¤ ¤gI da¤ge|o0:I ¤ ¤g ¤aµµe¤ed`
5. ¬owd d!¤ec¤aacIe|:|eacIIo!¤e ¤c de¤I`
6. ¬owd dI¤e:Io|ye¤d`
CONNECTORS OF SEQUENCE
AND TIME EXPRESSIONS
We use connectors of sequence to hel p ma ke the
order of events cl ear. Time expressions describe
when things happen .
|q0u|6e,paqe1 49
3. Look at the connectors of sequence and ti me
expressi ons bel ow and fi nd four of them i n
the model .
Begi nni ng the story: ¤t¤eceg ¤¤ ¤gI a!l :I
Conti nui ng the story: ccloeI alIe|I ¤exII ' a!eI
w¤e¤I I¤e¤I a: :oo¤a:
New el ements to the story: :0dde¤' yI a' ola
:0dde¤¹
Events occurri ng at the same ti me: w¤ ' eI a:I
d0| ¤g
E ndi+g: eve¤I0a' ' yI aI' a:II ¤!¤ee¤dI l ¤a' y
4. Use connectors of sequence to complete the
story. There may be more than one suitabl e
answer.
A HUNGRY BEAR
Two yea:ago, wewe¤!ca¤µ ¤g ¤I¤e¤o0¤Ia ¤:
O¤ealIe|¤oo¤, .. .. wewe|e µ|eµa| ¤gd ¤¤e|
ovea ca¤µl e, we:awa cea|wa!c¤ ¤g 0:l|o¤
aco0I a ¤0¤ded ¤e!e:away. We g¤o|ed I,
¤oµ ¤g IwoJ' dgoaway, c0I Icega¤!owa' <
!owad:0: ' ¯ we|ea :edI¤aIwewee ¤
da¤ge|,weI| edIoeme¤cew¤aI!¤eµa| <a¤ge|
¤ad!o d 0: 3· . ¸ we:¤o0Ied a¤dwaved o0
a| ¤: ¤I¤ea | :oI¤ecea|wo0 d! ¤ ¤<wewe|e
' a|gea¤ ¤a' : 4· . . . . . , wecega¤!o cac<away
:' ow' y ²oI0¤a!e' y, !¤e cead d¤I
lo' ' ow 0: - ¤e wa: !oo
¤Ie|e:!ed ¤ o0 d ¤¤e '
5
·
. we|e!0|¤ed, we
lo0¤d!¤eewa:¤olood
elI lo| 0: 6· . , uwa:
wo!¤ ¤ :: ¤ga ¤ea
lo|I¤eexµe| e¤ceol
ce ¤g:o ¤ea|a cea| '
1e
e
ì ¤:.
�e|
I
During is fol l owed by a noun to state when somethi ng
ha ppens.
;ent camping during our summer holiday.
For is fol l owed by a peri od of ti me to descri be how long
someth i ng goes on.
ent camping for two weeks.
5. Write the story in the correct order.
Use the connectors of sequence to hel p you.
Then I el!!¤ee:!a0|a¤! a¤d go! ¤!o!¤ecac<
ol!¤eca
-
As we eac¤ed!¤edoool!¤ee:!a0a¤!, suddenl y
e¤e¤ceed!¤a!I ¤ad el!¤ycoa!o¤¤yc¤a .
-
Before co0' d:ay awod, !¤eceoc e ¤ !¤elo¤!
:ea!!0¤edao0¤d a¤d cega¤:cea¤ ga!¤e
] .¤ced o0!a:la:!a: co0 d '
-
Later, I |ea :ed!¤a!!¤ey ¤ad cocac ycee¤¡ .:ta:
¯ g¤!e¤ed a: wa:.
¯
��y ¤0¤, ~yco!¤e|a¤dI we¤!o0!!o d ¤¤e
one eveni ng.
-
As soon as ¤adc' o:ed!¤ecadoo,
ea :ed:o¤e!¤ ¤gwa: wo¤g. I ¤adgo!
1 o!¤ewo¤gca '
.
¯'| ey co¤! ¤0edwa < ¤g !o!¤ecawhi l e I
°
· e¤!cac<!oge!¤ycoa!.
-
After we ¤adl ¤ :¤edea! ¤g, we go! 0c !o eave
- Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
connectors and ti me expressi ons i n brackets.
Make any necessary changes.
¯
'·e ¤c de¤!¤acce¤edw¤ eweweeo¤
¯o day , d0 ¤g)
.
¯ |:!we!oo<ollo0 :¤oe:. T¤e¤wec' ¤cedo¤!o
¯·e ca¤a¤acoa! ,al!e|)
&
.a!a' ele !ce!!eal!e|a lewwe�| ,eve¤!Ja y)
.
e ¤ad:!a|!ed coo< ¤g!¤e¤ea!celoewe:aw
¯·e cea. ,!¤e¤)
-
Our l e¤d:l ¤a yca¤e!o c ¤g 0:lood ,a! a:!)
-
Compl ete the sentences in a l ogi cal way.
t! |stevey!¤ ¤gwa: l ¤e, cJ!!¤e¤
-
. ¤a¤wa: : !! ¤g ¤!¤ea co!w¤e¤
s uddenl y
.
¯
�vo ceoc eweecad' y ¤¡ 0edwhen
:¯ e ¤adde:!|oyed!¤edoc0~e¤!before
e ! <ewe ¤adwa !edlo¤o0:. F i nal l y, . . .
Unit 2
Your Task
• Write a narrative about a dangerous or
fri ghteni ng experi ence. Use 1 00-1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR NARRATIVE
1 . Brai nstorm your narrative.
• Thi nk of somethi ng fri ghteni ng or
dangerous that happened to you or to
someone you know: an accident, a travel
experience or getti ng lost, for exampl e.
If you can't thi nk of somethi ng real ,
make up a story.
'
• Thi nk about the fol l owi ng questi ons:
W¤owa: ¤vo' ved ¤!¤e:!oy`
- W¤ee a¤dw¤e¤d d !!a<ec' ace`
W¤a:¤acce¤ed!¤a!wa:l g¤!e¤ ¤g o|
da¤geo0:`
· ¬owd d:¤ec¤a ac!e: eac:!o!¤e
da¤ge`
- W¤a!wee!¤ec¤aac!e:do ¤g`
¬ow d d!¤ec¤aac!e:lee `
¯ d! ¤e:!o|ye¤d¤acc ' yo|¤o!`
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page Zb and the pl an below to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: ¯e:c cew¤ee a¤dw¤e¤!¤e
:!oy!a<e:c acea¤d ¤!|od0ce
!¤ec¤a|ac!e|:.
Body: ¯e:c ce !¤e eve¤!: ¤ !¤e:!o|y
a¤d ¤ow!¤e c¤aac!e:le' !
Cl osi ng: ¯e:c| ce¤ow!¤e:!o|ye¤ded.
3. Write a fi rst draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a fi nal draft.
CHECKLIST
/ ï{:||:»eøtleµ|ø��{:ct1 :coti«e.
/
ï uc ::»t:c: :{:çueeø�<ø
timeµce.:i:<s.
/ ï chck3rf11r :µe||iq ø�uø
µu+tuti:�:.
5K!LL5

451
• TASK QUESTIONS
USING A DICTI ONARY
You are goi ng to practise some basi c di cti onary ski l l s. Look at the di cti onary
extracts and abbrevi ati on key. Then answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.

Abbreviati on Key
Bri ti sh Engl i sh
preposi tion
adverb
verb
pl ural
Ameri can Engl i sh
adjective
noun

C
a
º t + ¬
b
bear /be;/ (bears, bearing, bore, borne)
ver
b
. 1 . to carry or hol d: All the ¾c
_ men
b
ore guns.
2. to be abl e to tol erate:
e
Can you bear the pain?
noun. a l arge, strong wi l d ani mal . -d
fi gure /'fig;/ noun ( pi . fi gures)
noun 1. a number, especi al l y in statistics: Figures show that one in
every two marriages ends in divorce.
2. the shape of the human body: She has a very attractive figure.
3. a person that you cannot see clearly: We noticed a tall figure
standing near the window
verb to cal culate an amount: We figure there were about 1 0, 000
people at the concert .
1 . Headwords are the words at the top of the di cti onary page, showi ng the fi rst and l ast words on that
page. Look at the headwords i n A above. Whi ch of the fol lowi ng words woul d you fi nd on the page?
figure • fickle • fifh • fidget
2. Di cti onaries often use abbrevi ati ons. Look at 8 above and match each abbrevi ati on bel ow to its meani ng.
n. • v. • AmE • BrE • pi . • adj. • adv. • prep.
3. it's i mportant to understand the structure of a di cti onary entry. Match each part of the
entry in C above with its l abel bel ow.
exampl e sentence • phonetic spel l i ng • part of speech • defi ni ti on • other forms of the word
4. How many parts of speech does entry C above show for bear?
5. Whi ch i s the correct part of speech and defi ni ti on for bear i n the context of the fol l owi ng sentence?
I co0 d¤ !cea IowaIc¤I¤e |º!0gg' e
b. Whi ch defi ni ti on of figure i n D above fits the context of the fol l owi ng sentence?
I co0 dºee!wol g0eºº!0gg' ¤g 'oco¤!o ol!¤eg0¤.
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
Read the extract bel ow. Look up the meani ng of the words in bol d. Whi ch i s a
phrasal verb?
From where I stood. I could see the two figures in a l i fe-and-death struggle for the
control of a si ngle gun. It was clasped in their hands. hi gh above thei r heads. As I
came closer. I could see the strain on thei r faces.
I could hardly bear to watch. Then suddenly, Taylor slammed hi s elbow i nto
da Si lva 's stomach and bent his arm up behi nd his back. The gun went tl yi ng across
the snow. But da Si lva did not give up.
PHRASAL VERBS ­
Meani ngs of phrasal
verbs are usu a l l y g i ven
at the end of the entry
for the verb.
19.
n
y

Go for It!
|nit0I]ccti\cs
* Sport and Achievement
* Presen t Perfect Si mple I Past Si mpl e
` Li st ening to a Radio I nt ervi ew
* Exchangi n g Int'ormation
* Wri t i ng a Bi ography
' L!'c Ski l l s: Booking Tickets Onl i ne

Read the statements below. Which one best reflects your attitude to life?
a ca¤ e' ax, ceca0ºe <¤owI¤a!wo¤del0 I¤ ¤gºw ¤aµce¤!o ¤e ¤ ¤y le
c a¤ º0e !¤a! l !y ¤ad e¤o0g¤, w ceac e!o ac¤ eve ¤y goa º
c 'o ¤a!!e¤ow¤a|d I !y, wo¤ !ac¤ eve ¤ygoa º
. Li sten to the song and read the lyri cs. Whi ch of the statements above is the best
summary of the song's message?
coÏ0Ao
y
m Cleiqh Ptr
- c|nndnenmc|n/nghn5¡ø5l|egøn,
nl/cøl/dennd/ l0øch me5øn
On´lnn/ll05ln|lmedn¸l0dnq.
¯.8|e mn¸|e|l0t|Scnme|cod on·c'
¯. /¸»:t¿·r|qll |ø/n:lend
~cn´l/elnll/nggel/n mq nnq.
¯ e|e´55cmøchl5ee,qenh
: n//he|ejc|me,qenh
: |end q, nc|/d, ´cnø5ehe|e/ccme.
r«s·
I U1 dcnnqll/ng,
- llnllnnnll, ncll/ng/cnn´ldc.
Ondcnnqll/ng,
· 0 cnecnn le//menc.
!Y dcnnqU1/ng,
·0m/ngcnn5l]me,gc´hendnndnnlchme.
� ø5e/|e//e.e,qenh,/|e//e.e/nme,
·d/cnndcnnqll/ng.
ec]/ele//me/|enchlch/gh,
/´//ne.e||ncn/]/ne.e|lrq.
ll´5///e /´mn/|endqc[meg|cønd.
ll´5 mq //jennd/l´5 ø]l0me,
/ |ncn mnl/´m/n lled|/.e|´55enj
;chc/dcn þhlnnd/ ´//|c//llen/ndcn5dcnn.
|ee/llnln/nd|lcn/n,
Lcn´l|ncnnhe|e/ ´mgc/n�
røl//cnl n///j/ndmqnnq.
cner«s
/mnqjn//n/cnglle nnq,
-nd|}lle 0ne5gell0øgh,
/cll/ng´5gcnnn/ee]medcnn,
/ ´//gel|nc/ø] .
is |«|c/cntô nocqnot/now
nl'°nstre>
røl /j/ ´mlcnjro/dlj/q, / |ncn/´//
ne.e|5cnr
cner«s{repeatm/ce)
Do you think that a positive attitude is hel pful in achieving difficult goal s?
What el se is needed to achieve difficul t goal s?
WEB EXTRA
Find out about a sports team that overcame an unusual chall enge at:
ÞÞÞ.0urhng|oi|0ooks.ts/º|tÞ¡o| i| |sI


5. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
1 . ² :!o 0:a¤d¤ :coac¤ c' a ¤ed !¤a!.
a O:ca ¤adove|co¤e ¤Jged :adva¤!age:
30
1. Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
ac e-cod ed • c ade:• oveco¤e
ove|!0 ¤• :cace-age
IDENTIFYING THE MAIN IDEA
Readi ng the fi rst sentence of a par agra p h can
h el p i denti fy the ma i n i dea. I denti fyi ng the ma i n
i dea of each par agraph wi l l h el p you understand
the !cx!.
2. Read the first sentence of each paragraph in
the text. I n whi ch paragraph do you thi nk you
wi l l fi nd the fol l owi ng i nformati on?
¹ ¯ :!o| 0: ea| y le 2
2. T¤eea:o¤ lo!¤e AA²:dec : o¤¬
3. ¯ :!o 0: |eac! o¤!o!¤e AA²: dec : o¤S
4. A¤ ¤!|od0c! o¤!o O:ca¯ :!o| 0:´
5. T¤el ¤a ved c! b
3. Read the text and check your answers to
Exercise 2.
4. Answer the questi ons.
¹ W¤a! :0¤0:0a aco0!O:ca ¯ :!o| J:`
2 W¤yd d² :!o 0:ce eve ¤e:¤o0 dcea' owed
!oco¤ce!e ¤ !¤e O y¤c c:`
3. W¤a!d d!¤e' AA²dec de`
4. W¤yd d!¤ey¤a<e!¤ :dec : o¤`
5. Accod ¤g!o¯ :!o 0: a¤d ¤ :coac¤, w¤a!
¤a<e: ¤ ¤:0cce::l0' `
6. W¤y : !¤ewod ironically 0:ed ¤ ¤e 33?
c !¤eC¤ee!a¤:weece!!e!¤a¤ ' eg:
c. !wo0 dce!ood ll c0 !lo¤ ¤!oco¤ce!e
a!Be¡ ¤g
d. ¤ :ca:ewo0 d:e! a cecede¤!
2. ² :!o 0:d d ¤o!co¤ce!ea!Be¡ ¤g ceca0:e
a. !¤e AA·wo0' d¤o!a ow !
c. ¤ewa:d :ac ed
c ¤ed d¤o! 0¤la:!e¤o0g¤
d !¤eCASwo0' d¤o!a ' owit
3. Accod ¤g!o!¤e!ex!, ² :!o| 0: ca:e ¤a: ¤ade
ceoc e. . . .
b.
1 .
2
3.
4.
5.
a. wa¤!C¤ee!a¤: ¤:!eadol ea' eg:
c wo¤de|¤ow¤0c¤ !ec¤¤o ogy:¤o0 d ce
0:ed ¤ :co!
c a:<w¤e!¤ed :ac' eda¤dac' e-cod ed
a!¤ e!e::¤o0 dco¤ce!e!oge!¤e
d. c¤a¤ge!¤e |¤ ¤d:aco0!d :ac' eda!¤' e!e:
Find words in the text that mean:
ac¤ eve¤e¤!,ca|agac¤ 1)
ce:!, lo|e¤o:!,caagac¤3) -.
¤o¤cole:: o¤a' ,caag|ac¤3)
gea!e!¤a¤ ¤o|¤a' ,caagac¤5)
''
¤cove, caagac¤ 6)
• I n your opi ni on, shoul d Oscar Pistori us be
al lowed to compete at the next Ol ympi cs?
Why or why not?
F ind out about some strange sports at:
WEB EXTRA
u•u•u•. 0urliiigroii0ooIs. cs{i·icii¹¡oiiirsI
t.
|
LmLÅF
¯ ` ¯¯¯¯ ` L ¯
Oscar Pi storius can run faster than almost anyone on earth, whi ch is
quite an amazing accompl i shment when you consi der the fact that he
has no legs. A doubl e amputee and a worl d-class spri nter, he has forced
the athletics world to deal with some di ffi cul t questi ons.
5
Pi stori us was born in South Africa in 1 986. At the age of 1 1 months,
both hi s l egs were amputated bel ow the knee because of a bi rth defect.
Despite this devastati ng di sabi l ity, he became an athlete at a young age,
competi ng with abl e-bodi ed boys i n rugby, water pol o, wrestl i ng and
tenni s. I n 2004, he took up runni ng and has never l ooked back.
I
10 Pistorius won a gol d medal at the 2004 Paralympics i n Athens,
but he wanted to compete i n the Ol ympi c Games i n Beij i ng i n
2008. After al l , hi s ti mes were as good as those of many top,
abl e-bodi ed runners. However, the I nternational Amateur Athletic
Associati on, the IMF, ruled against hi s request.
15
The reason for the I MF's decision was Pistori us' hi gh-tech
prostheti cs, called Cheetahs - a pair of J-shaped bl ades
especi all y desi gned for runni ng. Accordi ng to the I MF, the
Cheetahs make Pi stori us tal l er and l engthen hi s stride, gi vi ng
hi m an unfair advantage. They al so feared that Pistori us'
20 case woul d set a precedent , openi ng the way for al l sorts
of robotic enhancements i n spor. They even raised the
questi on of whether, i n the future, athl etes mi ght seek an
advantage by replacing healthy l i mbs with artificial ones.
Pi stori us and hi s coach appealed the deci si on, poi nti ng out
25 the di sadvantages created by the Cheetahs. They also remi nded the
world of the obvious - that onl y through superhuman determination
and wi l lpower had Pistorius overcome such di fficult ci rcumstances.
"I trai n harder than other guys, eat better, sleep better and wake up
thi nki ng about athleti cs, " said Pi stori us. "I thi nk that's probably why
30 I ' m a bi t of an excepti on. "
The deci si on of the IMF was overturned by the Court of
Arbitration for Sport, the CAS, maki ng Pi stori us el i gi bl e to compete
at Beij i ng. I roni call y, he failed to meet the requi red qualifying ti me
for the 400-metre sprint , so he coul d not joi n the South African
35 Ol ympi c team. However, Pi stori us i s still determi ned to compete
against abl e-bodi ed athletes. Meanwhi l e, his story has raised
many issues concerni ng technology i n sport. Today's athletes use
everythi ng from space-age swi msui ts to oxygen tents i n order to
enhance thei r performance. As science advances, what wi ll be
40 allowed and what wi l l not?
False friends
according to ( l i ne 1 7) means segun not acordando a
determined ( l i ne 35) means decidido not determinado
� Unit 3
�VOCAULAY
Words from the Text
1 . Are the statements true or fal se? Pay
attention to the words in col our. Correct the
fal se statements.
1 . ' lyoJ ¤a<e a request, yoJ a:<lo|:o¤eI¤ ¤g.
2 . As Iec¤¤o ogyadvances, M²4 µ aye|:a|e
ceco¤ ¤gc gge|.
3. You can get your l i cence if you fa| | your dri vi ng
Ie:I.
4. lyoJseek :o¤eI¤ ¤g, yoJ ¤aveloJ¤d I.
5. W ¤¤ ¤ga go' d¤eda' :a geaI
accompl i shment .
G. ' lyoJ l engthen yoJ|IoJ:e|:, yoJ ¤a<eI¤e¤
:¤oIe|
7 . ' lyoJtake up a :µo|I,yoJ |e ¤ewaI I.
S. ' IwoJ' d ceunfa i r lyoJ Ieac¤e|:c¤edJ' ed
I¤|eeexa¤: ¤o¤eday.
2. Compl ete the sentences with the words
below.
devastati ng • di sabi l ity • l i mbs
superhuman • wi l l power
! . T¤e:µ| ¤Ie|a¤aIa¤ a' ¤o:I :µeed.
2 . T¤e¤ew:olI¤eacc de¤Iwa: . . . • Wewe|e
a' ' :¤oc<ed.
3. . zi s deal, cJI¤e ·. • • doe:¤I :Ioµ ¤el|o¤
do ¤gw¤aIeve :¤ewa¤I:.
4 ' IIa<e:a ' oIol - . • Io:Iayo¤a d eI
5. T¤e:Jvvo|: ¤ad ¤| J| e:IoI¤e | owe|
3. Read the sentences i n I . Then match the verbs
in colour to thei r defi ni ti ons i n 1 1 .
1 . ' wa¤IedIogeIl I,:o dec dedIoj oi n ¤y' oca
gy¤.
2 . Maxpoi nted out I¤aISJewa: Ie¤ ¤ ¤JIe:
' aIe.
3. W¤yd dI¤eCASoverturn I¤eI AAF's dec : o¤`
4 So¤eaI¤' eIe:Ia<edJg:Ioenhance I¤e
µe|lo|¤a¤ce.
5. T¤egove|¤¤e¤II| edIodeal wi th I¤ec| : :.
1 1
a. ¤a<e:o¤eo¤eawa|eola lacI
c |eve:ea µ|ev oJ:dec : o¤ o ' aw
c. Ia<eacI o¤Io:o vea µ|oc' e¤
d. ¤µove, ¤a<e ceIIe
e. ceco¤ea ¤e¤ce ola g|oJµ
VERB COLLOCATIONS
Some verbs a re commonl y u sed wi th certai n
nouns. These combi nati ons a re cal l ed
col l ocati ons.
Pistorius won o medal at the 2004 Paralympics.
His story has raised issues concering technology
in sport.
They feared that Pistorius' case would set a precedent.
4. Which of the nouns can be used to form
col l ocations with the verbs in col our?
! . wi n -
a ¤eda' , a µ| ze, a µa|Iy, a ¤aIc¤, a¤a|gJ¤e¤I,
a co¤µeI I o¤, a wa|, a¤oc:Iac' e
2 . rai se -
a¤ ::Je, a qJe:I o¤, a ¤e coµIe|, a :a' a|y, a l ag,
a ¤ea , a cJ ' d ¤g, a µ a¤
3. set -
a :I, a µecede¤I, a Iac' e, a ecod, a¤ a a|¤,
a docJ¤e¤I, a daIe
5. Compl ete the sentences with col l ocations
from Exercise 4. Make any necessary changes.
! ¬owd dyoJ co¤v ¤ceyoJ|co::Io .• • • yoJ
`
2 . T¤ela¤:weede' g¤Iedw¤e¤I¤e |Iea¤
I¤e l ¤a
3. ¯ d M c¤ae' ²¤e' µ: e g¤Igo'd aII¤e
Be| ¤gO y¤µ c:`
4 'eI: I¤e .. . lo G 00a¤.
5. W¤ c¤coJ¤I|y . . I¤e . . . • olI¤eRo:e:
¤ ! 4S5`
G. OJ| Ieac¤ewo¤I eIa¤y:IJde¤I ¤ aIe. S¤e:
al|a d Iw ' ... .. a
7 . ' lyoJ I¤ ¤< I: ¤µo|Ia¤I, yoJ :¤oJ' d I¤aI
. • • • aII¤e ¤exI :c¤oo' ¤eeI ¤g.
S. ¬ g¤¡ J¤µe Jav eSoIo¤ayo .. . a ¤ewwod
aI2 . 45¤eIe: ¤ 1 993.
Javier Sotomayor, world record holder since 1 993
)
,
SPORT AND ACHIEVEMENT
1 . Name two . . . .
!yce:ola!¤' eI c:equi pment
:coI:champi ons
3. awards ¤:coI
:coI:!¤aIde¤a¤da o!olstrength
5 :coI: !¤aIde¤a¤da o! olendura nce
-
:coI: !¤aIde¤a¤da o! olspeed

way: !o ¤c|ovea!¤ e! cperformance
2. Replace the words i n bold with the words and
expressi ons below.
chal l enge • broke a record • tra i ni ng
defeat • struggl ed • beat an opponent
overcame • achi eve a goal
! !a<e:a oIolpracti ce Io ea¤gy~¤a:I c:
.
·o¤e, ea ¤ ¤g!o d ve wa: a di ffi cul t thi ng
to do.

tri ed very hard !odea' w !¤ ¤y d :ac ! e:
T¤egoa olco~ce! ! ve:co|!: : Iowi n agai nst
another person or team.
. T¤e¤ g¤| 0¤ce performed better than any
previ ous athl ete.
.
T¤egy¤¤a:!wa: ¤¡ 0ed, c0!:¤esucceeded
i n dea l i ng wi th !¤eca ¤.
.
T¤eIea¤: l oss wa: d :acco ¤! ¤g
+ !!a<e:w ' cowe|!oaccompl i sh what you want.
O' 0VS

An i di om i s a n expressi on
¯¯+Ican' t be transl ated word-for-word i n a nother
� "guage. keep your eye on the ball means be alert
3. Choose the correct meani ng of each i di om.
!: a c IyI¤a!¤ethrew i n the towel al!ea
lewd :acco ¤!~e¤!:. (kept tryi ng I gave up)

ve do¤eal i i can. The bal l 's i n your court
¤ow ( l et's work together I it's your turn to act)
3 Yo0 ea ' y ¤:0' Ied ¤ ¤. T¤a!wa: h itti ng bel ow
the belt. (funny I cruel )
¯o¤Iwo||y, yo0 ' :oo¤l earn the ropes aI
yo0 ¤ew| oc. ( understand how thi ngs work I
become popul ar)
. ' !: 0c<y ¤e had a head star o ¤e wo0 d¤I
¤avel ¤ :¤edo¤ I ~e. (thought careful l y I
started before the others)
4. Whi ch sport do you thi nk each i diom i n
Exercise 3 comes from?
sai l i ng • boxi ng • tenni s • horse raci ng
achi eve • performance • defeat
speed • trai ni ng • endurance
beati ng • competiti on
When you watch athletes at a
you see them doing incredible gymnastics
or skiing downhill at superhuman ´
What you don't see is all the work that's going
on inside their heads. Today, athletes know that
mental . . . . . is just as important as . . . . . . . . . to
build physical strength. The right state of mind
Unit 3
can mean the difference between victory and ¯
Sports psychologists teach athletes positive thinking
and visualisation - to see and feel themselves 6
·
.
their opponents and winning a medal. Many even
use hypnosis. Athletes are also taught to focus on the
goal they want to . . . . . ... , rather than on the mistakes
they are afraid of making. These mental training
techniques have been shown to improve 8·
tremendous! y.
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true
for you.
1 . ' Iwo0 dIa<ea oIolwillpower lo
~eIo . . .
2. 'wo0 d <eIo take up
3 . 'l wee ¤¯a a~e¤I, ' wo0 draise the
issue ol . . . .
4 O¤ed ll c0IyI¤aI' ¤ave overcome :
5. \yg|ea!e:!accomplishment :
Vcabulary Builder, pages 82-83
� ÜKN
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. Pistorius started running in 2004.
b. His story has raised many issues.
c. He hasn't qualified for the Olympics yet.
1 . Whi ch sentences descri be . . . ?
1 . a n a cti on jsi tuati on that took pl ace at a n
u nspeci fi ed t i me i n the past a nd conti n ues
u nt i l the present
2. an a cti on that took pl ace at an u nspeci fi ed
t i me i n the past a nd i s rel evan t to the present
3. a compl eted a cti on t hat took pl ace at a
speci fi c t i me i n the past
2. Whi ch tense is used for each of the uses
above?
3. Compl ete the rul e.
We use .. . or . . + t he past parti ci pl e
t o for m the Present Perfect Si mpl e.
4. Whi ch of the ti me expressi ons bel ow are
used wi th the Present Perfect Si mpl e and
whi ch are used wi th the Past Si mpl e?
a 'ready then
si nce l atel y
j ust
yesterday
for
yet
l ast year
so far
u nt i l
a month ago
recentl y
ever
never
a l ways
sti l l
Pi stori us qu i ere competi r e n l a s ol i mpi adas desde
que era u n ni no.
Pistorius has wonted to compete in the Olympics
since he was a child. .
NOT Pistorius wants to compete in the Olympics
since he was a child. X
1 . Complete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Present Perfect Si mpl e.
1. O0!ea¤ , ¤o!w ¤) a ¤a!c¤ ¤!wo ¤o¤!¤:'
2. . . . yo0 ,evec ay)!e¤¤ :¹
3. ca¤! g veyo0!¤ecoo< ,a eadyg ve) !
!o¹e¤¤y
4. To¤ a¤d ,<¤ow)eac¤o!¤elo|l veyea:
5 \y¤o!¤e| ,a'way: ce) gooda!a|!
G . . . . ²a0 ,!a<e)!¤edoglo a wa <ye!`
7 . - , ¤o!:ee)a¤ygoodl ' ¤:|ece¤!y.
S C a e ,dec de)!o:!0dy¤ed c ¤e
2. Complete each sentence with a suitabl e ti me
expression bel ow.
then • never • l ast summer • yet
si nce • j ust • ever • for
! T¤a!:!¤ece:!¡ o<e ve ¤ea|d
2 . ' ve ! eddeec:ea d v ¤g ' : !l| g¤!e¤ ¤g`
3. We ¤ada e:!a¤d we¤!o0!lo| d ¤¤e|
4. \y::!e|¤a:¤!ceg0¤ ¤e|:w ¤¤ ¤g'e::o¤:
5 ¬e ¤a:wo|<ed ¤e|e . . . . 200G
G A ¹ a¤a ca¤a!¤' e!ec|o<e!¤ewo d
ecod
7. T¤e!a ¤¤a: e¤!eed !¤e:!a! o¤.
S. ve ved ¤ ²a : !e¤ yea:
3. Compl ete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Present Perfect Si mpl e or
Past Si mpl e.
1 . Ralae 'ada ,¤ave) ¤ :l :!!e¤¤ :' e::o¤
w¤e¤ ¤ewa:!¤ee
2 . ! ,|a ¤) a o!!¤ :yea|`
3 . . . yo0 ,:ee)a¤ygood ¤a!c¤e: ' a!e y`
4 ² :!o 0: ,:!|0gg' e)!o ge! ¤!o!¤e200S
Be¡ ¤gO y¤c c:
5 ' - - ,exc' a ¤) I¤ :!oyo0:eve|a' ! ¤e:
G ! ,a ¤) ' a:!¤ g¤!`
7. We ,¤o!ode) o0|¤ea' ye!
S. Ge¤¤a \e¤g0a' , ove):y¤c¤|o¤ :ed
:w ¤¤ ¤g : ¤ce:¤ewa:a c¤ d
Gemma Mengua/, silver medal/i
Beijing 2008
; !
llist
4. Compl ete each sentence with a suitabl e verb
bel ow. Use the Past Si mpl e or Present Perfect
Si mpl e.
:
wi n • not gi ve • meet • vi si t
not pl ay • fl y • hear • wri te
We \ c¤ae ¤ :c|e:e¤!:ye!.
2. T¤eca:<e!ca c aye Iwoawa|d:: ¤ce¤e
¡ o ¤ed!¤eIea¤.
3. We !e¤ ¤ :!¤ :¤o|¤ ¤gceca0:e I wa:
|a ¤ ¤g
\a a¤eve ¤a c a¤e`
¯. •. . •. . . . ¡ 0:I a¤ ¤!e|e:I ¤gce|:o¤.
¯. \yg|a¤dla!¤e| C¤ ¤a w¤e¤ ¤ewa:a
yo0¤g¤a¤

T¤ey a eady aco0!!¤eacc de¤!o¤ !¤e
¤ew:.
3 Jo¤¤ .e¤¤o¤ ¤o:IolI¤eBea! e:
:o¤g:`
=. Compl ete the i nterview with a footbal l fan.
Use the Present Perfect Si mpl e or Past Si mpl e.
¬ow o¤g `
' vecee¤a C¤e' :ea:0cco|!e : ¤ce ' wa: Ie¤
yea:o d
`
Ye:, I ¤ave. ' ¤lac!, vecee¤Io 'o!: olC¤e' :ea
ga¤e:.
. `
'o, d d¤ ! go Io ' a:!wee<: ga¤e - wa: .
`
I le' !la¤!a:I cw¤e¤ ¤y !ea¤wo¤ I¤ec0c
`
Ye:, ' ve a |eadycoJg¤!! c<e!: lo|I¤e¤ex!
ga¤e
5. Provi de a l ogi cal response for each di al ogue.
Write a complete sentence usi ng the tense i n
brackets.
' .a0a : 0c:eI. '
' Olco0|:e:¤e :I ' , ²e:e¤!²e|lecIS ¤c' e)
.
' ¯a0 : a!elo|:c¤oo' aga ¤ . '
' ¬e cocac y ' , ¯a:!S ¤c' e)
. ' Yo0ve go! a gea!Ia¤ ' '
' Ye:, ' , ²|e:e¤! ¯elec!S ¤c e)

' W¤ya|eyo0:oexc Ied` '
' ' , ²e:e¤I¯e|lec!S ¤c e)
.
' ¯o yo0 ! ¤ ¤<we ' w ¤!¤ :¤aIc¤` '
' `o!a c¤a¤ce. ' , ²e:e¤I¯e|lec!S ¤c e)
-
'¹ ac<' oo<:¤accy. '
' ¤¤o! :0c| :ed ' , ¯a:!S ¤c e)
� 7. Complete the passage with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Present Perfect Si mpl e or
Past Si mpl e. Then l i sten and check
your answers.
1ÞÍ PµµQÍåN
'
1 W| N
Devel opi ng countr i es ¯ (al ways be) at a
d i sadvantage i n the worl d of i nternati onal s port.
Unit 3
I n recent year s, however, the gap between r i ch and
poor cou ntri es ¯ · • • (grow) because s port ¹
(become) hi -tech , maki ng t rai ni ng and equi pment
extremel y expens i ve. To prepare for the Athens
Ol ympi cs i n 2 004, for exampl e, athl etes from the
worl d ' s ri ch nat i ons · • (trai n) i n s peci al heat
chambers . The temperat ures and h u mi di ty i n these
chambers ´` • • · ( i mi tate) the weat her condi t i ons
i n Athens , s o that the athl etes coul d get u sed
to the s ummer heat. The Ugandan boxi ng team,
however, ´ • . • (not have) t he money for a heat
c hamber. I nstead, t hei r coach , Di ck Katende, ´ .
(order) t hem to t rai n i n the s un wi th t hei r coats
on! Unfort unatel y, these di fferences l eave many
excel l ent ath l etes wi th l i ttl e c hance of wi nni ng a
medal . I nternati onal s port s organi s at i ons are aware
of the s i tuat i on, but so far they ¯ ••+ • . • (not do)
enough to cor rect i t.
8. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words in brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
1 . Geoge:!a|Iedwo< ¤g¤eelo0 yea|:ago. ,lo)
2 . Be¤doe:¤ IeaI ¤eaI aIa ' , ¤eve)
3 . I wa: ¤ I¤e¤ dd eola co¤ve|:a! o¤w !¤ ¤y
!eac¤ew¤e¤yo0 ca ed. ,w¤ ' e)
4 A¤¤e :v : I ¤g o0|co0¤!ylo|I¤el |:!! ¤e
, ¤eve)
5 Jo¤¤d d¤ !wa¤I!o eaveceloe:ee ¤g!¤e
ga|de¤. ,:ee¤)
Ext ra g ra m ma r e xe rc i se s a t :
HHN. b ur / ing| on0ooIs. cs{i i c u¡o : n|sI
� SKILLS
LISTENING G
A RADIO INTERVIEW
1 . Look at some of the men's 1 00-metre spri nt records si nce 1 960. Why do you thi nk the
record ti mes keep i mprovi ng?
A. Hary West Germany
C. Lewi s USA

D. Bai l ey Canada
1.¯
M. Greene USA

T. Montgomery USA

A. Powel l Jamai ca

U. Bolt Jamai ca
2. Listen to the fi rst part of a radi o i nterview
about sport and technol ogy and compl ete the
chart below.
Swi mmer
.oca! o¤
Yea|
'0¤ce|ol
go' d ¤eda :
Mi chael
Phel ps
Mark
Spi tz
Ti me (seconds)
¹ J¤e, ! ºG0 ! 0. 0
SeµIe¤ce|, ! ºSS º. º2
¹ J y, ! ººG º. S4
JJ¤e, ! ººº º. 7º
SeµIe¤ce|, 2002 º. 7S
SeµIe¤ce|, 2007 º. 74
A0g0:I, 200S º. Gº
3. Listen to the second part of the i nterview.
Are the fol l owi ng statements true or fal se?
� ! A!Be¡ ¤g, leweecod:wee c|o<e¤ ¤
:w ¤¤ ¤g!¤a¤ ¤o!¤e|:µoI:.
2. ²eoµ' e!odayae co|¤la:Ie|a¤d :I|o¤ge|!¤a¤
I¤eywee ¤I¤eµa:I.
f 3 . M c¤ae' ²¤e' µ:wa:¤I!¤eo¤ y:w ¤¤e|!o
wea| !¤e '/R:w ¤:0 !
4. Listen to the thi rd part of the i nterview and
answer the questi ons.
1 . W¤aIdoe: .ay¬aye:co¤µa|e !¤e' a!e:!:µoI:
eq0 µ¤e¤!Io`
2 W¤aI¤ewIec¤¤o' ogywa:0:eda!I¤eMo¤!ea
O' y¤µ c: a¤dw¤a!ellec! d d! ¤ave`
J ¯oe: ¯| Ca:e¤a¤ ce' eve!¤a!a!¤' eIe:Ioday
¤eedIec¤¤o ogyIo µe|lo|¤we' ' `
W¤yo w¤y¤oI`
• I n your opi nion, i s usi ng technology i n sport
l egi ti mate? What do you thi nk the l i mits are?
:
î
SPEAKING
EXCHANGING INFORMATION
1 . Read the fact fi l e bel ow. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng
questi ons are answered i n the fact fi l e?
When was T¤ e||y ¬e¤|y born?
2 What is ¤e famous for?
3 What awards ¤a:¤e won?
-
What records ¤a:¤e broken ?
& What's ¤ :favourite food?
� What probl ems has ¤e had a¤dw¤a!¤a:¤e
do¤e!oove|co¤e!¤e¤`
-
What are ¤ :future pl ans?
2. Write two more questi ons
based on the fact fi l e.
Ask your partner to
answer your questi ons.
.:··¡/:»·¡,..-�.
:.7 - Bo|¤ ¤ c::o¤ ¤e, ²|a¤ce
cxµe| e¤ced |ac :¤ a:a c¤ d
-c4 - Bega¤!o µ' aya!' oca' loo!ca c' 0c
¯
• er and Events
-9º- Jo ¤ed c¤g' :¤loo!ca' ' c' 0cA|:e¤a'
¯ .4 - V c! ¤ol|ac :!co¤¤e¤!cya µ|o¤ ¤e¤!
loo!ca' ' coac¤
¬ - � s - S!a|!ed!¤eStand Up Speak Up ca¤µa g¤
aga ¤:! |ac :¤ ¤loo!ca
Beca¤eA|:e¤a' : ead ¤ggoa -:co|e|ol
a ! ¤e
7- S g¤ed lo| ·C Ba|ce o¤a
�s . Comgeti ti ons I Awards
m -S - Wo|' d C0µ w ¤ ¤e|': ¤eda' a:µ aye| ¤
²|e¤c¤!ea¤, ²²A ²' aye|ol!¤eYea|
- :4, 2005 - c0|oµea¤Go' de¤Boo!Awa|da:
c0|oµe:!oµgoa' -:co|e|
.¯- Beca¤e²|a¤ce:!oµgoa -:co|e|ola'
! ¤e
·7 - 'a¤ed ¤ Time ¤agaz ¤ea:a ' ¬e|o a¤d
² o¤ee| ' lo| ¤ :a¤! -|ac :!ac! v :¤
Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 3
3. Work with a partner. Ask and answer
questi ons to compl ete a fact fi l e. Use
the questi ons i n Exerci se 1 to hel p you.
Student A: Compl ete the fact fi l e on
thi s page. Student B: Complete the
fact fi l e on page 1 60.
\a|:·.:\.|..,..
Early l i fe
- Bo|¤ ¤ 'ew Zea' a¤d
Unit 3
Seco¤da|y:c¤oo yea|: - !ea:eda¤dc0' ed ceca0:e
ol¯ . . . .
Early career
! ººS - Sc¤oo :µo|!: !eac¤e||ecog¤ :ed ¤e|µo!e¤! a' ,
e¤co0|aged ¤e|!o!a<e 0µ !¤e:µo|!
! ººS- B|o<e ..... . . ..
Ti tl es I Competiti ons I Awards
200! - . . . ... . ...
2002 - Wo|' dJ 0¤ o|C¤a¤µ o¤
2004 - A!¤e¤: y¤µ c: - l ¤ :¤ede g¤!¤
ceca0:e. . . . . . . . . . .
2004 - B|o<e'ew Zea a¤dwo¤e¤: |eco|dl|o¤ ¹ ºG4
º. . . .. .« - Wo|' d C¤a¤µ o¤
200S- 7 . ... .«... . . ¤eda' , Be¡ ¤g
200S- 'ewZea a¤dSµo|!:Awa|dol!¤eYea|
Future Pl ans
h.
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want your partner to repeat somethi ng,
use the fol l owi ng expressi ons:
I ' m sorry, I di dn' t get that.
Can you repeat that, pl ease?
Ptoouoc|at|ooPtact|ce,paqe 1 31
37

ÍÍ
3 8
A B�ggraphy
1 . Read the bi ography bel ow. Fi nd three facts you thi nk are i nteresting or unusual .
!all a
¯a da a¤d' ca ' aR0a¤oMo|e¤oae ¤Ie|¤aI o¤a w ¤d:0|l ¤g
c¤a¤c o¤:l|o¤I¤eCa¤ay ' :' a¤d:. T¤e:e de¤I ca Iw ¤: :Ie|:
ae wo d la¤o0:loI¤e exI|ao|d ¤a|yIa e¤Ia¤d e¤e|gy.
T¤e: :Ie:we|e co¤o¤ ¹ :I ¯ece¤ce|, ¹ º77 ¤.a: ¯a ¤a:,
Ga¤Ca¤a a A' I¤o0g¤I¤eywe|ea' way:aI¤ eI c, I¤eyo¤' ycega¤
w ¤d:0|l ¤gaII¤e' aIeageol! 7 T¤ey¤ada' ¤o:I ¤olo|¤a I|a ¤ ¤g,
a¤d' ea|¤edcy ¤ IaI ¤goI¤e|: aII¤ela¤o0:w ¤d:0|l ¤gceac¤olI¤e
¤o¤eIow¤, ²ozo' zq0 edo
W I¤ ¤ ¹ S ¤o¤I¤:olIa< ¤g0cw ¤d:0|l ¤g, I¤eR0a¤oMoe¤o:we|e
co~ceI ¤g cole:: o¤a' ' y TogeI¤e, I¤ey ¤o d ¹ 7 wo|' d I I' e:, a¤d ¤avecee
wo dw ¤d:0l ¤gc¤a¤c o¤:lo|¤ ¤eco¤:ec0I veyea|:. T¤ey lee I :
~coIa¤IIo c| ¤g¤o|ewo¤e¤ ¤Iow ¤d:0|l ¤g, :oI¤ey o|ga¤ :ea¤ a¤
:0~¤e Ia ¤ ¤gca¤c ¤Te¤e| lelo|g :l o~a ove|I¤ewo d
T¤eR0a¤oMo|e¤o: :Ie|: ¤aveco0g¤Ia ¤ew, v Ia' le¤a' ece:e¤ce ¤Io -
:co|II¤aI¤a:Iad I o¤a' ycee¤do¤ ¤aIed cy¤e¤ . T¤ey c' a¤Ioco¤I ¤.-
2. In whi ch paragraph of the biography does the writer e e e ?
! Ia <aco0I¯a daa¤d' ca ' a: ea y' le 3 . :Ico¤ceI I o¤:a¤dI I' e:I¤ey ¤avewo¤
2. de:c| ceI¤e l0I0|e c a¤: 4 exc a ¤w¤aII¤eR0a¤oMoe¤o:aela¤o0:lo|
WORD ORDER
Engl i sh sentences fol l ow a basi c word order:
sub¸ccI
The team
Our coach
vcrb
will arrive
bought
dirccIob¸ccI manncr|howJ i ndirccIob¸ccI placc |whcrcJ Iimc |whcnJ
new equipment
promptly at the stadium tomorrow.
for the team last year
Ti me expressi ons can a l so come at t he begi nni ng of a statement :
Every moring, Phelps practises swimming i n the pool.
Frequency adverbs ( always, often, usually never sometimes, seldom) come before the ma i n verb or after
the verb to be. Thierry Henry usually scores a goal. His fans are seldom disappointed .
@wt|t|nq 0u|6e, paqe148
|
·ee¤
o a
¤Je
eWC
Fol l owi ng some verbs, the i ndi rect obj ect can come before
he di rect obj ect. I n thi s case, the preposi ti on ( to or for )
i s omi tted.
ought a present for my boyfriend.
ought my boyfriend a present.
The second form i s preferred if the i ndi rect object is a
pronoun.
3. Copy the word order chart on page 38 i nto your
notebook. Then wri te the words of the sentences
below i n the correct col umns.
A¤¤ed| ve:¤e ca :' ow' yt¤|oJg¤t¤e:teet:evey
~o|¤ ¤g

S¤ede:c| cedt¤ecJ | d ¤gto ¤e celoet¤et| µ
.
¯ave : ~eet ¤g¤ :l e¤datt¤ecale to¤ g¤t
T¤e:µ| ¤te~ayw ¤a go d ~eda' att¤e.o¤do¤
O' y¤µ c: ¤ 20! 2
5 ¬e w|ote t¤at:o¤g lo ¤ :g l e¤d ¤a ¤ote oo¤
4. Choose the correct answer.
1¤ey coJg¤t
a ye:te|daya ¤ewca
c. a ¤ew ca|ye:te|day
2 Mylat¤e coo<ed . a:t ¤ g¤t
� :o~e:oJµlo¤e
c. lo¤e:o~e:oJµ
3. T¤e:c¤oo' ca:<etca' ' tea~ . toot¤e|c t e:
il olte¤t|ave :
c tave' :olte¤
. My ce:tl| e¤d ~ . lo¤ ¯a :
a gave~ea T:¤ t
c. gavea T-:¤ |t ~e
¯. ' exµ' a ¤ed . . tot¤eµo' ce¤a¤.
a µat e¤t yt¤eµoc e¤
c t¤eµ|oc' e~µat e¤t' y
6. .et: :e¤d ¯a¤ a¤e-¤a
a . lo¤~yco¤µJteto¤oow
c. to¤oowlo¤ ¤yco¤µJte|
5. Arrange the words i n the correct order to form
sentences.
·
to:c¤oo' I ae co~ ¤gI ¤owI t¤eµae¤t:
2 M| ¹ o¤e:I :' ow yI t¤eI wa <edI dow¤I cy:teet
3. ¤eI ¤yJ¤c' eI gaveI a:t ¤ g¤tI £ ¹ 0
4. coo<:I J:Ja yI o¤ ·| day:I d ¤¤e I lo|t¤ela¤ ' yI
¤ylat¤e|
5. c¤ ' d|e¤I ea: ' yI ea¤I J:Ja yI ¤ew a¤gJage:
Uni t 3
Your Task
• Write a bi ography of a famous person that
you admi re. Use 1 00-1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR BIOGRAPHY
1 . Brai nstorm your bi ography.
• Choose a famous person. Thi nk of
someone who is i nteresti ng or speci al i n
some way.
• Use the Internet to find information. Start
by usi ng a search engi ne such as Googl e.
• Look at several si tes and fi nd two or three
that contai n the i nformati on you want.
• Make a l ist of the facts and i nformation
you found. Deci de whi ch facts to i ncl ude.
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page 38 and the pl an bel ow to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: Statew¤ot¤eµe|:o¤ :I wa: a¤d
w¤att¤eya|ela~oJ:lo.
Body: W te acoJtt¤eµe|:o¤: ea|' y
' le, caeedeve' oµ~e¤t: a¤d
ac¤ eve¤e¤t:.
Cl osi ng: SJ~ Jµt¤eµe:o¤:ac¤ eve¤e¤t:
' ¤c Jdet¤e lJtJ|e µ' a¤: lyoJ
<¤owt¤e~.
3. Write a first draft.
4. Use the checkl ist to check your work.
Then write a final draft.
CHECKLI ST
. ï¸6||6wcn lhc µ|ø n¸6r n b!6_rnµhy.
. ï ncn c6rrcl w6rn 6rncr .
. ï µul lm !�6rml!cn¸6nlhïnfcrcl
!nf6 ny 6wnw6rna.
. ï chck_mnmør, aµc||!g øm
µnul!cn.
wt|t|oq0u|6e,paqe 1 53
39
Z.
5K!LL5
BOOKI NG TI CKETS ONLINE

You are goi ng to practi se booki ng ti ckets onl i ne.
Look at the websi te screens and answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.
2.. Screen A
'
Wednesday, Chel sea - London, UK
BUY TICKETS
27th January 201 0 Mi ddl esborough Stamford
Start: 1 9: 45 Bri dge Stadi um
Sunday, Liverpool - Chelsea Liverpool, UK
BUY TICKETS
3 1 st January 201 0 Anfiel d Stadi um
25. .. .. Screen C
Start: 1 6: 00
Æ
Saturday, Chel sea - Ful ham London, UK
BUY TICKETS
^
6th February 201 0 Stamford
Your Order
Start: 1 6:00 Bri dge Stadi um
Ti cket Type:
.. L. Category B
�.. Screen B

l
'
Quanti ty: 2
I�
Pri ce: €1 04. 00
Chelsea - Ful ham 06-02-2009 Tickets Show pul l -down
BUY TICKETS
(£80. 00)
Category A Price €65.00 (£50. 00) menu 1 -20

Servi ce Charge:
Æ
€8. 00 ( £1 0 00)
Chelsea - Ful ham 06-02-2009 Tickets Show pul l -down
BUY TICKETS
CONTI NUE
Category B Price €52.00 (£40.00) menu 1 -20

• TASK QUESTIONS
1. You want to see a Chel sea footbal l match whi l e
you' re i n London. Read the schedul e i n Screen A
above. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i nformati on does
it provi de?
4. You want two Category B ti ckets. You cl i ck on
B UY TI CKETS. Read the next screen (Screen C) .
How much do you need to pay?
! . I¤edaIe:olI¤e¤aIc¤e:
2. I¤ec I e:w¤eeI¤e¤aIc¤e: a|eIa< ¤gµ' ace
3. I¤e:Iad 0¤:w¤ee I¤e¤aIc¤e:ae Ia< ¤g
µ' ace
4. d ecI o¤:IoI¤e:Iad 0¤:
5. I¤eIea¤:µ ay ¤g ¤ eac¤ ¤aIc¤
G. I c<eIµ| ce:
7. I¤eI ¤eI¤e¤aIc¤e: ceg ¤
2. You are goi ng t o be i n London from 29th J anuary
to 1 4th February. Whi ch match can you attend?
3. You deci de to order ti ckets for the
Chel sea - Ful ham match. You cl i ck on BUY
TI CKETS and Screen B appears. What addi ti onal
i nformati on does i t provi de? What two thi ngs
are you asked to deci de?
5. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng do you thi nk the fi nal
screen wi l l as k for?
1 . ced Icad deIa ' : 5. ¤a¤ea¤dadde::
2 . µ¤o¤e¤0¤ce| G. age
3. µa::µo|I ¤0¤ce| 7. ca¤<acco0¤I¤0¤ce|
4 e·¤a add|e::
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
Visi tors to the Madame Tussauds museum i n
London can book Pri ori ty Access ti ckets on l i ne.
Go i nto the si te a nd fi nd the fol l owi ng i nformati on:
1 . I¤eco:Iola¤ad0' I:I c<eI
2 . I¤eco:I ola c¤ d: I c<eI
3. w¤e|eyo0 ca¤co' ecII¤eI c<eI:
4. I¤e coo< ¤glee
5. I¤eea e:II ¤eyo0 ca¤ v: II¤e¤0:e0¤
Landmarks
|nit 0I]c·ii\cs
,, Bui l di ngs
, Future '[ enses
• Listeni ng to Guided Tours
• Comparing Pict ures
• Writing a Descri ption of a Plan·
` Lif Ski l l s: Interet Research
Whi ch of the fol lowi ng l andmarks can you i dentify? Where is each one located?
• Whi ch of the fol l owi ng do you thi nk makes each of these l andmarks famous?
i ts size • what it's used for • i ts hi story • i ts desi gn • i ts age
Fi nd out about UNESCO heritage sites at :
ÞÞÞ. 0ur/ìug/ou0ooIs.c·{i:tÞjoìu|:I
/
\

1 . Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what
they mean.
¤ave' • |eg0' a' y-:¤aced • :!a!eol-!¤ea!
SCANING FOR SPECIFIC
INFORMATION
Sca nni ng means l ooki ng t hrough the text q u i ckl y,
to fi nd speci fi c i nfor mati on. Pay attenti on to t he
type of i nformati on you a re l ooki ng for , names,
pl aces, dates, pri ces). Looki ng for n u mbers,
symbol s and capi tal l etters wi l l h el p you.
2. Scan the text qui ckl y to l ook for the fol l owi ng
i nformati on:
1 . I¤e:0¤¤e !e¤cea!0e ¤ ¯0ca ¹< b(
2 !¤e¤a¤eol ¯0ca : 0¤dewa!e ¤o¯e
3 . !¤e¤ 0¤ce ol : a¤d: ¤ T¤eWo d
4. I¤e ¤a¤eol!¤e : a¤d!¤a!Bad ¯¯! ¤a: co0g¤!
5 I¤e: zeol!¤e ¯0ca \a '
3. Read the text and answer the fol l owi ng
questi ons.
1 . ¬oww ' ' !¤e¤ewco¡ec!: ¤e c¯0ca :
eco¤o¤y`
2 W¤aIco0 do!¤eac¤ Iec!:do l!¤ey<¤ew
!¤e ¤e g¤!ol B0¡ ¯0ca `
3 . W¤aI :0¤0:0a aco0!! ¤e|oo¤:a! ¬ydoco' :`
4. ¬owdoyo0<¤owT¤eWo|' dw ' cea¤
exc' 0: ve aea`
5. W¤aI : ¤¤ova! veaco0II¤ec a¤¤ed
5S-:IoeyIowe`
The World
4. Are the fol l owi ng statements true or fal se?
Fi nd evidence i n the text to support your
answers.
! \o:! ceoc' edo¤ !ea' :e !¤a! ¯0ca : 0¤¤ ¤g
o0!olo ¯
2 . B0 ' d ¤g:a|e ce ¤gc0 ' !veyq0 c< y ¤¯0ca '
3 . SIay ¤ga! ¬yd|oco' :w ' ' ce ¤exce¤: ve °
4 'oo¤ew ' ' ' ve o¤ ¯a ¤' : a¤d:. ~
5 ¯0ca ' a¤dw ' ' ceI¤e:a¤e: zea: ¯ :¤eyT
Wo|' d
5. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
1 . T¤e a|! l c a :' a¤dgo0c: ae . . .
a. a' ' :¤aced <e ca' ¤I|ee:
c add ! o¤:Io ¤a!0a : a¤d:
c eac¤ ¤ade0colJ00 : a¤d:
_¤adeol¤aI0a' ¤a!e| a :
2. W¤ c¤olI¤elo' ' ow ¤geco|d: :¯0ca 'OT
cea< ¤g`
a. ! ¤e!a' ' e:I c0 ' d ¤g
¡!¤edeece:!c0 d ¤g
c !¤e' a|ge:!aI l c a :' a¤d:
d. !¤e' a|ge:!:¤occ ¤gce¤Ie
6. Fi nd words or phrases i n the text
that mean:
r
1 . ¤o¤eyea|¤edo |ece ved ··�
,caag|ac¤ ! )
2 a¤ ¤a' :I¤a! ve ¤I¤e:ea ' , � \
,ca|ag|ac¤J)
J ex!a,ca|ag|ac¤4)
4. o!aIe , ca|agac¤5) t� ,�
5 a¤c ! o0:, ¤ce:: ve,caagac¤ 5)
_
,

• Whi ch sites in your area were
specifical l y bui l t to attract tourists?
Are they popul ar?
t.
One usually thinks of Dubai, one of the seven Arab Emirates, as being rich in oil. Its
rulers, however, know better. Their oil is running out fast, and to create an alternative
sotirce of income, they want Dubai to become the business and tourist capital of the
Middle East. On the bare, dry desert sand of Dubai City, where temperatures are often
over 45°C in the summer, spectacular architectural projects are breaking every record
in the book. And it's happening at a speed and scale never known before.
First and foremost, the breathtaking Burj Dubai skyscraper will tower over this city -
and every other city. It's going to be the world's tallest building, though no one
knows exactly how tall. Its planners are keeping its final height a secret because of
competition from other buildings under construction. They want to be sure that by
the time it's finished, no other building will have surpassed it.
While this building reaches for the sky, another project is reaching deep under
the ocean. Hydropolis, the world's first luxury underwater hotel, is a surrealistic
fantasyland 20 metres below the surface of the Persian Gulf. Shaped like a giant
·¨ j ellyfish, its 220 opulent suites will have plexiglass walls so that guests will be able
to marvel at the colourful marine life all around them.
A larger proj ect is the artificial island groups off Dubai's shores. Built from sand
and stone dug up from the bottom of the sea, they'll be the largest man-made
islands ever constructed. Palm Islands, three island groups shaped like giant palm
� trees, will contain theme parks, hotels and luxury housing for over a million
people. The other group of islands represents a map of the world. Each of The
World's 300 islands is shaped like an individual country, and is for sale starting at
$1 5 million. So if you've got some spare cash, you can j oin the list of celebrities
which includes Pamela Anderson, who'll be living on "Greece'; and Brad Pitt and
"' Angelina Jolie, who have bought "Ethiopia':
One of the most architecturally innovative future projects is a 68-storey tower
in which each irregularly-shaped storey will turn separately round a central
axis, completing 360° every 90 minutes. This means the entire building will
always be changing shape. Another record-breaker is the grandiose, 1 ,200-shop,
> 12-million-square-foot Dubai Mall, the biggest shopping centre on the planet.
One of the grandest proj ects of all is Dubailand, a huge leisure and entertainment
complex twice the size of today's biggest, Disney World. Its highlights will include
a multitude of theme parks, state-of-the-art sports stadiums, resorts and malls.
This is just a small part of what's happening in Dubai's building boom. Clearly,
³¨ this city will soon be packed with sensational maj or attractions, making it one
of the world's architectural wonderlands.
False friends
luxury ( l i ne 1 3) means lujo not lujuria
larger ( l i ne 1 7) means mayor, m6s grande not m6s largo
resorts ( l i ne 33) means complejos turfsticos not resortes
major ( l i ne 35) means de gran relevancia not mayor
Unit 4
VOCAULAY
Words from the Text
1 . Replace the word i n bol d i n each sentence
with a word of si mi l ar meani ng bel ow.
shore • spare • source • rul er
huge • resort
¹ . Aco0¤I|y: l eader co¤I|o' :!¤egove|¤¤e¤!a¤d
I¤ea|¤y.
2 W¤a!: !¤eor i gi n ol!¤aIac¤ IecI0a :!y e`
3. Wewe¤Iloa wa <a' o¤gI¤ebeach o¤S0¤day.
4 O0| la¤ ' y:µe¤I!wowee<:a! a hol i day
compl ex ¤Geece
5. |aveyo0 goIa¤yextra I ¤eI¤ :wee<e¤d`
G. T¤ecea|a I I¤ezoo : very bi g.
2. Choose the sentence that i s closest i n meani ng
to the ori gi nal . Pay attention to the words i n
col our.
1 . T¤eoo¤ wa: q0 Ie bare.
a T¤e oo¤ ¤advey !! el0¤ !0e
c. T¤eoo¤wa:l0 ' oll0¤ !0e.
2 T¤ :!yµeoll :¤:w ¤:¤ea :¤esurface
ol!¤e :ea.
a T¤ :l :¤:w ¤:deeµ0¤de!¤ewaIe|.
c. T¤ :l :¤:w ¤:¤ea|I¤e !oµol !¤ewaIe|
3 . T¤e coyreached for ¤y¤a¤d.
a. T¤ecoyµ0:¤ed ¤y ¤a¤daway
c T¤e coywa¤Ied!o ¤o d¤y¤a¤d
4. T¤ev ewl|o¤o0 oo¤ :breathtaki ng.
a. T¤ev ew: ve|y ¤µ|e:: ve.
c T¤ev ew :q0 Ie co| ¤g
5. O0| µaµe:0µµ y :r unni ng out.
a. Weve goI µ e¤Iyolµaµe' elI.
c. We ' ' ¤eedIo c0y¤o|e µaµe|:oo¤.
G. ' eada ' oId0 ¤g¤yl ei sure I ¤e
a. Mywo|< ¤vo' ve:a ' oIol |ead ¤g.
c. ' eadw¤e¤' ¤¤oIaIwo|<.
7. We ve¤ad:o¤e major µ|oc' e¤:w !¤
!¤eµ|o¡ ecI.
a T¤eµ|oc e¤:we|e:e o0:.
c. Weco0' d¤!:o veI¤eµ|oc' e¤:.
S. T¤ey:Iayed a!a l uxury ¤o!e' .
a ' I wa:ca: c, c0!q0Iec' ea¤.
c ' I ¤ada :µaa¤da µoo' .
WA + INFINITIVE
WA + OBJECT + INFINITIVE
The verb want can be used i n t he fol l owi ng ways:
lt can refer to somet hi ng the subject of the
sentence wants to do.
They want to build the tallest building i n Dubai.
( want + i nfi n i ti ve)
l t can refer to someth i ng the subject of the
sentence wants someone jsomethi ng el se to do.
They want tourists to come to Dubai.
( want + object + i nfi ni ti ve)
tammatAppen6|xpaqe120
3. Choose the correct answer.
1 . T¤ec¤ ' dIo' d¤e laI¤e, " I wa¤Ito take /
you to take ¤e !oI¤eµa<. '
2 . T¤e c|a a¤a:<ed¤e, ' ¯o yo0 wa¤!to read /
me to read a good ¤ove' ` '
3 . We!o' do0 v : Io|:, ' Wedo¤Iwa¤!to l eave /
you to l eave yeI . '
4. Write the words i n the correct order to form
sentences.
¹ wa¤!ed/ ¯0ca /v : !I T¤o¤a:/!o
2 . goI ca!/!oI wa¤I:/o0!/I¤e
3. ¤e|I wa¤!:/'0cy:/co::/Io/!o¤ g¤II wo<
4. !o/w ¤dow/oµe¤/wa¤I/yo0/¤e/do/I¤e/ `
5 d d¤I/!o/wa¤I/C¤a o!!eI µ a¤o/
µac! :eI I¤e
G. wa¤!I a¤yI¤ ¤gI doe:I Io/c ¤gI 0:/ Be¤/ `
5. Compl ete the sentences by writing what
each speaker wants or doesn't want in the
fol lowi ng situations.
¹ . ' 'eI:eaIaIa¤' ¤d a¤|e:Ia0|a¤!, ' :0gge:!:A¤¤e.
A¤¤ewa¤I:. .
2 . ' M a, co0 dyo0 µ' ea:eI dyyo0 |oo¤` ' a:<:
¤ela!¤e.
M a:la!¤e|wa¤I:
3 . ' S!0de¤!:, µay a!!e¤I o¤ ' ' ode|: I¤e!eac¤e|.
T¤eIeac¤ewa¤I: . . . .
4. ' ' do¤ !lee' ' <e ge!! ¤g0µ, ' co¤µ' a ¤:J 0' a.
J 0 a doe:¤Iwa¤I . . . .
5 ' Ma|<, ' do¤ I <e it w¤e¤yo0 ' a0g¤a! ¤e, '
:ay: Sa|a.
Sa|a doe:¤!wa¤! . . .
1a pie VocabulCy
3UILDINGS

Whi ch of the fol l owi ng words are materi al s?
Whi ch are bui l di ngs or structures?
i ron • steel • skyscraper • stone • gl ass
concrete • offi ce bl ock • bri dge
The fol l owi ng sentences do not make sense.
Make them l ogi cal by repl aci ng each word i n
col our wi th a word i n col our from a di fferent
sentence.
Our ¤o¤ei :too :¤a' We¤eed:o~e!¤ ¤g
~oe a nci ent.
.
A¤ ac¤ !ec!<¤ow:w¤ c¤ ¤a!e a :ca¤tear
down a c0 ' d ¤g
& We l i ve i n a three engi neer c0 ' d ¤g
.
¯eve oµe:wa¤!to support !¤eo' d ¤o0:e:a¤d
bui l d a ¤ew:<y:caµe|
.
A¤ exµe e¤ced l andmark de: g¤ed !¤a!c dge.
.
T¤e:!ee!:a|e :ospaci ous t ¤at !¤e¤o0:e:
a' ¤o:! !o0c¤ eac¤ o!¤e
.
T¤eµya¤ d:wee bui l t in narrow ! ~e:.
= S!o¤e¤e¤ge : a la¤o0:¤ :!o| cstorey.
BRITI SH / AMERI CAN ENGLI SH -
3- : tish and American Engl ish often u se different
ords to refer to the same thing.
3. Match the Briti sh Engl i sh words with thei r
Ameri can Engl i sh equi val ents.
Bri ti sh � Ameri can �
1 . l ift a. fi rst fl oor
2. pavement c. yard
3. garden c. el evator
4 ground fl oor d. apartment
5. fl at e. si dewal k
4. listen to the di al ogues. Are the speakers i n
each one British or American?
A. "W¤ee :your lavo0| !e~0: cshop 7 "
B: " I n !¤eshoppi ng centre near my school . "
2 A. "W¤ c¤ci nema aewego ¤gto? "
B : "The one i n !¤ehi gh street . "
3. A. " I s i t hard to l ¤dµa|< ¤gdowntown? "
B " No, !¤ee ae µ e¤!yof parki ng l ots. "
5 . Replace the words i n col our i n Exercise 4 with
the British or Ameri can equi val ent below.
i n the city centre • store • mai n street
car parks • movi e theater • mal l
� 6. Complete the passage with the words bel ow.
Then l i sten and check your answers.
storeys • stone • l i ft • gl ass • support
anci ent • steel • skyscrapers
Unit 4
h L å b h | N d | Û h 1 h L 5 K1
Si nce the begi nni ng of hi story, peopl e have tri ed to
bui l d the bi ggest , tal l est, most i mpressi ve structures
they coul d. I n . . . ti mes, i mportant bui l di ngs were
often made of .- - - · - .- .. · - -- - · - . Because thi s materi al i s so
heavy, i t was di fficul t to make these bui l di ngs very
tal l . Today, however, our ci ti es are fi l l ed wi th ´. . .
that reach amazi ng hei ghts. Strangel y, the wal l s of
many of these bui l di ngs seem to be made enti rel y
of .. . .. +. wi ndows. How can these del i cate wal l s
O
so much wei ght? The answer is that they
don't. The bui l di ngs are actual l y hel d up by a
strong framework made of ¯... . . . - .. - an amazi ng
materi al whi ch i s both extremel y strong and
l i ght. Another reason moder n bui l di ngs can
have a hundred or more » +~ . ~ .• • •• i s t he
i nventi on of the ¯ .. . . : If we had to
wal k up, we certai nl y woul dn't bui l d
so hi gh!
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true for
you.
!. I :awa breathtaking v ewa!
2 I ol!e¤run out of . . .
3 . T¤e' a¤d¤a <I want to see the ~o:t i :
4 T¤e¤o:!µoµ0' a|:¤oµi ¤ our high street i s
5. ' ¤my leisure ! ¤e, l i <eto . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 84-85
� GRM
**¬
´¯
46

""
FUTURE SIMPLE
BE GOING TO
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. We're going to spend our next holiday in Dubai.
b. The tour of Dubai will begin at 9.00 am.
c. Have you seen the plans for Dubailand? it's going to
be amazing!
d. Soon, Dubai will be the tourist capital of the
Middle East.
e. "Where is the Dubai Mall?"
"Come with me. I'll show yau. "
1 . Whi ch sentence above descri bes a a a ?
1. events i n a ti metabl e
2. a predi cti on
3. a fut ure event based on present evi dence
.a spontaneous deci si on
5. fut ure pl ans
2. Whi ch tense is used for each of the
uses above?
3. Compl ete the rul es.
1. We use . · + the base for m of t he verb to
form the Futu re Si mpl e.
2. We use - . or . . . . . . . . . . . + going to + t he base
for m of the verb to form be going to.
FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. By the time Dubai runs out of oil, tourism will have
become a major industry (Future Perfect Simple}
b. Brad Pitt will be living in Dubai all winter
(Future Continuous)
1 . Whi ch sentence tal ks about . . . ?
1. a compl eted acti on at a certai n future ti me
2. a n acti on i n progress at a certai n fut ure t i me
2. Compl ete the rul es.
1. We u se will + .- - . + verb + - ing to form the
Fut ure Cont i nuous.
2. We use will + . . + the past parti ci pl e to form
the Future Perfect.
� 0tammatAppen6|x,paqes118-120
1 . Complete the sentences with the verbs in
brackets. Use the Future Si mpl e or be going
to.
1. Yo0 ¤ave¤ Iwo<ed ¤a|d e¤o0g¤loI¤ :exa¤.
Yo0 . · ,¤oI ca::).
2. ' ¤:0eyo0 ,e¤¡oy)I¤eI| c.
3 . T¤ec0:Io.o¤do¤ . .. , eave)aI ¹ 0 J0c¤.
4. . - yo0 . .· ,co¤e)I oI ¤eca|IyIo¤ g¤I`
5 T¤ec¤ ' d oo<:I ed. ¬e ,la ' ) a:' eec:oo¤.
G " ¯oyo0wa¤IIoco¤eIoI¤e:¤oc:` "
" Good dea ' I . H ,ca ' ) ¯y a¤ a¤da:<¤ ¤Io
co¤e, Ioo "
2. Whi ch of the sentences in Exercise 1 can be
compl eted usi ng the Present Conti nuous with
future meani ng?
El cafe se esta acaba ndo. Yo compro mas esta tarde.
The coffee is running out. I'll buy more this afteroon. .
NOT The coffee is running out. I buy more this
afternoon. X
3. Write a suitabl e sentence to fol l ow each
sentence bel ow. Use the words in brackets
and the Future Si mpl e or be going to.
1 . Aeyo0 ¤oI¯ (I I I0|¤o¤I a co¤d I o¤e|)
2 Myga¤d¤oI¤e| : ' ' , ¤aveI oce|aI o¤I
Io¤o|ow)
3 . veco0g¤II c<eI:IoI¤eco¤ceI.
,BeI¤I ceveyc ea:ed)
4. Co0 dI co|ow:o¤e¤o¤ey`,|eI0¤I ¤exI
wee<)
5 ' d oveIo co¤e, c0I I ca¤ I. ,go o0II
¤y coyl| e¤dI I¤ :eve¤ ¤g)
G. .oo<aII¤aI¤a¤o¤I¤e|oololI¤ec0 ' d ¤g
, ¤eI ¡ 0¤c' )
4. Choose the correct answer.
1. Wi l l you have wa ited I Wi l l you be wai ti ng
lo 0:w¤e¤wea veaII¤e:IaI o¤ `
2 . You' l l have spent I You' l l be spendi ng a'
yo0 ¤o¤eycyI ¤ee¤dol yo0 I c
3. Saa ¤a:a ¤o:Il ¤ :¤ed¤e:I0d e:. 'exIyea
she' l l have worked I she' l l be worki ng l0' ' -
I ¤e.
4. ¯o¤I ca' ' ¤eaIº 00. I ' l l be sl eepi ng I
I ' l l have sl ept.
5 ¤oceI¤aI cy¤exIyea, I ' l l have saved I
I ' l l be savi ng e¤o0g¤¤o¤ey lo| a ca
G. They' l l be eati ng I They' l l have eaten a I¤e
loodcyI¤eI ¤ewe a ve.
1.
h
I
- Complete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the Future Perfect or Future
Conti nuous.
: ¤e yea|2050, !¤ewo d ,ceco¤e)
. e degee:wa¤e
~ .�¯: ¤ee!a! º. 00. ,l ¤ :¤) ¤y¤o¤ewo<
:1 ¤e¤.
¬ -, s ! ¤e¤ex! ¤o¤!¤, !¤ey ,:< ) ¤!¤eA c:
¯0 ¤go0¤o day, we ,:!ay)a!!¤eSea: de
¬o:e
¯ ¯ ea:edo¤ ! co¤e:¤ :al!e ¤oo¤ ,:!0dy) .
y!¤e! ¤e¤e ca ve:, we ,c¤a¤ge)!¤e
¯ eo0:e' ve:
- Compl ete Danny's story. Use the correct
future tense.
've¡ 0:! ¤e!awo¤de|l0 g |' ¤a¤ed Re¤a.
¤ ¤<' ' · . . . . . . . ,a:<) ¤e o0!.
·a¤!a:! c ' S¤e: ag|eed · . . . ,!a<e) ¤e
¯o!¤ec ¤e¤a!o¤o|ow
'¤ :oexc !ed ' A!!¤ :! ¤e!o¤oow,
,: !) ¤a¤d ¤¤a¤dw !¤ Re¤a.
¤:0e !ª ,ce) a gea!eve¤ ¤g
Si x months later . . .
By! ¤ee¤dol! ¤ : wee<, Re¤aa¤d'
` . . . . . . . . . ,<¤ow) eac¤o!¤elo| : x¤o¤!¤:
Ei ght months later . . .
Re¤a¤a:dec ded!¤a!:¤e´ · ,da!e)
o!¤e coy:,!oo.
' ve ! ed !o!a < !o ¤e, c0! :¤e

.
(¤o!a¤:we) ¤y c¤o¤eca :
'' . n. n . ,l ¤d):o¤eo¤ee :ecy!¤e! ¤e:¤e
dec de:w¤o:¤ewa¤!: '
Answer the fol l owi ng questi ons about your
future.
W¤a!w ' yo0 cedo ¤g!¤ :! ¤e¤ex!yea `
.
W¤a!ae yo0 go ¤g!o do !¤ :wee<e¤d`
. ¯o yo0 ! ¤ ¤<yo0w ¤avea o!ol ¤o¤eyw¤e¤
yo0ae o de|`W¤yo w¤y¤o!`
.
¯o yo0 ! ¤ ¤<yo0 ' ge! ¤a edyo0¤g`W¤yo
w¤y¤o!`
. W¤a!goa' :w yo0 ¤aveac¤ eved cy!¤e! ¤e
yo0ae 30`
Unit 4

8. Compl ete the passage with the verbs i n
brackets. Use future tenses. Then l i sten and
check your answers. There may be more than
one correct answer.
mLcL¯-¯mLL mL¯L
Bui l di ng a home i s a huge project, i nvol vi ng many
l abourers and pl enty of ti me and money. Ten years
from now, however, peopl e �` ... n• • • • ( l i ve) i n houses bui l t
enti rel y by robots. Cal i forni a i nventor, 0| Behrokh
Khoshnevi s has worked on hi s constructi on robot
for years , and thi s spri ng he ¯ . . . . .fi nal l y . . . . . . . . . . . (start)
marketi ng it. He predi cts that the robot ¹ n • ( bui l d)
a typi cal fami l y home i n onl y 24 hou rs . He bel i eves
t hi s method . . . n• • • • • al so . . .n• • • • (reduce) bui l di ng costs
to a fifth of what they are today. He promi ses that a
constructi on project usi ng the robot ´ nno no n ( not need)
any hu man workers, and that the houses ´ nnnnn (have)
a great vari ety of desi gns. Dr Khoshnevi s hopes
that by the end of the next decade, robots ´ nnnn
compl etel y .· n n• ( repl ace) humans on constructi on
si tes , and bui l di ng a home ¯ . .no o nn (become) a s i mpl e,
i nexpensi ve and s peedy procedure.
Grammar Review M
9. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
! ·a:¤ o¤:w ced llee¤!cy!¤e! ¤eyo.ae
o de ,c¤a¤ged)
2 ¯a0 ¤e!¹ J e ¤c ¤ay:c¤oo' . , ·¤ow¤)
3 ¬ow o¤g¤aveyo0 ¤ad!¤ : ca`, c.y)
4. We ego ¤g!o c' ay!e¤¤ :lo¤l ve 0·: ' :eve¤
o c oc< ,A!: xo c oc<)
5 \a < el! a¤d'a¤cyc ed lo a¤ ¤o0 ,al!e)
Ext ra g ra mma r e xe rc i se s a t:
wu• w. b u r l i ll gf oll bo o k s . es/1 • i eu•po i I1 Îs 1

47
SKILLS
LISTENING G
GUIDED TOURS
1 . Look at the pi ctures of l andmarks in vari ous countries. Whi ch words below can be
used to describe each picture?
skyscraper • gl ass • stone • anci ent • unusual • steel • tal l • modern
Empire State Building,
New York City, USA
2
Towers of San
Gimignano, Italy
2. Listen to three gui ded tours. Whi ch of the
l andmarks above do the tours vi sit?
� TAKE NOTES - When you a re ' i sIeni ng
to a passage, taki ng notes can be hel pful . Don' t
Iryto wri te down everyt hi ng you hear. Wri te
down keywords or i mporta nt phrases, but not Iu ' '
sentences. i t i s more i mportant to keep l i steni ng !
3. Listen to the guided tours agai n. As you l i sten,
take notes of the most i mportant facts about
each pl ace.
3
Eiffel Tower,
Paris, France
4
CN Tower, Toronto,
Canada
4. Use your notes to answer the questi ons
bel ow.
W¤ c¤ a¤d~a|<. . . ?
1 . wa: co¤: deedvey0g yw¤e¤ Iwa: c0 ' I
2 . ¤a: ¹02 :Io|ey:
3 . wa: c0 ' ! a: !¤e e:0' !ola co¤µe! I o¤a¤o¤g
la¤ ' e:
4 ¤a:a ace 0µ its :!a |: eveyyea
5 . ¤a:73 e' eva!o|:
G. wa: !¤ewo' d:Ia' e:I:!|0cI0elo40yea|:
7 wa:de: g¤ed!o:¤ow !: ¤!e ¤a' :!0cI0|e
S wa:o¤ce µaIola g|o0µol 72 Iowe|:
• What famous l andmarks are there in your area
or country? Describe one. What do you know
about it?
WEB EXTRA Read about some unusual building trivia at: u·u·u·. 0ur/ìnglon0ooks.cs{r• icu•¡oi n|sI
l
PEAKING
OMPARING PICTURES
ook at the sentences bel ow. Whi ch can be used to show how two pictures are si mi l ar?
Whi ch can be used to show how they are di fferent?
Another d i ference between them is that . . .
-
-he two pi ctures are si mi l ar I a l i ke
oecause . . .
-
.nother t hi ng that they have got i n
common i s . . .
n thi s pi cture there i s . . . , but i n thi s one . . .
5. The pl ace i n pi cture 1 i s more I l ess . . . than
i n pi cture 2.
6. Thi s pi cture shows . . . , whi l e that
one shows . . .
7 The pi ctures a re qui te d iferent because . . .
S Both pi ctures show . . .
-
Choose a pai r of pictures below. Write a l i st of adjectives and nouns that describe them. With your
partner, compare and contrast the pictures you chose. Use the expressi ons i n Exercise 1 .
'a! o¤a' Acade~ cT¤ea!e, Ode::a
Co o::e0~, Ro¤e
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to draw someone's attenti on to
somethi ng, use the fol l owi ng expressi ons:
I ' ve just noti ced . . . Have a l ook at .. .
And there's a nother thi ng .. . Di d you noti ce . . ?
Pai r 1
'aI o¤a Ce¤!|elo|I¤e²elo|¤ ¤gAI:, Be| ¤g
Pai r 2
O' y¤µ cSIad 0~, Mo¤I|ea'
Unit 4
1Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 4

49
� ..
´¨¯¯¯¯

¯

` � � � � �.. '¹ � . . Í! ���
1. Read the description below. What parts of the bui l di ng does
the writer describe? What i s his I her opi ni on of the bui ldi ng?
DU1H¡ UAM¡
luthedrul
Notre Dame Cathedral is one of the most amazing buildings
i n the world. It stands on a small island in the middle of
the River Seine i n Paris, France. It took nearly 200 years
and thousands of workers to build this spectacular Gothic
cathedral.
If you stand outside the cathedral, you' ll notice three doors
with intricate sculptures. Staring down from two huge towers
are the famous gargoyles - half-human, hal f-stone monsters.
If you are in good shape, you can climb a tower to see the
gargoyles up close, as well as get a breathtaking view of Paris.
Inside, rows and rows of tall, slim columns lead your eye up
to the towering ceiling. Lovely stained glass windows let in a
thousand different shades of l ight. During prayer times, you
can hear the beautiful sounds of the cathedral's famous organ.
Notre Dame is one of Paris' most famous l andmarks, and any
visitor should plan on seeing it. Even i f you are not a great
architecture fan, you will never forget its beauty.
2. In whi ch paragraph/s of the description does 3. For each sentence, choose two adjectives
that are si mi l ar in meani ng to the adjective i n
ital i cs.
the writer di scuss . . . ?
1 . I¤ ¤g: yo0 ca¤ do o :eeat'ote ¯a¤e
2. I¤e¤a¤ea¤d' ocat o¤olt¤eµ' ace
3. ¤ :I ¤e oµ ¤ o¤o eco¤¤e¤da: o¤
4. µ¤y: ca' c¤aacte :t c:olI¤eµ ace
ADJECTIVES
Adjecti ves are u sed to descri be nou ns. Usi ng
a vari ety of adjecti ves can ma ke your wri ti ng
r i ch a nd i nteresti ng. When descr i bi ng a pl ace,
adj ecti ves ca n create a more a ccurate and
real i sti c i mpressi on.
��|q0u|6e, paqe149
1 . T¤e caI¤eda' : ac¤ tecI0e : wonderful.
magn i fi cent I i mportant I spl endi d
2. T¤ :beautiful te¤µ ewa:c0 t ¤I¤e! 5t¤
ce¤t0y
l ovel y I el egant I enormous
3. T¤eG|eaI¯y|a¤ di s big.
bri l l i ant I i mmense I huge
4 T¤ev ewl|o¤ o0| |oo¤wa:impressive.
breathtaki ng I spectacul ar I fri ghteni ng
5. We ' oo<ed 0µat I ¤eI¤ c<:Io¤ewa ' :olI¤e
old towe|
a nci ent I famous I hi stori c
4. Whi ch adjectives from the l i st can describe each of the
pl aces bel ow?
a vi l l age • a footba l l stadi um • a road
mountai ns • a l ocal market • a pa l ace
¯owe ¤g :µac o0: a¤c e¤I
mode¤ cea!¤Ia< ¤g co o0|l0
c c!0e:q0e ¤o :y ga¤d
¤ave o0: ' ove y ¤a¡e:! c
·a ow e' ega¤! 0x0| o0:
¯µecIac.' a µeacel0
Su perl ati ve adjecti ves come before the nou n :
rh s is the most spectacular view in Toledo = .
NOT This is the view most spectacular in Toledo. X
¤0ge
ve y
0¤0:0a
cowded
:. Compl ete the sentences with adjectives from
Exercises 3 and 4. There may be more than one
correct answer. Do not use the same adjective twice.
T¤ : :o¤e ol!¤e¤o:!. « · v ew: ¤ G|a¤ada
.
T¤e :<y:caµe: :ee¤ed!o!o0c¤!¤e:<y.
3. Wev : !ed !¤e G|ee<!e¤µ ea!¯e µ¤
We co0 d¤! allod! o:!aya! !¤a! e:o!
-
S¤e ve: ¤a ¤e g¤co0 ¤oodl0 ol o' d ¤o¤e:
. T¤ece¤I|eol!ow¤ : a way:q0!e o¤ Sa!0|day
¤ g¤!.
.
T¤ea|c¤ !ec!0e ola Go!¤ cca!¤eda' ca¤ ce
ac:o 0!e y

. ve|µoo '::!ad 0¤ : a :I0c!0e !¤aIca¤¤o daco0I
45, 000µeoµ e
ADJ ECTIVE ORDER - When usi ng two or more
adj ecti ves, we wri te them i n the fol l owi ng order :
1pi n i on -+ si ze -+ age -+ shape -+ col our -+ ori gi n -+ materi al
small, old building a large, modem, glass skyscraper
6. Add the adjectives i n brackets to each sentence.
Use correct adjective order.
O0| ca|y : a/a¤ c0 ' d ¤g ,co¤ce!eI ¤ode¤I
0g'y)
2. T¤eCo o::e0¤ :a/a¤ :!ad 0¤ , Ro¤a¤I a¤c e¤!I
¤0ge)
3. ¬e|ollce : ¤ a :<y:caµe ,g a::I c ac<I !a )
... T¤e!wo µa|!:ol!¤ec !ya|e co¤¤ec!edcya - . c dge
,:µecIac0 a I :!ee I ¤ew)
5 c lle' c0 ' !a/a¤ :I0c!0e ,A-:¤aµedI o¤I ¤ode¤)
Uni t 4
Your Task
• Write a description of a pl ace. Use 1 00-1 50
words.
WRITING YOUR DESCRIPTION
1 . Brai nstorm your descri pti on.
•Thi nk of pl aces that you have vi si ted.
• Deci de on a pl ace that is i nteresting or
speci al i n some way. You may want to use
the I nternet to fi nd out facts about i t.
•Thi nk about the fol l owi ng questi ons.
Choose the poi nts that are relevant to
your essay.
- W¤ee : !¤eµ ace`
- W¤e¤wa:it c0 ' !`
- W¤a!doe: ! oo<' <e`
- W¤a! ::µec a o| ¤!ee:! ¤gaco0! !`
- W¤a!ca¤yo0do!¤ee`
- W¤a! :! ¤ea!¤o:µ¤ee ' <e`
- W¤a! ¤µ|e:: o¤doe: !g ve!¤ev : !o`
· W¤a! :yo0 oµ ¤ o¤ol!¤eµ ace`
- ¯oyo0 |eco¤¤e¤d!¤a!µeoµ' ev : I !`
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page 50 and the pl an below to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: G ve!¤e¤a¤ea¤d ocaI o¤ol!¤e
µ' ace a¤do¤eo !wodeIa ' :. Say
w¤aI ::µec a o ¤Iee:! ¤g
aco0! !
Body: ¯e:c| ceI¤eµ ace ¤¤oe de!a
a¤dg veexa¤µ' e:ol ! ¤e!¤ ¤g:
yo0ca¤ :eeo|doI¤e|e.
Cl osi ng: W !ea co¤c 0d ¤g:e¤!e¤ce
a¤d g vea¤oµ ¤ o¤o
|eco¤¤e¤da! o¤
3. Write a first draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a final draft.
CHECKLI ST

/ ï¸6||6wcnl|uµ|n�¸6r n ncJcr!µl!6�1 6¸n
µ|n:c.
/ ï ncn n vnr!cly 6¸nn]cl!vc l6 nccr!bc
l|¤µ|n:c.
/ ï¸6||6wcn l|u ru|cJ¸6r nn¡cl|vc 6rncr,
/ ï chKn_mnnr, :µcl� nn
µunlul!6� .
·
·

5K!LL5
Sc|ee¤A
�±
INTERNET RESEARCH
You are goi ng to l earn some strategies for fi ndi ng i nformation on the I nternet.
Look at the website screens and answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.
a
Amazi ng Bri dges i n Europe
Bri dges are great structures and represent spectacul ar architectural
b-achievements. I n Europe, there are . . .
amazi ng-bri dges-i n-europe. edu - 56k - Cached
c
liP
T:ø:leø
.ec:.:u w t
¨µ|«t:¸ceµl¨:{
tle »eb µqe,
:: (tle:.te
|i<× ø:e.:t
»:ck, t|n | . <r
t: tle :ø:leø
.ec:i: u m(çlt
:ti|| »:ck.
TASK QUESTI ONS
d
51ONLHLNUL�
Stonehenge
I nvesti gati ons over the l ast 1 00 years have reveal ed that Stonehenge was bui l t
in several stages from 2800- 1 800 BC. lt seems to have been desi gned to . . .
www. activemind.com/Mvsterious/Topics!Stonehenge/ - Bk ¸cached¸
Stonehenge. Engl and
Your gui de to Stonehenge, shops, other anci ent si tes and stone ci rcl es i n Britai n,
with practi cal i nformati on to make your vi si t easi er.
www. england stonehenge. co. uk/ - 1 4k -_cached¸
1 . When you do a n i nformati on search on the I nternet, it's i mportant to use good search words.
I f you wanted to fi nd out a bout bri dges i n Europe, whi ch search words bel ow woul d fi nd the best
results? Whi ch are too genera l ? Whi ch are too speci fi c?
o dgeº • o| dgeºeu|ope • ¤ ' auo| dgela¤ce
Remember there i s no need to use capi tal l etters or i ncl ude words l i ke of, to and the in your
search words.
2. i t' s i mportant to u nderstand the el ements of a search resul t. Look at Screen A and match
letters a-d to the correct l abel s bel ow.
! . ¤a¤eol !¤e wecº !e 3 . º zeol!¤ewecº !e
2 . addeººol!¤ewecº !e 4. µa|!ol!¤e!ex!w !¤yo0|ºeac¤!e|¤º ¤co d
3. Davi d has done a search for Stonehenge. Look at the two resul ts on Screen B. Whi ch websi te wi l l
gi ve hi m hi stori cal facts? Whi ch one woul d be better for a touri st pl anni ng t o go t o Stonehenge?
USE YOUR SKI LLS
Use the I nternet to research a bui l di ng a nywhere i n the worl d. Fi nd out:
w¤ee !¤ec0 ' d ¤g º • w¤a! !' oo<º' <e

!º¤ º!o|y

w¤y ! º ºµec a' o ¤µo|!a¤!
Present your i nformati on to the cl ass.
Speak Out!
1 . Look at the cartoons. What i s
happeni ng i n each one?
"I don't l i ke the l ook of thi s, Charl i e. "
2. Whi ch cartoon i l l ustrates . . . ?
a. I¤eellec!ol!¤ee¤v |o¤~e¤!o¤ a¤ ~a' :
c. µ|o!ecI ¤ga¤ ¤a' :!¤a!¤ayceco¤eexI ¤cI
c !¤e ::0eol ¤ 0¤a¤:0: ¤ga¤ ¤a :a:lood
• Whi ch cartoon do you thi nk is the funniest?
Whi ch i s the saddest? Why?
Unit Objectives
• Wil cl l i fe
' Defi ni ng and Non-defi ni ng
Relative Cl a uses
• Listeni ng to a Conversati on
` Expressing Opi ni ons
´ Writi ng a For and Agai nst Essay
• Li fe Skil ls: Gi ving a Presentation
Find out about the RSPCA at:
www. bu rlir7gtonbooks. es/uiewpoi nts I
×
/
·
<
�REAING
--
1 . Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
in the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
e¤Ia' age¤cy • ' o¤g-Ie|~ • c0dd' e: • l0|y• lad
GUESSING THE MEANING
OF WORDS
When you don' t know t he mea n i ng of a word, try
to g uess. Fi rst, try to i denti fy the part of speech
from i ts pl ace i n the sentence a nd i ts endi ng.
Then, l ook for cl ues to i t s mea ni ng by readi ng t he
ot her words i n the sentence.
2. Read the text. Look at the words i n col our.
What part of speech is each word? Try and
guess the meani ng of each word.
3. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
Justify your choi ce with a sentence from
the text.
1 . T¤e c0co:eol ² exce!z :!o . . .
a. Ieac¤ ceoc e!o!a<e |e:co¤: c !y lo| dog:
c. e¤co0|ageceoc' e!oow¤ dog:
c. a ' owceoc' eIo¤avea dogIe¤co|a| ' y
d d ::0adeceoc el|o~ ow¤ ¤gdog:
2 ² exce!zc0:Io~e:
a. ¤0:I e¤I!¤e:a¤edogeac¤! ¤e
c. lee I¤aII¤e:ev ce i s !ooexce¤: ve
c. a|e ~o:I' yceoc ew¤o ¤avegoI¤o¤ey
d. cayeac¤! ¤eI¤eyIa<ea dog
3 Ma|' e¤aCe|va¤!e: . . . . .
a lee : I : wo¤gIo|e¤!dog:
c. :ay::¤e|e:c0e::o¤edog:lo¤deaI¤
c. :a¤a¤ ¤a | g¤I:acI v :I
d. c0I: dog: ¤ a¤ ¤a :¤e !e: ceIwee¤ |e¤Ia' :
4. ² exceIz . .
a. oce|aIe:o¤' y in !¤eO¤Ied S!aIe:
c :a¤ ¤Ie|¤aI o¤a c0: ¤e::
c :accovedol cya¤ ~a' exceI:
d ¤a: :evea' ow¤e|:
4. Compl ete the sentences accordi ng to the
i nformation i n the text.
! Sa~W a¤:co~ca|e:|e¤I ¤ga dogIo . . . .
5. Choose the best meani ng for each word
or phrase accordi ng to the text.
1 . eave, ¤e 1 )
a goo0I
c. aca¤do¤
c. loge!
d. ¤c' 0de
2 c c< 0c, ' ¤e5)
a l!
c c0y
c Ia<e
d |eI0¤
3 ae:¤oIol, ¤eS)
a. ¤aveIoo ~0c¤
c. do¤ !¤avee¤o0g¤
c ¤avea I!' e
d do¤ !¤avea¤y
4. c a ¤:, ¤eº)
a. de¤a¤d:
c. eq0 e:
c. |eq0e:!:
d. dec a|e:
5. o¤g lo, ¤e1 4)
a wa¤!
c wa !
c !a<ea o!ol! ¤e
d. I¤ ¤<aco0I
• Some states i n the USA have recently passed
laws that ban the renting of ani mal s. Do you
thi nk it shoul d be i l legal to rent ani mal s?
Why or why not?
2 ·e I¤Co' ' ¤:w !e:!¤a! ca:: ¤ga dog a|o0¤dw ' . . . .
3 ·e !¤I¤ ¤<:I¤aI ¤:Ieadol |e¤I ¤gdog:, ceoc' e
4. Tacy¹ o¤¤:o¤ ¤a:a' way:wa¤Ied . . . .
5 ²e¤a¤d. zwa¤I!og ve .
G. Jac<coIi s a 'acadoI¤aI . . . .
. . +
J
0¡0' 8 0l m8| W8¡0
Ou¡s | He1t
Æ
Do you love dogs? Are you a person whose busy lifestyle doesn't leave room for a pet? There's a
sol uti on for you: Flexpetz, the dog rental agency. Now you can enjoy havi ng a dog wi thout the l ong­
term, day-to-day responsi bi l i ti es that come wi th i t
How does it work? Customers, who pay a monthly fee, choose a dog on the I nternet Then they
pi ck it up from the Flexpetz ofice for a day or a weekend, and take it home for l ong romps by the
seaside and cosy eveni ng cuddles on the sofa. The next week they pi ck up the same dog or choose
another one. lt's not cheap by any means, but thi s i s a servi ce wh1 ch i s meant for hard-worki ng
urban professi onal s who are short of t1 me, not money.
Vets and ani mal experts object to the 1dea of do ant' Is bu owner Marlena Cervantes cl ai ms that
10 many of the dogs come from overcrowded ani n a. shelters here U'lwanted ammal s are eventually
ki l l ed. She says that they are wel l cared for be als, and that customers someti mes even
adopt them.
Flexpetz has offices 1n Los Angeles, New York Ci ty a L and Cervantes pl ans to open more
offices around the worl d. l t seems that no matter how hectic r l i ves may be, we sti l l long for the
1 1 uncondi ti onal affecti on of a furry friend.
COMME NTS
We live i n crazy ti mes. We can
rent anything from a car to a
designer handbag for a few
hours. But a dog is not a fad

or a fashi on accessory.
Sam Williams,
San Franciso
Dogs are dependent
on meani ngful , lifelong
relati onshi ps with thei r human
owners. A dog wi l l become
Z¯ confused and unhappy i f it
is passed from one home to
another. ' suggest that these
dog-lovers try volunteering at
the local animal shelter, where
OÜ there are plenty of dogs that
need walks and attenti on.
Keith Collins,
Animal behaviourist, London
For me, Flexpetz i s a dream
come true. ' mi ss having a dog,
but it woul d be irresponsi bl e for
¹¯ me to keep one because ' work
l ong hours and travel a l ot. I ' m
mad about Ol i vi a, the poodle
that I rent every weekend.
Would she be better off i n an
¬Þ ani mal shelter? ' don' t thi nk so!
Tracy Johnson,
Los Angeles
We want our chi l dren to have
the experience of a dog, but
we' re too busy to cope with
owning one. The kids can' t
¬¯ wait for the weekends, when
we rent Jackpot, a beautiful ,
bl ack Labrador. Flexpetz i s a
great idea!
Ken and liz Matthews,
New York City
False friends
claims ( l i ne 9) means afrma not c/ama
eventually ( l i ne 1 0) means fna!mente not
eventualmente
Uni t 5
�VOCAUAY
Words from the Text
+ . + + « . + « « + .=+ « « . + « - . . . « . . + « · + = - . . + . + « « . + « . « = >« « + = + . . . + . « + . . « «+ + + .+ . . . . . · = . . + . « . . . + - « « . « « . - · ÷ « « . . . +. · « . « « « « . - . ·
1 . For each sentence begi nni ng in I, fi nd the best
conti nuati on in 1 1 . Pay attenti on to the words
in col our.
! OJ| l| e¤dwe¤IIo' ve ¤.eed:
2 Weca¤I ' e¤d yo0 ¤o¤ey
3 'oI¤ ¤gca¤ de:I|oy
4. W ¤¤ ¤gI¤e 'oIIe|y
5 We |e d| v ¤gaco::Iow¤
G. 'Iwa:a co' d, :¤owyeve¤ ¤g,
7. 'oo¤ece' eved 0:
S. We |e ve|yI |ed
1 1
a. c0Iwele' Iwa ~a¤dcosy ¤: de.
c. oJ| l i fel ong l| e¤d:¤ µ.
c I opi ck up o0| l| e¤d.
d. woJ' dcea dream come true.
e. a¤dwe mi ss ¤e|vey ¤0c¤.
l cecaJ:ewe |e short of ca:¤.
g. ceca0:eweve¤ada hecti c day.
¤ . w¤e¤we cl ai med wed :ee¤ a g¤o:I
2. Choose two possi bl e answers to compl ete
each sentence. Pay attenti on to the words
in colour.
! . A µe|:o¤ ca¤ ceI¤eowner ola house 1
country I horse.
2. YoJµayafee Iodo your homework I
j oi n a gym I go to university.
3 . Yo0 ca¤ rent a fl at I bi cycl e I
dri ver's l i cence.
4. A µe:o¤ca¤ l ong for hi s fami l y 1
warm weather I bad news.
5 Yo0 ca¤cea customer aIa school I cafe 1
shop.
3. Choose an opti on. Then complete each
sentence. Pay attenti on to the words
in colour.
! . A¤ ¤a' : ¤zoo:woul d be I woul dn't be
better off l . . . .
2 . A |e' axed l i festyl e is I i sn't good ceca0:e . . .
3 . 'I:a good I bad deaIo c0y:o¤eI¤ ¤gI¤aI:a
fad ceca0:e . . . .
4. No matter what µeoµ' e:ay, yoJ :¤oJ' dal ways 1
never . . . .
PREFIXES
Recogn i si ng prefi xes can hel p you understand
the meani ngs of words.
The prefi xes un-, dis-, it-, ir-, in- a nd im- a re
used to form the opposi te of a word a nd usua l l y
g i ve i t a negati ve meani ng.
i t would be irresponsible of me t o get a dog.
Other prefi xes have got speci fi c mea n i ngs.
Knowi ng t hei r mea n i ngs can h el p you to
u nderstand new words.
We overestimated the number of people coming to the
party
��0tammatAppeo6|x,paqe1 21
4. Write the opposites of the words below by
addi ng the prefixes un-, dis-, if-, ir-, in- or im-.
Use a dicti onary to check your answers.
advantage • rel evant • possi bl e
fai r • conveni ent • l ogi cal
5. Compl ete the sentences with the words you
formed i n Exercise 4.
1 . ¯o¤I ¤c Jdea ' oIol deIa : ¤ yoJ|e::ay.
2 T¤e¤a ¤ olI¤aI:¤oµ :I¤aIyo0 ¤aveIo
µaylo|µa|< ¤g
3 . ¯' ea:eµ¤o¤eaga ¤ aIe| 'I: lo~eI oIa <
¤ow.
4. 'I: Ioco¤ce¤IaIewI¤ a' ' I¤aI ¤o :e '
5. '¤ ¤y oµ ¤ o¤, :o~eolo0| :c¤oo' 0' e:
a e . . . . «
G Jell:a¤:wedoe:¤I ~a<e:e¤:e. ' I:
co¤µ' eIe' y . . .
6. Match each prefix i n col our i n I with its
meani ng i n 1 1 .
I
1. ²' exµeIz i s a¤i nternati onal co~µa¤y.
2 . Mode¤c I e: ae ¤o :ya¤doverpopul ated.
3. ' revi ewed I¤e¤aIe| a celo|eI¤eIe:I.
4. T¤eex-presi dent :µo<e aII¤e J¤ ve: Iy
5. ' d d¤I ~ea¤Io ¤:J IyoJ. YoJ
mi sunderstood ~e.
G. ¯o¤I underest mateI¤eµa ¤
I¤aI a¤a¤ ~a' lee' :.
1 1
a. w|o¤g
c. a¤o¤g, ceIwee¤
c. ¤oIe¤oJg¤
d Ioo ~Jc¤
e. µ|ev o0:
l. aga ¤
' ' y
"he
n-.
¹
·
l". s

`'�¹�² �¹J .
lLD LIFE
Complete the defi niti ons in I with a word
from 1 1 .
! . A¤a¤ ¤a I¤aI ve:w l¤¤0¤a¤: : . . .
2 A cacy ' o¤ : ca ' eda . . .
3 To <eeµa¤ ¤a :lol¤eµ0µo:eol
eµod0cl o¤ :Io . . .
4 . W¤e¤a¤a¤ ¤a : :eIl|ee, I : . . .
5. A¤ a¤ ¤a' v ¤g ¤l:¤aI0|a e¤v |o¤¤e¤l : .
G. A¤ a¤ ¤a' l¤aI :¤ollee ' ve: . . .
7 A:l|0cI0ew l¤ ca|:w¤e|e a¤ ¤a' :a|e
<eµI : a
S . A¤ agg|e:: veo v c o0:a¤ ¤a' : . . .
a. cage
D. i n capti vity
breed
d fi erce
e. wi l d
cub
g tame
rel eased
1 1
-
Choose the correct answers to the questions
bel ow. Pay attention to the words i n col our.
¤aI a|e lwo endangered a¤ ¤a :`
a. g a¤lµa¤da
o. g alle
¯. c' 0ew¤a' e
.
¤ c¤ : l¤eo¤ yco0¤Iy ¤I¤ewo| dw¤e|e
hunti ng : ' ega' `
O . Sµa ¤
D. ²e¤ya
« ScoI' a¤d
.
¤aI : I¤e¤al0|a habi tat ola o¤`
a . l' ala|ea:w I¤ga::
:. ¡ 0¤g e:w l¤ ¤a¤yI|ee:
· dyde:e|l:
· ¤ c¤lwoo|ga¤ :al o¤:wo|<lo
conservati on ola¤ ¤a' :`
- Wo ' d¬0¤I ¤gA::oc al o¤
D. Wo' dW de²0¤dlo|'al0|e ,WW²)
. Gee¤µeace
.
. ¤ c¤olI¤elo' ' ow ¤ga¤ ¤a :a|e predators?
a. o¤:
D. e' eµ¤a¤l:
c|ocod e:
.
. ¤ c¤olI¤e lo' ' ow ¤ga especi es olw ' dcaI:`
a . l ge|
acc l
c y¤x
Unit 5
3. I DI OMS Match the i di oms in bol d i n I to thei r
correct meani ng i n 1 1 .
I
1 . T¤eµa|lywa: :0µµo:edlocea :0µ :e, c0
:o¤eo¤el et the cat out of the cag
2. ' wa: I¤eo¤ y coy o¤ I¤eI µ. le' t ' e
a fi sh out of water.
3 Hol d your horses ! Yo0 ¤eedlol ¤ ¤<aco0
I¤ :l |:l.
4. W¤ ewe |e ¤ low¤, weca¤ a' :ov : lJe::
a¤dki l l two bi rds with one stone.
5. T¤el c<eI:we|e:oc¤eaµ' smel l ed a rat !
1 1
a. wa Ia ¤ ¤0le
c evea' eda :ec|eI
c. :o¤eI¤ ¤gI :o¤eo¤el¤al doe:¤I ce o¤g
d. :0:µecl:o¤el¤ ¤g :w|o¤g
e loacco¤µ' :¤IwoI¤ ¤g:aIl¤e:a¤el ¤e
� 4. Compl ete the passage with the words and
phrases below. Then l isten and check your
answers.
cub • habi tat • in captivity • breed • tame
cages • wi l d • predators
ÍOIB IO D0 ÍI00
Would you like a pet tiger? No problem! I n the United States,
you can easily buy a cute tiger

-« « from a pet shop or over the
Internet. However, even a tiger that was born ¯ -« « « - will never really
become 3 . . . ... . .. . . Tigers are fierce ¹

g and your playful "kiten"
will soon grow into a large and dangerous adult, no longer wanted
by its owner. Most tigers are passed from owner to
owner, kept in small ¯ « and displayed for
people's amusement. There are now as
many as 1 0,000 privately-owned tigers
in the United States -twice the number
left living in thei r natural ¯ « . « . . . . ! In the
UK, this problem does not exist because
i t is illegal to -« « « .-and sell ¯ « « - animals
privately. The United States should learn from
this example.
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true for
you.
! . ' d ovelocel¤eowner ol . . . .
2 ' l ¤ ¤<l¤alhunting : .
3 . ' co0 d¤e µendangered a¤ ¤a :cy . . . .
4. ²o¤e, lwoJ dcea dream come true o . .
5. ' smeled a rat w¤e¤ . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 86-87 57
)
--

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. This is a service meant for people who I that are
short of time
b. Flexpetz is an agency which I that rents out dogs.
c The kids can't wait ror the weekends, when we rent
Jackpot.
d. Are you a person whose busy lifestyle doesn't leave
room for a pet?
e. They should volunteer at animal shelters, where
there are plenty of dogs.
1 . What noun does each rel ative pronoun i n
bol d rel ate to?
2. Whi ch rel ative pronoun above refers to . . . ?
1. a n obj ect .a pl ace
2. a person 5. a t i me
3. a person or an obj ect 6. possessi on
_DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSES
--
1 . Read the exampl es and identif the relative
cl ause in each sentence.
a. People who want to rent a dog can try Flexpetz.
{defining]
b. Flexpetz customers, who pay a monthly fee, choose
a dog on the Internet. (non-defining]
c. I 'll never forget the weekend when we first got
Jackpot. (defining]
d. Last weekend, when we were out of town, we didn 't
take Jackpot. (non-defining]
2. Choose the correct options to compl ete the
rul es bel ow.
1. A defi n i ng jnon-defi n i ng rel ati ve cl ause
provi des extra, non-essent i al i nfor mati on
about peopl e or t hi ngs.
2. A defi n i ng jnon-defi ni ng rel ati ve cl ause i s
essenti al to the mean i ng of the sentence.
3. Commas a re used to separate a defi ni ng j
non-defi n i ng rel ati ve cl au se from the ma i n
cl ause.
_.We do not use t he rel at i ve pronoun that i n
defi n i ng j non-defi ni ng rel ati ve cl auses.
�tammatAppeo6|x,paqes1 20-1 21
1 . Compl ete each sentence with a suitabl e
relative pronoun. There may be more than
one possi bl e answer.
1. ¯o yo0 <¤owa¤y ceoc e l g¤llo a¤ ~a'
g¤lº`
2. Wec0y!¤edoglood o0veleco¤~e¤dº
3. ' gol0ca!G. 00a¤, loo<Scolloa wa' <
4 A0º!a a i s a co0¤ly l¤ee ae ~a¤y0¤ q0e
a¤ ~a º.
5 cveyo¤e! edloco~lo!o0 ¤e g¤co0,
cal ¤ad d ed
G. \ycol¤e,�wo<ºa!a¤a¤ ¤a º¤e le, º
a vegela a¤.
7 ¯oyo0! ¤ ¤<l¤all¤eea e ¤a¤ya¤ ~a' º
ae exc' o !ed`
S. T¤eeae c' e¤!yol celº ow¤eº !a<e good
caeoll¤e¤
2 . Match I and 1 1 and add a relative pronoun to
form sentences.
!. Te ~e aco0l!¤el ' ~ (
2 º !¤ee a c' ace ¤eacy
3 . ' ~ oo< ¤gloa l' al¤ale
4. Weº¤o0' dcelo ea¤!olceoc' e
5 ¬e c l¤day º ¤ A0g0ºl,
G S< ¤g ºcoc0' a ¤!¤eA' cº,
7 . ' ¤!¤ ¤< ¤golºe' ¤g ~y ca,
S. l t a ¤edo¤l¤eday
1 1
a ¤eedºa o!ol eca º
c wego!~a ed.
c yo0walc¤ed aº! ¤ g¤l.
d. doeº¤ !º¤o<e
e ' ca¤ 0ºel¤e' ¤!e¤e!`
l l¤ee ºº¤ow ¤ea' ya' yea o0¤d
g. oc ¤ o¤ºae d llee¤llo¤o0º
¤ ~oº!ol ¤e l e¤dºaeo0l ol!ow¤ .
Los cl i entes de Fl expetz, que pagan una cuota
mensual , el i gen u n perro por I nternet.
Û
Flexpetz customers, who pay a monthly fee, choose a
dog on the Internet . .
NOT Flexpetz customers, who they pay a monthly
fee, choose a dog on the Internet. X
e
I
3. Combi ne the sentences usi ng the relative
pronoun in brackets. Make any necessary
changes. Whi ch sentences contai n
non-defi ni ng cl auses?
T¤a!'º!¤eg ' Yo0 ¤o! ced �a!!¤eca!y ,!¤a!)

S¤ecacyº !ºlo!w ¤º. T¤e cae¤!ºwo< o¤g
¤o0º ,w¤oºe)

T¤e oad º c oºed T¤eacc de¤!!oo<c' ace
!¤ee. ,w¤ee)
T¤e l el g¤!eº eºc0ed a < !!e¤. T¤eylo0¤d ! ¤
!¤ec0 ¤ ¤g¤o0ºe. ,w¤ c¤)
S T¤eºo¤gwaº la¤!aº! c T¤eyºa¤g ! ,w¤ c¤)
� T¤ec zegoeº!o¬owad. ¬e a¤ºweed a !¤e
,0eº! o¤ºcoec!y ,w¤o)
-
I ememce!¤eday. Wel º! me! !¤e¤ ,w¤e¤)
3. T¤ º º \Gea d ¬ ºda0g¤!e º ¤yo0 c aºº.
,w¤oºe)
Rc./T' vc¯R0\0d\S - I n defi ni ng
- e ati ve cl a uses, we ca n omi t t h e rel ati ve pronouns
ha, which, that and when lthey a r e not the
: J bj ect of t he cl ause.
m mad about the dog (that} I rent every weekend.
4. Look at your answers to Exercise 3. I n which
sentences can you omit the relative pronoun?
5. Combi ne the sentences usi ng a relative
pronoun. Make any necessary changes.
The Col d El ephant
T¤eº!a!eolA aº<a ¤aºgo! a veyco dc ma!e
l t º ¤ea!¤eAc! cC c e
z \agg ewaº!¤eo¤ ye ec¤a¤! ¤A aº<a S¤e ved
¤ !¤eA aº<aZoo
3 S¤e ved ¤!¤ezoolom ¹ ºSJ . S¤ewaº!a<e¤
lomAl ca !¤a!yea
c ec¤a¤!ºae a¤ ma º T¤ey ¤eed!o ve ¤go0cº.
¯ T¤ey m0º!a' ºo ' ve ¤a wamc ma!e ! º º m ' a
!o!¤e wam ¤a! ve ¤ac !a!.
¯. Ac! v º!ºwa¤!ed!o move¤e!oa wamec ace.
S¤eco0' dºoc a ºew !¤o!¤ee ec¤a¤!º!¤ee.
T¤ezooageed!omove ¤e !oa ºa¤c!0ay ·
Ca' lo ¤ a. S¤ewo0 dcem0c¤ ¤acc e!¤ee.
S T¤ ºwaºd ll c0' !lo!¤eA' aº<a¤º. T¤eyweeºad
!oca!w !¤ !¤e o¤ ye ec¤a¤!.
6. Compl ete the sentences with a relative cl ause.
Use each relative pronoun once.
1. Azoo ºa c' ace . . . .
z Ave! ºa ceºo¤ .
3 ememce !¤eday
. \o¤<eyºaea¤ ma º . . . .
.
adm e ceoc e ¯.
Unit 5
� 7. Compl ete the passage wi th the correct
relative pronouns. Then l i sten and check
your answers. There may be more than one
possi bl e answer.
You' ve probably never heard of the bongo. a rare and
beautiful antelope . . . . . . . . habitat is the mountain of
Kenya. Bongos, ´ . .. . . . . have reddi sh-brown coats and
yellow stripes, have been endangered for many years. In
the 1 960s, Don Hunt, . . had once been a bongo hunter.
started a conservation programme . . . . . . . . . would help bÛ`
these animals. He caught 20 bongos and took them to ZLb
in the United States, 5 . . . . they had a safe place to Ji\· e and
breed.
The programme was so successful that there are now -0
bongos in the United States. In 2004, 1 8 bongos were
taken back to Africa, . . . . only a few dozen native bongo
were left. The American-born bongos, . . . . . . . were born in
the zoo, cannot survive in the wild. However, in the future .
. . . . . . . . . . their offspring are released, a new generation of
bongos will live free in the African mountains.

WEB EXTRA
Find out more about endangered animals at:

uuu. |urling|on0ools.cs/ticu¡oinrs1
Grammar Review M
8. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
¹ . ' ' vego!a l e¤d S¤eºcea<º¹ aca¤eºe ( ¤o
2 . ' cega¤wo< ¤g ¤ee ¤ 200G ,º ce)
3. ' ' mgo ¤g!o ¤e c.ay, w¤o ¤aº go!a ey
dog. ,w¤oºe)
4 Weae mov ¤g ¤ ¹ 0y ,cy!¤e e¤d o Ju j
5. T¤ece¤doeº¤'!wo < co0g¤!1 eº�e o-,
,w¤ c¤)
Ext ra g ra mma r e xe rc i se s a t:
u• • | u ngo n 0 o rs c s CNp ¡ H l ,
59
SKILLS
LISTENING G
A CONVERSATION
1 . Many young peopl e choose to become
vegetari ans. Look at some of their reasons
bel ow. Which do you agree wi th?
! . caI ¤g~ea!i s c0e
2 . Meat i s 0¤¤ea' !¤y
3. Cattl ela|~:da~ageI¤ee¤v |o¤~e¤I
2. Listen to the fi rst part of the conversation
between two friends. What i s the di fference
between a vegetarian and a vegan?
3. Listen to the second part of the conversation
and compl ete the sentences. Use 1 -2 words
for each bl ank.
! . Acco|d ¤gIoRya¤, !:w|o¤glo¤0~a¤:
Io· · • • o...... a ¤ ~a :.
2 Rya¤ doe:¤ Iwea| .. . . ~adel|o~a¤ ~a' :.
3. A~y:ay:!¤aIge!! ¤gwoo' . . . .- - - - · - I¤e:¤eeµ.
4. \a¤yla|~a¤ ~a :ae <eµ! ¤ - .- _ w¤e|eI¤ey
ca¤¤o!
,' STc\C/R:²J,,¥
¯
Li steni ng to the
speaker's tone of voi ce wi l l h el p you deduce t hei r
opi ni ons and feel i ngs. Are they happy, a ngry, sad
or neutra l ? Thi s wi l l a l so hel p you predi ct t hei r
responses a nd u nderstand what t hey mean.
4. Listen to the thi rd part of the conversati on.
Who says the fol l owi ng?
! A¤ ~a :a|e¤ !o0:Ioexµ o I.
2. A¤ ~a' c c0:e:aeIe| c e.
3. /oo: ¤e µµ|oIecIe¤da¤geed a¤ ~a' :
4. C|0e'Iy-leeco:~e! c:¤avea :µec a' :y~co' .
5. We¤aveI¤e| g¤IIo0:ea¤ ~a' :loI¤egood
ol¤0~a¤:.
• Are your opi ni ons closer to Ryan's or to
Amy's? Thi nk about the vari ous issues they
di scussed (zoos, ci rcuses, farm ani mals, testi ng
medi ci nes and cosmetics) and give reasons.
Approximately three million people
in the UK are vegetarians.
SPEAKING
EXPRESSING OPINIONS
1 . Look at the picture and read the opi ni ons below.
Who woul d give each opi ni on - a vegan
or a farmer?
1 . ' don't thi nk that !¤ : µe|:o¤ :exµ' o ! ¤g!¤e
a¤ ~a
z. I n my opi ni on, !: ¤a!0a lo|¤0~a¤:! o0:e
a¤ ~a :
3 I bel i eve that a¤ ~a' :¤ave!¤e:a~e| g¤!:a:
¤0~a¤:.
4. I feel that we¤ave ¤o g¤!!o~a<e a¤ ~a :
wo|<lo|0:.
5 I thi nk that !¤ :¤e µ: a¤ ~a : T¤ey¤eed
¤0~a¤:!o oo<al!e!¤e~
6. l t seems to me that !¤e:ea¤ ~a :ae¤ !
:0lle ¤g. T¤eywee~ea¤!!owo<.
2. Whi ch of the opi ni ons above do you agree wi th?
3. Work i n pai rs. Describe what i s happeni ng i n
each picture bel ow. Then take turns gi vi ng your
opi ni on on the questi ons bel ow. Use the
expressi ons in colour i n Exercise 1 .

A|e µeoµ eexµ o ! ¤g!¤ea¤ ~a `

': !¤ :la I 0¤< ¤dI ¤a~l0 !o!¤ea¤ ~a' `

': !¤ea¤ ~a' :0lle ¤gI ce¤el !! ¤g`

¯oµeoµ e¤avea | g¤!!o do !¤ :`
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to encourage your partner to express hi s I her opi ni on, u se the
fol l owi ng q uesti ons:
What do you t hi nk? What a bout you? What' s your opi ni on? Do you agree?
Unit 5
Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 5 ��Ptoooc|at|ooPtac|ce,page1 32
61
-
¬
·
� w

·

A For and Against Essay
1 . Read the for and agai nst essay bel ow. Does the writer bel i eve ani mal experi mentati on is necessary?
ANI MAL EXPERI MENTATI ON
People have experimented on animals for many years i n order to find out how t o cure disea e.
However, today many people claim that animal testing i a cruel form of exploitation.
On the one hand, medical experimenting on animals cause them pain and uffering. In
addition, doctors cannot always apply the re ult to humans because of the physical diferences
between people and animals. Furthermore, many animal te ts are unnecessary because there are
alternative method , uch as u ing computer models of the human body.
On the other hand, animal experimentation has played an important role in many medical
advances, including treatment for cancer and AIDS, open-heart surgery and organ tran plants.
Moreover, alternative methods are sometime not as accurate as using animal s.
In conclusion, although I realise that animal te ting causes suffering, I believe i t is nece ary
in order to help human being . Nevertheless, goverment hould make ure that l aboratory
animal are treated as humanely as possible and used only when completely neces ary.
2. In whi ch paragraphs of the essay does the writer . . . ?
1 . µ|e:e¤!ag0~e¤!:!o:0µµo|!a¤ ~a' exµe| ~e¤!a! o¤
2. µ|e:e¤!!¤eo!¤e: deol!¤e ::0ea¤d g ve ag0~e¤!: :0µµo! ¤g !
3. ¤!od0ce!¤e ::0eI co¤!ove:y
4 :0~~a :e!¤e a|g0~e¤!:a¤dg ve ¤ :I ¤e oµ ¤ o¤
CONNECTORS OF ADDITION
AND CONTRAST
We use connectors to show the rel ati ons hi p between i deas.
Con nectors of addi ti on connect s i mi l ar i deas. Con nectors of
contrast connect contrasti ng i deas.
3. Below i s a l i st of connectors of addi ti on and contrast. Fi nd three connectors of addi ti on and three
connectors of contrast i n the model. What i deas do they connect or contrast?
Connectors of addi ti on Connectors of contrast
a :o a¤d a:we ' a: c0!I ¤oweveI ¤eve!¤e e::
¤ :µ !eolI de:µ !e
o¤ !¤eo¤e¤a¤dI o¤ !¤eo!¤e ¤a¤d
a' !¤o0g¤I eve¤!¤o0g¤ ¤add ! o¤,!o) l0|!¤e~o|e
~oeove| w¤a!: ~oe ce: de: w¤ e
i
4.
!
2.
3 .
4.
5.
Choose the correct connector.
\a¤y µeoµ e¤ave:!a!edexe|c : ¤g ¤ ece¤!yea:. I n addi ti on I However, ¤ea !¤y,
¤a!0|a' lood:¤ave ceco~eq0 !eµoµ0' a|
A¤¤a ¤a:go! a ' ove yµe:o¤a' !yi n spi te of I as we' ' as a gea!:e¤:eol ¤0~o0
cx!e~e:µo!:ca¤ ceveyda¤geo0: Neverthel ess I Furthermore, ~a¤yµeoµ' ee¤¡ oy!¤e~
O0 µ' a¤ea ved a¤ ¤o0 a!e. Moreover I However, !woolo0 :0 !ca:e:we|e o:!
A¤!¤o¤y <e: ¤ : ¤ew¡ocas wel l as I despi te !¤e owµay
'
'
OcS¯' Tcj ' \ S¯' TcOF - Despite and in spite of
: •; "al l owed by a noun phrase or ger und ,veb + - ing), wh i l e
f en though and although a re fol l owed by a cl ause wi th
: � :j ect + verb.
::spite I In spite of the high price, I bought the dress.
-�o failed the exam despite /in spite of studying off night.
¯� s not wearing a coat, even though I although it's cold.
.. Choose the correct connector.
·¹ e :o~e! ~e:ea!:l :¤a lthough I despi te ¤e': a
vege!a a¤.
¤ave! owa < ~ydog!o¤ g¤!, i n spi te of I
even though ' ~vey! ed
.
¹a~e:¤eve ea¤edSca¤ :¤al though I n spite of
v ¤g ¤Sev elo:eve|a yea:.
.
Va¤ Gog¤wa: a la¤!a:! ca! :!. Despi te I Even though
¤ :, ¤e¤eve:o da ca ¤! ¤gd0 ¤g¤ : le! ~e.
-
Even though I Despi te !¤elac:!¤a! ! wa: la, we
dec ded!owa' <

Rewrite each of the fol l owi ng sentences in two ways.
Use the connectors in brackets.
= O0!ow¤ ¤a: go!:evea :co!: ce¤!|e:. !: a :o go!a
loo!ca :!ad 0~. ,a: we' a:, w¤a!: ~oe)
. . .~~a : a !a e¤!ed a! :!, c0! :¤e ¤a:¤ ! go!! ~e!o
ca ¤! , ¤oweve, a !¤o0g¤)
& !: ol!e¤la:!e!ogocy!a ¤!¤a¤cyca ' ¤add ! o¤,
!: a ' o!c¤eace. ,a :o, a¤d)
O¤!¤eo¤e¤a¤d, we¤ave¤ !go!~0c¤ ~o¤ey.
O¤ !¤eo!¤e¤a¤d, we celeea! ¤go0!!o coo< ¤g
, ¤eve|!¤e' e::, de:c !e)
.
: well as sfol l owed by a noun or a ger und. t snever
=ol l owed by a cl a use.
�:"ponies use animals for testing medicines as well as
�osmetics . .
:: Companies use animals for testing medicines as well as
:ney test cosmetics. X

Compl ete the sentences with a l ogi cal endi ng.
O¤!¤eo¤e¤a¤d, !: gea!!o!ave O¤!¤eo!¤e
¤a¤d, . . .
.
\ya¤wa¤!:!o cela~o0:. \oeove|, . . . .
. ecog¤ :e!¤ece:o¤ ¤ !¤ :c c!J|e, eve¤ !¤o0g¤
.
e ve dec ded!o co¤! ¤0ew !¤oJ c a¤: ¤:c !e ol . . . .
.
¯¤e ¤oJ:e ¤a:go! a ¤0gega|de¤a:we a: . . . .
U nit 5
Your Task
• Write a for and agai nst essay on the topi c
Zoos - Good or Bad? Use 1 00- 1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR FOR AND
AGAINST ESSAY
1 . Brai nstorm your essay.
• Make a l i st of pros and cons. Look at the
statements bel ow. Whi ch woul d you put
in your "pros" l i st? Which woul d you put
in your "cons" l i st?
- /oo:~a<e ceoc eawae ol!¤eva' 0ea¤d
cea0!yola¤ ~a :.
W !¤o0!zoo:, ceoc ewoJ' d¤o! ceac' e
!o:ee!¤e:ea¤ ~a :
A¤ ~a : ¤zoo::0llel|o~ :o a! o¤a¤d
do¤'! ¤avee¤o.g¤:cace oexec :e
· \ode¤zoo:a|e : ~ a!o:¤ea¤ ~a :
¤a!0a ¤ac !a!
\o:!zooa¤ ~a :ae ·o: e¤da¤geed
T¤ey ae <ec!'oe¤!e:a ¤~e¤!
Zoo: ¤e cc|o!ec:e¤da¤geed a¤ ~a :
! :w|o¤g!o<eecw da¤ ~a : ¤
cac! v!y
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page 62 and the pl an bel ow to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: S!a!e!¤e ::0eI co¤!ove|:y
Body: ¯|e:e¤!a|gJ~e¤!: :0cco|! ¤go¤e
: deol!¤e ::0e.
¯e:e¤!ag0~e¤!::Jcco! ¤g!¤e
o!¤e: deol!¤e ::0e
Cl osi ng: S0~ Jc!¤e!oc ca¤d:!a!eyo0
oc ¤ o¤
3. Write a first draft.
4. Use the checkl ist to check your work.
Then write a final draft.
CHECKLI ST
/ ï¡:||:»eøtm µ|��¡:c� ¡: c �aq�i<:
es:�y .
/ ï u:eø � «�ciety:¡c:mt:c: :¡�øøiti:�
�ac:mc�:t.
/ ï¡:||:»eøtm cu|e.¡:c »:cø: cøec »it|
c:mt:c:.
/ ï cmkeø¸ommc, :µe||i_ �:
µu�ctu�ti:1.
--
æ
5K!LL5
GIVI NG A PRESENTATI ON

You are goi ng to l earn some techni ques to hel p you prepare and gi ve an oral
presentati on. Read the Steps for Oral Presentation and answer the Task Questi ons.
STEPS FOR ORAL PRESENTATION
A. RESEARCH YOUR TOPIC
O:e!¤e:!eµ: ¤ Interet Research
,' leS< ' :O¤ I4)!o e:ea|c¤yoJ|Ioµ c.
B. ORGANI SE YOUR PRESENTATI ON
I ntroduction
' ¤!odJceyoJ !oµ c cy:Ia|! ¤gw I¤
:o~eI¤ ¤g!¤a!w ' ' ca!c¤yoJ| aJd e¤ce:
aI!e¤! o¤, lo| exa~µ' ea :Ia|I' ¤glac¦
a qJe:! o¤o|a µe:o¤a exµe| e¤ce.
Body
O|ga¤ :eyoJ|Ia' <aoJ¤d2·J ~a ¤µo ¤I:.
T¤eµo ¤I::¤oJ' d¤avea ' og ca' :eqJe¤ce.
Add:Jµµo|! ¤gde!a :a¤dexa~µ' e:!o
eac¤ ~a ¤µo ¤I
Concl usi on
SJ~~a :eyoJ !a' <a¤d |e:Ia!e!¤e¤o:!
~µo|!a¤!µo ¤I:.
C. USE CUE CARDS
O:e :¤a ' cJeca|d:!o ¤e µyoJ e~e¤ce
w¤aIyoJwa¤I!o:ay.
• W|Ie o¤ yo¤e dea olac!o¤ a cad
• O:e agew ! ¤g:oyoJca¤ ead !ea: y.
• 'J~ce|I¤e ca|d:
• W Ieo¤' y<eywod:, ¤oIlJ' ' :e¤!e¤ce:.
D. PRACTI CE
O: ¤gyoJ cJeca|d:, e¤ea:e ¤l|o¤Iol
a ~ o|oa l e¤d .
TASK QUESTI ONS
1 . Look at the fol l owi ng openi ngs from
a presentati on a bout whal e hunti ng.
Whi ch techni ques does each one use?
Whi ch do you t hi nk i s the best?
! . W¤ywoJ' da¤yo¤ewa¤!Io < ' ' a¤a¤ ~a a:
¤!e ' ge¤Ia:a w¤a' e`
2. ':awa w¤a e¤J¤!o¤T, a¤d I~ade~evey:ad.
J. 'I: ' ' ega' !o ¤J¤Iw¤a e:, cJ!¤J¤Ie::I ' ' < ' ' 2, 000
w¤a' e:eve|yyea|.
2. Read the fol l owi ng sentences from a
presentati on a bout whal e hunti ng. Whi ch are
mai n poi nts? Whi ch are supporti ng i deas?
1 . T¤e~e!¤od:J:edIo< ' ' w¤a' e:ae vey cJe .
2. Seve¤oJ!ol! J w¤a' e:µec e: ae e¤da¤geed.
J . ¬J¤Ie|:J:ea ¤a|µoo¤, w¤ c¤exµ' ode: ¤: de!¤e
w¤a' ea¤dcaJ:e:Ie| c eµa ¤
4. \a¤y:µec e:olw¤a' e~ g¤Id :aµµea lw¤a e
¤J¤I ¤gco¤I ¤Je:
3. Look at the sentences bel ow. Whi ch i s a
better concl usi on?
! . ' ¤:¤o|!,w¤a' e¤J¤! ¤g :c|Je' a¤dJ¤¤ece::a|y,
a¤d~ay ' eadIo!¤eexI ¤cI o¤ol :o~ew¤a' e
:µec e:
2. ' ¤co¤c' J: o¤, ~o:!µeoµ eag|eeI¤aIw¤a' e
¤J¤I ¤g:¤oJ' dce:Ioµµed.
4. Whi ch is a better cue card? Why?
A B
l
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
¡tt««qo Wile
]·-e --,··�
,-¸t· die.
Research a n i ssue a nd present it to the cl ass.
• T¤ ¤ < ola¤ ::Jeo|µoc' e¤!¤a!yoJlee' : ¤µo|Ia
• O:e!¤e:Ieµ:de:c| ced o¤ I¤ :µage!o ¤e' µyoJ µep�
yoJ µ|e:e¤!aI o¤.
0
Uni t Objectives
* Weather
' Modal s and Modal Perfects
¯ Listeni ng to News Reports
• interviewi ng
* Writi ng a News Report
" Li fe Ski l ls: Using Graphs and Charts
Extreme Wather
e weather affects your dai l y l ife, but how much do you
. ual l y know about it? Do the qui z below and see.
1 . Li ghtni ng i s hotter than the surface of the sun.
2. Cl ouds are made of water, gas and i ce.
3. The shape of a rai nbow i s a compl ete ci rcl e.
4. Red rai n once fel l i n I ndi a for several months.
5. Afri ca i s the worl d's dri est conti nent.
6. Al l snowflakes have got si x si des.
7. Ci ti es are cool er than the areas around them.
8. Trees cause rai n.

Aoswets, paqe 1 60
How does the weather in your area affect your l ifestyle?
Thi nk of tradi ti onal sports, food and cultural events.

WE
B
EXTRA
Find out about some more unusual weather facts at:

www. burltgtoJZbooks. es/vl ell!pOl llts I

RAING
1. Word Check: The fol l owi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
Iw :le• µ a ¤:• |a ¤-:oa<ed • ¤a :lo¤e:
l0¤¤e -:¤aµed
UNDERSTANDING CONNECTORS
Connectors can hel p you u nderstand t he
connecti on between i deas i n a text. They often
show contrast, addi ti on, cause and resul t.
2. Fi nd the fol lowi ng connectors i n the text.
look at the i nformation they connect. Decide
whether they show contrast, addi ti on, cause
or result.
! . d0eIo, ¤eº) J . de:µ le , ' ¤e ! 2)
2 ~oeove, ' ¤e ! 2) 4. :o, ' ¤e2 5)
3. Read the text. Are the fol l owi ng statements
true or fal se? Fi nd evidence i n the text to
support your answers.
1 . Wo~e¤ ae yceco~elo|¤adoc¤a:e:.
2. W e¤cega¤d \eIz ¤ave:c e¤l l c<¤ow edge
aco0lIo¤adoe:.
J. To|¤adoc¤a:e|:IyIogel ¤: deIo|¤adoe:.
4. W e¤ceg a¤d \eIzae ¤evel| g¤Ie¤ed
5. To|¤adoe:ae a~o¤gI¤e:lo¤ge:lIyµe:
ol:lo~:.
G. i t: ¤ol¤ece::ayIoevac0aleµeoµ ed0 ¤g
aIo¤ado.
C DRY AR
4. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
! . To¤adoc¤a: ¤g : olIe¤l0:Ial ¤g ceca0:e . . . .
a. l : ¤a|dIo gel I¤e µoµeeq0 µ~e¤l
c c¤a:e|:do¤'I <¤owl¤el ~ea¤d ocal o¤ol
I¤elo|¤adoe:
c. l ¤d ¤ga lo|¤ado ¤vo' ve:a ololIave ¤g
d. l : da¤ge|o0:lo gelveyc o:eloa lo¤ado
2. To|¤adoe: . . . .
a ca¤ de:I|oye¤I e c l e:
c ae ea: eloµed cIl¤a¤¤0| ca¤e:
c ¤avew ¤d:a ~o:la:la:la:¤0 ca¤e:
d olIe¤ co~e0¤exµecled y
J A~ale0:w¤owa¤Iloc¤a:elo|¤adoe: . .
a. ca¤ do Ia o¤e l I¤eyae ca|el0'
c. ae 0:0a' ' ylo~ c0oµe
c. :¤o0 d do lw l¤a lo0 co~µa¤y
d ca¤ ceve|y:0e ol:ee ¤ga Io¤ado
5. Fi nd words or phrases i n the text that mean:
1 . a :eIo go0µolIwo,µaagaµ¤ ! )
2. ¤:Ieadol,µa|ag|aµ¤2)
J. ¤ l, µa|agaµ¤J)
4. ~o:l~ode¤,µaagaµ¤ J)
5 :l|a¤ge, ~y:le o0:, µa|agaµ¤5)
G :ee,µaagaµ¤G)
• Do you thi nk tornado chasi ng is worth the
ri sk? Why or why not?
Tornado Alley is
the area in the
United States
where tornadoes
are most frequent.

-Q)
§þÑÆ ÛÑT A
�et the Twister Sisters. Meteorologists Peggy Willenberg and Melanie Metz are
:ong the most skilled tornado chasers in the United States. They're not really sisters,
�- they' re the closest of friends, and they enj oy chasing tornadoes as a pair.
- mado chasers are people who do the opposite of what most people do - rather than
-�nning away from these deadly, destructive storms, they actually seek them out, travelling
- •usands of kilometres to get as close as they can. To do this, they drive back and forth
. ro s "Tornado Alley, " the huge plains of the central United States. Almost all tornado
_ - ers are men, which makes Willenberg and Metz very unusual.
- mado chasing can be extremely dangerous. Due to their background in meteorology, Willenberg
_d Metz are able to avoid getting caught inside a tornado, but they are constantly at risk. At any
me. they might be struck by lightning, slip on rain-soaked highways or get hit by giant hailstones.
! oreover, it can be frustrating. Like other chasers. the pair use the latest equipment, but despite this
- y are often unable to predict exactly where or when they" ll find a twister. They have often driven
.ross entire states, only to realise that they should have chosen the opposite direction.
·OY do they do it? Both women have been fascinated by torms since childhood. They
¬ uld have become ordinary weather forecasters, but the combination of a desire for thrills
:d scientific curiosity makes them unable to resist chasing storms. "Toradoes are powerful,
) ond our control. There is an element of fear, but also of excitement and beauty,"
y Metz.
:. arge tornadoes are, indeed, one of the most powerful natural phenomena on the
� anet. Their narrow paths leave an eerie sort of devastation, such as ripping apart one
ide of a street while the other remains intact. Nearly 60 people a year are killed in
ese funnel-shaped storms, which have winds twice the speed of the strongest
urricane. Worst of all, unlike hurricanes, they are nearly impossible to predict:
�orecasters are able to warn people only minutes before a tornado strikes, so
-e idents have little time to evacuate. The data gathered by storm chasers
- uld help solve this puzzle .
. 1any amateur thrill-seekers are joining the storm-chasing game, even
ming from Europe to see tornadoes up close. Those who want to chase
torms should not underestimate the dangers of trying it alone. The only
afe way is to j oin a tornado chasing tour, run by a company such as the
Twister Sisters' Storm Tours. They take tourists for a week of chasing,
.nd the lucky ones will witness nature at its most spectacular - a
'ornado forming right in front of their eyes.
actually ( l i ne 5) means realmente, de hecho not actualmente
ordi nary ( l i ne 1 6) means normal, corriente not ordinaria, vulgar
º Unit 6
67
�VOCAULAY
\9¹9�. . ·Í!9Þ. . !Ì - ¹�! .
1 . Are the statements true or fal se?
Pay attenti on to the words i n col our.
Correct the fal se statements.
! ' l:o¤eI¤ ¤g :ordi nary, I :0¤ q0e.
2. ' l:o~eI¤ ¤g :deadl y, yo0ca¤ Id el|o¤ I
J l yo0r un a co¤ca¤y,yo0aeI¤eco::
4 l yo0 go back a nd forth, yo0 go ¤o¤e
d |ecI o¤
5 ' lyo0wi tness :o¤eI ¤ ¤g, yo0 do¤ I:ee I.
G ' lyo0stri ke :o¤eo¤e, yo0wa¤IIo ¤0II¤e~.
7 ' lyo0gather I¤ ¤g:, yo0c| ¤gI¤e¤IogeI¤e
S. ' lyo0 ¤avea background ¤ ¤0: c, yo0
c|ocac yc' aya¤ ¤:I|0¤e¤I
µ 2. Complete the passage wi th the words and
phrases below. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
path • rather than • weather forecaster
ski l l ed • sl i p • chasi ng • avoi d
WLATHLR¡LLIS¡ÔNS
If you' re a film producer, weather can be a problem.
You can' t ' . . . . . . . . . . . making a flm about winter j ust
because it' s the middle of summer. The ¯ - - - may
predict a heatwave, but according to the script, your
character must run down a frozen ¯ - - ...... . through a
snow-covered park while ¯ . ~- -a criminal, and then
¯ . - ...and fall on the ice. How is this done? ` ·..··.....
depending on nature, filmmakers use companies such
as Snow Business, which has created winter efects
for hundreds of films such as Nar/aand IheDa,
A]erIomorru.They are amazingly ´ .. ~- --at creating
snow and ice out of paper, plastic or foam. Watching
these films, you' d never know that the weather was an
il l usion - and that's j ust what the fil mmakers want.
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
A ger und is formed by addi ng -ing to t he base
form of a verb. Ger unds a re used :
a. after certai n verbs: They enjoy chasing toradoes . . .
b. after preposi ti ons: . . the dangers of trying i t alone.
c. after certai n expressi ons: Rather than running .. .
d. as the subject of a sentence: Torado chasing is .. .
Some verbs must be fol l owed by a n i nfi ni ti ve :
People who want to chase storms . . .
Other verbs can be fol l owed by ei ther a ger und
or an i nfi ni ti ve, but the meani ng someti mes
changes:
I stopped to drink beer. ( took a break and drank.)
I stopped drinking beer. (I don't drink any more.)
�� 0tammatAppea6|x,page 1 24
3. Complete the sentences with the verbs below.
Use a gerund or an i nfi nitive.
swi m • l et • work • a pol ogi se • meet
! . .0<ea' way: avo d:. ~- - extra ¤o0|:
2 W¤e|e d dyo0a||a¤ge ¤e`
J W¤aI:I¤eco ¤Iol ` ' <¤owyo0do¤ I
¤ea¤ I
4 . . . . . . . is o¤eolI¤e¤ea' I¤ e:I:coI:
5. T¤ey ageed 0::Iaya¤oI¤e|¤ g¤I
4. Complete the second sentence so that it has
got a si mi l ar meani ng to the fi rst. Use a
gerund or i nfi nitive.
! . i t's ¤co:: c' e¤oIIogeIa¤g|y :o¤eI ¤e:.
I can't help . . . .
2 Wed d¤II¤ ¤<wewo0' dw ¤l |:I c| ze
We never expected .
J W ' ' ceac' eIo :ee yo0 Io¤ g¤I`
Is there any chance of . ?
4 l t wo0' d ce:Ia¤gelo¤e Io ' ve ¤ a c gc Iy
I can't imagine . . . .
5 \y dogwo¤ I go o0I l I: |a ¤ ¤g
My dog refuses . .
5. Choose the best option to complete the
sentence.
1 . RoceIdoe:¤ Iwa¤IIo geIlaI:o ¤e
a . :IoccedIoeaI c¤oco' aIed0| ¤gwo|<
c :IoccedeaI ¤gc¤oco' aIed0| ¤gwo|<
2. ¯aI| c awa:¤accyceca0:e¤e|coyl| e¤d .
a |e¤e¤ceedIoc0y¤e|a c I¤dayc|e:e¤I
c |e¤e¤ceed c0y ¤g ¤e|a c I¤dayc|e:e¤I
J We ¤ad a wo¤del0' I| cIo' Ia'y, a¤d
a ' ' ' ¤eve|logeIv : I ¤gRo¤e
c ' ' ' ¤eve|logeIIovi si t Ro¤e
¹'!¹� `'��'�¹ º ¹J
WEATHER
1 . Complete the sentences with the words and
phrases bel ow.
degrees • s l i ppery • forecast • fl ood
l i ghtni ng • soaki ng wet • rai nfal l • sweat
1 0 Al' a:¤ol . . ! 0µ !¤e :<y.
z· Acco|d ¤g !o!¤ewea!¤e .. . . . , !:go ¤g!oge!
co de|
30 !:o¤e! ~e:goe:dow¤!ozeo.. • • • • Ce' : 0: ¤
\ad d
T¤e~e¤cega¤ !o . a:!¤eywo<ed ¤!¤e
¤o!:0¤.
5 Wewe|e al!ewa ! ¤g ¤! ¤ea ¤loa¤
¤o0.
G T¤eaveagea¤¤0a' - . - ¤ Bace' o¤a : 5º0~~.
7. \a¤y¤o~e:weede:!oyed ¤!¤e
Beca|el0 ' !: a ¤ ¤g, a¤d!¤e|oad:ae
2. Read the sentences and choose the correct
answer accordi ng to the meani ng of the word
in col our.
'ea' yJ0c~ olrai n I snow le' d0 ¤g!¤e
bl i zzard .
z ' !:ge!! ¤gcol der I warmer, :o!¤e:¤ow :
mel ti ng.
3. T¤e:<y : overcast. '!:goi ng to I not goi ng to
a ¤ .
4 T¤eewa: not enough I too much wa!e
d0| ¤g!¤edrought.
5 Te~µea!0e: eac¤ed 1 ooc I 42°( d0| ¤g!¤e
heatwave.
G ' !:chi l l y. Yo0 need I don't need a coa!.
7. T¤ehumi di ty :hi gher I l ower ¤ !¤e¡ 0¤g e
!¤a¤ ¤!¤ede:e!
S T¤ec¤ d|e¤shi vered ¤ !¤ecol d I warm w ¤d.
3. NOUN COLLOCATIONS Whi ch nouns can be used
to form col l ocations with the adjectives i n colour?
1. bitter - :<y, co d, w ¤d
2 scorchi ng - ¤ea!, log,!e~µe|a!0|e:
30 heavy - |a ¤, w ¤d, :¤owla '
4 severe - :!o~:, wea!¤e|, : 0¤
50 thi ck - |a ¤, log, c o0d:
G. mi l d - !e~µe|a!0e:,co d, wea!¤e
� 4. Complete the passage with the words and phrases
below. Then l i sten and check your answers.
droughts • soaki ng wet • degrees • sweat
humi dity • chi l l y • fl oods • rai nfal l • heavy rai n
0 EkH1H
Unit 6
If you visit Cherrapunjee, I ndia, take your umbrel l a or you' l l
get ` . . . . . . . . . • Thi s mountai n vi l l age has got the worl d's hi ghest
Z.
, and all of it falls duri ng monsoon season, from
Jul y to September. The water from the 3· runs down
to the coast, which causes terrible 4 « . « . every year. I n the
wi nter, however, it hardly ever rains and there are often
. . because it gets so dry.
You won't get wet i n the Atacama Deser i n Chi l e, where it
hasn't rai ned i n 500 years! Strangel y, Atacama's cl i mate is
quite ¯
.
. . -. . · . , going down to zero . - . . . . - . . . . Celsius i n the wi nter.
Because there is no ¯ .- . . . in the ai r, meat wi l l stay fresh
there forever, and of course, peopl e that l i ve there never
. · . . . . . . . . • People? Yes, believe it or not, there are several towns
in Atacama.
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true
for you.
1. W¤e¤ !: chilly o0!: de, ' <e!o . . . 0
2 . ' ~¤aµµyw¤e¤!¤eforecast µ|ed c!:
3. W¤e¤!¤eweather :mild, ' . . .
4. ' !¤ ¤ < !¤a!' ~skilled a! . . . .
5 0 I 0:0a' y !y !oavoid . . - .
G. !¤ ¤<!ee¤age: :¤o0 d . . . rather than 0
Vocabulary Builder, pages 88-89
� GRM
¹
Z
70
MODALS
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. You have to I must find a safe place during a torado.
'b. Most chasers can I are able to avoid getting hurt.
¸c. At any time, lightning may I might strike them.
I
d People who want to chase storms shouldn't try it alone.
e. Could I Would you tell me more about the tours?
f The torado must be huge. lt's causing a lot of
damage.
g. You mustn' t get too close to a torado.
_h. The storm can't be in this area. Our data shows clear
weather.
i. You don't have to I needn't be a man to chase
tornadoes.
¸ . Whi ch modal s are used to express the
fol l owi ng?
1 . abi l ity
2. advi ce
3. obl i gati on
4. l ack of obl i gati on
5. possi bi l i ty
6. certa i nty that somethi ng
i s true
7. certai nty that somethi ng
i s i mpossi bl e
8. pol i te request
9. prohi bi ti on
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
a. They should have checked the data first.
b. They could have become weather forecasters.
c. We would have gone on a tour. but we didn't have
enough money.
d. Seeing a tornado must have been a frightening
experience.
e. I think we might have I may have made a wrong
prediction.
¸
. Whi ch modal perfects are used to express
the fol l owi ng?
1 . cri ti ci sm or regret after a n event
2. certai nty that somet hi ng was tr ue
3. possi bi l ity that somethi ng was true
4. abi l ity to have done somet hi ng but i n fact di d not
5. wi l l i ng ness to do somethi ng but i n fact coul d not
2. Compl ete the rul e.
We use the . . . . . .. . . . . . . form of a verb after a modal perfect.
1 . Choose _e correct answer .
#
1 . Yo0vegota c gexa¤ to~oow.Yo0 mi ght not I
shoul dn't I don't have to goo0tto¤ g¤t
2 T¤eµo' ce~a¤ºayºt¤atyo0 must I coul d I
mi ght go w t¤ ¤ ¤.
J tºa ºecet Yo0 mustn't I don't have t o I
mi ght not te' ' a¤yo¤e
4. Coul d I Must I Shoul d ' µ eaºe ' oo<att¤e
weat¤e|lo|ecaºt`
5. T¤at'º d c0' o0º Yo0 must I can't I have to ce
ºe| o0º
G Mi ght I Shoul d I Can loecaºteº0º0a' y µ|ed ct
a ¤coect' y`
7 S¤eº a to|¤adoc¤aºe. S¤e coul d I may I must
ovet¤| ' ' º
S T¤ey mi ght I shoul d I are a bl e to getca0g¤t ¤
t¤eºto~.
º Yo0 can't I don't have to I mustn't te' ¤e| ¬
º¤ea |eady<¤owº.
2. Compl ete the sentences. Use a modal .
1 . ¤t¤eµaºt, . . . . , ac ty)
2 . Aºa ºt0de¤t, I . . , oc' gat o¤)
J. Accod ¤gto¤yµa|e¤tº, . . . . ,µo¤ c t o¤)
4. \yl| e¤dºt ¤ ¤<t¤at' . . ,adv ce)
5 ' ¤ o0 la¤ 'y, t¤e c¤ ' de¤ . . . ,' ac<oloc gat o¤)
G ' ¤t¤el0t0|e, . . . . ,µoºº c ' ty)
7. O¤eday, ' . . , ac ty)
3. Compl ete the sentences. Use the modal
perfects bel ow.
1 woul dn't have • 5 shoul d have ·�coul d have
2 mi ght not have • 4ust have
´
1 . ¯ya¤ d d¤ t get ¤tot¤etea¤. ¬e

-cee¤
d ºaµµo ¤ted.
2. tºveyco d Yo0 ` wo|¤a coat.
J W¤yd d¤ tyo0te ' ¤eyo0 dceo0t7 ' ´
co~etoyo0|¤o0ºe
4 tº a µ tyyo0d d¤t <¤ow ¯a0 waº ¤tow¤.
Yo0. . . ? . . . . go¤eo0t toget¤e|.
5 .a0e¤ º¤ ta¤ºwe ¤g¤eµ¤o¤e. S¤e�'
ta<e¤ t w t¤ ¤e
Hurricane wi nds have been
recorded at 31 0 k mlh.
I
u shouldn't have driven during the storm + .
OT You mustn't have driven during the storm. �
! Compl ete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use a suitabl e form of the modal
perfect.
' d d¤yce:! - . - . ,co0' d ¤otI Iy) ¤ade.
.
' . ,wo0' dI wea|) ¤y¡ ea¤:, c0tI¤eywee
d Iy
+ ' t':a µ tywed d¤'Ita<eI¤eca We , ¤ g¤II
get)I¤eeo¤ I ¤e.
\y:0¤g a::e:ae¤ t¤ee. . . , ¤0:tI eave)
t¤e¤ atI¤eceac¤.
.
T¤ec¤ d : l g¤te¤ed. Yo0 ,:¤o0 d¤otI
:ca|e)¤ ¤
-
T¤etea¤ ,co0' dI w ¤) , c0It¤e ce:I µ' aye
wa: ' ' .
3 Your fri end is havi ng a bad day. How do
you respond to what he I she says? Write
sentences usi ng the modal perfects i n
brackets.
' waIedloa¤ ¤o0, c0t ·e |a d d¤ Ico¤e '
,¤0:I ¤ave)
.
'T¤eIeac¤e:¤o0Iedat ¤e. ' ,:¤o0' d¤'t ¤ave)
.
" la ' edI¤eexa¤. ' ,co0' d¤ave)

" ca¤ tl ¤d¤y wa ' e! ' , ¤ g¤I¤ave)
+ 'T¤ey ve 0¤o0tolI c<eI:lo| t¤eco¤ce|! '
:¤o0 d¤ave)
.
" ca¤eIoyo0¤o0:e, c0tyo0 ¤ada eady
el! ' ,wo0 d¤ave)
w Rewrite the second sentence without
changi ng its meani ng. Use a modal or a modal
perfect. There may be more than one correct
answer.
¬ow d dI¤eylee' w¤e¤t¤e:to|¤ cega¤`
I'm sure they were frightened
.
logoI ¤y µe¤ .
I'd like to use yours.
& My c|ot¤e�: o¤ yl ve
He doesn't know how to ride a bike.
¬o' yd d¤'I :ay ' ¤e' ' o ' .
Perhaps she didn't see us.
.
' ca¤ do I¤ :¤y:e l
it's not necessary for you to help me.
.
Yo0 :µe¤dIoo ¤0c¤ ¤o¤ey
I advise you to save some.
.
We ¤adea ¤ :Ia<e.
it's a pity we decided so quickly
+ t:a 0x0|y ¤oIe' .
I'm certain it's very expensive.
� 7. Compl ete the passage by choosi ng the correct
answers. Then l i sten and check your answers.
d,�;u�
Uni t 6
When we fi rst heard warni ngs that Hurricane l ke ` mighf
strike I mi ght have Struclur area, we di dn't take it seriously.
Then we heard the announcement: "All residents ¯ can
evacuate I must evacuate i mmediately." "lt 3· mustn't be I
can't be that bad, " said my flatmate, Lisa. However, after all
our nei ghbours had left, she said, "I thi nk that we should
mi ght go, too." We took my car, but we soon ran out of
etrol . We coul dn't get to a petrol stati on, so we 5:Yere �bre
JJJ
to sleep I had to sleep �n the car. We were uncomfort bl e,
hungr and thi rsty. "We 6
·
should bring � should have
broug more suppl i es, " complained Lisa. The news on the
radio was devastati ng. ' 'The hurricane 7· must have destroyed I
woul d have destroyed our house, " I thought, feel i ng very
upset. In the end, the house was i ntact, but many others
were destroyed. Thi ngs �m; Id have been easier I ae
'
ea&,e or us, but we weren't prepared. We di dn't realise how
powerful a Gulf Coast hurricane could be!
Find out nbout huricanes at:
ll'tl'll'. bll rlillgtollbooks.cs/irwpoil ltS I
Grammar Review
1 2 3 4 5 6 ( 8 9
8. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
! . twa:wo¤golyo0Io¤ Iyo0 c|oI¤e|.
,:¤o0' d¤I)
2 T¤ey' ' l ¤ :¤c0 ' d ¤gt¤e ¤o0:e d0 ¤gI¤e
:0¤¤e|. ,cyOcIoce)
J t :¤'t ¤ece::a|ylo|yo0Io ¤eet¤eaIt¤e
a µo|! , ¤aveto)
4 T¤aI:I¤e:tee! \a|cy ve:t¤ee. ,w¤ee)
5. . zAI< ¤:¤a:a deg|ee ¤ µ¤ o:oµ¤y S¤ewote
I¤ :coo<. ,w¤o)
G. ' d d¤ I:ee¹ o¤¤to¤ g¤! Mayce ¤ewe¤t¤o¤e
ea y. , ¤ g¤I)
� ss...s
LISTENING �
NEWS REPORTS
1 . Look at the pictures below and describe what you thi nk i s happeni ng i n each one.
__MAKE P r CTI O S Read the
q uesti ons carefu l l y before you l i sten, as the
keywords w ' ' g i ve you some cl ues a bout the
content of the passage. Pay attenti on to the type
of information you need to listen for to answer the
qu esti ons. (place, reason, year, number, etc.}
2. You are goi ng to hear four authentic news
reports about the pi ctures above. Listen to
reports 1 and 2 and decide if the statements
are true or fal se.
Reµo|t 1
1 . \att waº ¤¤ ºow¤ ¤o~ew¤e¤t¤eto¤ado
ºI|0c<.
2. T¤e¤o0ºewaºdeºtoyed cyt¤eto|¤ado
3. 'oot¤e|µe|ºo¤ ¤aº vedalIe| ce ¤g
I¤ow¤ ºola|cyaIo|¤ado.
Reµo|t 2
1 . cxte¤eweaI¤ew cet¤e|eº0 t
olg oca' wa ~ ¤g.
z . ·' ood ¤ga¤ddo0g¤Iºw ¤aµµe¤ ¤
t ¤eºa~eµ aceº.
3. T¤eºc e¤I ºIº wa ¤ ¤g ºaco0It¤e
¤eal0t0e.
3. Now l i sten to two more reports and choose
the correct answer.
Reµo|t3
WeºIe|¤ ¤eteoo' og ºIº . .
a. use cl oud seedi ng in many places
c. aeºceµt ca' aco0tc' o0dºeed ¤g
c. c' a ¤t¤atc' o0dºeed ¤g ¤c|eaºeº|a ¤
d ae ¤e µ ¤gC ¤ ¤a ¤ tºl g¤taga ¤ºIdo0g¤t
Reµo|t 4
T¤e cec' oc<º
a . we|e ¤oI aº c gaº ¤a '
c. ¤eed c o0dº ¤o|de|Iolo|¤
c. ¤ave ¤eveca0ºed acI0a' da¤age
d. ae ¤oI0¤de|ºtood cyºc e¤t ºtº
• Do you thi nk global warmi ng is a seri ous
probl em? What do you thi nk we shoul d be
doi ng to stop it?
SPEAKING
INTERVIEWING
1 . Look at the i nterview with a person who survived a tornado. Match each question with a sui tabl e
response. Then practise the di al ogue wi th a partner.
1 . What were you doi ng when the
tornado struck?
a. Eventual l y, t¤eIo|¤adoµaººed a¤deveyt¤ ¤g
ceca~eve|yq0· eI T¤e¤' we¤Io0tº de
c I fel t te l ed . . c0tI¤e|ewaº¤oI ¤ ¤g co0' ddo'
2. What di d you see?
3. How di d you react?
c I saw I¤eIo¤adoµaººo0Iº deo0 ¤o0ºe
tdeºtoyed eveyt¤ ¤g ¤ tºµat ¤
4. How di d you feel ?
d ' was ºIa¤d ¤g ¤I ¤e< Ic¤e¤ ~a< ¤g~yºe' l
a ºa¤dw c¤
5. What happened i n the end?
e Peopl e were ºc|ea~ ¤g a¤dt|y ¤gtol ¤dt¤e
la~ ' eº.
6. What were peopl e doi ng? l I tr i ed to 0¤Ioo0 0¤de|g|o0¤dº¤e' Ie|,
c0I Iwaº Ioo ' aIe
2. Read the news reports below. Wi th a partner, choose one report. Student A i nterviews Student B,
who survived the event. In your i ntervi ew, use the questi ons and expressions i n col our i n Exercise 1 .
rL0
00b
hl1
Ll11
1¤e ¤eavy |a ¤º co¤I| ¤0ed!o|Iwo
dayº
a¤d
d
·

·e ||ve|
!| ooded
µeoµ| eº ¤o~eº

Reº| de¤IºI¤e
Io |eºc0eI¤e| | µoººeºº| o¤º, ca||y ¤gI¤e~ 0
I
IoI¤e
¤ g¤e|!| oo|º AºI¤ewaIe| co¤I+0e

|e c| | ~
cedo¤Io |oo!º, ºc|ea~ ¤g a¤
����
e
·�|¤e| µ. Seve|a| ¤o0|º| aIe|, |eºc0e
coaIº
a¤d¤e| | coµIe|ºa||| vedaII¤e ºce¤e.

� ¸ Î
¬ý¬ø
¾
3. Switch roles and conduct an i nterview about
the other news report.
�Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 6
Ø
Kbb
l0bN1b
bVÅ
LdÅ
1b0
0dKlNÊ flKb
__
º
���a��¤�

olI¤e
wo|ºIlo|eºIl·|eº ·¤ I¤ea|ea'º

e |e,
ca0ºedcyI¤e|ece¤I¤eaIwave
cega ¤ ºeve|a' |· ' o~
eI|eºeaºIolI¤eI
c
,
ºoo¤ ceg
I
.
ow¤, 0I
a¤ ° ~ove ¤I¤e
d· |ecI·o¤ olI¤e
¤o0ºeº

Reº| de¤Iº, wa· I· ¤gcyI¤e· | |ad·oºlo|
| ¤ºI|0cI o¤º, we|e
Io' d
ea|'yo¤T0eºday
~o|¤· ¤
Io evac0aIe AºI¤el |eºca~ec' oºe| I¤eyd
g
awa�wI¤a lew
µoººeºº· o¤º, s¤ow· �g I¤aI���
e
y
~ g I ¤eve|ºeeI¤e· |¤o
~eºaga· ¤.
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you descri be an exci ti ng event that you
wi tnessed, fi ni sh your story wi th one of the
fol l owi ng expressi ons:
So i n the end, . . .
To cut a l ong story short, . . .
Fi nal l y, . . .
Al l i n al l , . . .
Unit 6
� ..
74
A News Report
1. Read the news report bel ow. I n what ways are the fi res related to the weather?
|| |08| 0500I00|0 åä8I|ã| | ã
Austalian Times • 9th Februar 2009
This summer, the state of Victoria is
having its worst bush fire season in
recorded history. At least 1 66 people have
died i n the fires, which have destroyed
entire towns and damaged thousands of
homes.
About 4,000 firefighters are trying to combat
the fires, but are having little success because
the flames are out of control. And there' s no
end in sight: weather forecasters have warned
of continuing heatwaves and consequently, the
situation may get worse.
The fires started several weeks ago as a
result of exceptionally high temperatures
and the worst drought ever recorded.
Many were caused by lightning, but police
suspect some were started intentionally.
Prime Mi nister Kevin Rudd has reacted
emotionally to the tragedy. "Hell in all its fury
has visited the good people of Victoria in the
last 24 hours. Many good people lie dead, many
injured," he told reporters.
2. News reports usual l y provide answers to the
questi ons: Who, What, Where, When and
Why. I n whi ch paragraphs does the report
answer the fol lowi ng questi ons?
! W¤at¤aµµe¤ed`
z W¤owa: ¤vo' ved`
J. W¤e|e d d t¤aµµe¤`
4 W¤e¤d d I¤aµµe¤`
5 W¤yo ¤ow d d t ¤aµµe¤`
3. Where did the writer incl ude people's reactions
or comments?
4. News reports usual l y put the most i mportant
i nformati on in the first paragraph and then
add detai l s in later paragraphs. Did the writer
of the report above do thi s?
A con nector of cause i s a l ways fol l owed by the
reason why somet hi ng happens. l t can come at
t he beg i n ni ng or i n t he mi ddl e of t he sentence.
People were evacuated because of the danger
A connector of resul t is fol l owed by t he
consequ ence of an acti on jevent. l t usua l l y
comes at t he begi nni ng of a sentence.
There is a drought i n Australia. Therefore, the bush is
very dry.
wt|t|aq0u|6e,paqe 1 49
5. Fi nd two connectors of cause and one
connector of resul t i n the model . Use the l i st
below to hel p you. In each sentence, what i s
the cause and what i s the result?
Connectors of cause Connectors of resul t
ceca0:e
: ¤ce
a:
ceca0:eol
d0eto
a:a e:0 tol
:o
a:a e:0 t
I¤e|eloe
co¤:eq0e¤t' y
lot¤ :|ea:o¤
6. Choose the correct connector.
1 . l t ¤eve|:¤ow: ¤¬o 'ywood . Therefore, I
Because t¤ey ~0:t 0:e aI l c a' :¤ow ¤ l ' ~:.
z ¯eoµ' e:weata oI ¤o0 a|ea, so I si nce I¤ea
:vey ¤0~ d
J. ¬eavy:¤ow:¤ave c oc<ed ~a|o¤ g¤way:,
as a resul t of I so ~a¤y µeoµ e ae 0¤ac eto
eac¤I¤e |¤o~e:.
4. T¤e|e a|e d|o0g¤I:ac|o::Al| ca As a resul t I
Si nce µeoµ e do ¤oI ¤avee¤o0g¤d| ¤ < ¤g
waIe|.
5. Due to I As I¤e ' ate:IweaI¤e|lo|eca:I, I¤e
ca|¤ va' ¤a:cee¤ca¤ce ed.
G. Jea¤too<aI¤ c<¡ ac<eIbecause I
consequentl y t wa: :oco do0t: de.
?9
ge
:st con nectors of cause and resul t a re fol l owed by a
: a Jse wi th subject + verb. However, because of due to
� �d as a result of a re fol l owed by a noun phrase or gerund.
C vere evacuated because the flooding was getting
orse
·re evacua ed because of the flooding
-
Choose the correct connector.
`¤eweaI¤ew ' ' ceco¤e¤oe exIe¤e because I
because of g oca' wa~ ¤g
-
Due to I Si nce I¤eco' dweaI¤e, eveyo¤eºIayed
¤dooº
. As a resul t of I As I¤e¤0 ca¤e ºco~ ¤g:owadº
¤e º' a¤d, a d ºaºIe ºexµecIed
.
cxµeIº wee a~azedsi nce I due to I¤e cec oc<ºwee
¤eº zeola ¤ cowave
-
As a resul t I As a resul t of c o0dºeed ¤g, I a ¤º~oe
olIe¤ ¤ ºo~eaeaº
¬ Complete the sentences with a logical connector.
Do not use the same connector twice. There may
be more than one correct answer.
• n I º ºoco' d ¤A' aº<a, waIeca¤ leeze ¤ ¤ d-a .

T¤ew ¤dºwee vey ºIo¤g, . n ºevea caºwee c' ow¤
ollI¤eoad.
& ¬0 ca¤eº ae lo~ed a co~c ¤aI o¤olwa~waIe
a¤d coo' a
¯eaI¤Va ' ey, Ca lo¤ a º o¤eolI¤e¤oIIeºIµ aceºo¤
caI¤. . . _ ¤oo¤e veºI¤ee
¯. ¯eoµ' eca¤geI º< ¤ ca¤ce . . n ºIo¤gº0¤ g¤I
6. T¤ela¤ewaº¤ Icy g¤I¤ ¤g ¤ewaººIa¤d ¤g ¤
a¤oµe¤l e d
9. Rewrite the following sentences usi ng the words i n
brackets. Do not change the origi nal meani ng.
! ' a~Iave ¤gIo²o' a¤d. ·oI¤ ºeaºo¤, ' co0g¤Ia
wa¤coaI. ,aº)
z 00eIoI¤eco dw ¤Ieº ¤ c ¤g a¤d, I¤eyae ~ov ¤gIo
Sµa ¤. ,ceca0ºeol)
3 ²eoµ ewaIc¤I¤e¤ewº o¤TV ceca0ºeI¤eywa¤IIo
<¤oww¤aIº ¤aµµe¤ ¤g ¤ I¤ewo d. ,I¤eeloe)
4. TodayºloecaºIºae q0 Ieacc0aIe ceca0ºe I¤ey 0ºe
~ode¤Iec¤¤o'ogy ,d0eIo)
5 T¤eewaºa ¤0 ca¤ewa ¤ ¤g, ºo eveyo¤e elIIow¤ .
,Aº a eº0' I)
`^
+'
) •
.
.."
·
"
,.
.
. . �6
y�
Unit 6
Your Task
• Write a news report. Use 1 00- 1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR NEWS REPORT
1 . Brai nstorm your report.
• Read or l i sten to a news report on the
radio, TV or I nternet. Make notes to
answer the fol lowi ng questi ons:
- W¤aI¤aµµe¤ed`
- W¤owaº ¤vo ved`
- W¤ee d d I¤aµµe¤`
- W¤e¤d d I¤aµµe¤`
W¤yI ¬owd d I ¤aµµe¤`
•Thi nk of extra detai l s to make your report
more i nteresti ng.
• Add peopl e's reacti ons and comments
about the event.
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page 74 and the pl an bel ow to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: G vea º0~¤ayolI¤eeve¤Ia¤d
I¤e~oºI ¤µoIa¤IlacIº
Body: ¯eve' oµI¤ee eva¤I ¤lo¤aI o¤
a¤d adddeIa º.
Cl osi ng: G ve eacI o¤ºa¤dco¤~e¤Iºol
µeoµ' e ¤vo ved.
3. Write a fi rst draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a final draft.
CHECKLIST
. ï{:||:»eøthµ|ø�{:cC �»: ceµ:ct.
.
ï ×eøC «øcief:{ ::at:c: :{ :ø×e
ømce+u|t.
. ï :|keø¸cømmc, +µe||i_ øm
µu�tuti:11 .
• wt|t|og0a|de,p 1 5
75


5K!LL5
USI NG GRAPHS AND CHARTS

You are goi ng to practise i nterpreti ng i nformation from graphs. Look at the graphs
and answer the Task Questions bel ow.
Cl l mategraphsfor London, Engl and
Graph A - Average temperature Graph B " Average preci pi tati on (rai nfal l )
Um
TUU
JU
oU
1U
oU
. . . . . . ... .
,.
,.. .
..
... . . . . . . . ... . . . ;.
· ·
. .
f
bU
4U
3U
2U
1U
F M Æ M Æ 5 O M Ü (months)
Zb Z3 ZZ ZJ Z0 Z0 J7 Jb J9 Z3 Z5 Zb (rainy days)
• TASK QUESTI ONS
1 . Graph A
1 . W¤aIa eI¤e¤0~ceº o¤ I¤e'elI-¤a¤dº deolI¤egaµ¤`
2. W¤aI ºI¤ed lle|e¤ceceIwee¤I¤e|ed a¤dc' 0e' ¤eº`
Graph B
1 . W¤aIaeI¤e¤0~ceºo¤ I¤e'elI- ¤a¤dº deolI¤eg aµ¤`
2. W¤aIaeI¤eeIIe|ºo¤I¤ecoIIo~olI¤egaµ¤`
2. Look at the graphs agai n a nd a nswer the questi ons.
1 . W¤aI ºI¤e¤oIIeºI~o¤I¤olI¤eyea ¤.o¤do¤ `
2 . W¤aI º I ¤ eave|age~ ¤ ~0~Ie~µeaI0e ¤J 0¤e`
J. W¤aI ºI¤eave|age~ax ~0~Ie~µeaI0|e ¤ ¹ 0¤e`
4. O¤aveage, lo¤ow~a¤y dayºdoeº I|a ¤ ¤\ay`
5. W¤ c¤ ~o¤I¤ ¤aºI¤e~oºIa ¤la' ` ' º II¤eºa~e~o¤I¤I¤aI¤aºI¤e~oºIa ¤ydayº`
USE YOUR SKi llS
Use the I nternet to fi nd temperature and preci pi tati on graphs for a city in your country.
Compare the i nformati on i n the graphs to the i nformati on i n the graphs on thi s page.
Wri te fi ve facts about the di fferences i n cl i mate between London and the city you chose.
Travel
Unit Objectives
* Travel
* Conditionab
* Ti me Cl auses
• Li sl cni ng to Recorded Mes-ages
• Buyi ng a l r<i n Ti ckel
¯ Wri l i ng an c-mai l
* Li fe Ski l l s: Booki ng a Room
i sten to the song and read the lyrics. Then answer the questions.
W¤aIaIIacIedt¤eº ¤getoA¤tacI ca`
= W¤y doeºt¤eº ¤ge ca' ' ¤ ~ºe' la dea¤e`
3. W¤atdoyo0 t¤ ¤< ¤aµµe¤edto S¤ac<e' Io¤a¤dScott`
Pntarctica By Al Stewart
Long before I ever saw
The frost upon your face
I was haunted by your beauty
And it drew me to this place
I fel t the chi l l of mystery
Wi th one foot on your shore
And then and there resolved t go
Where no man had before
Maybe I was snowbl ind
But i t seemed the wind spoke true
And I bel ieved its stories then
As dreamers someti mes do
In Antarcti ca
I n Antarcti ca
Who knows what the powers may be
That cause a man to go
Mi ndless of the dangers
Out across the vi rgi n snow
Seduced by this ambi ti on
I easi l y forgot
The hopeless quest of Shackl eton
The dreaml i ke death of Scott
Maybe I was snowhl i nd
But it seemed your voice was true
And I bel ieved the story then
As travel lers someti mes do
In Antarcti ca
I n Antarctica
And maybe I was snowbl ind
Perhaps it sapped my wi l l
But something of my innocence
I s wanderi ng there sti l l
I n Antarctica
In Ant arctica
Antarctica
Antarcti ca
• Why do you thi nk peopl e explore unknown
places despite the dangers?
W
EB E
XTRA
Find out about Scott's expedition to Antarctica at:
uuu•.0u r/:ngloii0ools.tuonls1
%
.
� «s
w
4. Answer the questi ons.
1 . ' ¯v¯a!vay¯ ¯a¯A¯!a¯C! CC|u ¯e d lIe¯e¯!
l¯O¤ a JxJ¯yC¯J ¯e`
1 . Word Check: The fol lowi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
I|Oïe¯ • O¯ oOa¯d • ¯ea ¯ • C' a ¤¯ • µe| ' ¯
A pronoun or possessi ve determi ner refers to
a t hi ng, person or i dea that has a l ready been
menti oned, often i n the fi rst part of the sentence
or i n the previ ous sentence.
.
2. Read the text and decide who or what the
fol lowi ng words refer to:
! !¯( ¯e3)
2 !¯ ¯( ¯e S)
3 !¯ey ( me ! 7)
4 !¯e¤( ¯e23)
5. !¯e ¯ ( ' ¯ez4)
G !( l i me2G)
3. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
1 . 1¯ev¯ !e¯lee' ¯ ! ¯ ¯u|µ¯ ¯ mg!¯a! .
a. ¯O ¤a¯y µeOµ eva¯!!O gO !O Am!a¯C!Ca
o. it ¯¯Oexµe¯¯ ve!O gO!OAm!a¯C! Ca
C ! i s µO¯¯ o' e!O gO!OAm!a¯C! Ca
d ! i s ¤µO¯¯ o' e!O gO !O A¯!a¯C!Ca
2 1¯e C¯u ¯e¯¯ µ¯am< ¯ 2007dJe!O . .
a. a ¯!O|¤ a! ¯ea
o. a¯aCC de¯!
C !¯e ¯exµe¯ e¯Ce Ol!'eCaµ!a ¯
d a ea< mg!a¯<
2 \¯a! a|e !¯¯eevay¯ mv¯ C¯ A¯!a|C! Ca i s
J¯| que`
3 \¯a!mega! veelleC! COJ d!OJ ¯ ¯¤ ¯ave m
Am!a¯C! Ca`
4 \¯ydO¯O0eµeOµ' evam!!O ¤ !!¯e¯J¤oe¯
Ol!OJ¯¯!¯ ¯A¯!a¯C! Ca`
5 . \¯a!µO¯ ! ve elleC! COJ d!OJ| ¯¤ ¯ave Om
Am!a|C! Ca `
5. Compl ete the sentences usi ng your own
words.
! |e¯¯Ol!¯Ou¯amd¯Ol µeOµ e . .
2 HelO¯e ! S20, ¯ OO¯e . . . .
`
3 ACCO|d ¯g!O !¯e 1 959 !|ea!y, ¯ Oma! O¯v ' ' eve¯
C a ¤!¯a!
4 |OJ¯ ¯!¯!OA¯!a¯C! Ca ¤ayoe ¯ ¯< ¯g!¯e | ve¯
oeCau¯e Ol . . . .
5 . ¯!¯e2007 ¯C de¯!, ¯ O!OJ¯ ¯!¯ . . . .
G A d ¯a¯!e¯va¯avO ded oeCaJ¯e !¯e!a¯<• - - v
6. Fi nd adjectives in the text that mean the
opposite of:
! ¯ea¯oy(µa¯ag¯aµ¯.¹ )
2 ¯¤a' (µa¯ag¯aµ¯2)
3 lO¯o dde¯ (µa¯ag¯aµ�4)
4 Ca ¤e¯! ( µa|ag|aµ¯ 5)
5 ¯O! (µa¯ag¯aµ¯ 5) 1
• Do you thi nk that it's a good idea to promote
touri sm to Antarctica? Why or why not?
There are 1 6 research stations in
Antarctica.
Pengu i ns can swi m at speeds i n
excess of20 km/h.
M/5 Explorer sinks in Antarctica,
23rd November, 2007.
T0

¿0
¿b

\
¯¨¬ ¯' ¨¬' ¯¯C¨L' ¬¯
Antarcti ca - frozen, remote and i mpossi bl e to get to. Or i s i t? Unbel i evabl e as i t seems, i f you' ve got
an adventurous spi ri t and enough money, you can actual l y vi si t thi s conti nent at the bottom of the
worl d. I n fact, i ts popul ari ty as a tou ri st desti nati on i s growi ng, wi th the number of yearl y vi si tors
now i n the tens of thousands.
Al l you have to do i s si gn up for one of the Antarcti ca crui ses and pay anyt hi ng from about $8,000 for
ten days to $35,000 for a month. But don' t expect a l uxury tri p wi th di scos and casi nos. The purpose
i s to l earn a l l you can about thi s amazi ng pl ace, so as soon as you get on board, your gui des wi l l
begi n t o teach you about Antarcti ca's ecol ogy and wi l dl ife. Thi s wi l l prepare you for the unforgettabl e
si ghts you' l l be seei ng - spectacul ar l andscapes, gi ant i cebergs, seal s and pengu i ns.
I ce-covered Antarcti ca, the col dest pl ace on Earth, i s pure nature. i t has no permanent resi dents, and
there are no shops, hotel s, bi l l boards or cafes. There are al so no nati ve peopl e, so the first ti me human
bei ngs ever l ai d eyes on the uni nhabi ted conti nent was when i t was di scovered i n 1 820. i t doesn' t
bel ong to any country, but i t bel ongs to a l l of us. I n 1 959, an i nternati ona l agreement was si gned,
sayi ng no country wou l d make any terri tori al cl ai ms there, and dedi cati ng the enti re conti nent to
peaceful sci enti fi c research.
Envi ronmental i sts are concerned about the effects of tou ri sm on the area, si nce any human acti vi ty
causes changes i n the ecol ogi cal bal ance. They say that the damage coul d be mi ni mi sed if there were
rul es to l i mi t the nu mber of tou rists al l owed to vi si t each year. However, some touri sm may actua l l y
promote conservati on. If peopl e wi tness Antarcti ca' s breathtaki ng beauty, perhaps they' l l become
aware of the i mportance of protecti ng i t.
However, the envi ronment i s not the onl y concern - there are peri l s for humans as wel l . The seas
around the conti nent are the roughest on Earth, and i t takes a seasoned shi p's captai n to get through
them whi l e negoti ati ng the treacherous i ce. I n November 2007, 1 54 unl ucky touri sts sat sh i veri ng for
hou rs i n l i feboats on the i cy water, watchi ng as thei r crui se shi p sa nk after crashi ng i nto an i ceberg.
Fortunatel y for them, the weather was cal m, so there were no deaths or i nj uri es before they were
fi na l l y rescued. J ust as l ucki ly, there was no oi l l eak from the shi p's tank. If the tank had l eaked, i t
wou l d have caused an envi ronmenta l di saster.
To be on the safe si de, if you deci de to travel to Antarcti ca, choose a company that has l ots of
experi ence. Enjoy your adventure and keep in mi nd you are actual l y vi si ti ng one of Earth' s fi nal
fronti ers.
Unit 7
�VOCAULAY
--
so
\9!�. !9Þ. . . !Ì . . ¹�!
1 . Choose the correct answer to each questi on.
Pay attention to the words i n col our.
! w+--ce,e.s--bi l l boards?
next to roads I + houses I on TV
2 w+it· +ceíti+s,e·t sas-c:eicrui se?
a pl ane I a trai n I a shi p
3 . w+itw s i nk +wit-¯
a stone I a feather I a l eaf
4. w+eas.i ,:e+c.:tsresearch?
a chef I a sci entist I a constructi on worker
5. w+it:ias-st+-¬estdamage tet+-
-+. e+¬-+t¯
pl ants I a ni mal s I peopl e
G. w+ :+w-it+-·:e+c t e+si·-t+-¬est
treacherous?
hurri canes I humi di ty I chi l l y wi nds
2. Read the sentences i n I . Then match the words
in col our to thei r defi ni ti ons in 1 1 .
I
� ���
! . O.· ¬i +e +t+ s:ea·s-ste ¬,e.-
e+·¯+ç s+ _
2 · -is-k��t nd :+it,e.¬.sti··.-e+
t ¬-
3. Vests¬e·-si·-��t+-íi:tt+it
s¬e· +ç sci+ç-·e.s
4. tsçeectei:+ -.-iba l ance e-tw--+we·
i+c :.+
� � 5 ¬

+ e c{q ' . IS ,i·-+ts i.- --+z. t-cancer e iee.t
+ ¬ it-,
1 1
¸ i we· -c
·' e -;. e a¬
´ : i ¬ çei
2 c -¬-¬e-
�- :e+s: ease:
3. Name two . . . .
! t+ +çs,e. cs--+ ic-s-tl andscape
2. eej-:tst+itbel ong to ,e.
3. t+ +çs,-e, -si gn up :e
4. }eesw+ :+ +.e .-rescui ng ,-e, -
5. ee}-:tst+it:il eak
NOUN SUFFIXES
Nouns can be for med by addi ng suffi xes to
certai n verbs, adj ecti ves and other nouns.
Some common nou n suffi xes a re : - tion, -sion,
-ment, -ist, -ity, -ship, -ness a nd -ence /-once.
agreement, tourist, popularity experience, importance
Note that someti mes there are changes in spe l l i ng.
conserve .. conservation active .. activity
� 0tammatAppeo6lx,page 1 26
4. Add a noun suffix from above to each of the
fol l owi ng words.
deci d� ��|i er • rel ati on •_ i nform
possi bl e

a ppo� envi ronmental
5. Compl ete the sentences with the correct form
of the nouns you f rmed in Exercise 4.
1 . ¯+--sie ç,
t :·-ts
2. I s t+--i+, �· e+çi ee¬ :e·te+ ç+t¯
3 ¬i.-,ea¬ic-i+�+-ce:te¯
4 ¯+-

.-¬ic� ��cit-se:t+- t ,
5. -.e : -cieeatt+-ei i+:-e:+it.- +
/+ti:t :i

G c ·-se¬- � a·+·i +te.e+ce+
7. V,s st-·i+cI +i - i ·it+-·ste·¬,·´�.
S. w+-+w-i .-ct+- +et-wis+:e¬,-t-. . ... . :'.
� 6. Compl ete the fol l owi ng sentences by addi ng
a noun suffix to the words i n brackets. Then
l isten and check your answers.
� ¹·||�r-
í,ea ·- ee· +çíe· ��t-ìe+,ea·+-·+e ci

-

':
t·,sti,+ç iti+a+asai +et- O+- �,es�e -ì
t+- vi¬¬at ¬et- + ·-¬ , ¯ + i+c, ea t -+t ·- ,c
s+ewi+c :- í,ea,·-í-·wi·¬t+, t·,t+-· ia¯e�-
+t+-·i i+·i +íe·-st ¯+-+et- s �
:e ewst+-e:i wi,eíea c +ç- i ·ee¬si·-+ ç+
t+-t·--te,s¯+-vi ¬i se+ ¬et- + O·íe·c, ¯+ç i·a
wise+:-i


e+ vest·ee¬si·- +:e+.-·t-c:- s -
t+- � :·ìeít+-| ·st-- cee·s ¬i·-s a t-i
��º^`,-ssì w+-·-.-·,ea t·i.- , í,ea s--·t
c íí-·-+ti+ct +-a+ za-, ,ea' í +ct
l ,
+
�+,
�) IS
' 0
:-·s

Je
1 +
+c,
's
++
t+-
¹ 'P!. . . `��º�l� !Y
TRAVEL
1 . Pay attention to the words in col our and
choose a l ogi cal endi ng for each sentence.
O+++overni ght t ,,,e.st+,:e
+ s-.-+ + ç+ts
: e+-+ ç+t
:,e.:.,+return ti cket, . . .
+ ,e.ce+ t, ++te:e¬-:+:·
,e., ++te:e¬-:+:·
J. :,e.· t·+ + sdel ayed, tw -+.-
+ +t-
: e+t ¬-
<
+e.· departure ti me st+-t ¬-,e.
+ -+.-
+·.-
5. í,e.go a broad, ,e.
+ çete+ +et+-·:e.+t,
te. +,e. ew+:e. +t·,
6. í,e.+--caccommodati on, ,e.w++t
+ +w+,tet+.-
: +, +:-test+,
7. A passenger s+ ,-se+
t+.- +çe++:.s, , ++-, t·+ +es+ ,
: s --, +ç+t++et- e·+,e.t++est-
2. The dialogue below takes pl ace at an ai rport.
Compl ete it with the words below.
queue • youth hostel • fl i ght
a i r l i ne • l uggage
/ ¨+++- ,,e., ¬ ss¯
- +e,-se V, ·
· ·
·
·
·H
·
·
·
++s+t+ .-c .-+ se
:--+w+ t +ç+t+ s2· H • • • • • :e++ :++ +e.
/ ¬se·,, V ss w++tw+s,e.·
+.¬:-·¯
- tw+sí ç+tºJS, í·e¬-·.ss- s
/ ¯+-,¬.st++.- -:t,e.:+çt+-·-
w+-·-w ,e.:-st+, +ç¯
- /tt+-4
·
. . «. . «. « +tew+
/ / · ç+t w- c- .- t+ssee++st+· .-s
- /+cw++t+¬s.,,es-ctece +t+-
¬-++t ¬-¯t + +·,e.· 5
·
O H O • O O O H ew-s¬-
+++,e eç,
3. Match the verbs i n I to a word or phrase
in 11 to form expressi ons.
11
! . stay ;+ on hol i day
. go - : at a hotel I at a youth hostel
J hi re
` ¯
a ti cket I a room
+ go ¸c a car
5. book u - si ghtseei ng
4. Use the expressi ons i n Exerci se 3 to compl ete
the sentences bel ow.
� �

! ce+tw++ttet+·-:.s-s .-ts '
. +e. +ç,-e, -w+e++.-+ tçett+-

e

++-

+et- se:t-+ �_I �� ��
J �+--+·-,e.+

+

¿

�� s¬�
+ c e.-te) e|a:l--tes--
+·e.+c+-·-¯
5. -- e, c ·-te�eYt�eí.¯t+I .,
� 5. Compl ete the passage with the words and
phrases bel ow. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
l uggage • accommodati on • a i rl i nes
departure ti me • fl i ght • passengers
del ayed • overni ght
JhC ÀÎuÎ
Unit 7
Sleeping in an airport isn' t the most comfortable form of
«. . . « . . . , but it' s becoming more common. If your ¯ . . . . . . is
4 am, it' s hardly worth the money to book a hotel for the
night. And what if you get to the airport only to find that
your 3·
·
H· · · · · · has been 4· . . . H. ? In the past, 5
·
. H . provided
free hotels for 6· when this happened, but nowadays
this is rare. However, sleeping at an airport doesn' t
have to be torture. The Mini Motel, created by business
traveller Frank Giotto after an 7· . . . . . stay at a German
airport, weighs only two kilos and is small enough to fit
into your ¯ « « . . « « « . «« . • It' s a one-person tent complete with air
mattress, pi llow, reading light and alarm clock.
• Complete the sentences. Make them true
for you.
! e ·-tesign up :e· «
. ++.-+ç-+trelationship w t+
3 . +¬.-,concered +ee+t «
+ e ·-tego sightseeing +
5. e+.-w-+te+++overnight · ,·e .
G. /· ¬,et++tdecision .-¬+e-w+s
WEB EXTR
Find out about an unusual tye of hotel i n
¸ Japan at: ¡·uu.bur/ingtonbooks.ts{·ìcu•¡o:i rs1
Vocabulary Builder, pages 90-91

THE CONDITIONAL
W
Read the examples and fnd the conditi on and
the result i n each sentence. Then answer the
questions.
Fi rst Condi ti onal
I f people see Antarctica's beauty they'll promote
conservation.
Second Condi ti onal
There would be less damage i f there were rules about
tourism.
Thi rd Condi ti onal
If the tank had leaked, it would I could I might have
caused a disaster.
1 . Whi ch sentence tal ks about ... ?
1. a n i mpossi bl e or u nful fi l l ed si tuati on i n
t h e past
2. a hypotheti cal si tuati on i n the present
3. somet hi ng that may happen i n the futu re
2. Compl ete the rul es:
1. I n the fi rst condi ti onal , we use the . . . . .. . tense
i n the condi ti on and the . . . . . . . . . . . tense i n the
resu l t.
2. I n t he second condi ti onal , we u se t he ..
tense i n the cond i ti on a nd .. ... . . + t he base
for m of t he verb i n t he resu l t.
3. I n t he t hi rd condi ti onal , we use the . . . tense
i n the condi ti on and . . + have + . . i n the
resu l t.
TIME CLAUSES
Æ
'
Read the exampl es and answer the questi ons.
/'// tell you about my trip when I get back.
As soon as you get on board, your guides will begin to
teach you about Antarctica.
I will phone you before / leave.
1 . Do the sentences above refer to the present
or the future?
2. What tense i s used di rectly after ti me words
such as when and as soon as?
0tammatAppeo6|x, pages 1 25-1 26
1 . Compl ete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the fi rst or second condi ti onal .
1 . +e. ,ç-:·:e¯-. -íis:- :,e.:i·-:+-
+ ç+-s,--cti +
2 . ,t·i.- ·e,, i+- í:e. ciííec :
3. we+ : -i.-:e+ ç+t.+ -sst+-w-i:+-·
, ¬,e.-·
4 ¯-e, -we. c .-e+/+ti:::ií : ,+e:e-·
se:e c
5. í ,+i.-·ie çç-·eiç we. cti·-¬e-
: e:+-s
G :ç eei wi¬ +ç ,:e+: +.-·:+- :-e-çs
w ¬- :
2. Compl ete the sentences with the verbs i n
brackets. Use the thi rd condi ti onal .
1 . w-:e. c+ :: +c:+-e. c +ç
:w- ,+i.-·i¬i, w- ,+e:ç-:· es:
2 ¨+i -c c+ t:-- w-
¬- , +e:í-- · í +- ,+e:-i:·s e¬.:+
3 ¯+-¬i+wis+ :e,i:i
¯+-c .- , ¬ ç+:I s--·+ ¬: +- ,+e:
w-i··e i:·
4. ::ee·.s:we+e.steç-::+--e,e.s
íw- ,:i·-·i:i· : ,e-·¬.:+-is -
5. +e.íeçet¯-ee -se ·:+ci, :,e. ,w·:-·
:cew+,e. , -¬-¬e-· :
3. Choose the correct conti nuation for each
sentence.
1 . twe. c+i.-e--+i e.- ,-.-+ +ç
i í:ce-s+ :i +
� í-ic+ic+ :i·ç.-cse¬.:+
2. we. c,e.:i.- i e+- `
i í,e.+ic+ic:+-:e.iç-
e í,e.w--e c-
3 ís+-ce-s+ :ç-::+i:}ee
i s+-w e-.-·,c si,,e +t-c
e s+-we. c+i.-·.+ e.:e:¬e+-,
4 í:+i:j i:·-:c c+ ::es:se¬.:+
i we. ce., :
e s+-we. c+i.-: -cte+
5. w-we+ :i.-e+: ¬-
i .+ -ssw--i.-z.:--i ,
e :w-+ic+ t+.·· -c
G í,e. +ic+ ::e c¬-
i I w e-.-,i+ç,
e ¬ ç+t+-.-·+i.-:e.+ce.:
a gente entendera la i mporta nci a de proteger
a Antarti da en cua nto vea n su bel l eza.
NU1People w11/ understand the importance
protectmg Antarctica ÔD DLLÎ ÔD they DÔÌ
• beauty. )
4. Choose the correct answer.
w- ç-t tc.:+i::cci:w-wi l l get I get
c::t+-, i+-
2. :were I had been ,c., wc. : :t-:ct+-
wi +ç:
3 wc. :+i.-:--+,c. :,c.hadn't l eft I
di dn't l eave -i,
4 w- -i.-w t+c.t+ ¬. -::+-wi l l meet I
meets .:it-·i:t ,2. 00.
5. I ¬ ç+t+i.-.:-:tcc:+ ¬ :+-di dn't speak I
hadn't spoken :cíi:t
6. +c. í--e-tt-w-,c.stop I wi l l stop
:¬c· +ç
5. Complete each sentence without changi ng
the ori gi nal meani ng.
1 . ¡+-,wc t -t,c.-t-w t+c.ti. :i
·c.:i· :-·:-·.· -::
2. t+ ·,c.:+c. :ti·-i.¬e- i
:w-·-,c.,
3 :ct:-- w- -c.ç+tc: + :+¬,wc·
itt+-¬c¬-t
w+-
4 -ce : t+--w t+.:, :c ¬.+i,,,
wc. :
5 . : :+t·cw,c. +i:t+-: ::,:cec.ç+t t
: +i:
6. :cc·, e.t : ·-,c.tc:ct+-wi:+ ç.,
::cc·, 7
7. t: ¬,ctitt+it,+c+-¯c¬w+-+ +-i·
i,+-w:
/::cci:
6. Compl ete the fol l owing sentences i n
a l ogi cal way.
1 . 0 -::: :¬,,i::,ct,
2. çctc¯ c.- it+ ::.¬¬- :
3 : :c¬-t + çw-twcçc it ,
4. /::cci:¯i:i .-:it+ :+ct- ,
5 . : /ti:t :i+i:,-¬i-+t-: :-t:,
6. O. i:t+c :i,¬ ç+t+i.-e--e-tt- :
� 7. Read the advert and complete the di al ogue.
Then l i sten and check your answers. There
may be more than one correct answer.
N1
Ö¯Õ
Y1
1MO
Þ¯Ö
Put the
exciteWeVt
bacl
iVtO air trtJel -
ffy tO tV
UVfV
OWV
te.tiVt
iOV!
We' If arraVqe your f/iqhts aVd
tCCO
WWOdtiOV.
lvai/ab/e 01/y
iV iustra/ia!
V,:t-,¯ ç+t: - w+it
iç-it,-:-t -.t
-ce+it-::., :-: --
. . . . . e-·:. c.:w t+
¬- : . . . . . . ecc··c-
-c-:t , :-´ . ct
e-·:c ç :, -4 .
-}c,· ·-i c:¬c-
¬çc çtc:c t
¬,i:· +çi:c··- , ecct:,
:.::--i:iwi¬:cit¯c.::
:ti+ç-¯w- , í¬,:-:t it c
. . . . . . +cte-·i:-:·-t,' °
·cw·w+ittc,i:· -.tVi i
:c-:t·+cw+-:- : ¯+-:i,:t+it
w-
¸
í +:c.t·i::cc+i:w-
ç-t·tct+-i çct : t+ :
:.,,c:-:tce-:.7
w- ·-: i ,itt+-i ·,ct O.
:-:t it c¯-ceit,¡i:¬i i
Vi,e-t+ : : t:.:+iei: :-i
iít-i
^ �
¯itwi:iwc :-:.w--·-: O:
:c.·:-, íw-
Q
. - : ,·tct+-3c :
¨ci:t +:t-i:c:·ceit,
! U

¸
. çc·
::.ei: . ç w- , ¬i,e-+-·tt ¬-
Bob
Grammar Review M
8.
1 .
2.
J
4
5.
6.
Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
I :ct:,-i· ti i+, :c:i t:t.:, + ti, :·
-i::ct-+ ¬ +.t-:i:t+-í- i: --, i:t-·
¬:.·-t+it·i. i:+c¬-e,+cw ¬.:t·
.i:c:it, i,:cctei e-:i.:- t:i ç
i::cci:·
: :+ te.,,c.i,-:-te-:i.:-: ::·+c
twi:,c. e ·t+:i, :·
·-+i,:¬,:it+-·tcc·t+it, :t.- ¬ ç+tì
Ext ra gr ammar exer c i s es at :
WWII'. b u rl i ll gf ol l bo o ks . es l i ezcpu i ll ts l
Unit 7
83
� ss...s
-
LISTENING G
RECORDED MESSAGES
1 . Read the advert below. What is meant by a diferent perspective?
84
Book a ÍÌ Ì @Dton tD0
Lomdomcye
See London from a diferent perspective.
For more i nformati on:
Customer Servi ces
870-990-8883 or http://www. l ondoneye.com
. ¯¯¯\FOR ¯¯¯/ . - Many l i steni ng
tasks focus on speci fi c i nformati on. Read t he
questi ons ca refu l l y a nd deci de whet her you have t o
l i sten for a person' s na me, a ti me, a pri ce, etc.
2. Cl audi a cal l s to fi nd out when the London Eye
i s open. Li sten to the recorded i nformation
and answer the questi ons.
1 . -ew¬i+,ci,se:t+-,-i·i s t+-.e+ce+
¯,-e,-+¯
i 363 e 364 : 365
2 witi·-t+-e,-+ +ç+ea·s + t+-w +t-·¯
i 1 0. 00 i¬ - 9. 00 ,¬
e 9. 30 i¬ - 8. 00 ,¬
: 1 0. 00 i¬ - 8. 00 ,¬
3. w-+ce-st+-t :·-teíí:-e,-+¯
i 9. 00 e 9. 30 : 1 0. 00
4 ¬ew e+çsi : ç+t ¯
i 3 0 ¬ +at-s e 40 ¬ +.t-s : 50 ¬ +.t-s
5. w :eít-íe ew +ç t-¬s s+et,·e e t-c
e+t+-.e+ce+¯,-¯
is·it-eei·cs esa t:is-s :eie,e.çç-s
6. w-+i·-t-·- e+çz.-a-sitt-.e+ce+¯,-¯
i-i·,¬e·+ +ç e¬cci, : it-i:t-·+ee+
3. Listen to the second part of the recordi ng and
answer the questi ons.
1 . -ew¬a:i s is +ç -t :·-tí,e.ce+ twi+tte
wi t +t-z.-.-¯
z -ew¬.: sit :·-t:e·: c·-+a+c-·í.-,-i·s
e c¯
3. -ew¬a:w is-+ e·: t z-++--cte,i, :
-I s-wi+tste í ,itt-w--·-+c¯
4. Cl audi a i s on the Tube to the London Eye. She
hears the fol lowi ng announcements. Listen to
the thi rd part of the recordi ng and fi l l i n the
missi ng i nformati on.
1 . ¯-,-·cs-.s+stit e+ s: es-ce-:i.s-
e:
z :,ea· aççiç-i s íe.+ca+itt-+c-c we··-·s
w i+c¬i, . • it.
3. ¯-·-i s +ew-·-w-·-,ea:i+· - .- e+t-
0+c-·ç·ea+c
4. ¯-·. :-e+t- . • +-i s c- i,-c ¯-+-·tt·i +
w :e¬- +. .
• Why do you thi nk many tourist sites use pre­
recorded messages? Do you prefer getti ng thi s
type of i nformation from a recorded message
or woul d you rather speak to a person?
\
SPEAKING
BUYING A TRAIN TICKET
1 . Steve is i n Amsterdam and wants to go to
Berl i n. He cal l s Netherl and Rai lways to ask for
i nformati on. Whi ch of the questi ons below
would Steve ask? Whi ch questions would the
rai l way representative ask?

May I hel p you?

How l ong is the j ourney?

Woul d you l i ke a return or a si ngl e ti cket?

What ti me does the tra i n l eave?

Do I have to book i n advance?

Where do I get the trai n?

How much is a ti cket?

What ti me do you want to l eave?

Wi l l that be fi rst or second cl ass?

When's the next tra i n after that?

How often do the tra i ns l eave?
2. Complete the di al ogue wi th the correct
questions from the l i st above.
NR: ·-t+-· i+c-i wi,s . • . `
Steve: +-s, c ·-teç-t:e¬/¬st-·ci¬te
+-· +, , -is- ¯ . . ••••. `
NR: ¡+-+-· +t·i + -i.-sí·e¬/¬st-ci¬
¨-+ti ¯tit e+
Steve: O· i+c¯ - `
' R. /eeat6Yz te7 +e.s,c-,-+c +çe+t+-
t·i +
Steve: 4· •••••. `
NR: ¯+-ti +ste+- + -i.--.-·,2 te3 +e.·s

_ `
Steve: O+, + t+-¬e·+ +ç, eat+ettee-i,
Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 7
Unit 7
3. Look at the questions on the list in Exercise 1
that were not used in the di alogue. With a
parner, make up logical answers to these
questions.
4. With a partner, ask for and give information
about taki ng the trai n from Geneva to Rome,
usi ng the detai l s below. Student A is the railway
representative, student B i s the customer. Use
the questi ons i n Exercise 1 .
GEnEVA STATIOn
Departure ti me
Cl:Cl
09:01
"" ,f¯
• • •L ¡
21:36
FARS
Si ngl e
First cl ass €190
Second cl ass €130
ROmE TER:nAt.
Arri vi ng at
1 6:30
18.30
20.30
09: 12
Return
€285
€195
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you' re aski ng for i nformation, use the
fol l owi ng expressi ons:
I ' d l i ke to know when . . .
Can you tel l me whether . . . ?
Do you know if . . . ?
Can you hel p me, pl ease?
æ
Ptooaoc|at|ooPtact|ce, page 1 32
8 5
WITING
86
An e-mail
1 . Read the e-mai l below. What does Angel a want her friend to do?
How does she try to convi nce her?
NI:L
8
Hi Carl a,
How are thi ngs? I haven' t heard from you i n a whi l e! I ' m wri ti ng
because I 've had a great i dea.
I tol d you that my fami l y i s goi ng on hol i day � to Tuscany thi s
summer. Wel l , why don' t you come wi th us? I know you've never
been abroad before, and besi des, i t' l l be bori ng for me al one with
my parents. You' l l only have to pay for your pl ane fare because my
parents have booked a vi l l a and there's pl enty of space!
We' l l be stayi ng i n San Vi ncenzo for two weeks. My parents are goi ng
to hi re a car and go si ghtseei ng al l over Tuscany. I f we don't feel l i ke
goi ng wi th them, we can spend the day at the beach • ( i t's five
mi nutes from the vi l l a! ) or expl ori ng the vi l l age nearby. We' l l have
a fantasti c ti me!
+
I can't wai t to hear what you deci de. Write soon!
Love,
Angel a
2. I n whi ch paragraph of the e-mai l does the writer . . . ?
1 . -·, i ++-,.,es-:ew t +ç 3. ¬i·-e,-+ +ç-¬i·s
2 ç .-c-ti si+c íe·¬it e+ 4 ¬i·-: es +ç-¬i·s
3. What words or phrases does Angela use for the fol l owi ng ... ?
1 . ç--t +ç 2 . s ç+ +çe::
I NFORMAL LANGUAGE - When wr i ti ng
an e- mai l or l etter to a fri end, i t's acceptabl e to use
i nfor mal pun ctuati on a n d expressi ons.
4. I n the model e-mai l , fi nd i nformal expressions
that mean the same as the fol l owi ng more
formal expressi ons.
1 .
2
3 .
4.
5 .
6.
7.
8.
¯-i· ,
/·-,e.ic,e.· íi¬ ,w- ¯
t +is :--+i e+çt ¬-s +:-,e. istwet-
I wea c ·-te +. t-,e.te} e +.s
l t w :-.-·,-+je,i: -
I ee·:ewicte+-i +ç:e¬,ea
· -is--, ,isseeis,ess : -
· c-çics
REFERENCIN�
`Usi ng p ron ou ns and possessi ve determi ners
can prevent u n n ecessary repeti ti on a n d
make you r wri ti ng fl ow smoothly.
Pronouns a n d possessi ve determi ners a re
used to refer to peopl e, obj ects, i deas or
a cti ons.
The demonstrati ve pronouns this, that, these
a n d those a re used to refer to peopl e, obj ects,
si tuati ons, i deas or acti ons.
5. Look at the words in bold in the model .
Who/What does each of them refer to?
'
Theirs is a possessi ve pronoun for the t hi rd person pl ural .
l t refers t o both s i ngul ar and pl ura l possessi ons.
i t' s not the pl ura l form of the possessi ve determi ner their.
This ticket is theirs. These tickets are theirs . .
NOT Sean and Katie have booked theirs tickets for the
London Eye. X
6. Compl ete the di alogues with the correct pronouns
or possessive determi ners.
1 . ¯+-s-sea.-+ ·,-+s+·-·-+ ,-·,-+s .-
+-s,:at ·-ç-+t ¯.-·,e+-w e.-
2. -eww w-í +c+¬-test+te+¯
.-ts+s·t+ s¬++- ¬sa·- :++t-
3. w+,+-t+es-:+ c-+:·, +ç¯
" I t+ +· ¬+,++.-est w+,
4. ¬-t+í+:a easç ·+tt+-,eat++est-
¯ c ç .-,ea ,+e+-+a¬:-¯
5. / ++++síe·çett-++ s,+ss,e·t
w- , w+ssta, c ·ewt+-,we+ t-t e+
t+-, ++-
7. I mprove the fol l owi ng sentences by repl aci ng
words with pronouns where there i s unnecessary
repetiti on.
1 . c ·-tes--Vs¨·eít¨++,eat- ¬-w+ :+eíí:-
s Vs¨eíts¯
2 w+-·- s¯cw+·c¯
I ce+ t·+ew++.-+ts--+¯cw+·c + c+,
3. ¯+ea cw-ç-tt :·-tsíe·t+-:e+:-t¯
+-s,ç-tt +çt :·-tswea c:-e.-,
4. .-s,e·-+w t+·+t - ·+t -++s:ee·-c+í ç+tíe·
i ët+¯-:-¬:-·
5. ¬ew:ea c,eaíe·ç-t,ea· sa+ç +ss-s¯+ea +--c
,ea·sa+ç +ss-s+tt+-:-+:+
8. Compl ete the passage with suitabl e pronouns or
possessive determi ners.
March of the Pengui ns
March of the Penguins s+:eat+ç·ea,eí6, 000 ¯¬,-e·
¯-+ça +sí ¬-c+s` . . ¬+·:+e+` .. +++a+ | ea·+-,
+:esst+-/+t+:t::- +e·c-·te:--c¯+-c ·-:te·,
-·-+:+: e eç st.a:I+:ea-t,s,-+ti 1 ¬e+t+s +
/+t+·:t:+íe ew +çt+-,-+ça +s ¯ . ++c+et·ea: -
ç-tt +ç: es-te :-:+as-t+-,+·-+et+í·+ ceí
+a¬++s, :att+-: ¬+t-w+s+ç·-+t:++ -+ç-íe·5· ... .. ..
++cíe·Ie·õ¬-V+ se+, ¯ . ,+eteç·+,+-·.+:ea-ts
í+s: ++t-c:,/+t+·:t:+++c . . w c í-,++cw++t-c
tes++·-+ s ¬,·-ss e+sw t+t+-we c ¯ . .w+s+ s
¬+ +¬et.-íe·:·-+t +çt+ s +:·-c : -ce:a¬-+t+·,
|
Uni t 7
Your Task
• Write an e-mai l to a fri end about a hol i day
you have taken or are pl anni ng to ta e.
Use 1 00-1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR E-MAIL
1 . Brai nstorm your e-mai l .
• Decide who you are goi ng to write to and
what your destination was I wi l l be.
•Whi ch of the sentences bel ow coul d you
use for pl anni ng a tri p? Whi ch coul d you
use to descri be a trip you have al ready
taken?
.-íea+cse¬-·-+ ,:+-+,t :·-ts
- w-++.-+t+··++ç-c+::e¬¬ec+t e+,-t
- w-+ ·-c: :,: -s++cc·e.-+·ea+ct+-
. +ç-s
- ¯-,+·ta·-t ¬- s9. 00 +¬ - ce+t:- +t-
- w-++c+í++t+st :t ¬-
w-.-:ee·-c+·ee¬ +t+-:t,:-+t·-
íe·twe+ ç+ts
- tw+st+-:-stI we·st+o c+, .--.-·
++c
- ¯e,eaw++tteçes ç+ts-- +ç-.-·,c+,¯
- Oaí ç+tw+sc- +,-c++cea· açç+ç-
c c+t+··.-
2. Organise your i deas. Use the model on
page 86 and the pl an below to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: 3·--t +ç V+·-e,-+ +ç·-¬+··s
++cst+t-,ea· ·-+se+íe·w· t +ç
Body: 3 .- +íe·¬+t e+, +-ws++c
c-t+ s
Cl osi ng: V+·-: es +ç·-¬+·s++cs ç+eíí
3. Write a fi rst draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a fi nal draft.
CHECKLIST
/ ï¸6//6wcd lmµ/øn¸rnn !g6rm/
c-m!/.
/ ï �cd rgrcm!g c6rrcl/y.
/ ï chKcd_rnmmr, Iµc/!g am
µunclul!cV.
Writing Guide, . 157
..
5K!LL5
BOOKI NG A ROOM

You are goi ng to practise booki ng a pl ace i n a youth hostel . Read the I nternet
adverts and answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.
B.. Hotels
Edinburgh Hostel
Beautiful rooms in a hi storic
bui l di ng. Comfortabl e, rel axed
and friendl y.
Just five mi nutes' wal k from the
bus stati on
Fre breakfast incue in rom
pri
Fast, cheap I nternet access
Secure lockers in common room
Sel f-cateri ng ki tchens
Restaurant
Luggage storage
Mi ni -supermarket
T and DVD in common room
• TASK QUESTI ONS
Host I Royale
Our hostel is the pl ace
£veryone want< to stay at.
Sup rbly locat d ri ght on
Edi nburgh's historic Royal Mi l e'
Ful l y equt pped <elf-cateri ng
kitchens
Common room w1th pl asma 1
nd frEe Internet dCC ss
Breakfast served 7. 30 am-
1 0. 30 am for onl y £ 1 .90!
Lockers i n rooms
Tels and hai rdrers for hire
Lothian Hostel
In our hostel 's fun atmosphere,
you' l l meet other adventurous
travel l ers j ust l i ke you!
Quiet area, j ust 1 5 mi nutes'
wal k from the famous Royal
Mi l e and Edi nburgh Castl e.
Breakfast £1 .90
Sel f-cateri ng kitchens
Free I nternet access i n al l rooms
Lockers in rooms
Games room with pool tabl e
1. You are pl anni ng to go to Edi nburgh and are l ooki ng for a pl ace to stay. What are some si mi l ariti es and
di fferences between the hostel s advertised above?
� 2. Jake cal l s one of the hostel s. Li sten to the conversati on. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng do they di scuss?
1 . e:+t e+ 3 . ee¬t,,- 5. e-+·í+st 7. e:·-s
2 . ee¬ +t-s 4. e+t+ee¬s G · t:+-+ S. +t-+-t
3. Whi ch hostel di d J ake phone?
� 4. Li sten agai n and fi l l i n J ake's i nformation on the hostel booki ng form bel ow.
Booki ng Record
·+¬- ¯a ++¬-¯ st+¬-
/cc-ss¯t--t ¨ t,¨eat,
¨-c t:+c¯,,- .. ·a¬e-
·.¬e-eí3a-sts
¯+t-s / .+... . ..... / . / . . ¯-,+ta- . / ...,,, /..
-ee¬t,,-¯ .+t-
¯·, ,c+t- .. / .. / .
¯e¬ te,..... G :-cs
V ·-c
S :-cs
V+ - ¯-¬+ -
-+t- . ,-e-c, ,- ç+t
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
Wi th a partner, choose another hostel from the adverts above. Student A cal l s the hostel to ask for
i nformati on and make a reservati on. Student B i s the hostel recepti oni st. Then choose another hostel
and switch rol es.
\
\
Unit Objectives
• Honesty
• The Passive
• The Caus<l l ivr
• List eni ng r a Radi o Interviel\
• Agreei ng and Di sagreeing
• Wri t i ng an Opi ni on Essay
¯ Li fe Ski l l s: Understandi ng Adverts
Honest
1 . In the Uni ted States, students at some hi gh schools and uni versities
must sign an honour code. Read part of the code from one high school:
~
J
¡I �I .
¡

Î
\
I •
I I onourCode
I promise that . . .

I will net•er cheat in an exam.

I will ne1•er let someone else
copy my work.

I will never steal.

I will tell a teacher if/ see a
student cheating or stealing.
2. Whi ch of the points in the honour code do you agree I di sagree with?
• I f your headteacher wanted a si mi lar honour code at your school,
would you vote for it? Why or why not?
•WEB EXTRA
Find out more about uni

ersities in the United States at:
it·iitit·. bu r/i ugloubooIs.cs{iicu¡oiuls1
Æ

1 . Word Check: The fol lowi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
wit:+:a • -.e .-c• s,--c:i¬-is
AUTHOR'S PURPOSE
An a uthor wri tes for d i fferent reasons, for
exa mpl e : to i nform ( news a rti cl es, reports). to
entertai n ( narrati ves). t.persuade (opi n i on essays
a n d edi tori al s) and to descri be (descri pti ons of
events, pl aces or peopl e) .
2. Read the text. What i s the author's purpose?
i te,-s.ic-,-e, -te:-+i.-¬e-+e+-st ,
: tet- i+i¬.s +çste,i:eati+-·,- ¬-+t
_teç .- +:e¬it e+i:e.ti+-·,- ¬-+ti+c ts
¬, :it e+s
c tec-s: :-t+-c-ti se:t+-wi,i+-·,- ¬-+t
wisce+-
3. Compl ete the sentences.
1 . +ec-te,i :et+- c +·s,-e, - -.
+t+-e:: :- | r� fhQ �(1. l e�
2. ·-e, -,i c:et+- c +·s -sse:t-+w+-+
J /::ec +çteV- ssi-it-se+ ,-e, -w +- ,
.s :
4. ¯+-w t-:-- st+it,-e, -w :-
"\�- ..
¬e-+e+-st Jíli ·p:'.
The average person i n
London i s photographed
approximately 300
times a day on CCTV
4. Choose the best answer accordi ng to
the text.
1 . /::ec +çteV- ssi-it-se+ ,-e, --i:t-cte
t+-,est-e:-,-s:-:i.s-
i twis.-,-i st :
�t+-,w--i:i ce::- +ç:i.ç+t
: t+-,wi+t-cte:-s--+isçeec,-e, -
c t+-,-i s-ct+it tswe+çte:-c s+e+-st
2 . ¯+--·,- ¬-+twis ¬,eti+t:-:i.s-
ts+ew-c +ew,-e, -s:-+i. e. :i+:-
+: .-+:-c
: t+-e:: :-+ew+ic-+eaç+¬e+-,:ec +·s
: ts+ew-c+ew,-e, -:-+i.-c + t+-t ¬-
e:t+-:i.-¬-+
c it çetitt-+t e+ +t+-we cs¬-c i
3. ¡+-·-w:ist -,e :-,est-s
+i.-+ici+-::-:te+: ¬-: ça-s
wi +c·.-·st+--i-s,--c:i¬-is
: +i.-:--+.s-c +et+-i-isisw-
c w--,.t .,isi-s. te: t +-.+ .-s t,s
-s-i:+
5. Find words or phrases i n the text
that mean:
1 . t+ +ç,,iiçi,+2) �,�
2 . i ¬est,,iiçi,+J) ·""�
J ç.ii+t--,,iiçi,+4) ¡��,
4. -i:t,,iiçi,+5) rW~t,
5. e::. ,,iiçi,+7)
• Do you thi nk that the pol ice i n your area
shoul d try usi ng posters l i ke the Newcastle
pol i ce? Why or why not?
Find out more about honest boxes at:
uuu.0ur/i ng/oii0ooks.cs/i¹|cu•¡o/n|sI
\
i s the best pol i cy, but as we al l
know, we are someti mes not as honest as we
shoul d be. Accordi ng to the results of a recent
study at Newcastle Uni versity, Engl and, even a
5 pi cture of someone watchi ng us is enough to
make us change our ways.
The experiment was conducted at an office
where staff paid for thei r own tea and coffee
by putti ng money i nto a ti n. Anyone in thi s
· o si tuati on, of course, woul d be tempted to take
a free dri nk because no one would know who
had paid and who hadn' t. The researchers
pl aced a poster above the mugs, showi ng the
pri ce of each i tem. Over a ten-week peri od,
· 5 they al ternated the posters weekl y, switchi ng
between an i mage of flowers and various
i mages of watchful eyes.
The results were astoundi ng. Workers
had paid nearly three ti mes more for thei r
20 dri nks duri ng the weeks when the posters
had photographs of eyes. The concl usi on?
Peopl e behave better when they thi nk they're
bei ng watched. And accordi ng to Mel issa
Bateson, the behavi oural bi ol ogist who ran the
25 experi ment, it's not j ust because we' re afraid
of getti ng caught.
Thi s reacti on dates back to the days of the
cavemen, when peopl e began to real ise that
co-operati ng in groups was a better way to
30 ensure survival than l i vi ng alone. This meant
that peopl e seen as co-operative types enjoyed
good reputati ons and were l i kel y to be treated
wel l . The same is true today. Accordi ng to
Bateson, when we thi nk we' re bei ng watched
35 we behave better, so peopl e see us as co­
operative and behave the same way towards
us when we need hel p.
But why do we have thi s reacti on when we
know the eyes aren' t real? Bateson says,
40 "Eyes and faces send a strong bi ol ogi cal si gnal
that we have evolved to respond to. " I n other
words, our brai ns are programmed to respond
to eyes and faces - even i n a pi cture.
The experi ment got worl dwi de medi a
45 attenti on. Peopl e were excited by the possi bi l ity
that the same pri nci pl e could be appl ied to
other situations as well - on the roads, for
i nstance. Today, road signs warni ng drivers
of speed cameras often show a pi cture of a
50 camera. But now we know that we' re much
more l i kel y to react if we see a pi cture of eyes
or a face.
Thi s i dea has actual l y been appl i ed by
the Newcastle pol i ce i n a new techni que to
55 combat cri me. In rough areas where crimes
tend to take pl ace, they have put up posters
of watchful eyes with the sl ogan, "We've got
our ey,es on cri mi nal s. " They' l l be checki ng
cri me figures to see whether the posters have
60 an effect.
it's a pi ty that peopl e aren't honest all the
ti me, whether or not someone's watchi ng. But
if all it takes is a poster to get th�m to make the
ri ght choi ce, then it's-defini tely a good idea!
Newcastl e Poli ce poster
False fri ends
policy ( l i ne 1) means politico not policia
conducted ( l i ne 7) means realizado not conducido
crime ( l i ne 55) means delincuencia not crimen
figure ( l i ne 59) means data, cifra not figura
Unit 8
�VOCAULAY
Words from the Text
« = + « + « = « + + - - « « « - + « « + » « « « - « - ~ « + « + « + « « « - « « « + « « - - « « - « « + « « « - « « « - - + + + = - + + « - » + « - - + « « « + + += - « + + - - + + - + + « + - » + + - - - + « « - + « « - =
1. The fol lowi ng sentences do not make sense.
Make them l ogi cal by repl aci ng each word i n
col our with a word i n col our from a di fferent
sentence.

1 . ¬ s: +ts:+-+, eatts +t+-astoundi ng ,+t
e:tew+
!
2 ¯+-¬+ç : ++c cse¬-rough t :·s
3. ¯+-,s+,t+t5, 000c-¬e+st·+tes:+¬- eat
t+-t·a-bNi n s¬a:+ +ç-
S
4. w+ :+,est-·+·-,ee +çteconduct?
5. ¯+-s: -+t stsw pu¥up ++-·,-· ¬-+t
6. w-

t ++.-+ ette -+·++ee.tt+-+.¬++
fi gJre.
� 2. Compl ete the passage with the words and
phrases below. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
l i kel y • it's a pity • behave • ensure
tend to • choi ce • s i gnal s ¡
¡1 AHN, YA1LM lÌ1Î
Do you feel that other people are often dishonest?
If you do, you'll want to read Never8e Lled
Io Aga/n. In this book
:
psychologist David
Lieberman describes � that will help you
if you suspect someone is lying. People,
,
sa

s Lieberman, �, ,alter the way they
�K.when they are lying. For example,
liars are • k�,to use a certain type of body
language and facial expression. Even their
�f words may be different from someone
who is telling the truth. Lieberan claims that
reading his book will 6�hat you' ll never be
fooled by anyone again.
t
t�
�a
f
books like
this are necessary at all, but if you think that
someone is trying to trick you, it may be j ust
what you need!
3. Choose an option and complete each sentence.
Pay attention to the words in col our ¤•
1 . Sports events I Tea��meeti ngs +ts:+ee
take pl ace .;._¿ �

2. ¯+-staff eí+hospi tal J.s� +: ac-s<.
3 .

¬ -e:+worl dwi de restaurant cl othi n
� �
4. ¯-e, -+·-often I ,rare!)tempted te� �
ADJECTIVES AND
PREPOSITIONS
Many adj ecti ves i n Engl i sh a re fol l owed by
preposi ti ons. Some adjecti ves can take
onl y one preposi ti on ; others can have
several preposi ti ons, but t+ schanges t hei r
meani ng.
I'm sorry about the mess. (regret
I'm sorry for Bob. He's lost his job. (sympathy)
.� _ Grammar Appendix, page 1 28
4. Make as many combi nati ons of adjectives in I
and prepositions in 11 as you can. Use the l i st on
page 1 43 to hel p you.
I
se,\
,·e.ct
s ¬ + ¹
çeec'I
we -cS
, -+s-c �
+t- �
+t--st-c`
1 1
+t �
e: <
w t+ ¤
+ �
+eeat! o�
t Z
te
Í · 6
:e· (º
5. Compl ete the sentences with adjectives and
prepositions from Exercise 4. Use each adjective
once.
���
1 . ¯+-+-wç s--¬sse e

,w-+ í--�-
2 ¯+-t-+:+- s+t

�eç·-ss+ea ++.-te
we·++c-
�```
3 . . .stt- ¬-t+-¬+ + c-+ ¬+et �t+-c-t+ s
4. O+ ,st.c-+tsw+e+·-.-·,�e+s·-te+ w e-
:+es-+:et+-t-+¬
� �` 5 ¯+-+ t stsst,-eí

+t +ç s �

n 3eç+s
6. ·+. s�'- �-s+ea c++.-+· .-c
7 . ��.
s
�·� ,e.��t+ s

¸ +ç¯
8. I++-++s+ w+,se--+�.. . . �+ t stÏ+ -+t
\
!P�' `'³º�Í ³!Y
HONESTY
1 . Choose the l ogi cal conti nuati on for each
sentence. Pay attention to the words i n col our.
1 . ¯+-te c+-·í -ciwhi te l i e.
i ¯+-tee·+- :· -cs¨¯s, e.t si cs+-c ct
·eww+-·-t+-,w-·-
e ¯+-c ct ·-+-· : -cs-ws+ t,e.tsi c
twis,-tt,
z ¯-.-·i stac-tscheated t+--·i¬
i ¯+-,·-wt+-¬it- i w-
e ¯+-,:e, -ct+-isw-·s:·e¬t+- ·í· -cs
3 . trust + ¬:e¬, -t- ,
i ¬s.-+- ·-t. e.· ¬e-,
e ¯e te- -.-iwec+-si,s
4. ,e¬ s- ll change my ways .
i ste, , çic:+-it ç
e :i t+- ,e- çt+-wi,i¬
5. ¡+-we¬istol e se¬-e-swi -t
i ¯+-.s-ct+-¬e-,tee.,t+ çs
e ¯+--ta-c tisseeiss+-:e.c t
6. ¯+-c·.-·got caught çe çt+e.ç+i·-c ç+t
i --:i.s-cii:: c-t
e ¡+-,e :-siw+ ¬ce ç t
2. Choose the correct answer.
1 . ..-·,t+ ç,ea.-si csata- +e. ·-i
l i ar I t hi ef !
z · -is-t- ¬-,e. ·-i e, e +ea:ie-
:e¬, -t-,frank I gui l ty.
3 . Vi,,-e, -bl ame I admi t t+-çe.-·¬-t
:et+-· s- : ¬-
4. ·ew,eae.-iet+-we¬i w+,+i.-,e.
decei ved I suspected ¬-·
5 . ¯+-¬iwis:i.ç+tpl agi ari si ng I shopl i fti ng
t +--,i ·se: s+e-s
6. ¯+-ee,wis:iaç+tt+·ew çste-s
\
·-got i nto troubl e I got away wi th i t .
3. Write sentences usi ng the words you di d not
choose in Exercise 2.
4. I DI OMS Match the i di oms in col our i n I to thei r
correct meani ngs i n 1 1 .
I
1 . --t· -ctest-i t+-} -w- -·,, eatt+-,caught
hi m red- handed.
z A +.c-c-aesíet+its+ t·w+itiri p-off !
3 . ¯e t -i.-¬e-,+-- +ea ça-st¬i,+i.-
sti cky fi ngers .
1 1
i i, :-t+it s tee+ ç+
e i+ie te:st-i ç
: siwse¬-e-ce çse¬-t+ çw·eç
µ 5. Compl ete the text wi th the words and
expressi ons below. Then l i sten and check your
answers.
change my ways • bl ame • t hi ef • admi t
get i nto troubl e • get away wi th • stol e
I0080µ00l80lI0| 0l
Unit 8
Pan Aiying, a teacher in Shandong, China, was riding her bicycle
when a young man on a motorcycle grabbed her purse and rode
off. Smce the
an SMS:
now had her mob1 l e phone, she sent him
"You must be going through a difficult time. If so, will not
you. Keep the money - but please return the other
things. "
He di dn't reply, so she sent another message. She sa1d that
she d1d not want h1m to . She was only asking hi m to
h1 s m1stake and be honest.
After sending 21 messages with no response, Pan gave up. She
dec1ded to go to the police so that the man wouldn' t h, s
crime. But as she was leaving her flat, she found her purse with
everything m it! Attached was this note:
" Dear Pan: I ' m sorry. I made a mistake. Please forgive me.
You are so tolerant even though I ¯ from you. I ' ll and
be an honest person. "
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true
for you.
1 . :ii wi,strust . . . .
z . w+- ¬ac-·,·-ssa·-,tend to . . .
3 . O-t+ ç ¬proud e/ s
4. í siwi: -cshoplifting, c
5 . e:-got into trouble w+-
6. t+ ·it's a pity t+it
Vocabulary Builder, pages 92-93
94
GRM
THE PASSIVE
1 . Read the exampl es and answer the questions.
Researchers placed_bove the mugs. /actrVe;
_ter]was placed above •re mugs /pasr;,ve;
1 . Wh i ch sentence stresses t he acti on ?
2. Whi ch stresses t h e peopl e t hat do t h e a ct i on?
2. Read the exampl es. I dentif the verb tense
in each sentence. Then choose the correct
options to compl ete the rul es bel ow.
a. Our brains are programmed o re .pond o faces
b. People behave better when they are being watched
c. The idea has been applied by the pou ·e
d The principle could be applied to other �ituations.
e Se1eral ptsters were chosen or " ¹¹¹¹ÎÎ''r
1 . The ma i n verb is i n t he base j past parti ci pl e
form.
2. The ma i n jauxi l i ary verb i nd· cates
the t ense.
3. Sentences i n the pass1 ve somet i mes ja l ways
i ncl ude by + agent.
4. I n the passi ve, modal s a re fol l owed by t he
i nfi n i ti ve of t he verb to be jt he ma i n verb.
Verbs with Two Objects
Some sentences have got two obj ects :
They showed t he res ul ts ( di rect obj ect) to t he
publ i c ( i n d i rect obj ect)
i t's more common to use the i n di rect obj ect as
t he subj ect of a pass1 ve sentence
The public was shown the results. /common;
The results were shown to the public. /ess common;
THE CAUSATIVE
Æ
We use have jget + object + past part i ci pl e
when we refer to a n acti on t hat is done for us by
somebody e l se. There i s no di fference between
have and get, but get i s more i nfor mal .
They had an honesty box put in the canteen.
/They didn't put it there themselves)
1 . Choose the correct answer.
1 . ·-w:e :i: -s-i:tw+-t+-,s how I
a re shown , :t.-se::i:-s
2 . J:: :-sti::w+e: :t,i,:e:e::--were not
puni shed I di d not puni s h.
3 . ·ee-·-ww+-t+-t +-sti::had pai d I
had been pai d :et+-:e::--e+et
4. ¯+-,:- tis :t+-,were watchi ng I
were bei ng watched :,t+--,-s
5. ¯+ s-·,- ¬-ts+ewst+it,s,:+e eç,can use I
can be used :e,i:t :i ,.,es-s
6. ·e,-:. ,t+-,est-swi l l hel p I wi l l be
hel ped ,e :-:e¬:it: ¬-
2. Compl ete the sentences with the correct
passi ve form of the verbs bel ow.
not rob • teach • tear
catch • publ i sh • count
1 . ¯+-:i · s :-t+-,çettwe¬e-çai:s
2 . . t+--s. ts +-·tw--·s-ws,i,-s¯
3. ¨+ :-s+e. : tet- t+-t.t +
4. ·ee-s,e·-w+ -t +-¬e-,
5. ¯+-,e :-,est-s :,t+-w : ist ç+:
6. +,t+-t ¬-t+-,e :-i .-: t+-: ¬ i s
3. Compl ete the sentences. Use the correct active
or passive form of the verbs in brackets.
1 . ¬çe çet+-:.s:-:i.s-¬,:i
-,i ·
2 +--t+e.-+ :e¬,es-·:-i.t ías,¬,+e -s
3. ¯+-,e :- et: :·t+-¬ ss ç: :,-:
4 ¯+-:i:, ,s+e.l dI ,.t·te:-:i+ +e.· içe
5. t+- . tit es s-:· ,-t¯
; Deberi a ser cul pado el gobi erno par el i ncremento
de la del i ncuenci a?
Should the go �ern nent be b1 med for the ri.e in
e me? .
NOT Shou·d be the goverment blamed for the r;se
m LÎ!me? X
4. Read the headl i nes and write the fi rst
sentence of each arti cl e. Add detai l s sayi ng
when, where or why. Use at least four
di fferent passive tenses.
1 .
ÑÛ1Ñ0ÑÏ|ÑÑ|kÎßÍÍ|0ÎÑÏ
A 7 0-year-old boy was hurt in a btke accident
yesterday afternoon.
2.
Ï|ÍßÑÑÛÏß|ÑÏ|ÑÑÑÏÛ|ÎÑ
3.
Ñ|ÑÏÛÑ|ÍÑ0||0|ÑÑÑÏÛÑÎ0ÎÑÏÑÛ1Î0
4.
Ñ0Ñ0ÑÎ0ÑÛÏBÛÑkÎÑÑÏ|ÑÎ0
5
ÑÎBÑÛ#ÎÑÑMÎÑÏÎ|ÎÍÏÎ0
5. Rewrite the sentences in the passi ve.
Omi t the agent when possi bl e.
1 . V,s st-+iceçi+ s-ct+--+t ·-,it,
2. ¡+-we··-s:e. c+i.-: + s+-ct+-}e:
,-st-ci,
3. ¯ ci:i¬eas} ea·+i stwt-t+ sit : -¯
4. ¯e¬-e+-wisíe ew +ças
5 /-t+-,çe +çtewi+-s c-+tsi:e.t
t+-ste¬¯
6. w-s+e. c+ t-itt+-:i·-:-:e·-c ++-·
6. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
There are two ways to rewrite each sentence.
Omi t the agent when possi bl e.
1 . ¯+-,çi.--i:+st.c-+ttwe,-+s
2. ¯+-,w t- e+ ,twe,-e, -t+-s-:-t
3. / iç-:e¬,i+,+ise:í--c¡e¬i} e:
4. i+ss-+ct+-:- -:t,t+easi+cseí-tt-s
5. ¯+-,c c+ts+ewast+-+-w: it
7. Rewrite the sentences i n the active.
1 . ¡+-t+ -í+is+et:--+i·-st-c,-t
2. ¯·-s+si icsi-+tse citt+ s
s.,-·¬i·-t
3. ¡+itse+çwisw tt-+
:,t+---it -s
4 ¯+-:i:,w :-í-c
:,t+-+.s-
5. st+-+-w: ¬çe +ç
te:-s+ew+t+ sw--·¯
6. ¡+-s--tt-s+i.-te:-
s ç+-c:,i iw,-
8. Compl ete the sentences with the correct form
of the words in brackets. Use the causative.
1 . ¯i.- + s: ·- -,i · ·ew+-:i+ · c-
tewe·
2 w+-- ,ea ,e.c-ss ¬i·-·¯
3. V,,i-ts t+-· t:+-+ -ce·
te¬eew
4. . H ,e. t+-e i+cwit- :+-:··it
t+-çiiç- istw--·¯
5. I :i+tti ·+ew - I . ¬,+i · . . :.t·
� 9. Complete the passage wi th the correct active
or passive form of the verbs i n brackets. Then
l i sten and check your answers.
X
Kat hl een Heal y of Mi n nesota, USA, went to buy
jeans i n a l ar ge s hop. As she ¯ · . (t ry) on a
pai r , s he found a l arge amount of money t hat
2· ( l eave) i n t he pocket. Heal y ¯ . H • • • (coul d I
keep) t he money, but s he t hought that it ´` .
( may 1 l ose) by someone who real l y needed i t.
The refore, she ´` . . (go) st rai ght to t he sal es
as s i stant, who s houted , "A customer
6
·
. . . . ( l ook) for t hi s ! " Heal y refused to accept
any money as a reward for her honesty, but s he
di d accept a box of chocol ates that ´ (gi ve)
to her by the s hop assi stant. That n i ght, s he
opened t he box. I n s i de s he found a pi ece of
paper whi ch sai d , "Congratu l ati ons ! You
8
·
. -- . . . . . - Uu st wi n) $ 10, 000! " Su r pri sed and happy,
Heal y real i sed that she had bee n rewarded
for her honesty aft er al l . I f s he had n ' t been
honest, she 9· . ( not wi n) t he pri ze!
Grammar Review
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 0. Rewrite the fol l owing sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
1 . w-s+ea c+i.-te c+ ¬t+-t.ti:e.t+ s
:·et+-·:--+·
2. ce+ ti.-..e,-i+: t z-+s+ , seI :i+ t
we· +t+-O·. .+ -ss·
3 . twis+t+-:-ssi·,íe,e.te,i,+-+--c+t·
4. /-t+-,i··i+ç +çt+-:.· + t.-¯ s·
5 c c+tti·-i, :t.·-:-:i.s-I c c+ t: +ç¬,
:i¬-·i í·
Ext r a gr amma r exer ci s es a t :
11' 11' 11' . / u r / i n gt o n b o o k s . cs/li ew po i n ts I
Unit 8
95
� 5KÍLL5
`
LISTENING �
A RADIO INTERVIEW
1 . Read the home page of the website bel ow. What experi ment was conducted?
www.foundawallet.com
Paul Ki nsel l a of I l l i noi s, USA,
was wonderi ng how honest peopl e
are, so he conducted an experi ment:
he l eft 1 OD wal l ets i n different
pl aces around town and waited
to see if peopl e woul d return them.
I
See Paul ' s website at www. wallett est . com
2. Listen to the first part of a radi o i nterview
about the experi ment and answer the
questi ons.
5. Listen to the second part agai n. Whi ch of the
two pi e charts accurately shows the results for
young peopl e?
1 . w,c c¯ia :e+ca:tt s-·,-· ¬-+t¯
2. w-·- +-- -. -c c-c·e,
t-wi -ts¯
3 . witc c-. c-eti,-¯
4. -ew e+çc c-wi t:e·,-e, -te
-ta·+t-wi -ts¯
3. What do you thi nk? Were most of the people
i n the experi ment honest or dishonest?
4. Listen to the second part of the i nterview
to see whether your prediction was correct.
As you l i sten, deci de whether the fol l owi ng
statements are true or fal se.
1 . ¯i. se,t ¬ st :i:eat¬est,-e, -se+-st,
2. V-+w--¬e·-e+-stti+we¬-+
3. ¯ia wis+ets., s-ce,t-c ::--+:-s
:-w--+¬-+i+cwe¬-+
c-·,-e, -w-·-t-¬este+-st
::-iç-c,-e, -w-·-t- -iste+-st
Honest
Di shonest •
A B
1 90 ¸
rJ
.
r
81 O 560
• From your own experience, do you thi nk age
and gender affect honesty?
SPEAKING

AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
1 . Read the fol l owi ng statements about honesty and decide whether you agree or di sagree with
each one.
1 . YOu>'Ou' dm! oe!¯JI'Iu' I !v ' ' 'u|!
>O¤eO¯e> lee ¯g>.
2 1eaC'e¯>>'OJ d ¯O!aCCeµ!vO¯<!'aI'a> oee¯
COµ edl¯O¤ !'e' ¯!e¯¯eI.
3. ' IyOJ I ¤d>O0eOme> va e!, !> yOJ|>
4. 'I>v¯Omg!O dOv¯ Oad 0J> CI¯O¤I'e mIe¯¯eI
5. ' la >'Oµa>> >Iam!g ve>yOJIOO¤JC'C'amge,
yOJ>'OJ d ¯eIJ¯¯ !.
6. lyOJ ¯ µa¯e¯I>vOm ! eI yOJ dO>O0e!' mg, I>
OK !O dO ! v !'Ou!Ie' mg!'e¤.
7. !> mOId >'O¯e>!!OCOµy ¯exa0>.
8. YO0 >'Ou d¯! o0yla<ede> gme¯ la>' Om>.
2. Form di al ogues by matchi ng each statement i n I with a sui tabl e response i n 1 1 . Then practise the
di al ogues with a partner.
I 1 1
Statements
1 . As far as I ' m concerned, a ¯ea' l¯ emdvOJ d ¯eve¯
COµyI¯O¤yOu m a¯ exa0.
2 I n my opi ni on, !> OK ! OCOµy ¯lO¯¤a! Oml¯O¤
I'e m!e¯me!. cve|yO¯e dOe> !
3. ' don't t hi nk !'a!yOJ>'Ou' d ' ' e!OyOJ| µa¯e¯I>.
Responses
a. I agree. \u> C a¤>>'OJ d oe µa dIO¯!'e ¯vO|<.
o. I t hi nk you' re r i ght . 1'ey Om yva¯!v'a!>
oe>I lO| J>
C. You've got a poi t. Al| e¯dvOu' d¯Ivam!IO
ge! yOJ ¯!OI|OJo e.
4. I bel i eve that !> v|Omg!OdOvm' Oad ¤J> CI|O¤ d . I di sagree. ' ve 'ea|d !'a! !'e 0Omey >u>edIO
!'e ' ¯!e¯¯eI. I ¯amCe ¯Ie|ma! Oma C| 0e.
5. I f you ask me, I>I meIOoJyla<ede> g¯e¯Ia>' Om>. e. That's true, ouII'aIdOe>m! 0a<e ! ¯ g'!.
3. I n pai rs, fi nd three statements i n Exercise 1
that are not di scussed in Exercise 2. Take turns
expressing your opi ni ons and reacti ng to your
partner's opi ni ons. Use the words i n col our i n
Exercise 2 above.
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to give a reason for you r vi ews
and opi ni ons, u se the fol l owi ng expressi ons:
That' s why . . .
The reason why . .
Because of that .. ~
� • Ponuncaton Pat p 133
Unit 8
97
WITING
-.
9 8
¹º 'P!º!. . . � ���Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 . Read the opi ni on essay below. Is the writer for or agai nst buyi ng fake fashi ons?
| M| TAT| UN 0LS| UNLH |ASH| UNS. . .
Millions of consumers today buy imitation designer fashions i n order to look trendy. Some
people say that this is dishonest, and should be stoppe�harm the fashion
industry. In my opinion, however, buying fake designer fashion is not wrong.
First of all, I believe that the high price of designer fashions is not justified. It doesn' t
really cost $600 t o manufacture a bag or a pair of jeans, s o fashion companies
make a huge profit. If the originals were not so expensive, there would be no market
for fakes.
In addition, fashion companies still make millions of dollars. For example, a certain Loui s
Vuitton bag eared more than $300 million in one year! These companies aren' t losing
customers, since the people who buy imitations could never afford the real thing.
As I see it, consumers shouldn' t worry about whether it's right to buy imitation fashion.
They should simply enjoy it.
2. In whi ch paragraph/s of the essay does the
writer ... ?
1 . ¯uµµO|In ¯I ne¯Oµ m Omv!nIaCI¯amdexa¤µ e¯ �
2 l |¯!¯Ia!e n ¯I ne|Oµ m O¯ 2
J mI|OduCe!neIOµ C^
4. ¯e¯!a!e n ¯I ¯e¯Oµ m O¯amd¯u¤ uµ ¹
3. Fi nd two facts and two opinions in the model.
CONNECTORS OF PURPOSE
Connectors of purpose i ntroduce the reason for an
acti on. The connectors in order to, so as to and to are
fol l owed by a verb. The connector so that is fol l owed
by a cl ause (su bject + verb + compl ement/s).
� wr|tlaq0ul6e,paqe 1 49
5. Fi nd two connectors of purpose in the model .
Whi ch one i s negative? How is the negative
formed?
7. Compl ete the sentences with a connector
of purpose. There may be more than one
possi bl e answer.
1 . 1¯eva¯ m ¯g¯ g¯¯a¯e !¯e|e µeOµ evO¯I
d| vela¯!.
2 !J¯ ¯OII ¤y ¤Oo eµnO¯e ¤a<e a mO ¯e
4. Read the sentences. How do you say the
3 w !
·
d l < o d ¯ l e ¯a¤e O¯ vee s ... e ¤ gOO s aµe O|
connectors i n your l anguage?
!¯e ¤a!Cn
1 . |¯eµO Ce nave µJ!uµµO¯!e¯¯ i n or der to
4 1¯e !eaCne|na¯ a¯<ed u¯!O ¯Iay al!e¯!ne e¯¯Om
1

e
��
e
¿� �_ � �¸ �Y"( ¸ ¯¯eCamexµ' a m!¯e¤aIe| a .
2 |¯eya¯e CO¯duC ¯gamexµe| ¤e¯ t o¯ee ¯Ov
5. |¯eyIJ¯med Jµ I¯evO J¤e ¯ea¯!¯e ¯ev¯.
µeOµ' ev ¯eaC!.
- l 1 � J . Í
¹ l ¬· � l . .. \ V ' \ "' ( : V -
·
y {0 • (
3. .e!¯ ¯e!!nea a¯C OC<so t atve ' va<e Jµ hl'l"' '"
O¯ ¤e
·

¯ ¯ � (
L John ¯!a< ¯g e¯¯Om¯soa to ¤µ¯ ve IS '¯e¯Cn.
Y (
_ J·
J `
Q
REVIEW OF CONNECTORS
8. Di fferent types of connectors are used to connect i deas
and to show the relati onshi p between these i deas.
Copy the chart into your notebook. Then write each
connector i n the correct category.
Addition Contrast Cause
1 ´
J
a¯ a ¯e¯0' ! l
C
CO¯¯eq0e¯! y '
de¯µ !e_
a! l ¯¯! ¸
a' !¯OJg¯_
lO¯ !¯ ¯ ¯ea¯O¯ �
¯¯µ !eOl _
¯Oveve¯ 2
!¯e¯eIO¯e �
¯O a¯ !O
_
madd ! O¯1
¯O ¸
eve¯ !¯OJg¯¸
a ¯O¸
a¯ve ' a¯.
Om !¯eO¯e ¯a¯d/
Om !¯eO!¯e¯'amd´
Result
l(
Purpose
"
Sequence
Iu¯!¯e¯0O|e !
a¯a ¯e¯J' ! Ol _
oeCau¯e Ol _
¯O!¯a! S
oJ! ·
0O¯eOve¯ ¹
¯O¯de¯'O
dJ¯ ¯g ¸
dJe!O '
¯eve¯!'e' e¯¯ Z
!¯em �
a¯ '
oeCaJ¯e `
¯ mCe ¸
l ¯a y,
9. Choose the correct answer.
1 . 1¯e µ¯ Ce¯OI de¯ g¯e¯¯J¯g a¯¯e¯a|e ve¯y ¯ g'
Moreover /Consequentl y /Fi nal l y, µeOµ eo0yla<e¯
z ¬e¯µea<¯!OO' OJd y However / Furthermore /As a
resu l t, ¯e !e ' ¯!e¯¯ o e|O<e¯.
J 1 d d¯ !v m a µ¯ze i n spi te of I due to /as wel l as a '
0y'a|d vO¯<
4. `O Ome¯a d a vO¯d so that /duri ng / because of !¯e
0ea
5 0!¯y ¯g!O l ¯d!¯eCa! i n order t o /s o /si nce !a<e !
!O !¯eve!
6. 1 d d¯! ¯a¯d ¯ 0y µ¯O]eC!Om! 0e In addi ti on /
Even though / Neverthel ess, !¯e!eaC¯e¯aCCeµ!ed !.
1 0. Compl ete the sentences with a logical endi ng.
1 . 1'e¯'Oµ' I!e¯ ¯ad!O |e!J| ¯v¯a!¯e ¯ad ¯!O' em.
I n addi ti on, . . . .
z . \e em¡Oyed OJ¯ !¯ µ!O |a¯ ¯ i n spi te of .
J . 'eve¯a' ¯!Jde¯!¯ oeCa0e as a res ul t of
4 \e d d¯ ! ¯ay a vO¯d so as not to . . . .
5 \a¯y µeOµ e!Oday dO ¯O! ge! emOJg¯exe¯C ¯e.
For thi s reason, . . . .
Unit 8
Your Task
.
.
. . . . ..
...
. .
. .
.
. .. . . ...
. .
. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . ..
. . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . .
.
. . . . .. .
. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .
.
• Write an opi ni on essay on the fol lowi ng
statement: /t is dishonest to download music
from the Interet. Use 1 00-1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR OPINION ESSAY
1 . Brai nstorm your essay.
• Look at the sentences bel ow. Whi ch coul d
be used to support the statement above?
Which coul d be used agai nst it?
· .Ovm' Oad ¯g0u¯ CdOe¯¯! 'u|! amyOme
· \O¯! µOµ¯ mge|¯ a|e a ¯eadyve¯y¯ C¯.
· \J¯ C a¯¯Cam0a<e0O¯ey oy¯e ' mg!'e |
¯O¯g¯IO|ga0e¯O¯| mg!O¯e¯.
· 'O¯g¯ oe Omg !O 0J¯ C am¯, v¯O¯¯OJ' d oe
µa d lO¯!¯e ¯ vO|<
· Cc¯ CO¯! !OO 0JC¯
· 1¯e¯e a¯e ¯Ov0a¯y' ega' ¯ !e¯IO¯
dOv¯ Oad ¯g¯O¯g¯lO¯l¯ee, O¯a!a ' Ov
µ¯ Ce.
· YOJ Camge! m!O!¯OJo' e lyOJge!CaJg'!
dOv¯' Oad ¯g.
• Add your own i deas to the l i st.
• Decide whether you agree or di sagree with
the statement in the task.
2. Organise your i deas. Use the model on page
98 and the plan bel ow to help you.
PLAN
Openi ng: '!a!e!¯e!Oµ Ca¯dyOu¯Oµ ¯ O¯.
Body: 'JµµO¯!yOJ| Oµ m O¯v !'laC!¯
a¯dexa0µ' e¯.
Cl osi ng: 'u00a¯ ¯e a¯d ¯e¯!a!eyOJ¯
Oµ m O¯.
3. Write a fi rst draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a fi nal draft.
CHECKLIST
. ï¡:||:»eøtmµ|ø»¡:cø» :µim:» e:øy.
, ï ueø ::ccect |ø_ µe¡:ceµce:i_
¡ø:t: øm:µim:».
, ï ueø ::mt:c:.
, ï :mkcø¸cøauc, :µe||i· _ øa
µumtuti:».
æ ~
wt|t|aq6u|6e,paqe 1 58
99
..¸
5K!LL5
UNDERSTANDI NG ADVERTS
Shoppi ng i s a typi cal touri st acti vi ty and readi ng adverts i s an i mportant part
of shoppi ng. Are you a cri ti cal reader? Read each advert and answer the
Task Questi ons to fi nd out.

=
Þ ZO% off �
ñ
for cl ub members onl y
2
sa\eH
up to ãO%
of f
¯
0
3 r-
|reeg| Ít w| th
every purthðse
over £ 1 00

4
. I
-
Sati sfacti on g uar anteed 1
¸ or your money back !
withi n 7 days of purchase,
_i n ori gi na�ackage
5
-
4Û% oH
your second i tem
• TASK QUESTI ONS
1 . Advert 1 : You want to buy j eans at thi s shop .
What must you do to get a di scount?
2. Advert 2: What mi ght surpri se you when you
pay for your purchases at thi s shop?
3. Advert 3: You are buyi ng groceri es at thi s
supermarket. What must you do to get a free
gi ft?
4. Advert 4: You bought an MP4 two weeks ago
and threw away the box. Now the MP4 i sn't
worki ng properl y. Can you return the MP4 to
the shop? Why or why not?
5. Advert 5: You' re buyi ng a belt at thi s shop.
Wi l l you get a di scount?
6. Advert 6: You are buyi ng a CD for £5 and a DVD
for £8. How much wi l l you need to pay i n total ?
7. Advert 7: You' re payi ng cash for a j acket that
costs £ 1 00. How much wi l l you pay?
• USE YOUR SKi llS
The rul es or condi ti ons that appear in many adverts
are cal l ed "smal l pri nt". Look through magazi nes
and newspapers and fi nd at l east two adverts that
i ncl ude "smal l pri nt " . What condi ti on is contai ned
i n each one?
Unit Objectives
• hnenai nmem
¯ Reponed Speech
¯ Li steni ng to Fi l m Revi e\Y'
• Maki ng Pl am
• Writi ng a Fi l m Revi ew
* Li fe Ski l l s: Usi ng Fntrnai nmcnt
Gui de-
That's Entertainment!
1 . Study the cartoons bel ow. Match each cartoon to its message.
1 . Hea !y1Vdeµ C!> |ea' ' le, oJ! !> ¯O!ve¯y C|ea! veO¯exC ! mg
z |eOµ e>ee>O0a¯yl ¤>!na!!¯ey mO ' Omge¯aµµ¯eC a!e ¯ea' !y
3 . HeCau>e OI|V, ve ¯a|d yeve| d >Cu>>OJ¯ Ov¯ ve> O¯ !nOugn!>.
4 |eOµ edOm ! oe eveI ¤µ|O¤O! Om>.
| |l LY"~t |LC/Jc
COLO55AL
A ���
��
ÜL
̯VÌ Ì CMM6E
`LU� L|P£ ÏÕKÞ
MA6NI FILbNÄ
6<¯H¯¬K| HO
� C
• Do you agree with the messages i n the cartoons above? Why or why not?
WEB EXTRA
Find out about flm museums in Britain at:
|t ioiioo oil
�°
&
� REAING

1 . Word Check: The fol lowi ng words appear
i n the text. Make sure you know what they
mean.
>µaCeC¯al! • COC<µ !• 'Oax
REVIEW OF READING STRATEGIES
2. Look at the title and the pictures. What do
you thi nk the text i s about?
3. Read the fi rst sentence of each paragraph.
I n whi ch paragraph do you thi nk you' l l fi nd
the fol lowi ng?
I a de>C| µ! O¤Ola¤u¤u>ua B¯ ! >'T >'Ov
2. a de>C| µ! O¤Ol!'el ¤a >!>' " >µaCeva <"
3. !'e¯eaC!O¤Ol!'eCO¯!e>!a¤!>!O !'e 'Oax
4. Scan the text and fi nd the fol l owi ng
i nformati on:
I !'eyea¯Big Brother oega¤
2. v'a!5!a|C!y >a¤dv'e|e !'> 'OCa!ed
3. !'ea¤OJ¯!Ol µ¯ ze ¤O¤eyg ve¤!O !'e l ¤a' >!>
5. Read the text. Look at the words in col our
and try to guess the meani ng of each one.
6. Are the fol l owi ng statements true or fal se?
Fi nd evi dence i n the text to support your
answers.
l . 1'e µa¯! C µam!> m!'e l |>!Big Brother ve|e
u¯ava¯eOl!'e ¤µO|!a¯CeOl!'e ¯ µ|Og¯a¤¤e.
2. 1ve' veCOm!e>!a¤!>ve|eC'O>em!Ol' y
!OOu!e¯>µaCe.
3. 1'eCOm!e>!a¯!>ve¯e!a<em!O a !¯a m mg
oa>e mHJ>> a.
4. |'e>µaCeC¯al! d d ¯O! ' eave!'eg|Ou¤d.
5 . Ca¤d da!e>!'Oug'! !'eyve¯e>ee ¯g µ' ame!
ca¯!' !'¯OJg'!'e>µaCeC|al!>v ¤dOv>
6. |¯OdJCe|> 'ad exµeC!ed !'e 'Oax!O
vO|<µe|leC!'y.
Some participants on
7. Answer the questi ons.
I . ' ¤ v'a!vay 'a>!e' ev > OmC'amged> mCe I JJJ`
2. ¬Ovd d!'e µ|OduCe|> ¤a<e!'eoa>e>ee¤' <e
'!a¯ C !y`
3 . ¬Ov d d!'e COm!e>!a¯!>l mdOu!aoOJ!!'e
'Oax`
4. \'yve¯e!'e µ>yC'O' Og Ca !e>!> ¤µO¯!a¯!lO|
!'e µ|Og¯a¤¤e`
5. ¬Ov d d!'eCOm!e>!a¯!>lee al!e¯!'eyve¯e
g vem!'eµ| ze`
8. Choose the best answer accordi ng to the text.
1'e v| !e¯lee >!'a! .
a !'e 'Oax>'Ou' d mO!'ave oee¯ >'Ovm
oeCaJ>e !va>C|ue
O. !'eµ| ze>g ve¯ !O !'eCO¤!e>!am!>ve¯e!OO
ge¯e¯OJ>
C. !'eCO¯!e>!a¯!>>'Ou' d¯O!CO¤µ' a ¯aoOJ!
!'e'Oax
d. ²e| ¬a>>e!!va>mO!a gOOdCamd. da!elO|!'e
µ¯Og|a¤¤e
9. Fi nd words or phrases i n the text that mean:
1 . CO¤¤u¤ Ca!ed, >OC a >ed|µa|ag¯aµ' 1 )
2 . age, ! ¤eµe|Od |µa¯ag¯aµ' I )
3 . ¤O O¯ge| ¤J>e|µa¯ag|aµ'3)
4. ¯>!eadOl|µa|ag¯aµ'4)
5 . deCe ved, lOOed |µa¯ag¯aµ'7)
• Do you thi nk it's acceptabl e for TV producers
to trick people as they di d i n Space Cadets?
Why or why not?
realit TV shows have become
i nternational celebrities.
In 1 999, ni ne Dutch volunteers took part in the T reality programme Big Brother. Moving to a
house where they were cut off from the world, they interacted under the gaze of live television
cameras 24 hours a day. Little did they know that the experimental programme they were in
would become an i nstant hit and begin a new era in televisi on. Back then, sitcoms and soap
5 operas used to be the mai n form of T entertai nment, but today viewers are used to the fact
that reality T takes up most broadcasti ng ti me.
Of all the reality shows, one of the most remarkable was Britain's Space Cadets. The twelve
candidates selected for thi s programme were tol d that they were goi ng to Star City, the
Russian training faci l ity for cosmonauts near Moscow. Four among them would have the
10 opportunity of a lifeti me: to fly to outer space.
Rather than Russia, however, the contestants were taken to a disused mi l itary base in the
south-east of Engl and. In order to make the shor flight seem long, producers told the pilot to
fly in circles over the Norh Sea for four hours before l andi ng. The base, manned by actors, had
been elaborately di sguised as a Russian faci l ity, down to details such as Russian light bul bs,
15 wal l sockets and cigarettes.
After two weeks of trai ni ng, all but four contestants had been kicked of the programme
and it was time for the space flight. The excited wi nners boarded a spacecraft taken from
a Hol lywood film set. Fake noises and vi brations accompanied the "take-off" . In pl ace of
windows, the cockpit had di gital screens which projected images of outer space, compl ete
20 with beautiful views of planet Earth. lt was the most elaborate hoax in television history.
The hi gh point of the five days in space was to be a spacewal k. The partici pants left the craft
one by one to step out into space; i nstead, they stepped into a T studio set, where they were
greeted by friends and family who told them that they had never really left England.
Even the producers were surprised at how well the hoax had worked.
25 One reason may have been the psychological tests in the
selection process. These were designed especially to
pinpoint candi dates who were very gul l i ble and therefore
l i kely to believe whatever they were told.
To soften the blow, the finalists were given prizes
3o of £25, 000 each and a trip to the real Star City
in Russia. Despite thi s, it was hard for them
to get used to the idea that they had been
tricked. When presenters asked twenty-five­
year-old Keri Hassett if she was upset, she
35 admitted that she was heartbroken. She
explained that space travel had always been
her chi l dhood dream. Was the hoax cruel?
Perhaps. But anyone volunteering for a
reality show knows that they may be in for
40 some surprises. it's all part of the game.
Fa lse fri ends
instant ( l i ne 4) means inmediato not instante
facilit ( l i ne 9) means instalaci6n not facilidad
Unit 9
104
VOCAULAY
Words from the Text
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
1 . Replace the words in bold in each sentence
with a word or words of si mi l ar meani ng
below.
greet • contestant • hoax • hi gh poi nt
cut off • pi npoi nt • remarkabl e • take up
1 . \n C¯ parti ci pa nt vOm! ¯ega¤e`
2. ' !'> ¯a|d !Oi denti fy exactl y v¯ Cn µeOµ' ewi l l
oegOOdIO|!¯e] Oo.
3. S¯e!O d J>aoOJ!n >amazi ng µa m! ¯g>.
4. 1¯e>e!ao e> use !OO0uC¯>µaCe.
5. 1¯e HHC OmCe a¯¯OumCed!na!>µagne!! g¯Ov>
Om !¯ee>, ou! !va> a tri ck.
6. 1¯ey a' vay>wel come !¯e | gue>!>va¯0 y.
7 . 1¯ecl i max OI n >Ca¯ee¯va> !neCOmCe|!!Ou¯ ne
gave ¯ 1 994.
8. 1¯eyve¯eseparated I¯O0 !¯e ¯Ia0 e> du| mg
!ne>!O¯0.
2. For each sentence begi nni ng in I, fi nd the best
conti nuati on in 1 1 . Pay attention to the words
in colour.
1 . ¬e CO' ' eC!ed n >' uggage
2 . 1ney>e¯ved d¯ m<> !O !¯eµa>>e¯ge|>
3 . 1ne| udge>deC ded!O
4. ¬eµaC<ed a' ' n >!¯ mg> ¯ oOxe>
5. 1n >µ|Og¯a00e >¯ ! ¯eCO|ded. ' !'> Om
6. NOO¯e¯eCOgm >ed ¯ 0
7. YOu' ' ' ¯eed a adde| mO|de|!O
8. \¯e¯n >g ¯' l¯ emd 'el! n ¤,
9. ¬evem!!O>eve¯a d IIe|em!>C¯OO >
11
a. oeIO¯e ¯e moved.
o. aI!e|!neµ' a¯enad l anded.
C. oeCau>e ¯e naddi sgui sed hi msel f.
d. C¯a¯ge!¯e l i ght bul b.
e. d ¯eC!'yaI!e|take-off.
I. ne was heartbroken.
g . ki ck ¯ 0off !neµ¯Og¯a¤0e.
¯ . du¯ ¯gn >chi l dhood.
1 . l i ve T.
USED TO I BE USED TO I
GET USED TO
Used to descri bes repeated past acti ons that no
l onger occur. l t a l so descri bes somet hi ng that i s no
l onger tr ue .
People used to watch sitcoms every day
Sitcoms used to be ver popular.
Be used to means to be a ccustomed to somet hi ng.
Viewers are used to reality T
Get used to means to become accustomed to
somethi ng.
it was hard for them to get used to the idea.
� Grammar Appendix, page 1 30
3. Choose the correct answer.
1 . \nem ' va> yOumg, I used to I was used to µ ay
!¯eµ a¯O.
2 ¬e¯¯ <CO0e>I¯O0 Svede¯,>O¯e i sn't used to I
i sn't getti ng used to ¯O! vea!¯e|
3 . Ou¯ ¯ev !eaC¯e|'>aCCe¯!is ¯a¯d !O umde¯>!a¯d,
ou!ve are used to I are getti ng used to !
4. '!va>al!e|¤ dm gn!, ou!'va>¯ !! |ed. ' was
used to I got used to a!e¯ gn!>
5. I t' l l !a<e! 0e, ou!' ' ¤>u¯e yOu wi l l be used to I
wi l l get used to vea| mgg' a>>e>.
4.
1 .
2 .
3 .
4.
5.
6.
Compl ete the sentences with used to, be used
to or get used to, affirmative or negative.
YOuCam >ayvna!eve|yOuva¯!. ' C¯ ! C >¤.
Cn d¯em µ ay Ou!> de ¤O¯e !na¯!¯ey dO
!Oday.
Vy lee! ¯u|! I . . . . !¯e>e mev >¯Oe>
Vy¯evl a!0a!e >a o !>!¯amge. I ¯Oµe' Cam
¯e¯
Vy o¯O!ne¯ ' <e vege!ao e>, ou!¯Ov¯e
'Ove>!¯e0.
1ne|eva>a ' O!OlmO >eI|O0!ne>!|ee!, ou!ve
!al!e|a vn ' e.
� 5. Compl ete the passage with the correct form of
used to, be used to or get used to. There may
be more than one correct answer. Then l i sten
and check your answers.
TV - Has lt Seen Better Days?
Yea.¯ agO, I . . . . . . . . e¤|Oy va!c' ¤g ¯ !cO¤¯ a¤d dê
O¤ T. cve¯y ¯ea¯O¤, T ¯!JdO¯ ¯ .. . . . µ|OdJce
µ¯Og¯a¤¤e¯v !' lJ¤¤yla¤ e¯, c eve¯ de!ec!ve¯ a¤d C
c¯ea!J¯e¯ l¯O¤ O!'e¯ µ a¤e!¯. NOv, I ¯! ca¤! '
lac! !¯a! ¤O¯! µ¯Og|a¤¤e¯ a¯e |ea !y ¯¯Ov¯ I . . . .. ¯e·
µ¯Ole¯¯ O¤a ac!O¯¯ O¤ !¯e ¯c¯ee¤, ¤O! O¯d ¤a¯y µeO�
¯JµµO¯e !'a! eve¤!Ja y I 5· . . . !, oJ! I ¯! !' ¤
` . . . oe oe!!e|!¯a¤ ! >¤Ov.
¹P �'`'³���!Y
ENTERTAINMENT
1 . In your notebooks, write the words below i n
two groups: words related to fi l m and words
related to TV.
box-office hit • soa p opera • vi ewers
sequel • to broadcast • to screen
channel • audi ence • network • si tcom
2. Are the fol l owi ng statements true or fal se?
Correct the fal se statements.
1 . 1ne characters a|e Ine µeOµ' e m a l ' 0.
2 A revi ew >v¯ !Ie¯oy>O0eOmev¯O¯a>mOI
>ee¯I¯eI 0
3. 1¯ecast Ol a I 0 >I>d |eCIO¯
4. Suspenseful I 0>Ol!e¯ navea OI OIaC! Om.
5. A I 0I¯aI >worth seei ng >µ¯Ooao ya gOOd
l ' 0.
o. 1¯epl ot >Ine>!O|yOl v¯aInaµµe¯> ¯a l ' 0.
7. |¯esoundtrack Ola I 0 >!> d a Ogue
8. A dul l I. 0 >exC I ¯g!Ova!Cn.
3. Write the name of a fi l m or TV programme
whi ch:
I . sta rs yOJ ¯ IavOJ¯ !eaC!O|I aC!|e>>
2 >set i n am Jmu>Ja µ' aCe
3 . na> gO! a predictabl e e¯d mg
4. a ppeal s to Cn d¯e¯
5. ¯a>gO!la¯!a>I Cspeci al effects
o. yOJ Ie'! va> a l et-down
4. PHRASAL VERBS Match each phrasal verb i n
col our i n I to a correct defi niti on i n 1 1 .
I . A¯OJmd I . o 0 ' ' Omv eve|>tune i n IOIne
NaI O¯a' GeOg¯aµn CCnamme' eaCn vee<.
2 \ylavOJ| !e ¯ea' !y >¯Ovcomes on aI 5. 30.
3 . 1 C<e!>!OPhantom of the Opera J>ua' ' y
sel l out 0OmIn> madvamCe.
4. |¯eI ' 0 Changeling goes on IO¯Ove¯!vO
¯Ou|>
5. OJ|d¯a0a C uo >putti ng on a ¯ev>nOv.
1 1
a µe¯IO¯0 mgO|O¯gam > mg
o. a I¯e! C<e!>a¯e >O' d
C. COmI ¯Je>
d. >Ia|I>!O oe o|OadCa>I
e va!Cn O¯ ' >!e¯
Find out about Wait Disney's life at:
rruu. 0urliiigloiì0ooIs.ts/t· icu¡oiii |s1
Unit 9
� 5. Compl ete the passage with the words and phrases
bel ow. Then l i sten and check your answers.
starri ng • set in • D¯ Oadca:t • sOumdtrack
character • vi ewers • networks • p' Ot
screened • tune i n
1he W/ zard
0J Uz
Ju t imagine that your favourite film i
on TV once a year. There\ no video or D\D
available, :o if you mi ,' i t, you' 1 1 ha\ e to \\ a It
till ne t year! Impos ible'? That'. the \a) it \\ a
for mi llions of • -• • - ••••~• who lo ed The h,ardof0-:.
¯ «•=««. -«. .. Judy Garland. This fi lm, À hich a fir. t
in the cinema in 1 939
,
became an all-ti me tele\ i. ion
favourite during the 1 960' . It was �- . ......... . every year b)
CBS, one of the three T .........•• that isted at the time.
Watching it was a big event, and families and neighbours
used to

. -~ . . and watch it together. The fil m is ..... .
Kan as, USA. Dorothy, the leading . . . .+
¸
-- · - , fe I her
life is tetTibl y boring. However, when she is sudden!)
transported to magical Oz by a torado, she r al i e_
how much she mL se home. People lo ed the
heartwarming ... - -
¸
.- as well as the great
Ì Û.
¸ ¸
¸¸
· ·
¸
·
¸
·
,
which had , ongs that e eryone knew
by heart.
• Compl ete the sentences. Make them true for
you.
I . |¯e ' a>I l ' 0 ' >avva>set in .
2 . ' >µem!>O0eI a ' Ol 0ychildhood m .
3 . ' d' <e !O oea contestant O¯
4. \ylavOu| Iesitcom u>ed IO oe . . .
5 . ' va>heartbroken v¯e¯
Vocabulary Builder, pages 94-95
ÜKN
1 06
REPORTED SPEECH
Read the exampl es and choose the correct
opti ons to compl ete the rul es.
Statements and Questi ons
a. "You are going 0 5tw , tomorrow, " they
told •iJe es. (dJ speec• )
T ¿ o c e ., de hat they were going to
Star Cty the next day. (reported speech)
b. "Space �rave has always been my dream, " said Kitty.
(direct speech)
Kitty said that space travel had always been her
dream. (reported speech}
c "Are you upset?" they asked Keri Hassett.
They asked Keri Hassett 1f she was upset.
d. "How did it feel to be a victim of this hoax?"
people wondered.
Peorte wondered how it had felt to be a victim of
that noax.
1 . I n reported statements, we add jdon' t add
t he word that.
2. I n reported statements a nd questi ons, we
move jdon' t move the verb back i n t i me when
t he report i ng verb I S 1 n t he past.
3. I n reported statements a nd qu esti ons, we
change j don' t change pronouns, possessi ve
determi ners, t i me expressi ons a nd words such
as here, this, these.
.I n Yes/No jWh - qu esti ons, we beg i n the
reported q u esti on wi th the words i f or
whether.
Orders and Suggesti ons
a. "Fly in circles, " the producers told the pilot.
The producers told the pilot to fly in circles.
b. "Don't talk to anyone in the show, " they ordered us.
They ordered us not to talk to anyone in the show.
L "Let's watch the new reality show, " suggested Amy.
Amy suggested watching /that we watch the new
reality show
1 . I n reported orders, we use the Past Si mpl e j
i nfi n i ti ve.
2 I n negati ve reported orders, we use not to j
don't before t he ma i n verb.
3. I n reported suggesti ons, the reporti ng verb
can jcan 't be fol l owed by a ger und or that +
subject + base form.
1 . Choose the correct answer.
1 . " ' dOm' IvaIC¯ ¯ea' Iy1V, " C' a 0ed 0yIaIne¯.
\y laI¯e¯C a 0edI¯aI ¯e di dn't watch I
hadn't watched ¯ea Iy1V
2 . " ' ' 0' eav ¯gIOv¯ IO0O¯¯Ov, " deC a¯ed Ga¯y
Ga¯y deC' a¯edInaI¯ehad l eft I was l eavi ng
IOvmIne¯exIday
3. " YOu Ca¯ > Ine¯e, " Ineva Ie¯>a d
|¯eva Ie¯>a dI¯aIvewoul d si t I coul d si t
Ine¯e.
4. " ' ve >ee¯ oOInOl Ine>el 0>, " CO0µ a med cve.
cveCO0µ' a ¯edI¯aI>nesaw I had seen oOIn
OII¯O>eI 0>
5 " ' ' ' >nOvyOu nOvIOdOyOu¯ µ¯O]eCI, " >a dI¯e
IeaCne¯
1neIeaC¯e¯>a dI¯aI>newoul d show I wi l l
show u>nOvIO dOOu¯ µ¯O¡eCI
6. ¬Om¯yIO d 0e, "1¯e¯eva>a gOOd l 0O¯
C¯a¯me' 4 a>I ¯ g¯I. "
¬Om¯yIO' d 0e InaII¯e¯e had been I has been
a gOOdl 0Om C¯a¯¯e 4 I¯em g¯IoelO¯e.
2. In addi ti on to the verb tenses, each sentence
i n Exercise 1 above has got at least one more
change. Find al l the changes.
²c²0RT \GVcRBS

When reporti ng
what someone says, we shoul d use reporti ng verbs
that refl ect the si tuati on and the i ntenti on of the
speaker. For exampl e, complain, admit, explain,
mention, announce, warn, order, suggest.
My parents complained that I watched too much T
3. Change the sentences to reported speech.
1 . "|¯eI C<eI>a¯e >O d OuI, " I¯eCa>¯ e¯a¯¯OumCed
1¯eCa>¯ e¯a¯mOumCed . .
2 . " ' 0u>Ig OnO0eea¯ yIO¯ gnI, " >a dG¯aCe
G¯aCe >a d . . .
3. " ' >avyOu¯O' dl¯ e¯d'a' ' yye>Ie¯day, " >a d! 0IO
¯ >> >Ie¯.
J 00e¯I O¯ed . . .
4. NaI¯a¯>a d, " ' >O0eI 0e> C¯eaI mexa0>. "
NaIna¯ ad0 IIed . . .
5 . " ' ' ' CO0ea¯d>eeyOu mexIvee<, " >a d0y g¯a¯d'ë
\yg¯amdIaI¯e¯ mIO¯0ed u> . .
6. " YOu ¯e oOIne¯ mg0e v InIn >avIu' 0u> C, "
>a d n >> >Ie¯.
¬ >> >Ie¯CO0µ' a med . . .
El presentador le pregu nto a Keri si el engaio ha bi a
si do cruel .
The preserJter askPd ken t t the hoa. had ter
cruel. .
NOT The presenter asked Ken tf had the hoax been
cruel. X
4. Change the questi ons to reported speech.
Use the reporting verbs wondered, enquired
and wanted to know i n some of your
sentences.
1 . " .O yOu <e!n ¯< ¤dOlI ¤` " n ¯ l¯ e¯d a¯<ed .
2. " \¯e¤d d!¯eI ¯¯!Shrek l ¤CO¤eOJ! ` " ve
a¯<ed .
3 . " Ha¯ ²e ¯a ²m gn! ey aC!ed i n amyl ¤¯ a!e' y` "
I a¯<ed
4 " \¯e¯e ¯ ¯¯egO mg!O ' ve mex!yea¯ ¹ " ¤y
µa|em!¯a¯<ed.
5 " Ca¯yOJ ¯e µ ¤e ¤Ove !¯e¯e!ao e¯mOv` "
a¯<ed ¤y !eaC¯e¯.
6. " . d yOu va!C¯ !na! mev µ|Og¯a¤¤e a¯!
m g¯!` " JO¯ a¯<ed.
5. Change the fol l owi ng orders and suggesti ons
to reported speech. There may be more than
one correct answer.
1 . " He µO !e ' "
\y¤O!¯e¯va|¯ed ¤e . . .
2 . " .Om !¯v ¤ ne|e ' "
1ne legua|d O|de¯ed J¯ . . .
3 . " ce!¯ gO!O!neC ¯e¤a. "
²ev m¯Jgge¯!ed
4 " 1a<e!n ¯¤ed C. ¯e. "
\y dOC!O¯ m¯ ¯!ed . . .
5 . " .Om !IO¯ge!!¯eexa¤ !O¤O¯¯Ov. "
Ou¯ !eaC¯e¯¯e¤ ¯ded u¯ . . .
6. " \¯ydO¯! ve ¯e µcadv !n!¯e¯nOµµ ¯g` "
\yo|O!ne|¯Jgge¯!ed !na! . .
7 . " YOu¯¯OJ' dgOOma d e! . "
\y g ¯' I| emdadv ¯ed n ¤ . . .
8. " ¬OvaoOJ!gO mg!O 1u|<eylO¯!¯e¯J¤¤e¯ ` "
.ave¯ugge¯!ed
� 6. Compl ete the passage with the correct form
of the verbs i n brackets. Then l i sten and check
your answers.
Unit 9
I-LL IÒ11S, 1HL ^LW 1-LL^1
Who would hme bel i �\ ed thJt -hL.bb� . �mddl e-aged
Paul Potts would Ni n the rea, J t� T\ --ompeti tiOn
Britain 's Got Talent? \hen he came on t ..ge and
tol d the judges that he ( si ng 1 opera for
them, they admi tted they ' . . . . ( expect )
a total nop. But then Paul began to si ng
and they were amazed. Hi s voi ce was
magni ficent! As he conti nued. the
audience went wil d: many had tears
i n thei r eyes. After the show.
i n ten iewers asked Paul
(tel l ) them about
himself. He sai d
that he (be)
a mobi l e phone
salesman wi th
no mone) and very l i ttle
confidence. But that has al l
changed. He has given concerts
al l over the world and sold over
two mi l l i on copies of his new CD.
I n a recent i ntervi ew. reporters
asked whether hi s fi nanci al
si tuation ' ( i mprove) si nce
win ni ng. He tol d them that thi ngs .. . . . . . . .
( be) much better. He expl ai ned that he
- --· - - « - (qui t) hi s job as a salesman and
(can) now devote his l ife
enti rel y to music.
Grammar Review
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
7. Rewrite the followi ng sentences usi ng the
words i n brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal
meani ng.
1 . " .OyOJ ve ¯!n ¯me gnoOu¯nOOd` " !ne
µO Ce¤a¯a¯<ed¤e. |v¯e!¯e|)
2 . 'e¯ ¯aµ¯ A¯¯e¤ ¯¯ed !¯e !¯a ¯ | ¤. gn!)
3. ¬Ov ¤a¯y Camd da!e¯v !ne¡ Jdge¯ aCCeµ!`
|oy)
4. ¬e ' ' dO!ne¡Oo ' Ive µay n ¤. | u¯ e¯¯)
5. 1neyvea ¯eadyCO' ' eC!ed a' ' !¯e ' ¯lO¯¤a! Om.
|oee¯)
6. "I Ce' eo¯a!ed ¤yo ¯!ndayye¯!e|day, "
am¯OumCed!¯e !! eg ¯ . |!¯a!)
Ext ra gr a mma r exer c i s es a t :
h' lI' lI¹ . 0II r l i n g l o n 0oo s cs o/l! ls |
� SKILLS
108
LISTENING �
=+ »+ = +- « - « ·- = = .+ = + - +
FILM REVIEWS
1 . When you deci de on a fi l m to see, whi ch of the fol l owi ng
i nfl uences your deci si on?
I . l¯ e¯d> |eCO00e¯daI' O¯> 3. v eve¯> CO00e¯I>O¯!'e ' ¯Ie|¯eI
2 . l ' 0 ¯evev> 4. µO>Ie|>, adve¯!> a¯dI¯a ' e¯>
2. You are going to hear three film reviews on the radi o. Listen and ti ck the
poi nts menti oned i n each review. What has been omitted from each review?
I . 1¯e AC! ¯g
4. AJd e¯CeAµµea
5. HeCO00e¯daI O¯
Revi ew A Revi ew B
The Dark
Revi ew C
3. Listen to the reviews agai n. As you l i sten, take notes of the positive and negative poi nts
i n each fi l m. Compare your notes wi th a partner's.
• Do you thi nk that fi l m critics have an effect on whether a fi l m i s successful ? Why or why not?
SPEAKING
MAKING PLANS
1 . Read the di al ogue bel ow. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng do the speakers agree
on i mmediatel y? What do they disagree about at fi rst?
I . v¯a! day!O gO!OI¯eC me¤a
z v¯a!l ¤ !O >ee
3 . v¯aI ! ¤e!O gO
Larry: H , .e|e< .OyOJ va¯! !O gO!O a I ¤!O¯ g¯!·
Derek: Sorry, I can't make i t. ve gO!a¯exa¤ IO¤O¯¯Ov a¯d ve |ea ' y gO!
!O>IJdy How about !O¤O|¯Ov ¯ g¯I`
Larry: \e , I va> gO ¯g!O aC!Ja y, that woul d be fi ne. \¯aIdOyOJ
lee' <e >ee mg`
Derek: \e' , I ' m dyi ng to see Australia. I Ove N CO' e ². d¤a¯
Larry: O¯, ¯O' YOJ <¯Ov I can't stand ¯ >!O| Ca I ' ¤>
Derek: 1¯e¯what do you suggest?
Larry: .e!> >ee . v¯a!gOOd l ' ¤>a¯e O¯` O¯, <mOv' Why don't we >ee
The Eye?
Derek: I ' m not real l y i nto ¯O¯¯O|I ¤>, oJ!. . .
Larry: ²¯ >!e¯ >av ! amd>¯e Oved ! '¯eCOJ dm! >!Oµ!a < ¯gaoOJ! I.
Derek: I ' d rather see Yes Man. J ¤Ca¯¯ey >a' vay>I J¯
Larry: ¬ey, that's a good i dea ! I woul dn't mi nd >ee mg!¯a! \¯e¯> !
>¯Ov mg`
Derek: .e!>>ee !> O¯ a! 7. 30 a¯d9. 00. How about 9. 007
Larry: Al l ri ght. Let's meet a!8. 30.
Derek: Fi ne. 'eeyOJ!¯e¯.
2. Look at the expressi ons i n col our i n the di al ogue above.
Di vi de them i nto three functi ons:
• \a< ¯g>Jgge>I O¯>
• He>µOmd ¯g!O >Jgge>! O¯>
• cxµ|e>> mg µ¯ele|emCe>
3. With your partner, make plans for the weekend. Discuss the poi nts
bel ow. Make sure you di sagree on at least two poi nts before you
come to an agreement. Use the expressi ons in col our in Exercise 1 .
• v¯e|e !O gO I v¯a!!OdO

!¯edaya¯d! ¤e
• v¯Oe' >e IO ¯v !e
ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING
When you want to say "no" to a suggestion, be
tactful . Use the fol l owi ng expressi ons:
I ' d rather not . . . I ' m not rea l l y i nterested i n . . .
I ' m not keen on . . . I have a nother i dea . . .
Burlington Speech Trainer, Unit 9
Uni t 9
� w«..
110
A Film Review
1. Read the fi l m review bel ow. What positive thi ngs does the reviewer say about the fi l m?
What negative thi ngs does the reviewer say?
.|'!I.II.
Australia is a romantic, acti on-adventure fil m di rected
by Baz Luhrmann. Set in World War 11, it tells the story
of Lady Sarah Ashley (Ni col e Ki dman), an aristocratic
Engl i shwoman who i nherits an Austral i an cattle ranch, and
Drover (Hugh Jackman) , a rough l ocal cattl eman. As they
struggle to save the ranch, their rel ati onshi p eventual l y
changes from mutual di sl i ke to passionate l ove.
This is an epic fil m whi ch has everythi ng - hi story and
raci sm, action, war and romance, as wel l as beautiful
scenery. Both Ki dman and Jackman give bri l l i ant
performances, but the real star i s Brandon Waiters, who
plays the Aborigi nal boy that Sarah fghts to adopt. On
the negative si de, the fi l m is very l ong, with stereotyped
characters and a predictabl e plot.
Despite its faults, Australia i s a film wel l worth seei ng. Just
sit back and relax for this l arger-than-l i fe experience.
2. A film review can i ncl ude any of the fol l owi ng. Whi ch are i ncl uded in the review above? In whi ch
paragraph are they menti oned?
1 . ¯a¤e¯ OI!¯e ¤a ¯aC!O¯¯ a¯d d ¯eC!O| 5 . µO¯ !ve amd ¯ega! vea¯µeC!¯OI !¯e l ' ¤
2 . ge¯e¯a ¯eCO¤¤e¤da! Om¯ 6. CO¤µa¯ ¯Om!OO!¯e|l ¤¯oy!ne¯a¤ed |eC!O¯
3 . de¯C¯ µ! O¯Ol!¯e µ O! 7 . !yµeOll ' ¤
4. vna!age!¯el ¤ ¯¯u' !ao elO¯ 8. qJa !yOI!¯eaC! mgI ¯µeC a eIIeC!¯I µ¯O!Og¯aµ¯yI ¯Ou¯d!¯aC<
WRITING REVIEW
3. You have l earned the fol lowi ng writi ng ski l l s in this book. Read sentences 1 -8. Each sentence
contai ns one error. Match the error to the wri ti ng ski l l , then correct the error.
punctuati on • connectors of sequence • word order • adjecti ve order
connectors of addi ti on and contrast • connectors of cause and resul t • reference
connectors of purpose
1 . 1¯evO¤a¯ ' ¯ !neµ C!u|e ¯ad o ue oeau! lu' eye¯
2. ªymev] Oo ' ¯¤O¯e ¯!e¯e¯! mg !¯a¯ ¤yO d O¯ede¯µ !e !¯e¯a' a|y ¯' Ove¯.
3 . Ou¯ !eaCne¯gave!O u¯ !ne¯e¯u' !¯OI!ne!e¯!
4. 1¯e¯e!¯OJ¯e|¯ a|e gO¯geOJ¯ ' d ' <e !O!|y !Om.
5 . \e' |e !a< ¯g!neou¯¯O!na!!O¯aveOm µe!¯O
6. '¯egO! ¯! neCa¯!J|¯ed!ne <ey¯!a¯!ed !nee¯g mea¯dd|Ove Oll
7 . I va¯d ¯aµµO m!ed dJe!O I gO!a Ov ¤a¯<lO¯ ¤ye¯¯ay
8. Hele a¯ eeµ¯eve¯a !' ¤e¯du¯ ¯gneva¯!¯ave mgOm!ne !¯a ¯
w iti g Guiie, pages 1 48-1 49
4. Rewrite the fol l owi ng sentences usi ng the words
in brackets. Do not change the ori gi nal meani ng of
the sentences.
1 . !¯e! ' ¤¯ad a !am\a¯! CCa¯!. 1¯e¯eÍO¯e, \va¯am
m¯!am! ¯ !. ( dJe!O)
2 . A d |eC!O|l ma ' y mOI Ced ¯e¯ aC! mg!a em!amdgave
ne|a |O' e. ( mI¯e emd)
3. · ea¯ea¯< HOoamd!Oe I!¯ ¯ C. oe Omg¯IO
!¯e¤. (!¯e |)
4. Sµa m ¯ ¤uC¯va¯¤e¯Inam cmg' amd oeCaJ¯e !¯
Ia|!¯e¯¯Ou!n. ( COm¯eqJem!'y)
5 YOJ| I'a! ¯o gge|InamO0|¯ 'm add I Om, !¯ gO!
¤O¯e g¯! ( a' ¯O)
6. c ¯!em Ca|elJ' y¯O !¤a!yOJ ' |e¤e¤oe ¯e¯
d |eC! Om¯. (¯Oa¯!O)
7. \O¯!OI !¯e I ¤e ¯e¯ oOyI¯ emd ¯!OO! ¯ed !O gOOJ!.
(OI!em)
8. .e¯µ !e I¯elaC!!¯aI !¯ mO!yOu¯ o ¯!¤day, ¤g. v mg
yOu a µ¯e¯em!. (Neve¯!ne' e¯¯)
5. Fi nd ei ght errors in the passage and correct them.
1O| \AHªS 'OH ¬cH\' ONc
cve|yOme <mOv¯!na! ¬a¯¯y |O!!e|¯ gOOd l¯ emd,
¬e¯¤ Ome, ¯ve¯yC' eve¯amd <mOv¯ a vay¯!neam¯ve¯¯
!O qJe¯I Om¯aoOu! ¤ag C |¯e mev¯ ¯Ina!c¤¤a
\aI¯Om, I¯e H| I ¯¯yOJmgaC!|e¯¯vnOµ' ay¯ ¬e|¤ Ome,
¯amex!|e¤e yC eve¯¯IudemIa¯ve . NOv 1 8 yea¯¯ O d,
µeOµ' enavea¯<ed¯Ov¯¤ed d ¯Ove m ¯e¯ A·' eve ¯`
\¯em¯¯egOI¯e¯ ¯e¯J !¯, ¯neva¯I¯¯ eda¯a ¯e¯J !Ol
¯e¯ µa|em!¯amdIeaCne|¯ve|eve¯yµ¯OJdOl ¯e| \¯aI¯
a0az mg ¯ !na!¯¯e¤a¯Ol!em oeem J mao' e!O aIIemd
¯C¯OO lJ' ' ·I ¤e oeCaJ¯e ¯e¯ aCI mgCa|ee|. .u¯ mg¯ne
va¯ m¯e¯ a¯!yea¯ a!¯C¯OO' , IO¯exa¤µ e, ¯ne
Om yvem!IO ¯C¯OO OmCe a vee<. c¤¤a ¯
de!e¯ ¤ med !O COm! mJe¯ ¯ edJCa! Om,
de¯µ !eI¯eIaCI!¯a!¯neCe|!a m' y
dOe¯m ! meed!O ¯!0dylO| IO nave
a Ca¯ee¯.
Emma Watson plays the voice of
Princess Pea in The Tale of Despereaux.
Your Task
• Write a review of a fi l m you have seen.
Use 1 00- 1 50 words.
WRITING YOUR REVIEW
1 . Brai nstorm your review.
•Thi nk of a fi l m you have seen and what
you l i ked I di dn't l i ke about it.
•Thi nk about the fol lowi ng questi ons:
· \¤a!!yµeOll ¤ ¯ !`
Unit 9
· ¯!¯e aC! mggOOd` ¬OvgOOd a¯e!¤eaC!O|¯
CO¤µa¯ed v I¯O!¯e¯ ¯O'e¯ !¯ey ¤ave µ ayed`
· ¯!¯eµ'O! m!e|e¯I ¤gamdexC ! mg, O¯oO¯ mg
a¤d µ¯ed C!ao e`
· ¯Oe¯¯¤eI ¤dea' v !¤amy ¤µO¯!a¤! ¯¯0e¯`
· . dyO0e¤¡Oy!¯e¯O0md!¯aC<`\e¯e !¯e¯e amy
¯µeCa elleC!¯`
· ' ¯!¤e l ' ¤a¤ adaµ!a! Om Ol a oOO<`
· \¤a!ad|eC!ve¯ CO0' dde¯C¯ oe!¤el ¤ `
\¤OvO0' d!¯ ¯I ' ¤aµµea' !O`
\O0' dyOu ¯eCO¤¤emd!¤el ' ¤`
2. Organi se your i deas. Use the model on
page 1 1 0 and the pl an bel ow to hel p you.
PLAN
Openi ng: SIaIe !¯e ma¤eOl!¤el ¤, !¯e
!yµeOlI ¤, Ined ¯eC!O|, I¯e ¤a m
Cna|aCIe|¯, !¯e ead mgaC!O¯/¯ amd
I ne¯e!! mg. .e¯C¯ oe! neµ' O!.
Body: G veyOu¯ Oµ m Om Omva¯ OJ¯
a¯µeC!¯Ol!¯eI ¤.
Cl osi ng: G ve a geme¯a ¯eCO¤¤emda! Om.
3. Write a fi rst draft.
4. Use the checkl i st to check your work.
Then write a fi nal draft.
CHECKLIST
/ ]¡:||:»eøthµ|�a¡c� {|mce«ie».
/ ] ue ::m�t:c: �mtime »:cø:
c:ccect|y .
/ ] ue c:ccect »:cø : cøec �m
cçecemi� »:cø:.
/ ] ue � «�ciety :¡�ø;eti«es.
/ ] cmckcø¸c�m�c, :µe||i� �m
µumtti:Jl ,,

5K!LL5
USI NG ENTERTAI NMENT GUI DES

You are goi ng to use an entertai nment gui de to pl an a day i n New York Ci ty (NYC).
Look at the adverts and map and answer the Task Questi ons bel ow.
. ve
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b\
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A
MAMMA�
Over 32 mi l l i on peopl e al l
around the worl d have fal l en
i n l ove wi th the characters, the
story and the musi c of
MAMMA MI A!
Great performances together wi th
the magi c of ABBA"s songs.
B
Wi nter Garden Theatre
1 634 Broadway, corner 50th St
PHANTOM OF THE OPERA
Now cel ebrati ng 20 years as
Broadway's Most Haunt1ng
Love Story
The l ongest-runni ng musi cal
i n Broadway hi story and an
i nternati onal phenomenon.
The Majestic Theatre
247 West 44th Street
• TASK QUESTI ONS
¬ ¹

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19 bÍ
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• Zö b\

uu££N8 V
vi0t0wN
1uNN£L
ca! ¤g
O0!
L OMBARDI ' S
America's fi rst pizzeria . . .
M s :e 1 5.
Onl y the fi nest i ngredi ents
Sti l l fresh and del i ci ous
after 1 00 years 1
32 Spri ng St, near Mulberry Street
I aly
in New York City!
Authentic food
Great service
Low pri ces
1 7 Matt St, near Mosco St
C matow

Ñ
1 . Look at the subway l i nes i n col our. How many di fferent l i nes are shown on the map?
2. You are stayi ng at the Jazz Hostel . Fi nd it on the map. Whi ch subway stati on i s i t the cl osest to?
3. You' d l i ke to see a musi cal . Look at adverts A and 8 from a NYC Entertai nment Gui de and deci de whi ch
show you' d rather see. Then use the map to fi nd the best subway route there from your hostel . Whi ch i s
the cl osest stati on to the show?
4. You' d l i ke to go out to eat after the show. Look at adverts C and D and deci de where you'd rather eat.
Then use the map to fi nd the best subway route from your show. Whi ch i s the cl osest stati on?
• USE YOUR SKI LLS
Use the I nternet to fi nd a touri st site that you woul d l i ke to vi si t in New York Ci ty.
Use a map to pl an your subway route from the Jazz Hostel .
OÞN 1ÎÎLlLÎ7
Í . Faces
PRESENT SIMPLE
FORM
Afñrmatìvc Ncgativc Intcrrogativc
' j You work ' j You do not (don't) work Do ' j you work?
He I She l i t works He I She l i t does not (doesn't) work Does he I she I i t work?
We I You I They work We |You I They do not (don't) work Do we I you I they work?
Uscs Examplcs Advcrbs ofñcqucncyI Tìmccxprcssions
A regul ar habi t or routi ne My sister works on Sundays. al ways, usual l y, general ly, regul a rly,
( Mi hermana trabaja I os occasi onal ly, frequently, often, someti mes,
domi ngos.)
rarel y, sel dom, never
A general truth or sci enti fi c fact Facebook is a popular website.
at I o' cl ock, at ni ght, i n the mor ni ng,
on Fri days, every week, once a month,
( Facebook es una pagi na web de
how often . . . ?
moda. )
Stati ve verbs I think she is very bossy
(Creo que es muy mandona. )
FORMA
Afi rmativa : es i gual que l a forma base del verba ( el
i nfi n i ti vo si n to) . excepto en l a 3' persona del si ngul ar,
que termi na en -s o -es.
Para formar correcta mente l a 3' persona del si ngul ar hay
que tener en cuenta l as si gui entes regl as ortogrcfi cas
segu n l a termi naci 6n del verba:
• En -o, -ss, -sh, -eh o -x a rade -es: do - does,
miss - misses, wish - wishes, touch - touches, fix - fixes.
• En vocal + y a rade -s: say - says.
• En consonante + y cambi a l a y par i a ntes de a nad i r
-es: tr ¯ tries.
Negativa : sujeto + do not (don't), o does not (doesn't)
para la 3' persona del si ngul a r + forma base del verba.
l nterrogativa: do o does + sujeto + forma base del
verba.
Recuerda que have got, to be y I os verbos modal es
no necesi tan el a uxi l i ar do I does en negativa ni
i nterrogati va.
us os
• Con acci ones habi tual es o ruti nas.
• Con hechos general es o ci entfficos.
• Con I os verbos "estati cos" ( mi ra en l a pagi na ¹ I 4¦
¬ Con hora ri os y progra mas.
The train leaves at 4 o'clock. ( El tren sa l e a I as 4.¦
Los adverbi os de frecuenci a va n del a nte del verba
pri nci pal , pero si se trata del verba to be se col oca n
detras.
He never recognises me. ( Nu nca me reconoce. )
Paul is always calm. ( Pa u l si empre esta tranqui l o. )
Las expresi ones tempora l es si empre va n al pri nci pi o o a l
fi nal de l a frase.
James uses his computer every day.
(James usa su ordenador todos I os d ias. )
Con how ofen ¤ ¤ ¤ ? se pregu nta con que frecuenci a se
hace al ga.
How ofen do you read? (lCon que frecuenci a l ees?)
+ l nd i ca usos adi ci ona l es a I os presentados en l as tabl as.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORM
AHrmaIivc NcgaIivc InIcrrogaIivc
I am si ngi ng I am ( I ' m) not si ngi ng Am I si ngi ng?
You are si ngi ng You are not (aren't) si ngi ng Are you si ngi ng?
He |She l i t i s si ngi ng He |She l i t i s not (i sn't) si ngi ng Is he |she | it si ngi ng?
We |You |They are si ngi ng We |You |They are not (aren't) si ngi ng Are we |you |they si ngi ng?
Uscs Examplcs Timc cxprcssions
An acti on whi ch i s ha ppeni ng now Greg is reading right now now, ri ght now, at the moment
(Greg esta l eyendo ahora mi smo. )
A tempora ry acti on I am studying maths this term. thi s yea r, at present
(Estoy estudi ando matemati cas este
today, these days, thi s month
semestre. )
A defi n i te pl an for the near fut ure I am meeting my boyfriend tonight. thi s eveni ng, toni ght, tomorrow,
( He quedado con mi novi o esta next Fri day |week |yea r
noche. )
FORMA
Afi rmativa: sujeto + am |i s |are + verba pri nci pal
termi nado en -i ng, si gui endo l as si gui entes regl as
ortografi cas segu n l a ter mi naci on de l a forma base del
verbo:
• En -e muda, pi erde la e : ride - riding.
• En -y, la manti ene: pay - paying.
• En -i e, cambi a ie por y: die - dying.
• En vocal + consonante ( monosi l abo) dobl a l a
consonante, excepto w y x: run - running,
show - showing.
• En
-
I o -p ( bi si l abo con acento I la no) dobl a esa l etra :
travel - travellingo
• En vocal + consonante ( bi si l abo con acento agudo) .
dobl a l a consonante: refer - referring.
Negativa: sujeto + am |is |are + not (o n't) + verbo
pri nci pal termi nado en -i ng.
l nterrogativa: am |i s |are + sujeto ¬ verbo pri nci pal
termi nado en -i ng.
usos
• Expresa r l o que esta pasa ndo en el momento en el que
se esta habl ando.
• Expresa r acci ones prol ongadas que esta n ocurri endo
en u n presente mas ampl i o.
• Expresa r l o que haremos con toda segu ri dad en u n
futuro proxi mo porque l o hemos fijado de a ntemano
¬ Con el adverbi o al ways, para denota r una quej a.
He is always shouting. (Si empre esta gri tando. )
� STATIVE VERBS
I nd i can u n estado mas que una acci on y suel en usarse en
Present Simple. Estan rel aci onados con :
• l as emoci ones y I os senti mi entos ( dislike, enjoy, hate,
hope, like, love, prefer, want) .
• el pensa mi ento y l a opi ni on ( believe, forget, guess,
know, remember, think, understand) ,
• la percepci on y I os senti dos ( feel, hear, see, smell,
sound, taste, touch) ,
• I os preci os y l as medi das ( cost, measure, weigh) y
• la posesi on ( belong, have, own) .
Al gunos i ndi ca n tanto estado como acti vi dad y pueden
usa rse en Present Simple y en Present Continuous.
Donna thinks the book is wonderful.
( Donna cree que el I i bra es estu pendo. ) [estado]
He is thinking about going to Malta in the summer.
(Esta pensa ndo en i rse a Mal ta en verano. ) [acti vi dad]
El verba see en Present Continuous i ndi ca una acci on
futu ra fijada de a ntema no.
We are seeing Ann tonight.
(Veremos a Ann esta noche. ) [Ya hemos quedado. ]
� PHRASAL VERBS
Son verbos segui dos de una o dos parti cul as
(preposi ci ones, adverbi os o una combi naci on de ambos)
con un si gn i fi cado d i sti nto del que cada pal abra ti ene
por separado.
Pueden ser transi tivos o i ntra nsi ti vos.
He didn't get to the appointment.
( El no l l ego a la ci ta. )
He set off on a long journey
( Parti o a un l argo vi aje. )
Grammar Appendix
|
La mayorfa de I os tra nsi tivos permi ten i nterca l ar el
compl emento di recto entre el verba y l a partfcul a: si
es un susta ntivo puede i r en medi a o no, pero si es
pronombre debe col oca rse entre a mbos.
I'm going to pick up my brother at the station.
(Voy a recoger a mi herma no a la estaci 6n. )
I 'm going to pick my brother up at the station.
I 'm going to pick him up at the station.
Si n embargo, a l gu nos tra nsi ti vos, todos I os i ntra nsi tivos
y I os formados par dos partfcul as son i nsepa ra bl es.
He is looking for his keys / them.
( Esta buscando sus l l aves jbusca ndol as. )
Z. Dan_cr |
PAST SIMPLE
FORM
AHrmaIivc NcgaIivc
Al gu nos verbos pueden combi narse con di ferentes
partf cul as para formar di sti ntos phrasal verbs.
get across ( hacer entender)
get by (a rreg l a rsel as, defenderse ( i di oma) )
get through (comu ni ca r(se))
Ademas, much os phrasal verbs ti enen mas de u n
si g ni ficado:
get into (entra r jmeterse e n ; afi ci onarse a)
turn up ( aparecer, presenta rse ; subi r (vol umen) )
turn down (rechaza r ; baj ar)
switch off ( apagar (tel efono) ; desconecta r(se))
Mi ra l a l i sta de phrasal verbs que hay en I as pag i nas
1 42- 1 43 pa ra ver mas casos.
InIcrrogaIivc
I jYou fi ni shed I |You di d not ( di dn't) fi ni sh Di d I jyou fi ni sh?
He jShe jl t fi ni shed He jShe | lt di d not ( di dn't) fi ni sh Di d he jshe ji t fi ni sh?
We jYou jThey fi ni shed We jYou jThey di d not (di dn't) fi ni sh Di d we jyou jthey fi ni sh?
..
Uscs ExampIcs Timc cxprcssions
. .
A compl eted acti on i n A shark attacked Or Ritter last year. yesterday, l ast week jyea r, two
the past (Un ti bur6n atac6 al doctor Ri tter el afo pasado. ) days ago, i n 2007, i n the 1 980s,
Fowler climbed the stairs and followed Ausable.
in the 1 8th century, when, then
A seri es of compl eted acti ons
¸i n the past (Fowl er subi 6 l as esca l eras y si gui 6 a Ausabl e.)
FORMA

Afi rmativa: Con I os verbos regu l a res se forma a fadi endo
-ed a su forma base seg un l as si gui entes reg l as
o rtog rafi ea s:
• En -e muda afade sol o l a -d . prove - proved.
• En vocal + y afade -ed : stay - stayed.
• En consonante + y ca mbi a l a y par i a ntes de afadi r
-ed: carry - carlied·
• En vocal + consonante ( monosf l abo) dobl a l a
consonante excepto w y x: stop - stopped, fix - fixed·
• En -1 o -p ( bi sf l abo con acento l l a no) dobl a l a
consonante: cancel - cancelled.
• En vocal + consonante ( bi sf l abo con acento agudo)
dobl a esta ul ti ma : prefer - preferred.
Los verbos i rregul a res, coma puedes ver en la l i sta de l as
pagi nas 1 44- 1 45, no si guen ni nguno de estos procesos.
Negativa : sujeto + di d not (o di dn't) + forma base del
verba pr i nci pa I .
l nterrogativa : di d + sujeto + forma base del verba
pri nci pa l .
..
usos
• Habl ar de acci ones acabadas que ocurri eron en u n
momento concreto d e l pasado.
• Expresa r acci ones consecuti vas del pasado.
¬ l ndi car que una acci 6n corta (i ntroduci da par when)
ocu rri 6 cuando otra mas l arga esta ba en proceso.
He was going home when the detective called him.
(Vol vfa a casa cuando el detecti ve lo l l a m6.)
¬ Descri bi r o conta r c6mo era n l as cosas en el pasado.
In the 7 9th century London was a dangerous city.
( En el si gl o XI X, Lond res era una ci udad pel i grosa. )
La expresi 6n tempora l ago se pone detras del peri odo de
ti empo i nd i cado y se traduce por " hace".
They left two hours ago. (Se fueron h ace dos horas. )

PAST CONTINUOUS
FORM
AfI¡rmativc Ncgativc Intcrrogativc
I was vi si ti ng I was not (wasn't) vi si ti ng Was I visiti ng?
You were visiti ng You were not (weren't) visiti ng Were you vi si ti ng?
He jShe l i t was vi si ti ng He jShe l i t was not (wasn't) visiti ng Was he jshe ji t vi siti ng?
We jYou jThey were visiti ng We jYou jThey were not (weren't) vi si ti ng Were we jyou jthey vi si ti ng?
!
Uscs ExampIcs ! Tìmccxprcssions
An i ncompl ete acti on in progress At 9 o'clock that evening, he was waiting for the report. l ast ni ght jweek j
at a speci fi c ti me i n the past (Esa noche a l as 9 esta ba espera ndo el i nforme. ) yea r, at 4o' cl ock
...................
An i ncompl ete acti on i nterru pted As I was speaking on the phone, Max entered the room. when, whi l e, as
by a nother acti on ( Mi entras yo habl aba por tel efono, Max entr6 en l a
habi taci 6n. )
Two i ncompl ete acti ons i n prog ress While the waiter was knocking on the door, Ausable was
at the sa me ti me i n the past telling me a secret.
( Mi entras el ca marero estaba l l amando a la puerta, Ausabl e
me estaba conta ndo u n secreta.)
FORMA
Afi rmativa : sujeto + was jwere + verbo pr i nci pal
termi nado en -i ng.
Negativa : sujeto + was jwere + not ( o n't) + verbo
pr i nci pal ter mi nado en -i ng.
l nterrogativa : was jwere + sujeto + verbo pri nci pal
termi nado en -i ng.
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
FORM
Afñrmativc Ncgativc
. ...L
usos
• Deci r l o que estaba ocurri endo en un momento concreto
del pasado.
• Expresa r que una acci 6n l arga estaba en proceso
cuando ocu rri 6 una corta. La l arga va precedi da de
whi l e o as y l a corta, de when.
• Expresa r que vari as acci ones ocu rrf an
si mu l ta neamente en el pasado. En este caso va n
u ni das por whi l e o as.
+ Con al ways i ndi ca mos que una acci 6n pasada nos
desag radaba por repeti da y mon6tona.
She was always telling jokes.
(Si empre estaba conta ndo chi stes.)
Intcrrogativc
1 1 You had arrived ' j You had not ( hadn't) arrived Had ' j you arrived?
He jShe l i t had arrived He jShe l i t had not ( hadn't) arrived Had he jshe ji t arrived?
We jYou jThey had arrived We jYou jThey had not ( hadn't) arrived Had we jyou jthey arri ved?
Uscs ExampIcs , Timc cxprcssions
A compl eted acti on whi ch took pl ace By the time the police arrived, he had al ready, by the ti me, after,
before a nother acti on in the past already lef. before, u nti l , never, j ust
(Pa ra cuando l l eg6 la pol i cia, ya se
habia marchado) .
FORMA usos
Afi rmativa: sujeto + had + parti ci pi o del verbo pri nci pa l .
Negativa: sujeto + had not ( o hadn't) + parti ci pi o del
verbo pr i nci pal .
• l nd i car que una acci 6n ocurri 6 a ntes que otra
expresada en Past Simple.
l nterrogativa: had + sujeto + parti ci pi o del verbo
pr i nci pa l .
: SUFI JOS PARA FORMAR ADJETIVOS
Los sufijos son termi naci ones que a radi mos a la ra iz o
l exema de l as pal abras para formar otras nuevas.
Estos son a l gunos de I os sufijos que se araden a nombres
y verbos para formar adjeti vos:
predict (predeci r) predictable ( predeci bl e)
nation ( naci 6n) national ( naci onal )
consider (consi derar) considerate (consi derado)
beauty (bel l eza) beautiful (boni to)
pain ( dol or) painless ( i ndol oro)
contempt (despreci o) contemptible (despreci abl e)
attract (atraer) attractive (atracti vo)
danger (pel i gro) dangerous ( pel i groso)
Con al gu nos susta ntivos se pueden usar va ri os
de estos sufi jos:
careful - careless harmful - harmless
o . Ùu Iur II |
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

FORM
AHrmaIivc NcgaIivc
Grammar Appendix
En cambi o, otros sol o admi ten uno:
homeless f ps - peaceful
Otros sufijos que arad i dos a verbos for man adj eti vos son
-ed e -i ng.
bore ( abu rri r) bored ( [est ar] aburri do)
boring ( [ser] abu rri do)
Cua ndo el adj eti vo termi na en -ed si gni fi ca que l a
persona o cosa a l a que se refiere experi menta o sufre un
efecto concreto, y cuando acaba en -i ng si gni fi ca que l a
persona o cosa a l a que se refiere ca usa d i cho efecto.
Jack is boring so I'm bored when I go out with him.
(Jack es aburrido, asi q ue me a burro cuando sal go con el.)
I nIcrrogaIivc
I |You have l i ved I |You have not ( haven't) l ived Have I |you l i ved?
He |She |i t has l ived He |She jl t has not (hasn't) l ived Has he |she |i t l ived?
We jYou jThey have l i ved We |You jThey have not (haven't) l i ved Have we |you |they l ived?
Uscs Examplcs Timc cxprcssions
An acti on that bega n in the past and cont i nues I have played basketball for two years. never, ever, a l ready, j ust, yet,
u nti l the present ( Li evo j ugando a l bal oncesto dos recently, l atel y, how l ong . . . ?,
aras.)
for, si nee, in recent yea rs
An acti on that took pl ace at an undetermi ned She has moved house recently
ti me in the past, but i s connected to the present (Se ha cambi ado de casa hace poco. )
FORMA
Afi rmativa : sujeto + have jhas + parti ci pi o del verba
pr i nci pal .
Negativa : sujeto + have |has + not (o n't) + parti ci pi o del
verba pri nci pal .
l nterrogativa : have jhas + sujeto ¬ parti ci pi o del verba
pri nci pal .
us os
• Con acci ones que empeza ron en el pasado y a u n
conti nuan. Por eso, a veces se traduce e l verba en
presente.
• Con acci ones pasadas cuyos efectos son vi si bl es
actu a l mente.
+ Con u na acci 6n que acaba de ocurri r. En este caso,
agrega mos just entre el a uxi l i a r y el parti ci pi o.
The athlete has just broken the world record.
(El atl eta acaba de bati r el record mu ndi a l . )
Never, ever, al ready y just se ponen entre el auxi l i ar
( have) y el parti ci pi o del verbo, mi entras que yet si empre
.
se col oca a l fi nal de la frase.
The match has already started.
(El parti do ya ha empezado. )
Have you seen the film yet?
(LYa has vi sta la pel icu l a?)
En afi rmati va usa mos just, never y al ready, en negativa
usa mos yet y ever, y en i nterrogativa al ready, ever, yet
y just.
I've never played football.
( Nu nca he j ugado a l futbol . )
She hasn't tried snowboarding yet.
(Todavi a no ha probado el snowboard.)
Haven't you ever watched the Olympics on TV?
(LNu nca has vista l as Ol i mpi adas en l a tel evi si on?)
The runner has just injured her leg.
(La corredora se acaba de l esi onar l a pi er na. )
.

·
Con how l ong . . . ? pregu ntamos cua nto ha durado l a
acci 6n o, si aun conti nua, cuanto ti empo ha pasado
desde que empez6.
How long have you trained for the competition?
((Cuanto ti empo has entrenado para l a competi ci 6n?)
For i ndi ca cua nto dur6 la acci 6n y si nce, cuando
empez6.
I have played volleyball for two years I since I was
a child.
( He j ugado al vol ei bol durante dos a ras jdesde que
er a u n ni ro.)
+. IanumarI·
FUTURE SIMPLE
AfIrmativc NcgaIivc
: PAST SIMPLE/ PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
El Past Si mpl e i ndi ca lo que ocu rri 6 en u n momento
concreto, mi entras que el Present Perfect Si mpl e si tua l a
acci 6n en u n peri odo de ti empo.
I paid for the tickets yesterday but I haven't collected
them yet.
(Pague l as entradas ayer, pero no l as he recogi do
todavi a. )
' j You wi l l al l ow ' j You wi l l not (won't) al l ow
!nIcrrogaIivc
Wi l l ' j you al l ow?
He jShe l i t wi l l al l ow He jShe l i t wi l l not (won't) al l ow
We jYou jThey wi l l al l ow We jYou jThey wi l l not (won't) al l ow
Uscs
A predi cti on
A pl a nned
sched ul e
A sponta neous
deci si on
FORMA
Examplcs
Dubailand will attract thousands of tourists.
( Dubai l and atraera a mi l es de tu ristas.)
The tour of Du bat will begin at 9.00 am.
(La vi si ta a Dubai empeza ra a l as 9 de l a marana. )
I am too tired to walk. I 'll take a taxi.
(Estoy demasi ado cansado para ca mi nar. Cogere u n taxi . )
usos
Wi l l he jshe ji t al l ow?
Wi l l we jyou jthey al l ow?
¯ ¯¯¯¯ ¯¯
Timc cxprcssions
thi s eveni ng, in an hour, at 2 o' cl ock,
l ater, tomorrow, next month jyear,
soon, i n a few weeks, i n the future,
on the 1 st of May
Afi rmativa: sujeto + wi l l (o ' 1 1 ) + forma base del verbo.
Negativa : sujeto + wi l l not (o won't) + forma base del
verba.
• Hacer pred i cci ones o a n u nci ar hechos futuros.
l nterrogativa: wi l l + sujeto+ forma base del verba.
• Habl ar de un hora ri o establ eci do.
• Expresa r una deci si on repenti na, es deci r, al go que
deci d i mos hacer mi entras esta mos habl ando.
Grammar Appendix
BE GOING TO
FORM
Afh rmativc Ncgativc I ntcrrogativc
I am goi ng to buy I am not goi ng to buy Am I goi ng to buy?
You are goi ng to buy You are not (aren't) goi ng to buy Are you goi ng to buy?
He jShe / i t i s goi ng to buy He jShe / i t i s not (i sn't) goi ng to buy I s he jshe ji t goi ng to buy?
we,'ou | \re¡ategetng\ehuy we,'ou | \re¡atene\�aten'\\getng\e huy Atewe ,,ea |:re, ge|ng\e huy¹
Uscs Examplcs Timc cxprcssions
A pl a nned acti on for the future We are going to spend our next holiday in Dubai. thi s eveni ng, l ater, i n
(Va mos a pasa r nuestras proxi mas vacaci ones en Duba i . ) an hour, at 4o' cl ock,
tomorrow, soon, next
An acti on that is a bout to ha ppen Be careful! You are going to fall! month jyear, in a few
(
i
Ten cui dado!
i
Vas a caerte ! ) weeks, on the 8th of May
FORMA
Afi rmativa : sujeto + am ji s jare ¬ goi ng to ¬ forma
base del verba pr i nci pa l .
�egativa : sujeto + am ji s jare + not ( o n't) goi ng to +
fdrma base del verba pri nci pal .
l nterrogativa: am ji s jare + sujeto + goi ng to + forma
base del verba pri nci pal .
us os
• Expresar i ntenci ones, pl anes y deci si ones sabre l o que
haremos en un futuro proxi mo.
• Deci r que al ga esta a punto de ocurri r porque hay
i ndi ci os de el l o.
FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE
FORM
AfIrmativc Ncgativc
� EL PRESENT CONTINUOUS CON
VALOR DE FUTURO
Anunci a acci ones fijadas de antemano que ocurri ra n
en el futuro proxi mo. Se suel e reservar para pl a nes
persona t es ya concertados.
No expresa una i ntenci 6n, coma be goi ng to, si no a l ga
que ha si do programado con antel aci on y que va a pasar
con seguri dad. Se d i sti ngue del Present Continuous
normal porq ue la expresi on tempora l que va en l a frase
i nd i ca un ti empo fut uro y no presente.
He is going to sign a contract next month.
(El va a fi rmar un contrato el mes que vi ene. )
[ i ntenci on]
He is signing a contract tomorrow.
(El firma jfi rmara un contrato marana. ) [ pl an concertado]
!nIcrrogativc
1 / You wi l l have eaten 1 / You wi l l not (won't) have eaten Wi l l I / you have eaten?
He jShe / i t wi l l have eaten He jShe / i t wi l l not (won't) have eaten Wi l l he jshe ji t have eaten?
We I You I They wi l l have eaten We jYou jThey wi l l not (won't) have eaten Wi l l we jyou I they have eaten?
Uscs Examplcs Timccxprcssions
A compl eted By the time Dubai runs out of oil, tourism will have become by thi s ti me next week, by 3 o' cl ock,
acti on at a certai n L major industry by the end of .. . , by then, by August,
future ti me
(Para cuando Dubai se quede si n petrol eo, el tur i smo se
i n four months
habra converti do en una i ndustri a muy i mportante. )
FORMA us os
Afi rmativa: sujeto + wi l l have + parti ci pi o del verba
pri nci pal .
• l nd i car que una acci on habra acabado en un momento
determi nado del futu ro.
Negativa: sujeto + wi l l not (won't) have + parti ci pi o del
verba pri nci pa l .
l nterrogativa: wi l l + sujeto + have + parti ci pi o del verba
pri nci pa l .
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
FORM
AfñrmaIivc NcgaIivc !nIcrrogaIivc
1 / You wi l l be travel l i ng I / You wi l l not (won't) be travel l i ng Wi l l 1 / you be travel l i ng?
He |She / l t wi l l be travel l i ng He |She / l t wi l l not (won't) be travel l i ng Wi l l he |she | it be travel l i ng?
We |You |They wi l l be travel l i ng We |You |They wi l l not (won't) be travel l i ng Wi l l we jyou jthey be travel l i ng?
Uscs Examplcs Timc cxprcssions
An acti on in progress at a certai n We'll be visiting Dubai this summer. at thi s t i me tomorrow, at thi s ti me next . . . g
fut ure ti me (Estaremos vi si ta ndo Dubai este on Thu rsday, in the next decade
vera no. )
FORMA : WANT + I NFI NITIVO /
Afi rmativa: sujeto + wi l l be + verba pri nci pal ter mi nado
en -i ng.
WANT + OBJETO + I NFI NITIVO
• Want + i nfi ni tivo: expresa el deseo de hacer a l ga.
Negativa: sujeto + wi l l not (won't) be + verba pri nci pal
termi nado en -i ng.
Joe wants to forget the terrible food i n the restaurant.
(Joe qu i ere ol vi da r la horri bl e comi da del resta u rante. )
l nterrogativa: wi l l + sujeto + be + verba pri nci pal
termi nado en -i ng.
• Want + objeto + i nfi ni tivo: expresa el deseo de que
otra persona hag a a I go.
us os
• Expresar l o que estara ocurri endo en un momento
determi nado del fut uro.
They want tourists to come to Dubai.
T �t tt tot1 1istse t O
(Ou i eren que I os tu ri stas vengan a Dubai . )
Recuerda que en estos casos es necesa ri o uti l i zar I os
pronombres objeto en vez de I os pronombres sujeto.
Do you want me to phone for help?
D y �} t p f ¬
(iOui eres que l l ame para pedi r ayuda?)
b. Speak ÚuI |
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
.
DEFI NI NG RELTIVE CLUSES
Uscs Examplcs
who and that refer to peopl e Tracy is the girl who /that loves the idea of Flexpetz.
(Tracy es la ch i ca a l a que le encanta l a i dea de Fl expetz. )
whi ch and that refer to objects Flexpetz is an agency which /that rents out dogs.
(Fi expetz es una agenci a que al qui l a perros.)
whose refers to possessi on This is the person whose dog needs more attention.
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c
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when and that refer to a moment in ti me I 'll never forget the day when /that we saw our dog for the first time.
................... .....................................................................................................................................................
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y
i
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91� �� 9.�-�
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where refers to a parti cu l ar pl ace I went to the park where you usually walk your dog.
( Fui a l pa rq ue donde suel es pasea r a l perro. )
NON-DEFI NI NG RELATIVE CLAUSES
Uscs Examplcs
that ca nnot repl ace who or whi ch Tracy who works long hours, does not have time for a dog.
(Tracy, q u e ta baja muchas h oras, no ti ene t i empo para u n perro. )
Son oraci ones su bord i nadas adjeti vas i ntrod uci das
por un pronombre o un adver bi o rel ati ve y l as hay de
dos ti pos: defi ni ng (especi fi cati vas) y non-defi ni ng
(expl i cati vas).
DEFINING RELTVE CLUSES
Aportan i nformaci 6n tan esenci al sobre su antecedente
que si n el l as la frase q ueda ri a i ncompl eta.
• Los pronombres who (personas), whi ch (cosas) y
that (personas y cosas) pueden omi ti rse si no hacen
de sujeto. Whose (posesi 6n) no se puede omi ti r ni
susti tu i r.
• When ( ti e mpo) puede omi t i rse y susti t u i rse por that.
• Where no puede s usti t u i rse por that y sol o se omi te
en a l g u na s ocasi ones.
¬ Whom se u sa d etras de l as pre posi ci ones, pero se
s u e l e omi t i r y pasa r l a preposi ci 6n d etras del verbo.
The owner is the person to whom you have to talk.
The owner is the person you have to talk to.
( La d uefa es l a person a con q u i e n t i enes q u e
habl ar.)
Si el r el ati vo l l eva preposi ci 6n, l o ma s comu n es
omi t i r l o y poner l a preposi ci 6n d etras del verbo.
The film in which she appears was a great success.
The film she appears in was a great success.
( La pel fcu l a e n l a q u e sa l e fue u n g ra n exi to. )
NON-DEFINING RELTVE CLUSES
Afaden i nfor maci 6n sobre s u a ntecedente y van entre
comas. Se forma n con who, whi ch, when, where y
whose, q u e no se pueden omi t i r.
� ESTRUCTURAS FORMAL E I NFORMAL
Cua nd o el r el ati vo va precedi d o de u n a preposi ci 6n se
si g u e ut i l i za ndo whi ch s i el a ntecedente es u n a cosa ;
pero s i es u n a persona, e n l u g a r d e who se e m p l ea
whom. Ese e s u n uso mu y forma l . Lo ma s comu n en
a mbos casos es poner l a preposi ci 6n a l fi n a l d e l a
o raci 6n d e rel ati vo y omi t i r e l pronombre.
This is the agency i n which Marlena works. [ Fo rma l ]
This is the agency (which] Marlena works in. [ I nfo rma l ]
(Esta es la agenci a en la que trabaja Ma rl ena.)
He is the person to whom you have to talk. [ For mal ]
He is the person (who] you have to talk to. [ I nfo rma l ]
( El es la persona con la que ti enes que habl ar. )
� LOS PREFIJOS
Los prefijos di s-, i l -, i m-, i n- y un- se a fa d en a
a l g u nos adj eti vos para expresar e l s i gn i fi ca d o opuesto.
satisfied (sati sfecho/a) dissatisfied (i nsati sfecho/a)
legal ( l egal ) illegal ( i l egal )
patient (paci ente) impatient (i mpaci ente)
correct (correcto/a) incorrect ( i ncorrecto/a)
pleasant ( agradabl e) unpleasant ( desagradabl e)
Grammar Appendi x
Recuerd a q u e el prefi jo i n- varia en I os si gui entes casos:
• i l - del a nte de adjeti vos q u e empi eza n por '
( illogical) .
• i m- del a nte de adj eti vos que empi eza n con m- o p­
( immortal) .
• i r - del a nte d e adj eti vos que empi eza n con r -
( irregular) .
Ten en cuenta que a veces no son pre 1jos s; no pa rte de
l a pal abra : disaster, illusion, impress
·
e, unders and, etc.
El prefijo mi s- se afade a al gunos sutan i os erbos
para i nd i ca r que al go se hace i ncorrecta men·e.
use ( uso) misuse (mal uso)
Con en- se forman verbos que descri ben el paso al
estado i ndi cado por l a pa l abra a l a que se a fade este
prefijo.
close (cerrar) enclose (encerrar)
Otros prefijos que se agregan a d i sti ntas cl ases de
pal abras son anti -, bi -, eo-, i nter-, multi -, non-, over-,
pre -, re- y under-.
social (soci al , soci abl e)
centenary (centenari o/a)
pilot ( pi l oto)
national ( naci onal )
lateral ( l ateral )
smoker (fu mador/a)
active (activo/a)
historic ( hi st6ri co/a)
write (escri bi r)
ground ( suel o)
antisocial (a nti soci a I )
bicentenary (bi centena ri o/a)
co-pilot ( copi l oto)
international ( i nternaci ona l )
multilateral ( mul ti l atera l )
non-smoker ( no fu mador/a)
overactive ( hi peractivo/a)
prehistoric (prehist6ri co/a)
rewrite (reescri bi r)
underground (subterraneo)
No exi sten normas especifi cas en i ng l es sobre el uso
de g ui ones entre I os prefijos y l as pal abras a l as que
preceden. Por l o ta nto, encontra ras prefijos seg ui dos de
g ui on, otros i ntegrados en l a pal abra y otros que pueden
adopta r ambas formas.
1 2 1
Û. Extreme Weather
LOS MODALES
Modal Uscs Examplcs
can abi l i ty Most tornado chasers can avoid dangerous situations.
(La mayori a de cazadores de tornados saben evita r l as si tuaci ones pel i grosas. )
req uest Can I join your group?
( LPuedo uni rme a vuestro gru po?) ¸
possi bi l i ty L Ml ¡CMU you my car.
¸ :" . f'' CLd te mi cache)
be abl e to
abi l i ty, possi bi l ity I think they will be able to see a twister
(Creo que pod ran ver un h u racan. )
can't
i nabi l ity I can't {cannot) drive.
( No se conduci r. ) _
prohi bi ti on You can't take your children with you.
( No puedes l l eva r a tus hijos conti go. )
di sbel i ef That can't be Paul. He is in China!
( Ese no puede ser Pa ul .
i
Esta en Chi na ! )
1 coul d
past abi l ity She co�id ��� ��¸�··~ -�-··�zee

�·|
(Sa bi a correr muy depri sa cuando era una ni fa. )
pol i te req uest Could you tell me more about the tour, please?
(L Pod ri as conta rme mas cosas sabre el vi aje, por favor?)
possi bi l ity The weather forecast could be wrong.
( El pron6stico del ti empo pod ri a ser err6neo. )
pol i te suggesti on You could come with us next time.
(Pod ri as veni r con nosotros la proxi ma vez.)
.............
may jmi ght
possi bi l i ty The tourists might be disappointed after the trip.
( Puede que I os tu ri stas esten decepci onados despues del vi aje. )
may
pol i te request May I borrow your travel guide, please?
( LPuedo tomar prestada tu guia de vi aje, por favor?)
shoul d jought to
advi ce, opi ni on She should I ought to be more concered about the dangers of the trip.
( Deberi a preocu pa rse mas por I os pel i gros del vi aj e. )
need to
obl i gati on, I need to know what the weather will be like tomorrow.
necessi ty ( Necesi to saber que ti empo hara mafana. )
have to
obl i gati on, You will have to spend a Jot of time i n the car
necessi ty ( Deberas pasar mucho ti empo en el cache. )
must
obl i gati on, strong Al l students must evacuate the school i n case o//·�.

necessi ty os I os estudi antes deben evacuar l a escuel a en caso de i ncendi o. )

certai nty that hasn't seen a single tornado. He must be disappointed.
somethi ng is true
...
.
...
( No ha vista ni un sol o tornado. Debe de esta r decepci onado. )
mustn't
proh i bi ti on You mustn't get too close to a torado.
( No debes acerca rte demasi ado a un tornado. ) �
don't have to
l ack of obl i gati on | You don't have to worry about anything.
necessi ty (No ti enes que preocu parte por nada.)
needn't to
l ack of obl i gati on | You needn't bring me a present.
necessi ty ( No ti enes que traerme u n regal o. )
woul d
formal requ est Would you open the window, please?
L: Pocr[<< <hri r I < vrnt<n<. nor f<vor?)
offe r Would you like some more water?
(LQui eres mas agua?)
FORMA
Los verbos modal es:
• Son i nva ri abl es, por l o que ti enen una mi sma forma
pa ra todas l as personas y no se conj ugan.
• No necesi ta n do jdoes para formar l a negati va ni l a
i nterrogati va.
• Si empre van seg ui dos de un verba en l a forma base.
Grammar Appendi x
may /might
Expresa n posi bi l i dad ( mas remota cuando se empl ea
mi ght) de que ocu rra a l ga. May ta mbi en se usa para
hacer peti ci ones mas formal es que con can.
should I ought to
Los dos se empl ean pa ra dar consejo y hacer
recomendaci ones. Ought to a penas se usa en negativa
ni en i nterrogativa. Should es el mas com(m de I os dos.
Be able to, have to y need to no comparten todas estas
ca racteristi cas, pero si al g unos de sus usos ( habi l i dad,
obl i gaci 6n, etc. ).
need to
Se puede conj ugar y, por l o tanto, puede usarse en todos
I os ti empos verba l es. Expresa obl i gaci 6n o necesi dad.
us os
can
• Expresar habi l i dad o capaci dad
• Hacer peti ci ones, dar y pedi r permi so
• l ndi ca r posi bi l i dad
¬ Hacer sugerenci as
You can bring your camera on the tour
( Puedes traer tu camara al vi aje. )
be able to
have to
Ti ene l as mi smas fu nci ones que must a u nque l a
obl i gaci 6n que expresa no es ta n fuerte. Coma must
sol o puede usarse en Present Simple, en el resto de
ti empos verba l es usamos have to.
must
Expresa obl i gaci 6n o necesi dad, especi al mente cuando
l a i mpone l a l ey o al g ui en de autori dad. Ademas expresa
una concl usi on 1
6g i ca ( "deber de", "tener que") .
mustn't
• Ti ene el mi smo si gn i fi cado que can, pero coma can
sol o puede empl earse en Present Simple, en el resto de
ti empos verbal es usamos be abl e to.
l ndi ca prohi bi ci 6n.
don't have to
Si gn ifica " no tener que" j" no tener por que", es deci r,
ausenci a de obl i gaci 6n y de necesi dad (como needn't).
can't
• Es l a forma negati va de can
• Expresa r deducci 6n negativa o certeza de que al ga es
needn't
l nd i ca que no hay obl i gaci 6n o necesi dad de hacer al ga
( i gual que don't have to).
i mposi bl e
could
• Expresa r habi l i dad o capaci dad en el pasado
• Hacer peti ci ones mas educadas que con can
would
Se uti l iza para ped i r u ofrecer al ga de manera educada.
• l ndi car posi bi l i dad mas remota que con can
• Hacer sugerenci as menos di rectas que con can
OS MODALES PERFECTOS
PcrfccI Uscs
must have lt must have been very exciting for her to make that trip.
( Debe de haber si do muy emoci ona nte para el l a hacer ese vi aje. )
A guess about a past acti on She may /might have forgotten the meeting.
( Puede q u e se l e haya ol vi dado l a reu n i on. )
.......... ........... .... ..
_
... ........
woul d have
Abi l ity to do somethi ng i n the past
whi ch in the end was not done
Certa i nty that someth i ng
di d not ha ppen
Desi re to do somethi ng i n the past
whi ch i n fact cou l d not be done
shoul d j Cri ti ci sm or regret after an event
ought to have
it was a stupid thing to do. You could have hurt yourself
( Ha si do u n a tonterfa h acer eso. Te pod rf as haber hecho da io. )
They couldn't have predicted the torado. it was a sunny day
( No pod ri a n haber pred i cho el tor nado. Hacia u n d ia sol eado. )
I would have gone with you, but I was too scared.
( Habri a i do conti go, pero t eni a de mas i ado mi edo. )
You should /ought to have wared me earlier
( Debe ri as h a ber me avi sado a ntes. )
..........................................................
shoul dn't Cri ti ci sm or reg ret after an event
have
I shouldn't have taken so much luggage.
( No t enia q u e haber cogi do tanto eq u i paje. )

You needn't have bought the tickets. I was going to buy them myself
L
----
-
---
----
-
----
-
(
_
N
_
o ten i as por que compra r I os bi l l etes. � a compra rl os ¸
needn' t have An u n necessa ry past acti on
æ
must have + parti ci pi o
Expresa una concl usi on l ogi ca de u n hecho pasado.
may I might have + parti ci pi o
Se usa n pa ra hacer una su posi ci on de un hecho pasado.
could have ¬ parti ci pi o
l nd i ca que se pudo haber hecho al ga en el pasado, pero
que fi nal mente no se hi zo.
couldn't have ¬ partici pi o
Expresa l a certeza de que al ga no pudo haber ocurri do.
would have ¬ parti ci pi o
l ndi ca que se qu i so haber hecho a l ga en el pasado pero no
se pudo debi do a factores o ci rcu nsta nci as externas.
should I ought to have + parti ci pi o
Con ambos podemos ta nto quej arnos de l o que ocurri o
coma l amenta rnos de que no se haya cu mpl i do l o que
espera bamos.
shouldn't have + parti ci pi o
Expresa nuestra opi ni on crf ti ca sabre un hecho pasado,
i ndi cando que no deberia haber ocurri do.
needn't have + parti ci pi o
l ndi ca que no habia necesi dad de hacer l o que se hi zo.
: EL GERUNDI O Y EL I NFI NITIVO
EL GERUNDI O
Es l a forma verba l termi nada en -i ng, que fu nci ona coma
sustanti vo en I os si gui entes casos:
• Coma compl emento d i recto de al gunos verbos:
consi der, conti nue, deny, detest, di sl i ke, enjoy, fi ni sh,
hate, l i ke, love, mi ss, prefer, recommend, suggest, etc.
I enjoy doing sport. ( Me di vi erto haci enda deporte. )
• Detras de l as preposi ci ones.
Lucy doesn't like his way of playing.
(A Lucy no le gusta su forma de j ugar)
• Detras de al gunas formas verbal es: be used to |get
used to, can't hel p, can't stand, don't mi nd |woul dn' t
mi nd, feel l i ke, i t' s no use, l ook foward to, etc.
I fee/ like going to the cinema. (Me apetece i r al ci ne. )
• Coma sujeto de l a oraci on cuando habl amos de acci ones
o hechos en general .
Taking up a new sport is not easy.
( Empezar a practi ca r u n nuevo deporte no es faci l . )
EL I NFI NITIVO
Es la forma verba l precedi da de to y se em pl ea en estos
casos:
• Coma suj eto, habl ando de un hecho concreto.
To apply for that job would be a good ideo.
(Sol i ci tar ese trabajo seri a u na buena i dea.)
• Detras de verbos coma: agree, appear, choose, deci de,
hope, l earn, pl an, promi se, refuse, seem, want, wi sh,
etc.
He decided to try the cake. ( Deci di o probar l a ta rta.)
• 0el·ss!eal gun os a!]el|vesy adverbi os.
He left early to arrive on time.
(Se fue pronto para l l egar a ti empo.)
• Detras del compl emento i ndi recto de verbos coma:
advi se, hel p, i nvite, persuade, teach, tel l , warn, etc.
He invited me to join them. (Me i nvi to a u n i rme a el l os. )
Si n embargo, al gunos verbos de percepci on ( hear, feel,
see . . . ) , make y let van segui dos de l a forma base (i nfi n i ti ve
si n to) .
/ let Sally come with us. ( Deje a Sa l l y veni r con
nosotros.)
VERBOS SEGUI DOS DE GERUNDI O Y DE I NFI NITIVO
Verbos coma begi n, forbi d, i ntend, propose o start
pueden i r segui dos de a mbas formas verbal es si n que su
si gn ificado va rie :
They started to answer I answering the letters.
( Empeza ron a contesta r l as cartas.)
Los verbos love, l i ke, prefer y hate pueden ir segu i dos
ta nto de ger undi o coma de i nfi ni ti ve, pero el mati z de su
si gni fi cado va ria :
• Se uti l i za love |l i ke |hate |prefer + ger undi o cuando
el si gnificado es general .
/ love dancing. ( Me e nca nta bai l ar. )
• Se uti l i za l ove |l i ke |hate |prefer + i nfi ni ti ve cuando
se refi ere a una si tuaci on o u n ti empo en parti cul ar.
I hate to tell you, but Uncle Jim is coming this weekend.
(Od i o deci rte esto, pero el ti o J i m vi ene este fi n de
sema na. )
En cambi o, otros no si gnifican l o mi smo si l l evan detras
un geru ndi o o un i nfi ni ti ve. A conti nuaci on ti enes al gu nos
ejempl os:
• forget + gerundi o se em pl ea en frases negati vas pa ra
i ndi car la i mposi bi l i dad de ol vi dar al ga ocurri do en el
pasado.
I'll never forget meeting Angelina Jolie.
( Nunca ol vi dare haber conoci do a Angel i na Jol i e. )
• forget + i nfi ni tive si gni fi ca "ol vi da rse de hacer al ga".
He always forgets to bring the keys.
( El si empre se ol vi da de traer l as l l aves.)
• remember + gerundi o si gnifica " recordar a l ga que se
hi zo en el pasado".
I remember giving them their tickets.
( Recuerdo haberl es dado sus entradas. )
• remember + i nfinitive si gnifica "acordarse de hacer al ga':
Remember to close the door before you go.
( Recuerda cerra r l a puerta a ntes de i rte. )
• regret + gerundi o si gni fi ca "l a mentar haber hecho al ga
en el pasado".
He regrets leaving school at 1 6.
(Se a rrepi ente de haber dej ado el col egi o a I os 1 6.)
• regret + i nfi nitive si gni fi ca "l a mentar la que se va a
deci r a conti nuaci on".
I regret to tell you that you have foiled the exam.
( Si ento deci rte que has suspendi do el exa men. )
• stop + gerundi o s i gni fi ca " dej a r u n h a bi to".
Bob stopped smoking last year
,ôee !e,e !eíama·e.aàe,asa!e.)
• stop + i nfnitive si gni fi ca " dej ar d e h acer al go para
hacer otra cosa".
Can we stop to have a coffee?
(LPodemos parar para tomar un cafe?)
Gra mmar Appendix
1. 1raVcÍ
LAS ORACIONES CONDICIONALES

Conditionalclausc Rcsultclausc Examplcs
ZERO CONDITI ONAL
i f Present Si mpl e If I do sport, I feel energetic.
+ Presen t Si mpl e
(Si hago deporte, me si ento l l eno de energfa. )
when
FI RST CONDITI ONAL
If people see Antarctica's beauty they'll understand why it's important.
i f Future Si mpl e
( Si l a gente ve l a bel l eza de l a Anta rti da, entendera por que es
+ Presen t Si mpl e I mperative
i mportante. )
unl ess Modal + base form
Call me tonight if you want to come on the trip with us.
( Li amame esta noche si qui eres veni r a l vi aj e con nosotros. )
If the station is closed, you can buy tickets on the Interet.
(Si la estaci 6n esta cerrada, puedes compra r I os bi l l etes por I nternet. )
SECOND CONDITI ONAL
i f woul d If I had enough money I would travel to Australia in the summer
+ Past Si mpl e + base form
(Si tuvi era sufi ci ente di nero, vi aja rfa a Austra l i a en vera no. )
unless could |mi ght
I could I might buy a house by the beach if I won the lottery
(Podrfa comprarme una casa cerea de la pl aya si ganara la l oterfa. )
THI RD CONDITI ONAL
woul d have If I had told her she would have joined us.
if + Past Perfect + past parti ci pl e
( Si se l o hubi era d i cho, habri a veni do con nosotros.)
could |
He could I might have arrived on time if he had left earlier
mi ght have
( Pod rfa haber l l egado a ti empo si hubi era sal i do a ntes. )
Son oraci ones compuestas por una proposi ci 6n
subordi nada que expresa l a cond i ci 6n (condi ti onal
cl ause) y una pri nci pal que i nd ica el resu l tado (resul t
cl ause). No i mporta el orden en que se col oq uen l as
proposi ci ones, pero si l a condi ci 6n va pri mero, se suel e
poner una coma entre ambas.
EL PRI MER CONDI CI ONAL
Usamos i f + Present Si mpl e en l a condi ci 6n y Future
Si mpl e en el resu l tado. Expresa que ocu rri ra si se cu mpl e
l a condi ci 6n sefal ada.
Ademas del Future Simple, en el resu l tado ta mbi en se
pueden usar I os verbos modal es o el i mperativo.
If it rains, the roads get wet.
(Si l l ueve, l as ca rreteras se moj an.)
The roads get wet if it rains.
(Las ca rreteras se moj an si l l ueve. )
EL CONDI CI ONAL CERO
Usa mos i f + Present Si mpl e en l a condi ci 6n y Present
Si mpl e en el resul tado. Expresa si tuaci ones que se
r epi ten si empre que se da una determi nada condi ci 6n.
A veces podemos usar when en l ugar de i f si n que el
si g ni fi cado de l a frase vari e.
If you heat ice, it melts.
(Si ca l i entas hi el o, se derri te. )
When I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep.
(Cuando tomo demasi ado cafe, no puedo dormi r. )
You can't go out if you don't finish your homework.
( No puedes sal i r si no termi nas tus deberes. )
If you search for information on the Internet, use Google.
(Si buscas i nformaci 6n en I nternet, uti l i za Googl e. )
Para expresar que al ga no ocu rri ra si no se cumpl e l a
condi ci 6n, l a proposi ci 6n es i ntrod uci da por l a conj unci 6n
unl ess, que eq ui val e a i f not ( "a no ser q ue", "a menos
que") . o se ni ega el verba en Present Si mple.
Unless we stop global warming, the icebergs will melt.
If we don't stop global warming, the icebergs will melt
(A no ser que detengamos |Si no detenemos el LO b" o
cl i mcti co, I os i cebergs se derretira n. )
Ten en cuenta que unl ess se usa con basta nte asi dui dad
en el pr i mer condi ci onal , pero es menos frecuente en el
segundo cond i ci onal y n u nca se empl ea en el tercero.
125
EL SEGUNDO CONDI CI ONAL
Se usa i f + Past Si mpl e en l a condi ci on y woul d +
el verba en la forma base en el resu l tado. Expresa
condi ci ones h i poteti cas referi das al presente, es deci r,
que es poco probabl e que ocu rra n ; por eso lo traduci mos
coma un preteri to i mperfecta de subj u nti vo.
He wouldn't travel to China unless he had
a long holiday
( No vi aj a ri a a Chi na a no ser que tuvi era u nas
vacaci ones l argas.)
Si el verba de l a condi ci on es to be, se suel e uti l i zar
were en todas l as personas del si ngul ar y del pl ural .
I f that camera weren't so expensive, I would buy it.
(Si esa ca mara no fuera tan cara, la comprari a. )
Para dar consej os se empl ea l a formul a if I were.
If I were you, I would travel by train.
(Yo en tu l ugar, vi aja ria en tren. )
En l ugar de woul d podemos usar I os modal es coul d
o mi ght en el resu l tado, pero ambos i ndi ca n que l a
probabi l i dad de que se cumpl a l a hi potesi s es aun menor.
Eq ui val en al condi ci onal "podri a" o a l as expresi ones "ta l
vez" j" qui zas".
If plane tickets were cheaper, it could encourage her
to visit you in New York.
(Si I os bi l l etes de avi on fuesen mas baratos, eso pod ri a
ani ma rl a a vi si ta rte en Nueva York. )
EL TERCER CONDI CI ONAL
Se forma con if + Past Perfect en l a condi ci on y woul d
have + parti ci pi o en el resu l tado. En este caso l a
condi ci on es tota l mente i mposi bl e, pues se refi ere al
pasado y ya no puede rea l i zarse.
Sarah would have learnt French if she had taken
lessons.
(Sarah habria a prendi do frances si hubi era reci bi do
l ecci ones. )
En vez de would have + parti ci pi o, en el resu l tado
podemos empl ear coul d have o mi ght have ¬ parti ci pi o.
If we had brought our camera, we might I could have
taken a picture.
(Si h u bi esemos tra i do la ca mara, habria mos podi do
saca r una foto.)
: ORACI ONES TEMPORALES
Las referi das al fut uro se for man como l as oraci ones del
pri mer condi ci onal : Present Simple en l a su bordi nada y
Future Simple en la pri nci pal . Lo que cambi an son l as
conj u nci ones, que en este caso son as soon as, by the
ti me, the moment (that). when, etc.
As soon as you get on board, your guides will explain
everything.
(Ta n pronto como subai s a bordo, vuestros gui as os
expl i cara n todo. )
When we get home, /' 11 give you your present.
(Cuando l l eguemos a casa, te dare tu regal o. )
: SUFI JOS PARA FORMAR SUSTANTIVOS
Como ya sabes, I os sufi jos son termi naci ones que
afadi mos a al gunas pal a bras para formar otras nuevas.
Al gunos de I os mas uti l i zados para for mar nombres a
parti r de verbos son -ment, -tion j-si on y -er j-or.
Estos son al gu nos ejempl os:
agree (acordar)
invite ( i nvi ta r)
conclude (concl ui r)
run (correr)
sail ( navegar)
agreement ( acuerdo)
invitation (i nvi taci on)
conclusion (concl usi on)
runner (corredor)
sailor ( mari nero)
Ta mbi en se forman susta ntivos afadi endo I os sufijos
-i ty, -shi p, -ness, -ence j-ance y -th a al gu nos
adjeti vos, susta ntivos o verbos.
personal (personal ) personality ( personal i dad)
friend ( ami go) friendship ( ami stad)
happy (fel i z) happiness (fel i ci dad)
obedient (obed i ente) obedience (obed i enci a)
annoy ( mol estar) annoyance ( mol esti a)
strong (fuerte) strength (fuerza)
Grammar Appendi x
d. Honest
LA VOZ PASIVA
Tcnsc AcIivc Passivc
-
Present Si mpl e The police conduct an experiment. An experiment is conducted by the police.
Past Si mpl e The police conducted an experiment. An experiment was conducted by the police.
Future Si mpl e The police will conduct an experiment. An experiment will be conducted by the police.
Present Conti nuous
Past Conti nuous
Present Perfect
Si mpl e
The police are conducting an experiment.
The police were conducting an experiment.
The police have conducted an experiment.
An experiment is being conducted by the police.
An experiment was being conducted by the police.
An experiment has been conducted by the police.
Past Perfect Si mpl e
Modal s
The police had conducted an experiment. An experiment had been conducted by the police.
An experiment should be conducted by the police.
An experiment could have been conducted by the
police.
Modal Perfects
The police should conduct an experiment.
The police could have conducted an
experiment.
have to
be goi ng to
The police have to conduct an experiment.
The police are going to conduct an
experiment.
An experiment has to be conducted by the police.
An experiment is going to be conducted by the
police.
FORMA
Afi rmativa : sujeto + verba to be + parti ci pi o del verba
pri nci pal .
The painting was stolen yesterday
( El cuadro fue robado ayer. )
Negativa : sujeto + verba to be + not (o n' t) + parti ci pi o
del verba pri nci pal . Si l a frase l l eva un modal , u n
verba en Future Si mpl e o u n ti empo compuesto, l o que
nega mos es el modal , wi l l o have |has.
The painting wasn't stolen yesterday
( El cuadro no fue robado ayer. )
l nterrogativa : verba to be + el sujeto + parti ci pi o. Si en
l a preg unta hay un modal , un verba en Fut ure Si mpl e o
u n t i empo compuesto, la frase pasi va comi enza con el
modal o el verba auxi l i ar, i gual que en l a voz acti va.
Was the painting stolen yesterday?
(L EI cuadro fue robado ayer?)
Las preg untas que l l evan parti cu l a i nterrogati va ta mbi en
i nvi erten el orden del verba auxi l i ar y del sujeto, menos
cuando l a parti cu l a hace de sujeto.
What strategy has been followed?
(LOue estrategi a ha si do segui da |se ha seg ui do?)
Who will be chosen as Prime Minister?
(LOui en sera el egi do Pri mer Mi ni stro?)
: C
O
MO PASAR UNA ORACI
O
N A PASIVA
Antes de saber cua l es son Ios pasos que hay que seg ui r
para pasa r una oraci 6n de acti va a pasi va, es i mporta nte
que recuerdes que l a pasiva es mas frecuente en i ngl es
que en castel l a no, par l o que sol emos traduci r el verba
en acti va o en l a forma i mpersonal . El esq uema que
puedes ver a conti n uaci 6n expl ica c6mo se pasa una
oraci 6n de forma acti va a pasi va.
This film critic
(subject)
The article
(subject)
wrote
was written
the article.
(abject)
by this film critic.
(abject)
( El arti cul o ha si do escri to par este cri ti co de ci ne. )
• Ponemos coma sujeto el compl emento que haya detras
del verba en acti va, ya sea d i recto o i ndi recto, si endo
el u l ti mo caso mas frecuente y excl usivo del i ng l es. Si
el compl emento i ndi recto es un pronombre objeto, se
ca mbi a a l a forma de pronombre sujeto.
The experts chose them for the experiment.
They were chosen for the experiment by the exce�5
( Fueron el egi dos para el experi mento par 1 0s e :e-: : :
1 2 7
1 28
• Ponemos el verbo to be en el mi smo ti empo que ten i a
el verbo pri nci pal en l a voz acti va y el verbo pri nci pal
en parti ci pi o. Los modal es y be goi ng to no ca mbi an,
pues es el verbo que I os si gue el que se pone en pasi va.
The police might catch more criminals thanks to this
idea.
More criminals might be caught by the police thanks
to this idea.
( Mas del i ncuentes pod ria n ser atrapados por la pol i cia
g raci as a esta i dea.)
They are going to publish a new book about criminals.
A new book about criminals is going to be published.
(Se va a publ i car u n n uevo l i bro sobre del i ncuentes. )
• Col ocamos el sujeto de l a acti va al fi nal , precedi do
de by. Recuerda ca mbi arl o por su correspondi ente
pronombre objeto si es uno personal .
Otros ejempl os:
The police arrested some thieves.
Some thieves were arrested by the police.
(Ai gu nos l adrones fueron a rrestados por la pol i ci a. )
us os
• l ndi car que l a acci 6n es mas i mporta nte que el
sujeto que l a rea l i za, bi en porque es poco rel eva nte,
desconoci do o porque no se qui ere nombrar.
Somebody bought the diamond ring.
The diamond ring was bought.
( El ani l l o de di amantes fue comprado. )
• Con verbos como say, thi nk, bel i eve, know o report es
posi bl e uti l i za r dos formas de pasi va :
- La pri mera es una construcci 6n i mpersonal con it
seg ui da de una oraci 6n con that, sujeto y verbo. Se
trad uce como una oraci 6n i mpersonal pero acti va :
"Se di ce jSe pi ensa jSe ere e . . . " ; sol o el verbo know se
puede traduci r en pasi va.
lt is said that people behave in a different way
when they lie.
( Di cen |Se di ce que la gente se comporta de modo
d i ferente cuando mi ente. )
lt is known that nobody is honest all the time.
(Es sabi do que nadi e es si ncero todo el ti empo. )
- La seg unda se forma con el sujeto + uno de estos
verbos en pasi va + un i nfi ni ti ve. Para trad uci r este
ti po de pasi va ta mbi en recurri mos al pronombre "se" o
usamos u n sujeto genera l como "todo el mu ndo",
" l a gente", etc.
The new system is said to be very successful.
(Se d i ce que el nuevo si stema es u n exi to. )
El verba consi der sol o es posi bl e en el seg undo ti po
de pasiva y ti ene una trad ucci 6n l i tera l : "ser |esta r
consi derado".
The new system is considered to be very successful.
( El nuevo si stema esta consi derado u n exi to. )
: LOS VERBOS CAUSATIVOS: HAVE / GET +
SOMETHING + DONE
Los verbos have |get + u n susta nti vo + pa rti ci pi o de
pasado expresa n acci ones que encargamos a al gui en.
I ' m going to have /get my hair cut.
(Voy a corta rme el pel o. ) [ l o ha re otra persona]
Esta estructu ra ti ene un senti do pasi vo, pues el
sustanti vo que va en medi a reci be l a acci 6n del verbo
que va en parti ci pi o, pero se suel e trad uci r en voz acti va.
My watch broke, so I had it repaired yesterday.
(Se me estrope6 el rel oj, asi que lo h i ce a rreg l ar ayer. )
Aunque a mbos se usan i ndi sti nta mente, get es mas
i nformal y, por ta nto, mas comun en el i ng l es habl ado.
I got my house painted last week.
( Me pi nta ron la casa jPi nte mi casa la semana
pasada.)
: ADJETIVOS SEGUI DOS DE PREPOSI CI
O
N
Detras de to be es frecuente encontra r adj eti vos
acomparados de una preposi ci 6n seg ui da de u n
susta nti vo, u n pronombre o u n gerundi o. Son adjeti vos
en funci 6n atri buti va.
I was thrilled by the last Harry Potter film.
( Me enca nt6 la u l ti ma pel i cu l a de Harry Potter.)
My mother is worried about me.
( Mi madre esta preocu pada por mi. )
We are tired of working.
( Esta mos cansados de tra baj ar. )
Grammar Appendi x
U. That' s Entertainment !
EL ESTILO INDIRECTO
Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Si mpl e We eat healthy food. She said that they ate healthy food.
Past Simple Weate health
y
food She sotd that the
y
had eaten health
y
food
Future Si mpl e We will eat healthy food. She said that they would eat healthy food.
Present Conti nuous We are eating healthy food. She said that they were eating healthy food.
Past Conti nuous We were eating healthy food. She said that they had been eating healthy food.
Present Perfect Si mpl e We have eaten healthy food. She said that they had eaten healthy food.
Present Perfect Conti nuous We have been eating healthy food. She said that they had been eating healthy food.
Past Perfect Si mpl e We had eaten healthy food. She said that they had eaten healthy food.
Past Perfect Conti nuous We had been eating healthy food. She said that they had been eating healthy food.
CAMBIOS EN LOS MODALES CAMBIOS EN OTRAS PALABRAS Y EXPRESIONES
Direct Speech Reported Speech Direct Speech
can coul d now
may mi ght today
must fhave to must fhad to toni ght
wi l l woul d yesterday
l ast week
a month ago
tomorrow
next week
here
thi s fthese
El esti l o i ndi recto se uti l i za para conta r l o que al gui en ha
di cho si n ci tar exactamente sus pal abras.
REPORTED STATEMENTS
Podemos contar en presente l o que al gu i en acaba de
deci r, para l o cual basta con supri mi r l as comi l l as y
cambi ar el pronombre sujeto y la persona del verba.
"I am tired. "
He says that he is tired.
( Di ce que esta cansado.)
Pero lo norma l es que el verba que i ntroduce l a
subordi nada en esti l o i ndi recto ( normal mente say o tel l}
vaya en pasado, y entonces el ca mbi o mas i mportante
es que el verba de l a subord i nada da un sal to atras (de
Present Simple a Past Simple, de este a Past Perfect, etc.).
Reported Speech
then
that day
that ni ght
the previous day /the day before
the previous week fthe week before
the previous month fthe month before
the fol l owi ng day fthe day afer fthe next day
the fol l owi ng week /the week after
there
that /those
Ademas de supri mi r l as comi l l as y ca mbi ar I os ti empos
verbal es, ta mbi en es necesari o que haga mos al gunos
cam bi os en I os pronombres y en l as expresi ones de
ti empo y l ugar.
La oraci 6n subord i nada va i ntroduci da por la conj u nci 6n
that, aunque en i ngl es habl ado se suel e omi ti r.
"I'll tell you my opinion about the show tomorrow. "
She said (that)she would tell me her opinion about
the show the next day.
( Dijo que me d i rfa su opi ni on sabre el programa a l d fa
si gui ente. )
Cuando l a frase enunci a una verdad genera l no hay
ca mbi o en I os ti empos verbal es.
"Crime is punished by law" she said.
She said that crime is punished by law.
( Dijo que la del i ncuenci a es casti gada por la l ey.)
Coma ya sabes, I os verbos mas comu nes para i ntroduci r
el esti l o i ndi recto son say y tel l . Tel l si empre l l eva u n
compl emento i ndi recto s i n l a preposi ci 6n to. Say puede
l l evar compl emento i ndi recto o no, pero si l o l l eva debe i r
con esa preposi ci 6n.
"The police caught the robber", he said.
He told us that the police had caught the robber
He said that the police had caught the robber
He said to us that the police had caught the robber
(Nos d ij o que la pol i ci a habia cog i do a l l adr6n. )
REPORTED QUESTONS
Hay dos ti pos de pregu ntas en i ngl es:
• Las Yes |No questi ons son l as que se pueden contesta r
con u n "si" o u n "no". Para ponerl as e n esti l o i ndi recto
empl eamos el verba ask, y a conti nuaci 6n if o whether.
Entonces, como l a pregu nta dej a de serl o y se convi erte
en una frase, no hay i nversi on sujeto-verbo ni si gno de
i nterrogaci 6n, y ta mpoco comi l l as.
"Are you upset?" they asked the contestant.
They asked the contestant if I whether she was upset.
(Le pregunta ron a la concursante si estaba enfadada. )
• Las Wh- questi ons no se pueden contestar con un "si "
o un "no". Son l as que comi enzan con una parti cu l a
i nterrogati va (what, who, where, when, why, whose,
how, how long, etc.) AI pasa rl as al esti l o i ndi recto
ponemos d i cha particul a en l ugar de if o whether.
Luego va n el sujeto y el verbo, y presci ndi mos del si gno
de i nterrogaci 6n y de l as comi l l as.
"What is the name of the new show?" Keri asked.
Keri asked what the name of the new show was.
(Keri pregu nt6 c6mo se l l a ma ba el nuevo prog ra ma. )
REPORTED ORDERS
Para pasar una orden a esti l o i ndi recto cambi amos el
i mperati vo por u n i nfi n i tivo. Pero a ntes del i nfi n i ti vo
debemos usar un verba que exprese mandato, como tel l
u order, segui do del compl emento i ndi recto. Ta mbi en se
pueden usar I os verbos ask o beg para expresar peti ci ones,
i nvite para hacer una i nvi taci 6n o warn para adverti r a
al gui en de a l go.
"Fly in circles, " the producers told the pilot.
The prducers ordered the pilot to fy in circles.
(Los productores madaron a l pi l oto vol ar en ci rcul os.)
Cuando se trata de una oraci 6n negati va, ponemos not
del a nte de to.
"Don't tell anybody"
He begged me not to tell anybody
( Me supl i c6 que no se lo d ij era a nad i e.)
REPORTED SUGGESTONS
Pri mero ponemos el sujeto y el verba suggest en pasado
y a conti nuaci 6n deci mos l o que sugi ri 6 esa persona. Las
sugerenci as se pueden pasa r al esti l o i ndi recto de dos
formas:

Usando una oraci 6n de compl emento di recto
i ntrod uci da por that, con su sujeto y el verba en l a
forma base.
"Let's watch the new T show, " Tom suggested.
Tom suggested that we watch the new T show.
(Tom sugi ri 6 que vi eramos el nuevo prog ra ma de
tel evi si on.)
• Usando el ger undi o, si n especi fi car ni ngun sujeto.
"Let's phone the police immediately!"
She suggested phoning the police immediately.
( El la sugi ri 6 I la mar a la pol i ci a i nmedi atamente. )
: REPORTING VERBS
Los verbos mas uti l i zados para i ntroduci r el esti l o
i ndi recto son say, tel l y ask, que tra nsmi ten el mensaje
si n aradi r mas i nformaci 6n. Pero si ta mbi en queremos
comu ni car l a i ntenci 6n del habl a nte o el tono que us6,
podemos uti l i za r otros muchos reporti ng verbs :
• Afi rmaci ones : admit, announce, answer, apol ogi se,
boast, cl ai m, compl ai n, decl are, expl ai n, i nform,
i nsi st, menti on, offer, remi nd, repl y, state
• Preguntas: enqui re, request, want to know, wonder
• Ordenes: demand, order, shout, warn
• Supl i cas: beg
• Sugerenci as: advi se, i nvite, recommend, suggest
"I will be home late. "
She reminded me that she would be home late.
( Me recorda que l l egari a tarde a casa. )
"Did you arrive on time?"
Dove wanted to know if I had arrived on time.
(Dave qui so saber si yo ha bi a l l egado a ti empo. )
Be careful!"
He shouted (at me to be careful.
( Me g ri t6 que tuvi era cui dado. )
"You should do your homework. "
The teacher advised me to do my homework.
(La profesora me aconsej6 que hi ci era I os deberes. )
: USED Kj BE USED KjGET USED K
Se uti l i zan para habl ar de acci ones que eran frecuentes
en el pasado pero ya no l o son. Suel en acompararse de
adverbi os y expresi ones de ti empo.
Bob used to dream about becoming an actor each
night.
(Cada noche, Bob sol ia sonar jsoraba con l l egar a ser
actor. )
Used to no ti ene forma de presente. En negativa e
i nterrogati va requi ere el auxi l i ar di d y en ambos casos
pi erde l a d.
Did your mother use to travel a l ot when she was
young?
(,Tu madre sol i a vi aj ar mucho cuando era joven?)
Be used to si gni fi ca "estar acostu mbrado a", mi entras
que get used to se refi ere al proceso de acostu mbrarse.
En ambos casos va seg ui do de un nombre o un ger undi o
detras de to. Los verbos que acomparan a used son be y
get, I os cual es se pueden conj ugar.
Famous actors are used to the paparazzi.
(Los actores famosos estan acost umbrados a I os
paparazzi . )
She is used to going to the gym every afteroon .
(Esta acostu mbrada a ir al gi mnasi o todas l as ta rdes. )
He is getting used to his new routine.
(Se esta acostu mbrando a su nueva ruti na.)
I cannot get used to living in such a noisy street.
( No me acost umbro a vi vi r en una ca l l e ta n r ui dosa. )
ÍKÙl\lLÌ/1ÌÙlÍK/L1ÌLL
A' ' the exerci ses i n thi s section are recorded on
the Cl ass Audi o CDs.
Unit I
PHONETIC ALPHABET
1 . Listen and repeat the sounds and words i n the
pronunciation key bel ow.
l. fa, past f father
Ü cat, band g
girl
ÓÌ ki te, fi ve h hat
Ó\ mouse, town
J
) es
C bed, head k king
Ll play, page l ong
L·² chai r, bear IJÀ mouse
in, ti p ¡J nose
1. me, tea
p
pink
happy Ï red
1¬ near, deer seven
1J not, stop tall
·\ phone, boat ¹ very
.Û. door, four ¹\¯
window
Ûl toy. enjoy Z zebra
\ foot, good shop
\. food, you 3 television
L· pure, cure
l
sing
Ü. word, heard
'l
chil dren
.À but, cup e think
Õ afraid, mother 0 the
b bed cl3 j ob
c door
Z. Listen and choose the correct phonetic symbol
from the chart above for the vowel sounds in
colour bel ow. Then l i sten agai n and repeat.
I . oO>>y 5. mO>y
2. µ'a m 6. >' ¤
3. µe!' !e 7. Cu¯ y
4. Cnu ooy 8. da¯ <
3. Read the fol l owi ng phoneti c symbol s and
wri te the words i n your notebook. Then
l i sten and check your answers. Listen agai n
and repeat.
1 . /' spaiki/ 4 /' md3;ri/
z /r;u' ma:nuk/ 5. /' tJAbi/
3. /'
g
::d3;sj 6. /klu:/
Unit Z
VERB ENDINGS -cJ
1 . Listen to the -ed endi ngs of the words bel ow.
Whi ch endi ng is pronounced /d/, whi ch i s
pronounced /t/ and whi ch i s pronounced /Id/?
I . a¯|amged 2. ne> !a!ed 3. I ¯ >'ed
An -ed endi ng i s pronou nced jtclj
when the verb ends wi th a jtjor jdjsound.
Z. Copy the char into your notebook. Then l i sten
and write the words i n the correct col umn.
Listen agai n and repeat.
warned • C¯eC<ed • v > Ied • >IOµµed
>C¯ea¤ed • >ugge>Ied • deC ded
I| µµed • ¯vO' ved
/d/ /l/ /id/
Unit J
VOWEL SOUNDS /i:/ /I/
1 . Listen to the vowel sounds in the words
bel ow. Whi ch word has got an /i:/ sound?
Whi ch has got an !r/ sound?
I . seek 2. > !
2. Copy the chart i nto your notebook and write
the words in the correct col umn. Then l isten
and check.
>C|ea¤ • > ¯g e• d >O¯de|• µeI !e
|e' el • de ve¯
/i'/ /i/
3. look at the letters i n col our and fi nd the word
in each group with the di fferent vowel sound.
Then l i sten and check your answers. Listen
agai n and repeat.
I . wm • ¤ee! • d d • ' ¤o>
2 deIeaI • Iea ¤ • >µeed • de!e¯¤ med
3. aC¯' eve • CO¤µe!e • deC de• oeaI
SENTENCE STRESS
4. Copy the sentences below i nto your notebook.
Then l i sten and mark the stressed word(s) i n
each sentence.
1 . . d O>Ca| v m !ne|aCe`
2. ' 0deI m !e' ygO mg !O!a<e uµ>v. 00 mg
3 . 1n > >! neDe>! 0a!Cn ' ve eve|va!Cned.
4. CamyOu |eµea!!na!, µ' ea>e¹
5. He'>vOm!'|eeava|d>> mCe 'e|O med !ne!ea0
G .ave> meve|µ ayedIOO!Da ' .
Unit 4
CONSONANT SOUNDS ,
|
),t|,,dg,
1 . Listen to the sounds of the letters i n col our i n
the words bel ow. Then match the words to
the sounds t[t,t:[tand /d3/.
1 . a|Cn !eC!J|e 2 . 0a| O| 3. >naµe
2. Copy the words below i nto your notebook
and write tít,t:¦tor /d3/ next to each word.
Then l i sten and check your answers. Listen
agai n and repeat.
1 . D| dge G. ma!. Oma
2 . amC em! 7. !e0µe¯a!u¯e
3 . Ca>n 8. COm>!|uC! Om
4. | C' J. emg mee¯
5. ] e' yI >n
Unit 5
WORD STRESS
1 . Look at the syl l abl es i n the words bel ow.
Whi ch syl l abl e do you thi nk is stressed i n
each word? Listen and check your answers.
1 . a-m -0a' 2. >O·' u·! Om
3. J m-Ia |

Many common nouns a nd adj ecti ves
wi th two syl l abl es a re stressed on the fi rst syl l abl e.
ta-ble, ha-ppy
Usu a l ly, prefi xes and suffi xes a ren' t stressed.
un-sure, slow-ly
2. Copy the words below i nto your notebook.
Listen to the words and underl i ne the stressed
syl l abl e in each word. Then l i sten agai n and
repeat.
1 . dam-ge¯-Ou> 5. na·D -!a!
2. 'eC·! C G ' O-g ·Ca'
3. Ie·>!y' e 7 . COm·>e|·va·! Om
4. em-dam-ge¯ed 8. d lI- -Cu !
Unit 6
SILENT LETTERS
1 . Copy the words below i nto your notebook.
Listen and underl i ne the letters that aren't
pronounced in each word.
1 . >'Ou' d 4. 0 gn!
2. gJe>! 5 . ' gn!m mg
3. 0D G. <m Ie
CONTRACTED FORMS
2. Copy the words below i nto your notebook.
Then l isten and ci rcl e the words that you hear.
Listen agai n and repeat.
1 . >'Ou' d mO!I >nOu' dm!
2 . dO mO!I dOm !
3. meed mO!I meedm!
4. COu' d naveI COJ' d've
3. Copy the sentences below into your notebook.
Then l i sten and fill in the mi ssi ng words.
Whi ch sentences have got a contracted form?
Listen agai n and repeat.
1 . YOu . . gOOJ! m !ne |a m
2 . 1ney ge!C' O>e!O!'e!O|madO.
3. 'a0 Deem m] u¯ed '
4. YOu CO0ev !n u>.
5. '' ea>e . !e' 1 J a aDOJ!!'eµa|!y.
G. ª¯> H¯Ovm DeaD e!O >ee yOu !Oday
Unit 7
VOWEL SOUNDS ,×, ,×, ,n,
1 . Listen to the vowel sounds i n the words below.
Then match the words to the sounds /-UI, 1-/
and /n/.
1 . l¯O>! 2. >mOv 3 . >'O¯e
2. Copy the chart i nto your notebook. Then l i sten
and write the words in the correct col umn.
Listen agai n and repeat.
|e¤oIe • µoµ0' a| • a µoI • co' d
|oad • ¤o:Ie • ' aw • ca: ¤o • ca0:e
/+/ /·'/ /n/
RHYTHM
3. Listen and repeat. Pay attention to the rhythm.
1 . d <eIo<¤oww¤aII ¤eI¤e!a ¤' eave:.
2 We:aw' o!:ol:¤ow ¤ ²o' a¤d.
3 . ¬ow o¤g :!¤e| o0|¤ey`
4. T¤ee:a :Iol ¤oIe' :a¤d ¤o:!e : ¤ !¤ :
g0 decoo<.
5. ¯' ea:e:Ioµa!I¤ea |µo|!
•L! •&• When a word i n a sentence begi ns
wi th a vowel sound, we often connect i t t o t he l ast
sound of the word before.
Unit d
CONSONANT SOUNDS ,s,,z,
1 . Listen to the sounds of the letters in colour i n
the words bel ow. Whi ch word has got a /s/
sound? Whi ch has got a /z/ sound?
1 . ¤o¤e:! 2 . : g¤a' :
2. Copy the words below i nto your notebook
and write /s/ or /z/ above the letters in col our.
Then l i sten and check your answers. Listen
agai n and repeat.
1 . :0:µecI 4. I|0:!
2 . µe:e¤! 5. lo|ce
3 . µ ag a| :e 6. c¤oo:e
3. Look at the letters in col our and fi nd the word
in each group with a different consonant
sound. Then l i sten and check your answers.
1 . la¤: • :µoI: • eye: • ea:o¤
2 :µeed • ce:I • µo:Ie• |e:0' I
3 . wa: • µo' ce • µ ea:e • c|0 :e
Pronunci ati on Practi ce
Unit 9
WEAK FORMS
1 . Listen to the sounds of the words in colour
i n each of the sentences bel ow. Whi ch i s the
weak form? Whi ch i s the strong form?
1 . Ca¤yo0 c0yI¤eI c<e!:` I ca¤ g veyo0 I¤e
¤o¤ey
2 " ¬owwa:I¤el ' ¤` " " ' I wa: g|ea! ' "
3 . " ¯oe:S0e' <e ¤o|o|l ' ¤:` " " Ye:,:¤edoe:. "
I n Yes jN o q uesti ons a nd short
Yes j No a nswers, the words i n col our above
have usu a l l y got a strong for m. I n other types of
sentences, they have got a wea k form.
2. Copy the sentences below i nto your
notebook. Then l i sten and mark the words i n
col our w (weak form) or s (strong form).
1 . We|eI¤e|e a¤y:µec a' ellec!: ¤ I¤el ¤`
2 wo0 d |aI¤e:eea co¤edy.
3 . Ye:, I wo0' d <eI c<e!:lo|I¤e :¤ow.
4. W¤aIwa:yo0|oµ ¤ o¤olI¤eacI ¤g`
5. I ca¤ ¤ee!yo0o0I: deI ¤ec ¤e¤a
6. ¬aveyo0eve|cee¤Ioa ' veco¤ce|I`
INTONATION
3. Listen and repeat the sentences i n Exercise 2.
Does the speaker's voice ri se or fal l at the end
of each sentence?
I n statements, the i ntonati on usua l l y fa l l s.
I n Yes j No qu esti ons, the i ntonati on usu a l l y ri ses.
I n q uesti ons wi th who, what, where, when,
how a nd why, the i ntonati on usual l y fa l l s.
133
~
OLUbbPA
A
abl e-bodi ed /eibl'bodid I sa no/a, si n di scapaci dad
a fi sh out of water 1� 'f1f aut ov w':t�/ pez fuera del
agua, fuera de l ugar
accommodati on /dkom�' dedn/ al oj ami ento
accompl i shment /�' kAmphfm�nt/ l ogro
accordi ng to /�' b: diD t�/ segun
accurate /' ckj�r�t/ exacto/a, preci so/a
achi eve a goal ;�di:v � ' g�ul / consegui r un objeti vo
acquai ntance /�'kwemt�ns/ conoci do/a
admi rabl e /' cdm�rdbl/ admi rabl e, di gno/a de
admi raci 6n
admi t /�d' m1t/ admi ti r, reconocer
advance /�d' va:ns/ avanzar
advantage /�d'va:nud3/ ventaja
ai rl i ne /' e�lam/ compari fa I l fnea aerea
al l in al l /J:l m '3:1/ en general
anci ent /' emf�nt/ anti guo/a
apartment /�' pa:tm�nt/ pi so, apartamento
appeal to /�' pi:! t�/ i nteresar I atraer a
appoi nt /�'p3mt/ citar, fi jar, seral ar
appoi ntment /�'p3mtm�nt/ cita
arrange /�' remd3/ pl anear, programar
astoundi ng /�'staundiD/ asombroso/a, pasmoso/a
audi ence /' 3:di�ns/ audi enci a, publ i co
avoi d /�'v3Id/ evi tar, dejar de
award /�\ nd/ premi a
aware (of) 1 �·we� (ov) I consci ente (de)
Ü
back and forth /bck �nd 'b:6/ de aca para al i a, de un
l ado a otro
background /'bckgraund/ fondo; experi enci a,
formaci 6n
bal ance /' b;l�ns/ equi l i bri o
bare /be�/ ari do/a, si n vegetaci 6n; si n muebl es, vacfo/a
beat /bi:t/ veneer
behave /bi' heiv/ comportarse, portarse
behavi oural /bi'heiv j�r�l/ conducti sta, de conducta
bel ong to /bi' lou t�/ pertenecer a, ser de
(be) better off 1 (bi) 'bet� of/ (estar I ser) mejor,
conveni r mas
bi g-headed /big'hedid/ engrefdo/a, crefdo/a
bi l l board /'bilb':d/ cartel publ i ci tari o
bi tter /' bit�/ gel i do/a, cortante
bl ade /bleid/ hoja
bl ame /bleim/ cul par, echar l a cul pa a
bl i nd /blamd/ ci ego/a
bl i nk /bhnk/ parpadear, pestanear
bl i zzard /' bhz�d/ venti sca
book a ti cket I a room /buk � ' ukit I � 'ru:m/ reservar
un bi l lete I una habi taci 6n
bossy /'bosi/ mand6n/ona
box office hi t /boks ofis 'hit/ exito de taqui l l a
boxi ng /' boksi!/ boxeo
brai n /brem/ cerebra
break a record /breik � 'reb:d/ bati r un record
breathe /bri:o/ respi rar
breathtaki ng /' bre6teikiD/ i mponente, i mpresi onante
breed /bri:d/ cri ar
bri dge /bnd3/ puente
broadcast /'bn:dka:st/ emi ti r, transmi ti r
broad-shoul dered /bn:d'fduld�d/ ancho/a de espal das
L
cage /ke1d3/ j aul a
cal m /ka:m/ tranqui lo/a
car park /' ka: pa:k/ aparcami ento
cast /ka:st/ reparto, el enco
cattl e /' kctl/ ganado vacuno
cattl eman /' kctmcn/ ganadero
caught red-handed /b:t red'hcndid/ cogi do/a con l as
manos en l a masa
chal l enge /' tfcl�nd3/ reto, desaffo
champi on /' tfcmpi�n/ campe6n/ona
change one's ways /rfemd3 wAnz \veiz/ cambi ar l a
manera de actuar de uno/a
channel /' tfcnl/ canal
character /' k;r�kt�/ personaje
chase /tfeis/ persegui r, i r a l a caza de
cheat (v) /tfi:t/ copi ar, hacer trampas, engarar
cheer up /tfi� ' Ap/ ani mar, al egrar
chi l dhood /' tfaildhud/ i nfanci a, ni rez
chi l l y /' tfili/ frfo/a, fresco/a
choi ce /tbis/ el ecci 6n, opci 6n
chubby /' tfAbi/ rechoncho/a, regordete/a
ci nema /' sm�m�/ ci ne
city centre I sai 'sent�/ centra de l a ci udad
cl ai m /kleim/ afi rmar, asegurar
(have a) cl ose cal l / ( hcv �) 'kl�us b:l/ salvarse por I os
pel os I de mi l agro
cl ue /klu:/ pista
cockpi t /' kokpit/ cabi na
come on /kAm ' on/ comenzar, empezar
concerned /bn' sJ:nd/ preocupado/a
concrete /' ko!Jkri:t/ hormi g6n
conduct /bn'dAkt/ real i zar
confi dent /' konfid;nt/ seguro/a de sf mi smo/a
conservati on /kons�'vedn/ protecci 6n
consi derate /bn' sid�r;t/ consi derado/a, atento/a
constructi on /k�n' strAkfn/ construcci 6n
contestant /k�n' test�nt/ concursante
conveni ent /k:m'vi:m;nt/ conveni ente, i d6neo/a,
practi ce/a
cope (wi th) /' bup w1o/ poder (con) , hacer frente (a),
sol uci onar
cosy /' buzi/ c6modo/a, abri gado/a
courage /' kAnd3/ val or, val entfa, coraje
cri me /kra1m/ del i ncuenci a; del i to
cruise /kru:z/ crucero
cub /kAb/ cachorro
curl y /' b:li/ ri zado/a
customer /' kAst;m;/ cl i ente/a
cut off /kAt ' of/ ai sl ar
D
damage /' demid3/ dano
dangerous /' demd3;r;s/ pel i groso/a
dark I da:k/ oscuro/a
darkness /' da:kn;s/ oscuri dad
deadl y /' dedli/ mortal , mortffero/a
deal wi th /' di:l w1o/ ocuparse I encargarse de
decei ve /di' si:v/ enganar
deci de 1 d1'said/ deci di r
deci si on 1 di' si3n/ deci si on, determi naci 6n
defeat 1 d1'fi:t/ derrota
degree I di'gri:/ grado
del ayed 1 di' leid/ con retraso, retrasado/a
del i ver /di ' LJV;/ entregar, l l evar, reparti r
departure ti me /di' pa:tf; taim/ hora de sal i da
descri be I di' skraib/ descri bi r
determi ned I di'n:mmd/ deci di do/a
devastati ng /' dev;steiUI/ terri bl e, devastador/a
di ffer /' dif;/ di ferenci arse, di feri r
di fference /' difr;ns/ di ferencia
di sabi l ity /dJs;'bii;ti/ di scapaci dad, mi nusval fa
di sadvantage I dis;d'va:nud3/ desventaja,
i nconveni ente
di sappoi nted I dis;'pJmtid/ decepci onado/a,
desi l usi onado/a
di sease I di' zi:z/ enfermedad
di sgui se 1 dis' gaiz/ di sfrazar, si mul ar, cambi ar
di sorder I dis'J:d;/ trastorno, dol enci a
downtown /daun' taun/ centra de l a ci udad
dream come true /dri:m kAm 'tru:/ sueno hecho
real i dad
drought I draut/ sequfa
dul l I dAl/ aburri do/a
E
educati onal I ed3u' keif;nl/ educative/a
eeri e /' I;ri/ espel uznante, estremecedor/a
effective /I' fekuv/ efectivo/a, eficaz
el evator /' elJVeit;/ ascensor
endangered /m' demd3;d/ en pel i gro de exti nci 6n
endurance /m'dju;r;ns/ resistenci a
engi neer /end3I'm;/ i ngeni ero/a
enhance /m' ha:ns/ mejorar, aumentar
ensure I m'fu;/ asegurar
entertai n I ent;'tem/ entretener
envi ronmental /mvair;n' mentl/ ecol 6gi co/a,
medi oambi ental
envi ronmental ist /mvair;n' ment;hst/ ecol ogi sta
equi pment /1' kw1pm;nt/ equi po
eventual l y /I'ventfu;li/ fi nal mente, al fi nal
exci tement /Ik' saitm;nt/ emoci 6n, exci taci 6n
ex-presi dent I eks'prezid;nt/ ex-presi dente/a
F
fad /fed/ moda
fai l /feil/ suspender; fal l ar, fracasar
fai r /fe;/ j usto/a
fear /fi;/ mi edo
fee /fi:/ cuota, matrfcul a
fi erce /fi;s/ feroz, fi ero/a
fi gure /' fig;/ dato, cifra
fi rst fl oor /f:st ' f:/ pl anta baja ( EE. UU. ) , pri mera
pl anta (Rei no Uni do)
fl at /flet/ pi so, apartamento
fl atmate /' fletreit/ companero/a de pi so
fl i ght /flait/ vuel o
fl ood /flAd/ i nundaci 6n
forecast /' f:ka:st/ pron6sti co
foremost /'f:mdUSt/ pri nci pal , maS destacado/a
frank /fre1k/ franco/a, honesto/a
fri ghtened /'fraitnd/ asustado/a, aterrado/a
fri ghteni ng /' fraitml/ aterrador/a
fun /fAn/ diverti do/a
funnel -shaped /'fAnlfeipt/ en forma de embudo
furi ous /'fju;ri;s/ furi oso/a
furry /' f:ri/ pel udo/a
G
garden /' ga:dn/ j ardfn
gather /'geo;/ recopi l ar, reuni r, j untar
gaze I geiz/ mi rada fi ja
generous /' d3en;r;s/ generoso/a
get away wi th i t /get ;'wei w1o It/ sal i rse con la suya
get caught 1 get 'b:t/ ser pi l l ado/a I capturado/a
get i nto troubl e I get m tu: 'trAbl/ meterse en un l fo,
reci bi r una bronca
gl ass I gla: s/ cri sta I
gl oomy /' glu:mi/ sombrfo/a, l ugubre
go abroad I g;u ;' bn:d/ ir al extranjero
go on I gd ' on/ durar; conti nuar
go on hol i day /gd on 'hol;dei/ ir(se) de vacaci ones
go si ghtseei ng/ gd ' saitsi:IIJ/ hacer turi smo
good-l ooki ng I gud' lukJI/ guapo/a
Gl ossar
�÷¬
Gl ossary
gorgeous /' g::d3;s/ guapfsi mo/a, precioso/a
graphi c /'gr<fik/
grasp I gra:sp/ agarrar, a si r
greet I gri:t/ sal udar, reci bi r
ground floor I graund 'fb:/ pl anta baja
guest 1 gest/ i nvitado/a, huesped
gui lty /' giiti/ cul pabl e
gul l i bl e /' gAI;bl/ credulo/a, si mpl 6n/ona
H
habitat /'habit<t/ habi tat
hai l stone /' heiist;un/ grani zo, pi edra de grani zo
(have a) head start 1 (h<v d) 'hed sta:t/ ten er ventaja
harml ess /' ha:ml;s/ i nofensivo/a
heartbroken /' ha:tbrdUkdn/ desconsol ado/a,
destrozado/a
heartwarmi ng /' ha:twJ:mi!/ reconfortante, al entador/a
heatwave /'hi: tweiv/ ol a de cal or
heavy /' hevi/ fuerte, i ntense/a; pesado/a
hectic /' hekuk/ agitado/a, freneti co/a
hel pful /' helpfl/ amabl e, atento/a, servi ci al
heroi c /h;' r;uik/ heroi co/a
hesitate /' heziteit/ dudar
hi gh poi nt /' hai pJmt/ memento cruci al , punto
cul mi nante
hi gh street /' hai strit/ cal l e pri nci pal
hi re a car /' hai; d ka:/ al qui l ar un coche
hit below the belt /hit biidu O; ' belt/ dar un gol pe
bajo
hoax /hdUks/ engaro
hol d your horses! /h;uld jJ: ' hJ:SIZ/ j Para el carro! I
j Espera un memento!
hopeful l y /' h;upf;li/ esperemos que, con un poco de
suerte
horse raci ng /' hJ:s reiSI!/ hfpi ca, carreras de cabal l os
huge /hju:d3/ enorme, muy grande
humidity /hju:' mid;ti/ humedad
hunt /hAnt/ cazar
hunti ng /' hAnuu/ caza
I
i l l ogi cal /Il'lnd3Ikl/ i l 6gi co/a
i mpossi bl e /Im' pns;bl/ i mposi bl e
i mpression /Im' prefn/ i mpresi 6n
i mpulsive /Im' pAlsiV/ i mpul sive/a
in captivity /m kap' tiV;ti/ en cauti vi dad
i n shape /m 'fe,p/ en forma
i nconveni ent /mkdn'vi:ni;nt/ i noportuno/a, poco
practi ce/a, i nc6modo/a
i nform /m'b:m/ i nformar, avisar
i nformati on /mf;'medn/ i nformaci 6n
i nherit /m' hent/ heredar
i nj ury /' md3dri/ heri da, l esi 6n
i nternati onal /mt;' n<fn;l/ i nternaci onal
i nvolve /m'vnlv/ i mpl i car, suponer
i ron /' ai;n/ hi erro
i rrel evant /I' rel;V;nt/ i rrelevante, i ntrascendente
i sol ati on /ais;'leifn/ ai sl ami ento
it's a pi ty o o o /Its d ' pni/ Es una pen a . . .
J
joi n I d3Jm/ uni rse a, meterse I entrar en
K
keep in mi nd /ki:p m ' mamd/ tener en cuenta I
presente
kick off /' k1k nf/ expul sar I echar de
ki l l two bi rds with one stone /kii tu: 'bJ:dz w1o wAn
st;un/ matar dos pajaros de un ti ro
ki nd-hearted /kamd'ha:ud/ bondadoso/a, de buen
coraz6n
L
l and /l<nd/ aterri zar
l andmark /' l<ndma:k/ l ugar muy conoci do
l andscape /' l<ndskeip/ pai saje
l eak (v) /li:k/ tener una fuga, gotear
learn the ropes /b:n O; 'r;ups/ ponerse al tanto
l ei sure /' le3;/ oci o, ti empo l i bre
l engthen /' leu8;n/ al argar
l et the cat out of the bag /let O; 'k<t aut nv O; b<g/
descubri r el pastel I i rse de la l engua
l et-down /' letdaun/ chasco, decepci 6n
l i ar /' lai;/ menti roso/a
l i fel ong /' laiflnu/ de toda la vi da
l i festyl e /' lmfstml/ esti l o de vi da
I ift 1 lift/ ascensor
l i ght bul b /' !an bAlb/ bombi l l a
l i ghtni ng / ' lartnru/ rayo, rel ampago
l i kel y /'laikli/ probabl e
l i mb /IIm/ extremi dad, mi embro
l i ve /laiv/ en di recto I vi vo
l i ve on the edge /IIv nn O; ' ed3/ vi vi r al l fmite
l ogi cal /' lnd31kl/ 1 6gi co/a
l ong for /' !nu f;/ desear, anhel ar
l ong-l egged /lnu' legid/ de pi ernas l argas
l ong-term /lnu' tJ:m/ (a) l argo pl aza
l ook away /luk ;'wei/ apartar l a mi rada
(never) l ook back /nevd luk 'bak/ i rl e (a al gui en) sobre
ruedas
look forward to /luk 'fJ:w;d t;/ esperar con ansi a,
tener muchas ganas de, estar deseando
l ook through /l uk '8ru:/ exami nar deteni damente,
revi sar
look up /luk ' Ap/ buscar
(be) l ucky to be al ive I (bi) 'IAki t; bi ;[arv/ (tener)
suerte de est a r vi vo/a
l uggage /' IAgid3/ equi paje
l uxury /' IAkf;ri/ l ujo, de l ujo
N
mai n street /' mem stri1/ cal l e pri nci pal
major /' me1d3;/ de gran relevanci a, muy i mportante
make sure /meik 'fu;/ asegurarse
mal l /mJ:I/ centra comerci al
man /m<n/ atender, cui dar
marvel /' ma:vl/ maravi l l arse, asombrarse
mel t /melt/ derretir(se), fundi r(se)
mi ddl e-aged /midl' eid3d/ de medi ana edad
mi l d /ma�ld/ templ ado/a, suave
mi ss /mis/ echar de menos, anorar
mi sunderstand /misAnd;' st<nd/ no entender,
mal i nterpretar
modern /' modn/ moderno/a
move /mu:v/ mudarse, trasl adarse; mover(se)
movi e theater /' mu:vi 8I;t;/ ci ne
mug /mAg/ taza, taz6n
muscul ar /' mAskj;[;/ muscul oso/a
N
narrow /' n<r;u/ estrecho/a, a ngosto/a
natural /' n;tfr;I/ nato/a, natural
network /' netJ:k/ cadena de tel evi si 6n I radi o
no matter what /n;u 'm<t; wot/ no i mporta l o que I da
i gual l o que
nosy /' n;uzi/ entrometi do/a
Ü
occupati onal hazard /okjuped;nl 'h<z;d/ ri esgo
l aboral , gajes del ofi ci o
offi ce bl ock /' of1s bok/ bl oque I edi fi ci o
de ofi ci nas
ol d-fashi oned /;uld'f;fnd/ anti cuado/a, pasado/a de
mod a
open-mi nded /;Up;n'mamdid/ abi erto/a
de mente, si n prej ui ci os
opponent /;'p;un;nt/ ri val , adversari 9/a,
oponente
ordi nary /' J:dnri/ normal , normal y corri ente
ori gi nal /;'nd3;nl/ ori gi nal
outer /' aut;/ exterior
overcast /;uv;'ka:st/ encapotado/a, nubl ado/a
overcome /;uv;'kAm/ superar, veneer
overni ght /;v;'nait/ de una noche
overpopul ated /;uv;'popju:leitid/ superpobl ado/a
overturn /;uv;'tJ:n/ anul ar
owner /' ;un;/ dueno/a, propi etari o/a
Í
parki ng lot /' pa:ki! lot/ aparcami ento
passenger /' p<smd3;/ pasajero/a
path /pa:8/ cami no, sendero
pavement /'peivm;nt/ acera
performance /p;' fJ:m;ns/ representaci 6n, funci 6n;
rendi mi ento
peri l /' per;I/ pel i gro, ri esgo
personal /' pJ:s;ml/ personal
persuade /p;' sweid/ convencer, persuadi r
petite /p;' t:t/ menuda
pi ck up /p1k ' Ap/ recoger, i r a buscar
pi npoi nt /' pmpJmt/ i denti fi car, determi nar
pl agi ari se /' pleid3;raiz/ pl agi ar
pl ai n (n) /plem/ l l anura
pl ai n (adj . ) /plem/ senci l l o/a, l l ano/a; poco atracti vo/a
pl ot /plot/ argumento, trama
point (at) /' pJmt (;t ) / apuntar (a)
poi nt out /pJmt ' aut/ senal ar, hacer notar
poi son /' pJizn/ veneno
pol icy /' poi;si/ pol fti ca
poodl e /' pu:dl/ cani che
possi bi l ity /pos;'bii;ti/ posi bi l i dad
possi bl e /' pos;bl/ posi bl e
pour /pJ:/ servi r, verter, echar
predator /' pred;t;/ depredador
predi ctabl e /pn' dikt;b/ previ si bl e
pretend /pn' tend/ fi ngi r
protective 1 pdtektrv 1 protector/a
psychol ogi cal /saik;'lod3Ikl/ psi col 6gi co/a
purpose /' pJ:p;s/ prop6si to, objetivo
put on /put ' on/ presentar, representar
put up /put ' Ap/ col gar, poner
|
+ . . . . . . . . . . « . + . + « . . « . . . . « × . . + + + . + . . . . + « . . . « . . . « . . + « . . + . . . « + . . « . + . . . . . + . . . + « . + . . « + . . « . . . . × . . . . . + + + . . . . . .. . « , . . . , . .
queue / kju:/ col a
R
rai nfal l /' remfJ:I/ canti dad de l l uvi a, preci pi taci 6n
rai se a fl ag /reiz ; ' f<g/ i zar una bandera
rai se a questi on /reiz ; 'kwestfn/ formul ar una
pregunta
rai se a sal ary /reiz ; 's<i;ri/ aumentar un suel do
rai se an i ssue /reiz <n · ,fu:/ pl antear un probl ema,
sacar un tema
rather than /' ra:o; o;n/ en vez de
reach for /' ri:t [;/ al argar l a mano para coger
real i se /' ri:;iaiz/ darse cuenta de
rel ati on /n' Idn/ rel aci 6n
rel ati onshi p 1 n' leifnhp/ rel aci 6n
rel eased /n'li:st/ l i berado/a, puesto/a en l i bertad
rel evant /' re[;v;nt/ relevante
rel i ef /n' li:f/ al ivi o
Glossary
Gl ossar
remarkabl e /n' ma:bbl/ extraordi nari o/a, sorprendente
remi nd /n'mamd/ recordar (al ga a al gui en)
rent /rent/ al qui l ar
rental agency /' rend e1d3dnsi/ agenci a de al qui l er
repl y /n' plai/ contestar, responder
report /n' pJ:t/ i nforme
request /n' kwest/ peti ci 6n, sol i ci tud
rescue (v)/' reskju:/ rescatar, sal var
research (n) / n' snfl i nvesti gaci 6n
resort /n'zJ:t/ complejo turfstico
return ti cket /ntJ:n ' ukit/ bi l l ete de ida y vuel ta
review /n'vju:/ crfti ca, resena; revi sar, repasar
reward (v) / n' w::: d/ recompensar, premi ar
reward ( n) /rr'w::d/ recompensa, premi a
ri p-off /' npof/ estafa
ri sk hi s l i fe /nsk h1z ' laif/ arri esgar su vi da
romanti c /rdu' m<nuk/ romanti co/a
rough /rAf/ pel i groso/a; agitado/a
rul er /' ru:ld/ gobernante
run a busi ness I a company /rAn d 'brznds 1
d ' kAmpdni/ di ri gi r I l l evar un negoci o I una empresa
run after I rAn ' a:ftd/ persegui r
run i nto /' rAn m tu:/ tropezar I encontrarse con
run off with /nn ' of wro/ l l evarse, escaparse I fugarse
con
run out /rAn 'aut/ acabarse, agotarse
5
sai l i ng /' serlr!/ vel a
scorchi ng /' sknfr!J/ abrasador/a
scream /skri:m/ gritar, chi l l ar
screen (v)/skri:n/ emi ti r; proyectar
screen (n)/ skri:n/ pantal l a
seasoned /' si:zdnd/ veterano/a
seek I si:k/ buscar
sel fi sh /' selff/ egofsta
sel l out / ' se! aut/ vender todas l as entradas, agotar l as
existenci as
sequel /' si:kwdl/ secuel a, conti nuaci 6n
seri ousl y i nj ured /' srdridsli md3dd/ gravemente heri do/a
set a date I set d ' den/ fij ar una fecha
set a precedent /set d ' presiddnt/ sentar un precedente
set a record I set d 'reb:d/ establ ecer un record
set a tabl e /set d ' teibl/ poner una mesa
set an al arm /set <n d'la:m/ poner una al arma
set ( i n) /set (' m) / ambi entado/a (en)
severe /sr'vrd/ fuerte; ri guroso/a
shake I Jerk/ tembl ar
share I fed/ comparti r
shi ver /'hvd/ ti ri tar, tembl ar
shocked I fokt/ estupefacto/a, espantado/a, i mpactado/a
shocki ng /'foki!/ espantoso/a, espel uznante, i mpactante
shop I fop/ ti enda
shopl ift /'foplift/ robar en ti endas
shoppi ng centre /'fopi!J sentd/ centra comerci al
shore !h! ori l l a
(be) short of 1 (bi) ' ht ov/ (estar) fal to/a de, escaso/a de
short-tempered ;b:t 'tempdd/ i rritabl e, de mal geni o
shoul der-l ength /'fdulddle!J8/ a l a al tura de I os
hombros
si dewal k /' saidw::k/ acera
si gn up /sam 'Ap/ regi strarse, i nscri bi rse
si gnal (n) /' srgndl/ seral
si ngl e /' sr!Jl/ sol o/a, uni co/a
si nk /sr!k/ hundi r(se)
sitcom /' srtkom/ comedi a de si tuaci 6n
ski l l ed /skrld/ habi l , especi al i zado/a, experto/a
ski nny /' skmi/ fl aco/a
skyscraper /' skarskrerpd/ rascaci el os
sl ender /' slendd/ del gado/a, esbel to/a
sl i m /slim/ del gado/a, esbelto/a
sl i p /slip/ desl i zarse, resbal ar
sl i ppery /' slipdri/ resbal adi zo/a
smel l a rat /smel d 'r<t/ haber gato encerrado, estar
tramandose al ga
snobbi sh /' snobrf/ esnob
soaki ng wet /' sdukr!J wet/ empapado/a, cal ado/a hasta
Ios huesos
soap opera /' sdup oprd/ tel enovel a, seri al
socket /' sokit/ enchufe, toma de corri ente
soften the bl ow /' sofn od bdu/ amorti guar el gol pe
soundtrack /' saundtr<k/ banda sonora
source /s::s/ ori gen, fuente, procedenci a
space-age /' sperserd3/ (de l a) era espaci al
spacecraft /' sperskra:ft/ nave espaci al , astronave
spaci ous /' sperfds/ espaci oso/a, ampl i o/a
spare /sped/ de mas I sobra
speci al effects /spefl 1 ' fekts/ efectos especi al es
speci es /' spdi:z/ especi e
speed /spi:d/ vel oci dad
speed camera /' spi:d k<mdrd/ camara de control de
vel oci dad
spi ky /' spaiki/ de punta
staff /sta:f personal , empl eados/as
star I sta:/ protagoni zar
stare /sted/ mi rar fijamente
startl e /' sta:d/ asustar, sobresal tar
state-of-the-art I stert dV od ' a:t/ de vanguardi a I l a m as
moderno
stay at a hotel I youth hostel /ster <t d hdu' tel/ d
'ju:8 hosd/ al oj arse en un hotel I al bergue juveni l
stea I I sti:l/ rob a r
steel I sti:l/ a cera
sti cky fi ngers /' suki fiugn/ m a no l arga , que ti ende
a robar
stone I st;un/ pi edra
store 1 m:/ ti enda
storey /' sn:ri/ pi so, pl anta
strai ght I streit/ i sola
strength /stre!8/ fuerza
stri ke /straik/ pegar, gol pear
stroke /str;uk/ derrame cerebral
struggl e /' strAgl/ l uchar, tener di fi cul tades
stubborn /' stAb;n/ testarudola, obsti nadola
sui t /su:t/ traje (de chaqueta)
suitabl e /' su:t;bl/ adecuadola, apropi adola
superhuman /su:p;' hju:m;m/ sobrehumanola
support I s;'pn/ sostener, mantener
suppose /s;' p;uz/ suponer
surface /' s3:fts/ superfi ci e
survi ve /s;'vatv/ sobrevi vi r
suspect I s;' spekt/ sospechar de
suspenseful /s;' spensfl/ de suspense
sweat I swet/ sudar
swiftly /' swtftli/ rapi damente
switch on /swnf ' on/ encender
T
take over /tetk ';uv;/ reempl azar, adqui ri r, tomar
take pl ace /tetk 'plets/ tener l ugar
take up /teik ' Ap/ empezar I dedi carse a; ocupar
take-off /' tet kof/ despegue
tal kati ve /' t::buv/ habl adorla
tame /teim/ domesti cadola, mansola
tear down /' te; daun/ derri bar
tempt /tempt/ tentar
tend to /tend ' t;/ tender a, sol er
the bal l 's in your court /o; 'bJ:lz ¡ jJ: bt/ te toca a ti
dar el si gui ente paso, l a pel ota esta en tu tej ado
thi ck /8tk/ espesola, densola
thi ckness /' Ehkn;s/ grosor, espesor
thi ef /8i:f/ l adr6nlona
threatened /' 8,et;nd/ amenazadola
threateni ng /' 8retm!/ amenazadorla, i nti mi datori ola
thri l l /8rrl/ emoci 6n
thri l l ed /8rrld/ contentfsi mola, i l usi onadola
thri l l i ng /' 8rrh!/ emoci onante, apasi onante
throw i n the towel /8r;u ¡ o; 'tau;l/ ti rar la toal l a
ti n I tm/ l ata, bote
tradi ti onal /trd'dtf;nl/ tradi ci onal
tragi c /' tr:d31k/ tragi cola
trai l er /' treil;/ trai l er, avance
trai ni ng /' trerni!/ entrenami ento
treacherous /' tretf;r;s/ pel i grosola, trai ci onerola
tri ck /trrk/ enganar
trust /trAst/ confi ar en, fi arse de
tune i n (to) /tju:n ' m ( t;) / si ntoni zar (con)
twi ster /' 1vist;/ huracan
L
unattractive I An;' tr:kuv/ poco atracti vola
underesti mate I ,\nd;r'esumen/ subesti mar,
menospreci ar
unfai r I An' fe;/ i nj ustola
unusual /An'ju:3u;l/ i nusual
useful /' ju:s£/ uti l
V
val uabl e /'y;Jju;bl/ val iosola
very qui et \·eri ' b·ar;t/ muy tranqui lola, muy
si l enci osola
vi ewer \ju:; telespectadorla, tel evi dente
V
warn /wJ:n/ adverti r, avi sar
watchful /'wotf£/ atentola, vi gi l ante
wavy /'weivi/ ondul adola
weather forecaster /'weo; fJ:ka:st;/
meteor61 ogola
wel l -bui l t /wel' brlt/ forni dola
What were you doi ng when . . . ? /wot w3: ju: 'du:qJ
wen/ L Que estabas haci enda cuando . . . ?
when I heard /wen a1 'lud/ cuando escuche 1 oi
white l i e /wait ' lai/ menti ra pi adosa
wi l d /warld/ salvaje
wi l l power /'wrlpau;/ fuerza de vol untad
wi n a competi ti on /wr ; komp;'ufn/ ganar una
competi ci 6n
wi n a match /wr ; 'm:tf/ ganar un parti do
wi n a medal /wr ; ' medl/ ganar una medal l a
wi n a pri ze /wm Ü 'pratz/ ganar un premi a
wi n a war /wr ; 'wJ:/ ganar una guerra
wi n an argument /wm :n 'a:gjum;nt/ ganar una
di scusi 6n
wi tness /'witn;s/ ver, presenci ar
worl dwi de /'w3:ldwa1d/ mundi al , en todo el mundo
(to be) worth seei ng I ( t; bi) w3:8 ' si: r!/ merecer l a
pena verl ola
A
yard I ja:d/ j ardfn
youth hostel /' ju:8 hostl/ al bergue j uveni l
Gl ossary
Gl ossary
luncllcnallanguage
LHÎI 1
GETTING SOMEONE TO REPEAT SOMETHING
I ' m sorry, I di dn't g et that. /ai m ' sori a1 d1dnt get
9ct/ Lo si ento, no l o he entendi do.
Can you repeat that, pl ease? / kdn ju: n' pi:t 9ct
pli: z/ ( Puedes repeti rl o, por favor?
DESCRIBING PEOPLE LHÎI 4
He's got « . . /hi:z 'got/ Ti ene . . .
What does he l ook l i ke? /wot dAz hi: 'luk la1k/ L Coma
es (ffsi camente)?
He l i kes . . . /hi: 'laiks/ Le gusta . . .
What's he i nterested i n? /wots hi: ' mtPstid m/ L Que
l e i nteresa?
What's he l i ke? /wots hi: ' la1k/ (Coma es (coma
persona)?
He' s very + . . /hi:z 'veri/ Es I Esta muy . . .
SHOWING INTEREST
Real l y? /' n;]i/ (De verdad?, ( En seri o?
That's great. /9cts 'gren/ Eso es geni al I estupendo.
Sounds good I fun I i nteresti ng /saundz ' gud I
'fAn /' mtr;SU!/ Suena I Me parece bi en I di verti do I
i nteresante
LHÎI Z
TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE
I suppose . . . /ai s;' p;uz/ Supongo . . .
maybe /' meibi/ qui za, tal vez
I'd be . . . /aid 'bi/ Yo serfa I estarfa . . .
lt l ooks l i ke . . . /i t ' luks la1k/ Parece que . . .
He's probabl y . . . /hi:z 'prob;bli/ Probabl emente es I
sea I esta /este . . -
ADDING MORE INFORMATION
And another thi ng, . . . /.nd ;'nAo; 9I!/ Y otra cosa, . . .
What's more, . . . /wots 'mJ:/ Lo que es m as, . . .
Pl us the fact that . . . /' plAs o; fckt 9ct/ Ademas de
que . . .
And besi des, . . . /.nd bi' saidz/ Yademas,
LHÎI À
EXCHANGING INFORMATION
When was . . . born? /wen wn . . . 'bJ:n/ L Cuando
naci o . . . ?
What i s he/she famous for? /wot 1z hi:/fi: ' feim;s [;j
( Par que es famoso/a?
What awards has he/she won? /wot ;' wJ:dz hn hi:/fi:
wAn/ L Que premios ha ganado?
What records has he/she broken? /wot 'reb:dz hn
hi:/fi: br;uk;n/ (Que records ha bati do?
What's hi s/her favouri te food? /wots hiz/h; 'fetv;nt
fu:d/ L C ual es su comi da preferi da?
What probl ems has he/she had? /wot ' prob];mz hn
hi : / fi: hed/ L Que probl emas ha teni do 7
What are hi s/her future pl ans? /wot L. hiz/h; 'fju:tf;
plcnz/ (Cual es son sus pl anes para el futuro?
COMPARING PICTURES
Another di fference between them i s that . . . /;' nAo;
difr;ns bnwi:n 8em 1z 9ct/ Otra diferenci a entre
ambos/as es que . . .
The two pi ctures are si mi l ar I a l i ke because . . . /o;
' tu: piktfn L. sim;];j;]aik b1koz/ Las dos fotograffas se
parecen I son pareci das porque . . .
Another thi ng that they have got i n common i s . . . I
;' nAO; 9!! 9ct oei hcv got m kom;n IZ/ Otra cosa que
ti enen en comun es . . .
I n thi s pi cture there i s . . . , but i n thi s one . . . / m ' o1s
piktf; oe; 1z . . . b;t ¡ ' o1s wAn/ En esta fotograffa
hay . . . , pero en esta . . .
The pl ace i n pi cture 1 i s more I less . . . than i n
pi cture 2. /o; 'ple1s m pikt
f; wAn 1z mJ: I );s . . . o;n m
piktf; tu: I El l ugar de la fotograffa 1 es m as I me nos . . .
que el de l a fotograffa 2.
Thi s pi cture shows . . . , whi l e that one shows . . .
/'o1s piktf; f;uz . . . wail ' 8ct wAn f;uz/ Esta fotograffa
muestra . . . , mi entras que esa muestra . . .
The pi ctures are qui te di fferent because . . .
/o; ' piktfn L· kwa1t difr;nt b1koz/ Las fotograffas son
bastante di ferentes porque . . .
Both pi ctures show . . . /' b;u9 piktf;z f;u/ Ambas
fotograffas muestran . . .
DRAWING SOMEONE'S ATTENTION
I've j ust noticed . . . /aiv d3Ast 'n;utlst/ Acabo de ver I
notar I darme cuenta . . .
And there's another thi ng . . . /<nd oen ;' nAO; 81!/
Y hay al ga mas . . .
Have a l ook at . . . /hcv ; ' luk ct/
t
chal e un vistazo a . . .
Di d you noti ce . . . ? /did ju: 'n;utis/ (Te has dado
cuenta de . . . ?, ( Has vi sta . . . ?
LHÎI b
EXPRESSING OPINIONS
I don't thi nk that . . . /ai ' d;unt 8I!k oct/ No creo
que . . .
I n my opi ni on, . . . I m ma1 ;' pmj;n/ E n mi opi ni on, . . .
I bel i eve that . . . /a1 b1' 1i:v oct/ Creo que . . .
I feel that . . . /a1 'fi:l oct/ Si ento que . . .
I thi nk that . . r /a! ' 9I !k oct/ Pi enso I Creo que . . .
lt seems to me that . . . /I t si: mz t; ' mi: oxt/ Me
parece I creo que . . .
GETTING SOMEONE TO EXPRESS AN OPINION
What do you thi nk? /wot d; ju: '8I!k/ L Que pi ensas tu?
What about you? /wot ;baut ' ju: / LY tu?
What's your opi ni on? /wots jJ: ;' pmi;n/ (Cual es tu
opi ni on?, L Que opi nas?
Do you agree? /du: ju: ;' gri: / ( Estas de acuerdo?
LHII b
INTERVIEWING
What were you doi ng when . . . ? /wot wJ: ju: 'du:qJ
wen/ L Que estabas haci enda cuando . . . ?
What di d you see? /wot did ju: ' si: / LQue vi ste?
How di d you react? /hau did ju: ri'ckt/ L C6mo
reacci onaste?
How di d you feel ? /hau did ju: ' fi: l/ L C6mo te
senti ste?
What happened in the end? /wot ' hcp;md m o�
end/ L Que pas6 al fi nal ?
What were peopl e doi ng? /wot wJ: pi:pl 'du:�n/ L Que
had a l a gente?
FINISHING YOUR STORY
So in the end, . . . /' s�u m o� end/ Asi que al fi nal , . . .
Fi nal l y, + . . /' fam�li/ Fi nal mente I AI fi nal , . . .
To cut a l ong story short, + . + /t� kAt � Ion 'st:xri ht/
Resumi endo I En resumen, . .
Al l i n al l , + . . /J: l m ' J: l/ En general ,
LHII 1
BUYING A TRAIN TICKET
May I hel p you? /mei ai 'help ju:/ L Puedo ayudarl e en
al ga?
How l ong i s the j ourney? /hau ' Ion IZ oe� d3J:ni/
L Cuanto dura el viaje I trayecto?
Woul d you l i ke a return or a si ngl e ti cket? /wud ju:
laik � 'ntJ:n ukit J: � 's1nl ukit/ L Queria un bi l lete de
ida y vuel ta o sol o de i da?
What ti me does the trai n l eave? /wot taim dAz o�
' trem li:v/ LA que hora sal e el tren?
Do I have to book i n advance? /du: ai hcv t � buk m
�d' va:ns/ LTengo que reservar I hacer la reserva con
antel aci 6n?
Where do I get the trai n? /we� du: ai get o� 'trem/
L D6nde cojo el tren?
How much i s a ti cket? /hau ' mAtf Iz � ukit/ LCuanto
cuesta un bi l l ete?
What ti me do you want to l eave? /wot taim d� ju:
wont t� ' li:v/ LA que hora qui ere sal i r ?
Wi l l that be fi rst or second cl ass? /wii ' oct bi: b:st J:
sek�nd kla:s/ LVi aj ara en cl ase preferente o turi sta?
When's the next trai n after that? /wenz oe� nekst
trem a:ft� 'oct/ L Cuando sale el si gui ente tren?
How often do the trai ns l eave? /hau ' ofn d� O;
tremz li:v/ L Cada cuanto I Con que frecuenci a sal en
I os trenes?
ASKING FOR INFORMATION
I ' d l i ke to know when . . . I aid la1k t� 'n�u wen/ Me
gustaria I Querria saber cuando . . .
Can you tel l me whether . . . ? /kdn ju: 'tel mi weo�/
L Puede(s) I Podria(s) deci rme si . . . ?
Do you know if . . . ? /du: ju: ' n� If/ LSabe(s) si . . . ?
Can you hel p me, pl ease? /kdn ju: ' help mi: pli:z/
L Puede(s) I Podria(s) ayudarme, por favor?
LHII b
AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
As far as I ' m concerned, . . . /cz fa: cz aim k�n' SJ:nd/
Por lo que a mi respecta I Por mi parte, . . .
I n my opi ni on, . . + /m mai �· pmj�n/ E n mi opi ni on,
I don't thi nk . . . /ai ' d�unt 81nk/ No creo (que) . . .
I bel ieve that . . + /ai b1' 1i: v oct/ Creo que . . .
I f you ask me, . . . /If ju: ' a: sk mi: / S i qui eres mi
opi ni on, . . .
I agree. /ai �· gri:/ Estoy d e acuerdo.
I thi nk you' re ri ght. /ai ' 81nk jJ: rait/ Creo que ti enes
raz6n .
You've got a poi nt. I ju:v got � ' pJmt/ Ti enes raz6n. ,
Es ci erto.
I di sagree. /ai d1s�'gri: I No estoy de acuerdo.
That's true. /' 8cts tru:/ Es verdad I ci erto.
GIVING A REASON
That's why . . . /' 8cts wai/ Es por eso por l o que . . , Por
eso . . .
The reason why . . . /5� 'ri:zn wai/ La raz6n por la que . .
Because of that . . + /bi'koz �v 8ct I Por eso . . .
LHII U
MAKING PLANS
Al l ri ght. Let's meet . . . /J:l rait lets 'mi:t + + + I
De acuerdo. Quedamos . . .
Fi ne. /fam/ Val e. , Bi en.
How about . . . ? /hau �· baut/ L Que tal si I te parece . . . ?
Sorry, I can't make i t. /' sori ai ka:nt meik It/
Lo si ento, no puedo.
That woul d be fi ne. /oct wud bi: ' fam/
Eso estaria bi en.
That's a good i dea ! /8cts � gud ai'di�/
i
Buena i dea !
What do you suggest? /wot d� ju: s�'d3est/
L Que recomi endas I sugi eres?
Why don't we . . . ? /wai ' d�unt wi:/ L POr que no . . . ?
I ' m dyi ng to see . . . /aim 'da1n t� si:/ Me muero por
ver . . .
I can't stand . . . /m ka: nt ' stcnd/ No soporto I
aguanto . . .
I woul dn't mi nd . . . /ai wudnt ' mamd/ No me
i mportaria . . .
I ' d rather see . . . /aid 'ra:o� si:/ Prefiero I Preferiria ver . . .
I ' m not real l y i nto + . . /aim not ' n�li m tu:/ No me
i nteresa(n) mucho . . +
SAYING "NO" TO A SUGGESTION
I ' d rather not . . . /aid 'ra:o� not/ Prefiero I Preferiria
no . . .
I ' m not keen on . . . /aim not ' ki: n on/ No me
i nteresa(n) . . .
I ' m not real l y i nterested i n . . . /aim not n�li ' mu·�sud
m/ No me i nteresa(n) mucho . . .
I have another i dea . . . /ai hcv �· nAo� aidi�/ Ten go
otra i dea . . .
Gl ossary


PEkASAlVkBS
En esta l i sta encontraras Ios mas comunes traducidos segun el contexto en que aparecen en este I i bra. Los
phrasal verbs se l l aman tambien multiword verbs porque van seguidos de una preposici6n, un adverbio o
ambas cosas.
back away: retroceder
bl ock off: cortar (el paso)
break away: separarse, desprenderse
break down: averi arse, estropearse
break i nto: i ntroduci rse I meterse en
break off: parti r
break out: estal l ar, produci rse
break up: separarse, romper
bri ng up: educar, cri ar
cal l off: cancel ar, suspender, anul ar
cal l on: pasar a ver, vi si tar
cal l up: l l amar por tel efono
carry on: conti nuar
catch on: ponerse de moda, tener exito
check i n: facturar (aeropuerto); registrarse ( hotel )
check out: pagar y marcharse (hotel )
cl ean up: l i mpi ar, arregl ar
come across: encontrar, encontrarse con ( por casual i dad)
come apart: deshacerse, hacerse pedazos
come back: regresar, vol ver
come down: baj ar
come off: desprenderse, sol tarse
come on: empezar (- ! : j vamos ! , j venga ! )
come up wi th: proponer, ocurrfrsel e a uno/a (i dea)
count on: contar con
cut down: reduci r, rebajar
cut off: ai sl ar
deal i n: comercia r con
deal wi th: ocuparse I encargarse de
dress up: vesti r(se) bi en I con el eganci a
end up: termi nar, acabar
feel l i ke: apetecer, tener ganas de
feel up to: senti rse capaz I con fuerzas de
fi gure out: comprender, expl i carse
fi l l i n: rel l enar ( i mpreso o documento)
fi nd out: descubri r, averi guar
fi t i n: encaj ar, adaptarse, congeni ar
get ahead: progresar, tener exi to
get away: escapar(se)
get away wi th: sal i rse con l a suya, quedar i mpune
get back: vol ver, regresar
get by: arregl arsel as
get down: bajarse, agacharse
get hol d of: coger(se), agarrar(se) de
get i nto: entrar I meterse en
get off: bajar(se) I apearse de
get on: l l evarse bi en; subi r(se) I montarse
get out of: escaparse I l i brarse de
get over: reponerse, superar
get together: reuni r(se), j untar(se)
get up: l evantarse; subi r
gi ve away: revel ar; del atar
gi ve back: devol ver
gi ve i n: rendi rse, darse por venci do
gi ve out: reparti r, di stri bui r
gi ve up: dejar, renunci ar a
go al ong: i r con, acompanar a
go away: i rse, marcharse
go back: vol ver, regresar
go down: bajar, descender; gustar, tener aceptaci 6n
go off: marcharse, i rse
go on: durar; conti nuar
go out: sal i r
go through wi th: l l evar a cabo, cumpl i r
grow up: cri arse, crecer
hang out: pasar el rato
hang up: col gar (el tel efono, un adorno)
hol d on: agarrarse
hol d up: l evantar; retrasar, retener
keep down: repr i mi r; opri mi r
keep off: prohi bi do (pasar, pi sar el cesped . . ); al ej ar(se),
apartar(se) de
keep on: segui r, conti nuar
ki ck off: expul sar I echar de
l eave out: omi ti r, dej ar fuera, excl ui r
let down: decepci onar, fal l ar, defraudar
l et i n: dej ar entrar, hacer pasar
l i ve up to: estar a l a al tura de; vi vi r de acuerdo con,
cumpl i r
l ock out: quedarse I dej ar fuera con l a puerta cerrada
look after: cu i dar a I de
l ook ahead: mi rar haci a el futuro
l ook away: apartar l a mi rada
l ook back (on): mi rar haci a atras; pensar en el pasado
l ook for: buscar
l ook forward to: esperar con ansi a, tener muchas ganas
de, estar deseando
l ook i n on: i r I pasar a ver a al gui en
l ook i nto: i nvesti gar, estudi ar
l ook on: consi derar
l ook out: tener cui dado
l ook over: revi sar, repasar
l ook through: i gnorar, fi ngi r no ver a al gui en, mi rar a
al gui en como si no estuvi era
l ook up: buscar; i r a vi si tar; mejorar
l ook up to: admi rar, respetar
make for: i r I di ri gi rse haci a I a
make up: componer
mi ss out on: desaprovechar, desperdi ci ar, dej ar pasar,
perder
pay back: rembol sar, devol ver (di nero); vengarse
pay for: pagar; ser casti gado
pay off: sal dar, l i qui dar; merecer l a pena
pi ck out: el egi r, escoger
pick up: coger, recoger
poi nt out: senal ar
put away: guardar, poner en su si ti o
put off: apl azar, posponer
put on: representar; ponerse (ropa)
put out: apagar (un ci garri l l o, l a l uz)
put up: col gar, poner
put up wi th: aguantar, soportar
ri ng off: col gar (el tel efono)
ri ng up: l l amar (por tel efono)
run after: persegui r
r un away from: escapar, hui r de
r un i nto: tropezar I encontrarse con
run off with: l l evarse, escaparse con
run out (of): quedarse (si n)
run over: atropel l ar
sel l out: vender todas l as entradas, agotar l as exi stenci as
serve on: ser mi embro de
set off I out: sal i r, ponerse en cami no
show up: aparecer, presentarse (en un si ti o)
si gn up: regi strarse, i nscr i bi rse
stand for: si gni fi car
stand out: destacar, sobresal i r
stand up: ponerse de pi e, l evantarse
stand up for: defender, respal dar, apoyar
stop by: pasarse por
switch off: apagar, desconectar (l a l uz, l a tel evi si on, el
tel efono)
switch on: encender, poner, conectar (l a l uz, l a
tel evi si on, el tel efono)
take after: parecerse a
take apart: desmontar ( un aparato)
take away: qui tar; l l evar(se)
take back: retractarse, reti rar (l o di cho)
take down: apuntar, anotar
PklP0Sl1l0NS
VERBS ¬ PREP0SITI0NS
apol ogi se for: di scul parse por
apol ogi se to: di scul parse con
appear i n: aparecer en
argue about: di scuti r sobre I por
argue wi th: di scuti r con
arrive at: l l egar a (un l ugar)
arrive i n: l l egar a (una ci udad, un pafs)
battl e for: l uchar por
care about: preocuparse I i nteresarse por
charge wi th: acusar de
cl i mb up: subi r, trepar (por)
communi cate wi th: comuni car(se) con
compl ai n about: quejarse de
crash i nto: estrel l ar(se) I chocar contra
enqui re about: preguntar por, i nformarse de
feel about: parecer (al go a al gui en); senti rse
fi ght for: l uchar por
fi l l wi th: l l enar de
go on (a tri p): ir (de vi aje)
hear about: enterarse de
i mpri son for: encarcel ar por
i nvest i n: i nverti r en
i nvite to: i nvi tar a
l i sten to: escuchar (a)
parti ci pate i n: practi car (un deporte); parti ci par I tomar
parte en
rel y on: depender de; confi ar en
search for: buscar
tal k about: habl ar de I sobre
tal k to I wi th: habl ar con
thi nk about: opi nar (sobre), parecer; pensar en
thi nk of: pensar en
wai t for: esperar a
work for: trabaj ar para
write about: escri bi r sobre
take off: despegar (avi on); quitarse (ropa)
take out: sacar
take over: reempl azar, adqui ri r, tomar
take part i n: parti ci par en
take up: empezar a hacer; dedi carse a; ocupar, l l enar
ti p over: vol car(se)
try on: probarse (ropa)
tune i n: si ntoni zar
turn around: dar(se) l a vuel ta
turn back: vol ver, regresar
turn down: bajar (el vol umen); rechazar
turn i nto: converti r(se) en
turn off: apagar, desenchufar (un aparato)
turn on: encender ( un aparato)
turn out: apagar ( un aparato)
turn over: dar l a vuelta a (una cosa)
turn up: subi r, poner mas fuerte I al to (el vol umen);
l l egar, aparecer
wake up: despertar(se)
work out: entender, resolver; hacer ejerci ci o
wri te down: apuntar, anotar
N0UNS ¬ PREP0SITI0NS
demand for: demanda I peti ci on de
di sadvantage of: desventaja de
effect on: efecto en
end of: fi nal de
form of: forma de
group of: grupo de
i ncrease i n: aumento en I de
mi xture of: mezcl a de
need for: necesi dad de
number of: canti dad I nu mero de
part of: parte de
reason for: razon para
rel ease from: puesta en l i bertad, excarcel aci on
si gn of: senal de
sol uti on to: sol uci on a I de
story of: hi stori a de
symbol of: sf mbol o de
ADJECTIVES + PREP0SITI0NS
(afer to be)
attracted to: (senti rse) atrafdo por
dependent on: dependi ente I que depende de
di fferent from: di ferente I di sti nto de
exci ted about: emoci onado I entusi asmado con
good at: bueno en I para
i nterested i n: i nteresado en
i nvol ved i n: meti do I i nvol ucrado en
l ate for: tarde para; ( l l egar) tarde a
pl eased about I wi th: contentola con, satisfechola de
pol ite to: educado con
proud of: orgul l oso de
rude to: grosero con
si mi l ar to: si mi l ar I pareci do a
sorry about I for: senti r, l amentar
worri ed about: preocupado por
lkkl6UlAkVlkBS
be /bi:/ was I were /woz/wJ:/ been /bi:n/ ser, estar
beat /bi:t/ beat /bi:t/ beaten /' bi:tn/ gol pear
become/br'kAm/ became /br' kerm/ become /br' kAm/ l l egar a ser
begi n /br' grn/ began /br' gen/ begun /br' gAn/ empezar
bend /bend/ bent /bent/ bent /bent/ dobl ar(se)
bet /bet/ bet /bet/ bet /bet/ apostar
bite /hart/ bit /brt/ bi tten /'brtn/ morder
bl eed /bli:d/ bl ed /bled/ bl ed /bled/ sangrar
bl ow /bl;u/ bl ew /blu:/ bl own /bl;un/ sopl ar
break /brerk/ broke /br;uk/ broken /' br;ukn/ romper
bri ng /bn!/ brought /br:/ brought /brJ:t/ traer
bui l d /brld/ bui l t /brit/ bui lt /brit/ construi r
burn /bJ:n/ burnt I burned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/ burnt I burned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/ quemar
burst /bJ:st/ burst /bJ:st/ burst /bJ:st/ reventar, estal l ar
buy /bar/ bought /bJ:t/ bought /bJ:t/ comprar
catch /ketf I caught /bt/ caught /bt/ coger, atrapar
choose /tfu:z/ chose /tf;uz/ chosen /' tf;uzn/ el egi r
come /kAm/ came /kerm/ come /kAm/ veni r
cost /knst/ cost /knst/ cost /knst/ cos tar
cut /kAt/ cut /kAt/ cut /kAt/ cortar
deal /di:l/ deal t /delt/ dealt /delt/ comerci ar, tratar
di g /drg/ dug /dAg/ dug /dAg/ cavar
do /du:/ di d /drd/ done /dAn/ hacer
draw /drJ:/ drew /dru:/ drawn I drJ:n/ di bujar
dream /dri:m/ dreamt I dreamed dreamt I dreamed sonar
I dremt/ dri:md/ /dremt/dri:md/
dri nk /dn!Jk/ drank /dre!Jk/ drunk /drA!Jk/ beber
dri ve /drarv/ drove /dr;uv/ dri ven /' drrvn/ conduci r
eat /i:t/ ate /ert/ eaten /' i:tn/ corer
fal l /bl/ fel l /fel/ fal l en /' fJ:ln/ caer(se)
feed /fi:d/ fed /fed/ fed /fed/ al i mentar
feel /f: l/ felt /felt/ felt /felt/ senti r(se)
fi ght /fan/ fought /bt/ fought /bt/ l uchar
fi nd /farnd/ found /faund/ found /faund/ encontrar
fl y /flar/ fl ew /fu:/ fl own /f;un/ vol ar
forget /f;' get/ forgot /f;'gnt/ forgotten /f;'gntn/ ol vi dar
forgi ve /f;' grv/ forgave /f;'gerv/ forgi ven /f;' grvn/ perdonar
freeze /fri:z/ froze /fr;uz/ frozen /'fr;uzn/ congel ar(se)
get /get/ got /got/ got /got/ consegui r; l l egar
gi ve /grv/ gave /gerv/ gi ven /' grvn/ dar
go /g;u/ went /went/ gone /gnn/ i r
grow /grdU/ grew /gru:/ grown /gr;un/ crecer; cul tivar
hang /he!/ hung I hanged /hA!/he!d/ hung I hanged /hA!/he!d/ col gar
have /hev/ had /hed/ had /hed/ tener; haber
hear /hr;/ heard /hJ:d/ heard /hJ:d/ ofr
hi de /hard/ hi d /hrd/ hi dden /' hrdn/ esconder(se)
hi t /hrt/ hi t /hrt/ hit /hrt/ gol pear, pegar
hol d /hdUld/ hel d /held/ hel d /held/ sujetar
hurt /hn/ hurt /hn/ hurt /hJ:t/ heri r, hacer dano
keep /ki:p/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ guardar, mantener
know /ndU/ knew /nju:/ known /ndUn/ saber, conocer
l ay /!er/ l ai d /lerd/ l ai d /lerd/ poner, extender
l ead /li:d/ led /led/ l ed /led/ gui ar, conduci r
l earn /b:n/ l earnt I l earned /b:nt/b:nd/ l earnt I l earned /b:nt/b:nd/ aprender
l eave /li:v/ left /left/ l eft /left/ dej ar; i rse, sal i r
l end /lend/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ prestar
l et /let/ l et /let/ l et /let/ permi ti r, dejar
l i e /lar/ l ay /!er/ l ai n /!ern/ tumbarse, echarse
1 44
�+
. NO ,
l i e /lai/ (regul ar verb) l i ed /laid/ l i ed /laid/ menti r
l i ght /lait/ lit /ht/ lit /!It/ encender
l ose /lu:z/ lost /lnst/ lost /lnst/ perder
make /meik/ made /meid/ made /meid/ hacer, fabri car
mean /mi:n/ meant /ment/ meant /ment/ si gni fi car, querer deci r
meet /mi:t/ met /met/ met /met/ conocer a; reuni rse con
pay /pei/ paid /peid/ pai d /peid/ pagar
put /put/ put /put/ put /put/ poner
read /ri:d/ read /red/ read /red/ l eer
ri de /raid/ rode /r�ud/ ri dden /' ndn/ montar
ri ng /nn/ rang /r<!/ rung /rA!/ l l amar (por tel efono)
ri se /raiz/ rose /r�uz/ ri sen /' nzn/ el evarse, al zarse
run /rAn/ ran /r<n/ run /rAn/ correr
say /sei/ sai d /sed/ sai d /sed/ deci r
see /si:/ saw /sJ:/ seen /si:n/ ver
sel l /se!/ sold /s�uld/ sol d /s�uld/ vender
send /send/ sent /sent/ sent /sent/ envi ar
set /set/ set /set/ set /set/ col ocar
sew /s�u/ sewed I s�ud/ sewn /s�un/ coser
shake /feik/ shook /fuk/ shaken /'feikn/ agi tar
shi ne /fam/ shone /fnn/ shone /fnn/ bri l l ar
shoot /fu:t/ shot /fnt/ shot !fnrl di sparar
show !f�u/ showed ;f�ud/ shown ;f�un/ mostrar
shut /fAt/ shut /fAt/ shut /fAt/ cerrar
si ng /si!/ sang /s<!/ sung /sA!J/ can tar
si nk /si!k/ sank /s<!Jk/ sunk /sA!k/ hundi rse
si t /sit/ sat /s<t/ sat /s<t/ sentarse
sl eep /sli:p/ sl ept /slept/ sl ept /slept/ dormi r(se)
smel l /smell smel t I smel l ed smel t I smel l ed ol er
I smelt/ smeld/ /smelt/smeld
;
speak /spi:k/ spoke /sp�uk/ spoken /' sp�ukn/ habl ar
spel l /spell spelt I spel l ed spel t I spel l ed del etrear
/spelt/ speld/ I spelt/ speld/
spend /spend/ spent /spent/ spent /spent/ gastar; pasar (ti empo)
spi l l /spii/ spi l t I spi l l ed spi l t I spi l l ed derramar(se)
/spilt/ spild/ /spii t/ spi!d/
spoi l /spJII/ spoi l t I spoi l ed spoi l t I spoi l ed arrui nar, estropear
I spJilt/ spJild/ I spJI!t/ spJild/
spread /spred/ spread I spred/ spread /spred/ untar; di fundi r(se)
spri ng /spn!J/ sprang /spr<!/ sprung /sprA!J/ sal tar
stand /st<nd/ stood I stud/ stood I stud/ estar de pi e
stea I I st:l/ stole /st�ul/ stol en /'st�uln/ robar
stick I suk/ stuck I stAk/ stuck /stAk/ pegar
sti ng I sti!/ stung /stA!/ stung I stA!/ pi car (un i nsecto)
swear /swe�/ swore 1 swJ:/ sworn /swJ:n/ j urar
sweep /swi:p/ swept /swept/ swept I swept/ barrer
swi m /swim/ swam /sw<m/ swum /swAm/ nadar
take /teik/ took /tuk/ taken /' teikn/ coger, l l evar
teach /ti:tf/ taught /tJ:t/ taught /tJ:t/ ensenar
tear /te�/ tore /tJ:/ torn /tJ:n/ romper, desgarrar
tel l /tell tol d /t�uld/ tol d /t�uld/ deci r, contar
thi nk /9I!k/ thought /On/ thought /9J:t/ pensar
throw /9r�u/ threw /9ru:/ thrown /9r;un/ arrojar, ti rar
understand I Ande'sr<nd/ understood I Ande'stud/ understood I Ande'stud/ comprender, entender
wake up /'weik Ap/ woke up /'w�uk Ap/ woken up /'w�ukn Ap/ despertar(se)
wear /we�/ wore /wJ:/ worn /wJ:n/ l l evar puesto, ponerse
wi n /wm/ won /wAn/ won /wAn/ ganar
wri te /ran/ wrote /r�ut/ wri tten /'ntn/ escri bi r

··
*.¯
YKÎ1ÎlO O\ÎLL
The Writing Process
STEP 1 : BRAI NSTORM FOR I DEAS
• W| Iedow¤a' ' I¤e dea:yo0ca¤I¤ ¤<ol.
• ¯o¤Iwo||yaco0Iw¤eI¤e|!¤e dea :|e' eva¤!.
• ¯o¤Iwo||yaco0Ig|a¤¤a| o|:µe' ' ¤g.
• Yo0 ca¤w| Ie ¤ yo0| ow¤ a¤g0age.
STEP 2: ORGANI SE YOUR I DEAS
• ¯ec dew¤ c¤ dea:Io<eeµa¤dco::o0!
I¤eoI¤e:.
• G|o0µ: ¤ ' a| dea:IogeI¤e|.
• O|ga¤ :eI¤eg|o0µ:acco|d ¤gIoaw I ¤gµ a¤
STEP 3: FOCUS ON LANGUAGE
• T¤ ¤<olwo|d:a¤dexµ|e:: o¤:yoJ w ' ' ¤eed ¤yo0|
wo|<.
STEP 4: WRI TE A FI RST DRAFT
• W| Ieyo0| l |:Id|alIo¤ I¤eco¤µ0!eo cy ¤a¤d.
' lyo0aew| ! ¤gcy¤a¤d, 0:ea µe¤c ' . .eavew de
¤a|g ¤:lo|¤o!e:
• .eave:µace ceIwee¤ ¤e:loadd ! o¤:a¤d
coec! o¤:.
• W Ieq0 c<' y. ¯o¤ !wo|yaco0!¤eaI¤e::oacc0acy.
• ' lyo0 ca¤ !I¤ ¤<ola wo|d ¤ c¤g' :¤, w| !e ! ¤ yo0
ow¤ ' a¤g0age. .oo<0µ!¤ewo|d ¤a d cI o¤a|y ' aIe|
• ' lyo0 ca¤' I:µe' a wo|d,w !e Ia¤yway yo0 ca¤.
T¤e¤c¤ec<I¤ewo|d ¤a d c! o¤a|yo|0:ea
:µe' ' c¤ec<w¤e¤ yo0 ¤avel ¤ :¤ed
¹0|I:. A{tec»:�;:b:
_:ø�:ø«e t: b×y::mt|i� y:× ce«||y»ø·u
_e·te :{ ce.µ:»ibi|ity
Pvor •epl�itteekqer
_¹iceø ø×ci� |e.::: qtec »:cki� |øte øt ui¸|t
_:ce ow�yt: :µea
_|ect: :_ø·ti:ey:×ctime
b�v s6l&�rie
_:<'t l«e t: ø:k µøce·tt:{:ce«ecyt|i�
_:te�q|timt::t×øy{:ceøm.
qc:uµA - |:cki� �: � µ::iti«e eµecie+e
qc:×µ 5 - |i�mi�|�ø«�mqe :{»:ckiq
qc:uµ ( - |_t :�:c|::|»:ck
,


(
r
t
(
(
1 ¸
!,
' !
. ´
STEP 5: CHECK YOUR WORK
• O:eI¤eW Ie|: C¤ec<' :!o¤I¤ :µage!o
¤µ|oveyo0|wo<.
Worki1 duxi1 tter-sdwol hours CcJ 3ive teef1ers
excellevt
�Lie experieJe. First of cll, they jci�t " seJe
their
of rupoJibility. Ti i bucuse they will Lose �ob
do�'t I�"dditio�t
if they �com Lcte or � show up. �o. worki1
teef1ers 1ve Less free ttme, so they use
STEP 6: WRI TE A FI NAL DRAFT
• 'l yo0 aew I ¤g cy ¤a¤d. coµyyo0|co||ec!ed
wo|< ¤ea!' yo¤!o a c ea¤:¤eeIol µaµe|
• O:ea µe¤a¤d eavea ¤ag ¤o¤ !¤e'el!-¤a¤d: de
• \a<e:0|eyo0|µa|agaµ¤:ae c ea|' y ¤d ca!ed.
NOTE
Yo0 ca¤ ¤d caIe!¤eceg ¤¤ ¤gola µa|ag|aµ¤ cy.
1 . ¤de¤! ¤g,¤ov ¤g!¤el |:!wod olI¤e µaag|aµ¤!o!¤e| g¤I)
2. :< µµ ¤ga ¤ecelo|eceg ¤¤ ¤ga ¤ewµaag|aµ¤ cac¤ µa|ag|aµ¤ ceg ¤: a!I¤eelI-¤a¤d~a|g ¤
Wri ti ng Gui de
,- -
BoI¤:!y' e:ae co|ec!, c0!ceco¤: :Ie¤! ¤yo0 w ! ¤g. T¤e ¤de¤Ied:Iy' e : µeleed lo| ¤lo~a eIIe|:.
WRI TER'S CHECKLI ST
0@//]/T0/
.I OYcJed my work "aordi1
to " plc:�.
. fcch P"�rph 1s 01 topic.
0 My pcnympls cre derly
iliccted.
.My ides c:re i� " LojiCcL
order.
.I used suitcble coJetors to
LiJ my ides.
c0/1|/1
.My work i ivt eruti1
cM orfifl.
. I bt:cJt with " suitcble
opeJ1 sevt eJe.
. I pruevt ed my ides derly.
. I iJeluded omy releVc: v ides.
.I supported my ides with
detcils cM excmple {opifto�,
for "ltd q"iJt us"y) .
. I eld witJ " suitcble dosi1
sevt eJee.
. I used COJe tors to LiJ.tk my
ides.

L q||
L My jrmWr i correct.
¸ '" My spelli1 i correct.
.My word order i corrut.
.My pu�tCtUtio�t i correct.
.I used CcpitcL Letters corretly.
n I used "djutivu correctly.
'--
Writing Skills
WORD ORDER
Wo|d o|de| :ve|y ¤µo|!a¤! ¤ c¤g' :¤. T¤e0:0a o|de| :
subject + verb + object + additi ons
Note the fol l owi ng:
1 . ' la :e¤!e¤ce ¤a:co!¤a d ec!a¤da¤ ¤d |ec!oc¡ec!,!¤eea|eol!e¤!wo µo:: c ' ! e:
' gaveyou the l etter .
' gave!¤el etter to you . .
2 . Ma¤y! ¤eexµ|e:: o¤:ca¤co¤ea!!¤eceg ¤¤ ¤go|!¤ee¤dol!¤e:e¤!e¤ce.
Today, wedo¤ ! ¤avea¤y¤o¤ewo|<. .
We do¤! ¤avea¤y¤o¤ewo|<today . .
3 . 'eve|:eµaa!e!¤eve|clo¤!: oc¡ec!,:).Weca¤¤o!:ay
Wedo¤'! ¤ave!odaya¤y ¤o¤ewo<. X
4. Adve|c:ol¤a¤¤e|ca¤co¤e ·¤ :eve|a' µo: ! o¤:, c0!¤o! ce!wee¤!¤eve|ca¤d !¤eoc¡ec!.
Careful ly, :¤e oµe¤ed !¤e cox. .
S¤ecareful l y oµe¤ed!¤ecox. .
S¤eoµe¤ed!¤e cox careful ly . .
S¤eoµe¤edca|el0' '¸!¤ecox. X
5. Adve|c:oll|eq0e¤cyco¤ecelo|e!¤e¤a ¤ve|c. So¤eca¤co¤ea! !¤eceg ¤¤ ¤g
a¤dI o!¤ee¤dola :e¤!e¤cea:we' ' .
Wesometi mes µ ayloo!ca . .
Someti mes we µ' ayloo!ca' ' . .
We never µ' ayloo!ca' ' . .
SUBJ ECT-VERB AGREEMENT
We µ' ayloo!ca' someti mes . .
'eve|we µ' ayloo!ca' ' . X
T¤evec : : ¤g0' a| o| µ' 0|a' , deµe¤d ¤go¤ !¤e:0c|ec!.
T¤echi l d l oves !o µa ¤! . ,: ¤g0' a|)I T¤echi l dren l ove !o µa ¤!. , µ 0a' )
Note the fol l owi ng:
1 . S ¤g0 a| ¤o0¤:!¤a!|ele!og|o0µ: ca¤ ¤avee !¤e|: ¤g0' a| o|µ' 0|a vec:.
Myla¤ ' y does I do ¤a¤y!¤ ¤g:!oge!¤e|
2 . A¤o0¤!:a¤dq0a¤! ! e: 0:0a' ' y ¤ave: ¤g0' a| ve|c:.
² ve!¤o0:a¤ddo a: was lo0¤d ¤!¤e:0 !ca:e
3. Wo|d: <eanyone, everybody a¤d nobody ¤ave: ¤g0' a| ve|c:
Does a¤yo¤e¤avea¤y¤o¤ey!o ' e¤d ¤e`
'!¤ ¤<eveycodyi s ¤e|e.
'ocodywants !o' eaveye!.
4. Mo:! 0¤co0¤!ac e¤o0¤:¤avego!: ¤g0' a ve|c:.
Yo0| adv cewas exce' ' e¤!
T¤e¤ew:i s veyexc ! ¤g
5. So¤e0¤co0¤!ac' e¤o0¤:¤avego!µ' 0|a' ve|c:.
Yo0 cl othes ae :ola:¤ o¤ac e '
Wri ti ng Gui de
USE OF ADJ ECTIVES
1 . Ad¡ecI ve:co¤eceloe¤o0¤:a¤dalIe|ceIa ¤ve|c:.
a bl ack ca!7 a ca!c ac< × ¬e' oo<:upset 7
2 . T¤ead¡ec! velo|¤lo : ¤g0 a a¤dµ' 0|a ¤o0¤:: I¤e:a~e.
a¤excel l ent l ' ¤I excel l ent l ' ~: 7 exce' e¤!:l ~: ×
3. Ad¡ecIve:lo' owa :µec l co|de| opi ni on + si ze or age + col our + ori gi n + materi al .
a fantasti c, new Japanese ca 7 a la¤!a:I_

¹aQa¤e:e ¤ew ca| ×
CONNECTORS
Co¤¤ecIo:a|e ¤< ¤gwo|d:w¤ c¤¡ o ¤ dea:a¤d:¤ow¤owI¤o:e dea:ae |e' aIed!oo¤ea¤oI¤e|.
\ <e goI ¤Io!¤eca:<e!ca ' !ea¤ because ¤e: a Ia' e¤¯ed µ aye| ,Io g ve a ea:o¤)
¬ewa¤I:!o ¤µove ¤ : ga~e, so ¤eµ|ac! :e:eveydayal!e:c¤oo ,Iode:c ce a e:0 !)
¬e:µe¤d:a o!ol! ¤e!a ¤ ¤g, but ¤e:I ' ' geI: ¤ g¤¤a|<:aI:c¤oo ,Ioexµe::a co¤!|a:!)
T¤ey a :o ¤e' µ0:Ioo|ga¤ :eo0| w I ¤ga¤d¤a<e !ea:y lo|I¤e|eade|Iolo' ' ow.
\a¤yµeoµ' elee I¤a!!¤ey~0:!a'way:weaexµe¤: ve, c|a¤d·¤a¤ec' o!¤e:. Fi rst of al l , !¤eyc' a ¤I¤a! l!¤ey
do¤!,!¤eywo¤ !' oo<goodoceacceµ!edcyo!¤eµeoµ' e. I n addi ti on, !¤ey:ayI¤a!ca¤d·¤a~ec' o!¤e:a|e
de: g¤ed ce!!e. However, ca¤d¤a¤ec' o!¤e:¤aved :adva¤!age:. For exampl e, !¤eca¤d ¤a¤e :ol!e¤
µ ¤Ied ¤ a|ge e!!e|: o¤ !¤ec o!¤e:. As a resul t, wea| ¤g!¤e¤I0¤:yo0 ¤!oa wa' < ¤gadve! :e¤e¤!
Study the chart of connectors and phrases below.
to add poi nts on the
same
to express a contrast
to descri be a cause or reason
to descri be a resul t
to show
to express personal opi ni ons
to i ntroduce facts
to make statements
to l i st poi nts
to gi ve exampl es
to i ntroduce opposi ng poi nts
to show sequence
to show ti me
to concl ude
and I i n additi on I furthermore I moreover I what's more I besi des I
al so I too I as wel l as
but I however I neverthel ess I yet I sti l l I al though I even if I
even / i n of /
because (of) I si nce I due to I as I as a resul t of I
one/another reason for . . . is . . .
so I therefore I consequentl y I thus I a s a resul t I a s a consequence I
for thi s reason I that is why
I l i kewise I i n the same
i n my opi ni on I I (strongly) bel i eve (that) I I thi nk I feel (that) I i n my vi ew I
it seems to me (that) I I as I see it
I the truth is (that)
i n
t o begi n/start wi th I i n the fi rst pl ace I first of al l I for one t hi ng I
I I
on the one hand I on the other hand I i n contrast I contrary to I it can
al so be that I but there are who (that)
fi rst I at fi rst I i n the begi nni ng I before I next I then I soon I meanwhi l e I l ater I
after that I afterwards I at last I I I in the end I I when
i n concl usi on I to sum up I i n short I al l i n al l
l
YKÍJÍPO / Í/K/OK1ÍÎ
A µaagaµ¤co¤: :!:ol:evea :e¤Ie¤ce:aco0!a ceIa ¤Ioµ c. ' I¤a:!¤elo' ' ow ¤gµaI:
1 . a topi c sentence w¤ c¤g ve:I¤e ~a ¤ dea ol!¤e µaagaµ¤
2. supporti ng sentences w¤ c¤add ea:o¤:, deIa ' :a¤dexa~µ' e:
3. a concl udi ng sentence w¤ c¤ ' ead:o¤Io!¤e¤exIµaagaµ¤o:0¤~a :e:I¤e ~a ¤ dea
0||/I/q
b0f)
c0/c|!,I0/

! t|.m!`m¸ett.·¡ tee e|ete¸e e� lo|.eøy ».t| my,øc.. |e· e� t|._, t|eyeqey¸s.·¡ te
meum øa|ee|._ øt{ømu bu.|e.·¡:, but! t|.m t|i. i: be·._. !`e·øth· ·e|øx øt tm beøc|
e·¸e :|,,.·¡.
A ø ·eu|t, »e e{te�øççue»|e�»e'·e e�|e|.eøy !�øee.t.e�, !'e|.|ete:tøy øt,|ø:e.»|e·e!
• _ cø�meetetm·yeu·¡ ,e,|e. |e·e·øm,|e, yeut| |e:te|: ø·e{u|| e{yeu·¡ t·ø.e||e·:.
¯!
/|| .�ø||, ø|t|e_|| |e«emy,ø·e�:, !'e,·e {e·te¸e e�|o|.eøy ».t|¡.ea:.
T¤eµaI:ola µaagaµ¤:¤o0' dl' ow' og ca' 'y T¤eµaagaµ¤ ¤0:! ce ea:yIo 0¤de:!a¤d.
Yo0 ca¤acco~µ' :¤I¤ :cy
1 . 0: ¤g µo¤o0¤:Ioelecac<IoI¤e ¤o0¤: ¤!¤eIex!
2 . 0: ¤gco¤¤ecIo:Io:¤owI¤eco¤¤ec! o¤:ce!wee¤ dea:,:ee!¤e c¤aI o¤ µage 1 49) .
YKÍJÍPO /P Lbb/A
A¤ e::ayco¤: :I:ol:evea' µaagaµ¤:aco0Ia Ioµ c. T¤ee ae ~a¤yd llee¤!< ¤d:ole::ay:, c0II¤eya' '
¤ave!¤e:a~eca: cµ' a¤.
1 . THE OPENI NG
T¤eoµe¤ ¤g :a ge¤ea' µe:e¤IaI o¤olI¤e!oµ c TyIo:!aI yo0e::ayw I¤a¤oµe¤ ¤g!¤aIw ca!c¤
yo0 eade: ¤Iee:I. ¬ee ae :o~e dea:.
a. Beg ¤w !¤a :0µ : ¤glac!
T¤o0:a¤d:olµ geo¤:¤aved edol:!ava! o¤: ¤ce!¤e'o¤do¤ C IyCo0¤c ~ade ! ega' !oleed!¤e¤
c. Beg ¤w I¤a :¤oIa¤ecdoIeaco0!ea' o ¤ag ¤ayeve¤I:.
¬ay²' eIc¤e¤a:wo<eda!Tala' ga Sq0aeeveydaylo!¤eµa:!25 yea:, :e' ' ¤g loodloI¤e
µ geo¤: 'ow, ¤e ¤a:¤owo<ceca0:eI¤ea0!¤o I e:¤avedec ded!o¤a<e ¤ :|oc ' ega
c . Beg ¤w I¤a q0e:I o¤.
Ca¤yo0 ¤ag ¤eTala gaSq0aew !¤o0! !:µ geo¤:`
' lyo0 ca¤ !I¤ ¤<¤owIoceg ¤, do¤ !woy. Goo¤Io!¤ecodyol!¤ee::ay. Yo0 ca¤a'way:w Ie!¤e
oµe¤ ¤g aIe. T¤e ~µo!a¤!I¤ ¤g :!o <eeµgo ¤g.
2. THE BODY
T¤ecody¤a:go!o¤eo ¤oe µaagaµ¤:w¤ c¤deve' oµI¤eIoµ c. W¤e¤yo0weeµeµa ¤g!ow !e,
yo0 ca ¤:!o~edlo dea:,:eeµage 1 46) . T¤e¤ yo0 c¤o:e dea:Io0:e a¤d µ0II¤e:e dea: ¤!ogo0µ: ¤
a ' og ca' ode. O:e!¤e:ego0µ: ol dea:Iow IeI¤ecodyolI¤ee::ay. cac¤go0µol dea:w ' ceco~ea
:eµaa!eµaagaµ¤.
3. THE CLOSI NG
T¤ec' o: ¤g :a µaagaµ¤w¤ c¤:0¤¤a :e:I¤e~a ¤ deaoµe:e¤!:a co¤c 0: o¤. !:¤o0 d¤o!c ¤g ¤
¤ew dea: ' ¤:o~eca:e:, !¤ec o: ¤g¤ayce: ¤ ' a Io!¤eoµe¤ ¤g, c0!µe:e¤!ed ¤d llee¤!wod:.
' I:¤o0 da' way: eaveI¤eeadew I¤a :!o¤g ¤µe:: o¤.
' ¤co¤c 0: o¤, ! :µo:: c e!og ve!¤eµ geo¤: e::lood, :oI¤a!!¤eyw oo<lolood:o~ew¤ee e :e.
T¤ :wo0' dce¤oe ¤0~a¤eI¤a¤:!av ¤gI¤e~!odeaI¤
/ ÒLb\KÍÍJÍOP O! / ÍLKbOP
A de:c| µ! o¤ola µe|:o¤ g ve:a ¤ ~µ|e:: o¤olw¤a!!¤a!µe|:o¤ : ' <eo| olo0|
|e a! o¤:¤ µw !¤!¤e~. ' !0:0a' ' y ¤c' 0de:de!a : aco0!!¤eµe|:o¤': aµµeaa¤ce,
¤!e|e:!: a¤d µe:o¤a !y. .oo<a!!¤e!oµ cce' ow. T¤e¤:!0dy!¤e µ a¤ a¤d ead
!¤e~ode .
TOPI C:
W| !ea de:c| µ! o¤ol:o¤eo¤eyo0' <e.
PLAN:
My Friend Scott
Writi ng Gui de
0||/I/q
bø:.: .qe ·ot.e»
.»t·eeu:._ th,e·:e�·
Scott is a really good friend of mine. We' re both in the same crowd and
we all go out quite often, but sometimes j ust the two of us get together
after school.
b0f)
fe:·.,t.e�e{t|u
,e·:eu+ øµ,e·ø+e,
,e·:eu|.ty, .»te·et:
øu ø:t.«.t.e., øu I
e ·yeu· ·e|øt.eu|.,
c|03I/q
c|e:.q ·eo·ka øuI ¯
e· yeu· e,:usu
USEFUL LANGUAGE
Descri bi ng Peopl e
. .............................·····-..·
¬eI S¤e: a c !I veyI q0 !e . .
¬eI S¤e¤a:go! . . .
Scott ' s short and well-built. He' s got fair, wavy hair with amazing blue
eyes - girls think he' s quite attractive ! He works out in the gym three
times a week and at weekends he likes to go camping. I sometimes go
away for the weekend with him and his family - we have a great time.
He can be a bit bossy, but I don' t mind because he's such great
company. He' s generous and helpful , and I can always count on him to
be there when I need him. I think that's really important in a friend.
Scott is a lot of fun and a great pal. He's one of my favourite people.
Physi cal Appearance
!a' ' I :¤or!I µe! !e
we -c0 ' !I c¤0ccyI :' ~
Pers
?��
� i
�y
. ·
co::y
ge¤e|o0:
T¤ece:!!¤ ¤gaco0!¤ ~I ¤e| : .
¬eI S¤e :a gea!l| e¤d
good- oo< ¤gI go|geo0:I a!!|ac!veI µ' a ¤
:!|a g¤!I wavyI c0|' yI :µ <yI :¤o0 de-' e¤g!¤
¤a |
¤e' µl0'
a o!oll0¤
:¤y . :|ea' ' y ~µo|!a¤! ¤a l| e¤dI
a!eac¤e|
. . . :o¤eol¤ylavo0| !eµeoµ' e
I ea' y ' <e ¤ ~I ¤e|a o!
la | I da|< ¤a | o|:< ¤
c|ow¤I c' 0eI gee¤eye:
:e¤:eol¤0~o0|
:e' l :¤
:!0cco|¤
co¤: de|a!e
ca' ~
/ P/KK/JÎ
A ¤a|a! ve :a :!o|yaco0!a :e| e: oleve¤!:a¤dI¤e µeoµ e ¤vo' ved ¤ I¤e¤.
.oo< a!I ¤eIoµ cce' ow. T¤e¤:!0dyI ¤eµ' a¤a¤d|ead! ¤e~ode
TOPI C:
W !ea ¤aaI veaco0!a I µyo0Ioo<
PLAN:
OPENING
TYLI drlcters,
wl-re irt wl1 tl-
story tlks plice
FODY
Evelts i1 tlstory,
lww tl chmcters
jet
CLOSING
Tert i' oftl-
story
USEFUL LANGUAGE

[
The Trai n to London
Last weekend, my brother Alan and I decided to go to London.
We wanted to do some shopping and see a show. We bought our tickets
and ran to catch the train.
There was a big crowd trying to get on, so we lost sight of each other
and ended up in separate carriages. I walked up and down the train,
but I couldn' t find Alan. An hour later, our train pulled into Waterloo
station.
I got off and stood on the platform. I waited for ages, but there was no
sign of Alan. I tried to phone him, but he didn' t answer. Shocked, I sat
down on a bench. Where was he?
About 40 endless minutes later, I saw him. "I fel l asleep and missed the
station! " he explained. "When I woke up, I got off and took the next
train back. My phone? It' s at home. Sorry about that ! " I felt relieved,
but angry. What a way to begin our day i n London!
Ti me Expressi ons Connectors of Sequence
¡ . . . .•••.••.•. . . . . .. .. ••••••••••••• . . . . . ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••¸ . .
.a:I wee<e¤dI :0¤¤eI yea| ... aIl |:I a::oo¤ a:
Two yea|:ago celoe :oo¤
' Iwa:a co' dI ¤oII :Io¤yday .
' Ia' cega¤w¤e¤ . . .
O¤ealIe|¤oo¤ . . .
²o|I0¤aIe' yI O¤lo|I0¤a!e yI .0c< ' y . . .
To ¤y:0|µ| :e . . .
I le ! . . .
T¤el0¤¤yI¤ ¤g :!¤aI . . .
Beloe I <¤ew I . . .
al!e| :0dde¤ y
¤exI w¤ ' e
' a!e| d0 ¤g
w¤e¤ eve¤!0a' y
!¤e¤ ¤I¤ee¤d
0¤I ¤ea¤w¤ e
Wri ti ng Gui de
/ DÍOOKÎA
A c og|aµ¤y : a de:c µ! o¤ol a µe:o¤: le. '! :¤o0' d ¤c 0deo¤' y ~µo|Ia¤!eve¤I:
a¤d ¤lo|¤aI o¤, eav ¤go0I~ ¤o deIa ' :. T¤ : ¤lo|¤a! o¤ :0:0a y,c0!¤oIa way:)
µ|e:e¤!ed ¤ c¤|o¤o og ca ode .oo<aI!¤eIoµ cce ow. T¤e¤:!0dy!¤e µ a¤a¤d
eadI¤e¤ode' .
TOPI C:
W| Iea c og|aµ¤yola µe|:o¤w¤o : ¤µo|!a¤I!oyo0 co0¤Iy.
PLAN:
0||/I/q

|h th ,ec::»i øu
»nth,:hi {ømu.
{:c
.
b0f)
|øc|y|(e øm:ø·ec
ee.e|:,o�:
c|03I/q
3umocy:{ . _
,ec::uø:|ie.eo�: I
{utuce ,|c�
USEFUL LANGUAGE
wa:co|¤o¤I ¤ . . .
:la¤o0:lo . . .
Tony Blair
Tony Bl air served as Prime Mini ster of Great Britain from 1 997 to
2007. He was a young, charismatic leader who brought the Labour
Party to victory after many years of Conservative goverment.
Bl air was bor in 1 953 in Edinburgh, Scotland. As a teenager he was a
rebell ious student who disobeyed school rules. While he was studying
law at Oxford, he also played in a rock band. He became a Member of
Parliament i n 1 983 and leader of the Labour Party i n 1 994. In 1 997 he
became the youngest prime mini ster i n 1 85 years.
One of Blair' s most important accomplishments as prime mini ster was
helping to end the conflict in Northern Ireland. Towards the end of hi s
term, however, he became unpopular due to hi s support for the war i n
Iraq.
Blair continues to be politically active. There is a possibility that he
may become the first president of the European Counci l .
' ¤I¤el0I0e
¬eI :¤eµ a¤:Io . . .
:o¤eolI¤ewo|' d: ¤o:II ce:I . .
a!I¤eageol .
¬ e I :¤e :¤oµ ¤g!o .
¤eI :¤ewa¤!edIo ceco¤e
:µe¤I¤ :I ¤e|c¤ ' d¤ood ¤ . .
a:a Iee¤age, . .
¤eI :¤edec dedIo ceco¤e . . .

¬
/ ÒLb\KÍÍJÍOP OÎ / ÍL/\L
A de:c| µI o¤ola µ' ace g ve:a¤ ¤µe:: o¤olw¤aI!¤a!µ' ace :' <e. ' I0:0a' ' y
¤c' 0de:µ¤y: ca' de!a ' ::0c¤a: ' ocaI o¤, :ce¤e|y, ex!e oa¤d ¤!e o, ¤de:c| µI o¤:
ola c0 d ¤g) !~aya :o de:c ce !¤ege¤e|a aI~o:µ¤e|e. .oo<a!!¤e!oµ cce ow.
T¤e¤:!0dy!¤e µ' a¤a¤d ead !¤e~ode
TOPI C:
W| !eaco0!a goodµ' acelo|a ¤o' day.
PLAN:
b0f)
fc:ci,tu�»u|o·e
ee�i|, e�o,|c:{
t|._: t: :ee�uee:
c|03I/q
c:lLu.i1 :e·ite·ve
�m :,.�:�: c
·e:oum �t.:�
USEFUL LANGUAGE
:o¤eol!¤e~o:I . . .
' I :' ocaIed .
Yo0 ' ¤o! ce . . .
Yo0 ca¤ . .
V : !o|::¤o0 dµ a¤o¤ . . .
Yo0 ' ' ¤eve|lo|geI .
V : !o|:ca¤e¤¡oy . .
'! olle|: . .
Yo0 :¤o0' d¤I ~ :: . .
Zermatt
Zermatt is a resort town in southern Switzerland. It's located at the foot
of the majestic Matterhorn, one of the most famous mountains in the
Alps.
Zermatt is a picturesque vil lage with lovely houses, streets and shops
as well as breathtaking Alpine scenery. It is quiet and clean because
no cars are allowed there. Electric buses and taxis and horse-drawn
carriages are the only forms of public transport.
The vill age is a world-famous ski resort with skiing all year round.
Visitors can also enjoy hiking, biking or riding a cable-car to the top of
the mountain. Bars, restaurants, clubs and casinos provide lively night­
time entertainment.
In summer or winter, Zermatt is unforgettable. It' s a great place to
spend a holiday.
la~o0:
µeacel0
' ve' y
cea0! l0
|e' ax ¤g
a¤c e¤I
~ode|¤
q0eI
l0¤
Writi ng Gui de
/ ÎOK /PÒ /O/ÍPbJ Lbb/A
Aloa¤daga ¤:!e::ay: 0:0a' ' yaco0!a co¤!|ove: a' ::0e. '! µe:e¤I:coI¤ : de:ol
!¤e ::0ea¤dI¤e¤co¤c' 0de:cy:0µµoI ¤g o¤eolI¤e: de:. .oo< a!I¤e!oµ cce ow.
T¤e¤:I0dyI¤e µ a¤a¤d |ead !¤e~ode' .
TOPI C:
W !ealoa¤daga ¤:Ie::ayo¤a Ioµ cco¤¤ec!edIo¤ea' I¤
PLAN:
0||/I/q
Iut·:eu:ti:�:t: th
b0f)
/_:·m m:{:· :Ì
:iee :{tm i.:ue,
»it| :··,,:cti_
eetøi|. øucco,|c.
/_uum:{:cth
:th·:iee :{t|
i.:··e, »it|:··,,:·ti_
eetøi|: øueørt,|e
c|03I/q
3··oªocy:{ i.:··e
cu »·itec: :,iu:�
USEFUL LANGUAGE
O¤!¤eo¤e¤a¤d, .
O¤ !¤eoI¤e|¤a¤d, . .
' I : !0eI¤aI . . .
² |:!' yI Seco¤d yI T¤ |d' y, . .
²o|exa~µ e . . .
' ¤add ! o¤, . . .
²0|!¤e~oe, . . .
¬oweve, . . .
'eve|!¤e' e::, . . .
Yes or No to Organic Food
In the last few decades. organic food has become very popul ar.
The question i s. should everyone start buying it?
On the one hand. organic food has many advantages. For one thing. it
i s safer and healthier to eat than non-organic food. This i s because it
is grown without dangerous chemical s. It al so has more vitami ns and
mineral s. Moreover
,
due to the fact that organic farming does not use
chemicals
,
organic food i s better for the environment.
On the other hand, shopping for organic food may be quite
inconvenient because i t is not available in all shops. In addition, i t' s
very expensive, so i t' s not practical for many famil ies.
To sum up, organic food i s better for your health than other foods.
However, you need to decide whether or not you can afford to spend
the money and the time it takes to buy it.
¯0e!o . . .
A:a e:0' I, . . .
Co¤:eq0e¤I y, . . .
¤co¤c 0: o¤, . .
To:0¤0µ, .
ce eveI¤a! . . .
¤ ~yoµ ¤ o¤, . . .
' ¤~yv ew, . . .
155
/ PLYb KLÍOKJ
A ¤ewº|eµo|l µov deº ¤lo|¤aI o¤aco0Ia |ece¤leve¤I ' Iµ|eºe¤lºI¤elacIº
oc¡ecI ve' y¤ o|de|ol ¤µo|la¤ce ' Iº¤o0' da¤ºwel¤eq0eºI o¤º who, what, when,
where a¤dwhy. .oo<al l¤eIoµ cce' ow T¤e¤ºl0dyl¤eµ' a¤a¤d ead l¤e~ode' .
TOPI C:
W| Iea ¤ewºeµo|laco0Iºo¤eo¤ew¤oº0vved a da¤ge|o0ºexµe e¤ce.
PLAN:
0||/I/ç
3umocye{tlne-em
�u oo:t io,ect�m
{�:t:
/0f)
fet�i|+ �be.tt tln
e«em
c|03I/ç
3(çu¡¡:�mee{tln
e«em I ·�:t.e·i �ud
:eooeut:
USEFUL LANGUAGE
Acco|d ¤gIo. .
yeºIe|day .
' aºl¤ g¤I .
¯0eIo .
ceca0ºe
Co¤ºeq0e¤l'y, . .
Aºa |eº0' Iol .
²ol¤ º|eaºo¤, . .
Aµµa|e¤I' y, .
So0|ceººay . .
.
[
Ronaldo's Ferrari Crash
Manchester United star, Cristiano Ronaldo crashed his Ferrari sports
car yesterday near Manchester Airport. Although the car was badly
damaged, the 23-year-old, millionaire footballer was unhurt. No other
cars were involved i n the accident.
The accident happened i n the tunnel which takes traffic under the
airport runways. Ronaldo, on his way to football practice, crashed his
car into the barrier at the side of the tunnel. The front of the car was
completely destroyed and one of the wheels came off.
According to witnesses, after the accident Ronaldo l eft the car and
stood beside it, apparently shocked. "It' s amazing he survived i t
without a scratch," said one witness. After questioning by police,
the star, who was recently named World Player of the Year, went to
training as usual.
Writi ng Gui de
ÍP!OKN/L \OKKLbÍOPÒLP\L
'¤ a¤ ¤lo|¤a' e-¤a ' , we0:e' a¤g0agevey: ¤ ' a| IoI¤e' a¤g0agewe 0:ew¤e¤
:µea< ¤glo:o¤eo¤ewe <¤owwe ' .oo<alI¤eloµ cce' ow T¤e¤:l0dyI¤eµ a¤ a¤d
eadI¤e¤ode
TOPI C:
W| lea¤ ¤lo|¤a' e-¤a Ioa l| e¤daco0Ia l0I0e µ' a¤.
PLAN:
q|||1I/q
0,e·u� ·em·k+,
·eø::«{:· »·�t��
b0f)
•. + Informal e-mail to Jason
� From: I steven333@gmai l .com
� 1 1
To: I Jaskar@worl dnetco.uk
� . Subject: art
Hi Jason,
How are things? Did you get my e-mail about the party I ' m having on
Friday night? You haven' t answered me.
Iq:·ot�:«, ne»: : ·
eet��|
First of all, can you come? I know you' ve got your driving test on
Saturday, so you probably want an early night. On the other hand, you ' ll
probably be nervous so maybe it would be a good idea to get out and
relax a bi t!
c|03I/q
c|::�� ·em·k+
3Iq/I/q 0||

Anyway, even if you don' t come, could I borrow a few of your discs?
I know you' ve got a lot of good music. I was also wondering - could you
lend me your speakers as wel l ? Mine aren' t very good. I promise that
nothing wi l l happen to them!
Hope you can come. Please let me know.
See you,
Steven
USEFUL LANGUAGE
Greeti ngs
. .. . . . . .. .. . ..... ....... ..........
¯ea|. . . ,
¬ . . ,
Openi ng Remarks
' Iwa:g|eaIlo ¤ealo¤yo0
¬owa|el¤ ¤g:`
¯ dyo0gel¤y' eIIe|I e-¤a `
So||y ' ¤ave¤Iw IIe¤lo:o' o¤g.
Co¤gaI0' al o¤: '
' ¤ave¤I¤ea|d l|o¤yo0 lo . . .
' ¤w| l ¤gceca0:e . . .
Cl osi ng Remarks
' ca¤I waIlo . . .
W| Ie:oo¤ '
¯ ea:e eI ¤e <¤ow.
T¤aI:a ' lo|¤ow.
Say¤e' ' oIo . . .
Si gni ng Off
.ove,
Regad:,
Seeyo0,
Ta<eca|e,
A ' I¤ece:I,
Yo0|:,
/P OÍÍPÍOP Lbb/A
A¤ oµ ¤ o¤e::ay:!a!e: a¤ oµ ¤ o¤a¤dI| e:!oco¤v ¤ce!¤eeade !¤a!I¤ :oµ ¤ o¤ :
co|ecI. .oo<a!!¤e!oµ cce ow. T¤e¤:I0dyI¤eµ' a¤ a¤dead!¤e¤ode
TOPI C:
W| Iea¤ oµ ¤ o¤e::ayo¤a !oµ cco¤¤ec!edIo:ale!y.
PLAN:
0||/I/q
|·eemøtieue{ i::ue
øu e,i:e:
b0f)
3,e(J: ·eø::u:
øu{ø:t: te :u,,e·t
e,iuieu
c|03I/q
3ummi� u, øu
·etøtemeut e{
e,i:e:
USEFUL LANGUAGE
[

Ma¤y µeoµ eI¤ ¤ < I¤a!.
'¤ ¤y oµ ¤ o¤, ¤oweve|, . . .
' d :ag|ee
' ¤¤yv ew, . . .
' ce eve!¤a!
¬oweve|,
¯e:µ !eI¤ :, . .
² :Iola , . . .
Seco¤d'y, . . .
'¤ add ! o¤, . . .
Bicycle Helmets - Not a Solution
Several years ago, the British Medical Association asked the UK
government to pass a law requiring cyclists to wear helmets. Although
this sounds l ike a good way to save l ives, I believe that it i s neither
helpful nor necessary.
First of all, such a law will cause fewer people to ride bicycles. This
i s because the helmets are uncomfortable and hot, especially i n the
summer. In my view, cycling should be encouraged, not di scouraged.
Secondly, requiring helmets gives the impression that only cyclists
are responsible for their safety. It i s clear that this i s a mistake. Most
accidents are caused by cars, and i t i s the drivers who must learn to be
more careful .
As I see it, the new l aw would discourage cycl i ng and place
responsibility on the wrong people. Instead, more bicycle paths should
be built and drivers should be educated to drive more carefully.
T¤eelo|e, . . .
A:a e:0' I, . . .
! : c ea|I¤aI . . .
¤ :¤o|!, . .
To :0¤0µ, . . .
¤co¤c 0: o¤, . . .
Writi ng Gui de
/ KLNÍLY
A ev ewµ|ov de:l ¤e¤a ¤eve¤I: ¤l¤eµ' olola coo<, l ~o:¤ow. ' la :o g ve:I¤e
ev ewe|: oµ ¤ o¤ .oo<aIl¤eloµ cce' ow. T¤e¤:l0dyI¤eµ' a¤a¤deadl¤e~ode .
TOPI C:
W| lea |evewola coo<yo0 ¤ave eado a l ' ¤yo0¤ave:ee¤ece¤l y.
PLAN:
0||/I/q
¹e uøoe øuty,e
e{bee|ec¡|o, tle
øutloc,e.cectec, the
oo.·::mcø:tec: ø·:
ø ee:c.,t.eue{t|e
,|et
b0f)
|c.tec: e,.ue·:e u
«øc.e× ø:,et: e{tle
bee|ec¡|o,_eee
,e.m : ø·:bøe,e.ut:
c|03I/q
çeuem|
ceeooeud øt.eÌ
USEFUL LANGUAGE
' lIe' ' :I¤e:lo|yol. . .
'l: ¤eoI ¤eo ¤e:
T¤el ~:la: .

l t : :eI ¤ . . .
c oc<c0:Ie|I ce:l:e' ' e
c¤aacle:
:µec a' ellecl:
:o0¤dI|ac<
The Thirteenth Tale
The Thirteenth Tale, a suspense novel by Diane Setterfiel d, is set i n
Yorkshire, England. Its heroine is a young booksell er, Margaret Lea,
who has been chosen by world-famous author Vida Winter to write her
biography. As Vida reveals the secrets of her tragic past, Margaret finds
she must deal with the secrets of her own l ife.
There is nothing ordinary or predictable about The Thirteenth Tale.
Setterfield's frightening and fascinating story is about confused
identities, lies and love. It is revealed bit by bit, each part leaving the
reader more mystified than before, right through to its unexpected
conclusion. It is ski lfull y told, i n a style and language that are a
pleasure to read.
It' s hard to believe, but this bestselling novel is Setterfield's first. After
finishing it, readers are sure to want more books by her - and let' s
hope they come soon.
:0|µ :ee¤d ¤g
µ|ed cIac' e
d :aµµo ¤l ¤g
Yo0wo¤ Iwa¤Ilo¤ :: . . .
Yo0 ove ead ¤g .
We wo|l¤ :ee ¤gI |ead ¤g
I ¤ g¤ y |eco~¤e¤d . . .
¯o¤ lcol¤eI wa:leyo0|I ~e . . .

··
QI!Z /l5\LK5
/lÒ Í/L1 Í!LL
Unit 1, page 5
d. Look at the faces bel ow. Some are from Group A, some
are from Group B and some are new. Number 1 -24 i n your
notebook. For each face, wri te A (Group A). B (Group B) or N (new).
Now check your answers. Score 1 poi nt for each correct
answer.
1 . B 2. N 3 . A 4. B 5. B 6. N 7. A 8. N 9. A
1 0. B 1 1 . N 1 2 . N 1 3. N 1 4. B 1 5. A 1 6. A
1 7. N 1 8. N 1 9. N 20. B 2 1 . N 22. N 23. A 24. N
How di d you do?
1 9-24 WOW! You al most never forget a face. Be happy
that you have got thi s tal ent - i t's very useful !
1 2- 1 8: You have got a normal memory for faces. You
remember most peopl e you meet, but may have some
troubl e i f you meet them agai n i n a different pl ace.
1 1 or l ess: You may have some di ffi cul ty rememberi ng
faces. You can i mprove by practi si ng. Try payi ng attenti on
to speci fi c detai l s that wi l l hel p you remember.
Unit 2, page 1 7, Exercise 2
1 6- 1 8: You are perfect spy materi a l !
You l i ke danger a n d exci tement, you've got courage a n d you' re
not afrai d of pai n. You' re good at keepi ng secrets and you' re
good at sol vi ng probl ems. You' re a great l i ar - a ski l l you may
need for survi val . You' ve got an excel l ent memory, and you' re
good at getti ng i nformati on. You' d make a fantasti c secret
agent!
1 2- 1 5: You coul d try espi onage, but i t won' t be easy. There's
a chance you coul d become a secret agent, but you' l l have to
work on a few thi ngs. Your memory may not be sharp enough
and you need to devel op your courage. Learn to keep a secret
and practi se l yi ng - these are necessary ski l l s for a spy. Consi der
whether you woul d real l y l i ke a l i fe of thri l l s and danger. If so,
there's sti l l hope!
6-1 1 : Espi onage is not for you ! Safety is more i mportant to you
than thri l l s, so you usual l y stay far away from danger. You' re a
very honest person and you say what you thi nk. Thi s is a good
trai t i n most peopl e, but not i n a spy. You can' t keep a secret and
your memory i sn't the greatest. You may enjoy readi ng a good
spy novel , but you coul d never be a spy yoursel f !
Uni t 3, page 37, Exercise 3
SI0de¤IB
Va e eV ' - :¤oI µ0IIe|
ca|'_' le
! ºS4 - Bo|¤ ¤
Seco¤da|y:c¤oo yea: - Iea:eda¤dc0' ' ed ceca0:e ol
¤e: ze , ¤ow ¹ ºJ ¤eI|e:, ¹ ! 0 < ' o:)
ca|_caee
! ººS _ |ecog¤ :ed ¤eµoIe¤I a' , e¤co0aged
¤eIoIa<e0µI¤e:µoI
´ ¬ Bo<ea 20-yea:c¤oo ecod
T I' e:/Co¤QeI I o¤:/Awad:
200! - Wo|' dYo0I¤C¤a¤µ o¤
·

_ - Wo|' dJ 0¤ o|C¤a¤µ o¤
2004 - AI¤e¤:O y¤µ c: - l ¤ :¤ede g¤I¤ ceca0:e:¤e
wa:ecove| ¤gl|o¤ a¤oµe|aI o¤
2004 - B|o<e'ew/ea a¤dwo¤e¤':|ecodlo¤`
2007 - Wo|' dC¤a¤µ o¤
200S - O y¤µ cgo' d ¤eda' , Be¡ ¤g
¯ _ - 'ewZea a¤dSµoI: Awa|dol I ¤eYea|
²JI0|eQ a¤:
Co¤I ¤0eco¤µeI ¤g, cewo dc¤a¤µ o¤aga ¤, w ¤
a¤oI¤e|go' d¤eda' aII¤e¤exIO y¤µ c:
Unit 6, page 65, Bel ieve it or not! Qui z Answers
1 . True - Li ghtni ng is al most 28, 000° C, whi l e the sun's surface
i s " onl y" 6, 1 00° C.
2 . Fal se - Cl ouds contai n no gas, onl y water and i ce.
3. True - You can see the ci rcl e i f you l ook at a rai nbow
from above.
4. True - Heavy red rai n fel l i n I ndi a from J ul y to September
2001 .
5. Fal se - Antarctica is the worl d's driest conti nent.
6. True - The crystal structure of i ce i s always si x-si ded.
7. Fal se - The concrete i n ci ti es retai ns the heat, maki ng them
warmer than the areas around them.
8. True - Trees make the ai r more humi d, whi ch i ncreases
rai nfal l .
EWPOINS !0| b3C' ' 6´3!0 1
~ -;:::- G:a¤Ia¤d·ev ¤²ay¤e
,¯ ¯¯ Joo<: :a¤ ~µ| ¤Iol¯a¤o: Boo<:.Id
� ~ � � .¯¤c0' a|µa|aBac¤ ' ' e|aIo,c0|:oµ| ~e|o,aeade' e¤g0a:exIa¤¡e|a: ¤g' e:, eg :Iadoe¤Ioda:' a:
¯
¬ - ¯a0e:A0Io¤o~a:q0eI e¤e¤co~µeIe¤c a:e¤~aIe| aed0caIvayq0ea: ' o|eq0 ee¤.
edgements:
:-er grateful l y acknowl edges t he fol l owi ng for permi ssi on to reproduce songs:
-a- Oo -/jl/|/g) (page 29) - Words and musi c by Kara Di oguardi and Matthew Gerard © Si xteenth Street Songs
" ¯ 7Cª> Musi c c/o Di sney Musi c Publ i shi ng. Used wi th permi ssi on; -/l3|´l|C3 (page 77) - Words and musi c by Al astai r l an
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+ : : d Macdonal d (pool), www. panopti kum. net (house), Science an

d Soci ety Picture Li brar (vase); AP: pages 36 (Mark Sp1tz),
_ :- -·= D., 78 (M/S Expl orer), 1 03 ( rocket); Ari au Amazon Towers, Ellen and Edson Ri tta Honorato: page 80; ASAP/Ai amy: pages
. . . 01 �e sanctuary and cat); ASAP/EPA: page 43 (Atl anti s Hotel ); ASAP/Rex: pages 5 (Lewis Hami lton, Duffy), 25 (dentist),
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:=- : ::s stuntperson), 87, 1 04, 1 05, 1 08, 1 09 (Fear Factor), 1 1 0; FEMA/Adam Dubrowa: page 73; Fi ber I nstrument Sales, I ne:
;: : · =1 at Earth page 41 (Taj Mahal ); I mage Bank!Getty I mages: pages 30, 32, 34, 37 (Vi l i ), 1 02 (Survivor and Ameri can I dol );
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: = :: 6- (dai ry, horse raci ng a nd gui de dog), 62, 65, 67, 70, 71 , 72 (photos A and B), 74, 75, 77, 78 (research equi pment and
" ;- �s .. 79, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90, 9 1 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 1 0 1 (popcorn), 1 06 (crowd), 1 07(crowd), 1 09 (al l except
¯7C¯ =:cor); Vi suai/Corbi s: page 3 1 ; www.facebook. com: page 1 1 (Facebook page); www. ubi press. ubi . com: page 1 8 (Sa m Fi sher);
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VIEWPOINTS
For Bachillerato

STUDENT'S

BOO K

Elizabeth Grant Kevin Payne

1 2 3 Faces page 5 A Face I'll Always Forget Predict i n g content I VOCABULARY Person a l ity a n d a ppeara n ce Ph rasal verbs Compound a djectives I I I GRAMMAR Present S i m p l e Present Cont i n uous LI �------�- -ed I -ing adjectives 17 1------.---.' conditional Time cla uses - - __j Honesty Adjectives + prepositions I d ioms 1 The Passive The Causative Author's p u rpose --- 89 � That's E ntertainment! page • 101 • I Review of reading strategies 1 Enterta i n ment Phrasa l verbs I used to I be used to I get used to Reported speech Reporti ng verbs A ppendices page 113 Grammar Appendix P ro n u nc i at i o n Pract i ce • G l ossa ry page 134 • page 143 page 144 Prepositions I rreg u l a r Verbs • page 131 • page 142 P h rasa l Verbs • .·-----------------. second a n d t h i rc '--.------'-page - Danger! The M i d night Visitor M a k i n g inferences Da ngerous situations Adjective suffixes Past Simple Past Cont i n uous Past Perfect S i m p l e Go for It! page • Oscar Pistorius Identifyi ng the ma i n i dea Sport and ach i evement Verb col locations I d ioms Present Perfect S i m plE Past S i m p l e 29 Future Contin uous want+ object+ i nfi n itive 41 Future Perfect S i m p l e British I America n E n g l ish ----.---� 1------.----'-'page 4 Landmarks • I I Dubai -Architectural Wonderland Sca n n i n g for specific i nformation B u i l d i ngs wan t+ infin itive J Future S i m p l e 1 I be going to · 5 SpeakOut! page 53 • 1 Flexpetz I G uess i n g the mea n i ng of words I W i l d l ife I I d ioms I Relative clauses Prefixes 6 Extreme Weather page 65 • I Twister Sisters understa n d i n g con nectors Weather Gerunds and i nfi nitives I Modals I Noun col locations Travel Noun suffixes Modal perfects 7 8 9 Travel page • 77 Honesty page • L__ Watching You I The Eyes Are I Space Cadets I Anta rctica Unde rsta n d i n g reference F i rst.

-L--• Writ i n g G u i d e ::Jage 146 .1\R LISTENING A lecture SPEAKING Descri bing people WRITING A description of a person Punctuation SKILLS • JOUS A p p l i cation forms and i n terviews A conversation ! Ta l ki n g about a pict u re s I A na rrative Usi n g a d i ctionary 1ple Co I seqnunectorsnof time ence a d exp ressions Simple A rad i o i nterview Exchanging i nformation A biography Word order Booking tickets o n l i n e l Guided tours Comparing pict u res imple A conversation Express i n g opi n ions ---- A descri ption of a place Adjectives I nternet research )US I A for a n d agai nst essay C o n n ectors of add ition a n d contrast G iving a presentation --� ------ News reports I nterviewing 1 A news report C o n n ectors of cause a n d res u lt Usi ng g raphs a n d charts J third Recorded messa ges B uying a tra i n ticket An i nformal e-m a i l Referencing Booking a room --_____ _L_ - A radio interview Ag ree i n g a n d d isagreei n g _L F i l m reviews I Review of con nectors ________ I C o n nectors of pu rpose An opinion essay Understa nding adverts �----------�-- M a k i n g plans I A film review Writ i n g review I ! Usi n g enterta i n ment I g u ides ------� �-.------�---.

r

Unit Objectives
Present Simple

Personality and Appe<�rance Present Continuous

• *

* Listening to a Lecture *Describing People

Writing a Description of a Person and Interviews

* Life Skills: Application Forms

Faces
How good are you at remembering faces? Do the test below and find out.
a. Look at the six faces in g ro u p A for 30 seconds.

b. Now look at the next six faces i n g ro u p 8 for 3 0 seconds. c . Tu rn to page 1 60 . Do the next part of the test a n d check your a n swers.

GROUP B

• Have you ever met anybody whose face you won't forget?

Why do you think you won't forget this person?
WEB EXTRA

Two of the fa ce s on th is page a re popula r B ritish celebrities. f ind out mo re about the m a t : www.burlingtonbooks.es/viewpoints I

READING
1

Word Check: The fol lowing words appear in the text. Make sure you know what they mean. flatmate • blind • sq ueaky • cope

PREDICTING CONTENT

5. Choose the best answer according to the text. 1 . In this text, the writer wants m a i n ly to . . . a . tell readers the story of her l ife b. i nform readers about PA c . give details about the latest research on PA d . help readers d iag nose whether they have PA 2 . When the writer real ised she had PA, she was . . . . a . g lad that she was not alone b. upset that there was someth i n g wrong with her c . a n g ry that no one h ad ever told her d . ha ppy that h e r condition was not more serious 6. Answer the questions in your own words. 1 . How did the writer know that she had PA? 2. What cl ues do PA sufferers use to recogn ise people? 3. Why might a busi ness meeti ng be difficult for the writer? 4. What i m p ression do PA sufferers m ake on others?
5. Why do PA sufferers someti mes pretend they

Before reading a text, look at the pictures a n d the title. Th i s wi l l h e l p you predict the content of the text.

2. Look at the title and the picture. What do you think the text is about? 3. Read the text and check whether your prediction was correct.
4.

haven't got their glasses?

1.

2.
3.
4. 5.

6.

Are the following statements true or false? Find evidence in the text to support your answers. The ma n fo llowing the writer was a stra nger. PA was fi rst d iag nosed i n the 1 990s. People ca n get PA from the i r parents. Some PA sufferers don 't go out much. The writer p refers to keep her condition a secret. Scientists have not discovered a cure for PA.

7. Find words or phrases in the text that mean: 1 . afraid (paragraph 1 ) 2 . i n addition to (paragraph 2) 3. defin itely (paragraph 3) 4. m ake it possi ble for (paragraph 4) 5. types, kinds (paragraph 6)

• Have you ever been in a situation where

you didn't recognise someone or couldn't remember their name? How did you feel? What did you do?

6

in fact. "So r ry. We ' re seen as sno b b i s h and strange because we don't say h e l l o to p e o p l e we ' re sup posed to 2 0 e xcuse fo r l o o k i ng stra i g h t t h roug h s o m e one . we use a l l so rts of strate g i es . in the 1990s. When I ' m l o o k ing at a face. When I te l l my friends about my cond ition. So m e of us just d on't soc i a l ise m uc h . 30 now t h at they ' ve found out it's caused by a g ene. All in all. o r p retend ing f (! I 25 we h aven't got our g l asses. it's b e l ieved t h at one pe rson in 50 suffe rs fro m PA. P A was fi rst d ocum ented in the 1940s and was b e l i eved t o be caused b y b rain injury o r a 10 suffe ring fro m the d i sord e r. H oweve r. "because you sti l l h ave l ong o rang e h a i r. it's just that when I l o o k away. a m an began cal l ing m e fro m the oth e r s i d e of the street. but he ran afte r m e . I have a cond ition cal l e d p roso pagnos i a. T h i s c l e a r l y s h owed that s o m e p e o p l e a re stro k e .U n it 1 t. al ong with several othe rs." I 15 eyeb row. h is A m e r ican accent re m i nd e d me: h e was my fl at m ate and I had been l iv ing with h i m fo r th ree years. it's a re l i ef to know t h at m y p ro b l e m h as a name and t h at l ots of oth e r people share i t . A Face I' 11 Always Forget A few years ago. and t h at it can be h e re d itary. l ife i sn ' t easy fo r PA suffe re rs . Neu ro l o g i sts have now p roved that i t i s caused b y a d e fect in a sing l e gene . S o m e h ow. s h o u ting. I ' m not rea l l y b l ind . I sh outed bac k. it's also eas i e r to te l l p e o p l e about it than to let t h e m t h in k I ' m c razy.o n e d ay t h e re m ay e v e n be a cure .espec i a l l y when know. but h ad no injury. "Wh at ' s the p ro b l e m?" W h en he re p l i e d . a squeaky vo i ce and a ring th roug h your you're at a business m eeting whe re a l l t h e m en a re wearing suits and have s h o rt h a i r? In s h o rt. I i gnored h i m. m ad e me rea l ise that I am face-b l ind . " H e y ! " F r i g htened. But what i f answe r. I d i dn ' t recognise you" see m s a p o o r that s o m e one i s your boyfri end ! So h ow d o we cope? We l l. they say. I don't re m e m be r the d e ta i l s ." it's these clues t h at a l l ow p roso pagnostics to functi on in soci ety. w h o False friends realise (line 5) means darse cuenta not realizar pretending (line 24) means fingiendo not pretendiendo 7 . I can d esc r i be it pe rfectly. o r PA. 5 This inc i d ent. Oth e r options include s m i l ing at eve ryone just in case they are an acq u a intance. And knows . re po rts we re pub l is h e d of p a rents and ch i l d ren w h o we re b o rn with the p r o b l e m . "But you just recognised m e !" "Yes.

. .. 2. .. As a result. Look' Who is that pol i ceman . someone he knows. . her w h o she is... 6.. s h e recei ved i n a car accident. .. a .�OCABULARY \ Vords from the Text 1 . day to the next. . A man m ight wear a su i t to a . footba l l ga me c. solve a puzzle c. meal I don't remember the details. Whenever Patrick goes out... . The thief £ 1 . each sentence.. 000 yesterday. 7. Don't m iss it! 8 . Match each phrasal verb in I to its meaning i n 11. Pay attention to the words in colour. H• •• re-livi n g the events of that d a y so that she won't get upset. me when we pass. school c. Let's . 5. a . . 2. . Complete the sentences with the correct form rem i n d i n g d isorder • • cope with rea l ises • • • si n g l e i nj u ry 1. that t h is is true. 50 FIRST DATES H a ve you seen the fi l m 50 First Dates? it's a bout a young couple. H ·H ·· · H . look a w a y 5. she ca n n ot remem ber a · . . find someth in g h idden b. H e began t o run after me. ignore 6. ... chase d. Choose two possible answers to complete PHRASAL VERBS T . .. feel excited about g. that they have a serious p ro b lem: from one . .. Use the phrasal verbs list on page 1 4 2 to help you. H .. neig h bourhood A c l ue m ight help you to . but Henry soon . r u n after 2. 4. however. .. When /look away. .. . a book b. turn one's eyes in another d i rection c. wed d i n g b.. He m a kes her a v ideo to watch every m o r n i ng. Her father a n d brothers . bal let performance An acq u a i nta nce cou l d be someone fro m your . H. page 114-115 3. find information about e. Are you you r next ski i ng lesson ? it I don't know what that word means. . I 11 1 .. 3... meet b y cha nce b. painting exh i bition c . enterta i n i n g a n d the act i n g is g reat.... i n the dictionary. . Complete the passage with the words and phrases below.. D iane is so snobbish .. . 3. She a lso th i n ks that every d a y is 13th October 2002. 4. Then listen and check your answers... fa mily b . . . face b.. t h i n g from o n e d a y to the next. he .. . . . H •• cal led a nterogra d e • •• a m nesia. . . l o o k t h r o u g h look forw a rd to look u p a . H. wa nts Lucy to . a . She always . r u n i nto 4.. Hen ry.. t h is fi l m is very Barrym ore a n d Sandler w o n the a w a rd f the or Best on-Screen Team a t the MT V Movie A w a rds. run off w i t h 3 . steal f. a . 8 · 6· H • rea l l i fe.. meeting A b l i n d pe rson wou l d probably not enjoy a . H e n ry (Ada m Sa n d ler) a n d Lucy 1· 6. JW I.. a. 7.. (Drew Barrymore).Grammar Appendix. it is called a phrasal verb. an e-m a i l You could sha re a . She suffers from a 2· .i i:l "t When a verb is followed by one or more particles.. 5. carry something heavy You m ight rep ly to . a l l in a l l pretend • 4. .. .. Lucy forgets w h o Henry is. a question c. H • . a . . concert b. 1. H H. of a suitable phrasal verb from Exercise 3. caused by a n 4 3 H. . ? The l ight was so bright that I had to .. The mea n i n g of the phrasal verb is different from the mea n i n g of the verb a lone. book c.They're i n l ove. � 2.

1 . 2 . ..l o o k i n g e the adjectives i n colour do you think show positive personality traits? Which show negative traits? Aries • • • • • • • • Build cu rly s p i ky wavy w e l l . .. 8. 5. . for you. Try not to be too bossy and be a bit more open-minded! 5. . write the adjectives below PERSONALITY AND APPEARANCE 1 . . . Make them true 2. big-headed 1. ... The most generous th i ng I 've ever done was . . • selfish • he l pfu l • stu bborn • ro ma ntic • n osy • c a l m He's s o that no one else c a n say a word when he's a rou nd ! That's none of yo u r busi n ess ! Don 't be so . ... si nger is always late for concerts. 4. H e bought his g i rlfriend chocolates and flowers.. . Complete the sentences with the compound adjectives below. 4. . .. • Complete the sentences.19th Apnl) Hair General Appearance You are very confident and love to take action. . 7.. I don't m i n d sharing . ? The m an was m uscu l ar and from doing physical work.. 5. COMPO U N D ADJ ECTIVES Jt A compou n d a djective is formed from two adjectives. 4. . n o . . I would l i ke a boyfriend I g i rlfriend who is . I ' m looking forward to . 2. 3. My grandfather hates pop music.hea rted • s h o rt-te mpered Sales assistants must often deal with angry customers. 2 .4 U nit 1 T<. so you're a natural leader. . ! lt wasn 't very of you to ta l k so loudly wh i l e I was resting.. . when people ask me for d irections. . ······ . People like you because you're generous and fun to be with. Stop being so You ate all the ice crea m . . 1..l egged · n ·· . of you ! I try to be . . Use the adjectives from Exercises 1 and 2 to complete the fol lowing sentences. . usually con nected by a hyphen. In your notebook. . • • • • • • • • • dark stra i g ht slim skinny fa i r c h u b by plain u n attractive good . .. . Try to use at least eight adjectives.. . 6. Y9. . 2. Why are a l l supe rmodels ta l l . 5.>pJ�.... . . The most selfish thing I 've ever done was . . ta l kative 6.. See if your partner can guess who he/she is..Y. . H ow . n 6.�9. He is rea l ly arrogant ! l o n g... The president of a cou ntry should be . . Please listen to our advice. . Not h i n g upsets her. 6. pages 7 8-79 9 . .. 3. I 've learned to cope with . . no . . . 5. . . . . ... . . ! She's q uite .... You make decisions quickly and can be quite impulsive.b u i lt pet i te muscu l a r gorgeous sho ul d e r.. . n 3.. Write two or three sentences describing a celebrity. 4. He's rea lly A stra nger gave us some food and water.. The . ..l e n gth (21st March .. s. . 4. .���!. Very you n g c h i ldren a re often .. That was real ly . • broad-s h o u l d e re d • o l d -fas h i o n e d k i n d. Complete the sentences with the adjectives below. consi d e rate . Which of in the correct category. Some words may fit more than one category. When I meet an acquaintance.. Vocabulary Builder. .n 1. . . Many TV a n d fi l m ce lebrities a re . . . . Compou n d a djectives are often used to describe a ppea ra nce a nd persona l ity. Use the adjectives in Exercise 4.. 3 . sl i m and . .�. 3. Read the description of a star sign. . .n . . . . I get angry at my dad beca use he ca n be too .. I .

. the tomatoe s now? How m uc h . B.. e.. 2..... 1.... look.. (have ) ... e. to form the 3rd person si ngular of the Present Si mple. STATIVE VERBS . 3. we should go? (th i n k) 2. Does he usually recognise his friends? d.Some stative verbs such as think. She is living with a flatmate this year.. Decide if the verb refers to a state or an action....... c.. We use . (not go) to sc hool tomorrow. Are they trying to find a cure? brackets. . a new swi m m i ng poo l .. .. a pool pa rty this S u nday. d. 6. inte re sti ng. All the men are wearing suits. (today I usual ly) D o you u nde rsta nd m y que stion? (eve ry day I now) My mothe r works qu ite late .. . He . we can use the Present Continuous. f.. 5. they . She isn't wearing her glosses.. but not faces. (not re me m be r) you r name . Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous. 4. 8..... . Complete the sentences with the verbs in 2. . . PA sufferers always smile at everyone. b u t I . .. . Many people suffer from PA... 1.. Susa n na . a... .. ..... Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets... 2. 3.. 3. 1.. I n the Present Continuous. (d isc uss) h is ide as with you ? This is fantastic ! O u r te am .. of going on hol i day next mont h .. I' m sorry.. I ' m sure it . .. . (tomo rrow I on We d ne sdays) Fi ona is c o m i n g wi th he r boyfrie nd. 7... Whe re .. We usually use the base form of the verb + . O u r frie nds .... (taste ) 3 . .... .. We don't socialise much. lt .. ... .. 5. 6.. 1. at the book now. - a. (ofte n I tomorrow) Our ne i g h bours are le aving the cou ntry. f. (use ) a lot of petro l . When these verbs refer to an a ction. .. to form the Present Continuous.... (tonight I fre q ue ntly) 2. 4. 4.... (rare ly I next wee k) What is that boy tryi ng to do? (at the mome nt I sometimes) D i a ne doe s n 't get a lot of phone calls. Which tense is used in each of the examples above? Which exa mple talks about ...... . . Grammar Appendix pages 113-114 3. ... .. Pe n g u i ns .... 2. + verb + . 1. .c � '---. He d rives outside the c ity. 2. ... GRAMMAR PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS A. Read the exa m p l es and a nswer the questio ns.. we use a uxi l iary verbs i n a l l sentences I only in negative sentences a nd questions... 4. ? (we igh) 5 . he . 6.. ve ry good . the sou p . She hopes that they will find a cure for PA.. He's looking at my face. (try) to do that now? That kind of car . (wi n) the matc h ! Why .. then rewrite the sentences. .. ... you .. He remembers names. . We .. 1.. we use a n auxiliary verb in all sentences I only in n egative sentences a n d questi ons. see. Read the exa mples and complete the rules. ... .. I n the Present Simple... you .. ? a regular habit or routine a temporary action a genera I truth an action which is ha ppening now a definite pla n for the near future a though t.. (soon I se ldom) I meet frie nds for c offee . 8....... .. 5. (look) 4. 3. fee l i ng or expectation (a stative verb) Choose the correct time expression. .. They .. Dad .. b... Joe usually .... (l ive) only in the southe rn he m isphe re . 7. c... have a n d weigh can refer to a n action as well as a state. 1 . I am meeting my boyfnend at the airport tonight. b.. (study) Fre nc h this te rm.

'"'� . (sit) at her computer. 6. . �� -L ":.. . m o b i l e-phone num ber and a h o me a d d ress.... and Paula . 3.. . ..U n it 1 4. Cyber-cri m ina l s often 6 . (often) 5.p oi n rs 1 11 . unit t o deal with t h e pro b l e m .. How m uc h is this magazine/ (cost) 2. (at the moment) I take my dog to the vet every year. I 've got plans to see Paul ton i g ht.. ... I .. 5. ? Yes. . Stop making so m uc h noise ! We This weekend. . (are) 4.. Paula 3: . t o take over her i d entity.. Rewrite the fol lowing sentences using the words in brackets. The c h i ldren are q u i et at the moment. . 6.. I know Alex G a rd ner. a rt and geography this term . Facebook.. She .. expressions in ital ics with those in brackets. .. replacing the time 1... Rewrite the sentences... 2. . 3. 7.. . Her son doesn't practise the piano in the morning. (enjoy) ... Jenny can't come to the pa rty tonight. ? I'm studying maths.. . . Do you want to come over? I 6.. I l i ke my n e w sc hool. Then listen and check your answers. (am) E x t r a g ra m ma r e xe r c i se s a t : www. . (own) 3 . 1. I' m not doing a nyth in g spec ia l this afternoo n .... (usual ly) Do the n u rses fin ish work at five o'c loc k every afternoon? (now) Is Mr Was h i n gton playing ten n is this morning? (every morni ng) � 7..'!i''::t 7 P'roflle . Complete the sentences.. J ea n : Keith : ? H 0 . ..:1•1 friend• • Network• • lnbo• {l) • """"' •'"'"�' 1 . Jean and Keith are chatting... UK pol ice a re so concerned a bout t h i s that t hey 7· . Grammar Review 11 8.. (tomorrow) Wa iter and C i ndy aren' t c a l l i ng their parents at the moment. ? No. 11 .. ? No. such as d a te of b i rth. . (every day) I usually know what she means (now) Vera is joggi n g with a friend now. my fa m i ly . �Por que persigue a ese n i iio? Look at that man. (not rea l i se) that by d oing t h i s. . .. (provide) ? valua b l e information.. 5. . Every morning. 2. . H 0 H 0 H Jea n : Ke ith: Jean: Keith: Jea n : Keith: Jea n : Keith : (use) t h i s information t o "become" t h a t person and access their bank account. We i ntend to meet for l u nc h tomorrow. 4. E n g l i s h . . our dog . Why does he run after that boy? X bur/ i n g to n books. . (now pl an) a nationa l e-cri m e . A typical Facebook user 5 s h e m i g ht be inviting cri m ina l s 11 5. s h a ring detai l s of her l ife with her on l ine "friend s': But s h e 4·. . I have n 't got a c a r. She . H Yes. At least once a week.... Why is he running after that boy?. H e's i n m y maths c lass. • Don't Be a Victim it's now late at nig ht. I don' t see my old friends very often .. Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous. Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous. 4. Do not change the original meaning. Complete their dialogue by writing the missing questions. 1.. PA sufferers . (a l l ow) only your friend s to . Accord i n g to experts. es/l' i e u.. . view your persona l deta i l s .. (talk) 6 .. L i ke m i l l i ons of other Facebook users...I NOT Look at that man. ... You can avoid becom ing a vict i m : m a ke sure you choose t h e option that 8· . B renda plays a lot of footba l l . Complete the passage with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.. . . 5. . Change the verbs where necessary. (open) her favourite s i te.... M i ra a ese hom bre.

Decide which of the photos below is Matthew. he l pful c. e yes far apart a . don't pa nic! Keep listening a n d focus o n u n dersta n ding as much of the passage as you can. • Do you believe that personology is accurate? What other ways are there of analysing a person's personality without actually knowing them? 12 WEB EXTRA F ind out how app earance can affect your l if e a t: u•il•w. nosy 3. thi n ks carefully before ta ki ng action 2. 2 ? 3 4 4.burlingtonbooks. rou n de d nose a. se lfish b. 1. if someone is a good worke r e . what job to look for b. Listen to the rest o f the tal k.� SKILLS LISTENING G A LECTURE 2. a natural le ade r c . 5th October Lecture by popular speaker and author What do each of the fol lowing features show about a person? Two answers are correct. c a l m c . i f you shou ld se ll a certa i n produc t THE ART OF READING FACES Have you met someone new what they are really like by looking at their face! YOU CAN­ Would you like to know PERSONOLOGY ? 3. c onfide nt b. a way of c ha n g i n g a n d i m proving one 's pe rsonality a way of a nalys in g pe rsonal i ty by looking at a face Listen to the beginning of Eisa Fuller's lecture. wide face a . Read the notice below. good at deta ils STAY CALM . What is "personology"? a. whe re to l i ve c . Listen to the second part of the lecture again. a way of showi n g people 's pe rsonal itie s through a rt b. if someone is a suitable gi rlfrie nd I boyfrie nd d.00 pm Wednesday. Which of the fol lowing can personology be used for? To find out: a . ofte n late b. (9 1 . es/l'iewpoints 1 .I f you don't u n derstand one part of a l istening passage. ELSA FULLER St Giles'Community Hall Stafford Road 8.

. conside rate and roma ntic . He 's a bit ba by-face d.. H i . .. u se t h e fol lowing expressions: Real ly? That's g reat! Sou n d s g ood I fun I i n te resti ng. h e's g ot H e l i kes • • What does he look l i ke ? W hat's h e i nterested i n ? • W h a t's h e l i ke ? he's very Je n n ifer: F ra n : H i . Use the questions and expressions in Exercise 2. Greg wants to open a personal profile on Facebook. Complete the conversation between Fran and Jennifer with the expressions below. When you want to show interest i n what you r pa rtner i s sayi ng.. I voLuvttur {te(J(chif13 computers) tl(t (If schooL. quite.L. Use Greg's profile as a model. Fl'fvou.. PeopLe.U nit 1 SPEAKING DESCRIBING PEOPLE 1 . Read what he has written about himself for the profile. Fran has seen Greg's profile. and he eve n voluntee rs a t a sc hool . Unit 1 ) .... straig ht. . R&8 About Me: Very ivtteLLi:3ertt.. ask and answer questions in Je n n ifer: Fra n : order to describe the person you have each chosen. .. sqy I'm he.. tho'19h I C(l(l1. And not ve ry mode st ! Burlington Speech Trainer. i nte l l ige nt. : I'm very rowt(l(vttu (I(J weLL! 2. ge ne rous. from the photo he looks qu ite sl i m . Make the profile as i nteresting as you can. Music: Pop. . Choose one of the people i n the pictures and make up a profile for that person. (jirLs t(l(ke 110te. Je n nife r ! Liste n ... . S o u n d s OK..e.Lpfo.j ust l ike you! He says 6· . 1'7'73 Aaivi. _geJ�t.. fa i r h a i r... a n d 2· . With a partner. What adjectives does he use to describe himself? 3. . I 've j ust found the most gorge ous g uy on Face book ! He 'd be perfect for you ! That's g re at. Nqwu:. F ra n .ties : I Love !JOif13 to films (I(M I evyoy dmui113.: rgre:g Cook 8irthd(l(y.. :21stJ!{Yt£-. . 4.. ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING Je n n ife r: Fra n : Je n nife r: Fra n : films and danc i ng. 4· . . We l l .be.. 3 · . Re a l ly? 5· .rite.. 1 .­ (l(t times.. but re al ly good­ loo k i n g . stubborl1..rOI{S (l(ftii(' covtJ"ider(l(te. H .

to add e xtr a i nfor m ation 5. know when you get to new people ' but mour and a bit shy with She's of hu a great sense fun. Would you l i ke to have a friend l i ke Rania? Why o r why not? a n n • d�J [G www. 11 1.as I'm sure her a lot. I do �� 2.. Read Joe's blog below. apostr ophe l ist. t o mark the e n d o f a se nte nce 2 . J 3.� WRITING A Description of a Person 1 . question mark a . de scr i be Rania's per sonal ity 5.. everybody. comma or to e m phasise a point 4.. to show str ong fee l i n gs 3.sltor number 153 Welcome to Sun 12 Mon 13 14 Blog Tues Wed 15 .joe_blog.. here's her plc tu . to mar k the end of a question . make ope n ing re mar ks and intr oduce Ra n i a 4. de scr ibe what Ra n i a looks l i ke 2.. Some punctuation marks (brackets. We're tog crowd. ? 1. blt about Rama. . oon't forg before my big par l meet e people you . k now a li. ll ty.three days I It's Wednesday Hey. Match the punctuation marks in I to their use in 11. but she She's a great high marks. and h 's got dyi ng! She's quite tall reading and stu t ally en j oys wn eyes. s ia's new at scho Ran swi mmi ng team. exclamation marks and contractions) are more common in informal writing. a se que nce of eve nts or parts of a long se nte nce e . full stop b. In which paragraph/s of the blog does Joe . By the way. her fit in with our she'll really it seems li. she's great _ with her JOkes.ke and lon g. to show contr actions f. She's got her. . L Punctuation helps make your writing clear. .. dark hair . dashes. br ac kets I dash d . She a ut her abo and bro isn 't big-headed student. make c l osing re mar ks CTUATIO.N . ln the school eth er � yet.ttle So you you've guessed! ..· You are vi. etl.com Q" 0.. there 1s Rama - l don't know a lot of people ol. de scr i be Ra n i a's i nterests 3. one of th I re. e xc l amation mar k c .----IP E . makes me laugh 'll li. t o se par ate ite ms i n a 6.---=-.ke and I thi nk you .

c + Your Task • Write a description of a friend. Dear Sheryl. The funniest thing happened to me the other day Mark convinced me to go to a talk on personology analysing someone's personality by looking at their face Have you ever heard of it The speaker asked for a volunteer and for some strange reason The next thing PLAN Ope n i n g : Body: Opening rema rks. 8. .Sed differef11: lifd juti..ovt. Use the model on page 14 and the plan below to help you. Use 1 00-1 50 words. Don't worry about spell i n g or punctuation as you ' l l have t i m e t o c hec k them later. long. I !. There may be more than one possible answer.col ou r Rania's got beau tiful. Use the checklist to check your work.Dec i de wh ic h ideas to keep and wh ic h to leave out . I raised my hand I knew she had chosen me lt was so embarrassing I didnt quite agree with some of her comments especially the part about talking too much but it was a lot of fun./ . C l o s i n g : C losing remarks.vu to ducri.pti. Add the missing punctuation marks to the sentences below. 2. 3. Write a first draft. CHECKLIST .o lif f persovt-.ed 3rlifmmlifr./ . 3. ' ::> . I e-�k. WRITING YOUR DESCRIPTION 1 . i ntroduce the perso n .O VI. �1\(1 Organise your ideas. Brainstorm your description.be the persovt-. Desc ri be t h e perso n 's appea ra nce. Who would be easy or interesting to describe? • Think of words and expressions to describe the person's: physic al appearanc e . Then write a final draft. speLli. This is fantastic Are Pau l Mark Bianca a n d C l a i re a l l going on the trip She asked the driver where they were but he refused to answer There were a few people mostly c h i l d ren at the pool The man stood u p put on his c oat and walked out a n grily I cant believe it Ill pass all my exams I hope a n d get i nto u n iversity Why a rent you working Add the missing punctuation marks to the text. 4.-.vu lifvt-lil' e-ompouvt-d lifdjuti. IM2Ufttll®f![j!li$1Jfiwj 15 . 5. i nterests and personal ity. 5.Dec i de how to order your ideas. . .personal ity activities and i nterests 2.{.vtg lifvt-lil' pUJUtUiifti. • Think of people you know.l ength/size ./ I foLlowed the pllifvt-for lif due-ri.Write q u ic kly.Unit 1 4. dark hair. Adjecti ves a re used i n a specific order: opin ion.

. Good . Jn a telephone interview. 3-10 February Writing Preferred Activities . Weak. Is there a nythi n g you'd l ike to ask me? 4.. of Birth (Day I Month I Year .. First Name: . Good. ) .·.. Then switch rol es. ) Dates preferred Weak.. Why do you want to come to our c a m p ? 5. !6 . art . Male. skiing ... . . application form To register.. 15-22 January . E-mail Address: . Female: . using his I her appl ication form. . . send i n our online "J Telephone i nterview req u i red. .:Sh... Home Address (Number & Street . 2 Tomas has applied for the camp. Listen to the interview. Which of the questions i n Exercise 2 does the a d m i n istrator ask? What other questions does she ask? • USE YOUR SKILLS Cond uct a te lephone i nterview with your partner. Date ... Have you received my c heque? 6 .. Imag i n e you a re applying for C learlake E n g l ish Wi nte r Camp and complete the form a bove.. Medium . Do I need any spec ia l equi pment? 1.. .. Reading .. . Read the web page and a ppl ication form a nd a nswer the Task Questions below.. . dancing. . CLEARLAKE ABOUT us 1 OTHER CLEARLAKE PROGRAMS 1 � B·m!B!fiiilmlm � · · · · ·· Come to our ca mp in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Speaking .... Where d i d you learn E n g l ish ? 7 .. hiking . which of the following questions would the administrator ask? 2. .. other • TAS K QUESTIONS 1 . Use the questions in Exercise 2 above to help you . How ma ny people will be shari n g a room ? 3. City I Town I Village: Re gistration no.'fCEPHON SKILLS • APPLICATI ON FO R M S AND INT E RVI EWS You a re going to com plete a n appl ication form and conduct a n i nterview.. PERSONAL I N FORMATIO N Surname:.. Good.and learn Engl ish at the same time! . . Country:. Medium. ... Mobile Phone Number: . Have the adventure of your l ife . 90876456789 Telephone Number: . 7-14 January . . 11-18 February Native Language:. Medium.... Weak. Where are the other students fro m ? 8.. Why do you t h i n k your readi ng and writi ng a re weak ? � 3. Level of Eng1.

tell one person about it don't tell anyone anything tell everyone -you don't know why it's a secret anyway 2. a. You .es/viewpoi n ts 1 F ind ou t a bou t a real-l ife B ritish spy a t: ... but lose the paper save it in your mobile phone remember it by heart 4..bu rlingtonbooks.. listen carefully. Go to page 1 60 to see what your score means... b. tell him about your life as well feel bored and say you're going to get a drink b. You . . You . . but feel quite nervous and frightened 5. find a way to open the lock with your pen climb from your neighbour's balcony to your own b... a. The shortest way home is down a dark. take it. a. b. Your friend invites you over. A friend has told you a secret. phone your parents and tell them to come home and let you in 3. You .. Dangerous Situations • • • Past Simple P<Jsr Continuous Past Perfect Si m pie Talking about a Picture Writing a Narrative Life Skills: Using a Dictionary *Listening to a Conversation -• * • Danger! 1 . c. You . c. you may want to consider espionage. enjoying the thrill of danger walk the long way around take it. do the quiz below. c. An acquaintance at a party starts telling you about his life. a. but you're not in the mood.. but your friend knows you're lying b. You forget your keys and are locked out of the house. Before you decide. . feel you must tell the truth 2. a. 1. • Do you agree with your quiz results? Do you think you'd make a good spy? Why or why not? WEB EXTRA www. Would you l i ke a job that involves danger and excitement? If so. getting as much information as possible 6. Use the key on the right and add up your score... a. have no trouble inventing a good excuse invent a story. . write it down. c. Your friend gives you his new phone number. c. . You .Unit Objectives . c.. b. empty street..

worried about what had happened to Max When Fowler fi rst saw Ausable. 1 . disappoi nted a . We can i nfer that in the end. the manager had given Max a key to his room b. . fat (li nes 23-25) 4. . When they entered the room . . he p robably fe lt . the manager had not blocked the balCony c. the way people rea ct or the thin gs they say. the hotel manager 4. lowered (li nes 54. a . 5. that his f i rst i m pression had been wrong b. practical (li nes 8. We can deduce t h i ngs from certai n i nformation i n the text. beca use Fowler had followed h i m to his roo m c. disappoi nted beca use the evening had not been exciting d .1 0) 3. 2.. The following sentences appear in the text. Max screamed beca use . beca use Max had entered his room b. What can you i nfer from them? Choose the correct answer below. Ausable went to his room beca use .56) . in the text. . Ausable knew that the knock on the door M a ki n g i nferen ces h e l ps you u n derstand t hi ngs that a ren't actua l ly written i n the text. . a .�READING 1 . Max c l i m bed through the window because he thought . a . Read the short story and complete the sentences using your own words. 3. an agent delivering the report d. Ausable was angry beca use . . • Do you think Ausable was a good secret agent? Why or why not? Fictional spies: Sa m Fisher. excited 3. g loomy • blinked • startled • g rasped MAKING INFERENCES 1 . b. He was past middle age and very. Max was holding a gun 2 . Jason Bo u rn e a n d A ustin Po wers 18 . . Max wa nted the report d. 2. Fowler and Ausable were su rprised by . room service c. happily ( l i nes 32-34) 5 . just in case there was trouble 3 . . that Ausable was not very p rofessional c. . Ausable sa i d th at he had ca l l ed the pol ice . . the pol ice b. slowly (li nes 50-52) 6 . Max beca m e nervous when someone . . Word Check: The following words appear 4. Ausable did not look like any secret agent Fowler had read about. was . . for example. Choose the best answer according to the text. Make sure you know what they mean. Fowler felt a. . . . very fat. 4. . 5 . in order to give them the secret report d. Find words or phrases in the text that mean the opposite of: 1 led (lines 1-3) 2. . .

very fat.. but he hasn't. "Send them away.." he warned. "If I do not answer the door. "You are disappointed. The Midnight Visitor I • I I'"' . I want it. with a face like a fox. Max?" Ausable asked. what about . "This is the second time in a month that someone has entered my room from that balcony!" Fowler's eyes went to the single window of the room. As Max dropped onto the balcony. but it extends under my window. What are you doing in my room?" "The report." Ausable sighed. "Here is the drink you ordered." Suddenly." explained Ausable angrily. the police?" "There never were any police." Ausable said over his 1) houlder.. What balcony?" 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 "It belongs to the next room." he said grimly. White faced and shaking. a bottle and two glasses." he said. sir. arranging ( l i n e 1 3) mea n s p/aneando. "What balcony?" asked Ausable. they will come in anyway. He was slender.Kt.. The doorknob turned. "Only room service. You've been bored!" The fat man laughed to himself as he unlocked the door of his room and let his frustrated guest enter. is it not?" As he was speaking." Max bit his lip nervously. And they will not hesitate to shoot.. The knocking was repeated. You wanted to meet me because 1ou are a young and romantic writer. but . :\usable closed the door behind him. "Mr Ausable! Mr Ausable!" Keeping the gun on the two men. "Balcony?" Max asked. Ausable blinked a few times.J l U n it 2 I Ausable did not look like any secret agent Fowler had read about. I told them to check on me to make sure everything was all right.. Ausable smiled with relief. not tall. whom I was expecting. But instead of having secret messages slipped into my hand by a dark­ eyed beauty." He set the tray on the table and left the room. "you startled me. That is the drama. he screamed once. there was a knock at the door. "Max.. Halfway across the room a man was standing and pointing an automatic pistol at them. You had eX'pected mysterious figures in the night. Fowler was still breathing hard as Ausable calmly poured himself a drink. a report rhat may someday affect the course of history. "Cheer up. "The secret report that is being brought to you tonight. Soon you will see a top secret report 2f�1Vtre� to this room. a spy. "I will wait on the balcony. The door opened and a waiter stood there with a tray. my young friend. "You were told that I was a secret agent. "but . Fowler stammered." Ausable sat down heavily in an armchair." "But what about the man on the balcony . Fowler followed him down the gloomy corridor of the old French hotel where the secret agent had a small room on the sixth floor." Max murmured. I only got a phone call arranging a meeting in my room.?" Fowler began. "What will you do now. I had a key. Max grasped the window frame and swung the other leg up and over. Then he s�itched on the light. "I'm furious with the hotel manager.." The knocking on the door became louder and a voice was raised. He was past middle age and very. "The manager promised to block it off." Max's face was black with anger as he backed swiftly toward the window and put one leg out into the night. programando not arreg/ando report ( l i n e 1 8) means in forme not reportaje . the crack of guns and poison in the wine. "That is the police. "No.

H e plan ned it. he switched on . a . . A Firefi hter 's Man Roles . They put poison in the king's wine. b . I ' m more worried now 2. Choose the answer that best explains the ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES mea n i ng of the first sentence. Despite all this. See in g Pau l u pset h i m ... 4. 8. When he arrived. I ' m H H ! Why d idn't you te l l me you couldn't come? (fu ry) 7 . The c h i l d re n 's m other m a d e sure t h a t . The resu lts were n ot as good as we had expec ted . mystery � mysterious romance � romantic . 3. .. .. . . b .C VO CABULARY @ Words from the Text 1 . Some common adj ective suffixes are: -a/. do you think of a L . They'll bring them . 2. They were i n their 50s. The m a n began to shake when he saw Pa u l . "Being a firefighter means being in 2· H (danger) situations. an officer in the London Fire Brigade. The athlete is breath i ng hard beca use .. it's a H H matter. They wanted the wine to taste nic e. people love firefighters mostly for their 6 HH·· ····· (tradition) role : they are heroes who do an 7· HHO HO (admire) job and who willing!) face danger in order to prevent 8· H (tragedy) deaths. The sec ret agent had some . . There's a lot people can do to prevent fires. Complete the passage by adding a suitable suffix to the words i n brackets. 9. Ou r friend a r r a n ged a fish i ng trip to Sc otland. i nformation . Note that sometimes there are changes in spel ling. a . 3. An H painti ng by Va n Gogh c osts m i l l ions of dollars. a. We were d is a p p o i nted when we heard the results . We want you to feel happy. and they need 5· OH H H O (psychology) training to deal with victims who are panicking. . that's not all they do. Some adj ective suffixes have got a special meaning : the suffix .. They w il l d e l ive r the books tomorrow. running into a burning house to save a child? "Well. Please stop p o i n t i n g at . b . 2 .. They wa nted to k i l l h i m . a . (p rotect) 6 . Do they teach . .. . H design at your school? (graph) 3. (va lue) 5. 1. a ... b... We want you to stay awa ke. (hero) man or woman. a . . . 1. We' re trying to c h e e r you up.. . Then listen and check your answers. .. 3 . 5.. She laughed. They' l l read them . . -ous. .. . .a g e d . They offered their g uests . The old man p o u red . I don't want to ta l k about it. a . a He was pleased to see Pau l ...he's completely . They were i n their 20s..ful means with. 6. in the kitc h e n ..they're very ... • • 7. b . The c h i l d hesitated before she took my h a n d .. H e enjoyed it .. logical way. 6.. 5. Grammar Appendix. You should buy one of these . 4. . while the suffix -less means without. (use) • . b . . Some words can be identified as adjectives by their suffixes. You r parents a re too H H They should let you be more i ndependent.. I ' m less worried now b. S h e pa used . . b." Firefighters must stay in shape... The resu lts were better than we had expected . (education) work. " says Malcolm Green.. . b . but he told no one.tic and -ive. Complete the sentences in any 1. but we also do plenty of 3· H. A <3 � 4. Don 't be sca red of my dog . page � 11 7 M ost of the people at the conc e rt were m i dd l e . and we're always trying to find 4· H HO (effect) ways to get this message across. -able. (origin) 2 .. a . l t was a h uge re l i ef w h e n I heard t h e news. (harm) 8. (person) 4. Complete the sentences by adding a suitable suffix to the words in brackets. When you think of a firefighter.. • H•••••• • • . Pay attention to the words in colour.

You'd m a ke a good spy ! 3 • Complete the sentences. .. Feeling the wind in your face as you look down on a city from the top of a skyscraper is a real 7 And you can also see some interesting details of people's lives Replace the words in bold with the expressions below.. . wa rned the robber... I 'm quite frightened of . ... -.Ye was sta rt l ed I sta rt l i n g when a mysterious oman suddenly a ppeared... .c. ty y) )' . . -ed I .Adj ectives ��ding with -ed describe a feeling or state.. but they weren't h u rt.. . _c. .. . " He l p ! Fire ! " 3. ou a ren't easily frightened I f r i g hte n i n g and you don't ta l k m uc h . .After the fire. We were shocked I shock i n g by the n ews of the acc ident. .8 1 . ... . c. while �ojectives ending with -ing describe nouns that :aJse or create this feeling. . 2. but window cleaners who work on tall buildings constantly platform 200 metres in the air has got to have plenty of 2· Some cleaners have actually fallen.... of heights. . . . needs a lot of courage .. " Do n 't move or I ' l l shoot ! " 6... l iv i n g o n the edge a cl ose ca l l when you look through their windows! • se riously i nj u red • l ucky to be a l ive • r i s ked h i s l ife The young father put h i mself in d a n g e r to save his c h i l d .. He rec eived several t h reaten ed I t h reate n i ng phone calls. When I was a c h i ld... One was killed. lt cheers me up when . . .YQ_c. but the other miraculously 3· .. and have no 6 · .. (J 4..t.. but h e s u rvived . .. _ . .rac in g d river.. A person who spends entire days standing on a shaky a ... Match the beginning of each sentence i n I with its ending in 1 1 . . the job has its good side. they felt fortu n ate t h at they occu pati o n a l h azard � h a d n' t d i e d ... .. I get furious when ..:r... . . In New York City in 2007. The p i lot was b a d l y h u rt i n the c rash .... - lt was a very d a n g erous situati o n ."lJ. . He was i n a terrible acc ident. being i n an acc ident is j ust another work-re l ated d a n g e r . Complete the passage with the words and thrill phrases below.. People who are easily bored 5. 2... . . .. . S h e suffers from a terri ble 11 We don't usually think of window cleaning as a dangerous job..... . two brothers fell from the 47th floor of a building.-. often look for t h r i l ls. Before I leave fo r sc hool. o .. . . e... 5. Vocabulary Builder. :ly ) r Choose the correct form of the adjective....ing ADJ ECTIVES . A firefig hter 2. . I screamed 4. but if you like 5 .. • s u rvived • • l iv i n g on the edge • • fear courage ser i o u s l y i nj u red risk their l ives 1 .. . .. although 1 · WORKI N G O N TOP O F THE WORLD ... p ages 80..t. � For a motor. ... . Then listen and check your answers. .. TgpJ. fear of dogs.. .. of course he was 4 · . .U n it 2 DANGEROUS SITUATIONS 1. . � Some people seem to enjoy b e i n g consta ntly i n d a ng e r . ..There was a t h r i l led I t h ri l l i ng car c hase h rough the streets of Londo n . Make them true for you.Y. 3. .. . This type of accident can always happen. the people scre a m ed . .�Jc.. 1. I make sure ..

...... By the time they came to ar rest h i m . 4. 3. a rrive • call • not tal k • not finish wash The men fell as they t he windows..... Everyone (sleep) when suddenly someone . Read the exa m p l e a n d a nswer the q u esti ons... . h a d forgotten We use ... C a rla had never seen a c a r n ival until she visite d I had vi sited B raz i l . .. 6 . (have) What . a shower? There was a lot of noise last night when (do)7 you I . you (si ng) whi l e you . ... .. J u l i a 9. Com pl ete the rule.. Com p l ete the r u l es. a completed action in the past 1- 4. 3. . so we c leaned u p ..Sc- had expected Which verb is in tre Pa. Which action ha ppen ed 'irstl 2. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. 2. . N i gel we nt h o m e beca use he forgot I Fo v11e felt more 1.-- 2. Pat . 1. .. he a l re a d y esca ped I h a d a l re a d y esca ped . 5.H • _ . PAST PERFECT SIMPLE - We h a d f i n ished I f i n i s h e d the job.. Wh ich tense/s is/are used fo r each of the uses above? 3. ? 1. (knoc k) on the door.. A usable was talking to Max. 1qh NOT The firef ter burnt h1s hands while he saved a child X . 5 ... At 70 o c d. was waiting or the report • c. Fo c/ler were sitting in the hate/ lobby. the a m b u lance . (call) you . 1 . 4. Fowler climbed b. (a rrive) a s we .. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb below. Read the exa m p l es a n d a n swer the q uest i o n s..t Per•ect Simple? 2. . two incomplete act1011s 1 n progress a t the same time 1 n the past � 3.. A l ice .. me... + the past partic pie to form the Past Perfect Simple. I was sorry that I was I h a d been so i m patient ea rlier. 1 ./ 22 El b ombero se quem6 las m a n os mientra s sa l vaba a u n n i fi o.... . 6.. 2 . The tomatoes began to grow soon after we p l a nted I h a d p l a nted them . Use the Past Simple or Past Continuous.. As he was speaking A usable closed the door... We use + verb + ... e W le re waiter was knocking on the door. (follow) her.. HO H H H.. T h e last tra i n h a d left b y the t i m e s h e reached I h a d reached the statio n . JfliJU' <cu uc-cuu. a.. 1.. 3 . . 8..c � GRAMMAR PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS - 1. (i nterru pt) h i m . H ---. AUSOI le a an followed AusabiL. Use the Past Simple or Past Continuous..-. 1.... ... 4... ... 1 . h is books... 5. Choose the correct answer. H.. What The teac her (explain) the rules when someone . 2. h i s meal beca use he wasn 't hung ry. . (have) d i n ner. ? I was getting ready for bed when Karla .. H H . 2. 3... We use verb + to form the Past Simple for regular verbs..... a n incomplete a ction m progress at a spec1fic time m the past b a description of a scene D 5. to form the Past Continuous. 7. H 2 . Why were you l iste n i n g ? I to you ! H . W h ich sente nce ta lks about . Her parents had left before s h e woke u p I h a d woken u p ..H • H • • H H . l a n incomplete action mterrupted by a nother a ction c 2. (n otic e) that a stra nger ... When . .. �he f ·enghter burnt his hands while he was saving a child. . ...

H . b u r/ i n g r o n b o o ks . (not prepare). When d i d the spy destroy the document? (after I memori se it) ::>. . I don't l i sten to classical m usic at all. 6. :2 \ Fishermen .. Why did John feel i l l ? (eat too m uch) Why did she have a n accident? (d rive too fast) ). . (travel ) to the Bahamas to (put) pieces of fish in the � water in order to attract them. Then he came to help her.... 3 We .. 4. (chase) another fish when it 5· swam towards Or Ritter and scientists. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets. (leaving) 5 . H.. and Or Ritter 2· H HH H .. .. .The show I beg i n I we I a rrive I by the time � before... Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple. 1· . (after) 3 .. H � 8.. Luckily. H • Complete the sentences with the verbs i n brackets...uJ you 1\c-. Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple... La u ra I fa l l asleep I she I watch TV I w h i l e E l izabeth I recog n ise Andrew I she I meet h i m I at a pa rty I beca use They I d rive to the airport I their car I break down I when David I read the newspaper I h i s c h i l d ren I go to bed I after as I I I leave the house I our dog I run out of the door He I pack I his bags I l eave I the house I a n d They I catch I the spy I he I enter I enemy territory I after were not as dangerous as most people thought. lt started to ra i n w h i l e .. In 2002. eslvi ew p o i n rs 1 ..... When d i d J u a n learn E n g l is h ? (travel) 9.. Ben .. He 3· H HHH .U n it 2 4.. ... He wanted to show that they would pay no attention to h i m if he kept calm.. . A large shark 4· . but this time something went wrong..... (wa l k) so far by h i mself.. ... . (wh i le) 3. (rescue� the passengers after their sh i p .... We found a better flat Then we moved.. � (do) this experiment many times H . H accident. . Write an answer for each q uestion. � When I went to the car pa rk. Use the Past Simple. you _ .. Then listen and check you r answers. .. (retire). Why did the c h i l d start to cry? ( h u rt his k nee) 2 .(J�(ma ke) an appoi ntment before H. . According to other (often take) great risks in order to prove his theories (not be) surprised by the H. .. 5... . .. 1 .... 1 .. S h e fin ished a l l the work . (never) E x tra g ra m ma r e xe r c i se s a t : w w w .... 6 . Use the Past Simple. Maggie (be) u pset beca use she .. U s e the Past Simple o r Past Perfect Simple. He later said he i ntended to continue Sharks k i ll f ewer than 20 people a year... . By the time Joyce got to school . He (not save) any money before he . he prove his theory. Shark expert Or Erich Ritter believed that sharks '· Write sentences using the words below. H H 3 (attack) h i m .. . . 7. Complete the sentences in a logical way. I (see) that someone (stea l) my car. . Do not change the original meaning. Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple.. .. (sin k). . Use the Past Simple.. (not pass) the exam because he .. . HHHHH. . Or R itter 8· h i s work... . The boy a pologised beca use he . Or Ritter 6· and they 7· H OH H... The basketba l l player fel l as she . H H• • (go) to see her? They H H � (al ready get off) the bus when they (rea l ise) they were in the wrong place . 2 .. H... Alan was relaxi ng i n his room when . lt started to ra i n in the middle of our picnic...... . Use the words in brackets and the Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple. . . Write Grammar Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 complete sentences.. . 2. . . Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. There were many sharks in the area.. . (by the ti me) When d id you have s k i i n g lessons? (stay i n t h e A l ps) 4.. 3 . (not believe) that the c h i l d . (survive) the attack.. Sa m was p leased after he . I plan to leave in a week . ( lose) her earri ngs.

. a l ways read a l l the options carefu l ly before you l isten. The correspondent bel ieves she is l uc ky 2. 2. what would i t be? Why? Find out about other dangerous jobs at: www. b.SKILLS LISTENING � A CONVERSATION 1. Accordi n g to the prog ra m me.When you have t o answer mu lti ple-choice q u estions. 3. a . . a. a re rarely shot at b . synonyms and opposites. stay behind the front l i n es WEB EXTRA L _ _ __J • If you had to choose a job from those listed i n Exercise 1. d. · n· n· 3. it sounds l i ke fun b . C h ris believes can't be compared to mou ntai n biking. Why do you think each job is dangerous? • • • construction worker police officer taxi d river • • • firefighter pilot pizza delivere r • secret agent I spy • war correspondent • m i ne r R E A D CAREFULLY . . Ellie and Chris. Ellie and Chris see each other a few weeks later. Listen to their conversation and complete the sentences using 1 -4 words.es/l'iewpoints I . it's a n easy c o u rse c . . it will help her in her career d. wa r correspondents . 1 .b urlingtonbooks. Sometimes the correspondent does not for a week. Ellie enjoys mounta i n b i k i n g beca use she l i kes living 4. would l i ke to be a war c o rrespondent t h i n ks E l l ie's idea is good has read a bout war c orrespondents th i n ks E l l ie is m a k i n g a m istake 3. Listen to the first part of the conversation and choose the correct continuation for each sentence. C h ris . . . she a d m i res the teac her 2. The fol lowing jobs are considered to be some of the most dangerous in the world. so l i sten carefu l ly for a l ternative expressions. a re i n c onsta nt danger c. Wa r correspondents want people to know how . 5. Some options may not use exactly the same words as the passage. Two students. E l l i e is doing media studies bec a use a. are discussing one of the jobs above. a re usually soldiers d . 1 . n. c. .

Question What is h e d o i n g ? Why is he doi n g it? What's dan gerous a bout it? . What's more.U nit 2 SPEAKING TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE 1. u se the fol lowing expressions: And a n other thing. Look at the picture and describe what you see. Use the expressions in colour in your conversation. so it's his job. 25 . Describe the picture. With a partner. 1 Match each question a bout the picture with a suitable response. then ask and answer the questions in Exercise 2... I ' d be very fri g htened . M aybe the tiger will wake up a n d attack h i m . Then practise the d ia logue with a partner. 3... I'd probably screa m ! .What k i nd of person do you t h i n k he is? How would you feel i n this situation ? _ _ ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING Response I s u ppose he's a vet. .. And besides. Plus the fact that . choose a picture below. H e's proba bly very brave. _ _ When you want to add more information or add a nother point to what you've just sai d ...l t l ooks l i k e he's taking ca re of a tiger's teet h. . ..

We took Lily to hospital as soon as we got to shore.. B eg i n n i n g t h e story: i n the beg i n n i ng I at fi rst Cont i n u i n g t h e story: before I after I next I later I when I then I as soon as New e l e me nts to t h e story: suddenly I all of a sudden Eve nts occur r i n g at t h e s a m e t i m e : while I as I d uring E n d i+� g : eventua l ly I at l ast I i n the e n d I finally l Two yea rs ago. . Read the narrative below. What frig hten in g I dangerous t h i ng happened? 5. 6· . we found there was no food left for us. we went ca mping in the mountains. Who was involved i n the story? Use connectors of sequence to complete the story. I went on holiday with my friends Lily and Jack.. the bea r d i d n 't follow us . One afternoon. 2. and came back to help. we were told that she had a broken nose from hitting the water so hard. we began to back away slowly. . hoping it would go away. . it was worth m issing a meal for the experience of being so near a bea r ! . .. 3· . but it began to wa lk towards us ! 2 · . I looked around for my friends. as the speedboat was making a sharp turn. w e returned. Look at the connectors of sequence and time expressions below and find four of them in the model. One day.. we were prepa ring d inner over a campfire. Fortu nately. Find the answer to each question in the narrative. watching people fly across the water on a banana boat . but luckily she hadn ' t been seriously injured ! A lot of people enjoy banana boats. . . . . . 1 · .. the driver had noticed what was going on. +: -Writing Guide. we were standing on the beach.. Then. Will the writer ever go on a banana boat again? NIGH'TMAillJ decided to try it. How did the cha racters react to the i n ci dent? 6. OM A BANANA Last summer. . When did the story take place? 4. . 1 . .he was too i nterested in ou r d i n n e r ! 5· . There may be more than one suitable answer. we tried to remember what th e pa r k ranger had told us.c � WRITING A Narrative 1 . Jack and I swam towards her to see what had happened.. By this time. . . 4· . Later.. A HUNGRY BEAR 3. the banana ti pped over and we all fell into the water. page 1 49 3. Laughing. I felt quite panicky. we rea l ised that we were in danger. we saw a bear watc h i ng us from about a h u n d red metres away. How did the story e n d ? CONNECTORS O F SEQUENCE AND TIME EXPRESSIONS We use connectors of sequence to help ma ke the order of even ts clear.. S uddenly I saw that Lily had blood all over her face. we shouted and waved our arms i n the ai r so the bear wou l d t h i n k we were large a n i mals. The funny thing is that Lily still loves them ! 2.a long yellow rubber boat pulled by a speedboat.. Where did the story take pl ace? 4. but I ' m not brave enough to try one again. It looked like such a great thrill that we I held on as tightly as I could. We ignored it. Time expressions describe when things happen ..

. (at last) · - Describe where and when the sto ry takes place and i ntrod uce the characters. Descr i be the events in the story and how the cha racters felt. my brother and I went out to d i n ner · 5. . 4.B efore I could say a word. the people i n the front seat turned around and bega n screa m i n g at me.ovu.How di d the cha racters fee l ? D i d t h e story e n d happily or not? - Write the story in the correct order.d 3rtl!fn1111Ai! r. . e had started coo k i n g the meat before we saw :'le bea r. for example.en t camping during our summer holiday. o n e eve n i n g . PLAN Open i n g : l i ns . ent back to get my coat.Where and when di d it take place? What happened that was frighte n i ng or dangerous/ .11. Then write a final draft. - 1e e I had closed the car door. but then . �er Rewrite the following sentences using the connectors and time expressions in brackets.. I real ised that they had probably been j ust as =-1ghtened as I was.I U n it 2 Your Task During is fol lowed by a noun to state when someth i ng ha ppens.. C011./ I followed . S 'le had destroyed the document before : !elt l i ke we had waited for hours. = ��Y mum. t f i rst everyth i n g was fine.. Write a first draft.I"VV-e e:<pressi. ey cont i n u ed wa l k i ng to the ca r w h i l e I · . a travel experience or getting lost. F i n a l ly. -�vo people were badly i nj u red w h e n . If you can't think of somethi ng real.ve. (eventual ly) . Then I left the resta u ra nt and got i nto the back of the ca r. Body: 3.How did the characters react to the danger? . spelli. . Brainstorm your narrative. CHECKLIST t11 - Complete the sentences in a logical way. Make any necessary changes. • Thi n k about the following questions: Who was i nvolved in the story? . C l os i n g : Describe how the story ended. For is fol l owed by a period of time to describe how long someth ing goes on. ent camping for two weeks. J U mped out as fast as I co uld ! .. • Thi n k of something frightening or dangerous that happened to you or to someone you know: an accident. .What were the cha racters doing/ .. (after) . • Write a narrative about a dangerous or frightening experience.. Use the connectors of sequence to help you. Use the checklist to check your work./ I check. (then) Our friends finally came to bring us food. .. . .. As soon as 2. . Then we cl i m bed onto :'le banana boat. As we reached the door of the resta u rant.o�-t. Use 1 00.e. Organ ise your ideas. Use the model on page 26 and the plan below to help you. I s u d d e n l y 'emembered that I had left my coat on my chair. .vtg t�� vtd .e t�� vtd f ti. rea l ised someth in g was wro n g : I had got 1 o the wrong ca r ! .e i n cident happened w h i l e we were on 1oliday. . we got up to leave . WRITING YOUR NARRATIVE 1. . (duri ng) = rst we took off ou r shoes./ I V�Se. .. ' make up a story. . p uV�L-tV(P(ti.1 50 words.Utors o sequuu:._ man was sitt i n g i n the a i rport when suddenly .:. .d the plt�� �-t for fttlf rmti.atalie felt better after a few we�ki.Later. After we had fin ished eati n g .

Look at the headwords in A a bove. ® 451 Abbreviation Key British English preposition adverb verb pl ural American E ng l ish adjective noun C "'@ a bear /be. • v. 1 . strong wild a n ima l . especially in statistics: Figures show that one in every two marriages ends in divorce.. bore. I could see the strain on thei r faces. How m a ny pa rts of speech does entry C a bove show for bear? 5. . Wh ich is a phrasa l verb? control of a si ngle g u n . 2 .�/ verb . But da S i lva did not give up. I could see the two figures in a l i fe-and-death struggle for the PH RASAL VERBS ­ came closer. showing the fi rst a n d l ast words on that page. • prep. 000 people at the concert.d e t t t . Which of the fol lowi ng words wou ld you find on the page? figure • fickle • fifth • fidget 2. figure / 'fig. 6. to carry or hold: All the men b ore guns. a l a rge. t (bears. noun. The gun went tl y i n g across . a n u m ber. 3. Match each part of the entry in C above with its l a bel below. da S i lva 's stomach and bent his arm up beh i nd his back. it's i m porta nt to u ndersta nd the structure of a dicti onary entry. Then a n swer the Task Questions below. Look at n. 3 . borne) - b c 2 . the snow. Taylor slammed his elbow i n to From where I stood. D ictiona ries often use abbreviations. example sentence • phonetic spell ing • part of speech • defi n ition • other forms of the word 4.�/ noun (p i . bearing. h i gh above the i r heads . Look at the d ictionary extracts a nd a bbreviation key. the shape of the human body: She has a very attractive figure. • adj. • adv. figures) • TASK QUESTIONS 1 . • USE YOUR SKILLS Read the extract bel ow. Then suddenly. Look up the mea n i ng of the words in bo l d . Headwords a re the words at the top of the d i ctionary page.. • A m E • B r E • pi.SKILLS • U S ING A D ICTI ONARY You a re g o i n g to practise some basic d ictionary ski l ls. a person that you cannot see clearly: We noticed a tall figure standing near the window verb to calculate an amount: We figure there were about 1 0. As I I could hardly bear to watch . to be a b l e to tolerate: Can you bear the pain? ® noun 1. It was clasped in their hands. Meani ngs of phrasal verbs a re u su a l ly g iven at the end of the entry for the verb. W h i c h def i n ition o f figure in D above fits t h e context o f t h e fo l lowi ng sentence? I could see two figures struggl i n g for control of the g u n . Which is the correct part of speech a nd defin ition for bear i n the context of the fo l lowi ng sentence? I couldn't bea r to watch their stru ggle. 8 a bove and match each abbreviation below to its m ea n i ng.

ere's so much to see> tjeah. I am sure that if I try hard enou gh . I 'll getbacfc up. � Chorus n y Chorus (repeat twice) • D o you think that a positive attitude is helpful in achieving difficu lt goals? What else is needed to achieve difficult goals? WEB EXTRA www. b. I ca n relax. !:4n do antjthing> . No matter how hard I try. Feel that wind b/owin: Don't/cnow where I 'm goin� But I /cnow ! will find mtj Watj.burhngtollbooks. /t's mtj life and it's up to me> I /cnow that I'm in the driver's seat So hold on tight and I 'll roll the windows down. I matj f along the watj> all A nd 1{ the hmes get tough> Nothing's gonna l<eep me down. l'lljustgo right'round instead. Lif i full ofchances and I malj not/cnow e s what's in stor e> Butif I 'm too afraid to flif> I /cnow I'll never soar.:Jon't leta thing get in mtj watj.- 19.Ja/fc outside and I touch the sun. Which one best reflects your attitude to life? a. !'Jthing can stop me) go 'head and watch me. /t's lil<e I'm alreadtj off the ground. Which of the statements above is the best summary of the song's message? . c. um't waitto st artthe dag todatj. . :s all here for me> tjeah. .* Sport and Achievement * Prese n t Perfect S i mple * Unit Objectives I Past S i mple L i s t ening to a R adio I n t erv i ew * Exchangi n g In t'o rmation * Wri t i n g a B i ography ' Li !'c Ski l l s : B ooking Tickets O n l i n e Go for It! • Read the statements below. . I wi l l be able to achieve my goals.es/vlewpolllls I Find out about a spo rts team th at o vercame an unu sual ch alleng e at: . !AY! do antjthing> .that/ wantto> nothing I can'tdo. I won't ach ieve my goals . . :7 readif> world) 'cause here I come. !) one can tell me no. Listen to the song and read the lyrics. I U/11 do antjthing> Can Do Anljff11i1g Caleiqh Pt#trs rus: People tell me I reach too high) I'll never /cnow i{ I never frtj. .·d I can do antjthing. use I believe> tjeah) I believe in me> . beca use I know that wonderful thi ngs wi l l happen to me in my l ife .'ere matj be b/oc/cs on the road ahead> -.orand new morning hasjustbegunJ .

. 5. al lowed to com pete at the next Olympics? Why or why not? 1 . change their m i nds about disabled ath letes 6. I d e ntifyi ng the m a i n i dea o f each paragra p h w i l l h e l p you u n d e rsta n d the text. foremost (paragraph 3) -.. What is u n usual a bout Osca r Pistori us? 2. . the IAAF would not a l l ow it b. Read the text and check your answers to Exercise 2.. people . 2. ask whether d isabled and able-bodied ath letes should com pete together d . 4. Pistorius and his coach claimed that . Accord in g to Pistorius and his coach. 2. What did the IAAF decide? 4. 4. 3. his case wou l d set a precedent I 2. • In your opinion. should Oscar Pistorius be Answer the questions. a . Pistorius did not com pete at Beij i ng beca use a. es/l'iell'JlOillfS I . In which paragraph do you think you will find the following information? Pistorius' ea rly l ife 2 The reason for the IAAF's decision Y Pistorius' reaction to the IAAF's decision S An i ntrod uction to Oscar Pistorius 1J The final verdict b 1. what m a kes h i m su ccessfu l ? 6 . Why did Pistorius bel ieve he should be al lowed to compete in the Olympics? 3. M a ke sure you know what they mean. want C h eeta hs i nstead o f real legs b. 4. he was disabled c . it wou l d be too d iffi cult for h i m to compete at Beij i ng d . the text. the C h eeta hs were better than legs c . 5. Osca r had overcome h uge d isadvantages b. the CAS wou l d not a l low it 3. 1 . Read the first sentence of each paragraph in 3. he did not run fast enough d . Why i s the word ironically used i n l i ne 33? 30 W E B EXTRA F ind out a bout some strange spo rts a t : u•u •u•._ non-professional (paragraph 3) g reater than normal (pa rag raph 5) i m p rove (paragraph 6) l' 3. Word Check: The following words appear 5. Why did they make this decision? 5. in the text. 1. 2. a . wonder how much technology should be used in sport c. . burlillgfollbooks.J (� READING 1 . Accord i n g to the text. able-bodied • blades • overcome overturn • space-age Choose the best answer according to the text. Pistori us' case has made IDENTIFYING THE MAIN IDEA Rea d i n g the first sentence of a paragra p h can h e l p i d e ntify the m a i n idea. Find words in the text that mean: achievement (paragraph 1) best.

he took up running and has never looked back. what will be allowed and what will not? 30 35 40 False friends according to (line 1 7) means segun not acordando a determined ( l i n e 3 5) means decidido not determinado . "I train harder than other guys. In 2004. he has forced the athletics world to deal with some difficult questions. 20 I 25 Pistorius and his coach appealed the decision . After all . 10 Pistorius won a gold medal at the 2004 Paralympics in Athens.that only through superhuman determination and willpower had Pistorius overcome such difficult circumstances. I 15 The reason for the IMF's decision was Pistorius' high-tech prosthetics. able-bodied runners. athletes might seek an advantage by replacing healthy limbs with artificial ones. giving him an unfair advantage. the I nternational Amateur Athletic Association. Meanwhile. water polo. O S CA R P I STD R I U S Oscar Pistorius can run faster than almost anyone on eart h . but he wanted to compete in the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008 . " The decision of the IMF was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. According to the IMF. However. Today's athletes use everything from space-age swimsuits to oxygen tents in order to enhance their performance. eat better. called Cheetahs . ruled against his request. wrestling and tennis. he failed to meet the requ i red qualifying time for the 400-metre sprint . 5 Pistorius was born in South Africa in 1 986. A double amputee and a world-class sprinter. making Pistorius eligible to compete at Beijing . They even raised the question of whether. sleep better and wake up thinking about athletics . "I think that's probably why I ' m a bit of an exception. competing with able-bodied boys in rugby. both his legs were amputated below the knee because of a birth defect. which is q uite an amazing accomplishment when you consider the fact that he has no legs. pointing out the d isadvantages created by the Cheetahs. They also feared that Pistorius' case would set a precedent . Despite this devastating disability. he became an athlete at a young age. I ronically. so he could not join the South African Olympic team .� U n it 3 t. opening the way for all sorts of robotic enhancements in sport. They also reminded the world of the obvious .a pair of J -shaped blades especially designed for running. However. the CAS. his times were as good as those of many top. the Cheetahs make Pistorius taller and lengthen his stride. As science advances. his story has raised many issues concerning technology in sport. At the age of 1 1 months. Pistorius is still determined to compete against able-bodied athletes. " said Pistorius. the IMF. in the future.

5. you ask for someth i n g . a record. but her does n 't stop her fro m doing whatever she wants. If you t a k e u p a sport. 2... ? The fans were delig hted when their team . 3. below.. Then match the verbs in colour to their definitions in 1 1 . If you make a req u est. 2 ... devastati n g s u perh u m a n • d i sa b i l ity • • l i m bs w i l l power . at the Beij i ng Olympics? Let's . 3. 1 .. becom e a member of a grou p Javier Soto m ayor. We were a l l shocked .. take action to solve a problem d... lt takes a lot of to stay on a d iet.. an al arm. Pistorius won o medal at the 2004 Paralympics. Complete the sentences with collocations from Exercise 4. 8. The spri nter ran at an a l most .. of the Roses in 1 48 5 ? O u r teacher won 't let a n y student i n late.. Read the sentences in I. a prize. H • . a plan a l ist.. the final Did Mi chael Phelps . make someone aware of a fact b.. a question. ..00 am. world reco rd h older since 1 993 . a table. the for 6. The n ews of the accident was .. that at the next school m eeti ng. . test. m a ke better e... 1 . lt would be u nfa i r if you r teacher scheduled th ree exa ms in one day. H •• • a. Liz is deaf. They feared that Pistorius' case would set a precedent. 11 gym ..... . 5 . His story has raised issues concerning technology in sport. The su rvivors had i nj u ri es to their l ower . .. an obstacle 2 .. a war. Complete the sentences with the words 3 .. If you lengthen your trousers... Correct the false statements. A s technology a d v a nces.. H .. Which country . a match. 6.. Yo u VERB COLLOCATIONS Some verbs a re com m o n ly u sed with certa i n n o u n s. a ne w world .45 m etres in 1 993. 5.. . a pa rty. 3.. at 2 . The govern ment tried to d e a l w ith the crisis. a docu ment. 7 .H • 4. Make any necessary changes. 1... 4. the .. If you t h i n k it's i m porta nt. i m p rove. H • 1.. reverse a previous decision or law c . a hel icopter.. W i n n i n g a gold medal is a g reat acco m p l i s h ment ...... M P4 players are beco m i n g bigger. ra i se an i ssue.. Which of the nouns can be used to form collocations with the verbs in colour? 1 .. 8. a buildi ng.. 3. Th ese combi nations a re ca l led co l l ocations... 4.. . you have found it. Some ath letes take d rugs to e n h a nce their performance. 2 . I wa nted to get fit. a flag. set - 4. a meal.. a date 5.. She's afraid it will a . . a salary... win a medal.. you ' re new at it. can get yo u r licence if you fail your driving 6 .H • • .. you make them shorter. a precedent.. How did you convince your boss to you r .. Why did the CAS overt u r n the IAAF's decision? 4. If you seek someth i n g ..c VO CABULARY � Words from the Text Are the statements true or false? Pay attention to the words in colour.. Max p o i nted o ut that Sue was ten m i n utes late. H .. a n arg u ment. 1 .. 5. 2.. 3...H . speed . eight gold . you should .. a competition. so I decided to j o i n my loca l 7. 2 . H• • • . H igh ju mper Javier Sotom ayor .

. rather than on the mistakes techniques have been shown to improve 8· . 3. One di fficu lty that I have overcome is My greatest accomplishment is .. . Athletes are also taught to focus on the goal they want to 7· . 3 it's a pity that he t h rew in t h e towel after a few d isappoi ntments.. (tho u g ht carefu l ly I started before the others) 4. .. That was h itti n g b e l ow Don't worry. Many even use hypnosis. Replace the words i n bold with the words and expressions below. (let's work together I it's your turn to act) the belt . . _ ..The hig h j u mper performed better t h a n a ny previous ath l ete. . lt takes willpower to a cco m p l ish what you want. The b a l l 's i n you r c o u rt now. c h a l l enge defeat • • • broke a record • • tra i n i n g str u g g l e d beat a n o pponent ). ( u n d ersta n d h ow things work I become popu l a r) • Complete the sentences. a w a r d s i n sport sports that demand a l ot of strength 5 sports that demand a lot of e n d u ra nce - - sports that demand a lot of speed ways to i mprove athletic perfo r m a n ce 2.The goal of com petitive sports is to w i n a g a i n st . Which sport do you think each idiom in Exercise 3 comes from? sai l i ng 4.The gymnast was i nj u red.. . I wou l d l i ke to take up If I were i n Pa rlia ment. .. athletes know that mental 3· or skiing downhill at superhuman 2· . beat i n g com petiti o n types of athletics e q u i pment sports c h a m p i o n s 3 . These mental training tremendous!y. a c h i eve speed • • • perfo r m a n ce • • d efeat tra i n i n g e n d u ra nce Name two . you see them doing incredible gymnastics What you don't see is all the work that's going on inside their heads. they are afraid of making.. .. .U n it 3 S PORT AND ACHIEVEMENT 1. . When you watch athletes at a a n other person or tea m . . . to build physical strength. • box i n g • te n n is • h orse racing 5. me to . 3 . (kept try i n g I gave u p) I 've done a l i i ca n . . pages 82-83 .. . I wo uld raise the issue of .to see and feel themselves 6· . but she s ucceeded in dea l i ng w ith the pa i n . keep your eye on the ball means be alert their opponents and winning a medal. The tea m 's l oss was disappointi n g . J. Today. . . .An i d i o m is a n expression :-at ca n 't be translated word-for-word i n a noth e r � " g u a ge. Choose the correct meaning of each idiom. overc a m e a c h i eve a g o a l • lt ta kes a lot of practice to learn gym n astics. . Make them true 1 . for you. . lt wo uld take a l ot of willpower for 2. The right state of mind can mean the difference between victory and 5 · . Vocabulary Builder. Sports psychologists teach athletes positive thinking and visualisation . . I D I O M S . (fu n ny I cruel) You really i nsulted h i m . . I tried very h a rd to deal with my disabil ities . lea r n i n g to dive was a d iffi c u l t t h i n g to do.. you ' l l soon learn the ropes at you r n ew job. For me.. is just as important as 4· . .. .. . - it's lucky he h a d a head start or he wou l dn 't have finished on time. .

.. Our team . Pistorius . a co m p l eted a ction t h a t took p la c e a t a 1. . (struggle) to get i nto the 2008 Beij ing Olympics.. Pa ul .. 6 . c.. Tom and I ... ? 1....... (rai n) last night? 7 ... ... silver meda l/i Pistori u s q u iere competir e n l a s o l i m piadas desde q u e era u n n i no.. ... . Use the Present Perfect Simple. . a. 2 .. (ever play) ten n is/ 3. . b.. 3.... (a l ready g ive) it to Jen ny. .. . specific t i m e i n the past 2... . .. Com p l ete the r u l e. My mother ......... . Complete each sentence with a suitable time expression below. We . The trai n has . (see) any good matches lately? 4. then • never • last summer • yet since • j ust • ever • for That's the best joke I 've ... . C la i re . + t h e past p a rtic i p l e t o for m the Present Perfect S i m p l e... Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. He hasn 't qualified for the Olympics yet. 8.. 4. 1 ... We use .. (rai n) a l ot this year? 3.. His story has raised many issues. 2. . tried deep-sea div i ng. Gem ma Mengual .. a n a ction I situation that took p l a ce at a n u nspecified t i m e i n the past a n d conti n ues u nt i l the p resent t i m e in the past a n d is rel eva n t to the presen t 2. 1 ... . (a lways be) good at art.. (explain) this to you several times... . . 7... . .. (ta ke) the dog for a wa lk yet? ... 6 . Gemma Meng u a /. ten yea rs. .. ... W h i ch of the t i m e expressi o n s below a re used with the Present Perfect S i m p l e a n d w h i ch a re used w ith t h e Past S i m p l e ? a I ready s i n ce j ust yesterday for yet l ast yea r so fa r u nt i l then l ate ly a mon th a g o recently ever n eve r a l ways sti l l 3. 6.. 5 .. X . 5 . (have) his fi rst tennis lesson when he was three.. (decide) to study medicine... A J amaican ath lete broke the world record . 8.. I 've ....c � GRAMMAR Read the exa m ples a n d a n swer the q u esti ons. 2006. went out for d in ner. I ..... I can't give you the book. (know) each other for five yea rs . 1.. it ......... heard ... ... I .. Which tense is u sed for each of the uses above? 5. 1 ...... (not win) a match i n two month s ! 2 . you .. i t ... Which sente n ces describe ... My sister hasn't begun her swimming lessons He has worked here .. I s it frightening? We had a rest and ... .. . ......... Pistorius started running in 2004. . Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple. .. .. you .. an a ction that took p l ace at an u n specified 3.. .. . Rafael Nadal . Pistorius has won ted to compete in the Olympics since he was a child../ Beijing 2008 NOT Pistorius wants to compete in the Olympics since he was a child.. 2. (not order) our meal yet.. . 8.. . 7.. 3. entered the station . ... o r ... (love) synchronised swi m m i ng since she was a child . (not see) any good films recently.. .. 4...... I 've l ived in Pa ris ..... . Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. . .. ..... 4.

. llist 8. ath l et e s from t h e wo r l d ' s r i c h nat i o n s c h a m be r s 5· • • .. (wh i le) 4. • • ' CAN T W I N 1 Deve l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .. (for) 2 . George started work i ng here fou r years ago. . The basketba l l pl ayer . " ' I ' m not su rprised . " (Past Si m ple) .... Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets.... · 2. . C h i na when he was a yo u n g m a n .. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple. " (Past S im ple) • => .''''''''''' ? No. .... ::> . They . " (Present Perfect S i m p le) . b u r l i n g r o n b o o k s . .. " (Present Perfect Sim ple) " Pa u l is late for school a ga i n . :J . h oweve r . 8· ••.. the gap between r i c h a n d poo r c o u n t r i e s (g row) beca u s e s port 3· (become) h i -t e c h . . ''''''''''' 7 Yes... . . but so far they e n o u g h to c o r rect i t .. ... " (Present Perfect S i m ple) . ...." You 've got a great ta n ! " " Yes. es/l! i e wp oi n t s 1 .. I n s tead . e x t re m e l y e x p e n s ive.. I 've been to lots of C helsea games. John Le n n o n . THE POOR 2· . I was in the middle of a conversation with my teacher when you ca l l ed. '' ' ? I felt fantastic when my team won the cup. ... • (tra i n ) i n s pe c i a l h e at c h a m be r s .. Use the Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple. ..... a l ready ."Jack looks happy. . . " " He probably . . " " Of course she is I . s o t h at t h e at h l et e s c o u l d get u sed to the s u m m e r h eat. We . I d i d n 't go to last week 's game . M y g ra ndfather . (not h ave) t h e m o ney for a h e at 7· ... . . ten n is this morn i n g beca use i t was ra i n i ng . To p re p a re fo r the Ath e n s 4· . (always be) at a d i s ad vantage i n t h e w o r l d of i n ternat i o nal s port.. " La u ra is upset. How long . . 6· • . ... D i c k Kate n d e . h oweve r ...• .. Then listen and check your answers.. . (never) 3 . (order) t h e m to t ra i n i n t h e s u n w i t h t h e i r coats o n ! U n fo rt u n ately..... m a k i n g t ra i n i n g a n d eq u i p m ent O l y m p i c s i n 2 004 . . � 7.. An ne is visiting our cou ntry for the fi rst time. The U g a n d a n box i n g tea m . John d i d n 't wa nt to l eave before seeing the gard e n . I 've a l ready bought tickets for the n ext game. ? I 've been a C helsea supporter since I was ten yea rs old. Marian ever .U n it 3 4.. 1 .....•. Ben doesn't eat meat at a l l . Write a complete sentence using the tense in brackets. Do not change the original meaning. I nt e r n at i o n a l s po rt s organ i s at i o n s are aware of t h e s i t u at i o n . t h e s e d i ffe re n c e s l e ave many e x c e l l e n t at h l etes w i t h l ittle c h a n ce of wi n n i n g a m e d a l . most of the Beatles' songs? •. a n interesting perso n ... two awards si nce he joi ned the tea m . fo r e x a m p l e .. . .. M ichael his presents yet. .• (not d o) 5. The tem perat u re s a n d h u m i d i ty i n t h e s e ( i m i tate) t h e we at h e r c o n d i t i o n s i n Athe n s . (never) 5. .. . a bout the accident on the news. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets. I n recent ye a r s . . . c ha m be r . 3 win • n ot g ive • m eet • visit n ot play • fly • hear • write We . I have...! Complete each sentence with a suitable verb below. 3. ." Do you t h i n k we ' l l win this match ? " " Not a chance . .. Provide a logical response for each dialogue.... ? Yes.I was i l l . " ( Present Perfect Simple) " Why a re you so excited 7 " " I .. . i n a plane? just .. • Complete the interview with a football fan. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple. I n fact. (seen) E x t ra g ra m m a r e xe r c i se s a t : W W II! . t h e i r coac h . ..

4. 3 . Bolt West Germany U SA Canada U SA U SA J a m aica J a m aica . 84 9. fewer records were broken i n swi m m i n g than i n other sports. J u ne. Listen to the third part of the interview and answer the questions.79 9.c � SKILLS LISTENING G A RADIO INTERVIEW 1 . Are the following statements true or false? 1 . 74 9 . Why do you think the record times keep improving? Time (seconds) A..92 9. 0 9 . 1 988 July. Michael Phel ps M a rk Spitz � Swimmer Location Year N u m ber of gold medals f 3. Does Dr Caseman believe that athletes today need technology to perform wel l ? Why or why n ot? • In your opinion. 2007 August. What does La rry H ayes compare the latest sports equipment to? 2. Powell U. H a ry C. 2. Listen to the first part of a radio interview about sport and technology and complete the chart below. B a i l ey M. G reene T. Listen to the second part of the i nterview.69 2. 2008 1 0. 1 . 2002 September. Look at some of the men's 1 00-metre sprint records since 1 960. Michael Phelps wasn't the only swi m mer to wear the LZR swi msuit..78 9 . At Beijing. is using technology in sport legitimate? What do you think the limits are? . Montgomery A. 1 999 Septem ber. People today a re born faster and stronger than they were i n the past. Lewis D. What new technology was used at the Montrea l Olymp i cs and what effect d i d it have? 3 . 1 960 Septem ber. 1 996 Ju ne. � � � � .

-l. please? Burlington Speech Trainer. Ask your partner to answer your questions. er a n d Eve nts 5 · . Unit 3 &Pronunciation Practice. .. .. use the fol lowing expressions: I'm sorry. PFA Player of the Yea r .B roke 1 .U n it 3 SPEAKING EXCHANGING INFORMATION 1.. .� s . 2 005 .7 . . .B roke New Zea land wom e n 's record from 1 964 6· . Which of the following questions are answered i n the fact file? When was Thierry H e n ry born ? What is he f a m o u s for? What awards has he won ? What reco rds has he broken ? What's his favou rite food ? What probl ems has he h a d a n d what has he done to overcome them? What a re his fut u re p l a ns? Write two more questions based on the fact file. .N ew Zea l a n d Sports Award of the Yea r Future P l a n s R... ...World C ha mp1on 2008 .. meda l ... .Began to play at local football cl u b • 2 0 0 1 . ?8 .. Read the fact file below... Work with a partner.. Ask and answer questions to complete a fact file..School sports teacher recog nised her potential . .. .. :s - Born i n Esson ne..Victim o f racist comment by a prominent football coach .. encouraged her to take up the sport Titles I Co mpet iti o n s I Awa rds 1 998 ..World C up win ner's medal as p layer i n French team .. Use the q uestions i n Exercise 1 to help you. . 2 3 J � 2.fin ished ei ghth beca use ... 7 - 1 998 . E a r ly ca reer -. . . .. page 1 3 1 37 .. . . _ I -- �s ..... .ierry H enry-Jootb�ller :: . Vvtlerie Vili -stwt pl4ter E a r ly l i fe . Can you repeat that. Student B: Complete the fact file o n page 1 60..Signed for FC Ba rcelon a 2004 . Student A: Complete the fact file on this page.E u ropean G ol de n B oot Award as Europe's top goal-scorer :.Athens Olympics . . Co mgetiti o n s I Awa rds J ?99 .Became France's top goal-scorer of a l l t1me ·7 · Named i n Time magazine as a " Hero and P1oneer " for his a nti-racist activism ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING When you want your partner to repeat someth ing.. . . .Born i n New Zealand Secondary school years .. . . . 2002 . . I d i dn't get that.:4 . BeiJi ng 2008 .World J u n ior C ha m pion 2 004 .:4...Jo ined E n g l ish footba l l club Arsen a l .teased and bu l l ied because of 2 · .... Fra nce Experien ced racism as a ch i l d :-34 . 3. ..Started the Stand Up Speak Up campa i g n against racism i n footba l l Became Arse n a l 's leadi n g goal-scorer of a l l time ' .. . .

. and have beE world windsurfing champions for n i n e consecutive years. the Ruano Morenos were com peti ng professionally. With i n 1 8 months of ta king up windsurfi ng. list competitions and titles they have won 4. G ra n Canaria. ta l k a bout Daida and lballa's ea rly l ife 2. often. they hold 1 7 world titles. Phelps practises s wimming i n the pool. never. Daida and lballa Ruano Moreno a re i nternational windsurfing champions from the C a n a ry Islands. WORD ORDER E n g l ish sentences fo l l ow a basic word order: subject verb direct object manner (how) i ndirect object place (where) time (when) The team Our coach will arrive bought promptly new equipment for the team at the stadium tomorro w. WRITING � A B. sometimes. Although they were always athletic..-_Writing Guide. seldom) com e before the m a i n verb or after the verb to be. so they organ ise an anr summer tra i n i ng ca mp i n Tenerife for g i rls from a l l over the world. usually.ti. In which paragraph of the biography does the writer 1 . describe thei r future plans ? 3 . They plan to conti nL- 2. last year. Ti m e expressions can a l so com e at t h e beg i n n i n g of a statem e n t : Every morning. They feel it is i m portant to bring more women i nto w i n dsurfing. they only began windsurfing at the late age of 1 7 .�ggraphy 1 . page 148 38 . Find three facts you think are interesting or unusual. These i dentica l twi n sisters a re world famous for the i r extraordi nary ta lent and energy.. Thierry Henry usually scores a goal. a n d l earned by i m itati ng others at the famous windsurfi ng beach of their hometown. 1 97 7 i n Las Palmas. His fans are seldom disappointed. !balla The Ruano Moreno sisters have b rought a new. exp l a i n what the Ruano Morenos a re famous for . Fre q ue ncy a dverbs (always. Read the biography below. They had almost no formal tra i ning. Together. vital female presence i nto :: sport that has traditionally been dominated by men . Pozo lzqu ierdo. The sisters were born on 1 st December.

. I n this case. Choose the correct answer. gave a T-s h i rt me I explai ned to the policeman .OI-1v from the.. ::J . . ill often travels b. to other cities... ' to school I a re com i n g I now I the parents 2 . page 1 53 39 . the i n d i rect object can come before he d i rect object. 2. from m y computer tomorrow b. 3. The second form i s preferred if the indirect object is a pron ou n . Decide which facts to i nclude. li!M 5. She described the building to me before the tri p. WRITING YOUR BIOGRAPHY Fol l owing some verbs.. the problem patiently Let's send Dan a n e-ma i l a . . yesterday a n ew ca r b . Use the model on page 38 and the plan below to help you. Body: Write about the person 's early l ife.I I f ollowed the. Anne d rives her car slowly through the streets eve ry morn i n g . 3r111 mWU>tr. last n i ght.vtg p1AY!£tUP!tLOI-1v. travels often My best friend from Paris. the prepositi on ( to or for ) i s omitted. pl111 1-1v f r 111 b i.H State who the person is I was a n d what they are fa mous for. children I easily I learn I usually I new l a n guages Writing Guide.o o 3r111phy. a new car yesterday My father cooked . Copy the word order chart o n page 38 into your 1r Jeen notebook. . tomorrow from my comp uter H . a patiently the problem b . 5 He wrote that song for his gi rlfriend i n a hotel room . • Look at several sites and find two or three that contai n the i nformation you want. order.. 6. They bought a. Think of someone who is i nteresting or special i n some way. career developments and ach ievements. Mr Jones I slowly I the I wa l ked I down I icy street 3. Use 1 00-1 50 words. C l o s i n g : Sum u p the person 's achievements..1 I /. i. The spri nter may win a gold medal at the London Olympics in 20 1 2 . . cooks I usually I on Fridays I di n n e r I for the fa m i l y I my father 5. • Choose a famous person. ought a presen t for my boyfriend. a gave me a T-s h irt b. . 1 .l'1vto my ow1-1v words. e 2.-(. PLAN Open i n g : oa nue WC 4. Start by using a search engine such as Google. for me some soup The school basketba l l tea m . spelli. ought my b oyfriend a present.fed e-orrut wo rd. 3.U nit 3 Your Task • Write a biography of a famous person that you admire. Il'1vtemet i.� orWU>tti. CHECKLIST . t . • Make a l ist of the facts and i nformation you found. 4. Then write a final draft. 3 . H .I I pu.. • Use the Internet to find information. Use the checklist to check your work. Then write the words of the sentences below in the correct columns. me I my u ncle I gave I last n i ght I £ 1 0 4 .:t the. Include their future plans if you know them. � some sou p for me b . Write a first draft. Brainstorm your biography. � Organise your ideas.I I e-1-tuked. Arrange the words in the correct order to form sentences. Dave is meeting his friend at the cafe ton ight.

±.. the sta diu m s where the matches a re ta k i n g place 4. Look at the website screens a nd a nswer the Task Q uestions below..Chelsea London.. You wa nt two Category B tickets.l Screen B I� .00 (£50. the tea ms playing in each match 6. d i rections to the sta d i u ms 5 .1 5 : .I . where you can col l ect the tickets 4.00) Service C h a rge: €8.Fulham 06-02-2009 Tickets Category A Price €65 . the dates of the matches 2 . 27th January 20 1 0 Start: 1 9:45 Su nday. ticket prices 7.00 (£40..... How much do you need to pay? 5.... You c l ick on B UY TICKETS.00) 0 Qua ntity: 2 Price: € 1 04. Read t h e sched u l e i n Screen A a bove..±.F u l h a m match. L. the cost of an adu lt's ticket 2 . Ticket Type: Category B BUY TICKETS l Show p u l l -down menu 1 -20 Show pull-down menu 1 -20 Chelsea . the cities where the matches a re ta k i n g place 3. You cl ick o n B U Y TICKETS a n d Screen B a ppea rs. U K Anfield Stad i u m London.. c redit ca rd deta ils screen w i l l a s k for? 1 . nam e and add ress 6.. Which of the fol l owi ng i nformation does it provi de? 4.F u l ham BUY TICKETS i:Jii!iii9944J Your Order e �L:. age 7. UK Stamford Bridge Stadium Liverpool..00 ( £ 1 0 00) F-- Chelsea . 25L:. the cost of a ch i l d 's ticket 3. bank account n u m ber • USE YOUR SKILLS Visitors to the M a d a m e Tussa uds m useum i n London can book Priority Access tickets on l i ne.. the time the matches beg i n 2.1.. Wh ich m atch ca n you atten d ? 2 .±.Fulham 06-02-2009 Tickets Category B Price €52. Which of the fol l owing do you th i n k the f i n a l 1 . 3 1 st January 2 0 1 0 Start: 1 6:00 Saturday. phone n u m ber 3 . Go i nto the site a nd find the fol lowi ng information: 3. Read the next screen (Screen C) .00 (£80. You decide t o order tickets for the Che lsea .l . � .00) BUY TICKETS • • CONTINUE • TASK QUESTIONS 1.. the earl i est time you can visit the museum .I Screen A Wednesday. You a re g o i n g t o b e i n London from 2 9th J a n u a ry to 1 4th February. SKILLS • BOOKING TICK ETS ONLINE You a re g o i n g to practise boo k i n g tickets o n l i ne. the booking fee 5. UK Stamford Bridge Stadium B U Y TICKETS 0 BUY TICKETS 2. You want to see a Chelsea footba l l match w h i l e you're i n London. Screen C Chelsea . What add itiona l i nformation does i t provide? What two t h i ngs are you asked to decide? 1 .. e-ma i l address 5 . passport n u m ber 4. 6th February 2 0 1 0 Start: 1 6:00 Chelsea M iddlesborough Liverpool .1 ..

burlingtonbooks. Bui l d i n gs • • • * Unit Objectives Listen i ng to G uided Tours C o mparing Pict ures Writing a Descri ption of a Plan· Life S k i l l s : Internet Resea rch ..iewpoints I Find out a bout UNESCO heritage s ites at : \ ./ . Future '[ enses Landmarks Which of the following landmarks can you identify? Where is each one located? • Which of the following do you think makes each of these landmarks famous? its size • what it's used for • its history • its design • its age www.es/z.

2. 4. . ' � (paragraph 3) 3. a . p ri ces). 3. a mbitious. the la rgest a rtificial islands d .:t. animals that l ive i n the sea 'l. Dubailand will be the sa me size as Disney T World. to fi n d specific i n formation. Choose the best answer according to the text. The artificial island grou ps a re . m a rvel • i rreg ula rly-sha ped • state-of-the-a rt SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION Sca n n i n g m e a n s looki n g t h ro u g h the text q u i ckly. d ates. money earned or received A. Word Check: The following words appear in the text. Scan the text quickly to look for the following 1 . Make sure you know what they mean. What is i n novative a bout the plan ned 68-storey tower? Th e World 6. F 2 . each made u p of 300 islands made of natural materials 2. What cou l d other a rch itects do if they k new the height of B u rj D u ba i ? 3 . rotate (para g raph 5) t � 5 . 5. i m p ressive (paragraph 5) )- jftu· � \:'� • Which sites in your area were specifically built to attract tourists? Are they popular? . Are the fol lowing statements true or false? Find evidence in the text to support your answers. 1 . p l a ces. b( the n a m e of D u b a i 's u n derwate r hotel the n u mber of islands in The Wo rld the name of the island that B rad Pitt has bought the size of the Dubai M a l l 3. t h e ta l lest build i n g Qi the deepest bu i l di ng c . 1 . t" 4.� READING 1. . Staying at Hydropol i s will be i nexpensive. B u i l d i ngs are being b u i lt very q u i ckly i n D u bai --p=:3 . 4. Which of the following records is D u bai NOT brea k i n g ? a . How do you know The World will be an excl usive a rea? 5. sym bols a n d capital letters w i l l h e l p yo u . Find words or phrases i n the text that mean: r 1 . f: 5 . No one will l ive on Pa l m Islands. i nformation: the s u m me r tem perature i n Dubai 4 <.M� (paragra p h 1 ) 2 . Read the text and answer the fol lowing questions. al l shaped l i ke palm trees b. 1 . 5. What is unusual about t h e rooms a t Hyd ropolis? 4. extra (paragraph 4) 4. the la rgest shopping centre @) 2. additions to natu ra l islands c. . Pay a ttention to t h e type o f i nfo rmation y o u a re looki n g for ( n a m es. How will the new projects help D u bai's economy? 2. Look i n g for n u m bers. M ost people don't rea l ise that Dubai is r u n n i ng out of oil.

j ellyfish. 30 1 2-million-square-foot Dubai Mall. who'll be living on "Greece'. the breathtaking Burj Dubai skyscraper will tower over this city and every other city. dry desert sand of Dubai City. hotels and luxury housing for over a million people. Disney World. as being rich in oil. False friends luxury (line 1 3) mea n s lujo not lujuria larger ( l i n e 1 7) mea n s mayor. Hydropolis. they'll be the largest man-made islands ever constructed.s t. its 220 opulent suites will have plexiglass walls so that guests will be able to marvel at the colourful marine life all around them. Each of The World's 300 islands is shaped like an individual country. this city will soon be packed with sensational maj or attractions. who have bought "Ethiopia': One of the most architecturally innovative future projects is a 68-storey tower in which each irregularly-shaped storey will turn separately round a central axis. Built from sand and stone dug up from the bottom of the sea. This means the entire building will always be changing shape. completing 360° every 90 minutes. and Brad Pitt and "' Angelina Jolie. Its rulers. m6s grande not m6s largo resorts (line 33) means complejos turfsticos not resortes major ( l i n e 3 5) means de gran relevancia not mayor . 1 . resorts and malls. Clearly. The other group of islands represents a map of the world. a huge leisure and entertainment complex twice the size of today's biggest. So if you've got some spare cash. and to create an alternative sotirce of income.200-shop. spectacular architectural projects are breaking every record in the book. no other building will have surpassed it. know better. A larger proj ect is the artificial island groups off Dubai's shores. though no one knows exactly how tall. you can j oin the list of celebrities which includes Pamela Anderson. the biggest shopping centre on the planet. is a surrealistic fantasyland 20 metres below the surface of the Persian Gulf. Its planners are keeping its final height a secret because of competition from other buildings under construction.U n it 4 One usually thinks of Dubai. One of the grandest proj ects of all is Dubailand. three island groups shaped like giant palm � trees. another project is reaching deep under the ocean. they want Dubai to become the business and tourist capital of the Middle East. where temperatures are often over 45°C in the summer. will contain theme parks. however. Its highlights will include a multitude of theme parks. On the bare. Shaped like a giant . While this building reaches for the sky. one of the seven Arab Emirates. Another record-breaker is the grandiose. Js This is just a small part of what's happening in Dubai's building boom. They want to be sure that by the time it's finished. the world's first luxury underwater hotel. and is for sale starting at $ 1 5 million. And it's happening at a speed and scale never known before. state-of-the-art sports stadiums. First and foremost. making it one of the world's architectural wonderlands. Palm Islands. It's going to be the world's tallest building. Their oil is running out fast.

The room was qu ite b a re . The teacher wa nts . " Do you want to read I me to read a good novel ? " to the original. Sara doesn 't want . b . a . . go I cat I to I wants I out I the 3. you to take The child told her father. J u l ia doesn't want . T h e view from ou r room is b reathta k i n g . a . 2. They wan t to build the tallest building in Dubai. b . The l i brarian asked me. What is the o r i g i n of that a rch itectura l style? 3. shore h uge • spare • s o u rce • r u l e r • resort 1 . O u r fa m i ly spent two weeks at a h o l i d ay com p lex i n G reece. a . I don't l i ke it when you laugh at me. . wa nted I D u bai I visit I Thomas I to 2 . want I anyth i n g I does I to I br i ng I us I Ben I ? 5. Our paper supply is r u n n i ng o ut . . Anne wants . " Let's eat at an Indian restaurant. T he room was fu l l of furn itu re . Complete the sentences by writing what each speaker wants or doesn't want in the following situations. 5 . b. The boy wa nted to hold my h a n d . . 2 . l t was basic. We told ou r visitors. . to I window I open I want I you I me I do I the I ? 5 . The problems were serious. A country's l e a d e r controls the govern ment and the army. " I don't fee/ l i ke getting u p. Pay attention to the words in colour. . b. 5 . . We'l l need to buy m ore paper soo n . This fish swims near the top of the water.VO CABULARY Words from the Text 1. but q u ite clea n . 1 . 3 . a . 4 . b. . pay attention ! " orders the teacher. This fish swim s deep u n der the water. We couldn't solve the problems. b . Write the words in the correct order to form sentences. M i a 's father wants . " a . Have you got a ny extra time this weekend ? 6 . They stayed at a l u x u ry h otel . cou l d you please tidy you r room ? " asks her father. b . 4. The boy reached for my hand . " Students. 5. . " says Sara . " We don't want to you to leave leave I yet . 8. My work i n volves a lot o f rea di n g . The view is very i m pressive. The view is qu ite bori n g . The bear a t the zoo i s very b i g . 1 . 7. 4. I read a lot d u ri n g my l e isure t i m e . 2 . . This type of fis h swims near the su rface of the sea . We've had some major problems with the project. 2 . . b. a . di dn't I to I want I C ha rlotte I piano I practise I the 6. ( wan t + object + i nfi n itive) }SeeGrammar Appendix page 1 2 0 3. " I wa nt to ta ke I me to the park. . " suggests Ann e. The room had very l ittle furn itu re. . " 2 . a . . " M ia. 3 . 1 . WANT WANT + + INFINITIVE OBJECT + INFINITIVE The verb wan t ca n be u sed i n t h e fol l o w i n g ways : lt ca n refer to somet h i n g the s u bject of the sente n ce w a n ts to do. 3 . They want tourists to come to Dubai. Choose the correct answer. ( wan t + i n fi n itive) Replace the word in bold in each sentence with a word of similar meaning below. . " com plains J u l i a . a. " Mark. 1. her I wants I Lucy's I boss I to I tonight I work 4. 6 . . We went for a wa lk along the beach on Sunday. We've got plenty of paper left. l t h a d a spa a n d a pool. I read w h e n I ' m n ot at work. Choose the sentence that is closest in meaning l t ca n refe r to someth i ng the s u bject of the sentence wa n ts someone I someth i n g else to do. The boy pushed my hand away. 4.

. . . . 7. . Complete the passage with the words below. . Make them true for you. . .. " to ? " • Complete the sentences. H .. . .Developers want to su pport the old houses a n d b u i l d a n ew skyscraper.The streets are so spacious t ha t the houses _ . we c e rta i n l y wou l d n 't b u i l d 3.. l ift � American b. i mportant b u i l d i n g s were . .. . .. . The b u i l d i n g s are actua l ly h e l d up by a stro n g framework made of . British 1 . BRITISH / AMERICAN ENGLISH 3-:tish a nd American English often u se different ords to refer to the same thing. . . " 2 A: "Wh ich c i n e m a a re we going view at . tal lest. flat 4. O u r home i s too sma l l . . . Tod ay. In often made of 1 . yard c. a p a rtment e . Replace the words in colour in Exercise 4 with the British or American equivalent below.. 4 . H _ a three e n g i neer b u i l d i n g .U n it 4 Ta pie VocabulC:try 3UILDINGS • 5 . We l ive i n • store • m a i n street • movie theater • m a l l i ron � 6.an a m az i n g m aterial w h i c h i s both extre m e l y stro n g a n d l i g h t . The pyra m i ds were b u i l t in n a rrow so m u c h weig ht? The a n swer is that they 6 . . fi rst floor �· 2. . Anothe r reason m o d e r n b u i l d i n g s c a n h ave a h un d re d or more i nventio n of the so h i g h ! 8 . I saw a breath taking the s h o p p i n g centre n ea r the h i g h street . . Then listen and check your answers. H• • •• i s the : If we had to walk u p .An experienced l a n d m a rk desi gn ed that bridge. storeys • stone • l i ft • g la ss • su pport a n c ient • steel • skyscra pers R EACH I N G F O R TH E S KY S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of h i story.. 1 . e l evator a . . it was d iffic u l t to make these b u i ld i n g s very tal l . 3 . T h e landmark I want to see the m o st i s ... . h a rd t o find park i n g downtown ? " of p a rk i ng l ots . - . The most popu lar shop i n o u r high street is 5 . the walls of many of these b u i l d i n g s seem to be made enti rely of 5 4 . . w i n dows .. . Make them logical by replacing each word i n colour with a word in colour from a different sentence. We need someth in g more a nc i e nt . I n my leisure time. g ro u n d fl oor 5. An a rc hitect knows which materials can tea r down a build i n g .. . " there a re plenty 2 . . . H. . I l i ke to . A : " Is i t " No. . . however.. How c a n these d e l icate wal l s almost touch each othe r. our c ities are fi l le d with that reach a m az i n g h ei g hts . Vocabulary Builder. d . people h ave tried to b u i l d the big g est .. h eavy. . . Are the speakers i n each o n e British or American? A : "Where is B: " In you r favourite m usic s h o p 7 " my schoo l . Because this materia l is so 3 . pavement 3. d o n 't. pages 84-85 . s i d ewa l k listen t o the dialogues. i n the city centre c a r parks Wh ich of the following words are materials? Wh ich are buildings or structures? • steel • skyscra per • sto n e • g la ss con crete • office b l ock • b r i d g e The following sentences do not make sense. Stonehenge is a famous h istoric storey . . . Match the British English words with their American English equivalents. B: B "The one i n 3 . 2 . . g a rd e n 4. . times . most i mpressive structures they c o u l d . I often run out of . . Stran g ely. times.

. 6 . fu t u re p l a ns 2 . . 2. Wi l l you h ave wa ited I Wi l l you be w a i t i n g for us when we arrive at the station ? 2 . Brad Pitt will be living in Dubai all winter.. You (not pass). 1. Soon... " H . 5 . Com p l ete t h e r u l es.. I 've bought tickets to the concert. ..>-"-. " Do you wa nt to come to the shops? " " G ood idea ! I . 1. The bu s to London 4. .. You have n 't worked hard enough for this exa m . We u se will + + verb + . They' l l be eat i n g I They' l l h ave eaten a l l the food by the time we a rrive. We use will + . Wh ich sentence ta l ks about . 6. Could I borrow some money? (return I next week) 5. (Future Perfect Simple} b.c � GRAMMAR BE GOING TO FUTURE SIMPLE Read the exa m p l es and answer the questions. By the time Dubai runs out of oil. -------- Grammar Appendix.. you . " 1 . 3. ? 1.. (com e) t o t h e pa rty ton i g ht? 5 . H e . The tour of Dubai will begin a t 9.H (ca l l) Dyla n and ask h i m to come../ 5.. (he I jum p ! ) 4. I buy more this afternoon. + the base for m of t h e verb to form the Futu re S i m ple.__ _ _ . 2.. pages .. I ' l l be s l eep i n g I I ' l l h ave s l ept. H FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE FUTURE CONTINUOUS Read the exa m p les a n d answer the questions. W h i ch sente n ce a bove d escri bes 1.. The coffee is running out. H. (go out I my boyfriend I this eveni ng) 6 . We use . Dubai will be the tourist capital of the Middle East. Don 't ca l l m e at 9. but I ca n 't. a com p l eted action a t a ce rta i n futu re t i m e 2. I'll show yau...00. Co m p l ete the r u l es. + going to + t h e base for m of the ve rb to fo rm be going to. b. (leave) at 1 0 ..... __ . 3. H 2. Look at that m an on the roof of the b u i l d i n g . (enjoy) the tri p. a p red iction 3 .. Yo compro mas esta tarde. Are you hot! (I I turn on I a i r cond itioner) 2. You ' l l h ave spent I Yo u ' l l be spen d i n g a l l yo u r mo ney b y t h e end o f y o u r trip. I ' l l h ave saved I I ' l l be savi ng enough money for a ca r. 3 . Which of the sentences in Exercise 1 can be completed using the Present Continuous with future meaning? ? even ts i n a t i m eta b l e El cafe se esta acaba ndo. (fall) asleep soon. 2. 1 . 1.. I ' m sure you .. The child looks tired.ing to form the Fu t u re Con t i n u o us.. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets.. Have you seen the plans for Dubailand? it's going to be amazing! d.. (Future Con tinuous) 1 . Choose the correct answer.. Next year she'll have worked I she' l l be worki n g full­ time. 3 0 p m . e. We're going to spend our next holiday in Dubai. 4.----. I hope that by next yea r.00 am. X a sponta neous decision 3.. a. tourism will have become a major industry.. 2. a fut u re event based o n p resent evidence NOT The coffee is running out. My g rand mother is i l l . a n a ction i n p rog ress at a ce rta i n fut u re t i m e 2 . � + the past p a rticip l e to form 118-120 the Future Perfect.. Use the words in brackets and the Futu re Simple or be going to. (Beth I be very pl eased) 4 . Use the Future Simple or be going to. W h i ch tense is used for each of the uses a bove? 4. 46 _) . . We use or .. a. 1 . H . c. o Ho H .. Write a suitable sentence to fol low each sentence below. Sara has al most fin ished her studies. too. .. "Where is the Dubai Mall?" "Come with me. 1. I ' d love to come.-. (have I operation I tomorrow) 3 . H. I'll buy more this afternoon.

..Do you t h i n k you ' l l get married you n g ? Why or why not? . 1 . (ask) h e r out. . 3 n • n• • • • (reduce) b u i l d i n g costs 5 to a fifth of w h at they are today. D r K h o s h n e v i s h o p e s that b y the e n d of t h e next decad e . (sit) hand i n h a n d with Re n a . p e o p l e �.. .. we (stay) at the Seaside -. I (fi n ish) my homework :1 h e n . Pa u l m et J u l i e i n primary school. Cal i fo r n i a i n ventor. . the world (become) . . _ _ Com plete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. e deg rees warmer.. .. e s / 1 • i e u• p o i 11 1 s 1 47 .. H e p ro m i s e s that a c o n s truction p roj ect u s i n g t h e robot nnonon ( n ot n e e d ) nnnnn a n y h u man worke r s .o( U n it 4 - 11 .. ... (after) E x t ra g ra m ma r e xe r c i se s a t: w u• w . We' re going to play ten n is from five u n til seven o'clock. . I 2· . (At six o'cloc k) 5 ... a g reat vari ety of d e s i g n s . . but she (not answer) my phone ca l ls. (known) 3. and th i s s p r i n g h e a typ ical fa m i l y h o m e i n o n ly t h i s method 4 2 Dr Behrokh (start) (build) K h o s h n e v i s h a s w o r k e d o n h i s c o n s truction robot m a r k e t i n g it. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets. How long have you had th is ea rl (buy) 4.. Use the correct future tense. (know) each other for six months. :J ease don't come this afternoo n .. we (chan ge) the -:. they (ski) i n the Alps. • 7· . . I 8· (fi n d) someone else by the time she decides who she wa nts ! Grammar Review ''*'' Answer the following questions about your future. . ... ... . (changed) 2. Use the Future Perfect or Future Conti nuous.. s time n ext month. Rena has decided that she 6· . . .. 00 . 2 4 hou rs .. . (be) a g reat even i n g . . .. a n d b u i l d i n g a home o n• ( re p l ace) h u m a n s o n construction 8 7 nnnn . Ten years from now. Eight months later . ·ve j u st met a wonderful g i rl na med Ren a .. .. .. he year 2050. What wi l l you be doing this time next yea r ? What a re you going to do this weeke n d ? Do you t h i n k you will have a lot of mo ney when you a re older? Why or why not? .. a n d that t h e h o u s e s 6 ( h ave) S i x months later .. n• • • • • also . Fashions wi l l be diffe rent by the time you a re older.ote l .. for years . I (study) . . -�:·s meet at 9 . .m A D E HO m E . .. i n e x p e n s ive a n d s peedy p roced u re ..... 'm so excited ! At this time tomorrow.. h oweve r.. H e b e l i eves . : _. n•••• ( l ive) in h o u s e s b u i l t I e n t i re l y b y robot s .. h i n k I ' · . Then listen and check your answers... n . R O B O T. .J u ring our holiday. ... . too.. .. Do not change the original meaning.. Rena a n d I 5 . (date) other boys..What goals w i l l you h ave achieved by the time you a re 30? _ 9. He p re d i cts that the robot ... .. ...re o urselves.... There may be more than one correct answer. (ta ke) her :o the c i nema tomorrow. robots com p l etely no n s i te s . B u i l d i n g a h o m e i s a h u g e p roject. c � 8. . .. ca ntastic ! She's agreed . f i n a l l y . h - Complete Danny's story. B y t h e end of t h i s week. I 've tried to ta l k to h e r. . . n.. y the t i m e h e l p a r rives. Use future tenses. b u r l i ll g f o ll b o o k s . i n vo l v i n g m a n y labourers a n d p l e n ty of t i m e a n d m o ney... ' m sure it 4· . Mark left and Na ncy cried for an hour. .. noonn (become) a simple.

Which of the landmarks above do the tours visit? 4. was the worl d's ta l l est structu re for 40 years 7 . take notes of the most important facts about each place.SKILLS LISTENING G GUIDED TOURS 1 . has 7 3 elevators 6. USA Towers of San Gimignano. Don't try to w rite down everyt h i n g you h e a r. was built as the resu lt of a com petition among fam i l ies 4. Paris. New York City. burlingtonbooks. was considered very ugly when it was b u i lt 2 . Toronto. Listen to the guided tours again. �-�Yo�• Which landmark ? 1 . ta k ing n otes can be h e l pfu l .es/r•ieu•points I . Look at the pictures of landmarks in various countries. As you listen. was designed to show its i nternal structure 8. • What famous landmarks are there in your area or country? Describe one. i t i s m o re i m porta nt to keep l i sten i n g ! 3. . but not fu l l sentences. France CN Tower. Which words below can be used to describe each picture? skyscra per • g l ass • ston e 2 • a nc ient • u nusual 3 • steel • ta l l • modern 4 Empire State Building. Canada 2. Italy Eiffel Tower. has 1 02 storeys 3 . was once part of a group of 72 towers TAKE NOTES . . has a race up its sta i rs every yea r 5 . Listen to three g uided tours. Write down keywords or i m porta nt p h rases. What do you know about it? WEB EXTRA Read about some unusual building trivia at: u·u·u·.When you a re l iste n i ng to a pa ssage. . Use your notes to answer the questions below.

but i n t h i s o n e ..l@f§ii§i!D!!iff. . . . The p ictu res a re q u ite d ifferent because . Which can be used to show how two pictures are similar? Which can be used to show how they are different? - Another d ifference between them is that . t h a n i n p i ct u re 2. Montreal ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING I When you want to draw someone's attention to something. . . With your partner. ? rr. . Use the expressions in Exercise 1 . Odessa National C entre for the Perform i ng Arts.l... .!9fll!. . . . . Have a look a t . . . .. T h i s p ictu re s hows . And there's a nother thing . Did you notice . . n t h is p ictu re there i s . 5 ... The p lace i n p ictu re 1 i s m o re I l ess . . . Rome Olympic Sta d i u m . B oth pictu res show . . 49 . Unit 4 ) PMIRH!II.. - Choose a pair of pictures below. w h i l e that o n e s hows - 7 .U n it 4 PEAKING OMPARING PICTURES ook at the sentences below. -he two p ictu res a re si m i l a r I a l i k e oecause . compare and contrast the pictures you chose. Write a list of adjectives and nouns that describe them. use the following expressions: I've just noticed .. Pai r 1 National Academic Theatre. Beij i ng Pai r 2 C olosseum . .1Burlington Speech Trainer. 6 . .. .\ n other t h i ng that t h ey h ave got i n common i s . . 8 . .

. h al f-stone monsters. P. ····· . It stands on a small island in the middle of the River Seine i n Paris.tJ<?. Lovely stained glass windows let in a thousand different shades of light. We looked up a t t h e thick stone wa lls of the old tower. ? things you can do or see at Notre Dame the name and location of the place his I her opinion or recom mendation p hysical characteristics of the place 3.----' - 3.. -. you will never forget its b eauty. If you stand outside the cathedral. 3. W h e n desc r i b i n g a p l ace.---.. The view fro m ou r room was impressive. Even i f you are not a great architecture fan . France.� -� r�P. If you are in good shape.half-human.. a n cient I f a m o u s I h i storic sol � � Writing Guide.. page 149 . What parts of the building does the writer describe? What is his I her opinion of the building? NOTRE DAME C athedral Notre Dame Cathedral is one of the most amazing buildings i n the world. During prayer times. . 4. The G reat Pyra m i d is big. This beautiful te mple was b u i l t i n the 1 5th centu ry. the writer discuss ... and any visitor should plan on seeing it. you can climb a tower to see the gargoyles up close.�. In which paragraph/s of the description does 1. . as well as get a breathtaking view of Paris.�. It took nearly 200 years and thousands of workers to build this spectacular Gothic cathedral.. For each sentence.. bri l l i a nt I i m me nse I h u g e b reathta k i n g I specta c u l a r I fri g hte n i n g 4.. Inside. m a g n ificent I i m portant I s p l e n d i d 2 . l ovely I e l eg a nt I e n o rmous ADJECTIVES Adjectives a re u sed to d escri be nou n s. slim columns lead your eye up to the towering ceiling.t.� WRITING A .. Read the description below. rows and rows of tall.�. . 1 . a dj ectives ca n create a m o re a cc u rate a n d rea l isti c i m p ression.�. . 2. Staring down from two huge towers are the famous gargoyles . choose two adjectives that are similar in meaning to the adjective in italics.�-�---····························································· . 1. you can hear the beautiful sounds of the cathedral's famous organ. U s i n g a va riety o f a djectives c an m a ke you r w riti n g r i c h a n d i nte resti n g .9. .P. Notre Dame is one of Paris' most famous l andmarks. you 'll notice three doors with intricate sculptures..f. The cathed ra l 's architecture is wonderful.l. 2. 5 ..

resort.. Complete the sentences with adjectives from Exercises 3 and 4. h u ge) 3. we w rite t h e m i n the fo l l o w i n g o rd er: 1pin ion -+ s ize -+ age -+ shape -+ col our -+ orig i n -+ materi al G ive the name and location of the place and one or two details. . old homes. Her office is in a ......Where is the place? ..... Eiffel b u i lt a/an .ptio�-t o ti! or f .What is t h e atmosphere l i ke? .. Liverpool 's sta d i u m is a ... • Think of places that you have visited . plti!C-e.... ....ti!r.sc..What is special or i nterest i n g about it? ... modem.. rules f r ti!d o juti. plti!�-t f ti! de. O u r l i b ra ry is a/an .... 3...c.. • Decide on a place that is interesting or special i n some way. Write a con c l u d i n g sentence and give an opinion or recommendation ....ri. G reek temple at Delp h i ./ I f ollowed tl-te..... (g lass I black I ta l l ) Th e two parts of t h e city a re connected by a bridge.... Use the checklist to check your work. Organise your ideas. Say what is special or i nteresting a bout it.ri. (spectacular I steel I new) )... • Think about the fol lowing questions. "' The centre of town is a lways q uite ..W h e n using two o r m o re adjectives.. skyscra per. struct u re that can hold about 45. Use the model on Su perlative adjecti ves come before the nou n : rh s is the most spectacular vie w in Toledo . old building a large.tUtiftio�-t... Use 1 00-1 50 • a footba l l sta d i u m • a road m o u nta i n s • a l oca l m a rket • a pa l ace spacious breathtaking nO ISY lovely elegant peaceful ancient colourful g ra n d majestic l uxurious huge l ively u n usual crowded words..... The . skyscrapers seemed to touch the sky. . There may be more than one correct answer./1e.. Choose the points that are relevant to your essay.... Which adjectives from the list can describe each of the places below? a vi l l a g e Your Task • Write a description of a place.. Describe the place i n more deta i l and give exam ples o f t h e things you ca n see or do there.What i m pression does it g ive the visitor? . 4. She lives i n a neighbourhood full of . PLAN Open i n g : Body: Closing: ADJ ECTIVE ORDER . H O H � page 50 and the plan below to help you..1 .. � ti!M puvu........ You may want to use the Internet to find out facts about it. stad i u m .. The arch itecture of a G oth ic cathedral can be a bsol utely ....d 3rti!WLM. CHECKLI ST 6. Do not use the same adjective twice..H .s to de.. spe. WRITING YOUR DESCRIPTION :owering rnodern oictu resq ue marvellous 'larrow spectacular 1 . order.. .Do you recom mend that people visit it? 2.ty of ti!d tl-te... NOT This is the vie w most spectacular in Toledo... We cou l d n 't afford t o stay a t that ... ./ ... This is one of the most views in G ranada.. We visited the .ve.U nit 4 4.. ./ I V!Sed ti! Vti!rie.. small.. 3..What is you r opinion of the place? ..ke..What does it look l i ke? . (A-sha ped I i ron I modern) . on Satu rday night..... Add the adjectives i n brackets to each sentence..What can you do there ? .ve.be. . Write a first draft. structure.... . glass skyscraper Then write a final draft. (con crete I modern I ug ly) ollowed tl-te./ I c.When was it b u i lt? .... Brainstorm your description. The Co losseum is a/a n ..ll i.000 people.. (Roman I ancient I Use correct adjective order./ I f plti!C-e. - 2. X :>. b u i l d i n g .... juti.sc..

co . Engla nd Yo ur g u i de to Stonehenge. .-'t work. size of the website 4.(cached) Stonehenge.. www. to a n d the in y o u r sea rch words. If you wa nted to f i n d o ut a bout b r i d g es in E u rope.. other a ncient sites and stone c i rcles i n B rita i n. W h e n you do a n i nformat i o n sea rch on the I nternet. . Which website w i l l g i ve h i m h istorica l facts? W h i c h o n e wou l d be better for a to u ri st p l a n n i n g t o g o t o Sto n e h e n g e ? USE YOUR SKILLS Use t h e I nternet to resea rch a b u i l d i ng a nywhere i n the w o r l d . :: 52 1 . Stonehenge I nvestigations over the last 1 00 years have revealed that Stonehenge was bu i lt in severa l stages from 2 800. Look at the website screens and answer the Task Questions below. www.1 800 B C . a m a z i ng-bridges-i n-europe. name of the website 2 .SKILLS INTE RNET R E S EARCH You a re going to learn some strateg ies for f i n d i ng i nformation on the I nternet.Cached c d STONEHENGE liP � The- e-t�Ce-hed verSLOI1. lt see ms to have been designed to . sh ops. F i n d out: where the building is • what it looks l i ke • its history • why it is special o r i mporta nt Present yo u r i nformat i o n to t h e class.w.com/Mvsterious/Topics!Stonehenge/ . livJ<. . Look at Screen A a n d match letters a .I -±1 a Amazing Bridges i n Europe Bridges a re great structures and represent spectacu l a r a rch itectura l b . I n Europe. uk/ . address of the website 3 .tiC "plwto3rt1Cph" of the web pi1f3e. .Bk . Look at the two resu lts o n Screen B.cached ( ) TASK QUESTIONS 1 .ach ievements. it's i m portant to u nd e rsta n d t h e e l e ments of a sea rch resu lt. it's i m portant to use good sea rch words. so if the site livJ<. part of the text with your sea rch terms i n bold 3.mijht still work.56k . engla nd stonehenge .edu .. 2. does11. w h i c h sea rch words below wou l d find the best resu lts? Wh ich a re too g e n e ra l ? W h i ch a re too specific? bridges • bridges europe • millau bridge france Remember there is no n eed to u se cap ita l l etters or i nc l u d e words l i ke of.d to the correct l a be l s bel ow. with practical i nformation to make yo ur visit easier. D a v i d has done a sea rch for Sto n e h e n ge . tlu. there a re .1 4k . a ctivemind. to the e-t�Ce-hed versio11. Screen A �L:. 1 .

What is happening in each one? / / / ." 2. the effect of the environment on a n i mals b. the issue of h umans using animals as food • Which cartoon do you think is the funniest? Which is the saddest? Why? F ind out abo ut the RSPCA at: www. "I don't l i ke the look of this.. protecting a n i mals that may become exti nct c. Look at the cartoons. Char lie. bu rlir7gton books.Unit Obj ectives • W il cl l i fe Relative C l a uses ' De fi n i n g and Non-defi n i n g • * * • Liste n i n g to a Conversa t i o n E x p ressing Opi n i o n s Writi ng a F o r a n d A g a i n s t Essay L i fe Skills: G i v in g a Presentation Speak Out ! 1.. ? a.. Which cartoon illustrates . es/uiewpoi nts I .

says she rescues some dogs from death c. abandon c . What part of speech is each word? Try and guess the meaning of each word. 3 . a . . Marlena Cervantes . T h e n . rental agency • long-term • cuddles • furry • fad GUESSING THE MEANING OF WORDS W h e n you don't know t h e m ea n i ng of a word. . Ken and Liz wa nt to g ive . must rent the same dog each time b . a . . teach people to ta ke responsi b i l ity for dogs b . d issuade people fro m own in g dogs 2. . try to i d entify the p art of speech from its p lace i n the se nten ce a n d its e n d i n g . . want b. . Sa m Wi l l iams compares renti n g a dog to . . feels it is wrong to rent dogs b . wait c . 2 . 5. . leave (line 1 ) a . 5 . . . a l low people to have a dog tempora rily d . a . 1 . Choose the best answer according to the text. don't have enough c. take d. . demands b. go out b. operates o n ly in the Un ited States b. l ift b. 3. . encourage people to own dogs c . Keith C o l l i ns writes that passing a dog around wi l l . 3. The pu rpose of Flexpetz is to . is approved of by a n i ma l experts d. . is an i nternational busi ness c. . 1 . . Make sure you know what they mean. . take a lot of time d . Do you think it should be illegal to rent animals? Why or why not? 4. . . 4. thi nk about • Some states in the USA have recently passed laws that ban the renting of animals. . Jackpot is a Labrador that . Complete the sentences according to the information in the text. l o o k for c l u es to i t s m ea n i n g b y rea d i n g t h e o t h e r words i n the sentence. Keith thinks that instead of renting dogs. have too m uch b.c � ------==. 2. . 2. Look at the words in colour. is a n a n imal rights activist d. Flexpetz . pay each time they take a dog 3. people 4. forget d. 1. Flexpetz customers . has several owners Choose the best meaning for each word or phrase according to the text. . . . . Word Check: The following words appear in the text. 6 . Justify your choice with a sentence from the text. . 5. Tracy Joh nson has a lways wanted . Read the text. a re mostly people who have got money d. . return are short of ( l i ne 8) a. don't have any claims (line 9) a. i n clude pi ck u p (line 5) a. feel that the service is too expensive c. READING 1 . requests d . . . . . . have a l ittle d . buy c . Fi rst. puts dogs in a n i ma l shelte rs between rentals 4. a . try to g u ess. . req u i res c . declares long for ( l i n e 1 4) a .

when we rent Jackpot. Animal behaviourist. I ' m mad about Olivia. the dog rental agency. a beautifu l . 10 many of the dogs come from overcrowded anin a. We want our children to have the experience of a dog. we still long for the offices around the worl d . L and Cervantes plans to open more r l ives may be. The kids can 't 45 I suggest that these dog. We can rent anything from a car to a designer handbag for a few 20 35 come true. who pay a monthly fee.J + eth 's nimal Watc M.lli91JW Dogs f @ r Rent Do you love dogs? Are you a person whose busy lifestyle doesn't leave room for a pet? There's a solution for you: Flexpetz. but this is a service wh1ch is meant for hard-working urban professionals who are short of t1me.!J. the poodle that I rent every weekend. but it would be irresponsible for me to keep one because I work hours. I miss having a dog . Los Angeles I don't think so! Dogs are dependent on mean ingful . but we're too busy to cope with owning one . Sam Williams. Now you can enjoy having a dog without the long­ term. Flexpetz i s a great idea! Ken and liz Matthews. New York City the local animal shelter. day-to-day responsibilities that come with it How does it work? Customers. lifelong relationships with their human 25 owners.. New York City a 1 1 unconditional affection of a furry friend . The next week they pick up the same dog or choose another one. San Franciso long hours and travel a lot. not money. lt's not cheap by any means. where there are plenty of dogs that need walks and attention.U nit 5 J . But a dog is not a fad or a fashion accessory. lt seems that no matter how hectic C O M M E NTS For me. ant' Is bu owner Marlena Cervantes claims that here U 'lwanted ammals are eventually als. black Labrador. and that customers sometimes even Flexpetz has offices 1n Los Angeles. A dog will become confused and unhappy if it is passed from one home to another. London False friends eventually ( l i ne 1 0) means fina!mente not eventualmente claims (line 9) means afirma not c/ama . She says that they are well cared for be adopt them .i. Would she be better off in an 4o animal shelter? Tracy Johnson. shelters Vets and animal experts object to the 1dea of do killed. Flexpetz is a dream We live in crazy times. choose a dog on the I nternet Then they pick it u p from the Flexpetz office for a day or a weekend. and take it home for long romps by the seaside and cosy evening cuddles on the sofa. Keith Collins.lovers try volunteering at 3o wait for the weekends.

In my opin ion. Modern cities a re noisy and overpopu l ated . . . 2 . . An i mals i n zoos wou l d be I wou l d n 't be better off if . . 1.. .� VO CABULARY . . . 4. 1 . beca use we 're s h o rt of cas h . . 3. . . .. .. • releva nt • poss i b l e • conve n ient • l o g i c a l h . . . . . for m e t o ta l k now.. I 1. f.. and we m iss her very much. . 3 . . . . 2. i t would b e irresponsible of me t o g e t a dog.. 3 . . . . it-. . . in. . it's a g ood I bad idea to buy someth i ng that's a fad beca use . 1 ... . . Choose two possible answers to complete each sentence. a dv a ntage fa i r a.. page 1 21 No one bel ieved us 8. You pay a fee to do your homework I 3 . some of our school rules a re . . . . d. . snowy evening. . . o ur l ife l o n g friendsh i p . . Pay attention to the words in colour. 2. . . . .. . ... O u r friend went to l ive i n Leeds We can't lend you money Nothi n g can destroy W i n n i n g the lottery We're d rivi n g across town lt was a cold. . . . 3. j o i n a gym I go to u n iversity. You m i s u nderstood m e. . . e. would be a d re a m come true. . . . Choose an option.a re used to form the o p posite of a word a n d u s u a l ly g ive i t a negative m e a n i n g . 4. . PREFIXES Recog n is i n g p refixes can h e l p you u n d e rsta nd the m e a n i n g s of w o rds. .. . I reviewed the material before the test. . . deta ils in your essay.. . d river's l icence. . between c. 6. The p refixes un-. if-. · ��Grammar Appendix. beca use we've had a hectic day. .. . . . You can rent a flat I b icycle I 4. again never . . 2. Then complete each sentence. . . w a r m weather I b a d news. . . The ex-president spoke at the u n iversity. .. Please p h o n e aga i n later. . . . Don't underest i m ate the pa i n that an a n i mal feels. . . . .. . ir-. 4. . 7. . Don't include a lot of . . . A person ca n long for his fa m i ly 1 5.. 1 . . 5. . . . . The main . 5. .. b ut w e felt w a rm a n d cosy i nside. when we c l a i med we'd seen a gh ost. 6 .. . . 5. . . Match each prefix i n colour i n I with its meaning in 1 1 . . dis-. .. .. Pay attention to the words in colour. c. . . . I di dn't mean to insult you . Kno w i n g t h e i r m ea n i ngs can h e l p you to u nd e rsta nd n ew words. . ... . find the best continuation in 1 1 . . For each sentence beginning in I. . .or im -. Flexpetz is a n i nternat i o n a l company. g. Words from the Text 1. You can be a custom e r at a school I cafe 1 shop. 6. No matter what people say. . A person can be the owner of a house 1 2. . a. it's . it's com pletely . 6 . . We're very ti red 11 4. . A relaxed l ifestyle is I i s n 't good beca use . ir-. . ... 3. cou ntry I h o rse. . . . . not enough d . ..a n d im. Jeff's answer doesn 't make sense. . . .. We overestimated the number of people coming to the party. t o p i c k u p our friend. Pay attention to the words in colour. . in. . . Complete the sentences with the words you formed in Exercise 4. .. wrong 11 b. . previous f. to concentrate with al l that noise ! 5 . too much e. . a mong. . . . Use a dictionary to check your answers. Write the opposites of the words below by adding the prefixes un-. 4. .. it's . . of that shop is that you have to pay for parkin g . b. . dis-. . . . you should a lways 1 . . 2 . . Other prefixes have got specific m ea n i n gs.

. . Then listen and check your answers. . . to accomplish two thi ngs at the sa me time D.Y . A n an imal living i n its natural environment i s . . To keep a n imals for the pu rpose of rep roduction is to . .... . l ly 1 .�. elepha nts crocod i les .. YQc. 7 . A baby lion i s cal led a .. hich of the followi ng a n imals a re predato rs? a. World H u nti n g Association D . . a. giant panda o . The tickets were so cheap I smel led a rat ! 11 "he a. I felt li e a fish out of water. For me. .... . I 1 . I thi nk that hunting is . . . Vocabulary Builder. . you. hich is the only country i n the world where h u nt i n g is i l legal ? "' · Spa i n D . I was the o n ly boy on the tri p . There are now as .. people's amusement. . 4. An animal that l ives with humans is . cag e i n ca ptivity breed d. it wou l d be a dream come true o . . .. . I smelled a rat when . World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) . flat a reas with g rass ::J . Complete the definitions in I with a word 3.. . .. even a tiger that was born 2 . kept in small 5 . wait a m i n ute revealed a secret something I someone that doesn't belong suspect something is wrong n-.. . it i s . r... . .. you can easily buy a cute tiger become 3 . ... . 3 . bu someone l et the cat out of the b a g . l ions D . The United States should learn from • Complete the sentences. Tigers are fierce 4 and your playful "kitten" . Kenya Scotland . While we're in town. 4. 4 . 2 .. . . 2 .. r Internet. Pay attention to the words in colour. . . cub cages • h a bitat • in ca ptivity • breed • tame • wild • predators g. . tiger rabbit ::: lynx r.. When a n animal i s set free. . no longer wanted by its owner.. . lLDLIFE from 1 1 . .. . . ... from a pet shop or over the . B orn to be Free 1. hat a re two e n d a ng ered a n i mals? a .. UK. 3. this problem does not exist because . .. 5 . ! In the . H o l d you r h o rses ! You n eed to thi nk abou this first.... G reen peace ... 2. I could help endangered a n i mals by . A n animal that is not free l ives . . will soon grow into a large and dangerous adult. . . d.. and sell 8 . hat is the natural h a b itat of a l ion ? a .l. Complete the passage with the words and phrases below. 11 3 .. ..U n it 5 TopJ.. b. and displayed for many as 1 0. . we ca n also visit Jess a n d k i l l two b i rd s with o n e sto n e . I'd love to be the owner of . 5 .. . animals privately. . .. . .c. . . 5. . . . will never really · . . e. pages 8 6 . w i l d cub � 4. . . . tame release d Would you like a pet tiger? No problem! In the United States. A structu re with bars where a n i mals a re kept is a . Make them true for 1. .. .. g i raffe ::: . . . However.�!. 8 ...8 7 57 . . The pa rty was su pposed to be a su rprise. . ju ngles with many trees d ry deserts : h ich two organisations work for conservati o n of a n i mals? a . fierce e. .. Most tigers are passed from owner to owner.. blue whale . hich of the followi ng a re species of wild cats? a . . . 6 . . . .. . .000 privately-owned tigers in the United States -twice the number left living in their natural 6 it is illegal to 7 this example. IDIOMS Match the idioms in bold i n I to their correct meaning in 11... . . c. An aggressive o r vicious a n imal i s .�l:>. - - - - - - Choose the correct answers to the questions below...

Los cl ientes de Flexpetz. c . a p l ace 5. _ NOT Flexpetz customers. d. 3. I ' m th i n king of sel l i ng m y car. a. This is a service mean t for people who I that are short of time b. n o n-esse n t i a l i nformation a b o u t peo p l e o r t h i n gs.. X �Grammar Appendix. There may be more than one possible answer. a n o bj ect l ) 3 . . Match I and 1 1 and add a relative pronoun to form sentences. b. S k i i n g is popu lar i n the Al ps. I got u p at 6. I 'll never forget the weekend when we f got irst Jackpot. Do you k now a ny people . 4. .. 1 . 6. fight for an imal rights? We buy the dog food . RELATIVE PRONOUNS Read the exa m pl es a n d a n swer the q u estions. who they pay a mon thly fee. a ../ 2 ... 1 . a person 4. 6. d. A defi n i ng I non-defi n i ng rel ative c l a use p rovi d es extra . 11 7 . you watched last n ight.00 am. needs a lot o f repa irs. A defi n i ng I n o n -defi n i n g rel a tive c l a use is I 3. I ca n u se the I nternet? f.. They should volunteer at animal shelters. Flexpetz customers.1 58 . there a re m a n y u n ique a n i mals... que pagan una cuota mensual. Read the exa mples and identify the relative clause in each sentence... owners take good care of them . choose a dog on the In ternet. we didn 't take Jackpot. when we rent Jackpot.. h .. most o f h e r friends a re o u t of town . a person o r a n o bj ect 2.. Flexpetz is an agency which I that rents out dogs.. I ' m looki ng for a flatmate 4. our vet recom mends. (non-defining] 2.1. Everyone tried to comfort ou r neighbo u r.. 8. who pay a monthly fee. . opin ions are different from ours. works at an a n i ma l shelter.. � 2 . We should be tolerant of people 5 . Choose the correct options to complete the rules below.. My brother. I s there a place nea rby 3 . People who wan t to rent a dog can try Flexpetz. Flexpetz customers.. doesn't smoke. choose a dog on the Internet. What nou n does each rel ative p ro n o u n i n bold rel ate to? Complete each sentence with a suitable relative pronoun... ess e n tial to the mea n i ng of the sentence.. we got ma rried . cat had died. .. a t i m e 6. e. c The kids can 't wait ror the weekends. I took Spot for a wa l k . pages 1 20-1 21 ----. 2. Last weekend.. Do you t h i n k that there a re m any a n i mals a re exploited ? There a re plenty of pets .. Are you a person whose busy lifestyle doesn 't leave room for a pet? e. . Austra l ia i s a country . 5. possession DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES ------1 1 . 8. Tel l me about the film ( 2 . 1. there is snow nearly all yea r rou n d . -- n on-defi n i ng rel a tive cla u se from the m a i n c l a use. ? 1. when we were out o f town. Com ma s a re used to sepa rate a defi n i n g l4.. where there are plenty of dogs. 2. choose a dog on the Internet. We do not use t h e re l at ive p ro n o u n that i n defi n i ng I non-defi n i ng re l a tive c l a u ses. {defining] b. (defining] d. who pay a mon thly fee. (non-defining] c. W h ich relative p ro n o u n a bove refers to . g .. 1.. eligen u n perro por I nternet. H e r b i rthday i s i n August. lt rained on the day 11 a. is a vegetarian . 7.

Combine the sentences using a relative pronoun. She wou l d be much happier there. The zoo ag reed to move her to a sanctuary in C alifor n i a . . The American-born bongos. You ' ve probably never heard of the bongo. . (where) The firefig hters rescued a kitte n . Complete the sentences with a relative clause... ) . we c a n o m i t t h e re l ative p ro n o u n s ha. (whose) � � 7. . 4 .es/viewpoin ts 1 Grammar Review ''*l'i 8.. 8. . ( ho. They need to l ive i n groups. breed. E lephants a re a n i mals. m mad about the dog (that} I rent every weekend. burlingtonbooks. Bongos. bongos in the United States.. A zoo is a place . . 2 . Combine the sentences using the relative � e � S � 3. .. started a conservation programme in the United States. (whose) 4.. a rare and beautiful antelope Kenya. . There may be more than one possible answer. ... She could social ise with other elepha nts there. have been endangered for many years. (when) This is Mr Gera l d .. Don Hunt.. ) ... lill lli!:5. In 2004. 59 . .. 2 . u • u• u•. they zoos had a safe place to Ji\·e and The programme was so successful that there are now -+00 RELATIVE PRONOU N S .In defi n i n g . (si nce) 3. only a few dozen native bongo 7 . . would help saw these animals. L . b u r l i n g ro n b o P s e s eu p rnr . . She was taken from Afri ca that year. .. Make any necessary changes. . . He caught 20 bongos and took them to 5 . .1 Mon keys a re a n i mals . . Complete the passage with the correct relative pronouns. . . This was d ifficult for the Alaska ns._ WEB EXTRA Find out mo re about endangered an imals a t: www. that a n d when i f they a r e n o t the : J bj ect of t h e c l a u se. I a d m i re people . had once been a bongo hunter. . which. in the future . . . were born in 4. a new generation of bongos will live free in the African mountains.. In which sentences can you omit the relative pronoun? 5. Rewrite the fol lowing sentences using the words in brackets. . We are moving in J u ly. . (by the end o Ju 1 5 . She l ived i n t he zoo from 1 983 . 3.. . I 6. Make any necessary changes.. habitat is the mountain of coats and yellow stripes. . .. were left. . . They were sad to part with their on ly elephant. lt is similar to thei r warm n ative h a bitat. They m ust also l ive i n a warm cli mate. The Cold E l e p h a nt The state of Alaska has got a very cold cli mate.. Which sentences contai n non-defining clauses? That's the g i rl . cannot survive in the wild. (wh ich) The song was fa ntastic. They fou n d it i n the b u r n i n g house. Activists wanted to move her to a wa rmer place.. 3 . 1 8 bongos were taken back to Africa. She speaks Japanese . . A vet is a person .. 1 . However.. 1. (that) She ba bysits for twin s . . dog. (wh ich) The prize goes to H owa rd . . I ' m going to help Larry.. Look at your answers to Exercise 3.. The accident took place there. Maggie was the only elephant i n Alaska . He answered a l l the questions correctly.e ative c l a uses. His daug hter is in you r class.U n it 5 3 . . . their offspring are released... . Then listen and check your answers.. We fi rst met then. I remember the day . (whose) The road is closed .. . Thei r parents work long hours. pronoun in brackets.. . I began worki ng here in 2006. . In the 1 960s. I 've got a frien d . . . 2 . . . (who) I remember the day.. . She l ived in the Alaska Zoo . 6 . lt is near the Arctic C i rcle. 2 . . ... They sang it. . . Do not change the original meaning.. the zoo.. I bought 1 es�e oa: (wh ich) E x t ra g ra m ma r e xe r c i se s a t: Use each relative pronoun once.. who has got a er. You noticed at the pa rty. 8 . have reddi sh-brown 3 . The pen doesn 't wor k .

Zoos help protect endangered a n i mals. C attle farms da mage the environment 2. LISTEN CAR E FU LLY . Who says the following? Animals a re n 't ours to exploit. • Are your opinions closer to Ryan's or to Amy's? Think about the various issues they discussed (zoos. Eat in g meat is cruel 2 . Many young people choose to become vegetarians. 3. Ryan doesn't wear made from a n imals. What is the difference between a vegetarian and a vegan? 3. C ruelty-free cosmetics have a special symbol. App roxim a tely three m illion people i n th e UK a re v egeta rians. 2. sad o r neutra l ? This w i l l a l so h e l p you p red i ct t h e i r responses a n d u n de rsta n d w hat t h e y m e a n . testing medicines and cosmetics) and give reasons. 4 .Listen i n g to the spea ker's to ne of voice w i l l h e l p you deduce t h e i r o p i n i o ns a n d fee l i ngs. ···H······ . 1 . 4. H· H . Amy says that getting wool the sheep.H • • HHHHH. circuses.SKILLS LISTENING G A CONVERSATION 1 . Accord i n g to Rya n . 3. . Are they h a p py. Animal circuses a re terrible. Listen t o the third part o f the conversation. We have the right to use a n i mals for the good of h u mans. farm a n i mals. Listen to the second part of the conversation and complete the sentences. . Listen to the first part of the conversation between two friends. 4. Meat is u n healthy 3. Look at some of their reasons below. Which do you agree with? 1 . 2. a n g ry. 5. Use 1 -2 words for each blank. it's wrong for h u mans to or a n i mals. 1. H. Many farm a n i mals a re kept in where they ca n not .

page 1 32 � 61 . Use the expressions in colour in Exercise 1 . I be l i eve that a n imals have the sa m e rig hts as h u mans. Which of the opinions above do you agree with? 3 . They n eed h u mans to look after them. Who would give each opinion . 2. Look at the picture and read the opinions below. it's natural for h u mans t o use a n i mals. 4. �Pronunciation Practice. 3. I n m y o p i n i o n . Then take turns giving your opinion on the questions below. u se the fol lowing q uestions: What d o you t h i nk? What a bout you? What's you r opinio n ? Do you agree? Burlington Speech Trainer. 1. Are people exploiti n g the a n i m a l ? Is this fa i r I u n kin d I h a rmful to the a n i m a l ? Is the a n i ma l suffering I benefitti n g ? Do people h ave a right to do this? ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING When you want to encourage your partner to express his I her opinion. I t h i n k that this helps a n i mals. I f e e l t h a t we have no right to m a ke a n i mals work for us.U n it 5 SPEAKING EXPRESSING OPINIONS 1.i. Describe what is happening in • • • • each picture below.a vegan or a farmer? I d o n 't t h i n k that this person is exploiti n g the a n i ma l . They were meant to work. lt s e e m s t o m e t h a t these animals a re n 't sufferi n g . 6. Work in pairs. 2. Unit 5 . 5.

uch as u ing computer models of the human body. although I realise that animal t e ting causes suffering. Moreover.� WRITING A For and Against Essay 1 . What ideas do they connect or contrast? Con nectors of add ition Con nectors of contrast a lso and as well as i n addition (to) furthermore moreover what's more but I however I nevertheless on the one hand I on the other hand in spite of I despite although I even though while besides _j -' 4. I n a d d it i o n I H owever. 62 1 . _. On the other hand. N evert h e l ess I F u rtherm ore. Anna has got a lovely personal ity i n s p ite of I as w e l l as a g reat sense of h u mour. Does the writer believe animal experimentation is necessary? ANI MAL EXPE R I M E NTATI O N People have experimented o n animals for many years i n order to find out how t o cure disea e . In which paragraphs of the essay does the writer . M o reover I H owever. healthy. ? 2. present the oth er side of the issue and give a rguments su pporting it 1 . In conclusion. open-heart surgery and organ tran plants. M a ny people have started exercising in recent yea rs. natura l foods have become qu ite popular. government animal are treated as humanely as possible and used only when completely neces ary. including treatment for cancer and AIDS. Read the for and against essay below. Con nectors of contrast connect contrasting id eas. ary hould make ure that l aboratory 2. summarise the argu m ents a n d give his I her opin ion CONNECTORS OF ADDITION AND CONTRAST We use connectors to show the rel ations h i p between ideas. medical experimenting on animals cause them pain and uffering. Choose the correct connector. However. Anthony l i kes his new job as w e l l as I d espite the low pay. 3. Find three connectors of addition and three connectors of contrast in the model. i ntrod uce the issue I controversy 4. animal experimentation has played an important role in many medical advances. present a rg u ments to support a n i mal experimentation 3. 5 . alternative methods are sometime not as accurate as using animals . 1 .. Our plane a rrived a n hour late. Below is a list of connectors of addition and contrast. Furthermore. Nevertheless. many people enjoy them. I believe i t is nece in order to help human being . Extrem e sports can be very dan gerous. On the one hand.. 2. 4. many animal te ts are unnecessary because there are alternative method . today many people claim that animal testing i a cruel form o f exploitation. Co n nectors of a d d ition con n ect s i m i l a r i deas. doctors cannot always apply the re ult to humans because of the physical differences between people and animals. In addition. _. 3 . two of our su itcases were lost.

what's more) : . . we have n 't got much mon ey./ Companies use animals for testing medicines as well as :ney test cosmetics. . On the other hand. X :::n 3. people would not be able to see these a n i mals.Modern zoos are similar to the a n i mals' natural habitat. .. � Rewrite each of the following sentences in two ways. recog n ise the person i n this picture. the. Which would you put in your "pros" l ist? Which would you put in your "cons" l ist? .Ja mes never learned Spa n ish a lt h o u g h I i n sp ite of 1vi n g i n Seville for several years. Write a first draft. . (as wel l as. They are kept for enterta i n m ent.Ufr. On the one hand. Without zoos. PLAN Ope n i n g : State the i ssue I controversy. w h i l e f e n though a n d although a re fo l l owed b y a c l a use with : � :Jject + verb..S well as is fol lowed by a noun or a gerund. eve n though ' e've decided to cont i n u e with our plans i n spite of . it's also got a football sta d i u m . Organise your ideas.Zoos m a ke people aware of the va lue and beauty of a n i mals.e-d 3mmf"l. WRITING YOUR FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY s not wearing a coat. Look at the statements below. . O n the other 1-Jand. CHECKLI ST . � _ Complete the sentences with a logical ending. . Moreover. covtJ�t.pl��-t for � f r �1-td qg�ivwl o ess�y. even though I although it's cold. Use the model on page 62 and the plan below to help you. Use the connectors in brackets./ I ckuk. (also.. .Good or Bad? Use 1 00-1 50 words. it's g reat to travel . Choose the correct connector. we prefer eating out to cook i n g . . q_yan wa nts to be fa mous. i n s p ite o f I even thoug h I ' m very tired. • Make a list of pros and cons. .Utors. . .rules for word order witk . .:. Zoos help protect endangered a n i mals. we deci ded to wal k . have t o wa l k my d o g ton i g ht."'?ponies use animals for testing medicines as well as �osmetics. -1 e someti mes eats fish a l t h o u g h I d espite he's a vegeta r i a n . he never sold a painting du rin g h i s l ifeti me.. Emma is a ta lented artist.Even t h o u g h I Despite the fact that it was far. .Despite a n d in spite of : •.: "a l l owed by a n o u n p h rase or g e r u n d ( ve rb + . . -� Your Task • Write a for and against essay on the topic Zoos . . .ing). Body: Present arg u ments supporting one side of the issue./ I followed the. Despite I Even t h o u g h h is. lt is never =oll owed by a cla use. . a nd) On the one hand./ I followed . I bought the dress. 2. Our town has got seve ra l sports centres . . .U nit 5 D ES PITE / I N SPITE O F . . �::.tr�st.Van Gogh was a fantastic a rtist. (n evertheless. Present argu ments supporting the other side of the issue. spellif13 �1-td pu�-tetu�tio 1-t. a lthough) it's often faster to go by tra i n than by car. Animals in zoos suffer fro m i solation and don't have enough space or exercise. C l o s i n g : Sum u p the topic and state your opinion ./ I used � v�riety of covtJ�t. _ 1 . -�o failed the exam despite I in spite of studying off night. ----- . Brainstorm your essay. (h owever. 1t's a lot cheaper. Then write a final draft. : ::spite I In spite of the high price. I n addition. 4. but she hasn't got time to pa i nt. despite) · . .h e house has got a huge garden as wel l as .Utors of �dditio�-t �1-td covt. ' ' . Use the checklist to check your work. lt i s wrong to keep wild a n imals i n captivity. Most zoo animals are n ot enda ng ered . .

ORGANISE YOUR PRESENTATION Introduction I ntroduce you r topic by sta rting with someth i ng that will catch you r audience's attention. Read t h e fo l lowi n g sentences from a Body Organ ise your ta l k arou n d 2-3 m a in poi nts. whale h u nting is cruel a n d u n necessa ry. 4.000 whales every year. rehea rse i n front of a mi rror or a friend . I n short. Use large writ i n g so you can read it easi ly. and it made me very sad. The m ethods used to kill whales a re very cruel. • USE YOUR SKILLS Resea rch a n i ssue a nd p resent it to t h e class. I n conclusion. W h i ch tech n i q ues d oes each o n e use? W h i ch d o you t h i n k is t h e best? 1 . I saw a whale hunt on TV. Conclusion S u m ma rise you r tal k and restate the most i mportant points. D. presentat i o n a bo u t w h a l e h u nt i n g . 3. B. Read the Steps for Oral Presenta tion and a nswer the Task Quest ions. USE CUE CARDS Use small cue cards to help you remem ber what you want to say. 2. W h i c h is a better cue card? Why? A lfB It tc-�kes qo Wt. 2. 3 . not full sentences. to die. for exa m ple a startling fact a questio n or a personal experience. Write only keywords. • Thi n k of a n issue or p roblem that you feel is i m porta • Use the steps described on this page to help you prep� you r presentati o n .il1. The poi nts should have a logical seq uence. STEPS FOR ORAL PRESENTATION A. RESEARCH YOUR TOPIC Use the steps in Internet Research (Life Skills U n it 4) to research your topic. 2. Which is a better conc l u s i o n ? 1 .- SKILLS • G IVING A P R E S ENTATION You a re going to lea rn some tech n i q ues to help you prepare and g ive a n ora l presentation . W h i c h a re m a i n poi nts? W h i ch a re s u p p o rt i n g ideas? 1 .Ldes fo r e-t Vw!rpoo� w Vw! Le. most people ag ree that whale h u nting should be stopped . 3. PRACTICE Using you r cue cards. H u nters use a harpoon. Seven out of 1 3 whale species a re endangered . Why would a nyone want to k i l l a n a n i m a l as i ntel l igent as a whale? 2. N u m ber the cards. which explodes inside the whale and causes terri ble pain. and m ay lead to the exti nction of some whale species. C. but h u nters stil l kill 2 . 4 . Look a t t h e fo l l owi n g open i n g s from a presentation a bo u t w h a l e h u nt i n g . TASK QUESTIONS 1 . it's i l legal to hunt whal es. Many species of whale m ight disappear if whale h u nting conti nues. Look a t t h e sentences bel ow. Add su pporting deta ils a n d exa mples to each main point. . • • • • Write only one i dea or fact on a ca rd .

Trees cause rai n . es/vl ell!pO l llts I . e weather affects your daily life. Clouds are made of water. Cities are cooler than the areas around the m . page 1 60 How does the weather in your area affect your lifestyle? Think of traditional sports. lilil IE:!il WE B EXTRA Find out about some more unusual weather facts at: www. but how much do you 0 1 . Africa is the world 's driest conti nent. Red rain once fell i n India for several months. � Answers. 5. 8 . 2 . food and cultural events. b u rltngtoJZbooks. 3 . Al l snowflakes have got six sides. 7. 4 .Unit Obj ectives * Weather ' M o d a l s and M odal Perfects * • Listen i n g to News R e ports interviewi n g * Writ i n g a News Report " L i fe S ki l l s : Using G ra p hs and Charts Extreme Weather _ ually know about it? Do the quiz below and see. 6. The shape of a rai n bow is a complete circle. gas and ice. Lightning is hotter than the surface of the sun.

Word Check: The following words appear in the text. finding a tornado i nvolves a lot of trave l l i ng d. 1 . cause and resu l t. Read the text. instead of (paragraph 2) 3. moreover (line 1 2) 4. . mysterious (paragraph 5 ) 6. ad d i ti o n. Make sure you know what they mean. Choose the best answer according to the text. Find the following connectors in the text. have winds a l most as fast as h u rricanes d. due to (line 9) 3 . . Tornadoes a re a mong the strongest types of storms. . Find words or phrases in the text that mean: 1 . 6. Willenberg and Metz have scientific knowledge about tornadoes. 3. Are the following statements true or fa lse? Find evidence in the text to support your answers. a re easier to pred i ct than hu rricanes c . can be very sure of seei ng a tornado 5. ' • Do you think tornado chasing is worth the risk? Why or why not? To rnado A lley is the a rea i n the Un ited Sta tes wh ere tornadoes a re most frequent. hit (paragraph 3) 4. a re usually from E u rope c. � v READING 1 . it is dangerous to get very close to a tornado 2. chasers don't kn ow the time and location of the tornadoes c. Willenberg and M etz a re n ever frightened. can do it a l one if they a re carefu l b. . 2. 1 .�. should do it with a tou r company d. 4.lhon)a WIRM DRY AIR . COLD DRY AIR : /1\ . . Tornado chasers try to get i nside tornadoes. 1 . 4. Amateurs who want to chase tornadoes . often come unexpected ly 3. a . despite (line 1 2 ) 2 . They often sh ow contrast. �· -Qkl. a set or g roup of two (paragraph 1 ) 2 . it is hard to get the proper equi pment b. . addition. look at the i nformation they connect. 5 . Tornadoes . . so (line 2 5) 3. stra nge. can destroy enti re cities b. . twister • plains • rai n-soaked • hai lstones funnel-shaped UNDERSTANDING CONNECTORS Con n ectors can h e l p you u nd e rsta n d t h e con n ecti o n between ideas i n a text. . i t s not n ecessary to evacuate people d u ri ng a tornado. most modern (paragraph 3) 5 . a . a . Decide whether they show contrast. cause or result. Women ra rely become tornado chasers. Tornado chasi ng is often frustrating beca use . see (paragraph 6) 2 .

At any me. They uld have become ordinary weather forecasters. Due to their background in meteorology. unlike hurricanes.they' re the closest of friends. such as ripping apart one ide of a street while the other remains intact. Worst of all. Like other chasers. · . They take tourists for a week of chasing. the pair use the latest equipment. they are nearly impossible to predict: �orecasters are able to warn people only minutes before a tornado strikes.4 U n it 6 �et the Twister Sisters. travelling .d Metz are able to avoid getting caught inside a tornado. !oreover. . Nearly 60 people a year are killed in ese funnel-shaped storms. There is an element of fear." y Metz.rather than -�nning away from these deadly. which makes Willenberg and Metz very unusual.arge tornadoes are. They're not really sisters. The only afe way is to join a tornado chasing tour. so -e idents have little time to evacuate. slip on rain-soaked highways or get hit by giant hailstones. To do this. run by a company such as the Twister Sisters' Storm Tours.1nd the lucky ones will witness nature at its most spectacular . they might be struck by lightning. they drive back and forth .mado chasers are people who do the opposite of what most people do . ) ond our control. " the huge plains of the central United States. even ming from Europe to see tornadoes up close.ross entire states. but they are constantly at risk. · actually ordinary (line 5) means realmente. one of the most powerful natural phenomena on the � anet. but despite this -: y are often unable to predict exactly where or when they" ll find a twister. but also of excitement and beauty. Their narrow paths leave an eerie sort of devastation. �. which have winds twice the speed of the strongest urricane. de hecho not actualmente ( l i n e 1 6) means normal. The data gathered by storm chasers . and they enj oy chasing tornadoes as a pair. They have often driven . it can be frustrating. . Almost all tornado _ -: ers are men. . but the combination of a desire for thrills :1d scientific curiosity makes them unable to resist chasing storms. _ ·OY do they do it? Both women have been fascinated by torms since childhood. "Tornadoes are powerful. Willenberg _.a 'ornado forming right in front of their eyes. corrien te not ordinaria. :. they actually seek them out.mado chasing can be extremely dangerous.•usands of kilometres to get as close as they can. vulgar 67 . ro s "Tornado Alley. 1any amateur thrill-seekers are joining the storm-chasing game.. Meteorologists Peggy Willenberg and Melanie Metz are :"long the most skilled tornado chasers in the United States. Those who want to chase torms should not underestimate the dangers of trying it alone.uld help solve this puzzle . indeed. destructive storms. only to realise that they should have chosen the opposite direction.

. .. . . Use a gerund or an i nfinitive. .. If someth i n g is d e a d l y. .. c. . ? I know you don't mean it. 5 . . 6.. .. 1 . Wi l l I be able to see you tonig ht? Is there any chance of . . Then listen and check your answers.. They agreed .. . I�. Use a gerund or infinitive... The 2 . ..) � Grammar Appendix. .� VO CABULARY W9r9. filmmakers use companies such for hundreds of films such as Narnia and The Day After Tomorrow. If you g a t h e r th ings. ... 5 snow-covered park while 4· . as the s u bject of a sentence : Tornado chasing is . after certai n verbs : They enjoy chasing tornadoes .. and fall on the ice. My dog won't go out if it's ra i n i ng. We d i d n 't think we would win fi rst prize.. Patricia was ha ppy beca use her boyfriend . WEATHER ILLUSIONS If you' re a film producer... 7 . .. . . Luke always avoids . . a fter certa i n expressions: Rather than running . 1 . . .. Are the statements true or false? Pay attention to the words in colour. you a re the boss. . ... . 2 .. • l et • work • a po l ogise • meet . ... . lt would be strange for me to l ive in a big city... is one of the hea lth i est sports. I can 't help . swim (J 2. . which has created winter effects snow and ice out of paper.... . ..... remembered buying her a birthday present 3. I f you go back a nd forth.. your character must run down a frozen .. .. If you have a background in music. b. Complete the second sentence so that it has got a similar meaning to the first.. Some verbs m ust be fo l lowed by a n infin itive : People who want to chase storms . a .. stopped eati ng chocolate d uring work 2. b u t the m e a n i n g som eti m es changes: I stopped to drink beer. .) I stopped drinking beer. I ' l l never forget to visit Rome .. you bring them together.. .. (I took a break a n d drank.. a fter preposition s: ... Where did you arrange . GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES A g e r u n d is formed by a d d i n g -ing to t h e base form of a ve rb.. . Complete the sentences with the verbs below.. 4. .... If you stri ke someone. ... . .. making a film about winter j ust because it's the middle of summer. You can ' t ' . . through a .. .9. Complete the passage with the words and • rather t h a n • weather forecaster s k i l led • s l i p • c h a s i n g • avoid path phrases below. a . 8. you ' d never know that the weather was an illusion . Watching these films. . 1 .... .. Gerunds a re used : a. If you witness somet h i ng. (I don 't drink any more.. you d on't see it...m . ... How is this done? 6 . . us stay another nig ht.. you want to h u rt them. . depending on nature. If something is o rd i n a ry.. d... . the dangers of trying it alone. it's i m possible not to get angry someti mes..... . I f you r u n a compa ny. Choose the best option to complete the sentence... . Correct the false statements.. th. .. 2. . We had a wonderful trip to Ita ly. My dog refuses . fr. What's the point of . 5 . They are amazingly 7 . as Snow B u siness.. but according to the script. . it is u n ique. . .. 3 . at creating ..�t. I ' l l never forget visiti ng Rome b.and that's j ust what the filmmakers want.. 1 . predict a heatwave.. . .... 4. . a n d . stopped to eat chocolate during work b.� . a criminal. you go i n one d i recti o n . . . . ? 4.. page 1 24 � 3.. a .... her? 3... weather can be a problem. .. and then 3·. plastic or foam. you can't d i e from it.�. I can 't imagine .. Other verbs can b e fol l owed by e ith e r a g e r u n d o r a n i n fi n i tive . you probably play an i nstru ment.. . 1 . . . extra hours. .. 3. . . . Robert doesn't want to get fat so he . 4.... 5. remembered to buy her a birth day present b. 2. 5. .. may . We never expected ..

Make them true 1. .. When the weather is mild. weather � 4. The s ky is overcast .U n it 6 TqpJ. scorch i n g .tem peratu res. pages 8 8 .rai n . Atacama's climate is 6 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 quite . . • Complete the sentences. 0 H HO O O O 00 • ••• . 0 for you. cold. people that live there never People? Yes. after waiting i n t h e ra i n for a n hour. 6. b itter .storms. . s u n 50 t h i ck . I 0 0 0 0 forecast 40 I th i n k that I ' m skilled at . 7.. clouds 6 . 4 . The c h i ld ren s h ivered in the co l d I warm wind. . Because there is no 00000 00000 • in the air. • s l i p pery • forecast • f lood l ightn i n g • soa k i ng wet • ra i nfa l l • sweat A flash of l it up the sky. as they worked i n the hot s u n . wind.89 . M a n y homes were destroyed i n the Be ca refu l ! it's rai n i ng.c.. Vocabulary Builder. When it's chilly outside.ra i n . Nearly 3 0 cm of ra i n I snow fel l during the 2 . . and all of it falls during monsoon seaso n . Temperatu res reached 1 ooc I 42°( during the 6.rY. 0 20 EARTH 1. NOUN COLLOCATIONS Which nouns can be used to form collocations with the adjectives in colour? 1. going down to zero 8· HO 0 00 7 00000000000 Celsius in the winter. The water from the 3 · HO oooooOHOoO runs down 0 0 0 0 every year. There was not e n o u g h I too m u ch water d u ring the d ro u g ht . The averag e a n n u a l i n Barcelona is 590 m m .. weather. snowfa l l 4. where it hasn't rained in 500 years! Strangely. it's goi n g to get coldero lt sometimes goes down to zero Celsius i n Madrid. 5. from rai n . h u m i d ity is h i g h e r I l ower in the j u ngle than i n the desert.. H . wind 2. it hardly ever rains and there are often because it gets so dry. however. India. 5 0 I usually try to a void 60 I th i n k teenagers should . droug hts h u m id ity 2 0 30 • soa k i n g wet • deg rees • sweat • c h i l ly • f l oods • r a i n fa l l • heavy ra i n ). In the winter. . temperatures 30 heavy . 2. severe . there are several towns in Atacama. and of course.l. You n eed I d o n 't n eed a coat.sky. fog. meat will stay fresh there forever. it's getti n g colder I warmer. which causes terrible 4 0 H July to September. .?�. so the s now is 3.. cold. d e g rees 10 3.�ooOyqo� �ol. to the coast. 0 2 I ' m happy when the 3. . Complete the passage with the words and phrases below.. m i l d . 0000 00000 • If you visit Cherrapunjee. it's g o i n g to I not g o i n g to melting . b l i zz a rd . 7. it's c h i l ly . W e were . 0 pred icts 0 .t.heat. Accord i ng to the weather . Read the sentences and choose the correct answer according to the meaning of the word in colour. 8 . Then listen and check your answers.OOoOOOoOOOOooOOooOOOoOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO WEATHER 1. and the roads a re . I l i ke to . The You won't get wet in the Atacama Desert in Chile. take your u mbrella or you' l l get This mountain village has got t h e world's highest .. fog. believe it or not. ra ther than 0 o o .. h eatwave . The men bega n to H . Complete the sentences with the words and phrases below.

. . 3 . You m i g ht not I s h o u l d n't I don't have to go out tonight. One day. / d. Use a modal. certainty that something is i m possible 8. lightning may I might strike them.?. Choose _P.. I n the past. . Our data shows clear 1 . (advice) 5. (abil ity) 3. it's very col d . You m u st I c a n 't I h ave to be serious. 70 . The storm can't be in this area. 1 . 1 . They should have checked the data first. lt's causing a lot of a.. polite request 9. ... . I . a d vice 3. I think we might have I may have made a wrong prediction. (possibil ity) 7.c � I I GRAMMAR MODALS Read the exa m p les a n d a nswer the q u estions. . I .t come to your house. 4. . 1 1.. She's a tornado chaser. I n the future. . d. . 8. e. (abil ity) 2 . Wh ich modal perfects a re used to express the fol lo w i n g ? Hu rrica n e w i n ds h a ve been recorded at 3 1 0 k mlh . (lack of obl igation) 6. The policeman says that you m ust I cou l d I m i g ht go with h i m . Complete the sentences. You c a n 't I d o n 't h ave to I m ustn't tel l her ­ she a l ready knows. I . possi b i l i ty 1 . I . She cou l d I may I m ust love thrills. Wh ich m o d a l s a re used to express the fo l lo w i n g ? 2. a. . Could I Would you tell me more about the tours? f The tornado must be h uge.) worn a coat. g. . 4. . . You have to I must find a safe place during a tornado. In our fa m i ly. (prohi bition) 4. . You m ustn't I d o n 't have t o I m i g ht not tell anyone. the children . . i. it's a pity you d i d n 't know Pa u l was i n tow n . 2. We would have gone on a tour. criticism or regret after a n event certai nty that something was true possib i l ity that something was true a b i lity to h a ve done something but in fact did not w i l l i ng ness to do somethi n g but i n fact cou l d not 2 . He · ·=·· been r-' d isappointed .. . Seeing a tornado must have been a frightening experience. As a stu dent. . . Why d i d n 't you tel l me you ' d be out7 I . 1 wouldn't have • 5 should have ·�could have 2 m i g ht not have • 4T!ust have 1 . Accord i n g to my parents. obligation 4. At any time. We use the . You . 1 1. form of a verb after a modal perfect. You mustn't get too close to a tornado. She �( taken it with her. M i g ht I S h o u l d I Can forecasters usually pred ict rai n correctly? 7. Most chasers can I are able to avoid getting hurt.. g o n e o u t together. You don't have to I needn't be a man to chase tornadoes. They m i g ht I s h o u l d I a re a b l e to get caught in the storm. certa inty that somethi n g i s true 7. lack of obligation 5. . 1 h.1 e correct answer. 4. Read the exa m p les a n d a n swer the q u estions. .. That's ridiculous. 1 . weather.. . Lau ren isn't a nsweri ng her phone. b. People who want to chase storms shouldn't try it alone. 3. 5 .. Use the modal perfects below. I b. 6.. Complete the sentences. . prohibition 2.. 3. . 5. 2 . 9 . it's a secret. (obligation) 3. but we didn 't have enough money. . abil ity 6. c. Com p l ete the rule. .. You 've got a big exam tomorrow.. I . e.. My friends t h i n k that I . .. You . damage. c. Could I M ust I Should I please look at the weather forecast? 5. 2. Rya n d i d n 't get i nto the team . They could have become weather forecasters.

I . but we soon ran out of petrol. Perhaps she didn 't see us. (would I wear) my jeans.U nit 6 I � 7. However. We couldn't get to a petrol station... (should not I scare) h i m . I . but we weren't prepared.You spend too m u ch money. (where) 5. Do not change the original meaning. (could not I try) harder. . _ I advise you to save some.. (shouldn 't) 2 . I did n 't see John ton i g ht Maybe he went home ea rly." I came to your house. � ! _ - Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Complete the passage by choosing the correct answers." I failed the exa m .. (might I get) there on time.. My brothe� is o n ly five... bll rlillgtollbooks. She wrote this book.." I thought. . so we 5:tY'Iere �bre J.." complained Lisa. - I can do this myself. In the end. " (should n 't have) . (m ust I leave) them at the beach . How do you respond to what he I she says? Write sentences using the modal perfects i n brackets.� . after all can 'IDlY' might go.. How d id they feel when the storm beg a n ? I'm sure they were frightened ll'tl'll'. There may be more than one correct answer.. .. . " (could have) � " I ca n 't find my wallet " ( m ight have) "They've run out of tickets for the concert " should have) .. We didn't realise how c·�e' Rewrite the second sentence without changing its meaning. 1 .e or us. lt isn't necessary for you to m eet me at the ai rport ( have to) 4. . We made a m ista ke." said my flatmate.u_� 1 · mighf 2 Then we heard the announcement: "All residents evacuate I must evacuate immediately. ... OT You mustn't have driven during the storm. ... That's the street Marcy l ives there. Id have been easier I powerful a Gulf Coast hurricane could be ! upset. Liz Atki ns has a degree in p h i losophy. 8. but many others ea&!. u shouldn't have driven during the storm . " I waited for an hour. too. Things �m. The child is frightened... We ... " (m ust h ave) "The teacher shouted at me. Use a modal or a modal perfect. I'd like to use yours. . but they were d i rty. we didn't take it seriously.. ... My sunglasses aren't h ere.Holly d i d n 't say " hello " . (might) .. but Keira d i d n 't come ... Rewrite the following sentences using the words i n brackets. our neighbours had left./ .. The news on the were destroyed. the house was intact.." We took my car... .. J J to sleep I had to sleep �n the car. . feeling very radio was devastating.cs/PirwpoilltS I Find out nbout hurricanes at: Grammar Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 !7 8 9 _ I forgot my pen ... it's not necessary for you to help me. You . but their best player was i l l . lt was wrong of you to hit you r brother. ''The hurricane 7· must have destroyed I more supplies. strike I might have Struclrour area.. "We broug 6· should bring � should have Your friend is having a bad day. (who) 6. it's a pity we decided so quickly t's a luxury hote l . .. We were uncomfort ble. The tea m . (by October) 3. (could I win). They' l l finish building the house d u ri n g the sum m er. "I think that we 4· should hungry and thi rsty. she said. When we first heard warnings that Hu rricane lke d. I'm certain it's very expensive. but you had a l ready eft " (would have) _ _ 3 would have destroyed our house. Then listen and check your answers. it's a pity we didn't take the car. Use a suitable form of the modal perfect. He doesn 't know how to ride a bike. Lisa..." " lt 3· mustn't be I can't be that bad. I did my best I ..

. have never ca used actual da mage d .� SKILLS LISTENING � NEWS REPORTS 1 . No other person has l ived after being th rown so far by a tornado. a re sceptica l about cloud seeding c . number. R e p o rt 1 1 . were not as bi g as hail b. Extreme weather wi l l be the resu lt • Do you thi n k global warming is a serious of g lobal wa r m i n g . a .. . 3. 2 . a re not u nderstood by scientists 2. Read the q uesti o n s ca refu l ly before you l iste n . Now listen to two more reports and choose the correct answer. You a re going to hear four authentic news reports about the pictures above. (place. a. a s the keywords w i l l g ive you some c l u es a bo u t the content of the passa ge. e tc. The house was destroyed by the tornado. _ _ MAKE P r: CTIO S 3. a re helping C h ina i n i ts fi ght agai nst drought R e p o rt 4 The ice blocks . reason. R e p o rt 2 1 . Listen to reports 1 and 2 and decide if the statements are true or false. R e p o rt 3 Western m eteorologists .. . 2 ._ ____. The scientists' wa r n i n g is a bout the near future. year.} - . . Flood ing a n d d roughts will h a p pen i n t h e sa m e places. Look at the pictures below and describe what you think is happening i n each one. use cloud seeding in many places b. . need clouds i n order to form c. claim that cloud seed ing i ncreases ra in d . Pay attention to the type of information you need to listen for to answer the q u estions. problem? What do you think we should be doing to stop it? . Matt was i n his own home when the tornado struck. 3. .

bega n seve ral kilom etre s east of the town. H ow d i d you react? 4. Match each question with a suitable response. but there was not h i ng I coul d d o ! c. n ue d for two days and . b ut soo n beg a n t° move J n the direction of the houses. H ow d i d y o u fee l ? 5 . .. ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING �� 1 -.. What were people d o i n g ? 2. were told ea rly on Tuesday morn in g to eva cuate. use the questions and expressions i n colour i n Exercise 1 . f. wait ing by the i r rad ios for _ Inst ruct ion s... but it was too late.. 2 . As the fires ca m e clos er they d e awa with a few possess ions . Then I went outside. Unit 6 - . d . With a partner. I t r i e d to run t o our underg round shelter. . roofs. All i n all. Switch roles and conduct an interview about the other news report. Several hou rs i at th e scen e . Then practise the dialogue with a partner. � Burlington Speech Trainer.... carrying the m u ion to rescue the ir possess contm ue t er floo rs.. ... knowi � g that y m l g t neve r see the ir ho mes aga in. who survived the event. choose one report.. Peo p l e were scream i ng and trying to find their fa m i l ies. · hi RES IDENTS EVACUA TED DURIN G FIR E ��� �� � � ��� ' ' . caus ed by the rece nt heatwave . So in the end.. 1 . .. . Resi dents.. I felt terrified .__. I saw the tornado pass outside our house. Student A interviews Student B. As th e water to the h i g h . Look at the interview with a person who survived a tornado.. What were you d o i n g w h e n the to r n a d o struck? a .. . scre a m i n g an e le clim bed onto later. and heli copters arrived FLO ODS HIT CITY ��� � f� d� a n of the worst fores t fires in the a rea 's . rescue boats r help . Read the news reports below. s . 3. . finish you r story with one of the following expressions: Fi nal ly. lt destroyed everythi n g i n its pat h . To cut a long story short.. .. In you r interview. e Ire. the tornado passed and everything became very qu iet. e.. Th e heavy rain s conti ho mes : Resi dents tn e d th e river flooded peop le's s. What d i d y o u see? 3. What h a p pe n e d in t h e e n d ? 6 .ot . I w a s standing i n t h e kitchen making myself a sandwich. t v _ . b. When you describe a n exciting event that you witnessed. Event u a l ly.U n it 6 SPEAKING INTERVIEWING 1 .

Choose the correct connector. What. A con n ector of res u l t is fo l l owed by t h e conseq u en ce of a n action I even t. And there 's no end in sight: weather forecasters have warned of continuing heatwaves and consequently. 4. Where did the writer include people's reactions or comments? 4. As a res u l t I S i nce people do not have enough d ri n ki n g water. 2. Therefore. but are having little success because the flames are out of control. There are droug hts across Africa . M any were caused by lightning. many injured. 74 . the state of Victoria is having its worst bush fire season in recorded history. but police suspect some were started intentionally.000 firefighters are trying to combat the fires. the situation may get worse. Heavy snows have blocked major hi g hways. lt never snows i n Hol lywood . Why or how did it happe n / 5. Many good people lie dead. 1 . Use the list below to help you.� WRITING A News Report 1. At least 1 66 people have died in the fires. D u e to I As the latest weather forecast. What happened? 2. In what ways are the fires related to the weather? F i res i n South e rn Austra l i a This summer. the carn ival has been cancel led. News reports usually provide answers to the questions: Who. I B eca use they m ust use a rtificial snow in films. Where did it happen? 4. Who was i nvolved? 3 . as a resu l t of I so many people are unable to reach their homes. Therefore. 5. "Hell in all its fury has visited the good people of Victoria in the last 24 hours. People sweat a lot i n our area. lt ca n come a t t h e b eg i n n i n g o r i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e sentence. Find two connectors of cause and one connector of result i n the model. In which paragraphs does the report answer the following questions? 1 . Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has reacted emotionally to the tragedy. The fires started several weeks ago as a result of exceptionally high temperatures and the worst drought ever recorded. When and Why. 6. Where. what is the cause and what is the result? C o n n ectors of ca use C o n n ectors of res u l t 3. There is a drought in A ustralia. which have destroyed entire towns and damaged thousands of homes. the bush is very dry. 2.Writing Guide. News reports usually put the most important because since as because of due to as a result of so as a result therefore consequently for this reason information in the first paragraph and then add details in later parag raphs. 3 . page 1 49 6. Read the news report below. Did the writer of the report above do this? con n ector of ca u se is a l ways fo l l owed by the reason why somet h i n g h a ppens. Jean took a thick j acket beca use I conseq uently it was so cold outside." he told reporters. When did it ha ppen 7 5 . so I s i nce the a i r is very h u m i d . lt usua l ly comes at t h e beg i n n i n g of a sente n ce. . In each sentence. A People were evacuated because of the danger. Australian Times • 9th February 2009 About 4.

U n it 6

Your Task
:Jst con nectors of cause a n d result a re fol l owed by a : a Jse with subject + verb. However, because of, due to � � d as a result of a re fol l owed by a noun p h rase or gerund.
orse
P

• Write a news report. Use 1 00-1 50 words.

WRITING YOUR NEWS REPORT

vere evacuated because the flooding was getting ·re evacua ed because of the flooding

1 . Brainstorm your report.
• Read or listen to a news report on the radio, TV or Internet. Make notes to answer the fol lowing questions: - What happened? - Who was i nvolved? - Where did it happen? - When di d it happe n ? Why I How did i t happen? • Think of extra details to make your report more interesting.

?9

ge

Choose the correct connector. -he weather will become more extreme beca use I beca use of global warmi n g . D u e to I Si nce the cold weather, everyone stayed ndoors. As a res u lt of I As the h u rrica ne is co m i n g towa rds he island, a disaster is expected . - Experts were a mazed s i n ce I d u e to the ice blocks were he size of a microwave. - As a res u l t I As a res u lt of cloud seed ing, it ra i ns more often in some a reas.
_

-

Add people's reactions and comments about the event.

2. Organise your ideas. Use the model on page 74 and the plan below to help you.
PLAN
Open i n g :

Complete the sentences with a logical connector. Do not use the same connector twice. There may be more than one correct answer. it is so cold i n Alaska, water ca n freeze i n mid-a i r. The winds were very strong, several cars were blown off the roa d . H u rrica n es a re formed .. .. .. a com bi nation of warm water and cool a i r. Death Va l ley, C a l ifornia is one of the h ottest places on no one l ives there. Earth. :-> . People can get skin cancer strong s u n l ight. 6. The farmer was h it by l ig htn in g ........... he was sta ndi ng in a n open field.
• n

_

.

n

_

G ive a summary of the event and the most i mporta nt facts. Body: Develop the relevant i nformation and add deta i l s. C l osi n g : G ive reactions and com ments of people i nvolved.

n .

,

3. Write a first draft.
4. Use the checklist to check your work.

.

.n

Then write a final draft. CHECKLIST
.I I followed .I I
Cif

9. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in

1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

brackets. Do not change the original meaning. I am travell i n g to Pola n d . For this reason, I bought a warm coat. (as) Due to the cold winters in E ng land, they a re moving to Spa i n . (beca use of) People watch the n ews on TV beca use they want to know what's happening in the world. (therefore) Today's forecasts a re q u ite accu rate beca use they use modern technology. (d ue to) There was a h u rricane wa r n i ng, so everyone left town . (As a resu lt)

the. pLCi!��t-for

�ws report.

V(.fed Cif VCi!riety of c:o1111Utors of C:Ci!V(.fe Ci!M result.

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Writing Guide. page

1 56

75

SKILLS

U S ING G RAP H S AND CHARTS
You are going to practise i nterpreting i nformation from graphs. Look at the graphs and a nswer the Task Questions below.

Graph A - Average temperature

Cl i mate g raphs for London, England
100 mm 90 80 70 60 50 40

G raph B - Average precipitation (ra i nfall)

....... ...... ....... .. ,..., ,.... . . : .......... . .. ....... . ... ·· .. . . .. ;:....;;

30 20 10 F M A M A 5 0 N D

25

23

22

21

20

20

17

16

19

23

25

25

(months) (rainy days)

• TASK QUESTIONS
1 . G ra p h A
1.

What a re the n u m bers on the left-hand side of the graph'

2 . What is the d ifference between the red and blue l i nes?
G ra p h B 1.

What a re the n u m bers on the left-hand side of the graph?

2. What a re the letters o n the bottom of the g ra p h ?
2 . Look at t h e gra phs a g a i n a nd a nswer t h e q u esti o n s . 1 . What is the hottest month of the yea r i n London ?

2 . What i s t h e average m i n i m u m temperature i n J u n e ? 3 . What is t h e average max i m u m temperature i n J u n e ? 4 . On average, for how m a ny days does i t rai n i n May? 5 . Wh ich month has the most ra infa l l ? Is it the same month that has the most ra i ny days?

USE YOUR SKillS
U se the I nte rnet to f i n d te m perat u re a n d prec i p itat i o n g ra p hs for a city in you r cou ntry. C o m p a re t h e i nformat i o n i n the g ra p h s to the i nformat i o n i n the g r a p h s on t h i s p a g e . Write f i v e facts a bo ut the d i fferences i n c l i m ate between Lo n d o n a n d t h e city you c h ose.

- ·--6 1 7--,

-- -'

U n it Objectives
* Conditio n a b * Ti m e C l auses
• • *

* Travel

Li sl c n i ng to Recorded Mes-.ages Buyi n g a l r<J i n Ti ckel W ri l i n g an c - m a i l

* L i fe S k i l l s : Book i n g a R o o m

Travel
_

isten to the song and read the lyrics. Then answer the questions. What attracted the singer to Antarctica 7 Why does the singer call h i mself a d reamer? 3. What do you think happened to Shackelton and Scott?

Antarctica
Long before I ever saw

By Al Stewart
Maybe I was snowhl ind But it seemed your voice was true And I bel ieved the story then As travel lers someti mes do In A ntarctica I n A ntarctica And maybe I was snowbl ind Perhaps it sapped my w i l l But something o f my innocence I s wandering there s t i l l I n A ntarctica In A nt arctica Antarctica Antarctica
...

The frost upon your face I was haunted by your beauty A nd it drew me to this p lace I fe l t the c h i l l of mystery With one foot on your shore Where no man had before Maybe I was snowbl ind But i t seemed the w ind spoke true A nd I believed its stories then A s drea mers someti mes do In Antarctica I n Antarctica Who k nows what the powers may be That cause a man to go M ind less of the dangers Out across the v irgi n snow Seduced by this ambition I easily forgot The hopeless quest of Shack leton The dreaml ike death of Scott And then and there resolved to go

• Why do you think people explore unknown

places despite the dangers?
W E B E XTRA
Find out about Scott's expedition to Antarctica at:

wwu•. burlingtozzbooks. es/l'iewpoints 1

� READING - 4. n o nation w i l l ever c l a i m that . . Choose the best answer according to the text. 1 . W h a t a re t h ree ways i n wh i ch Antarctica is u n ique/ in the text. ca l m est (para g ra p h 5) 6. it is so expe nsive to go to Antarctica c . . Answer the questions. Read the text and decide who or what the following words refer to: 1 . nea rby (pa rag ra p h . d. a t h i n g . . . t h e i r (line 24) 6 . Find adjectives in the text that mean the opposite of: 1 . . b. . 5 . hot (paragra p h 5) 1 2 . . frozen • on board • sea ls • c l a i ms • perils 3.1 ) 2 .. 2 . a storm at sea an accident the i n experience of the capta i n a leaking ta n k • Do you thi n k that it's a good idea to promote tourism to Antarctica? Why or why not? There a re 1 6 resea rch stations in A n ta rctica. . f M/5 Exp lorer s inks in A n ta rctica. I n the 2007 i n ci dent. it is possible to go to Antarcti ca d . 4 . The writer feels it is surprising that . 2. a . . . Word Check: The following words appear 2 . . . it (l i ne 2 6) 3. a. . . Accord i n g to the 1 9 59 treaty. 1 . I n what ways is an Anta rctic cru ise d i fferent from a I uxu ry cru ise 7 1 . What positive effect cou l d tou rism h ave on Antarctica ? A p ro n o u n o r possessive determ i ne r refers to 5. 6. --�-_j 1 . What negative effect co u l d tou rism h ave in Antarctica ? 4 . . n o tou ri sts . s m a l l (paragra p h 2 ) 3 . Pengu i ns can s w i m at speeds i n excess o 2 0 km/h. often in the fi rst p art of th e sentence o r in the previous sentence. c. Complete the sentences using your own words. it is i m possible to go to Anta rctica 4 . . . forbid den (paragrap � 4) 5.___ 3 . . . W h y do some people want t o l i mit the n u mber of tou rists i n Antarctica? 5 . 2 007. . . Before 1 820. they ( l i n e 1 7) 4. . p erson o r i d e a that has a l ready been mentioned. 2 3 rd No vember. . . . To u rists t o Anta rctica m a y be risking their l ives beca use of . n o one . its ( l i n e 3) 2. Make sure you know what they mean. this (line 8) 3. Tens of thousands of people . A disaster was avoided beca use the ta n k • . so m a ny people wa nt to go to Anta rctica b.. them ( l i n e 23) 5 . The cruise ship sa n k in 2007 d u e to .

saying no country wou ld make any territori a l claims there.000 for a month. and it ta kes a seasoned shi p's ca pta i n to get th rough them while negotiating the treacherous ice.spectacul ar l a ndsca pes. but it belongs to a l l of us. All you have to do is sign up for one of the Anta rctica cruises a n d pay a nyt h i n g from about $8. In Nove mber 2007. 1 54 u n l ucky tou rists sat sh ivering for hou rs i n l ifeboats on the icy water.U n it 7 Th e F i n a l F ro nt i e r Anta rctica . an i nternationa l a g reement was signed. choose a com pa ny that has lots of expe rience. To be on the safe side. 10 15 I ce-covered Anta rctica. with the n u mber of yearly visitors now i n the tens of thousands. the coldest place on Earth. The pu rpose is to learn a l l you can about this am azing place. if you've got a n adventurous spi rit and enough money. If people witness Anta rctica's breathta king beau ty. you r g u ides w i l l beg i n t o teach you about Antarctica's ecol ogy and w i l d l ife. so as soon as you get on board.000 for ten days to $3 5.frozen. b i l l boards or cafes. its po p ul a rity as a tou rist desti nation is g rowing. watch i n g as their cru ise sh i p sa n k after crashing i n to an iceberg. it has no perma nent residents. giant icebergs. the environment is not the o n ly concern . They say that the damage cou l d be m i n i m ised if there were ru les to l i mit the nu mber of tou rists a l lowed to visit each yea r. J ust as l ucki ly. T h i s w i l l prepare you fo r the unforgetta ble sig hts you ' l l be seeing . if you decide to travel to Anta rctica. If the ta n k had leaked. so the first time h u ma n be i n gs eve r l a id eyes on the u n i n ha bited conti nent wa s when it wa s d iscovered i n 1 820. sea ls and peng u i ns. and dedicating the entire conti nent to pea cefu l scientific research. the weather was calm. so there were no deaths or i nj u ries before they were fina lly rescu ed. In fact. hotels. Fortu nately for them. i t wou ld have ca used a n envi ronmenta l disaster. However.there a re peri ls fo r h u mans as we l l . Environ mental ists a re co ncerned a bout the effects of tou rism on the a rea. you can actu a l ly visit this conti nent at the bottom of the world. In 1 9 59. O r is it? U nbel i eva b l e as it seems. However. Enjoy you r adventure and keep in m i nd you a re a ctu a l ly visiting one of Earth's fi n a l frontiers. it doesn't belong to any cou ntry. si nce a ny h u m a n a ctivity ca uses changes i n the ecological bala nce. There a re a l so no native people. is p u re natu re. and there a re no shops. But don't expect a l uxu ry trip with d iscos a n d casi nos. remote and i m possible to get to. there was no o i l leak from the shi p's ta n k. The seas a round the conti nent a re the roug h est on Earth. some tourism may a ctua l ly promote conservation. perhaps th ey' l l become aware of the i m porta nce of protecting it. 20 25 30 \ .

the hotel was in complete .all rooms are high the treetops. conscious of 3. c H IS parents h ave b een qu1te �{q cancer e '"about him lately. :'-1. activity 1 . . deci d poss i b l e � a ppo What causes the most d a m a g e to the environment? treacherous? h u rr i c a n es I h u m i d ity I ch i l ly w i n d s a chef I a scient ist I a co n struct i o n worker � ��.(Y. -ness a n d -ence I -once.. tf � i er • rel a t i o n •.-�Vv8. . . you'll find it. goal S a. worried 11 d .J. If you prefer warmth.> q. The hotel 's 3Cw. Finland.. 3.. -ist.9m th. 5.. 4. w?. follows the local way of building . .�. Some com mo n n ou n suffixes a re : . 7 . -men t. objects that b e l o n g to you 3 . . One 2� pos�ble) 'f the Mammut Hotel in Kemi. Who usually conducts resea rch ? p l a nts I a n i m a ls I peo p l e Add a noun suffix from above to each of the fol lowing words.. 5.riau To�e � (' in the Brazilian rainforest. My sister and I ha e a rather stormy \0. i nform e n v i r o n m enta l 6.thick) of their steel doors makes quite a \"(' 5 ��uimpress)! Wherever you travel. Most rooms are in converted cells ­ � the �'. Which weather conditions are the most 2.. Then l isten and check your answers... page 1 26 4. . Complete the fol lowing sentences by adding a noun suffix to the words i n brackets. I 'd like some ·�"'" W)'Q'Cit'ifietrain to London... agreemen t. f.� ----.tion. -ship. if you seek th different and the unique. 5. -sion... �6. · There's a big &t:. Choose the correct answer to each question.. 3.·��� 1 ... NOUN SUFFIXES N o u n s ca n be fo rmed by a d d i n g suffixes to certa i n ve rbs. 1. 4. Have you made an he doctor? dates of their trip... Please k��Orn t n d that you must arrive on time. 1 . remember �e. experience. .. Our main Puf se in this course is to improve fX> 2.. built entirely c snow and ice.. t \0. r c. a dj ectives a n d othe r n o u n s. 4. try the ('. ffioteQ� r-- so 1 . �hie � � 6. popularity. � 2 L-/ b.. Most smokers are � � the fact that esmoking is dangerous.::: VO CABULARY W9:u:l� . . -ity. � � .. re eo c r ed about the balance of nature in Antarctica. it's good to achieve a ba l a nce between work and fun.. . I � lr.. Where do you see b i l l bo a rd s? n ext to road s I i n h ouses I on TV What kind of transport is used for a cru i se ? What will s i n k in water? a p l a n e I a tra i n I a s h i p a ston e I a feath e r I a leaf Pay attention to the words i n colour. �l Grammar Appendix. Then match the words in colour to their definitions in 11. tourist.:r. When we arrived. . .Yf:. things people s i g n u p for 4.1 1. 2. The Malmaison Hotel m Oxford.. l a n dsca pe jobs which involve resc u i ng people objects that can l e a k lf you're looking for � �te) on your next holida -� 'j:: try staymg at an unusual hotel. Is there any � .. 2.'-. aim. England was once a � on. importance N ote that somet i m es there a re changes in spe l l i ng. things you'd see in a desert 2. 5.. conservation active . our English .An1a0ing w.I��t.. conserve . Read t h e sentences in I.. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the nouns you f rmed in Exercise 4. The ve mad� ( 5. equilibrium 1 c.oo t[9ng a room for tonight? 3 .. tickets.. Name two ...

And what if you get to the airport only to find that your 3· · H· ····· has been 6· 4· . .�... . ... ... yq��l:>. 1.. A: Alright..... ... pillow. Hello.. . However. The M ini Motel.... We'll deliver it as soon as it arrives.�..o. Make them true 2.. .9n nl � !� % i t t� �. 2... it's hardly worth the money to book a hotel for the night. I don't want to take buses.. . ._ 2 . <:..l.. in town . • 7· . . . Is an the 1 A: "Can I help you... . I'd like to sign up for . Where will you be staying7 B: At the 4· .. . . in On an ove r n i g ht trip. b.U nit 7 TRAVEL 1. E:' a.. stay at a German 3. You ng people who haven't got the � o n e� T I( r e� hotels often �� J: I}. . the sentences below. .. . I have a great relationship with . M iss. but nowadays this is rare. tour in you r own cou ntry If you need acco m m o d a t i o n ... 1!'!1 =-.es/l'ieu•poilllS 1 Vocabulary Builder. I am very concerned about ... stay go go • Complete the sentences. h i re 5 .. miss? " B: I hope so ! My · ·· · · ·H ··· hasn't arrived. I d love to -�-. I. . go to a nother country .H ... e. .:. it will leave ..�� � . several nights b one night If you buy a ret u r n t icket. . .j v 4. reading light and alarm clock.. pages 90-91 ... you stay for . I'd like to �o?-t ��9f.. a. sleeping at an airport doesn't have to be torture.. 7. .. ... . plane.. for you..:.r.t of 20th J uly..a W E B EXTRA Find out about an unusual type of hotel i n Japan at: ll'Ww. on time Your d e p a rt u re t i me is the time you . 6.. u S e. you don't plan to come back you plan to come back If your train is d e l ayed . ___ 4 . � here are you PJ.. . ..rY. .. Use t h e expressions i n Exercise 3 to complete 3. a. .. 4. q ueue Pay attention to the words in colour and choose a logical ending for each sentence.. . � s m 3 . . . a. sleeping at a hotel or a youth hostel Complete it with the words below. provided free hotels for when this happened.. .. .. 1 ... is 4 am. The dia logue below takes place at an a irport. Complete the passage with the words and phrases below. 5 .. .. c. 3 . Let's ¥·()-. but it's becoming more common. 2 · . . .. number? B: lt was flight 938... I've also been waiting in this 2· H • • ••• for half an hou r ! A: I ' m sorry. book J d. 6. rop_tc. train or ship b.. a leave . �) �ay ' 0 IS ters � Jet in nd. a way to travel b a place to stay A passen g e r is a person . travelling on a bus. . If your .. 5 · .burlingronbooks. . a late b. . .... 1. .. a. Then listen and check your answers.�. .. ... . l ug g a g e • acco m m od a t i o n • a i rl i nes d e p a rt u re t i m e • f l i g ht • passengers d e l ayed • ove r n i g ht The Mini S leeping in an airport isn't the most comfortable form of L . .. An important decision I 've made was . �� � � 5. I once went on an overnight trip to .. . 5. airport.. . 2. . A: They must have left your bag there. . . • youth hostel • f l ig ht a i r l i n e • l ug g a g e . I'd like to go sightseeing in . you .. -1 11 a t a hotel I a t a youth h ostel a t i cket I a room a car si g htsee i n g on holiday 3 .. 4. from Brussels. What was your . . B: And what am I supposed to do in the meantime? I think your 5· OH O•OOOH owes me an apology! 1 . . created by business traveller Frank Giotto after an into your 8 .o cray'Wnat'i'S'There to see around here? 5 .. . weighs only two kilos and is small enough to fit It's a one-person tent complete with air mattress. Match the verbs i n I to a word or phrase in 11 to form expressions.. ... .. H. ? In the past. . arrive If you go a broad . .. you want ..

we use the . 3. your guides will begin to teach you about An tarctica.. . 5. Ifpeople see Antarctica 's beauty. (continue). brackets.. tense in the con d ition and the . a. so m et h i n g that m ay h a ppen in the futu re 2. .. I won't leave tonight unless the weather .. If global warming . I would buy it b. There would be less damage if there were rules about tourism.. 3... We won 't arrive on time . resu l t. a. (not feel) ill if he . + have + .. they'll promote conservation.� GRAMMAR THE CONDITIONAL - 1 . tense i n the cond ition a n d ... . . a hypothetica l situation i n the p resent 4. Would you travel alone . .. If you hadn't told me. .. if you were older 3. ... Fi rst Con d i ti o n a l 6. I will be very angry b. (have) a bigger bag.. . I will phone you before / leave. . . . Use the first o r second conditional.. tense in the resu lt. tense TIME CLAUSES - Read the exa m p l es a n d a nswer the q u esti ons. . 11 [l /'// tell you about my trip when I get back.. . 1 .. . i n the . . (travel) by plane if I could afford it.. Use the third conditional. we . .. W h ich sente n ce ta l ks a bout ... .. . we u se t h e .... .. (take) a taxi.... unless we leave quite early b. 3. + t h e base for m of t h e verb i n t h e resu l t. 2 . 2. What te nse is used d i rectly after time words such as when and as soon as? Grammar Appendix..... (improve). If we . a n i m poss i b l e or u nfu l fi l led situation i n t h e past 2 .. if it doesn't rain �. (might I see) him if he ... The driver .. 4. I would take more clothes. w e use the ... a.......if Brad hadn 't argued so much 2 . 2. . 3 . I n t h e t h i rd co ndition a l . . He . Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets.. Complete the sentences with the verbs i n 1... (be) much easier... if you had had the courage b. the icebergs will melt. We couldn't find the building.. T h i rd Con d itiona l 2. . Do the sente nces a bove refer to the present o r the futu re? lt would have been a lovely evening . I might never have found out 1. Read the exa m ples a n d find the con d ition a n d t h e result i n each sentence. . (remember) it. I . 3. ? 1. .. If that jacket didn't cost so much... As soon as you get on board. Choose the correct continuation for each sentence. . . (not eat) so much ! The man was hit by a car. . . Second Con d itio n a l You ... C harlie didn't feel well.. (get) to Seville faster if you take the high-speed train. ... . (write) it down. (not get) lost. pages 1 25-1 26 .... If you . a. Complete the rules: 1... . . 2. . If the tank had leaked. Then a n swer the q uestions. if we had n 't hurried 6. a. . 1 . If she doesn't get that job. I n t h e seco n d co nd itio n a l . If we .. People would live on Antarctica if it . ? a. In the fi rst conditi o n a l . lt took us two hours to get there by bus. she will be very disappointed b. (not wear) black. (have) a map. she would have tried it on 5 . i n the co ndition a n d . it . she would have run out of money 4. .. .. it would I could I might have caused a disaster.. . .. If I . 1. You forgot Debbie's birthday.. . 5. .. (not be) so cold. .. . you .. . . .

9 · H . . I'll cook. 1. so I bought it. don't speak Italian. I'm packing a snorkel. 2... b u r l i ll g f o l l b o o k s . . I would listen to the warnings. but I'd like you to do the washing up. If I cook. If I were I h a d b e e n you. I ' m going to do itl 1 2 3 H 5. . Our destination? Hobart. (as soon as) I didn't buy you a present because I didn't kno it was you r birthday. Complete the following sentences in a logical way. (if) I read for ten minutes and then fell asleep. You'll feel better when you stop I w i l l stop smoking. 3. 2. 6. Choose the correct answer... (after) I ' m sure that Paula is home by now. Robin isn 't here with us. 5. I (go) scuba diving.. . . Is this supposed to be fun 7 s 7 · We're finally at the airport.. ... I would . I don't feel well enough to finish my work at the moment. . (get) to the airport. I'll go to Slovenia this summer if I f something went wrong o n a trip. If I had . 7. . e s 1 i e zcp u i ll ts l 83 . . . (if) Perhaps my father took that picture. . Complete each sentence without changing the original meaning. .. . 6. so I ' m unhappy. (not be) so rigid. Of course. 6. As soon as Dad arrives at his hotel. 3. . . · � Bob 10 . so I can't study in Italy.00. 4. 5. . (be) furious with me if I . . . . (know) what to pack ! But Marian doesn't know herself. if he . if we (fly) to the Gold Coast instead of Hobart.. When I .. . As soon as . . . We'll get in touch as soon as we w i l l get I g et off the plane. . . I 6. . sunscreen and a warm coat. . . . . . You can 't enter unless . . I f Antarctica had permanent residents. (not be) a secret.. . 1 . . 5. . He . . 4. Unless I find my passport. . 6. 3. . . . Tasmania ! Maybe this isn't such a bad idea after all ! That was a won derful weekend. 4. 7 it's important that I phone Tom when I hear any news. . I would have seen you if you h a d n 't left I d i d n 't leave early.. . boots. . 5. Then listen and check your answers. Read the advert and complete the dialogue. Our last holiday might have been better if .. .what a great present! But Bob hates surprises. Do not change the original meaning. (enjoy) life a lot more. /iqhts aVId tJCCO W! Wi O We' If arraVJqe you r f a/ia ! ltvai /ab/e 011/y iVJ it ustr 4. 2. 4. · H Grammar Review ''''''*' 8. . We'll leave without him unless he w i l l meet I m eets us at exactly 2. . Honestly. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets. She says that we . � 7.. If I were you. . . he 4 . 2. . I think you should take an umbrella. maybe next time. (book) one. 1. . . if my destination . . . . . (find out) as soon as we . Sounds strange? Well. There may be more than one correct answer.. Well.S tiVJtJfiOVI ! ffy tO tJVI UVIf<VI OWVI dtJfiOVJ.. 3. 1 6· . . . (must) Jason can't play football because it's rai n i ng. )< they s a w bacl< iVJtO air trtJVel Put the exciteW! eVIt tJ{e. .U n it 7 a gente entendera la i m porta ncia de proteger a Antartida en cua nto vea n su belleza. tt'TS MYS'Tc'RY !FU G '"'JOT People • w11/ understand the importance as soon as protectmg A n tarctica beau ty. . . . . I d idn't know you had the disc. . Mystery Flights . (might) Extra grammar exercises at: W W II'. I might have understood him if he d id n 't speak I h a d n 't spoken so fast. . They won 't let you enter without a visa. .

early morning b.. 1 0 . 00 How long is a " flight " ? a. workers will .. 2. Shepherd's B ush station is closed because of If your luggage is found unattended. Listen to the third part of the recording and fill in the m issing information. How many days of the year is the London wait in the queue? How much is a ticket for children under five years old? How much will a senior citizen need to pay if he I she wants to "fly" at the weekend? 4 .. 2. Claudia is on the Tube to the London Eye.. 3 6 5 What are the opening hours i n the winter? a. 3 0 minutes b. 00 b. She 2. 3. 40 minutes c.8 . • Why do you think many tourist sites use pre­ recorded messages? Do you prefer getting this type of information from a recorded message or would you rather speak to a person? 84 . 6. 9 . Eye open? b. 00 pm When does the ticket office open? c. Read t h e q u estions ca refu l ly a n d d e c i d e w h e t h e r y o u h ave t o l isten fo r a person's na me. and may it. 30 am . Claudia calls to find out when the London Eye is open. 4. 9 . suitcases c..M a ny l iste n i n g tasks focu s o n specific i nfo rmation.com FOR DETAIL . H. hears the fol lowing announcements. 00 pm b. 9 . 3. on the Underground. H • . 5.8 .. 3 0 a.9 . 1 0 . The next train will come in H • . 1 . 363 c. skateboards b.00 am . There is nowhere where you can .. Listen to the recorded i nformation and answer the questions. a price. 1 .londoneye. 3 64 a. 00 am . Read the advert below. For m o re i nformation: Customer Services 870-990-8883 or http ://www. midday c... 1 0 . late afternoon 1.. Service on the line is delayed. How much is a single ticket if you don't want to 2. 3. 4. etc. a time. 00 pm c. 50 minutes Which of the following items is not prohibited on the London Eye? a. Listen to the second part of the recording and answer the questions. LISTEN 3. baby buggies When are there long queues at the London Eye? a...� SKILLS -----= LISTENING G RECORDED MESSAGES 1 . What is meant by a different perspective? Book a fl i g ht on the Lo n d o n Eye See Lo n d o n from a d ifferent perspective.

n'1 • • •u ' 2.30 20. ..U nit 7 SPEAKING BUYING A TRAIN TICKET 1. . . i n the morning.. but not too early. ? Do you know if .. ? Can you h e l p me. \ The trains to Berlin leave every 2 to 3 hours. Steve is i n Amsterdam and wants to go to Berlin. Student A is the railway representative. . make up logical answers to these questions.. please.. Which of the questions below would Steve ask? Which questions would the railway representative ask? May I help you? H ow l o n g is t h e j o u rney? Wou l d yo u l i ke a ret u rn or a s i n g l e t i cket? What t i m e d oes the tra i n l eave? Do I h ave to book i n adva nce? Where do I g et the tra i n ? H ow m u ch is a ti cket? What t i m e d o you want to l eave? W i l l t h at be fi rst or second class? W h e n 's t h e n ext tra i n after that? How often d o the tra i n s l eave? 3. ? Yes. . using the details below. and . NR: Steve: NR: Steve: 1· .. ask for and give information • • • • • • about taking the train from Geneva to Rome. . Use the questions in Exercise 1 . . Look at the questions on the list in Exercise 1 that were not used in the dialogue. student B is the customer. ? About 6 Yz to 7 hours. Arriving at 1 6:30 1 8.. 4· •••••. He cal ls Netherland Railways to ask for information. OK .. • N R: Steve: NR: Steve: Netherland Railways. With a partner. depending on the trai n . please? rf:. use the fol lowing expressions: I'd l i ke to know when . ? The Berlin train leaves from Amsterdam Central Station. 4. I'd l i ke to get from Amsterdam to Berlin. With a partner.. page 1 32 85 ..30 09:12 • 09:01 . 2· . Complete the dialogue with the correct 21 :36 FARES Single First class Second class questions from the list a bove. ? ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING Oh. Return €190 € 1 30 €285 €195 3· .. Unit 7 · Pronunciation Practice. . .••••. 5. Can you tell me whether .. GEnEVA STATIOn Departure time Cl:Cl • • • • ROmE TERrn:nAt. Burlington Speech Trainer. ? When you're asking for information.

We' l l have a fa ntastic t i m e ! I can't wa it to hear what you decide. that. I n which paragraph of the e-mail does the writer . Angela 2. What does Angela want her friend to do? How does she try to convince her? NI::L 8 Hi Carla. 6. lt will be very enjoyable. Who/What does each of them refer to? . that mean the same as the following more formal expressions.(t. Wel l . I f w e don't feel l i ke g o i n g with them.W h e n writing an e . The d e mo nstrative pro n o u n s this. 86 Dear .. . What words or phrases does Angela use for the fol lowing . My p a rents a re g o i n g t o h i re a c a r a n d g o sig htseeing a l l over Tusca ny. Pro n o u n s a n d possessive determ i n e rs a re used to refer to people.m a i l o r l etter to a fri e n d . find informal expressions 1. I REFERENCIN� 4. ? 1 . Yo u ' l l only have to pay for yo u r p l a n e fare because my pa rents have boo ked a v i l l a and t h e re's p l e nty of space! We' l l be stay i n g i n San V i n cenzo for two weeks. Write soo n ! Love.. ideas o r a ctions. . ? 1. we ca n spend the day at the beach · • - ( i t 's five m i n utes from the v i l l a ! ) or exploring the v i l lage nea rby. 4. i t's a ccepta b l e to use i nfo r m a l p u n ctuation a n d expressions. 3. f U s i n g p ron ou ns a n d possessive determ i ne rs can p reven t u n n ecessa ry repetition a n d m a ke you r w riti n g flow smooth ly. explain her purpose for writing give details and information 3. . How a re t h i n g s ? I haven't heard from yo u i n a w h i l e ! I'm writing because I 've had a g reat idea. Kind regards. situation s. I would like to invite you to join us. 5. 2. Please reply as soon as possible. I told you that my fa m i ly i s going o n h o l iday � to Tuscany t h i s s u m mer. objects. Read the e-mail below. 7. WRITING An e-mail 1 . 4. it'll be boring for m e a l o ne with my pa rents... and besid es. signing off I N FO R M A L LA N G UAG E . these a n d those a re used to refer to people. Are you and your family well? lt has been a long time since you last wrote. 8. In the model e-mail. Look at the words in bold in the model. make opening remarks make closing remarks 3. greeting 2 . 5. I look forward to hearing from you. w h y d o n ' t y o u c o m e w i t h us? I k n o w you 've never been a b road before. objects. 2. ideas or action s.

... . We've booked a room in the city centre for two nights. phone number? " " Alan has forgotten his passport! " "Well. 2. .. . 3. 1 57 ... Organ ise your ideas. .... photographer. The director. . 3.. had no trouble getting close to . ti!M \ Writing Guide. Give information. • Which of the sentences below could you use for planning a trip? Which could you use to describe a trip you have already taken? 6.. .. ... l t refers t o both s i n g u l a r a n d p l u ra l possessions... .. . march on ....000 Emperor Penguins filmed as . news and details.don't be late ! We had a fantastic time. but . words with pronouns where there is unnecessary repetition. March of the Penguins 1.. 2· 4· 3· 6· 7· 8· March of the Penguins 3.. Write a first draft. 're great... X Your Task • Write an e-mail to a friend a bout a hol iday you have taken or are planning to ta e. I've spoken with Katie... . ..... " /I - 7. Improve the fol lowing sentences by replacing 1../ I followed the.. " " I met a fabulous girl at the youth hostel. . I've found some really cheap tickets ! We haven't arranged accommodation yet. • Decide who you are going to write to and what your destination was I will be.. ..remi"!3 e-orrutly.. . WRITING YOUR E-MAIL 1 ... Can you tell me which office is Ms Croft's? Where is Edward? I don't know. Complete the dialogues with the correct pronouns or possessive determiners..... We hired bicycles and drove around the villages. 2. way.. and for Jer6me Maison. CHECKLIST o . .. . annual j ourney across the Antarctic ice in order to breed. Should we get tickets for the concert? Yes. 00 am .. .. French biologist Luc Jacquet. "These souvenir pens are really expensive. can tell "Why are those children crying?" " I think . was his main motive for creating this incredible documentary..... ... may have lost . " Yes../ I �ed rife. I haven't seen Edward all day. G reeting..plti!vt. These tickets are theirs... Everyone will love . was stupid ! Now they won't let ... .. 1.il1j rWUfl e--WUfil../ NOT Sean and Katie have booked theirs tickets for the London Eye...U n it 7 Theirs is a possessive pronoun for the third person p l u ra l . wildlife.. 5... and wanted to share his impressions with the world.. Then write a final draft. on the plane.for tl!vt... but the climate was a great challenge for 5· .... .. ...vt-C-tUAtLO VI-.... . ... 4. ....WUfr. . I'd like to see Ms Croft. Complete the passage with suitable pronouns or possessive determiners. Make opening remarks and state your reason for writing. PLAN Open i n g : Body: C l os i n g : ' 8.I'm sure .. " " Did .ed _Jrtl!wt. This ticket is theirs.. .. . . How could you forget your sunglasses? You'll need your sunglasses at the beach... Use 1 00-1 50 words. Use the model on page 86 and the plan below to help you. because they are not afraid of humans. 5.. give you . .... getting tickets would be lovely.. spent 1 3 months in Antarctica following the penguins.... . spe-lli'13 pU.../ I e-he-C-k. . ... 4. Departure time is 9 . Katie has booked a flight for 1 8th December. i t's not the p l u ra l form of the possessive d eterm i ner their. Brainstorm your e-mail. . 4.. ! " " How will we find a metro station ? " " Let's ask this man .. Use the checklist to check your work. Jacquet is fascinated by Antarctica and . lt was the best I worst h_oliday I've ever had ! Do you want to go sightseeing every day? Our flight was delayed and our luggage didn't arrive! 2... Make closing remarks and sign off. is about a group of 6...

. choose another hostel from the adverts a bove. ... . . Private . . Which of the fol lowing do they d i scuss? 3. Address: Street .. per n ight mm m . . .. ... You a re p l a n n i n g to go to E d i n burgh and a re looking for a p l ace to stay. ..30 am1 0. . Country . Student B is the hostel receptionist. . . Number of Guests: . .. Departure / . .90 Self-catering kitchens Free Internet access i n a l l rooms Lockers in rooms Games room with pool table \ M i n i-supermarket and DVD in common room • TASK QUESTIONS 1.:J . . . Which hostel d i d J ake phone? � 4.. . 6 beds .. . Then choose a nother hostel and switch ro les. First name . . .. B . . 4. . C ity . Listen again and fi l l in J ake's i nformation on the hostel booki n g form be low. 8 beds .. What a re some s i m i l arities a nd d ifferences between the hostel s advertised above? � 2.. .. . . m B o o k i ng Record mm / mm /. . .. Student A ca l l s the hostel to ask for i nfo rmation and make a reservation. / / . .:!:.. . . room type bathrooms 5. Listen to the conversati o n . Breakfast £ 1 . Expiry date: Credit card: Type Number: . . . . Mixed .ommon room w1th p lasma 1V nd frE>e Internet dCC ss B reakfast served 7.. .. . sal . 6. S u p rbly locat d right on Edinburgh's historic Royal M i l e ' F u l l y equt pped <. Female Rate: per bed.. . room rates Jake calls one of the hostels. Read the I nternet adverts a n d answer the Task Questions below. Dates: Arrival . breakfast kitchen 7. location 2 ..elf-catering kitchens C. . /..90! Restau ra nt Luggage storage TV Towels and hairdryers for hire Lockers i n rooms In our hostel 's fun atmosphere... . . 8. . cheap Internet access Secure lockers in common room Self-catering kitchens Beautiful rooms in a h istoric Our hostel is the p lace £>veryone want<. . .l Hotels Edinburgh Hostel Host I Royale Lothian Hostel building. 1. Dormitory: ..SKILLS • BOO KI N G A R O O M You a re going to practise booki n g a place i n a youth hostel . j ust 1 5 m i n utes' wa lk from the fa mous Royal Mile and Edi nbu rgh Castle. relaxed and friendly. Male .30 am for only £ 1 . lockers Internet 3. . to stay at. m • USE YOUR SKILLS With a partner. Comfortable... Room type: . Name: Surname . you ' l l meet other adventurous travel lers j ust l i ke you ! Qu iet area. Just five m i n utes' wa lk from the bus station Free breakf s included in room at price Fast.

. \ 2. I will ne1•er let someone else copy my work. .Unit O bjectives • • • • • • * H o nesty The Passive The C a u s<l l ivr List e n i n g ro a R a d i o I n terviel\ - Agreeing a n d D i s a greeing Wri t i n g an O p i n i o n Essay L i fe S k i l l s : U n derst a n d i n g Ad verts Honesty 1. would you vote for it? Why or why not? WEB EXTRA • Find out more about uni ersities in the United States at: � !l'll'll'. • I will net•er cheat in an exam. burll ngtonbooks. I I I ' • I �I \ .es/ulewpo! nts 1 .) l lonour Code I promise that. Read part of the code from one high school: · ·. In the United States. I will never steal. Which of the points in the honour code do you agree I disagree with? • If your headteacher wanted a similar honour code at your school. students at some high schools and universities must sign an honour code. • I • • • I will tell a teacher i / see a f student cheating or stealing.

2. . thing (paragraph 2) �A� 2 . . . � (!11. a. . .tteJ. it got attention in the world's media 3. react (paragraph 5 ) t-tJ)j. people reacted to the poster of eyes because .J... Word Check: The following words appear in the text. people -1. . 4. Make sure you know what they mean. they realised that it's wrong to be dishonest 2 . to tell an amusing story about an experiment <0 to give i nformation about an experiment and its implications d. to persuade people to behave more honestly b. es/l'ieu•points I . The experiment was important because . . they wanted to be seen as good people d. . ..) • Do you think that the police in your area should try using posters l i ke the Newcastle police? Why or why not? Th e a verage person i n London i s photograp h ed app roxim a tely 3 0 0 times a day o n CCTV. occur (paragraph 7 ) 1. People paid for their drinks less often when . 5. a.J. to p ers u a d e (op i n io n essays a n d e d i tori a l s) a n d to d escribe (descri ptions of even ts. Read the text. The writer feels that people wi ) l be more honest . to e n te rta i n ( n a rratives).�READING 1 . . . reports). Wi-A d. fo r e xa m p l e : to i nfo rm ( news a rticl es. it was very realistic � they were afraid of being caught c. almost (paragraph 3) ·"""'-� 3 . ® it showed how people's behaviour can be influenced b. . people will help us if . ::JYW'"'. 3 . 5 .. Find words or phrases in the text that mean: In order to pa v for their drinks. guarantee (paragraph 4) r��"" 4.. warn drivers there are speed cameras c.rM ·I -F� fhQA. p l a ces or people)... According to Melissa Bateson.. . l e� 2. 1. have been used in other areas as well d. in the office O. What is the author's purpose? Accord ing to Melissa Bateson. rSJ have had an effect on crime figures b... pJ"utN"U.. Complete the sentences. The Newcastle police posters . . the office now had enough money for drinks c. the text. .burli 11gtollbooks. Find out more about honesty boxes at: www. were put up as a result of the university's research 1.. . Choose the best answer according to watchful evolved speed cameras • • AUTHOR'S PURPOSE An a ut h o r w rites fo r d ifferent reasons. it showed how people behaved i n the time of the cavemen d. to describe the details of the way an experiment was done 3. ·p "\\ � . 4. ..

The researchers placed a poster above the m ugs.on the roads. when people began to real ise that 30 ensure survival than l iving alone.U n it 8 is the best policy. Newcastle Police poster False friends policy (line 1) means politico not policia conducted (line 7) means realizado not conducido crime ( l i n e 55) means delincuencia not crimen figure ( l i n e 59) means data. Today. for i nstance. would be tempted to take by putting money i nto a tin. between an i mage of flowers and various i m ages of watchful eyes. then it's-definitely a good idea! of getting caught. 4 5 attention . The conclusion? People behave better when they think they're being watched . According to 35 we behave better. when we t h i n k we're being watched operative and behave the same way towards us when we need help. This meant \ co-operating in groups was a better way to that people seen as co-operative types enjoyed good reputations and were l i kely to be treated wel l . The results were astounding. But if all it takes is a poster to get th�m to make the right choice.es on criminals. they have put up posters of watchful eyes with the slogan . the behavioural biolog ist who ran the 55 combat crime. The same is true today. Anyone in this that the same principle could be appl ied to other situations as well . road signs warni n g drivers of speed cameras often show a picture of a 50 camera. According to the results of a recent 5 picture of someone watching us is enough to But why do we have this reaction when we 40 " Eyes and faces send a strong biolog ical signal know the eyes aren't real? Bateson says. w e are sometimes n o t a s honest as we should be.even in a picture. Eng land . showing the ·5 they alternated the posters weekly. crime figu res to see whether the posters have it's a pity that people are n 't honest all the 25 experiment. Over a ten-week period. The experiment was conducted at an office that we have evolved to respond to. it's not j ust because we're afraid t i me. This idea has actually been applied by the Newcastle police in a new technique to a free dri n k because no one would know who had paid and who had n 't. switching price of each item. And according to Melissa Bateson . of course. But now we know that we're much more l i kely to react if we see a picture of eyes or a face. so people see us as co­ Bateson. even a make us change our ways. "We've got our ey." In other words. study at Newcastle U n iversity. In rough areas where crimes 20 dri n ks during the weeks when the posters tend to take place. but as we a l l know." They' l l be checking 60 an effect. whether or not someone's watch i n g . cifra not figura . Workers had paid nearly three times more for their had photographs of eyes. This reaction dates back to the days of the cavemen. our brains are programmed to respond to eyes and faces . People were excited by the possi bil ity The experiment got worldwide media where staff paid for their own tea and coffee ·o situation .

JU-r(f . . . ��� � _ ��. . ._ Grammar Appendix. The new girl seems so lo � y. . Complete the passage with the words and phrases below. . �rogress. . .i. 4. . . b u t this c h a n g es t h e i r meaning. . . �. � � � . L I A R S . . . . . They say thpt 5. 4. He's lost hisjob. . ..details. The fol lowing sentences do not make sense. WA T C H O U T ! Do you feel that other people are often dishonest? If you do. but the true bN:Yi n is much larger. . ... . . 1. Use the list on page 1 43 to help you. Some a djectives ca n take only one prepositio n . . . ![ The magician did some rou g h tricks. 3. . S p o rts events I Tea t a k e p l a ce . . . Then listen and check your answers. . (regret] I'm sorry for Bob. � 5. . . � ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONS M a ny a dj ectives i n E n g li sh a re fo l l owed by prepositions. . o.\ . s � includes at school <"M-. You'll have to The teacher isn't �\<#o u work harder. . . �r a rt1sti'rfalent. His flat is cheap.. l i ke l y • it's a p ity • b e have • e n s u re tend to • c h oice • s i g n a ls 1 28 1 4. 3. .. . .tJ. . . . . . . .when they are lying. . Pay attention to the words in colour � � meet i n g s 1 . . . . . but if you think that someone is trying to trick you. page � \ � 2. . . . 1.. Complete the sentences with adjectives and prepositions from Exercise 4. Make as many combinations of adjectives in I and prepositions in 11 as you can. The staff of a h os p i t a l J. � � Paul is�6fre. .Ptr �e. . 8. . . liars are •· k�< to use a certain type of body language and facial expression. 7. . . . . WeJ till have a lot to learn about the human fig Jre . S Which poster are yowoing to cond u ct ? The scientists will p u¥'-u p an experiment.rare !)) t e m pted to � � J People " lA_ � m. . 6. . . . . . . . 3. . . sa� s Lieberman. 5. . . 1. . Use each adjective once. . . . .::I\. � x '\ r le of a worldwide rest a u ra nt � --------. 2. Choose an option and complete each sentence. . . . • Words from the Text 2. . .. We all feel �her. you'll want to read Never Be Lied To Again..(. Even their f words may be different from someone who is telling the truth. it may be just what you need ! sorry \ proud t si milar 1 good ' I worried S pleased � late � i nterestedS I at � of < with b in �( about1 b � to P 1 6 for ·L 9I / 11 � . 3. . . Only students who are very basketball will be chosen for the team. . clot h i n 2. . . t t� af books like this are necessary at all. .b- 5. �K. . . .000 demonstrators came. Lieberrnan claims that reading his book will 6�hat you ' ll never be fooled by anyone again. . .. Just tell me the main idea. 4. I'm not ��the -J . . In this book: psychologist David Lieberman describes � that will help you if you suspect someone is lying. . . I'm sorry about the mess. (sympathy) . . People.. . The a rtist's st)(le of nting is � �n+e-ogh's . but it's in the asto u n d i ng part of town . . . . . 'o. 6. . Make them logical by replacing each word in colour with a word i n colour from a different sentence. �are oft e n I . . . . . For example. . alter the way they . . � . oth e rs ca n h a ve severa l prepositions. .�e should have arrived s r you this rning' � : Jane has always been � . . . .� VO CABULARY .

..P�. a price that i s too high b. He caused an accident. 6. You can be completely fra n k I g u i lty . 3.. . I'd . 2.. If I saw a friend shoplifting. . b.. . a. a.l.U n it 8 T<?.. saw someone doing something wrong 6. 1. I made a mistake.... 4.. He g ot i nto trou b l e I got away w i t h it . a habit of stealing c.. .. Then listen and check your answers. 5. When I ' m under pressure.c. b. 11 hundred euros for that shirt? What a ri p-off ! Don't leave money here.. I'm sure he'll return our money. 1. a.Y9. things. a. 2.. She returned it as soon as she found it. was riding her bicycle when a young man on a motorcycle grabbed her purse and rode off. . Several students c heated in the exam. Choose the logical continuation for each G 5. The driver g ot ca u g ht going through a red light.. but they c a u g h t 2. The police saw him doing it. " He didn't reply. 5. I can't help being the way I am. she found her purse with 2. They knew the material well . They copied the answers from their friends. I know you love another woman. Everything you've said is untrue. You're a The Repentant Thief Pan Aiying. 2. Choose the correct answer.. .. I trust h i m completely.h a n d e d . She told her friend a w h ite l i e . a .�. b. 6 · now had her mob1le phone. 6. 5.... Pan gave up. Keep the money . I once got into trouble when I think it's a pity that . He tried to steal the jewellery. a teacher in Shandong. 1. I 1. Write sentences using the words you did not choose in Exercise 2..Y. 4. She dec1ded to go to the police so that the man wouldn't everything m it! Attached was this note: " Dear Pan: I'm sorry. . . But as she was leaving her flat. After sending 21 messages with no response. I'll and \ Please tell me your real opinion. I can always trust .... I ' l l stop lying and cheating. IDIOMS Match the idioms in colour i n I to their correct meanings in 1 1 . 4. but said she didn't know where they were... Don't believe a word he says ! I promise I' ll change my ways . a. She sa1d that she d1d not want h1m to .. Smce the an SMS: "You must be going through a difficult time. . Many people b l a m e I a d m it the government for the rise in crime.. . Why have you d eceive d I s u spected me? The man was caught p l a g i a ri s i n g I s h o p l ift i n g three pairs of shoes..!. . Pay attention to the words in colour.... . She used the money to buy thi ngs. She was only asking him to h1s m1stake and be honest. b. Complete the text with the words and c h a n g e my ways g et i nto trouble • expressions below. She didn't like her friend's new shirt. The boy was caught throwing stones. 3.. h i m red . HONESTY 1 . Vocabulary Builder.. China. 3. pages 92-93 ..P. sticky fi n g e rs . A 3. ...(:}. but said it was pretty.c.s crime. I tend to One thing I'm proud of is . . blame • g et a way w i t h • sto l e • t h ief • a d m it sentence. .. l ia r I t h i ef ! You are so tolerant even though I be an honest person. . Make them true for you. . Your guest may have • Complete the sentences. She took her friend's CDs. so she sent another message. If so. " from you. a .but please return the other h.(:}.. b. Please forgive me. . b. The woman sto l e someone's wallet. 3. 4. she sent h im I will not you.

.. .. m o d al s a re fo l l owed by t h e i n fi n itive o f t h e verb to b e I t h e m a i n verb.... This experiment shows that psychology can use I can be used for practical purposes. The police posters ...._ Deberia ser cul pado el gobierno par el i ncremento de la d e l i n cuencia? en me ? .... Our brains are programmed o re . Read the exa mples and a n swer the q uestions...pond o faces b. The ban k .. .. 6. A_a9s ter!was placed above •re m ugs {pasr. the posters wi l l h e l p I w i l l be h e l ped police combat crime. W h i c h stresses t h e people t h a t d o t h e a ct i o n ? 2 . Wh i ch sentence stresses t h e action ? Researchers placed [g� bove the mugs.... a. 2 . Verbs w ith Two Objects Some sentences have got two o bj ects : They sh owed t h e res u l ts (di rect o bj ect) to t h e p u b l i c ( i n d i rect o bj ect) i t's m o re com m o n to use the i n d i rect o bj ect as t h e s u bj ect of a pass1ve s ente n ce 3. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs below. (less common) Th e pu blic was shown the results. The m a i n I past p artici p l e the te nse...ve) 1 .... I a u x i l i a ry verb i n d ·cates I a l ways 3 . . ( shou l d I put) to bed an hour ago ! . .. to tell the truth. b u t get is m ore i nfor m a l . 2.. I n the passive../ Should t h e go �ern nent be b1 med f the ri.... Use the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets..... Then choose the correct options to complete the rules below.. (repair).... I I ...e in or {Th ey didn 't p u t i t there themselves) They had a n honesty box p u t in th e canteen.. 3. 4.. n ot rob • teach • tear catch • publish • count 2 . Newborn babies react when they s h ow I pictures of faces. 1. Complete the sentences... 5. Choose the correct a nswer. (not find) the missing child yet The baby . .. 1. a re shown 1 . 4..... 5.. m e ? X 94 . 2. There i s n o d i ffe re n ce between have and get. Office staff who didn't pay for coffee were n ot 1. THE CAUSATIVE - I ' m going on the bus because my car .. ...... by the wind last night By the time the police arrived... No one spoke while the money ..... People behave be tter when they are being watched c. .. (send) yet? We use have I get + o bject + past p art i c i p l e w h e n we refer to a n action t h a t is d o n e for u s by som ebody e lse... . Beethoven . (common) Th e results were shown to the p ublic. the results ... Hopefully.. Read the exa mples... The m a i n verb is i n t h e base fo rm.. (actrVe) 2 . p u n i s h ed I d i d n ot p u n i s h ... e Se1eral pt•sters were chosen or " <> vn<>nn". The idea has been applied by the pou ·e d Th e principle could be applied to o ther �itua tions.. 5. the criminals .GRAMMAR THE PAS SIVE 1 .. . 4.se m cr.. 3.... The police .. C hildren should .. Identify the verb tense in each sentence.... 4. No one knew whether the staff h a d p a i d I h a d been p a i d for the coffee or not They felt as if they were watc h i n g I were be i ng watched by the eyes. (compose) beautifu l symphonies.. in next week's newspapers? 3. the invitations .. NOT Sh o u ·d be the government blamed for the r.. 2 .. since they got two more guards. 6.. Sente nces in the pass1ve somet i m es i nc l u d e by + a g e nt. r 1 ..

. Rewrite the sentences in the active. .. . The thief has not been arrested yet. s h e 9· .... . Read the headlines and write the first sentence of each article. T h e refo r e . who s h o u ted . I f s h e h ad n ' t b e e n h o n e st . Add details saying when.. 5. so I can 't work in the U K . .. . (been) I don't have European citizenship... ( n ot w i n ) t h e p r i z e ! .H •• • . ( l e ave) i n t h e pocket. 6... BOY HURT IN BIKE ACCIDENT 2. ( l oo k) fo r t h i s ! " H e a l y refu s e d to accept a n y m o n ey a s a reward fo r her h o n e sty.. . H H 3.. c s/l' i e w p o i n ts I 95 . your dress ..U n it 8 4... As s h e 1 .. 4. Omit the agent when possible.... U u st win) $ 1 0 . A large company has offered Tom a job. 3. . That n i g h t .... A 7 0-year-old boy was hurt in a btke accident yesterday afternoon.. . � 9. 7. s h e fo u n d a l a rge a m o u nt of m o n e y t h at 2 · ... Did a famous journalist write this article? Someone was following us. .. b u t s h e d i d accept a box o f c h ocolates t h at 7· . 2. Kat h l e e n H e a l y of M i n n e s ota. 5.... . 8.. 4. . PICASSO PAINTING STOLEN HISTORIC BUILDINGS TO BE DESTROYED HUNDREDS OF WORKERS FIRED NEW GOVERNMENT ELECTED Dave . (t ry) o n a p a i r ... (redo) tomorrow. .. (repai r) .. (if) E x t r a g r am m a r e x e r c i s e s a t : 11' 11' 11'. /i u r / i n g t o n b o o k s .. (check) at the garage last week? I can't talk now . That song was written by the Beatles. 2... Now he can ride to work. the oil and water ... 3. Complete the passage with the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets. 2. Are they going to warn residents about the storm? We shouldn't eat the cake before dinner.. (g ive) to h e r by the s h o p a s s i stant.. . 1. b u t s h e t h o u g ht t h at it 4 · . . Omit the agent when possible. s h e o p e n e d t h e box .. There are two ways to rewrite each sentence. 5. 6.. (unless) lt wasn't necessary for you to pay her.. The baby will be fed by the n u rse.... ........ my hair (cut). 5. Where ... . We should have told him the truth about h is brother... They didn't show us the new flat. (needn't) Are they arranging the furniture? (is) I didn't take a picture because I didn't bring my camera..... 1. s h e 5 · . Fans send the celebrity thousands of letters..... Fresh salads aren't sold at this supermarket.. 1. 3. 3...... 1. where or why... The workers could have finished the job yesterday.. Do not change the origi nal meaning... H e a l y rea l i s e d t h at she had bee n rewa rd ed fo r her h o n e s ty aft e r al l ... . I n s i d e s h e fo u n d a p i ece of p a p e r w h i c h s a i d ... 4. Is the new film going to be shown this week? These letters have to be signed by a lawyer... USA.. ( m ay 1 l o s e ) by s o m e o n e w h o really n e e d e d i t . 4. 5.. 4.. went to b u y j e a n s i n a l a r g e s h o p . . They gave each student two pens.. 00 0 ! " S u r p r i s e d a n d h a p py.... .I . 6. . Rewrite the sentences in the passive... . 5. They wil l tell only two people the secret.. 1 ... (go) s t ra i g h t to t h e s a l e s a s s i stant.. Grammar Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 0.. the kitchen . H ea l y 3 · (co u l d I keep) t h e m o ney. (make)? My parents .. you . My sister had organised the entire party. ... "A c u s t o m e r 6 · ... H . .. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets. 3. 5. Use at least four different passive tenses. "Cong rat u l at i o n s ! You \ 8 · . Use the causative. Rewrite the sentences in the passive. you . Then listen and check your answers.. 1. 2. 4. 2.. ... . his bike .. Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets.

Listen to the first part of a radio interview about the experiment and answer the questions. decide whether the fol lowing statements are true or false. 1. 4. Which of the two pie charts accurately shows the results for young people? Honest D ishonest • 1 90fo 3. Men were more honest than women. so he conducted an experi ment: he left 1 OD wallets i n different places around town and waited to see if people would return the m . oer people were the most honest.. What do you think? Were most of the people in the experiment honest or dishonest? 4.foundawallet. . 5. 3. wallett e s t . do you think age and gender affect honesty? . Listen to the second part of the i nterview 1 A B to see whether your prediction was correct. What experiment was conducted? www. 2.. I S e e P a u l ' s website at w w w .c � "-. 3. Why did Paul conduct this experiment? Where in Belleville d id he drop the wallets? What did he videotape? How long did he wait for people to return the wallets? Listen to the second part again. Paul was not surprised by the differences be ween men and women. Paul is optimistic about most people's honesty.:: SKILLS LISTENING � A RADIO INTERVIEW 1 . c o m 2.com Paul Kinsella of I l l i nois. 81 Ofo 2. Read the home page of the website below. rJ 440fo l 560fo rJ • From your own experience. was wondering how honest people are . 1. USA. ::::: e-aged people were the least honest. As you listen.

- - U n it 8 SPEAKING AGREEING AND DISAGREEING 1 . ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING When you want to g ive a reason for you r views and opinions. a rea l friend wou ld never copy from you in an exa m . 1 .. 4. but that doesn 't make it right. find three statements i n Exercise 1 that are not discussed in Exercise 2. A friend wou l d n 't want to get you i nto tro u b l e . I t h i n k y o u ' re r i g ht . � • . 2 . I bel i eve t h at it's wrong t o download m usic from the I nternet. I n my o p i n i o n . If you ask m e. 7. . Use the words in colour in Exercise 2 above.. The Because of th a t reason why . 5 . b . it's wrong to download m u sic from the I nternet. I 've heard that the money is used to fina nce i nternational crime. I d o n 't t h i n k that you should lie to you r pa rents. M usicians should be paid for their work. You shou l d n 't buy fake designer fashions. pa� 1 33 97 . T hat's t r u e. . As far as I ' m conce rn ed . Everyone does it. it's you rs. it's O K to do it without tel l i n g them. 2.. They only wa nt what's best for us. d . If you r pa rents won't l et you do somet h i n g . 8 . c . I n pairs. . If a shop assista nt g ives you too m uch change. I Stateme nts 11 Responses 1 . 4. If you find someone's wa l l et. e . t o copy i nformation from the I nternet. I d isag ree . You shou l d n 't be truthful if it will h u rt someone's fee l i ngs. it's not dishonest to copy i n exa ms. I a g r e e . 2. Form dialogues by matching each statement in I with a suitable response in 11. it's fine to b uy fake designer fashions. 3 . Then practise the dialogues with a partner. Teach ers should not accept work that has been copied from the I nternet. Take turns expressing your opinions and reacting to your partner's opinions.. 3. you should ret u rn it. 5. 6. u se the fol lowing expressions: That's why . Yo u've g ot a p o i t . OK a .-c"'Pronunciation Practitt. it's 3 . Read the following statements about honesty and decide whether you agree or disagree with each one.

. Y'v ( r... she can expl a i n the materia l .. CONNECTORS OF PURPOSE Con nectors of p u rpose i ntroduce the reason for a n action. The wa r n i n g signs a re there d rive fast . . buying fake designer fashion is not wrong.. . . . .. ... 7. . . 1f""• � J. Is the writer for or against buying fake fashions? I M ITATI O N D ESIG N ER FAS H I O N S . .. How do you say the 1. . page 4. . .. . . Complete the sentences with a connector � Writing Guide. . . Which one is negative? How is the negative formed? 4 . . .. . . .r' u lr-{r.. 98 _:tJ<>· We JI . . .... . I believe that the high price of designer fashions is not j u stified. The connector so that is fol l owed by a clause (su bject + verb + complement/s). In which paragraph/s of the essay does the writer . For example. . As I see it. of purpose. . .... .. . .. � Lh 4. ... T h e connectors in order to.... . .lj. .. .y \" .. . . They should simply enjoy it. O... -+ J.. . . Some people say that this is dishonest.PJJ. .. .. . . . . . . . . If the originals were not so expensive. . restate his I her opinion a n d sum up 1\ '-I 3.. . .Q. since the people who buy imitations could never afford the real thing. -W \ r ([ J l '-" � l . Read the sentences. . . ... . however.. we t ra me d f or wee k s . . . . so as to and to a re fol l owed by a verb. . and should be stoppe industry.. 1 . . .. . .... su pport his I her opinion with facts a n d exa mples � Find two connectors of purpose in the model.. .. people wi l l react. m a ke a noise. The teacher has asked us to stay after the l esson .P:. 1 . ..::: WRITING A. . . . 2. . .J r . . french. . ? 2 . introduce the topic 5. . . . . � harm the fashion First of all. . there would be no market $300 million in one year! These companies are n ' t losing customers.( en -. . . . . .. ._ '" 3 . . . fashion companies still make millions of dollars. . L·ers set the a la rm clock so t at we ' l l wa ke u p hl'l"'''"' on i me . a certain Louis Vuitton bag earned more than $600 t o manufacture a bag o r a pair of jeans. Read the opinion essay below. . . . .. Millions of consumers today buy imitation designer fashions i n order to look trendy. . . .. . I t doesn' t really cost for fakes . . 1 _r g �. . . . . There may be more than one possible answer... . . . . ... the matc h . hear the news . . _ . . . In my opinion. people won 't 1 49 2 They a re con d u c i n g a n experi men t o see how 5.. They tu rned up the vo l u me ... . .. .. ..IS = "' ' � ("'-' r T h e pol ice have put u p posters i n or d e r to e e �'""' � �< � Y"' (.. consumers shouldn ' t worry about whether it's right to buy imitation fashion.. · 3 . b e ·m goo d s h a pe f or .. .P: �. . . . . ... I n addition. ...(Jvt '11' 0. .. s o fashion companies make a huge profit . Ll Joh n is ta k i ng lessons so a to 1mpr ve ' . T e:-� connectors in your language? 2 .�-� -�Y . . . . \: '\_\ "'' ( . .. . . . . .. . 1 . fi rst state his I her op i n ion 2 3 . . . . ._ tl. . . .. . . Find two facts and two opinions in the model. . . . I ' l l turn off my mobile phone .

. . .. . • Look at the sentences below. .. who should be paid for their work . .Sed e-orre-C-t [({1113/A. .M usicians c a n make money b y sel l i n g their songs for games or ringtones. . . . . In a d d i t i o n I Even t h o u g h I N evert h e l ess. . people b u y fakes. .opimovt. . . . . Seve ral stude nts beca me i l l a s a res u lt of 4. Copy the chart into your notebook. .Downloa d i n g music doesn 't h u rt anyone./ I . .U n it 8 REVIEW OF CONNECTORS 8. .There a re now m a n y l e g a l sites for down load i n g songs for free. Contrast Cause • Write an opinion essay on the fol lowing statement: /t is dishonest to download music from the Internet. . . . . . PLAN O p e n i n g : State the topic a n d your o p i n i o n . 4. The shopl ifter had to retu r n what he had stolen. for t h is reason i n sp ite of 2 however 2 therefore S so that i n order to ':> 1 so as to ) i n addition so � b even though as we l l as 1 a l so 1 V{ 1 2_ '2 then � as '3 nevertheless Z beca use since finally on the one hand I on the oth er hand S b 3. I ' m trying to find the cat i n o rd e r t o I s o I s i n ce take it 6. .. .. or at a low price.. Brainstorm your essay. . . . Then write a final draft. Organise your ideas. Use 1 00-1 50 words. . . • Add your own ideas t o t h e list.C Ds cost too m u c h . . .C-k. . Complete the sentences with a logical ending. . · - Writing Guide. . 3 ..I'). .. . . . . . . The prices of designer sung lasses a re very h i g h . . . No one said a word so t h at I d u ri n g I beca use of the mea l . . 2. .. .tifj e for ex:prusi1113 f({e-ts ({11. .M ost pop s i ngers a re a l ready very ric h . . . . to the vet.. . . 2 . . Your Task . 3.Sed C-01-tftUtors. he tel l s terrible jokes. Use the model on page 98 and the plan below to help you. B o d y : S u p port you r o p i n i o n with facts a n d exam ples. 4. . .. H e speaks too loud ly.. Which could be used to support the statement above? Which could be used against it? . .us({y. . . Choose the correct answer. 2.Songs belong to musicia ns. . . . . .C{r. .Q(tiovt-. . . . • Decide whether you agree or disagree with the statement in the task./ I 5 . . . ..ed 3re1Wt. . .. I n addition.. . Use the checklist to check your work. . V�. . resu lt. . 9. . . .. . . . . For this reason. . H oweve r I F u rt h ermore I As a 3. .1. .£{' opimoVW". ./ I V�. .. . Different types of connectors are used to connect ideas and to show the relationship between these ideas. 5 . M o reover I C o n se q u e nt l y I F i n a l ly. . . . . We d i d n 't say a word so a s n ot to . . 1 0. . . WRITING YOUR OPINION ES SAY Addition 1\ ( J Result l( Purpose "" Sequence as a res u lt l con seq uently despite 2 at fi rst C although b I � furthermore beca use of S 1 as a res u lt of 3 S but ? moreover d u ring due to 1 . 1 .. Then write each connector in the correct category.vt-C-tt-(. . . . Write a first draft. We enjoyed o u r trip to Paris i n s p ite of . . ple1vt-for C{vt. M a ny people today do not get enough exercise. page 1 58 99 . C l o s i n g : Summa rise and restate yo u r opinion. . . 1 . . . CHECKLIST . .£i' pu. . . e-ltte. the teacher accepted it.1 I followed t/tte. . . 1 d i d n 't hand in my project on time. spelli1113 e111. 1 d i d n 't wi n a p rize in spite of I due to I a s w e l l as a l l m y h a rd work . .Yo u can get i nto trouble if you get caught downloa d i n g .

. Advert 4: You bought a n M P4 two weeks a g o a n d th rew away the box. Advert 6: You a re buying a CD for £5 and a DVD for £8.?< ---···· ···················· y o u r second item 40 % off 6. Z O % o ff 1\ � 1 . Advert 3: You a re buying g roceries at t h i s supermarket. What must you do to g et a d iscount? 2 sa\eH up to 50% off 3 r-------� Free g ift with every p u rchase over £ 1 00 D 0 2.SKILLS U N D E RSTA N D I N G ADVE RTS Shopping is a typical tourist activity a n d rea d i n g adverts is an i m porta nt part of shopp i n g . � =- • TAS K QUESTIONS for club mem bers only .-.. Wi l l you get a d iscou nt? -. I . Advert 2: What m ig ht su rprise you when you pay for your pu rch ases at t h i s shop? 3. Are you a critica l reader? Read each adve rt a n d answer the Task Questions to find out. Advert 5: You're b u y i n g a belt at this shop. ) 1 l 4. What condition is conta i ned i n each one? wol . What m ust y o u do t o g e t a free g i ft? 4 1 l . Look through magaz ines a n d newspapers a n d find at least two adve rts that i n cl u d e "sma l l print " . Can you ret u rn the M P4 to the shop? Why or why not? 5 5. How much w i l l you need to pay in tota l ? 7 . How m uch wi l l you pay? • USE YOUR SKillS The ru les or conditions that a ppear in m a ny adverts a re cal l ed "sm a l l print".:t' Sati sfact i o n g ua r a nteed o r y o u r m o n ey ba c k ! D d·L_ i n orig i na�ackage with in 7 days of pu rchase. Advert 1 : You want to buy jeans at this shop . N o w the M P4 isn't wor k i n g prope rly. Advert 7 : You ' re payi ng cash for a jacket that costs £ 1 00 .

People don't bel ieve f i l m promotions. 4 . * Li fe Ski l l s : Us i n g F n tr n a i n mcnt That's Entertainment! 1 . 2 . People see s o m a n y f i l m s that they no longer a ppreciate rea l ity. 3 .Unit O bjectives • * * • • hnen a i n m em R eponed Speech Listen i n g to F i l m R ev i e\Y'> M a k i n g P l am Writ i n g a F i l m R e v i e w G u i d e-. Rea l ity TV depicts real l ife. Match each cartoon to its message. Study the cartoons below.Jlt tJ J A FIL M otaTHe DE CADE SPECT CULAR A MAGNIFICENT BREATHTAKI NG � () IT WIU YOU� CH AN6E l-IFE FORE: • Do you agree with the messages i n the cartoons a bove? Why or why not? W E B EXTRA Find out about film museums in Britain at: li' WU•. but it's not very creative or exciti n g . es/uiewpoiiiTS I . Beca u se of TV. burlingtollbooks. 1 . we hard l y ever d iscuss o u r own l ives or thoug hts. @J COLOSSAL CAST1�f �r�Nl>S �� Et v Awl.

the year Big Brother began 2 . C a n d idates thought they were see i n g pla net Earth t h ro u g h the spacecraft's windows. How d i d the contestants find out about the hoax? 4 . a description of a n unusual B ritish TV show 2 . Find words or phrases in the text that mean: REVIEW OF READING STRATEGIES 2. deceived. 6. social ised (paragraph 1 ) 3 . Make sure you know what they mean. The writer feels that . . 1 . 1 . Look at the words in colour and try to guess the meaning of each one. fooled (paragraph 7) 5. 3. the amount of prize money given to the fi nal ists 2. Prod u cers had expected the hoax to work perfectly. 4 . the reaction of the contestants to the hoax 4. the prizes g ive n to the contestants were too generous c . spacecraft • cockpit • hoax the prog ra m me? 5 . The spacecraft did n ot leave the g ro u n d . . the contestants should not complain about the hoax d . age. Are the following statements true or false? Find evidence in the text to support your answers. How did the prod u cers make the base seem l i ke Sta r C ity? 3 . Word Check: The fol lowing words appear 7 . . The partici pa nts i n the fi rst Big Brother were u naware of the i m porta nce of their progra m m e . the hoax should not have been shown because it was cruel b . 5 . Read the text. In what way has television changed since 1 999? 2. 6. In which paragraph do you think you'll find the fol lowing? information: 1 . Some p a rticip a n ts o n reality TV shows h a ve become i n tern a tional celebrities. a . no longer i n use (paragraph 3) 4. a description of the fi nalists' " space wa l k " 3 . Look at the title and the pictures. Why were the psycholog i ca l tests i m porta nt for in the text. What do you thi n k the text is about? 1 . Twelve contesta nts were chosen t o fly to outer space.-- --- c � � READING 1 . The contestants were taken to a t ra i n i ng base i n Russia. Scan the text and find the following 3. instead of (paragraph 4) 5.�----. Answer the questions. time period (paragraph 1 ) 3 . communicated. Choose the best answer according to the text. what Star C ity is and where it's located 1 . Read the first sentence of each paragraph. Keri Hassett was not a good candidate for the p rogra m m e 9. • Do you think it's acceptable for TV producers to trick people as they did in Why or why not? Space Cadets? 2 . H ow d i d the contestants feel after they were g iven the prize ? 8. .

all but four contestants had been kicked off the programme and it was time for the space flight. lt was the most elaborate hoax in television history. Little did they know that the experimental programme they were in would become an instant hit and begin a new era in television .U n it 9 5 In 1 999. but today viewers are used to the fact that reality TV takes up most broadcasting time. producers told the pilot to fly in circles over the North Sea for four hours before landing. The excited winners boarded a spacecraft taken from a Hollywood film set. one of the most remarkable was Britain's Space Cadets. To soften the blow. The base. the finalists were given prizes of £25. When presenters asked twenty-five­ year-old Keri Hassett if she was upset. She explained that space travel had always been her childhood dream . 3o 35 40 Fa lse friends instant (l i ne 4) means inmediato not instante facility (l i ne 9) means instalaci6n not facilidad . These were designed especially to pinpoint candidates who were very gullible and therefore likely to believe whatever they were told . nine Dutch volunteers took part in the TV reality programme Big Brother. Fake noises and vibrations accompanied the "take-off" . One reason may have been the psychological tests in the selection process. Was the hoax cruel? Perhaps. the contestants were taken to a disused military base in the south-east of England. Four among them would have the opportunity of a lifetime: to fly to outer space. instead . she admitted that she was heartbroken. Rather than Russia.000 each and a trip to the real Star City in Russia. complete with beautiful views of planet Earth. had been elaborately disguised as a Russian facility. Of all the reality shows. Despite this. the Russian training facility for cosmonauts near Moscow. In order to make the short flight seem long. the cockpit had digital screens which projected images of outer space. But anyone volunteering for a reality show knows that they may be in for some surprises. 10 15 20 25 Even the producers were surprised at how well the hoax had worked . where they were greeted by friends and family who told them that they had never really left England . it was hard for them to get used to the idea that they had been tricked. The twelve candidates selected for this programme were told that they were going to Star City. The participants left the craft one by one to step out into space. The high point of the five days in space was to be a spacewalk. Back then. they interacted under the gaze of live television cameras 24 hours a day. manned by actors. wall sockets and cigarettes. Moving to a house where they were cut off from the world. they stepped into a TV studio set. it's all part of the game. however. down to details such as Russian light bulbs. After two weeks of training. sitcoms and soap operas used to be the main form of TV entertainment. In place of windows.

O u r new teacher's a ccent is h a rd to understa nd. . They were sepa rated from their fa m i l ies d u r i n g the storm . You ' l l n eed a ladder i n order to 8 . I used to I was the piano. l t a lso d escribes somet h i n g th a t i s n o longer tru e.. . .. . . 4. . it was hard for them to g e t used to the idea... . ... . .. 7 . Complete the passage with the correct form of used to. . . . When I was you n g . ... 2 .. these new s hoes. . . . . Then listen and check your answers. . Sitcoms used to be very popular.. e. but I sti l l th. . . W h e n his g i rlfriend left h i m .. play outside more than they do . Choose the correct answer.. . . studios l ive TV. I was used to I g ot u sed to late n i g hts.from the. . • contestant • hoax • h i g h p o i nt cut off • p i n po i nt • rema rka b l e • take u p g reet Be used to means to be a cc usto med to somet h i n g .. S h e told u s about h i s a m a z i n g paintings. ... 3. . TV Every season. h . Henrik comes from Sweden. Replace the words in bold in each sentence with a word or words of similar meaning below. 5. used to play 6 . Complete the sentences with used to. 104 . . I c. � 2.. Which p a rt i c i pa nt won t h e game? Get used to means to become a ccustom ed to someth i n g. 4.. . . b u t we . No o n e recog n ised h i m 5 . 9 . .. . enjoy watching sitcoms and dr. 1. . . b e used to or get used to. The BBC o nce a n n o u nced that spaghetti g rows on trees. . c. The j udges d ecided to 4. . 4. d u ri n g his ch i l d hood . C h i l d ren . They served d r i n ks to the passengers 3 . lt's hard to i d e ntify exactly which people will be good for the job. .. .. . . g . f. . . but I wasn't tired . Text ..r . . 2. criticism.. My new flatmate is a bit stra nge. . .. . . . be better than it is now... i s n 't gett i n g used to hot weather. Pay attention to the words in colour. . I TV.. The c l i ma x of his career was the concert tou r he 8 . . . You can say whatever you want.. . He collected his luggage 5. se:: .. . l i ke vegetables. . 1 . . .. h e r.. be used to o r get used to. .. program mes with funny fam i lies. change the l ig ht b u l b . after the plane had l a nded . � 5. . USED TO I BE USED TO I GET USED TO . today.. 7 .. They a lways w e l c o m e their g uests wa rmly. professional actors on the screen. so he isn't used t o I 3 . clever detectives and creatu res from other planets. There was a l o t o f n o i s e from t h e street. . 2 . 2... ... not ordinary peo� suppose that eventua l ly I 5· ..... . . .. 6 . .. Used to d escribes repeated past a ctions that n o l on ge r occ u r. . My b rother . he was h e a rtbroken . He went to severa l d ifferent schools 11 a . . but now h e loves t h e m . it after a while.. produce = sti l l can't 4 ' fact that most progra m mes a re real ity shows. it's o n 1 .... People used to watch sitcoms every day.... . . Now. 4. I . 5. .. . . but it was a t r i c k . . . . There may be more than one correct answer. TV on - Has lt Seen B etter Days? 1 Yea rs ago. 3 . For each sentence beginning in I. 1 .. affirmative or negative.. find the best continuation in 11. lt was after m i d n i g ht. He packed all his t h i ngs in boxes 6 . I . . . . but I ' m sure you w i l l be used to I w i l l g et used to wea ring g lasses. .. .. but we a re used to I a re gett i n g used to it. . I hope I can .. gave i n 1 994.VO CABULARY Words. 1 . Vie wers are used to reality TV. . . .. . b.. it. It' l l take ti me. 1. page 1 30 3. . . I .. beca use he had d isgu i se d hi mself. before he moved . Grammar Appendix. 6· . . These tab l es use too much space. d . d i rectly after ta ke-off . . This progra mme isn't recorded.. . k i ck h i m off the progra m m e . . My feet h u rt . ...

PH RASAL VERBS Match each phrasal verb in colour in I to a correct defin ition in 11.. 3 . It was �. has got a pred icta b l e e n d i n g 5.. Then listen and check your answers... . one of the three T used to 5· . The last film I saw was set in . became an all-ti me tele\ i. The sou n dtrack of a fi l m is its dialogue.. 2 . Y9. perform i n g or orga n i s i n g b . Are the following statements true or false? on TV once a year. a l l the tickets a re sold c . 5 . 4. People lo ed the as well as the great 1 0· .���:r. 7 · . A d u l l fi l m is exciti ng to watc h . bur/i 11gto11books. . starts to be b roadcast e. 1 .. 3 0 ... . 8 . she r ali e_ how much she mL se heartwarming 9· 3. t in the cinema in 1 939 . U S A . . . box-office h it • soa p o pera • viewers seq u e l c h a n ne l • a u d i ence scree ned • tune i n • b r o a d c a st • s o u n d t ra ck • n etworks • p l ot • to broadcast • to screen • network • s itcom Ju t imagine that your favourite film i available. T i ckets t o Phantom of the Opera usually sel l o ut months i n advance. . .. . . y o u ' 1 1 h a \ e t o \\ a It till ne t year! Impos ible'? That'.. cha racter • viewers sta r r i n g • set in 1 . I was heartbroken when .<. is set i n an u n usual place 4.U n it 9 I. . . .. has got fa ntastic spec i a l effects which had . you felt was a l et-down 4. A review is written b y someone w h o has n ot 3 . Complete the passage with the words and phrases below. My favou rite sitcom used to be . 4... .. a fir. watch or l isten • Complete the sentences. The film Changeling g oes o n for over two hours..Y ENTERTAINMENT � 5. . pages 94.. :o if you mi . . 5. write the words below in two groups: words related to film and words related to TV. 3 . the leading 6 · .. .�<.. 6 m i l l i o n viewers t u n e i n t o the National Geogra p h i c channel each week . .�l.. . a ppea ls to c h i l d ren 3 .' i t ..•.. ... Suspe nsefu l films often have a lot of action.. 2 . · ..esll'iewpoi 11 1s 1 Vocabulary Builder. ongs that e eryone knew by heart. There\ no video or D\"D Correct the false statements. .9 5 . This fi lm. The cha racters a re the people in a f i l m .. However. . . Th e Wi z a rd of O z 1 • . . ••• •. and watch it together. 5 . conti n ues d . ... Our d rama club is p utt i n g o n a new show. Make them true fo r you.. sta rs you r favou rite actor I a ctress home. . . every year b) C B S .. . 1 . hich Wi::ard of 0-:: . ion favourite during the 1 960' . . I ' d l i ke to be a con testant on . Aro u n d 1 . childhood i n .• • .. fe I her life is tetTibly boring. 6. 4. the \\ a) it \\ a for mi llions of 2· . . .•• that isted at the time. A fi l m that is worth see i n g is probably a good fi l m . 11 a . . T h e cast o f a f i l m is its d i rector. 6. . when she is sudden!) transported to magical Oz by a tornado.. seen the f i l m .. Dorothy. T h e p l ot is the story o f what happens i n a f i l m ... The film is .• 2. 7 . 2 .. and families and neighbours Kan as.9P. I spent some I a l l of my 1 .. Write the name of a fil m or TV programme which: 1 .. My favou rite rea l i ty show c o m es o n at 5 . Watching it was a big event.. 2 . .. Find out about Wait Disney's life at: IL'WW. .>. who lo ed The \ Judy Garland. In your notebooks.

1 . For exa mple. Statements a n d Questions 1 . . a. " I ' l l come a n d see you next week. H i s sister com plained . I don't a d d 3 . these. 4. " they ordered us. The wa iter sa id that we wou l d s i t I co u l d s i t there . Choose the correct answer. In reported statements a n d q u estions. 1 . (reported speech) es. " declared G a ry. (direct speech) Kitty said that space travel had always been her dream. . Ronny told me. " I ' m leavi ng town tomorrow. b. . possessive determ i ne rs. " said m y g ra n d'. "Th ere was a good f i l m on C h a n nel 4 last n i g ht. . "How did it feel to be a victim of this hoax?" people wondered. J i m mentioned . suggest. mention. we t h e word tha t. I n reported statements a n d q u estio n s. " com p la i n ed Eve. a. 3 . G a ry declared that h e h a d l eft I was l e a v i n g town the next day. " Yo u ' re botheri ng m e with this awful music. " sa i d the The teacher sa i d that she wou l d show I w i l l s h ow us how to d o o u r project. . "You are going told •iJe 0 5tw .. They ordered us not to talk to anyone in the show. t i m e exp ressions a n d words su c h a s here. My parents complained that I watched too much TV 4.W h e n reporting what someone says. " the wa iter said. d. . warn. we b eg i n the re ported q u esti o n w ith the words if o r whether.( C3 GRAMMAR REPORTED SPEECH Read the exa m p l es a n d choose the correct options to com p l ete the r u l es. we use not to 3. Peorte wondered how it had felt to be a victim of that noax. Amy suggested watching I that we watch the new reality show "Let's watch the new reality show. Change the sentences to reported speech. " I saw your old friend Sally yesterday. teacher. c h a n g e I don't c h a n g e p ro n o u ns. I I don't before t h e m a i n ve rb. In addition to the verb tenses. " the producers told the pilot. 1 . T . Eve complai ned that she saw I had seen both of those fil ms. " claimed my father. In reported o rd e rs. each sentence in Exercise 1 above has got at least one more change. . (dJ tomorrow. REPORTI NG VERBS .: 6 . I n re ported statements. " I 've seen both o f these f i l ms. Find all the changes. " sa i d G race. order. . " they speec• ) 5. b. c. "Fly in circles. ca n I ca n 't be fol lowed by a g e r un d o r tha t + su bject + base form. " I must g o home early ton i g ht. . The cashier an nou nced . " the cash i er a n nou nced . " Ronny told me that there h a d b e e n I h a s b e e n a good f i l m on C ha n n e l 4 the n i g h t before . G ra ce sa i d . de hat they were going to Star Cty the next day. They asked Keri Hassett 1f she was upset. . this. complain. admit. "The tickets a re sold out. 2 . " You can sit here. 4 . Nathan sa i d . " I sometimes cheat i n exams. My father clai med that he d i d n 't watch I h a d n 't watche d rea l ity TV 2 . I n reported suggestions. 106 . 3. " I don't watch rea l ity TV. I n Yes/N o I W h . " I ' l l show you how to do you r project. (reported speech} c "Are you upset?" they asked Keri Hassett. the reportin g verb i nfi n itive. My grandfather informed us . " suggested Amy. we m ove I d o n 't m ove the verb back in t i m e w h e n t h e report i n g verb I S 1 n t h e past. " said h i s sister.q u esti ons. oc e . . explain. " Nathan admitted . " said Kitty. 5 . we ad d 6. 2. "Don 't talk to anyone in the show. "Space �rave has always been my dream. .. O rders a n d Suggestions 2 . we sh ou l d use re porting verbs that reflect the situation a n d the i ntention of the spea ker. 1 . we u se the Past S i m p l e 2 I n negative reported o rd e rs. " said J i m to h i s sister. The producers told the pilot to fly in circles. announce. 3.

He said (be) that he 4· a mobi l e phone salesman with no mone) and very l ittle confidence. . . 6. 1 . They've a l ready col lected a l l the i nformation. " You should go o n a diet . (whether) 2 . " My doctor i n sisted . enquired and wanted to know in some of your sentences. " Wh e n d i d the fi rst Shrek f i l m come out ? " we asked . . 4. had t•er. the audience went w ild: many had tears i n their eyes... " D id you watch that new prog ra m m e l ast n i g ht? " Jon asked . ( u n l ess) 5. H i s voice was magnificent! As he continued. " C a n you help me move these tables n ow7 " asked my teacher. . . 5.. .. cruel. . . �mddle-aged Paul Potts would v. Use the reporting verbs wondered. I n a recent interv iew. . How m a ny cand idates wi l l the j u dges accept? (by) 4. He has given concerts a l l over the world and sold over two m i l lion copies of his new C D. 4. PAUL POTTS . 6 . they admitted they ' . Change the following orders and suggestions to reported speech. " a n n ou n ced the l ittle g i rl . 2 . " Take this m ed i ci n e . 5 . THE N EW TALENT Who would hm e bel i�\ ed thJt -:hL.. 1 ... . Perhaps Anne m issed the tra i n .. . He tol d them that thi ngs 6 . 7 . b 11 r l i n g t o n b o o k s . " Kevin suggested . " Has Keira Knightley acted i n any fi l ms lately7 " I asked . " Be pol ite ! " M y mother warned me . 7. .. Rewrite the followi ng sentences using the words in brackets. " Why don't we h e l p Dad with the shoppi n g ? " M y brother suggested that . But then Paul began to sing and they were amazed. Then listen and check your answers. i nten iewers asked Paul (te l l ) them about himself. " Do you l ive in this neighbou rhood ? " the policeman asked me. " Where is she going to l ive next year7 " my parents asked .. 4. " H ow about g o i n g to Tu rkey for the s u m mer? " Dave suggested . . Change the questions to reported speech. ( be ) much better. " O u r teacher rem i n ded us . 5.. i n the rea. . . 3 . .. ( m i g ht) 3.I NOT The presenter asked Ken tf had the hoax been cruel.. After the show. (been) 6 . Do not change the original meaning. (that) Extra grammar exercises a t : 11' !1' 11' . .ge and tol d the judges that he ( sing 1 opera for them.bb� . There may be more than one correct answer. 3 . . H e ' l l do the job if we pay h i m . But that has all changed. . " My g i rlfriend advised h i m . . The preserJter askPd ken t t the hoa. Complete the passage with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 . . He explained that he 7 (quit) his job as a salesman and (can ) now devote his l ife enti rely to music. 2..U n it 9 El presentador le pregu nto a Keri si el engaiio ha bia sido cruel. . .Jt� T\ --ompetitiOn Britain 's Got Talent? \\ hen he came on t. reporters asked whether his financial ( improve) s ince situation ' w in ni ng. ( expect ) a total nop. " Don't forget the exa m tomorrow. " Don't swim here ! " The l ifeg uard ordered us . X � 6. "I celebrated my b i rthday yesterday. Grammar Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 . " Let's go to the cinema . cs /u i e w p o i 11 t s I . " Do you l i k e this k i n d of fi l m ? " his friend asked .

which of the following influences your decision? 1 . .. Listen and tick the points mentioned in each review. adverts a n d tra i lers 2.c � SKILLS LISTENING � . .. Recommendation 3. What has been omitted from each review? Review A Review B The D a rk Review C 1 . Compare your notes with a partner's. posters. viewers' comments on the I nternet 2 . Aud ience Appea l 5 . take notes of the positive and negative points in each film. The Acti ng 4.. When you decide on a film to see.. . . film reviews 4. You are going to hear three film reviews on the radio.... . . .. As you listen. Listen to the reviews again. .. FILM REVIEWS 1. friends' recom mendations 3.. . • Do you think that film critics have an effect on whether a film is successful? Why or why not? 108 .

. it's on at 7 . Which of the following do the speakers agree on immediately? What do they disagree about at first? 1 . 3 0 a n d 9. J i m Ca rrey is a lways f u n . When's it showi n g ? Let's see . I have a nother idea . . How a bout 9 . Kristen saw i t a n d she l oved it.. Unit 9 . I 've got a n exa m tomorrow a n d I 've rea l ly got to study.. Burlington Speech Trainer. Read the dialogue below. th at's a g ood i d e a ! I wou l d n 't m i nd see i n g that. that wou l d be f i n e . actual ly. what film to see 3 . . what day to go to the c i n ema 2. H ey. H ow a bout tomorrow n i g ht? D e r e k : Wel l . 2. What do you feel l i ke see i n g ? O h . I c a n 't m a k e it. Discuss the points below. . I know ! Why d o n 't we see The Eye? Dere k : T h e n w h a t d o you s u g gest? I ' m n ot rea l ly i nto horror f i l ms. I love N i cole Kid m a n . make plans for the weekend. I was going to . L a r ry: La rry: Derek: L a r ry: Derek: La rry: Derek: La rry: Dere k : Wel l . Use the expressions in colour in Exercise 1 .. .. F i n e . I'm not rea l ly i nterested in . D ivide them into three functions: • M a k i n g suggestions • Respo n d i n g to su ggestions • Expressing preferences 3.. 3 0 . I'm not keen on . . Derek.. what good films are o n 7 Oh. but . . S e e y o u then.00.. Let's see . • where to go I what to do • the day a n d t i m e who else to i nvite • ENRICH YOUR SPEAKING When you want to say "no" to a suggestion. what time to go L a r ry : Derek: La rry: H i . be tactfu l . I ' m dyi n g t o s e e A ustralia . Do you want to go to a fi l m ton ig ht! Sorry.Unit 9 SPEAKING MAKING PLANS 1 . Look at the expressions in colour i n the dialogue above. . Make sure you disagree on at least two points before you come to an agreement. I ' d rath e r see Yes Man . . Use the fol lowing expressions: I'd rather not . With your partner. 00 7 A l l r i g ht. She cou l d n 't stop ta l k i n g about it. n o ! You know I c a n 't sta n d h i storica l fi l ms . Let's meet at 8 .

7 . Despite its fa ults. with stereotyped characters a n d a pred ictable p lot. He fel l asleep severa l times d u r i n g he was trave l l i n g on the tra i n . positive a n d negative aspects of the fi l m 2 . This is an epic fil m which has everything . q u a l ity of the acting I special effects I p h otog ra p hy I soun dtrack WRITING REVIEW 3. who p lays the Aborigi n a l boy that Sarah fights to adopt. then correct the error.� WRITING A Film Review 1.h i story a n d racism. 5 . B oth K i d m a n and Jackman give b ri l liant performances. A film review can include any of the fol lowing. What positive things does the reviewer say about the film? What negative things does the reviewer say? A USTRALIA A u s tralia is a ro ma ntic. I ' d l i ke to try it o n . We're ta k i n g t h e bus s o t h a t t o save on petro l . Just sit back and relax for this l a rger-th a n . Set in World War 11. Match the error to the writing skill. A ustra lia i s a film w e l l w o rth seeing. You have learned the following writing skills in this book. O u r teacher gave to us the resu lts of the test. Each sentence contains one error. action. their relationship eventually changes from mutual dislike to p assion ate l ove. On the negative side. S h e got i n t h e car tu rned the key started the e n g i n e a n d d rove off. but the real star i s B ra ndon Waiters. My new job is more interesting than my old one despite the sa lary is lower. by Baz Luhrm a n n . com parison to oth er f i l m s by the same d i rector 7 . Which are included in the review above? In which paragraph are they mentioned? 1 . These trousers a re gorgeous. W 110 iti g Guiile. Read the film review below. descr i ption of the plot 4. 4. genera l recom men dations 3 . a n d D rover (Hugh Jackman). w a r a n d rom ance. what age the f i l m is suitable for 6 . A s they struggle to save the ra nch.l i fe experience. 3 . it tells the story 2. 6 . punctuation • con nectors of sequence • word o rd e r • adjective order con nectors of addition a n d contrast • connectors of cause a n d result • reference con nectors of p urpose 1 . type of f i l m 8. acti o n-adventure fil m di rected of Lady Sarah Ashley (Nicole K i d m a n) . a rough l o c al cattleman. I was d isa p poi nted d u e to I got a low mark for my essay. 8. as w e l l as beautifu l scenery. the film is very l o ng. Read sentences 1 -8. 2. a n aristocratic Englishwoman who i n h e rits an Austral i a n cattle ranch. pages 1 48-1 49 . names of the m a i n actors and d i rector 5 . The wom a n in the p i cture had blue beautiful eyes.

she was t h r i l led as a resu l t of her parents a n d teachers were very proud of her. correct word order �M riferevtei�Y words. the lead i n g actor/s a n d t h e sett i n g .Would you recommend the fi l m ? farther south . che-cked 3r�m�r.Who would this fi lm appea l to7 . Hermione.Did you enjoy the sou ndtrack? Were there any specia effects? .Is the film an adaptation of a book? . it was an i nsta nt h it. people have asked how s h e did so we l l i n her A-levels/ When she got her resu lts. Use 1 00.Is the plot interesting and exciting. E m m a Wa tso n p lays the voice o f Princess Pea in The Tale o f Despereaux. Therefore. spelli�Y �M puvtehwrtio Jll. ( i n the end) in brackets. Do not change the original meaning of the sentences. 4.U n it 9 4. or boring a nd pred ictable? . CHECKLIST . it's got 6. (Nevertheless) 5. 2. TOP MARKS FOR H E R M I O N E Everyone knows that Ha rry Potter's good friend. Rewrite the following sentences using the words Your Task • Write a review of a film you have seen. The news is that Emma Watson. she only went to school once a wee k. I ' m g1ving you a p resent. 2 .Is the acting good? How good are the actors compa red with other roles they have played7 . (also) 5. aspects of the fi l m . WRITING YOUR REVIEW 1 .Utors �M time words correctly. is a n extremely clever student as wel l . pl�JII. (th e i r) 4. Use the model on page 1 1 0 and the plan below to help you. desp ite the fact that she certa i n ly does n 't need to study for to have a ca reer. M ost of the time her boyfriend is too t i red to go out. Descri be t h e plot. Spain is much warmer than E n g l a n d because it's 1 . • Think of a film you have seen and what you liked I didn't l i ke about it.1 50 words. Brainstorm your review. PLAN Ope n i ng : State the name of the f i l m . Pl ease ask Bob a n d Joe if t h is CD belongs to them . A d i rector fina l ly n oticed her a cting ta lent a n d gave 3 .What type of fi lm is it? . You r flat is b i gger than o u rs . COJ��. What's amazing is that she has often been u na ble to attend school f u l l-ti me because her acting career. (due to) her a role. Despite the fact that it's not you r b i rt h day./ I the. • Think about the following questions: . D u ri n g she was i n h e r last yea r at school.���. Find eight errors in the passage and correct them. (so as to) 7. Use the checklist to check your work. for � film review. Now 1 8 yea rs old./ I used . the d i rector. for exa m p l e. In addition./ I followed . Then write a final draft. the B ritish you n g actress who plays Hermione. . 3. (often) 8 . B ody: G ive you r opinion on va rious C l o s i n g : G ive a general recom mendation. Organise your ideas. The f i l m h ad a fa ntastic cast.. is very clever and knows a lways the a n swers to q u estions about magic. Write a first draft./ I used . � v�riety of �djutives./ I used . the m a i n cha racters.Does the fi l m deal with any i m porta nt issues? . the type of fi l m . Listen caref u l l y so that you ' l l remember her d i rections. E m m a is determined to conti n u e h is education. (Conseq uently) m o re l i g h t .What adjectives could describe the fi l m 7 .

.. Midtown • 57 St/7 Av 57 St .. Only the finest ingred ients Sti l l fresh and delicious after 1 00 years 1 e 28 St • • 28 St • 23 St 32 Spring St. 1 .. U se a m a p to p l a n your su bway route from the Jazz H oste l .. the story and the music of MAMMA M I A ! Great performances together with the magic of ABBA"s songs.l1t'l - SKILLS • U S I N G E NTE RTAI N M E NT G U I D E S You a re goi n g to use a n enterta i n ment g u i de to p l a n a day i n New York City (NYC). s :e 1 5... Look at the adverts and m a p and answer the Task Q uestions below.. near M ulberry Street I aly 14 SI B PHANTOM OF THE OPERA Now celebrating 20 years as Broadway's Most Haunt1ng Love Story The lon gest-ru n n i n g musical in Broadway h i story a n d an international phenomenon... How many d ifferent l i nes a re shown on the map? 8 from a NYC E nterta i n ment G u ide a n d decide which show you'd rather see... Wh ich is the closest stati o n ? • USE YOUR SKILLS Use t h e I nternet to find a tourist site that you wou l d l i ke to visit in New York City.. You'd l i ke to see a musica l . Winter Garden Theatre 1 634 B roadway. You a re staying at the Jazz Hostel . corner 50th St a round t h e world have fallen Over 32 m i l l i o n people a l l � � ...-. 5 AV/59 st .. --· 23 St • . Then use the map to find the best su bway route from your show.---.... St . Look at the su bway l i nes i n colour. The Majestic Theatre 247 West 44th Street • Houston St • in New York City! Authentic food G reat service Low prices 1 7 Matt St. Find it on the map.. Then use the m a p to find the best su bway route there from you r hoste l . . 42 St Bryant --· Pk • Grand Central 42 St x <!> e 33 St QUEENS MIDTOWN TUNNEl V America's first pizzeria s..� W A V OUEENSBORO 8RIO Eati n g Out L O M BA R D I ' S 34 St • Penn 34 St • !!>Station Herald Sq 28 St 23 St • • 1 e 1 8 St re'?� 14 SI .: cle •· • A Live Shows "'' ' • MAMMA i n love with the cha racters. . Which is the closest station to the show? 2. .. . You ' d l i ke to g o out to eat after the show. Look at adverts C a n d D and decide where you'd rather eat. Look at adverts A a n d 4.. near Mosco St Canal St • C matow • TASK QUESTIONS .59 St ' Lexington Av/59 SI T 0A I. Which subway station is it the closest to? 3....

-ss. touch .fixes.misses.says. (El tren sa le a I as 4.GRAMMAR APPENDIX 1. (Facebook es u n a pagina web de how often . -sh. o does not (doesn't) para la 3' persona del si ngula r + forma base del verba. at nig ht. occasional ly.) Los adverbios de frecuencia va n dela nte del verba pri ncipal.) A general truth or scientific fact a l ways. Con Ios verbos "estaticos" ( m i ra en la pagina 1 1 4) + Con hora rios y progra mas. (Nu nca me reconoce. i n the morning. general ly. excepto en la 3' persona del singular. (Pa u l siempre esta tra n q u i lo. lnterrogativa : do o does + sujeto + forma base del verba. (James usa su ordenador todos Ios d ias. -eh o -x a riade -es: do . Negativa : sujeto + do not (don't). rarely. frequently. Facebook is a popular website.touches. often. How often do you read? (l Con que frecuencia lees?) . ( M i hermana trabaja Ios domingos. wish . FORM F aces Negative 1 1 You do not (don 't) work He I She l it does not (doesn 't) work We I You I They do not (don 't) work Examples Interrogative PRESENT SIMPLE Affirmative 1 1 You work He I She l it works We I You I They work Uses A Do 1 1 you work? Does he I she I it work? Do we I you I they work? Adverbs of frequency I Time expressions reg u l a r habit or routine My sister works on Sundays.) us os • • • Stative verbs FORMA Afi rmativa : es igual que la forma base del verba (el i nfin itivo sin to). on Fridays.) Las expresiones tempora les siem pre va n al pri ncipio o a l fin a l de la frase. usually. seldom.) Con how often ? se pregu nta con que frecuencia se hace a l ga.does. to be y Ios verbos modales no necesitan el a uxiliar do I does en negativa ni i n terrogativa. pero si se trata del verba to be se coloca n detras. reg u l a rly. .wishes. fix . once a month..? moda. Con hechos generales o cientfficos.. The train leaves at 4 o 'clock. En consona nte + y cambia la y par i a ntes de a nad ir -es: t ry tries. He never recognises me. • • • Para formar correcta mente la 3' persona del s i n g u l a r hay que tener en cuenta las siguientes reg las ortogrcificas segu n la term i naci6n del verba: En -o. . every week. never at 1 o'clock. sometimes..) Paul is always calm. (Creo q u e es muy mandona. James uses his computer every day. En voca l + y a riade -s: say . Recuerda que have got. - Con acciones habituales o rutinas.) I think she is very bossy. que term ina en -s o -es. + l nd ica usos adiciona les a Ios presentados en las tablas. miss .

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORM

Affirmative
I am singing

Negative

Interrogative

You a re singing He I She l it is singing We I You I They a re singing
Uses

I am (I'm) not singing You a re not (aren't) singing H e I She l it is not (isn't) singing We I You I They a re not (aren 't) singing
Examples

Am I singing? Are you singing? Is he I she I it singing?

Are we I you I they singing?
Time expressions

An action which is ha ppening now A tempora ry action

Greg is reading right now. (Greg esta leyendo ahora m ismo.) I am studying maths this term. (Estoy estudiando matematicas este semestre.) I am meeting my boyfriend tonight. (He q uedado con mi novio esta noche.)

now, right now, at the moment this yea r, at present today, these days, this month this eve n i ng, tonight, tomorrow, next Friday I week I yea r

A d efin ite plan for the near future

Afi rmativa : sujeto + a m I is I a re + verba principal term i nado en -ing, siguiendo las siguientes reg las ortograficas seg u n la terminacion de la forma base del verbo :

FORMA

En -e m uda, pierd e la e : ride - riding. • En -y, la mantiene: pay - paying. En -ie, cambia ie por y: die - dying. En vocal + consona nte (monosilabo) dobla la consonante, excepto w y x : run - running, show - showing. En - I o -p (bisilabo con acento I la no) dobla esa letra : travel - travelling En vocal + consonante (bisilabo con acento agudo). dobla la consonante: refer - referring. Negativa : sujeto + a m I is I a re + not (o n't) + verbo pri ncipal term i nado en -ing. lnterrogativa: am I is I a re + sujeto + verbo principal terminado en -ing.
• • • . •

u sos

+

Expresa r lo que esta pasa ndo en el momento en el que se esta hablando. Expresa r acciones prolongadas que esta n ocurriendo en u n presente mas amplio. Expresa r lo que haremos con toda seg u ridad en u n futuro proximo porque lo hemos fijado d e a ntemano Con el adverbio always, para denota r u n a queja. He is always shouting. (Siempre esta g ritando.)

� STATIVE VERBS I nd ican u n estado mas que una accion y suelen usarse en Presen t Simple. Estan relacionados con : las emociones y I os senti m ientos (dislike, enjoy, hate, hope, like, love, prefer, want) . el pensa miento y la opinion ( believe, forget, guess, know, remember, think, understand) , la percepcion y Ios sentidos ( feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste, touch), Ios precios y las medidas (cost, measure, weigh) y • la posesion ( belong, have, own). Algunos indica n tanto estado como actividad y pueden usa rse en Present Simple y en Present Continuous. Donna thinks the book is wonderful. (Donna cree que e l I i b ra es estu pendo.) [estado] He is thinking about going to Malta in the summer. (Esta pensa ndo en i rse a M a l ta en verano.) [actividad] El verba see en Present Con tinuous i n dica una accion futu ra fijada d e a ntema no. We are seeing Ann tonigh t. (Veremos a Ann esta noche.) [Ya h emos q uedado.]
• • • •

� PHRASAL VERBS Son verbos seguidos d e una o dos particulas (preposiciones, adverbios o una com binacion de a m bos) con un sign ificado d istinto del que cada palabra tiene por separado. Pueden ser transitivos o i ntra nsitivos. He didn 't get to the appoin tment. (El no l lego a la cita.) He set off on a long journey. (Pa rtio a un largo viaje.)

G rammar Append ix La mayorfa de Ios tra nsitivos permiten interca l a r el complemento d i recto entre el verba y l a partfc u l a : si es un susta ntivo puede ir en media o no, pero si es pronom bre debe coloca rse entre a m bos. I'm going to pick up my brother at the sta tion. (Voy a recoger a mi herma no a la estaci6n.) I'm going to pick my brother up at the station. I'm going to pick him up at the station. Sin embargo, a lg u nos tra nsitivos, todos Ios i ntra nsitivos y Ios formados par dos partfculas son insepa ra bles. He is looking for his keys / them. (Esta buscando sus l l aves I busca ndolas.) Algu nos verbos pueden combinarse con diferentes partfculas para formar distintos phrasal verbs. get across (hacer entender) get by (a rreg la rselas, defenderse (idioma)) get through (comu nica r(se)) Ademas, m uch os phrasal verbs tienen mas de u n sig nificad o : get into (entra r I meterse e n ; aficionarse a) turn up (apa recer, presenta rse ; subir (vo l u m en)) turn down (rechaza r; bajar) switch off (apagar (telefono) ; desconecta r(se)) M i ra la lista de phrasal verbs q u e hay en I as pag inas 1 42- 1 43 pa ra ver mas casos.

2.
FORM

D anger !
Negative

PAST SIMPLE

Affirmative
I

I You fi n ished He I She I lt fi n ished We I You I They fi n ished
----

I I You did not (didn't) fi n ish He I She I lt did not (didn't) fi nish We I You I They did not (d idn't) fi nish
--

Interrogative

Did he I she I it fi nish?
Time expressions
-

Did I I you fi nish?

Did we I you I they fi nish?

Uses

Examples

l

A com p leted action i n the past

A shark

attacked O r Ritter last year. (Un tibur6n atac6 al doctor Ritter el afio pasado.)
- ---

I i n the past
FORMA

A series of completed actions Fowler climbed the stairs and followed A usable. (Fowler subi6 las esca leras y sigui6 a Ausa ble.)
usos

yesterday, last week I yea r, two days ago, in 2007, in the 1 980s, in the 1 8th century, when, then

--

Afi rmativa : Con Ios verbos reg u l a res se forma a fiadiendo -ed a su forma base seg u n las siguientes reg las o rtog rafi ea s:
• • •

En -e muda afiade solo la -d : prove - proved. En vocal + y afiade -ed : stay - stayed. En consona nte + y ca mbia la y par i a ntes d e afiadir -ed : carry - carried. En voca l + consonante (monosflabo) dobla la consonante excepto w y x : stop - stopped, fix - fixed. En -1 o -p (bisflabo con acento l l a no) dobla la consonante: cancel - cancelled. En vocal + consonante (bisflabo con acento agudo) dobla esta u l tima : prefer - preferred. Los verbos irreg u l a res, coma puedes ver en la l ista d e las paginas 1 44- 1 45, no siguen n i n g u n o de estos procesos. Negativa : sujeto + did not (o d idn't) + forma base del verba pri nci pa I. l nterrogativa : did + sujeto + forma base del verba principa l.

+

+

H a b l a r de acciones acabadas que ocurrieron en u n momento concreto d e l pasado. Expresa r acciones consecutivas del pasado. l ndicar que una acci6n corta (i ntroducida par when) ocu rri6 cuando otra mas l a rga esta ba en proceso. He was going home when the detective called him. (Volvfa a casa cuando el detective lo l l a m6.) Describir o conta r c6mo era n las cosas en el pasa d o.

In the 7 9th century, London was a dangerous city. (En el siglo XIX, Lond res era una ciudad peligrosa.) La expresi6n tempora l ago se pone detras del periodo de tiempo ind icado y se traduce por "hace". They left two hours ago. (Se fueron h ace dos horas.)

L

PAST CONTINUOUS
FORM

Affirmative
I was visiting

Negative
I was not (wasn 't) visiting

Interrogative

Was I visiti ng? Was he I she I it visiti ng? Were you visiti ng?

You were visiti ng H e I She l it was visiting We I You I They were visiti ng
Uses

You were not (weren't) visiti ng He I She l it was not (wasn 't) visiti ng We I You I They were not (weren't) visiting
Examples

Were we I you I they visiti ng?

! Time expressions

I

An i n complete action in progress at a specific time i n the past An i ncom p l ete action i nterru pted by a nother action

At 9 o 'clock that evening, he was waiting for the report. (Esa noche a las 9 esta ba espera ndo el i nforme.) As I was speaking on the phone, Max en tered the room. (Mientras yo hablaba por telefono, Max entr6 en la habitaci6n.)

last night I week I yea r, at 4 o'clock when, w h i le, as

.................................

Two i n complete actions i n prog ress While the waiter was knocking on the door, Ausable was at the sa me time i n the past telling me a secret. (Mientras el ca marero estaba llamando a la puerta, Ausable me estaba conta ndo u n secreta.)
-

--'-

Afirmativa : sujeto + was I were + verbo principal termi nado en -i ng.

FO R MA

usos

l nterrogativa : was I were + sujeto + verbo principal termi nado en -ing.

Negativa : sujeto + was I were + not (o n't) + verbo principal terminado en -i ng.

Decir lo que estaba ocurriendo en un momento concreto del pasado. Expresa r que una acci6n l a rga estaba en proceso cuando ocu rri6 una corta. La larga va precedida d e while o a s y la corta, d e when. • Expresa r que varias acciones ocu rrfan simu lta neamente en el pasado. En este caso va n u nidas por while o as. + Con always indica mos que una acci6n pasada nos desag radaba por repetida y mon6tona. She was always telling jokes. (Siempre estaba conta ndo chistes.)

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
FORM

Affirmative

Negative 1 1 You had not (hadn't) a rrived

Interrogative

1 1 You had a rrived

We I You I They had arrived
Uses

He I She l it had a rrived

We I You I They had not (hadn't) a rrived
Examples
'

He I She l it had not (hadn't) arrived

Had he I she I it a rrived?

Had 1 1 you a rrived?

A completed action which took place before a nother action in the past

By the time the police arrived, he had already left. (Pa ra cuando l leg6 la policia, ya se habia m a rchado).
usos

1 Time expressions

Had we I you I they arrived?

a l ready, by the time, after, before, u ntil, never, just

FORMA

Afi rmativa : sujeto + had + participio del verbo principa l. Negativa : sujeto + had not (o hadn't) + partici pio del verbo principa l . lnterrogativa : had + sujeto + participio del verbo principa l.

lnd ica r q u e una acci6n ocurri6 a ntes q u e otra expresada en Past Simple.

ever.?. Never.) ! Time expressions An action that took place at a n undetermined She has moved house recently time in the past. En este caso. otros solo a d m iten u n o : pet'1cdess . (Lievo jugando a l baloncesto dos for. e n negativa usa mos yet y ever. (El partido ya ha em pezad o. recently. (El atleta acaba de batir el record m u ndia l.careless En cambio.) She hasn't tried snowboarding yet.) participio del verba us os • • Con acciones que empeza ron en el pasado y a u n conti n u a n . si nee.peaceful homeless fwmefuf Otros sufijos que a ri a d idos a verbos forman adjetivos son -ed e -ing. Con acciones pasadas cuyos efectos son visibles actu a l mente. FORM Go for It ! -· PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative I I You have lived He I S h e I it h a s l ived We I You I They have l ived Negative I I You have not (haven't) l ived He I She I lt has not (hasn't) l ived We I You I They have not (haven 't) l ived Examples I nterrogative Have I I you l ived ? Have we I you I they l ived? Has he I she I it l ived? Uses An action that bega n in the past a n d continues u ntil the present I have played basketball for two years. in recent yea rs a rias. never y already. The athlete has just broken the world record. lately. never. just. lnterrogativa : have I has + sujeto principal. a g rega mos just entre el a uxi l ia r y el participio. + Afirmativa : sujeto + have I has + participio del verba principal.) - 3. . a l ready y just se ponen entre el auxiliar (have) y el participio del verbo.G ra m m a r Appendix ::l SU FIJOS PARA FORMAR ADJETIVOS Los sufijos son term inaciones que a ria d imos a la ra iz o lexema de las palabras para formar otras n u evas. mientras q u e yet siempre . ever.) FORMA Negativa : sujeto + have I has + not (o n't) + participio del verba princi pal. I've never played football. yet y just. y en i nterrogativa a l ready. se coloca a l fi n a l de la frase. (La corredora se acaba de lesionar l a pierna. The match has already started. Estos son a l g u nos de Ios sufijos que se a riaden a nombres y verbos para formar adjetivos: predictable (predecible) predict (predeci r) nation (naci6n) national (nacional) consider (considerar) considerate (considerado) beauty (bel leza) beau tiful (bon i to) painless (indoloro) pain (dolor) contempt (desprecio) con temptible (despreciable) attractive (atractivo) attract (atraer) danger (pel i g ro) dangerous (pe l i g roso) Con a l g u nos susta ntivos se pueden usar va rios de estos sufijos: harmful .) . asi q ue me a burro cuando salgo con el.harmless careful . y cuando acaba en -ing significa que l a person a o cosa a l a que se refiere ca usa d icho efecto.) Haven't you ever watched the Olympics on TV? (LN u nca has vista las O l i m piadas en l a television?) The runner has just injured her leg. (Jack es aburrido. ever. but is con n ected to the present (Se ha cam biado de casa hace poco. + Con u na acci6n que acaba de ocurri r. a l ready. how long . a veces se tra d u ce e l verba en presente. bore (abu rri r) bored ([estar] a b urrido) boring ( [ser] a b u rrido) Cua ndo el adjetivo term ina en -ed significa que la person a o cosa a l a que se refiere experimenta o sufre un efecto concreto..) Have you seen the film yet? (LYa has vista la pelicu l a ?) En afirmativa usa mos just. (Todavia no ha probado el snowboard. Por eso. yet. Jack is boring so I'm bored when I go out with him. (Nu nca he j ugado a l futbol.

soon. . Landmarks Negative Interrogative F UTURE SIMPLE Affirmative H e I She l it will a l low We I You I They w i l l al low Uses A 1 1 You will a l low He I She l it will not (won 't) al low We I You I They will not (won't) a l low 1 1 You will not (won 't) a l l ow Will he I she I it a l low? . pero no las he recogido todavia. later. (Pague las entradas ayer.) I am too tired to walk. I paid for the tickets yesterday. How long have you trained for the competition? ((Cua n to tiempo has entrenado para la competici6n?) For indica cua nto d u r6 la acci6n y si nce. lnterrogativa : will + sujeto+ forma base del verba. cuanto tiempo ha pasado desde que empez6. i n a few weeks. algo q u e decid i m os hacer mientras esta mos hablando. mientras que el Present Perfect Simple situa la acci6n en u n periodo de tiempo. Cogere u n taxi. tomorrow.--. 1 1 81 . (La visita a Dubai em peza ra a las 9 de la mariana. in an hour. (He j ugado a l voleibol d u rante dos a rias I desde q u e e r a u n ni rio. . (Estoy demasiado cansado para ca minar.----- Examples Time expressions prediction Dubailand will attract thousands of tourists.) The tour of Du bat will begin at 9. Expresa r una decision repentina. but I haven't collected them yet. es decir. H a b l a r de un hora rio establecido. ? pregu ntamos cua nto ha d u rado la acci6n o.00 am.- Will 1 1 you al low? Will we I you I they al low? -. on the 1 st of May A Afi rmativa : sujeto + will (o '11) + forma base del verbo. next month I year. at 2 o'clock. si aun continua. cuando em pez6.) 4. (Duba i l a nd atraera a mi les de tu ristas. N egativa : sujeto + will not (o won't) + forma base del verba.) :J PAST SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE El Past Simple i ndica lo q u e ocu rri6 en u n momento concreto.Con how long . I'll take a taxi. FORMA • Hacer pred icciones o a n u nciar hechos futuros. i n the future.) usos • • A pla n n ed sched u l e sponta neous d ecision this evening. I have played volleyball for two years I since I was a child.

FORMA + going to + forma �egativa : sujeto + am I is I are + not (o n't) g o i n g to + fdrma base del verba princi pal. (Para cuando Dubai se quede sin petroleo. l nterrogativa : will + sujeto + have + participio del verba pri ncipa l. l nd icar que una accion habra acabado en u n momento determinado del futu ro. (El firma I firma ra u n contrato mariana.) us os • I Time expressions Will we I you I they have eaten? Will he I she I it have eaten? Will I / you have eaten? by this time next week.. next month I year. � EL PRESENT CONTINUOUS CON VALOR DE FUTU RO Anuncia acciones fijadas de a ntemano q u e ocurri ra n en el futuro proxi mo. coma be going to. el turismo se habra convertido en una i n d u stria m uy i m portante. by then. at 4 o'clock. sino a lga que ha sido programado con antelacion y que va a pasar con segu ridad. by the end of . tomorrow.) Be careful! You are going to fall! ( i Ten cuidad o ! i Vas a caerte !) I Time expressions this evening. (El va a fi rmar un contrato el mes que viene.) [i ntencion] He is signing a con tract tomorrow. on the 8th of May Afirmativa : sujeto + am I is I are base del verba principa l. l nterrogativa : am I is I a re + sujeto + going to + forma base del verba principal. by August. i n fou r months FORMA Afi rmativa : sujeto + will have + participio del verba pri ncipal. later. No expresa una i ntenci6n. tourism will have become major industry. Se d isti ngue del Presen t Con tinuous normal porq ue la expresion tempora l q u e va en la frase ind ica un tiempo futuro y no presente. by 3 o'clock. usos • • Expresar intenciones..) [plan concertado] FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative 1 / You will have eaten He I She / it will have eaten We I You I They will have eaten Uses A completed action at a certai n future time i Examples a 1 / You will not (won 't) have eaten He I She / it will not (won't) have eaten We I You I They will not (won't) have eaten By the time Dubai runs out of oil. planes y decisiones sabre lo que haremos en u n futuro proxi mo.G ra m m a r Appendix BE GOING TO FORM Affirmative Negative I nterrogative I am going to buy You a re going to buy He I She / it is going to buy Uses We I '<ou l lne'l are going to bu'l A pla nned a ction for the future An action that is a bout to ha ppen I am not going to buy You a re not (aren't) going to buy He I She / it is not (isn't) going to buy Examples Am I going to buy? Are you going to buy? Is he I she I it going to buy? We I '<ou l lne'l are not �aren't) going to bu'l Axe we I '{OU I tne'{ going to bu'l? We are going to spend our next holiday in Dubai. in a few weeks. soon. i n an hour. Se suele reservar para pla nes persona tes ya concertados. . . (Va mos a pasa r n uestras proximas vacaciones en Duba i. He is going to sign a contract next month. Decir que alga esta a punto de ocurri r porq u e hay i n dicios de el lo. Negativa : sujeto + will not (won't) have + partici pio del verba principa l.

. (Ou ieren que Ios tu ristas vengan a D u bai... w hose refers to possession (�s...ant that t t1 i t eome toOubai.... us os • ::l WANT + I N FI N ITIVO / WANT + O BJ ETO + I N FI N ITIVO • • Want + i nfi n itivo : expresa el deseo de hacer a lga.. at this time next ......... n o tiene t i e m p o p a ra u n perro. � � ��s.. does not have time for a dog....t� � s l � p� rs........................ (Tracy........... Do you want me to phone for help? Doyou ��ant} to phone fo1 help? (iOuieres que llame para pedi r ayuda?) 5..............DEFI N I NG RELATIVE CLAUSES Uses Examples that ca nnot replace who or w h ich Tracy.FUTURE CONTINUOUS FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative 1 / You will be travelling He I She / lt will be trave l l i ng We I You I They will be travelling Uses I / You will not (won 't) be travelling Will 1 / you be travelli ng? He I She / lt will not (won't) be trave l l i ng Will he I she I it be travelling? We I You I They will not (won't) be travelling Will we I you I they be trave l l i ng ? Examples An action in progress at a certai n future time We'll b e visiting Dubai this summer. it� 111 ? ? ��� � �i ?�... l nterrogativa : will + sujeto + be + verba principal term inado en -ing.......) Recuerda que en estos casos es necesa rio utilizar Ios pronombres objeto en vez de Ios pronombres sujeto.. Negativa : sujeto + will not (won't) be + verba principal term inado en -ing. Yi rl'l??..) Want + objeto + i nfi n itivo : expresa el deseo de que otra persona hag a a I go.) This is the person whose dog needs more attention.. who works long hours.... . in the next decade ...?�� c �yg p� rr9 ��s�s. Tracy is the girl who I that loves the idea of Flexpetz..........) Flexpetz is an agency which I that rents out dogs........tr? p�rr9 pg r pri rr1�T� Y��J .. (Tracy es la ch ica a la que le encanta la idea de Flexpetz........ FORMA Afi rmativa : sujeto + will be + verba principal terminado en -ing.. Joe wants to forget the terrible food in the restaurant.... where refers to a particu lar place I wen t to the park where you usually walk your dog............) when and that refer to a moment in time I 'll never forget the day when I that we saw our dog for the first time... .......... ..... (Fui a l pa rq ue donde sueles pasea r a l perro........ w h ich and that refer to objects (Fiexpetz es u n a agencia que a l q u i l a perros....) ..) who and that refer to people N O N .... o 1 ss Expresar lo que estara ocurriendo en u n momento determinado del futuro.) l Time expressions at this time tomorrow.... (�Y�S� g lyi 9� r� � 1 9 1� �� 9...... q u e ta baja m uc h a s h o ras..�-�..... on Thu rsday.. They �. Sp eak Out ! \ Examples RELATIVE PRONOUNS DEFI N I N G RELATIVE CLAUSES Uses . (Joe q u iere olvida r la horrible comida del resta u ra nte. They want tourists to come to Dubai.... (Estaremos visita ndo Dubai este vera no.

m u lti-. over-. The o wner is the person you have to talk to. • Where no p u e d e s u stit u i rse por that y solo se om ite en a lg u na s ocasiones.) Si el relativo l l eva preposici6n. impress · e. etc.se forman verbos q u e describen el paso al estado indicado por la pa labra a la q u e se a fiade este prefijo.varia en Ios siguientes casos: il.se a fia d en a a l g u nos a dj etivos p a ra expresar e l s i g n ifi ca d o o p uesto. when.y under-. pero s i es u n a person a . � ESTRUCTURAS FORMAL E I N FORMAL Cua nd o el relativo va p recedi d o de u n a preposici6n se sig u e u t i l iza n d o which s i el a ntecedente es u n a cosa . DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES Aportan informaci6n tan esencial sobre su antecedente q u e sin ellas la frase q ueda ria i ncom pleta.d e l a nte d e adjetivos q u e em pieza n con r(irregular) . 121 . Ese e s u n uso m u y forma l . The film in which she appears was a great success. + Whom se u sa d etras de las p re posiciones.d e l a nte d e a djetivos q u e e m p i eza n por 1(illogical) . close (cerrar) enclose (encerrar) Otros prefijos q u e se a g regan a d istintas clases de palabras son a nti-. which.d e l a nte de a djetivos q u e em pieza n con m. When (tie m po) p u e d e o m it i rse y sustit u i rse por that. eo-. w here y whose.o p­ (immortal) .) NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES A fi a d e n i nformaci6n sobre s u a ntecede n te y van e ntre comas. unders and. ( La d ue fi a es l a person a con q u i e n tienes q u e h a b l a r. im-. The film she appears in was a great success. im. Whose (posesi6n) no se puede omitir ni sustitu i r.y un.no pa rte de la palabra : disaster. encontra ra s prefijos seg uidos d e g uion. ( La p e l fc u la e n l a q u e sa l e fue u n g ra n exito. social (social. bi-. non-. re. pero se s u e l e o m i t i r y pasa r la preposici6n d etras del verbo.Gra m m a r Appendix Son oraciones su bord inadas adjetivas i ntrod ucidas por un pronombre o u n adverbio relative y las hay de dos ti pos: defi n i ng (especificativas) y non-defining (explicativas). Ten en cuenta q u e a veces no son pre 1jos s. otros integrados en la palabra y otros q u e pueden adopta r ambas formas. [Fo rm a l] This is the agency (which] Marlena works in. • Los pronombres who (personas). Se forma n con who. i nter-. which (cosas) y that (personas y cosas) pueden omitirse si no hacen d e sujeto. sa tisfied (satisfecho/a) dissatisfied (i nsatisfecho/a) illegal (ilegal) legal (leg a l ) patient (paciente) impatient (i mpaciente) correct (correcto/a) incorrect (incorrecto/a) pleasant (agradable) unpleasan t (desa g radable) Recue rd a q u e e l p refijo i n . q u e n o se p u e d e n o m it i r. in. lo m a s com u n es o m itirlo y p o n e r la preposici6n d etras d e l verbo. illusion. sociable) antisocial (a ntisocia I) centenary (centenario/a) bicentenary (bicentena rio/a) co-pilot (copiloto) pilot (piloto) national (nacional) international (internaciona l) lateral (lateral) multilateral (multi latera l) smoker (fu mador/a) non-smoker (no fu mador/a) active (activo/a) overactive (hiperactivo/a) historic (hist6rico/a) prehistoric (prehist6rico/a) write (escribir) rewrite (reescribir) ground (suelo) underground (subterraneo) No existen normas especificas en ing les sobre el uso d e g uiones entre Ios prefijos y las palabras a las q u e preceden. Lo m a s com u n e n a m bos casos es p o n e r la preposici6n a l fi n a l d e l a o ra c i 6 n d e rel a tivo y o m i t i r e l p ro n o m b re. [Formal] H e is the person (who] you have to talk to.se afiade a a l g u nos sutan i os erbos para ind ica r q u e a l g o se hace incorrecta men·e. This is the agency i n which Marlena works. use (uso) misuse (mal uso) • • • • Con en. [I nfo rm a l] (El es la persona con la q u e tienes q u e h a b l a r.) � LOS PREFIJOS Los p refijos dis-. i r . The o wner is the person to whom you have to talk. [I nfo rm a l] (Esta es la agencia en la q u e trabaja Ma rlena. e n l u g a r d e who se e m p l ea whom.) He is the person to whom you have to talk. Por lo ta nto. il-. El prefijo m is. pre -.

6.
Modal

Extreme Weather
Uses Examples

LOS MODALES

can

a b i l ity req uest possibility

Most tornado chasers can avoid dangerous situations. (La mayoria de cazadores de tornados saben evita r las situaciones peligrosas.)

,.......

Can I join your group? (LPuedo u n i rme a vuestro gru po?)
,

:" .

...a,

'""u

be able to can 't

a b i l ity, possib i l ity inabil ity
.. .. .

I think they will be able to see a twister. (Creo q u e pod ran ver un h u racan.) I can't {cannot) drive. (No se conducir.)
You can 't take your children with you. (No puedes l l eva r a tus hijos contigo.) That can't be Paul. He is in China! (Ese no puede ser Pa ul. i Esta en China !) She co�id ��� ��;yf�si :;;t;�n sh� ;.d5 ; ··�hiTrT (Sa bia correr muy deprisa cuando era una nifia.)

f.'' u c a te m i cache }

you m y car.

,

prohibition disbelief

1

could

past abil ity polite req uest possib i lity polite suggestion

Could you tell me more about the tour, please? (L Pod rias conta rme mas cosas sabre el viaje, por favor?)
The weather forecast could be wrong. (El pron6stico del tiempo pod ria ser err6neo.) You could come with us next time. (Pod rias ven i r con nosotros la proxima vez.)
·······-·····

may I m ight may

possibility polite request

The tourists might be disappointed after the trip. (Puede q u e Ios tu ristas esten decepcionados d espues del viaje.)

May I borrow your travel guide, please? (LPuedo tomar prestada tu g u ia de viaje, por favor?)
She should I ought to be more concerned about the dangers of the trip. (Deberia preocu pa rse mas por Ios peligros del viaj e.)

should I ought to advice, opinion need to have to must
,

obligation, necessity obligation, necessity
........... .

I need to know what the weather will be like tomorrow. (Necesito saber que tiempo hara mafiana.)
All students must evacuate the school in case o f fi;�: os Ios estud i a n tes deben evacuar la escuela en caso de i ncendio.) You will have to spend a Jot of time in the car. (Debe ras pasar m ucho tiempo en el cache.)
.

obligation, strong necessity . ... .

certainty that something is true
mustn't don't have to need n't to would

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

hasn't seen a single tornado. He must be disappointed. (No ha vista ni u n solo tornado. Debe d e esta r d ecepcionado.) You mustn't get too close to a tornado. (No debes acerca rte demasiado a u n tornado.)
.......... ... ..... .

proh ibition

. ....................................... ......................................................................................�....... ...

lack of obl igation I necessity formal requ est offe r

lack of obl igation I necessity

You don't have to worry about anything. (No tienes q u e preocu parte por nada.) You needn't bring me a present. (No tienes q u e traerme u n reg a l o.)

Would you open the window, please? L: Pocl r[<J<; <Jhrir I<J vrnt<Jn<J. nor f<Jvor?) Would you like some more water? (LQui eres mas a g u a ?)

Gra m m a r Appendix
FORMA

Los verbos modales: Son inva riables, por lo q u e tienen una misma forma pa ra todas las personas y no se conjugan. No necesita n do I does para formar la negativa n i la i nterrogativa. • Siempre van seg uidos de un verba en la forma base.
• •

may I might Expresa n posi b i l idad (mas remota cuando se emplea might) de que ocu rra a lga. May ta mbien se usa para hacer peticiones mas formales q u e con ca n. should I ought to Los dos se emplean pa ra d a r consejo y hacer recomendaciones. Ought to a penas se usa en negativa

Be able to, have to y need to no comparten todas estas ca racteristicas, pero si a l g unos de sus usos (habilidad, obl igaci6n, etc.).
us os

ni en interrogativa. Should es el mas com(m de Ios dos.

need to Se puede conjugar y, por lo tanto, puede usarse en todos Ios tiempos verba les. Expresa obl igaci6n o necesidad. have to Tiene las mismas fu nciones q u e must a u nq u e la o b l i g a ci6n q u e expresa no es ta n fuerte. Coma must solo puede usarse en Presen t Simple, en el resto de tiempos verba les usamos have to. must Expresa obligaci6n o necesidad, especia l m e nte cuando la i m pone la ley o alg uien de autoridad. Ademas expresa u n a conclusion 1 6g ica ("deber de", "tener q ue"). mustn 't l nd ica prohi bici6n. don't have to Sign ifica "no tener q u e" I "no tener por q ue", es decir, ausencia de obl igaci6n y d e necesidad (como needn 't). needn't l n d ica q u e no hay obl igaci6n o necesidad de hacer a l g a ( i g u a l q u e don't have to). would Se util iza para ped i r u ofrecer a l g a de manera educada.

• •

can Expresar habilidad o capacidad Hacer peticiones, dar y pedi r permiso l nd ica r posibi l idad + Hacer sugerencias You can bring your camera on the tour. (Puedes traer tu camara al viaje.) be able to Tiene el m ismo sign ificado que ca n, pero coma can solo puede emplearse en Present Simple, en el resto de tiem pos verbales usamos be able to.

• •

can't Es la forma negativa de can Expresa r deducci6n negativa o certeza de q u e a l g a es i m posible

f.

could Expresa r habilidad o capacidad en el pasado Hacer peticiones mas educadas que con can • l ndicar posibil idad mas remota que con can • Hacer sugerencias menos d i rectas q u e con can
OS MODALES PERFECTOS

Modal Perfect Uses

must have

lt must have been very exciting for her to make that trip. (Debe d e haber sido muy emociona nte para e l l a hacer ese viaje.)

A g u ess about a past action Abi l ity to do something in the past which in the end was not done Certa i nty that someth ing d i d not ha ppen
would have should I ought to have shouldn't have needn't have
.......... .... ... .

. . . ..... .......:...... .................

She may I might have forgotten the meeting. (Puede q u e se l e haya olvida d o l a reu n ion.) it was a stupid thing to do. You could have hurt yourself (Ha sido u n a tonterfa h acer eso. Te pod rfas h a b e r hecho d a iio.) They couldn't have predicted the tornado. it was a sunny day. (No pod ria n haber p red i c h o el tornado. Hacia u n d ia soleado.)

Desi re to do something i n the past which in fact cou ld not be done Criticism or regret after an event Criticism or reg ret after an event An u n necessa ry past action
......................................

I would have gone with you, but I was too scared. ( H a b ria i d o contigo, pero tenia d e m as i a d o m iedo.)
:....................

You should I ought to have warned me earlier. (Debe rias h a berme avisado a ntes.)

I shouldn't have taken so much luggage. ( N o t e n ia q u e h a b e r cogido tanto e q u i paje.)

You needn't have bought the tickets. I was going to buy them myself ( N o ten ias por que com pra r Ios b i l l etes. � a com pra rlos L- - - - - - - - - -'- _ - - --'- - - - - - - _

Y�_j

I

-

must have + participio Expresa una concl usion logica d e u n hecho pasado. may I might have + participio Se usa n pa ra hacer una su posicion d e un hecho pasado. could have + participio l n d ica que se pudo haber hecho alga en el pasado, pero q u e fi nal mente no se h izo. couldn't have + partici pio Expresa l a certeza d e que alga no pudo haber ocurrido. would have + participio l ndica que se q u iso haber hecho a lga en el pasado pero no se pudo debido a factores o circu nsta ncias externas. should I ought to have + parti ci pio Con a m bos podemos ta nto q u ejarnos de lo que ocurrio com a lamenta rnos de que no se haya cu m p l ido lo q u e espera bamos. shouldn't have + participio Expresa n u estra opinion crftica sabre un hecho pasado, i n dica n d o que no deberia haber ocurrido. needn't have + participio l nd ica que no h a b ia necesidad de hacer lo que se h izo.
::l EL G E R U N D I O Y EL I N F I N ITIVO
EL G E R U N D I O

Sin embargo, a l g u nos verbos de percepcion ( hear, feel, see ...) , make y let van seg uidos de la forma base (i nfi n itive sin to) .
/ let Sally come with us. (Deje a Sa lly ven i r con nosotros.)
VERBOS SEGU I DOS DE G E R U N D I O Y DE I N FI N ITIVO

Detras del complemento i n d i recto de verbos com a : advise, help, i nvite, persuade, teach, tel l , warn, etc. He invited me to join them. (Me i nvito a u n i rme a el los.)

Es la forma verba l term i nada en -ing, q u e fu nciona coma sustantivo en Ios sig u ientes casos: • Coma com plemento d i recto d e a l g u nos verbos: consider, conti nue, deny, detest, disl i ke, enjoy, fi n i sh, h ate, like, love, miss, prefer, recommend, suggest, etc. I enjoy doing sport. (Me d ivierto hacienda deporte.) • Detras de las preposiciones. Lucy doesn 't like his way of playing. (A Lucy no le gusta su forma d e j ugar.) • Detras de a l g u nas formas verbales: be used to I get used to, can't help, can't sta nd, don't m i n d I wouldn't mind, fee l l i ke, it's no use, look foward to, etc. I fee/ like going to the cinema. (Me apetece ir al cine.) Coma sujeto de la oracion cuando hablamos de acciones o hechos en general. Taking up a new sport is not easy. (Empezar a practica r u n n u evo deporte no es faci l.)

EL I N F I N ITIVO

Es la forma verba l precedida de to y se em plea en estos casos: Coma suj eto, hablando de un hecho concreto. To apply for that job would be a good ideo. (Sol icitar ese trabajo seria u na buena idea.) • Detras de verbos coma: agree, a ppear, choose, decide, hope, learn, plan, prom ise, refuse, seem, wa nt, wish, etc. He decided to try the cake. (Decidio probar la ta rta.)

Detras de a l g un os adjetivos y adverbios.
He left early to arrive on time. (Se fue pronto para l legar a tiem po.)

Verbos coma begin, forbid, i ntend, propose o start pueden i r seguidos de a mbas formas verbales sin q u e su sign ificad o va rie : They started to answer I answering the letters. (Empeza ron a contesta r las cartas.) Los verbos love, l i ke, prefer y hate pueden ir segu idos ta nto de gerundio coma de i nfi nitive, pero el matiz de su significado va ria : Se util iza love I like I hate I prefer + gerundio cuando el significado es genera l . / love dancing. (Me e nca nta bailar.) • Se uti liza love I l i ke I hate I prefer + i nfi nitive cuando se refiere a una situacion o u n tiempo en particular. I hate to tell you, but Uncle Jim is coming this weekend. (Od io deci rte esto, pero el tio J i m viene este fin d e sema na.) En cam bio, otros no significan lo mismo si l l evan d etras un geru ndio o un i nfi nitive. A continuacion tienes a l g u nos ejemplos: forget + gerundio se em plea en frases negativas pa ra i ndicar la i m posibi lidad de olvidar alga ocurrido en el pasado. I'll never forget meeting Angelina Jolie. (Nunca olvidare haber conocido a Angel i n a Jolie.) forget + infi n i tive sig nifica "olvida rse de hacer a lga". He always forgets to bring the keys. (El siempre se olvida de traer las l laves.) remember + gerundio significa "recorda r a lga q u e se h izo en el pasado". I remember giving them their tickets. (Recuerdo haberles dado sus entradas.) remember + infin itive significa "acordarse de hacer alga': Remember to close the door before you go. (Recuerda cerra r la puerta a ntes de i rte.) • regret + gerundio significa "la mentar haber hecho a l g a en el pasado". He regrets leaving school at 1 6. (Se a rrepiente d e haber d ejado el colegio a I os 1 6.) • regret + i nfi n itive significa "la mentar la q u e se va a deci r a continuacion". I regret to tell you that you have foiled the exam. (Siento deci rte q u e has suspendido el exa men.) stop + gerundio s i g nifica " d ej a r u n h a bito ". Bob stopped smoking last year.
• • •

tBob dej6 de fumar el ai\o pasado.)

stop + infinitive sig nifica " d ejar d e h acer a l g o para hacer otra cosa". Can we stop to have a coffee? (LPodemos parar para tomar un cafe?)

(Podrfa compra rme una casa cerea de la playa si g a n a ra la loterfa. No i m porta el orden en que se coloq uen las proposiciones. - Travel - LAS ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Conditional clause Result clause Examples ZERO CON D ITIONAL if Present Simple + Presen t Simple when FI RST CON D ITIONAL if If I do sport.) I could I might buy a house by the beach if I won the lottery. (Si hago deporte.) + Presen t Simple unless Future Simple I mperative Modal + base form Ifpeople see Antarctica 's beauty.) Ten en cuenta que unless se usa con basta nte asi d u idad en el primer condicional. I feel energetic. se suele poner u n a coma entre am bas. it melts. la proposici6n es i ntrod ucida por l a conjunci6n unless. "a menos q ue").G ra mm a r Appendix 7.) If you search for information on the In ternet. (Si la gente ve la bel leza d e la Anta rtida. (Las ca rreteras se mojan si l l u eve. If it rains.) When I drink too much coffee. (Si se lo h u b i era d icho. the icebergs will melt (A no ser q u e detengamos I Si no detenemos el e a b"o climcitico. you can buy tickets on the Internet. me siento lleno de energ fa. I would travel to Australia in the summer. en el resu ltado ta mbien se pueden usar Ios verbos mod a l es o el im perativo. (Si ca lientas h ielo. las ca rreteras se mojan. (Cuando tomo d e masiado cafe. cou ld I (Pod rfa haber l legado a tiempo si hubiera salido a ntes. (Si l l u eve.) SECO N D CON DITIONAL if would + Past Simple u n less THIRD CON D ITIONAL if + Past Perfect + base form could I m i g ht If I had enough money. she would have joined us.) Para expresar que alga no ocu rri ra si no se cumple la condici6n.) + past participle He could I might have arrived on time if he had left earlier. o se n iega el verba en Present Simple. se derrite. entendera por que es i mportante. puedes compra r Ios b i l l etes por I nternet. Ios icebergs se derretira n.) The roads get wet if it rains. Ademas del Future Simple. Expresa situaciones que se repiten siem pre que se da una determ i nada con d i ci6n.) If I had told her. the icebergs will melt. viaja rfa a Austra l ia en vera no. A veces podemos usar when en lugar de if sin q u e e l sig nificado d e la frase varie. (No puedes sal i r si no term i nas tus deberes. 125 . If you heat ice. util iza Google. You can 't go out if you don't finish your homework. que eq uivale a if not ("a no ser q ue". they'll understand why it's important.) EL PRI M E R CON DICIONAL Usamos if + Present Simple en la condici6n y Future Simple en e l resu ltado. If we don't stop global warming.) Call me tonight if you want to come on the trip with us. I can't sleep. (Si la estaci6n esta cerrada.) If the station is closed. pero es menos frecuente en el segundo cond icional y n u nca se em plea en el tercero. (Si buscas i nformaci6n en I n ternet. (Si tuviera suficiente d i n e ro. no puedo dorm i r. Unless we stop global warming.) m i g ht have would have Son oraciones compuestas por una proposici6n subordinada que expresa la cond ici6n (conditional cla use) y una principal que ind ica el resu ltado (result cla use). use Google. Expresa que ocu rrira si se cu m p l e la condici6n sefialada. the roads get wet. pero si la condici6n va primero. (Li a m a m e esta noche si q u ieres veni r a l viaj e con nosotros. habria ven ido con nosotros.) EL CON DICIONAL CERO Usa mos if + Present Simple en la condici6n y Present Simple en e l res u l tado.

) ::l SU FIJOS PARA FORMAR SUSTANTIVOS Como ya sabes.) Si el verba de la condicion es to be.EL SEG U N DO CONDICIONAL Se usa if + Past Simple en la con d icion y would + e l verba en la forma base en el resu l tado. te d a re tu regalo. /'11 give you your presen t. q u e es poco probable q u e ocu rra n . personal (personal) personality (personal idad) friend (amigo) friendship (amistad) happy (fel iz) happiness (fe l icidad) obedient (obed iente) obedience (obed iencia) annoy (molestar) annoyance (molestia) strong (fuerte) strength (fuerza) . eso pod ria a n i ma rla a visita rte en N u eva York. (Si esa ca mara no fuera tan cara. it could encourage her to visit you in Ne w York. susta ntivos o verbos. your guides will explain everything. (Sarah habria a prendido frances si hubiera recibido lecciones. es decir. -ence I -ance y -th a a l g u nos adjetivos. Lo q u e cambian son las conju nciones. we might I could have taken a picture.) When we get home. Ios sufijos son term i naciones q u e a fi a d i mos a a l g u nas pala bras para formar otras n u evas. se suele util izar were en todas las personas del s i n g u l a r y del p l u ra l . He wouldn't travel to China unless he had a long holiday. la compra ria. etc. by the time. Algunos de Ios mas uti l izados para formar nombres a partir d e verbos son -ment. If I were you. vuestros g u ias os expl ica ra n todo.) EL TERCER CON DICIONAL Se forma con if + Past Perfect en la condicion y would have + partici pio en el resu ltado. Expresa condiciones h ipoteticas referidas al presente.) En vez de would have + partici pio. en el resu ltado podemos emplear could have o m ight have + participio. If we had brought our camera. -tion I -sion y -er I -or. (Ta n pronto como subais a bordo. (No viaja ria a China a no ser q u e tuviera u nas vacaciones l a rgas. q u e en este caso son as soon as. Estos son a l g u nos ejemplos: agree (acord a r) agreement (acuerdo) invitation (i nvitacion) invite (invita r) conclusion (conclusion) conclude (concl u i r) runner (corredor) run (correr) sailor (mari nero) sail (navegar) Ta mbien se forman susta ntivos afiadiendo Ios sufijos -ity. -ness. -sh ip. As soon as you get on board. If plane tickets were cheaper. En este caso la condicion es tota l mente i m posible.) En lugar de would podemos usar Ios mod a l es could o might en el resu ltado. pero a m bos i ndica n q u e la proba b i l idad de que se cumpla la hi potesis es a u n menor. pues se refiere al pasado y ya no puede rea l izarse. (Yo en tu l u g a r. Sarah would have learnt French if she had taken lessons. when.) ::l ORACIONES TEMPO RALES Las referidas al futuro se forman como las oraciones del pri mer con d icional : Presen t Simple en la su bordinada y Future Simple en la principal. por eso lo traduci mos coma un preterito im perfecta d e subj u ntivo. I f that camera weren't s o expensive. Eq uiva l e n a l condicional "podria" o a las expresiones "ta l vez" I " q u izas". viaja ria en tren. (Si Ios bil l etes d e avion fuesen mas baratos. I would buy it.) Para dar consejos se emplea la form u l a if I were. I would travel by train. (Cuando l leguemos a casa. habria mos podido saca r una foto. (Si h u biesemos tra ido la ca mara. the moment (that).

The police have to conduct an experimen t. Tense Honesty Active LA VOZ PASIVA Passive - Present Sim ple Past Sim ple Future Simple Present Contin uous Past Conti nuous Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Modals Modal Perfects have to be going to The police conduct an experiment. Si el complemento i n d i recto es un pronombre objeto. An experiment is going to be conducted by the police. u n verba en Future Simple o u n tiempo compuesto. The police should conduct an experimen t. An experiment has to be conducted by the police.) l nterrogativa : verba to be + el sujeto + participio. Was the pain ting stolen yesterday? (L EI cuadro fue robado ayer?) Las preg untas q u e l l evan particu la i nterrogativa ta mbien i nvierten el orden del verba aux i l i a r y del sujeto. The police will conduct an experiment. An experiment is conducted by the police. The police were conducting an experiment. The police are conducting an experiment. e s im porta nte que recuerdes que la pasiva es mas frecuente en i n gles que en castel la no. This film critic (subject) wrote the article. siendo el u ltimo caso mas frecuente y exclusivo del ing les. The painting wasn't stolen yesterday. An experiment could have been conducted by the police. l o que nega mos es el modal. An experiment is being conducted by the police. ::2 C O M O PASAR U NA ORACI O N A PASIVA FORMA Afirmativa : sujeto + verba to be + participio del verba principal. The experts chose them for the experiment. (El cuadro no fue robado ayer. (abject) The article (subject) was written by this film critic. The police could have conducted an experiment.) Neg ativa : sujeto + verba to be + not (o n't) + partici pio del verba princi pal. ya sea d i recto o i n d i recto. An experiment was being conducted by the police. Si la frase l l eva un mod a l . El esq uema q u e puedes ver a contin uaci6n expl ica c6mo s e pasa una oraci6n de forma activa a pasiva. The police conducted an experiment. An experiment will be conducted by the police. An experiment should be conducted by the police. An experiment has been conducted by the police. The police had conducted an experiment.) • Ponemos com a sujeto el com plemento q u e haya detras del verba en activa. What strategy has been followed? (LOue estrateg ia ha sido seg u ida I se ha seg u ido?) Who will be chosen as Prime Minister? (LOuien sera elegido Primer M i nistro?) Antes de saber cua les son Ios pasos q u e hay q u e seg u i r para pasa r una oraci6n d e activa a pasiva. un verba en Future Simple o u n tiempo com p u esto. will o have I has. la frase pasiva comienza con el mod a l o el verba auxiliar. They were chosen for the experiment by the exce �5 (Fueron eleg idos para el experimento par 10s e :J e -: : : 127 . The police are going to conduct an experiment. se ca mbia a la forma de p ronombre sujeto. par lo que solemos traducir el verba en activa o en la forma i m personal. Si en la preg unta hay un modal. igual que en la voz activa. (abject) (El a rticulo ha sido escrito par este critico de cine. (El cuadro fue robado ayer.G ra m m a r Appendix 8. The police have conducted an experiment. An experiment had been conducted by the police. An experiment was conducted by the police. The painting was stolen yesterday. menos cuando la particu la hace d e sujeto.

(Dicen I Se dice q u e la gente se com porta de modo d iferente cuando miente.) l ndica r que la acci6n es mas i m porta nte que el sujeto que la rea l iza.) ::l LOS VERBOS CAUSATIVO S : HAVE / GET + SOMETHING + DONE Los verbos have I get + u n susta ntivo + pa rticipio d e pasado expresa n acciones q u e encargamos a a l guien. A new book about criminals is going to be published. The police might catch more criminals thanks to this idea. " . etc. (Me enca nt6 la u ltima pel icu la de Harry Potter. The new system is said to be very successful. sujeto y verbo. mas com u n en el ing les hablado. so I had it repaired yesterday. Son adjetivos en funci6n atri butiva. (Aig u nos ladrones fueron a rrestados por la pol icia.• • Ponemos e l verbo to be en el mismo tiempo q u e ten ia el verbo principal en la voz activa y el verbo principal en participio. (Mi madre esta preocu pada por m i.) We are tired of working. (Se va a publ icar u n n uevo l i bro sobre d e l i n cuentes. Se trad uce como una oraci6n i m personal pero activa : "Se dice I Se piensa I Se ere e .) Aunque a m bos se usan indisti nta mente. asi q u e lo h ice a rreg lar ayer. The new system is considered to be very successful. (El nuevo sistema esta considerado u n exito.) [lo ha rei otra persona] Esta estructu ra tiene un sentido pasivo.) Con verbos como say.La pri mera es una construcci6n i m personal con it seg uida de una oraci6n con th at. bien porq u e es poco releva nte. pues es el verbo q u e Ios sigue el q u e se pone en pasiva. pues el sustantivo q u e va en media reci be la acci6n del verbo que va en partici pio.) ::l ADJETIVOS SEGUI DOS DE PREPOSICI O N us os • • Detras de to be es frecuente encontra r a dj etivos acompariados de una preposici6n seg uida de u n susta ntivo. I was thrilled by the last Harry Potter film. My watch broke. The diamond ring was bought. pero se suele trad uci r en voz activa. th i n k. Somebody bought the diamond ring.) lt is known that nobody is honest all the time.) El verba consider solo es posible en el seg undo tipo de pasiva y tiene una trad ucci6n l itera l : "ser I esta r considerado".) My mother is worried about me. Para trad ucir este tipo de pasiva ta mbien recurrimos al pronombre "se" o usamos u n sujeto genera l como "todo e l m u ndo". believe. (Mas deli ncuentes pod ria n ser atrapados por la pol icia g racias a esta idea. Some thieves were arrested by the police. (Se d ice q u e el n u evo sistema es u n exito. (Se me estrope6 el reloj. u n pronom bre o u n geru n d i o. get es mas i nformal y.) They are going to publish a new book about criminals. Recuerda ca mbiarlo por su correspondiente pronom bre objeto si es uno personal. d esconocido o porq u e no se q u i ere nombrar. I'm going to have I get m y h air cut. lt is said that people behave in a differen t way when they lie.La seg unda se forma con el sujeto + uno de estos verbos en pasiva + un infi nitive. (Me pinta ron la casa I Pi nte mi casa la semana pasada.. por ta nto. precedido de by.) Colocamos el sujeto de la activa al final. (El a n i l l o de d i a m a ntes fue com prado. know o report es posib l e uti l iza r dos formas de pasiva : . solo el verbo know se puede traducir en pasiva.. (Es sabido q u e nadie es si ncero todo el tiem po. Otros ejemplos: The police arrested some thieves. (Esta mos cansados de tra baj a r. (Voy a corta rme el pelo. Los mod a l es y be going to no ca mbian. More criminals might be caught by the police thanks to this idea. I got my house painted last week.) 1 28 . "la gente".) .

would tell m e her opinion about next day. W ate healthy f e ood. La oraci6n subord inada va i ntroducida por la conj u nci6n that. (Dijo que la d e l i ncuencia es castigada por la l ey. . de este a Past Perfect. is tired. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO Reported Speech She said that they ate healthy food. REPORTED STATEMENTS Podemos contar en presente lo q u e a l gu ien acaba de decir. " said that crime is punished by law. " she said. (Dijo q u e me d i rfa su opinion sabre el progra m a a l d fa siguiente. etc.) Pero lo norma l es que el verba q u e i ntroduce la subord inada en estilo i n d i recto (norm a lmente s a y o tel l ) vaya en pasado. a u n q u e en i n g l es hablado se suele omitir. We are We She said that they had She said that they She said that they We have eaten healthy food. We h a d eaten healthy food. the show the She said (that) she "I'll tell you my opinion about the show tomorrow. para lo cual basta con supri m i r las com i l las y cambiar el pronombre sujeto y la persona del verba. y entonces el ca mbio mas i mportante es que el verba de la subord inada da un salto atras (de Present Simple a Past Simple. She said that they She said that they would eat healthy food.) Cuando la frase enuncia u n a verdad genera l no hay ca mbio en Ios tiempos verbal es.G ra m m a r Appendix 9. been eating healthy food. (Dice q u e esta cansado. healthy food. eating healthy food. "I am tired. were eating healthy food. We had b e e n ea ting healthy food.) She "Crime is punished by la w. We have been ea ting healthy food. CAMBIOS EN LOS MODALES Direct Speech Reported Speech CAMBIOS EN OTRAS PALABRAS Y EXPRESIONES Direct Speech Reported Speech can may must I have to will could m i g ht must I had to would now today ton i g ht yesterday l ast week a month ago tomorrow next week here this I these then that day that night the previous d ay I the day before the previous week I the week before the previous month I the month before the following week I the week after there that I those the following d ay I the day after I the next day El estilo i n d i recto se util iza para conta r lo que a l g u ien ha dicho sin citar exactamente sus palabras. She sotd that they had eaten healthy f ood. She said that they had been eating healthy food. " He says that he Ademas de supri m i r las comi l las y ca mbiar Ios tiempos verbales.). were eating healthy food. Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple Present Continuous Past Contin uous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Conti nuous We will eat healthy food. had eaten had been eating She said that they had eaten healthy food. That's Entertainment ! Tense Direct Speech We eat healthy food. ta mbien es necesario q u e haga mos a l g u nos cam bios en Ios pronombres y en las expresiones de tiempo y lugar. healthy food.

Ios verbos m a s com u nes para i ntroducir el esti lo i n d i recto son say y tell. Keri asked They asked the contestant "Are you upset?" they asked the con testant. where. (Los productores madaron a l p i l oto volar en circulos. Son las que com ienzan con una particu la i n te rrogativa (what. En negativa e i n terrogativa requ i ere el auxi l i a r did y en a m bos casos pie rde la d. . (Esta acostu m brada a ir a l g i m nasio todas las ta rdes. Suelen acom pariarse d e adverbios y expresiones de tiempo. (Cada noche. (Me suplic6 q u e no se lo d ijera a nad ie.) Cuando se trata de u n a oraci6n negativa. Tell siem pre l l eva u n complemento i n d i recto s i n la preposici6n to. Los verbos que acomparian a used son be y get. • Usando el gerundio.questions no se pueden contestar con un "si" o un "no". i nvite. sin especificar n i n g u n sujeto. " Tom suggested. how long. (Nos d ij o que la policia habia cog id o a l ladr6n.) Be careful!" He "Did you arrive on time?" "I will be home late.) Used to no tiene forma de presente.) The teacher what the name of the new sho w was. insist. mientras que get used to se refiere al proceso de acostu mbra rse. Did your mother use to travel a l o t when s h e was (. Las sugerencias se pueden pasa r al esti lo i n d i recto de dos formas: • Usando una oraci6n d e complemento d i recto i ntrod ucida por that.) He "The police caught the robber". Famous actors are used to the paparazzi. y presci ndi mos del signo de i nterrogaci6n y d e las com i l las.!Tu madre solia viajar m ucho cuando era jove n ?) Be used to significa "estar acostu mbrado a". state • Pregu n tas: enquire. (Los actores famosos estan acost u m b rados a Ios paparazzi. y ta m poco com i l las. podemos uti l iza r otros m uchos reporting verbs : Afi rm a c i o n es : adm it.) Tom "Let's watch the n e w TV sho w. recommend. explain. no hay i nversion sujeto-verbo ni signo de i nterrogaci6n. complain.) AI pasa rlas al estilo i n d i recto ponemos d icha particula en l u g a r de if o whether. (Se esta acostu mbrando a su nueva rutina. Say puede l l evar com plemento i n d i recto o no. Luego va n el sujeto y el verbo.) He is getting used to his new routine. boast. (Me g rit6 que tuviera cuidado. ::l USED TO I BE USED TO I GET USED TO Se uti l izan para hablar d e acciones que eran frecuentes en el pasado pero ya no lo son. want to know. Entonces. advised me to do my home work. annou nce. " the producers told the pilot. reply. if I whether she was upset. tell y ask. ponemos not dela nte de to. " "Fly in circles.) I cannot get used to living in such a noisy street. " Dove shouted (a t] me to be careful. con su sujeto y el verba en la forma base. " REPORTED ORDERS Para pasar u n a orden a estilo i n d i recto cam biamos el i m perativo por u n i nfin itivo. mention. He said that the police had caught the robber.) wanted to know if I had arrived on time. order. inform. answer. offer. req uest. En ambos casos va seg uido de un nombre o un gerundio detras d e to. told us that the police had caught the robber.) "What is the name of the new show?" Keri asked. como la pregu nta d eja de serlo y se convierte en u n a frase.) "Let's phone the police immediately!" • REPORTED QUESTIONS Hay dos tipos de pregu ntas en i n g l es: Las Yes I No questions son las que se pued e n contesta r con u n "si" o u n "no". (No me acostumbro a vivir en una ca l le ta n ruidosa. Bob sol ia sonar I soriaba con l legar a ser actor. (La profesora me aconsej6 que h iciera Ios deberes. why.Coma ya sabes. wonder • Ordenes: demand. suggested that we watch the new TV show. how. The producers ordered the pilot to fly in circles. claim. (Le pregunta ron a la concursante si estaba enfadada. (Me recorda q u e l legaria tarde a casa.) She is used to going to the gym every a fternoon . warn Supl icas: beg • Sugerencias: advise. suggest • ::l REPORTING VERBS She • reminded me that she would be home late. when. He begged me not to tell anybody. She suggested phoning the police immedia tely. seguido del complemento i n d i recto. (El la sugi ri 6 I la mar a la policia i n mediatamente. • Los verbos mas uti lizados para i ntroducir el estilo i n d i recto son say. Pero a ntes del i nfin itivo debemos usar un verba q u e exprese mandato. Bob used to dream abou t becoming an actor each night. a polog ise. etc. he said. Ta m bien se pueden usar Ios verbos a s k o b e g para expresar peticiones. w h o . i nvite para hacer una i nvitaci6n o warn para adve rtir a a l g uien d e a lgo.) "You should do your home work. (Tom sugiri6 que vieramos el n u evo prog ra ma de television.) young? REPORTED SUGGESTIONS Primero ponemos el sujeto y el verba suggest en pasado y a continuaci6n decimos lo que sugiri6 esa persona. remind.) "Don 't tell anybody. y a conti nuaci6n if o whether. Pero si ta mbien q ueremos com u nicar la i ntenci6n del habla nte o el tono que us6. declare. (Keri pregu nt6 c6mo se l la ma ba e l n u evo prog ra ma. como tel l u order. Para ponerlas e n estilo i n d i recto empleamos el verba ask. (Dave q uiso saber si yo ha bia l legado a tiempo. He said to us that the police had caught the robber. q u e tra nsmiten el mensaje sin ariadir mas i nformaci6n. whose. pero si lo l leva debe ir con esa preposici6n. Ios cuales se pueden conjugar. shout.) Las Wh.

heard but. eJ e. 1 .�sj 4. enjoy foot. hesitated 3.1 Copy the chart into your notebook. Which ending is pronounced /d/. Then listen again and repeat.A l l the exercises in this section a re recorded on the Class Audio CDs.. Listen to the -ed endings of the words below. / ' md3. Listen and choose the correct phonetic symbol from the chart above for the vowel sounds in colour below. Listen again and repeat..): J) ]. . Read the following phonetic symbols and write the words in your notebook.) u: 3 lJ e television sing c hildren think the j ob tf 0 d cl b 1 .. PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE VERB ENDINGS . a1 ac e 2.\ (. tea happy p r s • checked • visited • stopped screamed • suggested • decided tri pped • i nvolved . which is pronounced /t/ and which is pronounced /Id/? 2. Listen again and repeat. Copy the chart into your notebook and write the words in the correct column. s i t 1 .. Then listen and write the words in the correct column.ed Unit 2 Unit 1 PHONETIC ALPHABET 1. nosy 6. you pure . fi n i s hed 1 . boat door. mother bed door /d/ /t/ / Id/ \' very window zebra s hop c J] \I' l Unit 3 VOWEL SOUNDS /i:/ /I/ J: .�ri/ 5. fi ve mou se. good food. sli m 7 . dee r not. / 'spaiki/ 2 . cu rly 8. / ' tJAbi/ 6. tow n bed. bossy 2 . war n ed I: me . band ki te . bear in . stop phone . look at the letters in colour and find the word in each group with the different vowel sound. pla i n 3 . Then listen and check. defea t • tea m • speed • determi ned 3.· f ar. cu p afraid.. arranged Listen and repeat the sounds and words i n the pronunciation key below. Listen again and repeat. n: a. /klu:/ 3. see k 2. screa m • si n g l e • di sorder • petite rel ief • deliver cl3 2.:) near. wm • meet • di d • li m bs 2 . Then listen and check your answers. /r. / ' g ::>:d3. Then listen and check your answers. fou r toy. page chai r.�u'ma::n uk/ 3. Which word has got an /i:/ sound? Which has got an !r/ sound? 2. Listen to the vowel sounds in the words below. peti te 4. past f h J k Ill 11 father girl h at ) es king l ong mouse n ose pink red seven tall cat. 1 . da rk 1 . achieve • com pete • decide • beat .. head play . cure word. 1 . chu bby /i:/ /I/ 3.){. ti p g An -ed e n d i n g i s pronou nced /rcl/ w h e n the verb e n d s w ith a /t/ or /d/ sound. 5 .

Listen to the vowel sounds in the words below. Then listen and fill in the missing words. lo-g i -cal 7 . a rchitect u re 2.. a ncient 8 .. might 5 .. eng i neer 2 . 6 .... should not I should n 't Then listen and circle the words that you hear.. 1 . could have I cou l d 've 3... !tf! or /d3/ next to each word. They .. Which syllable do you thi n k is stressed in each word? Listen and check your answers... be able to see you today.. ... Copy the words below into your notebook.){Jj l:x/ /o/ Usu a l ly.. 1-:x/ and /n/.. con-ser-va-tion 8 ... •uaWI M a ny common n o u n s a n d a dj ectives w i t h two syl l a bles a re stressed o n the fi rst syl l a b le.. Copy the words below i nto your notebook and write tft. You . 2 . Please .. 1 .. Listen to the sounds of the letters i n colour in the words below. ta-ble. I ' m defin itely going to take up swi m m i n g ... 1 . 1 . slow-ly 1 . k n ife 2 . 1 . 6 . 4 . national 1 . Then match the words to the sounds /-. ltf! and /d3/. p refixes a n d suffi xes a re n 't stressed. en-dan-g e red 6. shape CONTRACTED FORMS 2. Sa m . temperatu re 2 . Which sentences have got a contracted form? Listen again and repeat. Then listen again and repeat.. Unit 7 VOWEL SOUNDS j. get close to the tornado. You .. 2. u n-fa i r 3... shore .... g u est 3. come with us... Look at the syllables i n the words below. l i ghtning 1 . rich 5..}UI. maj or 3. 1 . Listen to the words and underline the stressed syllable in each word... 3 . need not I need n 't Unit 5 WORD STRESS 3. Copy the words below into your notebook. Listen again and repeat. Listen again and repeat. C a n you repeat that. tel l J u l ia about the pa rty. M rs B rown ... Copy the sentences below into your notebook. Copy the words below into you r notebook. construction 9. Did Osca r win the race? Then listen and mark the stressed word(s) i n each sentence. l ife-style 4... dan-ger-ous 5.. This is t h e best match I 've ever watched . bridge 7. 5 . 2.. cash 4 ... l i m b 6 . Listen and underline the letters that aren't pronounced in each word.. f rost 2. do not I don't 1 .. 3 .. 6.SENTENCE STRESS 4.. Then match the words to the sounds tft. hec-tic 3 . jel lyfish 4... 1 . been i nj u red ! 4. ha-bi-tat 2. He's won th ree awards s i n ce he joined the tea m . 1 .. Then listen and check your answers. go out in the ra i n . ha-ppy un -sure. p lease? 5.. Copy the sentences below into your notebook.. Dave's never p layed footba l l ... d i ff-i-cu lt 2. a-ni-mal 2. snow 3 .. Unit 6 SILENT LETTERS Unit 4 CONSONANT SOUNDS If! /tfl /d3/ 1 . should 4 . so-l u-tion 3 .

plagiarise 3. Listen and repeat. I n Yes I N o q u estions a nd sh ort Yes I N o a nswers. speed • best • poster • resu lt 3 . Listen to the sounds of the letters in colour i n the words below. what. 3 . " How was the film? " " lt was great ! " 3 . Which word h a s got a /s/ sound? Which has got a /z/ sound? 2 . • • • W h e n a w ord i n a sente n ce beg i n s Lili!!! &l. Copy the sentences below i nto your notebook. C a n you buy the tickets? I ca n give you the money. when. Then listen and check your answers. 4. 4. how a n d why. Copy the chart into your notebook. 2 .Pro n unciation Practice 2. present 6 . Listen to the sounds of the words in colour i n each of the sentences below. 3. I n oth e r types of sentences. Then listen and check your answers. the i ntonation u su a l ly rises. fans • sports • eyes • reason 2. Then listen and write the words in the correct column. Listen and repeat the sentences in Exercise 2. I wou ld rather see a comedy. Yes. I n q u estions w i t h who. we often con n ect it t o t h e l a st sound of the word befo re. Listen again and repeat. I ca n meet you outside t h e cinema. 6 . tru st 1 . Unit 8 CONSONANT SOUNDS /s/ /z/ 2.l with a vowel sound. Pay attention to the rhythm. Were there a ny special effects in the f i l m ? 2 . 1 . force 2 . " Does Sue l i ke horror films? " " Yes. " 3. Then listen and mark the words in colour w (weak form) or s (strong form). I'd l ike to know what time the tra i n l eaves. 2. the i nto nation u s u a l ly fa l l s. I would l i ke tickets for the show. she does. suspect 5 . There's a l ist of hotels and hostels in this guidebook. choose 3 . 1 . Look at the letters in colour and find the word in each group with a different consonant sound. Copy the words below i nto your notebook and write /s/ or /z/ above the letters in colour. 5 . We saw lots of snow in Pola n d. the i ntonation u s u a l ly fa l l s. Please stop at the ai rport . Does the speaker's voice rise or fall at the end of each sentence? I n Yes I No q u estions.x. signals 1 . where. Listen again and repeat. was • police • please • cruise 133 - . I n statements. the word s i n co l o u r a bove h ave u su a l l y got a stron g fo rm. honest 2. Have you ever been to a l ive concert? INTONATION 1 . What was your opinion of the actin g ? 5 .j /':>:/ /D/ RHYTHM 1 . 1 . remote • popula r • a i rport • cold road • hostel • law • cas i no • ca use Unit 9 WEAK FORMS j. How long is the journey? 4. they h ave got a wea k fo rm. Which is the weak form? Which is the strong form? 1 . 3 .

de conducta 1 (bi) 'bet� of/ (estar I ser) mejor. cortante /bleid/ hoja /bleim/ culpar. n i riez manera de actuar de uno/a cha racter chase /�'v3Id/ evitar. preciso/a /�'kwemt�ns/ conocido/a /bri:d/ criar /bnd3/ puente / 'bn:dka:st/ emitir. crefdo/a concerned concrete cond uct / 'bilb'J:d/ cartel publicitario /'bit�/ gelido/a. elenco / 'kcetl/ ganado vacuno / 'kcetlmcen/ ganadero red-handed / b:t red'hcendid/ cogido/a con las / 'tfcel�nd3/ reto. opci6n / 'tf Abi/ rechoncho/a. atento/a (be) better off cockpit convenir mas b i g -headed b i l l board b i tter blade blame blind blink come o n /big'hedid/ engrefdo/a. ir a la caza de B cheat (v) cheer u p back a n d forth /bcek �nd 'b:6/ de aca para alia. fuera de lugar bl izzard book a t i cket I a room / 'bhz�d/ ventisca /buk � 'ukit I � 'ru:m/ reservar un bil lete I una habitaci6n bossy / 'bosi/ mand6n/ona /boks ofis 'hit/ exito de taquilla / 'boksi!J/ boxeo /breik � 'reb:d/ batir un record a b le-bodied box office h i t boxi n g bra i n a fish out of wate r accom modation accom pl i s h m e n t acco rd i n g to accu rate /brem/ cerebra /bri:o/ respirar / 'bre6teikiD/ i m ponente. vacfo/a /bi:t/ veneer /bi'heiv/ comportarse. dig no/a de broad-shoul dered admiraci6n /�d'm1t/ admitir. asegurar / ( hcev �) 'kl�us b:l/ salvarse por Ios beh ave (have a) c l ose ca l l behavioural belong to pelos I de milagro clue /klu:/ pista / 'kokpit/ cabina / kAm 'on/ comenzar. /bi'lou t�/ pertenecer a. sin muebles. sin vegetaci6n. fresco/a / tbis/ elecci6n.)nt/ seg u ro/a de sf mismo/a /kons�'vedn/ protecci6n / k�n'strAkfn/ construcci6n /bn'sid�r.)t/ considerado/a. alegrar / 'tfaildhud/ i nfancia.A GLO S SARY /eibl'bodid I sa no/a. de u n c h i l d h ood c h i l ly lado a otro backgro u n d / 'tfili/ frfo/a. engariar / tfi� 'Ap/ a n i mar. fijar. apartamento /�'pi:! t�/ i nteresar I atraer a /�'p3mtm�nt/ cita car park cast a l l in a l l a n cient / ka:st/ reparto. echar la culpa a /blamd/ ciego/a /bhnk/ parpadear. programar /�'staundiD/ asombroso/a. transmitir /bn:d'fduld�d/ ancho/a de espaldas a c h i eve a g o a l acq u a i nta nce a d m i ra b l e a d m it broadcast / 'cedm�rdbl/ admirable. hacer tra mpas. pasmoso/a / '3:di�ns/ audiencia.:el�ns/ equilibrio /be�/ arido/a.:er�kt�/ personaje / tfi:t/ copiar. reconocer /�d'va:ns/ avanzar /�d'va:nud3/ ventaja adva n ce cage ca l m c / ke1d3/ jaula / ka:m/ tranqui lo/a /'ka: pa:k/ aparcamiento adva ntage a i rl i ne / 'e�lam/ compari fa I l fnea aerea /J:l m '3:1/ en general /'em f�nt/ antiguo/a /�' pa:tm�n t/ piso. sin d i scapacidad 1� 'f1f aut ov w'J:t�/ pez fuera del agua. dejar de award /� \nd/ premia aware (of) 1 �·we� (ov) I consciente (de) / tf eis/ perseg u i r. publ ico manos en la masa challenge champion change cha n n e l a pp o i ntment a rrange asto u n d i n g a u d i e nce avoid /'tfcempi�n/ campe6n/ona o n e's ways / rfemd3 wAnz \veiz/ cambiar la / ' tfcenl/ canal / 'k. i mpresionante /dkom�'dedn/ alojamiento / � ' kAmphfm�nt/ logro break a record breathe /�'b:diD t�/ seg u n . ser de city centre claim I sai 'sent�/ centra de la ci udad /kleim/ afirmar. choice formaci6n b a l a nce bare beat chu bby c i nema / 'b.�di:v � 'g�ul/ conseguir u n objetivo breath t a k i n g breed bridge / 'cekj�r�t/ exacto/a. em pezar /bn'sJ:nd/ preocupado/a / 'ko!Jkri:t/ hormig6n /bn'dAkt/ real izar / 'konfid. serialar /�'remd3/ planear. experiencia. desaffo catt l e a p a rtment a p p e a l to a pp o i nt catt l e m a n caught /�'p3mt/ cita r. portarse /bi'heivj�r�l/ cond uctista. regordete/a /'sm�m�/ cine / 'bcekgraund/ fondo. pestanear confident conserva t i o n consid erate construct i o n contest a n t / k�n'test�nt/ concursante .

llevar.:>s/ peligroso/a fad fa i l fa i r fear fee /feed/ moda /feil/ suspender.:>hst/ ecologista medioambiental environmenta l ist equipment eventua l ly excitement / kAb/ cachorro /'b:li/ rizado/a / ' kAst. cifra /fJ:st 'fb:/ planta baja (EE.:>/ recopilar.:>/ cliente/a / kAt 'of/ aislar /1' kw1pm.:> taim/ hora de salida forecast foremost f ra n k dete r m i ned devastati n g d i ffe r I di'n:mmd/ decidido/a / free1Jk/ franco/a.:>ri. abrigado/a / 'kAnd3/ valor.:>n'ment. / mvair.:>/ ascensor / m'demd3.:>/ miedo / fi.:>s/ generoso/a 1 get 'b:t/ ser pillado/a I captu rado/a d i s g u ise d isorder I geiz/ m i rada fija downtown /daun'taun/ centra de la ciudad / dri:m kAm 'tru:/ sueno hecho g e nerous dream come true get away with i t get ca u g ht / get .:>u . fiero/a / 'fig.Glossary conve nient / k:m'vi:m.:>/ j usto/a /fi. reunir.:>m. U U .:>'wei w1o It/ salirse con la suya realidad d ro u g ht dull I dAl/ aburrido/a I draut/ seq u fa get i nto trouble g l ass I get mtu: 'trAbl/ meterse en un l fo.:>ns/ resistencia I gdU 'on/ d u rar.:>/ ingeniero/a /m'ha:ns/ mejorar.:>/ diferenciarse. dolencia G g a rd e n gather gaze / 'ga:dn/ jardfn / 'geeo.:>ns/ d iferencia / dJs. determinaci6n planta (Reino U nido) / fleet/ piso.:>/ asegurar / 'buzi/ c6modo/a. au mentar I ent. recibir una b ronca I gla:s/ crista I E e d u cat i o n a l eerie effect ive e l evator I ed3u'keif.:>r.:>s/ oscuridad / 'di:l w1o/ ocuparse I encargarse de / 'dedli/ mortal.:>nt/ emoci6n .:>ti/ discapacidad.:>/ entregar. minusvalfa d i fference d isa b i l ity / fAn/ d ivertido/a / 'fju. lugubre go a b road go on /'I.:>'tem/ entretener �--- practice/a cope (with) solucionar cosy I m'fu. hacer frente (a). honesto/a / 'dev. aterrado/a / 'fraitml)/ aterrador/a / 'fAnlfeipt/ en forma de embudo I di'gri:/ g rado flatmate f l i g ht fl ood d e l ayed d e l iver 1 di'leid/ con retraso. cambiar I dis'J:d. repartir I di'skraib/ describir d e p a rt u re t i m e descri be /di'pa:tf.:>s/ fu rioso/a fu n n el-shaped furious fu rry d isadvantage d isa ppoi nted d isease I dis.:>'bii. matrfcula dangero u s dark I da:k/ oscuro/a d a rkness deadly / 'da:kn. retrasado/a / di'LJV. inconveniente /'fJ:ri/ peludo/a I dis. fallar.:>r. mortffero/a /di'si:v/ enganar d e a l with deceive decide f i e rce fig u re 1 d1'said/ decidir 1 d1'fi:t/ derrota fi rst floor flat decision defeat degree 1 di'si3n/ decision. valentfa.:>nl/ educative/a g l oomy / 'glu:mi/ sombrfo/a. desil usionado/a I di'zi:z/ enfermedad 1 dis'gaiz/ disfrazar. devastador/a frig htened frighten i ng fun / 'dif. ju ntar / 'd3en. estremecedor/a /I'fekuv/ efectivo/a. diferir / 'difr.:>/ dato. /'bup w1o/ poder (con) . excitaci6n I eks'prezid.:>r. maS destacado/a / 'fraitnd/ asustado/a. coraje /kra1m/ delincuencia.:>nt/ equipo /I'ventfu.:>d/ en peligro de extinci6n /m 'dju.:>nt/ conveniente.:>nt/ ex-presidente/a curly custo m e r cut off ex-presi d e nt D damage F / 'deemid3/ dano / 'demd3.:>d'va:nud3/ desventaja. e n g i neer e n h a n ce e n s u re /end3I'm.:>'pJmtid/ decepcionado/a. primera / fi:/ cuota.:>/ trastorno. id6neo/a.:>ri/ espel uznante. continuar I g. simular.:>'bn:d/ ir al extranjero g o o n hol iday /gdU on 'hol.:>steiUIJ/ terrible.:>li/ final mente.:>dei/ ir(se) de vacaciones I gud'lukJI)/ guapo/a go s i g htse e i n g / gdU g ood-loo k i n g 'saitsi:IIJ/ hacer turismo e n d a n g e re d e n d u ra nce . fracasar / fe.:>s/ feroz. al fina l / Ik'saitm. delito / kru:z/ crucero enterta i n courage crime cruise cub environmental / mvair.:>n'mentl/ ecol6gico/a.). eficaz / 'elJVeit. apartamento /'fleetrneit/ companero/a de piso /flait/ vuelo /flAd/ inundaci6n /'fJ:ka:st/ pron6stico / 'fJ:mdUSt/ principal.

) 'belt/ dar un golpe bajo hoax / hdUks/ engario hold your horses ! / h.)/ menti roso/a l ifelong / 'laiflnu/ de toda la vida l ifestyle / 'lmfstml/ estilo de vida I ift 1 lift/ ascensor l i g ht bulb / '!an bAlb/ bomb i l la l ikely / 'laikli/ probable lightn i n g / 'lartnru/ rayo.)V. atento/a. destrozado/a hea rtwa rming / 'ha:twJ:mi!J/ reconfortante.)'wei/ apartar la mirada (never) look back / nevd luk 'ba!k/ i rle (a alguien) sobre ruedas look forward to /luk 'fJ:w. g u l l ible / 'gAI. pesado/a hectic / 'hekuk/ agitado/a. intense/a.)/ desea r.)upf.)s/ g uapfsi mo/a. decepci6n l i a r /'lai. a sir i nternational /mt. poco practice/a.)s/ inofensivo/a hea rtbroken / 'ha:tbrdUkdn/ desconsolado/a. tener m uchas ganas de. intrascendente isolation /ais. con u n poco de suerte horse raci ng / 'hJ:s reiSI!J/ h fpica. gotear learn the ropes /b:n O. .)'n<�!fn.)ups/ ponerse al tanto leisure / 'le3. de buen coraz6n L land /l<�!nd/ aterrizar landmark / 'l<�!ndma:k/ lugar muy conocido la ndscape / 'l<�!ndskeip/ paisaje leak (v) /li:k/ tener una fuga.) 'k<�!t aut nv O. h uesped gui lty / 'giiti/ culpable g round floor I graund 'fb:/ planta baja /Its d 'pni/ Es una pen a . alentador/a heatwave / 'hi:tweiv/ ola de calor heavy / 'hevi/ fuerte. avisa r i nformation /mf.)un/ matar dos pajaros de un tiro kind-hearted / kamd'ha:ud/ bondadoso/a. tiempo libre lengthen / 'leu8. pu nto culmi na nte high street / 'hai strit/ ca l le principal h i re a car / 'hai. . precioso/a g raphic / 'gr<l!fik/ g rasp I gra:sp/ agarrar.)/ esperar con a nsia. g reet I gri:t/ saludar. suponer i ron / 'ai.)nt/ i rrelevante. frenetico/a helpful / 'helpfl/ a ma ble.)un/ g ra n izo.)ti/ en cautividad i n shape / m 'fe.)/ ocio.) d ka:/ a l q u i lar u n coche hit below the belt /hit biidu O. revisar look up /luk 'Ap/ buscar . estar desea ndo look through /luk '8ru:/ examinar detenidamente. ca rreras de cabal los huge /hju:d3/ enorme. muy g rande h u m idity /hju:'mid.)n/ alargar let the cat out of the bag /let O.)uld jJ: 'hJ:SIZ/ j Pa ra el carro ! I j Espera u n memento ! hopefully / 'h.)li/ esperemos q ue.) 'r. a n helar long-legged /lnu'legid/ de piernas largas I i l logical /Il'lnd3Ikl/ il6gico/a i m possible /Im'pns.)'r.)ti/ h u medad hu nt / hAnt/ cazar hunting /'hAnuu/ caza hailstone / 'heiist.) b<�!g/ descu brir el pastel I i rse de la lengua let-down / 'letdaun/ chasco. meterse I entrar en J K keep in mind / ki:p m 'mamd/ tener en cuenta I presente kick off /'k1k nf/ expu lsar I echar de ki l l two birds with one stone /kii tu: 'bJ:dz w1o wAn st. lesi6n long-term /lnu'tJ:m/ (a) largo plaza look away /luk . servicial heroic /h.)n/ hierro irrelevant / I'rel.)d t.)bl/ i mposible impression /Im'prefn/ i mpresi6n i m pulsive / Im'pAlsiV/ impulsive/a in captivity /m ka!p'tiV.)bl/ credu lo/a.p/ en forma inconvenient /mkdn'vi:ni.)'leifn/ aislam iento it's a pity .)l/ internacional i nvolve / m'vnlv/ implicar.)nt/ i noportuno/a.. relampago l ive /laiv/ en d i recto I vivo logical / 'lnd31kl/ 16gico/a l i m b / IIm/ extremidad.Glossary gorgeous / 'g:>:d3.) 'ed3/ vivir al l fmite long for / '!nu f.)'medn/ informaci6n i n herit /m'hent/ heredar inj ury / 'md3dri/ herida. miembro l ive on the edge / IIv nn O. simpl6n/ona H habitat / 'ha!bit<l!t/ habitat (have a) head start 1 (h<�!v d) 'hed sta:t/ ten er ventaja harmless / 'ha:ml. inc6modo/a i nform / m'b:m/ i nformar. recibir guest 1 gest/ i nvitado/a.. piedra de g ra n izo join I d3Jm/ u n i rse a.)uik/ heroico/a hesitate / 'heziteit/ dudar high point / 'hai pJmt/ memento crucial.

nublado/a /.:) 'fl<eg/ izar una bandera / reiz .J'nait/ de una noche /.J[arv/ (tener) suerte de esta r vivo/a l ug g a g e l ux u ry p G loss a ry /'pa:ki!J lot/ aparcamiento p a r k i n g lot passe nger / 'IAgid3/ equipaje /'p<esmd3. . .Jri/ aumentar u n sueldo /reiz <en ·. . .Jt. a ngosto/a / 'n.. .J'ka:st/ encapotado/a. . . fundi r(se) / ma�ld/ templado/a. .Juv.Jnt/ rival. . . .J'nd3. . trasladarse.JI/ peligro.Jri/ lujo. . . .J/ pasajero/a / 'peivm. .J'popju:leitid/ superpoblado/a / reiz . . pasado/a de /. .Jbl/ posible movie t h eater mug / mAg/ taza.J bi .Jun. suave / mis/ echar de menos. trama / 'pJmt (. . .J/ aseg u rarse / 'per. .) p l ot m i s u n d e rsta n d /plot/ argu mento. .JI/ nato/a. propieta rio/a /n'li:st/ liberado/a. . . anorar / misAnd.Js/ prop6sito. . . . queue / kju:/ cola Q o l d-fa s h i o n e d R ra i n fa l l / 'remfJ:I/ cantidad de l luvia.Jraiz/ plagiar /plem/ senci llo/a.J/ exterior sacar un tema overcast / 'ra:o. . .Juv. /'aut.Jn/ en vez de overcome ove r n i g ht / 'ri:tf [.Juzi/ entrometido/a psychological p u rpose put o n put up / saik. ra ise a q u est i o n oponente ord i n a ry or i g i n a l outer pregunta raise a sa l a ry raise a n issue rather t h a n reach for rea l i se /'J:dnri/ normal.Jiaiz/ darse cuenta de /n'Idn/ relaci6n 1 n'leifnhp/ relaci6n overpopulated overt u r n owner relation /. .J'kAm/ superar. . . .Jt)/ apu ntar (a) /pJmt 'aut/ senalar. . natural / 'netwJ:k/ cadena de televisi6n I radio /n.J/ m usculoso/a poodle possi b i l ity poss i b l e pour N n a rrow natura l / 'n<er. lla no/a. adversari9/a.JUp. . precipitaci6n /reiz .J'sweid/ convencer. . . i r a buscar / 'pmpJmt/ identificar.J'fJ:m. persuadir m a ke s u re ma l l man person a l persuade petite / mJ:I/ centra comercial / m<en/ atender. objetivo occu pat i o n a l hazard office b l ock 0 /put 'on/ presentar. . mover(se) / 'pJizn/ veneno / 'poi.J wot/ no importa lo que I da / pJ:/ servir.J/ de gran relevancia. . / 'IAkf. . / p.J'p. de l ujo path / pa:8/ camino. hacer notar mali nterpretar modern move point (at) p o i nt out p o i so n pol icy / 'modn/ moderno/a / 'mu:vi 8I.Jun. . . . .JUv. . . representar / put 'Ap/ colgar.Jnt/ relevante / n'li:f/ a l ivio . . . .J'lod3Ikl/ psicol6gico/a / 'pJ:p. . normal y corriente /. .ml/ personal / p.Ju/ estrecho/a. cuidar / 'ma:vl/ maravillarse. . . . .J[. . . poco atractivo/a /plem/ llanura m a rvel melt pick u p p i n po i n t m i d d le-aged mild m iss p l a g i a rise plain (n) p l a i n (adj .Juv.Jn'mamdid/ abierto/a . . . veneer / . . . . . .J/ dueno/a. . .Jti/ posibilidad / 'pos.Juld'f. asombrarse /midl'eid3d/ de mediana edad / melt/ derretir(se). .Jsi/ polftica / 'pu:dl/ can iche /pos. . . riesgo / 'pJ:s.J 'kwestfn/ form ular una de mente. . poner / okjuped. . . . . . . verter. . . . .Jd/ riesgo labora l .Jnt/ acera /p.oefnd/ anticuado/a.J o. .:) 's<ei. .oetf r. .J/ cine / mu:v/ mudarse. taz6n m uscu l a r /'mAskj. determinar / 'pleid3. .J'st<end/ no entender. sin prej u icios ra i se a flag /. .Juv. . . .Jns/ representaci6n. . .Ju 'm<et.fu:/ plantear u n problema. . sendero M pavement performance m a i n street / 'mem stri1/ calle principal rendim iento peri l major / 'me1d3. .Jnl 'h<ez.Jnl/ original /.Jv.J/ alargar la mano para coger / 'ri:. . echar predator / 'pred.Jt.J'tJ:n/ anular relations h i p relea sed relevant re l i ef / '. . . . m uy importante / meik 'fu. .J'ti:t/ menuda / p1k 'Ap/ recoger.J/ depredador predictable preten d /pn'dikt. . .J'bii.(be) l u c ky to be a l ive I (bi) 'IAki t. . funci6n. puesto/a en l i bertad / 're[.Jbl/ previsible network /pn'tend/ fingir no matter what igual lo q u e nosy protective 1 pdtektrv1 protector/a / 'n. . gajes del oficio de ofici nas mod a open-m i n d e d opponent / 'of1s blok/ bloque I ed ificio /. . . . . . . . . . .

im pactado/a steel / 'foki!J/ espantoso/a. responder /n'pJ:t/ i nforme / n'kwest/ petici6n. espantado/a. contin uaci6n I set d 'den/ fijar una fecha spec i a l effects species speed existencias seq uel seriously i n j u red set a date / spi:d/ velocidad speed camera /'srdridsli md3dd/ gravemente herido/a velocidad s p i ky staff star / 'spaiki/ de pu nta /sta:f/ personal. sobresaltar I stert dV od 'a:t/ de vanguardia I la m as set a precedent set a record set a ta b l e I set d 'reb:d/ establecer un record / set d 'presiddnt/ sentar un precedente I sta:/ protagon izar / set d 'teibl/ poner una mesa / set <en d'la:m/ poner una alarma stare set an a l a rm s e t ( i n) severe shake s h a re sh iver startle / set ('m ) / ambientado/a (en) /sr'vrd/ fuerte. repasar (v) / n'w::>:d/ recompensar. resbalar / 'slipdri/ resbaladizo/a /smel d 'r<et/ haber gato encerrado. agotar las / 'si:kwdl/ secuela. revisar. estar s l i p pe ry run after r u n i nto s m e l l a rat snobbish / 'rAn m tu:/ tropezar I encontrarse con / nn 'of wro/ llevarse. rigu roso/a state-of-th e-art I fed/ compartir I Jerk/ temblar stay at a hotel / 'hvd/ ti ritar. calado/a hasta con r u n out soa k i n g wet /rAn 'aut/ acabarse.b:t 'tempdd/ i rrita ble. esbelto/a /slip/ deslizarse. que tiende a robar . proyectar (n)/ skri:n/ pantalla /'si:zdnd/ vetera no/a space-a g e spacecraft spacious spare seasoned seek se l l / 'sperfds/ espacioso/a. esbelto/a /sr!Jk/ h u n d i r(se) reward (n) r i p-off sitco m s k i l led skinny risk h i s l ife romantic rough ruler skyscra per slender slim slip /rAf/ peligroso/a.G l ossa ry remarka b l e re m i n d rent / n'ma:bbl/ extraordi nario/a. sol icitud / n'snf l i nvestigaci6n / ntJ:n 'ukit/ bi llete de ida y vuelta (v)/'reskju:/ rescatar. de mal genio / 'fdulddle!J8/ a la altura de Ios req u est rescue hombros sidewa l k s i g n up research (n) resort / 'saidw:J:k/ acera / 'srgndl/ serial / sam 'Ap/ registrarse. serial / 'sofn od bldu/ a mortiguar el golpe / 'sokit/ ench ufe. resena. salvar /n'zJ:t/ complejo tu rfstico / n'vju:/ crftica. toma de corriente / 'saundtr<ek/ banda sonora / 'serlr!J/ vela /'sk:nfr!J/ abrasador/a / skri:m/ g rita r. escaso/a de report short-te m pe red shou ld er-length . temblar I youth hostel /ster <et d hdu'tel/ d 'ju:8 hosd/ alojarse en un hotel I albergue juvenil stea I I sti:l/ rob a r I sti:l/ a cera moderno shocked shock i n g I fokt/ estupefacto/a. premia / nsk h1z 'laif/ arriesgar su vida / 'npof/ estafa / rdu'm<enuk/ roma ntico/a s h o p p i n g centre shore renta l agency reply !h:! ori lla (be) short of 1 (bi) 'ht ov/ (estar) fa lto/a de. i mpactante s t i c k y f i n g e rs / 'suki fiugn/ m a no larga . premiar /rr'w:J:d/ recompensa. ampl io/a / spefl 1'fekts/ efectos especiales I si:k/ b uscar / sped/ de mas I sobra / 'spdi:z/ especie / 'spi:d k<emdrd/ camara de control de selfish / 'selfrf/ egofsta out / 'se! aut/ vender todas las entradas. chi l l a r soften the b l ow soun dtrack source scorc h i n g scream screen screen / s:J:s/ origen. astronave (v)/skri:n/ emitir. fuente. un ico/a / 'srtkom/ comed ia de situaci6n / skrld/ habil. experto/a / 'skmi/ flaco/a / 'skarskrerpd/ rascacielos / 'slendd/ delgado/a. sorprendente shop I fop/ tienda /n'mamd/ recordar (alga a alguien) / 'rend e1d3dnsi/ agencia de alqu iler shopl ift / 'foplift/ robar en tiendas / 'fopi!J sentd/ centra comercial /rent/ alqu ilar /n'plai/ contestar. empleados/as /sted/ mirar fijamente / 'sta:d/ asustar. procedencia / 'sperserd3/ (de la) era espacial / 'sperskra:ft/ nave espacial. escapa rse I fugarse tramandose alga r u n off with / 'snobrf/ esnob / 'sdukr!J wet/ empapado/a. espeluznante. agitado/a run a b u s i n ess I a company / rAn d 'brznds 1 d 'kAmpdni/ d i ri g i r I l l evar un negocio I una empresa I rAn 'a:ftd/ perseguir / 'ru:ld/ gobernante / slim/ delgado/a. agotarse Ios h uesos soap opera socket sa i l i n g s / 'sdup oprd/ telenovela. especial izado/a. inscri birse ret u r n ticket review reward s i g n a l (n) s i ng l e sink / 'sr!Jl/ solo/a.

�r'esumen/ su besti mar. .. ? /wot w3: ju: 'du:qJ wen/ L Que estabas hacienda cuando . densola / 'Ehkn..�s/ ver..� bi) w3:8 'si:r!J/ merecer la t h r i l led thri l l ing worldwide (to be) worth see i n g th row i n the towel tin I tm/ lata.� 'medl/ ganar una meda lla thickness t h i ef /wm ..� 'tau.. espesor / '8.� 'pratz/ ganar un premia /wm ::en 'a:gjum. avisar / 'wotf£1/ atentola..�/ h u racan tune in (to) twister storey / 'sn:ri/ piso.. fiarse de /tju:n 'm (t. obstinadola u u n attractive I An.. bote o.�uz/ suponer / 'y. avance / ' trerni!J/ entrenamiento / 'tretf. . str ugg l e menospreciar unfair u n usual useful stu bborn suit I An'fe.�'p.\vist...\nd.� 'wJ:/ ganar una guerra th reate ned threaten i ng thrill w i n an a rg u ment d iscusi6n witness / 8rrl/ emoci6n / 8rrld/ contentfsi mola.�uv...�l/ tirar la toa lla pena verlola tra d i t i o n a l tra g i c tra i l e r / trd'dtf....�nt/ ganar una /wrn . tener d ificultades / 'stAb.�s/ pel i g rosola.m/ sobreh umanola V valuable /s.�r. golpear /str. tomar / tetk 'plets/ tener lugar meteor61ogola we l l -bu i lt What were you d o i n g when when I heard wh ite lie wild take place take u p ta ke-off ta l kative tame / teik 'Ap/ em pezar I ded icarse a. mantener /An'ju:3u. intimidatoriola / 8i:f/ ladr6nlona competici6n win a match wi n a medal w i n a p r i ze w i n a wa r /wrn ..�/ trailer.. la pelota esta en tu tejado / 8tk/ espesola.�nl/ tradicional y /'tr::ed31k/ tragicola /'treil.� ) / si ntonizar (con) /'1...�'tr::ekuv/ poco atractivola stroke u n d eresti mate I .. ? /wel'brlt/ fornidola /wen a1 'lud/ cuando escuche 1 oi /teim/ domesticadola.:eJju.�t/ muy tranqui lola. en todo el mundo I ( t. apasionante /8r..�'ufn/ ganar una tea r down tempt /warld/ salvaje w i l l power tend to w i n a competition the b a l l 's in your court thick /o.� 'm::etf/ ganar un partido /wrn ..� komp.. mansola /tempt/ tentar / tend 't. apropiadola I s.�n/ testarudola. i l usionadola / '8rrh!J/ emociona nte.� telespectadorla.�un/ piedra trust / trAst/ confiar en.�u m / 'witn...-et..�'spekt/ sospechar de very q u i et silen ciosola viewe r \ju:.�s/ grosor.� daun/ derribar .. traicionerola yard I ja:d/ jard fn youth hostel / 'ju:8 hostl/ a l bergue j uven i l tra i n i n g trea cherous trick /trrk/ enganar ..�'hju:m. soler /wait 'lai/ mentira piadosa / 'wrlpau. adquirir. ocupar /'tetkof/ despegue / 't:>:buv/ habladorla /'te.G l ossary stone store 1 m:/ tienda I st..�/ i njustola /su:t/ traje (de chaq ueta) / 'su:t.�l/ i n usual su ita b l e / 'ju:s£1/ util superh u m a n support sup pose surface s u rvive suspect /su:p.. vigilante / 'weivi/ onduladola / 'weo.�bl/ adecuadola.� 'bJ:lz m jJ: bt/ te toca a ti dar el sigu iente paso.�/ tender a.....� fJ:ka:st. televidente suspenseful sweat swiftly I swet/ sudar / s...�'vatv/ sobrevivir I s...�bl/ valiosola \·eri 'b·ar...�/ switch o n watchful wavy T take over weather forecaster / tetk '. presenciar / 'w3:ldwa1d/ m u n d ial.�uk/ derrame cerebral /'strAgl/ luchar.�/ reemplazar..�nd/ amenazadola /'8retm!J/ amenazadorla.�/ fuerza de vol u ntad /wrn .�'pn/ sostener..�'spensfl/ de suspense / 'swtftli/ rapidamente / swnf 'on/ encender w warn /wJ:n/ advertir.. muy / 's3:fts/ superficie / s. pla nta I streit/ I isola stra i g h t strength str i k e /stre!J8/ fuerza / straik/ pegar. .. ...

. .) 81!)/ ADDING MORE INFORMATION nota r I darme cuenta . L Que opinas? Do you a g ree? / du: ju: . . ? Unit 3 nacio . . .Juk. . but i n this one . . le interesa? What's h e l i ke? 'tu: piktfn /o. . . . /wots 'mJ:/ Lo que es m as. .Jutlst/ Acabo de ver I /<end oen . . . . And there's a n ot her t h i n g . . .J'gri:/ ( Estas de acuerdo? . . . DRAWING SOMEONE'S ATTENTION I've j ust noticed . . lt l ooks l i ke . .Jnt b1koz/ Las fotograffas son bastante d iferentes porq ue . .:end .Jz f. . /. . . . . .J]i/ (De verdad ? . / a1 b1'1i:v ocet/ C reo que . .Juz/ Esta fotograffa muestra . . GETTING SOMEONE TO EXPRESS AN OPINION What a bout you? /wot d.J ju: '8I!Jk/ L Que piensas tu ? /wot . Another thing that they have got i n common is .J sim. . . . .Jutis/ (Te has dado /.J 'ple1s m piktf. .Jn IZ/ Otra cosa que I tienen en com u n es . .J 'piktfn a: kwa1t difr.Jj /wot .Juz . I d i d n 't g et t h a t . . I n this picture there is . ? EXCHANGING INFORMATION Unit 5 que . . . .J plcenz/ (C uales son sus planes para el futuro? parece I creo que . ? que . . . . /'n. . . . . .J'nAO. . . . than i n pict u re 2 .J'wJ:dz hn hi:/fi: /wot 'reb:dz hn / ai 'd. .Js [. . . .Jn m piktf . . / o.JSU!J/ Suena I Me pa rece bien I d ivertido I Real ly? / m 'o1s piktf . b. I t h i n k that . wail '8cet wAn f. interesante que el de la fotograffa 2 . por favor? What does h e look l i ke? /hi:z 'got/ Tiene . . . maybe / 'meibi/ qu iza.Jt m 'o1s wAn/ En esta fotograffa hay .J'nAo.J difr. . . .J'pmi. . . . / 'b. /'plAs o. . .J f. .Jnt fu:d/ L C ual es su comida preferida? What problems has he/she h a d ? /wot 'prob]. Have a look at . ( Has vista . /hi:z 'prob. . . I fee l that .Ju9 piktf. . / hcev .Juz/ S u pongo . . . . . What's more. . mientras que esa muestra . . / did ju: 'n. .J 'luk cet/ t chale un vistazo a . . . . H e 's probably . .Ju/ Ambas fotograffas muestran . And besi des. . . / hi:z 'veri/ Es I Esta muy .Glossary Functional Language DESCRIBING PEOPLE H e 's got . persona)? He's very . lt seems to me that . pero en esta .) 9!!) 9cet oei hcev got m kom. . TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE Unit 2 This p i cture shows . i nte rested i n ? /wots hi: ' m tPstid m / L Que /wots hi: 'la1k/ (Coma es (coma The two p ictures a re s i m i l a r I a l i k e because . / i t 'luks la1k/ Pa rece que .J].Js . . es (ffsicamente)? H e l i kes . /a1 'fi:l ocet/ Siento que . /wot dAz hi: 'luk la1k/ L Coma Unit 4 COMPARING PICTURES Another d ifference between them is that . D i d you notice . . / aid 'bi/ Yo serfa I estarfa . I n my o p i n i o n. . .J oe.Jn/ (Que records ha batido? Wh at's h is/her favourite food? /wots hiz/h. . /ai s. .Jn/ E n mi opinion. .Jmz hn hi:/fi: heed/ L Que problemas ha tenido 7 What a re h i s/h e r futu re p l a n s ? /wot a: hiz/h.J'nAO.J]aik b1koz/ Las dos fotograffas se parecen I son parecidas porque .J 'fju:tf. / ai m ' sori a1 d1dnt get 9cet/ Lo siento. . . .J 'fetv. . . . . . When was . ?. . / 'o1s piktf. ( E n serio? / 9cets 'gren/ Eso es genial I estu pendo. . . /It si:mz t. . . . . /o. hi:/fi: br. . . . . . o. . . .J wAn 1z mJ: I ). . . . sea I esta /este .J fcekt 9cet/ Ademas de And a n other thi ng. .Jj. . . .Jbli/ Probablemente es I I s u p pose . a: /hi: 'laiks/ Le gusta . . The p l a ce i n pict u re 1 i s m o re I less .Junt 8I!Jk ocet/ No creo What is he/she famous for? ( Par que es famoso/a ? What awards has he/she won? wAn/ L Que premios ha ganado? What records has he/she broken? I m ma1 .Jns bnwi:n 8em 1z 9cet/ Otra d iferencia entre am bos/as es que . 'bJ:n/ L C uando /wot 1z hi:/fi: 'feim.:end bi'saidz/ Y ademas. . . The pictu res a re q u ite d ifferent because . . . . /a! '9I!Jk ocet/ Pienso I C reo que . . EXPRESSING OPINIONS I don't t h i n k that . . . C a n y o u repeat t h at. tal vez I'd be . Y hay alga mas . / aiv d3Ast 'n. . . p l e a s e ? Unit 1 / kdn ju: n'pi:t 9cet pli:z/ ( Puedes repeti rlo. born? /wen wn . . I b e l i eve that . w h i l e that o n e shows . . . . Both p i ctu res show .J tu: I El lugar de la fotograffa 1 es m as I me nos . . . .J'p.J 9I!J/ Y otra cosa. . Sounds good I fun I i nterest i ng / saundz 'gud I 'fAn /'mtr. . .J 1z . cuenta de .J'nAo. GETTING SOMEONE TO REPEAT SOMETHING I ' m s o r ry. What's h e /. SHOWING INTEREST That's g reat. no lo he entend i d o . . P l u s the fact that . .J ' mi: oxt/ Me . .J'pmj. . .Jbaut 'ju:/ LY tu? What's y o u r o p i n i o n ? /wots jJ: . .Jn/ (Cual es tu What do you t h i n k? opinion?.

I /wud ju: laik � 'ntJ:n ukit J: � 's1nl ukit/ L Queria un bil lete de ida y vuelta o solo de ida? De acuerdo. . . . I ' m not keen o n . . L Puede(s) I Podria(s) ayudarme. . . . . . /aid 'ra:o� not/ Prefiero I Preferiria /aim not ' ki:n on/ No me I aid la1k t� 'n�u wen/ Me g ustaria I Querria saber cuando . . SAYING "NO" TO A SUGGESTION I'd rather not ./'fam�li/ Finalmente I A I final. .Glossary Unit 6 INTERVIEWING What were you d o i n g when . . . I t h i n k you're r i g ht. . . I ' m not rea l l y i n terested i n . . . . . That would be fine. . . . . I Can you te l l me whether . . . ? Unit 8 AGREEING AND DISAGREEING As fa r as I ' m concerned. / fam/ Val e . When's the next tra i n after that? /wenz oe� nekst trem a:ft� 'ocet/ L C uando sale el siguiente tre n ? How often d o t h e tra i n s leave? / h au ' ofn d � O. . . . /hau did ju: 'fi:l/ L C6mo te /wot 'hcep. . . . . ? Do you k n ow if . . . /wot wJ: ju: 'du:qJ wen/ L Que estabas hacienda cuando . . / '8cets wai/ Es por eso por lo que . . . . . . . Let's meet . ? I ' m dying to see . . /ai b1'1i:v ocet/ C reo que . interesa(n) mucho . . . . . W h a t t i m e d o e s the t ra i n leave? D o I have to book i n advance? /wot taim dAz o� 'trem li:v/ LA que hora sale el tre n ? / hau �·baut/ L Que tal si I te pa rece . I d i sa g ree.-_4___: �: 11 1 . ? / kdn ju: 'tel mi weo�/ L Puede(s) I Podria(s) decirme si .. ? Sorry. . . . / J:l m 'J:l/ E n general. . GIVING A REASON That's why . . . por favor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F i n a l ly. . . . Quedamos . I wou l d n't m i n d . . . . . A l l i n a l l . /ai hcev �·nAo� aidi�/ Ten go otra idea . eso . . . ? What d i d you see? /wot did ju: 'si:/ LQue viste? How did you react? /hau did ju: ri'cekt/ L C6mo reaccionaste? How did you fee l ? /cez fa: cez aim k�n'SJ:nd/ Por lo que a mi respecta I Por mi parte. ? / 'sori ai ka:nt meik It/ /ocet wud bi: 'fam/ /8cets � gud ai'di�/ i B uena idea ! /wot d� ju: s�'d3est/ Lo siento. . . . . / J:l rait lets 'mi:t . . How a bout . . i nteresa(n) . If you ask me. I bel ieve that . Yo u've g ot a p o i nt. . im portaria . . . / If ju: 'a:sk mi:/ S i q u ieres mi opinion . I can't make it. . . . ? Can you h e l p me. have a nother idea . F i ne . . I ' d rather see . I ' m not rea l ly i nto . . Bien. . T h a t 's /ai d1s�'gri: I No estoy de acuerdo. . Por /5� 'ri:zn wai/ La raz6n por la que . . . . ASKING FOR INFORMATION I ' d l i ke to k n ow when . / ' s�u m o� end/ Asi que al final. true. . no . / ' 8cets tru:/ Es verdad I cierto. . . . . . . . . . . /aim not 'n�li m tu:/ No me . /ai '81nk jJ: rait/ C reo que tienes I ju:v got � ' pJmt/ Tienes raz6n . /bi'koz �v 8cet I Por eso . . Es cierto. . I d o n 't think . . . end/ L Que pas6 al fi nal? W h a t were p e o p l e d o i n g ? /wot wJ: pi:pl 'du:�n/ L Que /ai �·gri:/ Estoy d e acuerdo. Resu miendo I En resumen. antelaci6n ? Where do I get the tra i n ? L D6nde cojo el tre n ? H o w m uc h i s a ticket? L Que recom iendas I sugieres? / hau 'mAtf Iz � ukit/ L C uanto /wot taim d� ju: cuesta un bil lete? What t i m e d o you want to l eave? W i l l t h a t b e f i rst o r second cl ass? /wai 'd�unt wi:/ L POr que no . . . /du: ai hcev t� buk m �d'va:ns/ LTengo que reservar I hacer la reserva con /we� du: ai get o� 'trem/ Eso estaria bien. . . .:) tremz li:v/ L Cada cuanto I Con que frecuencia salen Ios trenes? /aid 'ra:o� si:/ Prefiero I Preferiria ver . . . To cut a l o n g story sh ort. That's a g o o d idea ! What do you sugg est? Why d o n 't we . . I can't sta n d . I n my opin ion. hada la gente? FINISHING YOUR STORY raz6n . . ? /aim 'da1n t� si:/ Me muero por ver . ? / kdn ju: 'help mi: pli:z/ /aim not n�li 'mu·�sud m/ No me interesa(n) mucho . no puedo. /ai 'd�unt 81nk/ No creo (que) . wont t� 'li:v/ LA que hora quiere salir? /m ka:nt 'stcend/ No soporto I /ai wudnt 'mamd/ No me /wii 'ocet bi: b:st J: sek�nd kla:s/ LViajara en clase preferente o turista? aguanto . . I a g ree. . p l ease? / du: ju: 'n� If/ LSabe(s) si .md m o� sentiste? What h a p pe n ed in the e n d ? /m mai �·pmj�n/ E n m i opinion. . The reason why . Because of that . . . Unit 7 alga? BUYING A TRAIN TICKET May I h e l p you? /mei ai 'help ju:/ L Puedo ayudarle en /hau 'Ion IZ oe� d3J:ni/ H ow l o n g i s the j o u rney? Unit 9 MAKING PLANS L C ua nto d u ra el viaje I trayecto? Wo u l d you l i ke a ret u rn o r a s i n g l e t i cket? A l l r i g ht. /t� kAt � Ion 'st:xri ht/ So in the end.

poner put u p with: agua ntar. hacer pasar l ive u p to: estar a la altura de. encontrarse con (por casual idad) come apart: deshacerse. apartar(se) de keep o n : seg u i r. phrasal verbs PHRASAL VERB S back away: block off: retroceder cortar (el paso) break away: separarse. subir(se) I montarse get out of: escaparse I l i bra rse de get over: reponerse. ir a visita r. hacerse pedazos come back: regresar. m i ra r a algu ien como si no estuviera look up: buscar. estar desea ndo l ook i n o n : i r I pasar a ver a algu ien l ook i nto: i nvestigar. suspender. acabar feel l i ke: apetecer. escapa rse con run out (of): quedarse (sin) g o off: g o down: . superar get together: reu n i r(se). . tener exito check i n : facturar (aeropuerto). acompa nar a go away: i rse. escoger pick up: coger. marcharse g o back: volver. crecer h a n g out: pasar el rato hang u p : colgar (el telefono. irse g o o n : d u ra r. ren u nciar a go a l o n g : i r con. regresar get by : arreg larselas get down : bajarse. cum p l i r g row u p : criarse. ser castigado pay off: saldar. j venga ! ) come u p with: proponer. estudiar l oo k o n : considerar l oo k out: tener cu idado l oo k ove r: revisar. criar call off: ca ncelar. excl u i r let d ow n : decepcionar. posponer put on: representar. un adverbio o ambas cosas. h u i r d e r u n i nto: tropezar I encontrarse con run off with: llevarse. tener ganas de feel u p to: senti rse capaz I con fuerzas de f i g u re out: comprender. mejorar look up to: admi rar. vengarse pay for: pagar. continuar g o o u t : sa l i r g o through with: l levar a cabo. estropearse break i nto: i ntrod uci rse I meterse en break off: partir break out: esta llar. pensar en el pasado look for: buscar look forward to: espera r con ansia. rebajar cut off: aislar d e a l in: comercia r con d e a l with : ocuparse I encargarse de d ress u p : vestir(se) bien I con elegancia e n d u p : termi n a r. cumplir l o c k o u t : q ueda rse I dejar fuera con la puerta cerrada look after: cu idar a I de look ahead: m i rar hacia el futuro look away: aparta r la mirada look back (on): m i ra r hacia atras. ). darse por vencido g ive out: repartir. romper b r i n g up: educar. tener aceptaci6n marcharse. dejar fuera. Los se l laman tambien multiword verbs porque van seguidos de una preposici6n. merecer la pena pick out: eleg i r. q uedar i m pune g e t b a c k : volver. distri b u i r g ive u p : dejar. volver come down: bajar c o m e off: desprenderse. opri m i r keep off: pro h i bi do (pasar. fallar. alejar(se). g ustar. desperdiciar. la luz) put u p : colgar. un adorno) hold o n : aga rrarse hold up: leva ntar. retener keep down : reprimir. perder pay back: rembolsa r. l i q u idar. ponerse (ropa) put out: apagar (un cigarri llo.En esta lista encontraras Ios mas comunes traducidos segun el contexto en que aparecen en este Iibra. agarra r(se) de get i nto: entrar I meterse en get off: baja r(se) I apearse de get o n : llevarse bien. desprenderse break d ow n : averiarse. pisar e l cesped . descender. regresar bajar. recoger point out: senalar put away: g uardar. soltarse come on: em pezar (. explicarse fi l l i n : rel lenar (impreso o documento) f i n d out: descu brir. a n u l a r cal l o n : pasar a ver. vivir de acuerdo con. tener exito get away: escapa r(se) get away with: sal i rse con la suya. fingir no ver a a l g u ien.! : j vamos ! . s u b i r g ive away: revelar. soportar r i n g off: colgar (el telefono) r i n g up: llamar (por telefono) run after: perseg u i r r u n away from: esca par. delata r g ive back: devolver g ive i n : ren d i rse. a rreg lar c o m e across: encontrar. averi g u a r f i t i n : encajar. tener muchas ganas de. retrasar. respetar m a ke for: ir I d i rigirse hacia I a m a ke u p : componer m i ss out on: desaprovechar. visita r cal l u p : llamar por telefono carry o n : conti nuar catch o n : ponerse de moda. j u ntar(se) get up: levantarse. produci rse break u p: separarse. repasar l oo k t h ro u g h : ignora r. poner en su sitio put off: aplazar. devolver (di nero). adaptarse. congeniar g e t a h e a d : progresar. defra udar l e t i n : dejar entrar. dejar pasar. conti nuar kick off: expulsar I echa r de leave out: omiti r. agacha rse get h o l d of: coger(se). registrarse (hotel) check out: pagar y marcharse (hotel) c l e a n up: l i m piar. ocurrfrsele a uno/a (idea) count on: conta r con cut down : red ucir.

la television.atropellar vender todas las entradas. ocu par. poner. tomar take p a rt i n : participar en t a k e u p : em pezar a hacer. el telefono) ta ke after: pa recerse a t a ke a p a rt: desmontar (un aparato) ta ke away: q u itar. dedica rse a. parecer. la television. senti rse fight for: luchar por fi l l with: l lenar de go o n (a trip): ir (de viaje) hear a bout: enterarse de i m p rison for: encarcelar por i nvest i n : invertir en i nvite to: i nvitar a l i sten to: escuchar (a) partici pate i n : practicar (un deporte). adquiri r. un pa fs) battle for: luchar por care a bout: preocuparse I i nteresarse por charge with: acusar de climb u p : subir. l levar(se) take back: retractarse. l legar. aparecer wake u p : desperta r(se) work out: entender. levanta rse sta nd up for: defender. apoya r stop by: pasa rse por switch off: apagar. poner mas fuerte I alto (el vol umen). respa ldar. i nformarse de feel a bout: parecer (algo a algu ien). anotar take out: take off: PREPO SITIONS VERBS + PREPOSITIONS NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS d iscu l parse por a p o l o g i se to: d iscu lparse con a p pear i n : aparecer en argue a bout: discutir sobre I por argue with: d iscutir con a r rive at: llegar a (un l ugar) a rrive i n : llegar a (una ciudad. l lenar t i p ove r : volcar(se) try o n : probarse (ropa) tune i n : si ntonizar turn a ro u n d : dar(se) la vuelta t u r n back: volver. desconectar (la l uz. satisfechola de pol ite to: educado con proud of: org u l l oso de rude to: grosero con s i m i l a r to: similar I parecido a sorry a bout I for: senti r. lamentar worried a bout: preocupado por depen dent on: attracted to: . resolver. i nscribirse sta nd for: significar sta nd out: destacar. conectar (la l uz. el telefono) switch o n : encender. confiar en search f o r : buscar ta l k a bout: hablar de I sobre ta l k to I with : hablar con t h i n k a bout: opinar (sobre). qu itarse (ropa) sacar take over: reemplazar. trepar (por) com m u n icate with : com u n icar(se) con compla i n a bout: q uejarse de crash i nto: estrel l a r(se) I chocar contra e n q u i re a bout: preg untar por. retirar (lo dicho) take down: apu ntar. sobresal i r sta nd u p : ponerse de pie. exca rcelacion s i g n of: senal de so l ut i o n to: solucion a I de story of: historia de symbol of: sfmbolo de d i sadvantage of: d e m a n d for: A DJ ECTIVES (after to be) + PREPOSITIONS (senti rse) atrafdo por depend iente I que depende de d i fferent fro m : d iferente I d isti nto de excited a bout: emocionado I entusiasmado con good at: bueno en I para i nterested i n : i nteresado en i nvolved i n : metido I i nvolucrado en l a t e f o r : tarde para. hacer ejercicio write down: apu ntar. agotar las existencias serve on: ser miem bro de set off I out: sal i r. desenchufar (un aparato) turn o n : encender (un aparato) t u r n out: apagar (un apa rato) t u r n ove r: dar la vuelta a (una cosa) turn u p : subir. (llegar) tarde a p l eased a bout I with: contentola con. participar I toma r parte en r e l y o n : depender de. regresar t u r n down: bajar (el volumen). presenta rse (en u n sitio) s i g n u p : reg istrarse. pensar en t h i n k of: pensar en wait f o r : esperar a work for: trabajar para write a bout: escrib i r sobre a p o l o g i se for: demanda I peticion de desventaja de effect on: efecto en end of: final de form of: forma de group of: g ru po de i n crease in: aumento en I de m i xture of: mezcla de need for: necesidad de n u mber of: ca ntidad I n u mero de part of: parte de reason for: razon para release from: puesta en l i bertad. anotar sell out: r u n over: despegar (avion). ponerse en camino show u p : apa recer. rechazar t u r n i nto: converti r(se) en t u r n off: apagar.

irse. cultivar colgar tener. atrapar eleg i r ven i r costar cortar comerciar.IRREGULAR VERB S be beat /bi:/ /bi:t/ beco me/br'kAm/ /br'grn/ bend /bend/ bet /bet/ bite /hart/ bleed /bli:d/ b l ow /bl.}/ /dree!Jk/ /dr. salir prestar permitir.}u/ g row /grdU/ h a n g /hee!J/ have /heev/ drink d rive hear /hr.}u/ break /brerk/ b r i n g /bn!J/ beg i n b u i l d /brld/ /bJ:n/ /bJ:st/ b u y /bar/ catch /keetf I c hoose / tf u:z/ c o m e /kAm/ cost /knst/ burn b u rst cut /kAt/ /di:l/ d i g /drg/ d o /du:/ d raw /drJ:/ d ream /dri:m/ deal /woz/wJ:/ /bi:t/ became /br'kerm/ began /br'geen/ bent /bent/ bet /bet/ bit /brt/ bled /bled/ b l ew /blu:/ broke /br. tratar cavar hacer d i bujar sonar beber conducir corner caer(se) al imentar senti r(se) l ucha r encontrar volar olvidar perdonar congelar(se) conseg u i r.)'gntn/ forgiven /f.}uv/ ate /ert/ fe l l /fel/ fed /fed/ fe lt /felt/ fought /bt/ found /faund/ flew /flu:/ forgot /f. estar golpear l legar a ser empezar doblar(se) apostar morder sangrar soplar romper traer constru i r quemar reventar. conocer poner. dejar tumbarse.}un/ h u n g I h a nged /hA!J/hee!Jd/ had /heed/ heard /hJ:d/ h i d d e n / 'hrdn/ h it /hrt/ h e l d /held/ h u rt /hJ:t/ kept /kept/ k n own /ndUn/ l a i d /lerd/ led /led/ lea rnt I learned /b:nt/b:nd/ left /left/ lent /lent/ l et /let/ l a i n /!ern/ d reamt I d reamed /delt/ /dAg/ done /dAn/ d rawn I drJ:n/ ser.}'get/ forgive /f.)'gerv/ froze /fr. pegar sujetar herir. esta l lar comprar coger.}'gnt/ forgave /f. conducir aprender dejar. llegar dar ir crecer. hacer dano guardar.}uz/ came /kerm/ cost /knst/ cut /kAt/ dealt /delt/ d u g /dAg/ d i d /drd/ d rew /dru:/ beat d reamt I d reamed was I were been beaten begun /bi:n/ /'bi:tn/ beco me /br'kAm/ bent /br'gAn/ /bent/ bet /bet/ bitten /'brtn/ bled /bled/ b l own /bl. mantener saber.}uzn/ got /got/ g iven /'grvn/ gone /gnn/ g rown /gr. extender g u i a r.}ukn/ brought /brJ:t/ b u i lt /brit/ b u rnt I b u rned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/ b u rst /bJ:st/ bought /bJ:t/ /bt/ chosen /'tf .)'grvn/ frozen / 'fr.}uz/ got /got/ gave /gerv/ went /went/ g rew /gru:/ h u n g I h a nged /hA!J/hee!Jd/ h a d /heed/ h e a rd /hJ:d/ drank d rove h i d /hrd/ hit /hrt/ /hard/ /hrt/ h o l d /hdUld/ h u rt /hn/ k e e p /ki:p/ know /ndU/ lay /!er/ lead /li:d/ learn /b:n/ leave /li:v/ l e n d /lend/ let /let/ l i e /lar/ hide hit /held/ /hn/ kept /kept/ k n ew /nju:/ l a i d /lerd/ led /led/ held h u rt /left/ lent /lent/ l et /let/ lay /!er/ left lea rnt I learned /b:nt/b:nd/ /dremt/dri:md/ d r u n k /drA!Jk/ d r iven /'drrvn/ eaten / 'i:t n/ fa l len /'fJ:ln/ fed /fed/ fe lt /felt/ fought /bt/ found /faund/ f l own /fl. haber ofr esconder(se) golpear.}un/ broken /'br. echa rse 1 44 .}uzn/ come /kAm/ cost /knst/ caught cut /kAt/ d e a lt d ug I dremt/ dri:md/ /dn!Jk/ /drarv/ e a t /i:t/ fa l l /bl/ feed /fi:d/ feel /fi:l/ fight /fan/ f i n d /farnd/ fly /flar/ forget /f.}uk/ brought /br::>:t/ b u i l t /brit/ b u rnt I b u rned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/ b u rst /bJ:st/ b o u g ht /bJ:t/ ca u g ht /bt/ chose /tf .}'grv/ freeze /fri:z/ get /get/ g ive /grv/ g o /g.}un/ forgotten /f.

f�ud/ s h ut /fAt/ sang /s<e!J/ s a n k /s<e!Jk/ sat /s<et/ s l e pt /slept/ l i ed lit smelt I smel led /laid/ /!It/ lost /lnst/ made /meid/ m e a nt /ment/ met /met/ p a i d /peid/ put /put/ read /red/ ridden / 'ndn/ rung /rA!J/ risen / 'nzn/ run /rAn/ sa id /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /s�uld/ sent /sent/ set /set/ sewn /s�un/ s h a ke n / 'feikn/ shone /fnn/ shot !fnrl shown . tirar comprender. contar pensar arrojar.f�un/ s h ut /fAt/ s u n g /sA!J/ s u n k /sA!Jk/ sat /s<et/ slept /slept/ l i ed lit I smelt/ smeld/ /spi:k/ /spell spoke spend spi l l spo i l /spend/ /spii/ /spJII/ s p i lt I s p i l led /spelt/ speld/ spent /spent/ /spilt/ spild/ spelt I spelled /sp�uk/ /smelt/smeld. ponerse ganar escribir I spelt/ speld/ s p i lt I s p i l led /spent/ spo i lt I spoiled s p read sprang I spJilt/ spJild/ I spred/ spoilt I spoiled sp read /spii t/ spi!d/ I spJI!t/ spJild/ /spred/ /spn!J/ sta n d /st<end/ stea I I sti:l/ stick I suk/ st i n g I sti!J/ swear /swe�/ sweep /swi:p/ swi m /swim/ t a k e / teik/ teach /ti:tf / tear /te�/ t e l l /tell t h i n k /9I!Jk/ th row /9r�u/ understa n d I Ande'sr<end/ wake u p / 'weik Ap/ wea r /we�/ win /wm/ write /ran/ spread spring /spr<e!J/ stood I stud/ stole /st�ul/ stuck I stAk/ stu n g /stA!J/ swore 1 swJ:/ swept /swept/ swam /sw<em/ took / tuk/ taught / tJ:t/ tore /tJ:/ told / t�uld/ thought /On/ t h rew /9ru:/ u n d e rstood I Ande'stud/ woke up /'w�uk Ap/ wore /wJ:/ won /wAn/ wrote /r�ut/ /spred/ /sprA!J/ stood I stud/ sto l e n /'st�uln/ stuck /stAk/ stu n g I stA!J/ sworn /swJ:n/ swept I swept/ swu m /swAm/ taken /'teikn/ ta u g ht / tJ:t/ torn /tJ:n/ told / t�uld/ t h o u g ht /9J:t/ th rown /9r.�un/ u n derstood I Ande'stud/ woken up / 'w�ukn Ap/ worn /wJ:n/ wo n /wAn/ written /'ntn/ sprung 1 1 45 ·-· . NO . reu n i rse con pagar poner leer montar l lamar (por telefono) elevarse. difu n d i r(se) sal tar estar de pie robar pegar picar (un i nsecto) j u rar barrer nadar coger.�·-- . l levar ensenar rom per. pasar (tiem po) derrama r(se) arruinar. estropear untar. querer decir conocer a. fabricar sign ificar. spoken / 'sp�ukn/ spelt I spe l led spent smelt I smelled mentir encender perder hacer. /lai/ (reg u l a r /lait/ lose /lu:z/ make /meik/ mean /mi:n/ meet /mi:t/ pay /pei/ put /put/ read /ri:d/ ride /raid/ r i n g /nn/ rise /raiz/ run /rAn/ say /sei/ see /si:/ se l l /se!/ send /send/ set /set/ sew /s�u/ s h a ke /feik/ s h i n e /fam/ shoot /fu:t/ show !f�u/ shut /fAt/ s i n g /si!J/ s i n k /si!Jk/ sit /sit/ sleep /sli:p/ s m e l l /smell lie l i g ht speak spe l l verb) /laid/ /ht/ lost /lnst/ made /meid/ meant /ment/ met /met/ paid /peid/ put /put/ read /red/ rode /r�ud/ rang /r<e!J/ rose /r�uz/ ran /r<en/ s a i d /sed/ saw /sJ:/ sold /s�uld/ sent /sent/ set /set/ sewed I s�ud/ shook /fuk/ shone /fnn/ shot /fnt/ showed . alzarse correr decir ver vender enviar colocar coser ag itar brillar disparar mostrar cerrar can tar h u n d i rse senta rse dorm i r(se) oler hablar deletrear gastar. entender desperta r(se) llevar puesto. desgarrar decir.

Don't worry a bout whether the i dea is releva nt. Don't worry a bout neatness or accu racy. Leave space between l i nes for add itions and corrections. c • • J ! 1 '{ • • . reorlly Worl-tt @5ei1.E ffut o�-t schoolwork Decide which i deas to keep a n d cross out the oth ers.WRITING GUIDE The Writing Pro cess STEP 1 : BRAIN STO R M FOR I DEAS • • Write down a l l the ideas you can think of. You c a n write i n you r own language. use a penci l . If you can't spell a word. • S T E P 3: FOCU S O N LANGUAG E • Think of words and expressions you will need i n your work. Look u p the word in a dictionary later.Se of respo11.S orjter worki�Y Lorte ort 1-ti ht j @More ww�-tey to spel-td @ Leorm to Of3otl-tise you. 'lv < ( !.y sorvtethi�Y you.r tirvte bJ� s l r e c v 6T &� i · aj " expl�it teeklqgerr te•· STEP 2: ORGA N I S E YOUR I DEAS • • @ Dovt:t horve to orsk porrel-tts for everythi�Y © Not e�-taugh tirvte to stu. write it in yo u r own language. TOPIC: A ftenwo�-t jobs @ Cor�-t sorve to bu. Organ ise the groups accordi n g to a writi ng p l a n . If you can't think of a word in Engl ish.dy for exorms g roup A . ( . Leave wide margins for notes. Then check the word i n a dictionary or use a spel lcheck when you have finished. Don't worry a bout g rammar or spel l i n g .Fi�vt£i�l �dv�VIiqgu of worki. � ' (. If you a re writing by hand.Worki�Y �s � positive experievt£e g rou.ri�Y Lessoi1.p 5 .IY g roup C . G roup similar ideas together.Sibility Pv' rk pLVictJ o • • ©Tired du. Write quick ly. write it a ny way you ca n ./ � ' • STEP 4: WRITE A FIRST D RA FT Write your fi rst draft on the computer or by hand.

lr i. '----. 2.lpitc:.s i.tk my idec:. 0 I pruevtted my idec:.'ls with detc:. o 0 I eltded witJ.tk my idec:. o.'I J. First of c:.c:.ll. N OTE You can i n d icate the beg i n n i n g of a paragraph by: 1 .Writing Guide .tSibility.lmW!. Both styles a re correct.t "' suitc:..ltio�-t i. Worki.i. 0 fc:. 0 I used Cc:.'ls. indenting (moving the fi rst word of the paragraph to the rig ht).'IL order. 0 My pu�-tCtUc:.'lble coJ.. 0 I suppo rted my idec:.t with "' suitc:.s co rrect.tee.s correct. '" My spelli11:9 i.'ls dec:.tJ. Lc:.tLSed my work "'ao rdi11:9 to "' plc:. W RITER'S C H ECKLIST ORJ3ANISATION 0 I O Y!fc:.tSt us"'y) .s co rrect. 0 My word order i.lph 1-tc:. 0 My pc:.s buc:. CONTENT I 1 LAN (j lJ.'IM exc:.lrly.'IJ.lve Less free ttme.'lte or � show up. I used "'djutivu co rrectly.teluded o my releVc:.teetors to LiJ.li�-t "' seJ. 0 My wo rk i.teetors to LiJ.'lils c:. My jrc:.lre dec:. The i ndented style is preferred for i nformal letters. but be consistent i n you r writi n g . • Make sure your parag raphs a re clea rly i n d icated .------' STEP 5 : C H E C K YOUR WORK • Us e the Writer's C hecklist on this pa ge to improve your work.lre i�-t "' Loj iCc:.'lvti: idec:.- .ls iltdicc:.Alj E c__. 0 I bt'::!fc:.'lted.'ls c:. worki11:9 � � � teef11i!9 ers 1-tc:.tee. skipping a line before beg i n n i n g a new paragra p h .'luse they will Lose �ob I�-t "'dditio�t do �t't if they co me. I f r "'ltd qg"'iJ.'lble dosi11:9 sevtteJ.qiftc:.'lble opeJ.tJ.11:9 duxi11:9 tif ter-sdwol hours Cc:.l�-t.t 3 ive teef11i!9ers excellevtt Lif experieJ. n 0 My idec:. Each paragraph begi ns at the left-hand marg i n .s corrut.s ivtteruti11:9 c:. 0 I used CO J.'IJ.'ls.ti. Th.'IM orf.'lll. they jc:.lch P"'�"�'!Jrc:.tee.'IL Letters co rrectly. 0 I iJ. so they use STEP 6: WRITE A F I N A L D RAFT • If you a re writing by ha n d: copy your corrected work neatly onto a clean sheet of paper.tJe e their of rupo J. 0 I used suitc:.lnympl-ts c:.lmples {opiftio�-t.lrly 011-e top ic.11:9 sevtteJ.'ls. • Use a pen and leave a m a rg i n on the left-hand side.

/ S h e opened ca refully the box./ We don't have today a ny homework. You r advice was excellent./ We don't have any homework today . Some uncountable nouns h ave got plura l verbs. ./ S h e carefully opened the box . but not between the verb a nd the object. Five thousand dol lars was fo und i n the su itcase./ We n ever play footbal l . M ost uncountable nouns have got singular verbs. )( 5 . Ma ny time expressions can come at the beg inning or the end of the sentence. she opened the box . . we don't have any homework . You r clothes a re so fashionable ! . Amounts and qu a ntities usually have singular verbs. 3. there are often two possibilities: I gave you the l etter . . )( C a reful ly. 2 . . Does a nyone have any money to lend me? I think everybody is here. 5 . Adverbs of manner can come in several positions. . . Today. The child loves to paint . W e sometimes play footbal l . 4. (si ngular) I The childre n love to paint. depending on the subject. . . . If a sentence has both a d i rect and a n i n d i rect object./ 2 . My family does I do many things togethe r. . )( S U BJ ECT-VE R B AGREEMENT The verb is singular or pl ural. Never separate the verb from its object(s). Nobody wants to leave yet. 3 ./ I gave the l etter to you . The news is very exciting. (pl u ral ) N ote the following: 1 . Some can come at the begi nni ng a nd I or the end of a sentence as wel l .Writing Skills WORD O R D E R Word order is very i mportant i n English. The u s u a l order is: subject + verb + o bject + a d ditions N ote the following: 1 . Words l i ke anyone. We cannot say: 4 . everybody and nobody have singular verbs. ./ S h e opened the box careful ly ./ Never we play footbal l ./ We play footbal l sometimes . Singular nouns that refer to groups can have either singular or p l u ra l verbs./ Sometimes we play footbal l . Adverbs of freq uency come before the main verb.

Adjectives come before nouns a n d after certai n verbs. a n excel lent fil m I exce l l ent fi l m s . is . . (to express a contrast) They a lso help us to organise ou r writing and make it easy for the reader to follow. I n addition. However. 3 . they claim that 1f they don't. brand-name clothes. so he practises every day after schoo . they won't look good or be accepted by other people . . As a result. (to describe a resu lt) He spends a lot of time trai n i n g.---./ a fanta stic./ excellents fi lms )( 2 . The adjective form for singular a n d p l u ra l nouns is the sa m e. new Japanese c a r . . First of a l l. bra nd-name clothes have disadvantages. so I therefore I consequently I thus I a s a result I a s a consequence I for this reason I that is why I likewise I in the same to express personal opin ions to i ntroduce facts to make to l ist poi nts to give exa mples to i ntroduce opposi ng poi nts to show sequence to show time to conclude i n conclusion I to sum u p I in short I all i n all on the one hand I on the other hand I i n contrast I contrary to I it can also be (that) that I but there are who fi rst I at first I in the beg i n n ing I before I next I then I soon I meanwh ile I later I I when I in the end I after that I afterwa rds I at last I I statements in t o begi n/start with I i n the first place I first o f a l l I for o n e t h i n g I I I in my opinion I I (strongly) believe (that) I I think I feel (that) I in my view I I as I see it it seems to me (that) I I the truth is (that) . . weari ng them turns you i nto a wal k i ng advertisement. Many people feel that they must a lways wear expensive. For example. . M ike got i nto the basketball tea m because he 's a talented player (to give a reason) He wants to i m prove h i s game./ a cat b lack )( He looks u pset . Japa nese new car )( CONNECTORS Connectors a re l i n ki ng words which join ideas and show how those ideas a re related to one another. but h e sti l l gets high marks at school . a black cat . to add points o n the same to express a contrast to describe a cause or reason to describe a result to show and I i n addition I furthermore I moreover I what's more I besides I also I too I as well as but I however I nevertheless I yet I sti ll I although I even if I even / in of / because (of) I since I due to I as I as a result of I one/another reason for .Writin g Guide . Adjectives follow a specific order: opinion + size o r age + colour + origin + m ateri a l . Study the chart of connectors and phrases below.- USE O F A DJ E CTIVE S 1 . the brand name is often printed in large letters on the clothes. they say that brand-name clothes are desig ned better./ a fa ntastic.

sell i ng food for the pigeons. As F>ODY CONCL/!0ION • L l All i� (l(ll. I'd re.s where. T H E BODY The body has got one or more paragraphs which develop the topic. youth hoste. The i m portant thing is to keep going. In concl usion. Then you chose i deas to use and put these ideas i nto g roups in a logical order. l C.ls (I(re.. The parts of a para g ra ph should flow logical ly.ttif13 too to 30 the. Here a re some ideas: a.e. When you were preparing to write.'re. WRITIN G AN E S SAY An essay consists of several paragraphs a bout a topic. c . I'd like. lt shou ld always leave the reader with a strong i m pression. whe.x(l(mple.r to 30 o� holid(l(y with frie. full of youf13 tr(I(Ve. C a n you i magine Trafa lgar Square without its pigeons? If you ca n 't th i n k how to beg i n . Begin with a surprising fact. Begin with a short a necdote a bout rea l or i maginary events.r e. There are many d ifferent ki nds of essays.h f buildif13s. details and exa mples 3.. he has no work beca use the a uthorities have decided to m ake hi s job i l lega l . T H E OPENING The openi ng is a general p resentation of the topic. the closi ng m a y be similar to the opening. You can always write the openi ng later.fjh l love. isFor o� thif13. For e. to st(l(y (l(t pl(l(c.Ms. 3. 2 . The paragraph m ust be easy to u nderstand. we. so that they wil l look for food somewhere else. (I( re. (l(lthoz. lt should not bring in new ideas. I'm 3e. T H E CLOSING The closing is a paragraph which summa rises the main idea or presents a conclusion. o � (l(tyue.ople. Ha rry Fletcher has worked at Trafalgar Square every day for the past 25 years. 2.fe. This would be more h u mane than sta rving them to death . . but presented i n d ifferent words.rs. Try to sta rt your essay with an opening that wi l l catch you r reader's interest.t other youf13 pe. Thousands of pigeons have died of starvation si nce the London C ity Council made it i l l egal to feed the m . b . using connectors to show the connections between ideas (see the chart on page 1 49). I� (l(dditio�. but thi"'k. G o on to the body of the essay..sult.e. In some cases. using pronouns to refer back to the nouns i n the text. o� holid(l(y.(l(� me. a conclud i n g s entence which leads on to the next paragraph or su m m arises the main idea OPENINCj thi"'k.l(I(X (l(t the. but they a ll have the s a me basic plan: 1 ..�s. I fte. you bra i nstormed for i deas (see page 1 46).r(l(the.WRITING A PARAGRAPH A paragraph consists of several sentences a bout a certa i n topic.� we. or 30 shoppif13. Now. lt has the following pa rts: 1 .l1joy jOif13 tobe. it is possible to give the pigeons less food. Use these groups of ideas to write the body of the essay. supporting sentences which add reasons. my p(l(re.lle. Begin with a qu estion.(l(c. You c an accomplish this by: 1 .ums (I(M lookif13 (l(told(I(MOW o� holid(l(y withImy p(l(w1i:s. I'd pre.y J IwutSe. a topic senten ce which g ives the main idea of the para g raph 2. don't worry. Each g roup of ideas will become a sepa rate para g ra p h . this borif13.

s (I(M I or your opti1-I. lt usually i n cl u des deta i ls a bout the person 's appearance...girls think he's quite attractive ! He works out in the gym three times a week and at weekends he likes to go camping... He's got fair.e....... Scott ' s short and well-built.Writing Guide A DE S CRIPTI O N OF A P E R S O N A description of a person g ives a n i m pression of what that person i s l i ke o r of our relationship with them..tivities. . but I don' t mind because he's such great company.. . Look at the topic below. Then study the plan and read the mode l . . We ' re both in the same crowd and we all go out quite often. interests and personal ity... persoi'L(I(/ity... ... . iftjo rwt.. I sometimes go away for the weekend with him and his family . He I She is a bit I very I q u ite . .. wavy hair with amazing blue eyes . He's one of my favourite people. .iVJ3 tl-te... I think that's really important in a friend. . iVLtroduc. . . He's generous and helpful... iVLterests (I(M (l(c. . is rea l ly i m porta nt in a friend I a teacher I real ly like him I her a lot .. is one of my favou rite people H e I She is a g reat friend fa i r I dark hai r or skin stra ight I wavy I curly I spiky I shoul der-length hair brown I blue I g reen eyes good-l ooking I gorgeous I attractive I plain generous helpful a lot of fun shy sense of hu mour selfish stubborn considerate calm . but sometimes j ust the two of us get together after school..-. Physical Appeara n ce ta l l I short I petite wel l-built I chu bby I slim bossy Pers?�� � i �y _ _ The best thing a bout him I her is . .perso �-L SODY Desc. He can be a bit bossy. CLOSING Closif13 rewt�rk.. and I can always count on him to be there when I need him..we have a great time. (I(M I o r your rel(l(tioftSM... PLAN: My Friend Scott OPENING !$(!(sic. U S E F U L LANGUAGE Describing People He I She has got . ..riptio�-L of tl-te­ persov0 (l(fpe(l(r(l(ftc.ip Scott is a really good friend of mine... TOPIC: Write a description of someone y ou l i k e ..OI'L l Scott is a lot of fun and a great pal.<i!tiofl..

O PENING [ Last weekend.e. There was a big crowd trying to get on. . .L The. TOPIC: Write a na rrative about a trip you took. my brother Alan and I decided to go to London. "When I woke up. One afternoon . . .tl-te. but angry. m m mm •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• . so we lost sight of each other and ended up in separate carriages. I walked up and down the train. ii!rtd wl-te-11.l'\-ts i11. .A NARRATIVE A na rrative is a story a bout a series of events a n d the people i nvolved in the m . Look at t h e topi c below. Then study t h e p l a n and read t h e model.rs j t e. wl-te-re. Fortu nately I U nfortu nately I Luckily .s plii!c. I tried to phone him. lww tl-te. . I felt . . PLAN: The Trai n to London The. m Connectors of Sequence m at fi rst before after next later when then u ntil as soon as soon suddenly while d u ri ng eventually in the end meanwhile Two years ago . . I sat down on a bench. . To my surprise . I got off and stood on the platform. The funny th i ng is that . . An hour later.e. I got off and took the next train back.e. . What a way to begin our day i n London ! F>ODY Eve. .rtdi'!:9 o tl-te­ f story CLOSING [ mm mm ••••••••••••• m U S E F U L LANGUAGE i m Time Expressions m m m•••m••C•m m m mm Last weekend I s u m mer I year . Shocked. .c. lt was a cold I hot I stormy day . We bought our tickets and ran to catch the train. . I waited for ages.tl-te­ story tli!k. . but there was no sign of Alan. .durrli!cte. but I couldn' t find Alan. our train pulled into Waterloo station.hli!mcte. . We wanted to do some shopping and see a show. lt a l l began when . . "I fel l asleep and missed the station ! " he explained.YIM!LI'!. but he didn ' t answer.story. Before I k new it . M y phone? It's at home. . Sorry about that ! " I felt relieved.rs. I saw him. Where was he? About 40 endless minutes later. . .

pL(i(� tke [ B lair continues to be politically active. Towards the end of his term. . at the age of . . (i(. .W!. H e I she is hoping to . In 1 997 he became the youngest prime mini ster in 1 85 years.ve. . H e I she plans to .{ wlwrt ke/ske is f(i(WU. . . charismatic leader who brought the Labour Party to victory after many years of Conservative government. however. .u.�s I future. . is famous for . . leaving out m i nor details. . TOPIC: Write a b iography of a person who is i m portant to you r country. Th is i nformation is usually (but not a lways) presented in chronological order.me. spent his I her childhood in .e. . . . . There is a possibility that he may become the first president of the European Counci l .( C(i(re. . .us for I - Tony B l air served as Prime Mini ster of Great Britain from 1 997 to 2007 .ve. he became unpopular due to his support for the war i n Iraq. PLAN: Tony Blair OPENING Who tke pe. U S E F U L LANGUAGE was born on I in . He became a Member of Parliament in 1 98 3 and leader of the Labour Party in 1 994.e. he also played in a rock band. As a teenager he was a rebell ious student who disobeyed school rules. I n the future . he I she wanted to become . lt should include only i m portant events and i nformation. . is one of the world's most I best . He was a young. One of B lair' s most important accomplishments as prime mini ster was helping to end the conflict in Northern Ireland. . .rsovt-S (i(chi. While he was studying law at Oxford. Scotland. he I she decided to become . Then study the plan and read the model.lopme. Look at the topi c below. B lair was born in 1 95 3 in Edinburgh.r de. as a teenager. .u. .(i(ry of pe. 1L-1__ 53 --< _ ___ .Writing Guide A B I O GRAPHY A biography is a description of a person's l ife. '60DY E(i(rly Life.�s CLOSING 5uwt. . .rso"'" is (i(.

You should n 't m iss . lt offers . .Ai113 sel'ttel't(. . streets and shops as well as breathtaking Alpine scenery. .A D E S C RIPTI O N OF A P LACE A d escription of a place gives a n i m p ression of what that place is like.e �vtd opi�o�-t o r rec. Visitors can enjoy . . You ' ll never forget . biking or riding a cable-car to the top of the mountain. U S E F U L LANGUAGE is one of the most . It's a great place to spend a holiday. You can . famous peaceful l ively beautiful relaxing ancient modern qu iet fun . scenery. . . lt may also describe the general atmosphere. CLOSING Co l't(. clubs and casinos provide lively night­ time entertainment. lt usually incl udes physical deta ils such as location. . . TOPIC: Write a bout a good place for a holiday. Zermatt is a picturesque village with lovely houses.Lu. . PLAN: Zermatt Zermatt is a resort town in southern Switzerland. Zermatt is unforgettable. . ex. . B ars. Then study the plan a n d read the model . . Electric buses and taxis and horse-drawn carriages are the only forms of public transport.o mwt. .t�il. Look at the topi c below. It is quiet and clean because SODY Desc. Visitors shou ld plan on . . . The village is a world-famous ski resort with skiing all year round. one of the most famous mountains in the Alps. It's located at the foot of the majestic Matterhorn. You ' l l notice . exterior and i nterior ( i n descriptions of a b ui lding). Visitors can also enjoy hiking. lt is located .�mples of thi113s to see �vtd do no cars are a llowed there. restaurants. .evtd�tio �-t In summer or w inter.riptW�-t with wwre de. . .

of tJ. it i s safer and healthier to eat than non-organic food..e. . lt presents both sides of the issue and then concludes by su pporti ng one of the sides. . U S E F U L LANGUAGE On the one hand. . . To sum up. .r side. In addition. .ple. Moreover. . . On the other hand. should everyone start buying it? On the one hand. . . . . . I n my view. organic food has become very popular. On the other hand. However. .e. so it's not practical for many families. . .Ylts fo r o 11.e. .tli!ils li!M ex:li!wtple.rs opiftio�-t I n the last few decades. The question i s . .ts fo r tke. lt is true that . . . Firstly I Secondly I Thirdly. . .s At:9vt1'11.. . Then study the plan and read the model..tlilils lii M ex:lilwt. . SODY A'=9l-t1'11..tio �-t to tke. Co nseq uently. . issvte. . . . . issvte. It also has more vitamins and minerals. Look at the topic below. . . . PLAN: Yes or No to Organic Food OPENING Ivttrodvtc. 155 . organic food i s better for your health than other foods . In my opi nion. side.s CLOSING Svtwtwtlifry of issvte. I believe that . . For one thing. . However. it's very expensive.Yl. Due to . Furthermore. . . otke. . . As a result. . organic food has many advantages . .u. you need t o decide whether or n o t you c a n afford to spend the money and the time it takes to buy it. This is because it is grown without dangerous chemicals .u. li!M write. . To sum up. Nevertheless. with svtpportiV!j de. I n conclusion. shopping for organic food may be quite inconvenient because it is not available in all shops.Writin g G u i de A F OR AND AGAINST E S SAY A for and agai nst essay is usually about a controversial issue. . . . with svtpportiV!j de. I n addition. TOPIC: Write a for and aga i n st essay on a topic con nected to hea lth . . For example . . organic food is better for the environment. of tJ. . due to the fact that organic farming does not use chemicals .

. Although the car was badly damaged. who was recently named World Player of the Year. . millionaire footballer was unhurt. when. . .A NEWS REP O RT A news report provides i nformation a bout a recent event.WU'fry of tlu e. . PLAN : Ronaldo's Ferrari Crash O PENINy Sliwt. . .mpo rt�l1i f �cts H>ODY Det�i.�VI£e of tlu fi evel1i I r�ctioi1. . . L [ U S E F U L LANGUAGE Accord ing to . . Cristiano Ronaldo crashed his Ferrari sports car yesterday near Manchester Airport. the 23-year-old. . . Apparently." said o n e witness. last n i ght . .omme11ts Manchester United star. For this reason. after the accident Ronaldo left the car and stood beside it. yesterday . Sou rces say .Lr �bolit tlu evel1i CLOSINy 5 i_qvti. c. Then study the plan and read the model. D ue to . No other cars were involved in the accident. Ronaldo. . . crashed his car into the barrier at the side of the tunnel. because C onsequently. lt should answer the questions: who. where and why. As a result of . .{ c. what. . . apparently shocked.vel1i �vu. The accident happened in the tunnel which takes traffic under the airport runways. "It's amazing he survived i t without a scratch. . The front of the car was completely destroyed and one of the wheels came off. lt presents the facts objectively in order of i m porta nce. After questioning b y police. TOPIC: Write a news report a bout someone who su rvived a da ngerous experience.S �vu. Look at the topic below.{ most i. . went to training as usual. on his way to football practice. the star. . . According to witnesses.

r. . See you. S i g n i n g Off Love. On the other hand. . Look at the topic below.. O pe n i ng Remarks lt was great to hear from you . Yours. . Dear . . . . . . How a re things? Closing Remarks I can't wait to .J + From: To: Subject: I steven333@gmail . . Then study the plan and read the model . ..com I Jaskar@worldnetco. ..r 5I(jNIN(j OFF c Hope you c a n come.could you lend me your speakers as well? Mine are n ' t very good. How are things? Did you get my e-mail about the party I ' m having on Friday night? You haven ' t answered me. . See you. E>ODY I. revtsOV�-for wr�t�� Hi Jason.... . I was also wondering . . .eWs o r det��Ls First of all. .-ifo rWU'!t�OV�-. we use language very similar to the lang uage we use when spea king to someone we know wel l .:. . PLAN: � � 1 +1 � .. TOPIC: Write an i nformal e-mail to a friend a bout a futu re plan. Steven [ U S E F U L LANGUAGE Greetings. Al l the best. . Ta ke care. . .. . . you ' ll probably be nervous so maybe it would be a good idea to get out and relax a bit! Anyway. Did you get my letter I e-m a i l ? Sorry I haven 't written for s o lon g . ... so you probably want an early night. I ' m writing because .:J • . .... . 11... Write soon ! Please let me know. Regards. could I borrow a few of your discs? I know you ' ve got a lot of good music.. That's a l l for now. . . .. Congratu lations ! I have n 't h ea rd from you for .. .uk art Informal e-mail to Jason (jREETIN(j Opelti� reWU>�rk... I promise that nothing w i l l happen to the m ! CL05IN(j Clos�� reWU>�rk. even if you don ' t come. can you come? I know you ' ve got your driving test on Saturday. . Say hello to .Writing Guide INFORMAL C ORRE SP ONDENCE In an i nformal e-mail. Please let m e know. . Hi .

I n concl usion. the British Medical Association asked the UK government to pass a law requiring cyclists to wear helmets. . In my view. of issue ii!M opivt. especially i n the summer. . . . . and i t i s the drivers who must learn to be more carefu l . . To sum u p. . . . This is because the helmets are uncomfortable and hot. .Not a Solution Several years ago. more bicycle paths should be built and drivers should be educated to drive more carefully. Then study the plan and read the model . .io vt. f>ODY 5puific reii!SOvt.iovt. . . . . U S E F U L LANGUAG E M a ny people thi n k that . First of all. It i s clear that this i s a mistake. . . Most accidents are caused by cars. Although this sounds l ike a good way to save l ives. CL05IN(j 5ummi� up ii!M rutli!temevt. . the n e w l a w would discourage cycling and place responsibility on the wrong people. cycling should be encouraged. . . I n short.i'ii!tiovt. requiring helmets gives the impression that only cyclists are responsible for their safety. Look at the topic below. I believe that it is neither helpful nor necessary. Second ly. . . . . . Instead. . lt is clear that . As a result. In addition. such a law will cause fewer people to ride bicycles. I bel ieve that However. [ [ B icycle Helmets . .iovt. Therefore. In my opinion.AN OPINI O N E S SAY An opin ion essay states an opinion and tries to convince the reader that this opin ion is correct. . . TOPIC: Write an o p i n ion essay on a topic con nected to safety. . PLAN: OPENIN(j Pruevt. . . Secondly. . h owever. . . . As I see it.S ii!M fii!C-ts to support opivt. Despite th is. . . .t of opivt. . not discouraged. . Fi rst of a l l. I d i sagree I n my view.

Then study the plan and read the mode l . .and let's hope they come soon. th. It is revealed bit by bit.Writing Guide A REVIEW A review provides t h e m a i n events i n the plot of a book. surprise end i ng pred i ctable disappointing You won't want to m iss . . i n a style and language that are a pleasure to read. Its heroine is a young bookseller. . each part leaving the reader more mystified than before. who has been chosen by world-famous author Vida Winter to write her biography. U S E F U L LANG UAGE lt tells the story of . right through to its unexpected conclusion. .d type of book o r film. . . .ters orl'!. is s e t in Yorkshire. It's hard to believe. . There is nothing ordinary or predictable about The Th irteenth T ale. blockb uster I bestseller characters special effects soundtrack You' l l love reading . England. Margaret Lea. readers are sure to want more books by her . is set in . The fi l m sta rs . lies and love. Setterfield's frightening and fascinating story is about confused identities. lt a lso gives the reviewer's opinion. lt Its hero I heroine is . 1 1 59 L .d or descriptiort of the plot 50DY Writers opirtio rt o rt vorrious orsputs of tJ. PLAN: The Thirteenth Tale O PENIN(j The I'Uime orl'!. . but this bestselling novel is Setterfield's first.tor/ director. fi l m or show. . It is ski lfully told. Wel l worth seeing I reading I h i g h ly recom mend . .orrorc. 3ood po irtts orl'!.te orutJ. After finishing it.dortio 11The Thirteenth T ale. Don't bother I waste your time . . .te book o r film. Look at the topic below. As Vida reveals the secrets of her tragic past. tJ. Margaret finds she must deal with the secrets of her own l ife . .e morirt ch. [ . . a suspense novel b y Diane Setterfield.d bord poirtts CLOSIN(j yerterorl ruo mmel'!. TOPIC: Write a review of a book you h ave read or a fi l m you have seen recently.

Some are from G roup A. 3. If so. A 24. 1 . 1 00° C . N 1 7. True . A 2 1 . be world champion aga i n . 1 1 or less: You may have some d ifficulty remem bering faces. write A (Group A).C louds conta i n n o gas. You ' re a very honest person and you say what you think. but you could never be a spy yourself ! Unit 3. B How did you do? Score 1 point for each correct 6. N 7 . Your memory may not be sharp enough and you need to develop your courage. N 2 2 . B 1 5 . 1 9-24 WOW! You almost never forget a face.World J u n ior C ha m pion 2004 . . some are from G roup B and some are new. Learn to keep a secret and practise lying .You can see the circle if you look at a rain bow from above. win a nother gold medal at the next O lym pics __ __ __ __ Now check your a n swers.000° C . you 've got courage a n d you're not afra id of pain.Athens Olympics . Consider whether you wou l d really l i ke a l ife of thrills and danger. 93 metres. You ' d make a fantastic secret agent! 1 2. which i ncreases ra infa l l . so you usually stay far away from danger. Unit 2. You remember most people you meet. there's sti l l hope ! 6-1 1 : Espionage is not for you ! Safety is more im portant to you than thrills. This is a good tra it in most people. B 1 0. making them warmer than the areas around them . but may have some trouble if you meet them again in a d ifferent place.The crysta l structure of ice is a lways six-sided. enco u raged her to take up the sport 3· . A 4. N 1 9.Trees make the air more h u m id. A 8.1 5 : You could try espionage. B 5 . 7. Try paying attention to specific deta i l s that wi l l help you remem ber. You can't keep a secret and your memory isn't the greatest. only water and ice.World C ha mpion 2008 . Exercise 2 1 6.teased a n d bull ied because of her size ( now 1 . but you ' l l have to work on a few things.Born in 1 Secondary school yea rs . but not in a spy. N 2 3 . A 1 6 .New Zea l a n d Sports Award o f t h e Year Futu re pl ans Conti n u e com peti ng. 8. False . N 9 . 6. a n d you ' re good at getting i nformation. page 37. Be happy that you have got this ta lent .these are necessary skills for a spy. B 2 . True .a skill you may need for surviva l . N 1 3.World Youth C hampion 4· . B (Group B) or N (new). 1 1 0 kilos) Early ca ree r 1 998 2· recogn ised her potential.The concrete i n cities reta i n s the heat.Lig htn i n g is al most 2 8. False . There's a cha nce you cou ld become a secret agent. 4. N 1 8. You 've got an excel lent memory.1 8 : You have got a normal memory for faces. 5. You can improve by practising. Nu mber 1 -24 i n your notebook.Heavy red ra i n fel l in India from J u ly to September 2 00 1 . page 5 d . True . You may enjoy reading a good spy novel. answer. Beij i n g 6· . wh ile the s u n 's su rface is " only" 6.1 8 : You are perfect spy materia l ! You l i ke danger a n d excitement. B 1 1 . Exercise 3 Student B Va lerie Vi l i . page 1 7. but it won't be easy. True .B roke a 2 0-yea r school record Titles I Competitions I Awa rds 200 1 . N Unit 6.Broke New Zealand women's record from 5 · 2007 . page 65. Believe it or not! Quiz Answers 1 .finished eig hth beca use she was recovering from a n operation 2004 .Anta rctica is the world 's d riest continent.shot putter Early l ife 1 984 . True .Olym pic gold medal. 2 . A 1 4. You ' re a g reat liar . Look at the faces below.it's very usefu l ! 1 2. N 20. N 3 . False . You ' re good at keeping secrets and you ' re good at solvi ng problems. For each face. N 1 2 .QUIZ ANSWERS AND FACT FILE U n it 1.

Madrid. 1 07(crowd). Everett Collection: pages 8. 7 7 .without permission in wnt1ng from the ::�o •sher. 49. Pedro Pablo e rra n Perez C olegio Sagrado Coraz6n de Vitoria.com: page 1 1 (Facebook page). www. ASAP/EPA: page 43 (Atlantis Hotel). 79. curso primero. 1 5. 80 (snow hotel).Words and music by Alastair lan :: .any form or by any means . No part of this publ ication may be reproduced.Words and music by Kara Dioguard i and Matthew Gerard © Sixteenth Street Songs/ M usic c/o Disney M usic Publish i n g . Madrid. 1 6. Ariau Amazon Towers. : : : - E WPOINTS Grant a n d Kevin Payne fo r B a c h i l l e rato 1 .: U K : page 9 1 (poster) _ _ _ _ · _ • ·• - - =.. 47. 74.: pages 5 (all except : -a"l ton and Duffy). : : = . Antarctica (page 7 7 ) . :: . 1 02 (Survivor and American Idol). 95. 94. FEMA/Adam Dubrowa: page 73. PWA!John Carter page 38. Concha Arribas Rodrfguez IES San Juan Bautista. 32. UK: page 25 (snake catcher). 96. Science an d Society Picture Library (vase). Warwick Sloss. photocopyi ng or otherwise . 1 08.facebook. 1 06 (crowd). 44. 78 (M/S Explorer). 86. : = :: : 6 . panoptikum._ - - � � u ·ncular para Bachil lerato. 93. g hts reserved by the publisher. 84. 7. ubipress. _ :. www. 54.� s. 7 1 . 1 1 1 . AP: pages 36 (Mark Sp1tz). A n g e l es L6pez M a rtin Colegio Rafael Ybarra. 1 03 (rocket). N u ria Vivas R i po l l es Escola Lestonnac. 20. M . 53 (newspapers). --e publ isher has made every effort to contact the owners of copyright material which a p pears i n this book. 33._ -. 83. NOAA: page 66. 1 09 (Fear Factor). Used with permission .:: : :J-a :=--: ::: s stuntperson). 90. 56. =-=. guidelines and objectives of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. 34. stored in a retneval system or transm itted . Vitoria. 6. S3 978-9963-47-963-4 Copynght © 2 009 Burli ngton Book: • · o 09 08 07 06 o5 04 '8 17 16 15 14 13 12 1 1 IU . 92. 1 0 1 (popcorn). 1 1 (computer and photographer). horse racing a n d g uide dog).= ::: :: < s �- (page 29) . Madrid :: :: i s series is compatible with the recommendations. 62. ASAP/Aiamy: pages . 37 (Vi li). 65.26. I ne: . Zaragoza. 1 02 (Big Brother). 48 (photos 2 and 4).gradecimientos: • • : yofesor J u a n M a n u e l R u b i o Sa nta n a por su va l i osa labor como asesor de este proyecto os s1guientes profesores por su colaboraci6n al revisar y pilota r Ios materiales de n uestro cu rso: (r st i n a H o l m Sova IES Jaume Balmes. 22.. 9 1 .a Peter Harry © Frabjous Music/Lobster M usic. 72 (photo C). Ellen and Edson Ritta Honorato: page 80. · :: 2 corn : page 1 7. 87.. Madrid.com: page 1 8 (Sa m Fisher). 57. 85. 45. ubi. M a rtin Monje Colegio Los Tilos. 98. Used with permission. Barcelona. ASAP/Rex: pages 5 (Lewis Hamilton. 78 (research equipment and 7 . 1 1 0. Inc. 9. 1 04.. :-er ed g e m e nts: s-er gratefully acknowledges the fol lowi ng for providing photog raphs: • :: :: d Macdonald (pool). Cristi na G u er rero G a rcia C olegio l nstituci6n Salesiana. -aimaison-imagegallery. www.com/hotels: page 80 (Mal maison Hotel). 1 2 (all except photo 2). 50. -:a. 48 (photo 3). 1 3. Fiber Instrument Sales. J ose A n g e l G a rcia B a r q u i n Colegio Sag rado Coraz6n. 1 9. 1 0. 89. : : . Cartoon Stock: pages 53. 01 �e sanctuary and cat). �.·= D. 29. 25 (dentist). Shutterstock.. 43 (Burj D u ba i and desert). Barcelona. Duffy). 2 1 . 4 1 . West Midland =: :. mechan ical.com/Jupiter Images: page 61 (man ploughing). Visuai/Corbis: page 3 1 . a rea de lenguas extra njeras: ingles.(dairy. 7 5 . E l e n a M . 1 09 (all except =:= :: · =::cor). 55. 67. � s-U D E NTS S H O U LD N OTE THAT TH EY M U ST N OT WRITE I N TH I S BOOK. 1 4. Endemol page 1 03 (Space Cadets).3ooks is a n i m p rint of Da nos B ooks Ltd . 1 07. 1 8 (Matt Damon and Mike = . Reuters: pages 37 (Henry).electronic. : · : :: 3an Ju piter I mages: page 1 9. net (house). I mage Bank!Getty Images: pages 30. 72 (photos A and B).': � 59 snow makers).Oo Anythin g) gratefu lly acknowledges t h e fol lowing for perm ission t o reproduce songs: : _: !._ . 97. ESB New York: page 48 (photo 1 ). 1 05. 70.-ages/PhotoDisc: pages 1 2 (photo 2). registrado en todas las ::aces Aut6nomas que tienen competencias en materia educativa y que asf lo requ iere n . . 58. ASAP/Topfoto: page 36 (Phelps). Photos.:: :3 · =1at Earth page 41 (Taj Mahal). Dynamic Architecture™ David Fisher Architect: page 43 (irregularly-shaped tower).J viii !Je pleased to hear from a ny copyright holder who could not be located .

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