U.S.

Department
of Transportation
Federal Aviation
Administration
Advisory
Circular
Subject: Rand Fire Extinguisbers for use in Aircraft Date: 01 /1411 1 AC No: 20-42D
Initiated by: AIR-120 Change:
Thi s advisory circular (AC) gives you guidance for the fire-fighting effectiveness, selection and
safe-use of hand fire extinguishers in airplanes and rotorcraft . In it we will also show you how
to gain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval of hand fire extingui shers for aircraft.
~ Q . I . ~
~ DavidW. Hernpe
Manager
j
Aircraft Engineering Division
Aircraft Certification Service
01/14111 AC 20-420
Table of Contents
Paragraph Page
Chapter 1. General Information about this Advisory Circular (Ae) ................................. 1
1. What is the Purpose of this Advisory Circular (AC)? .............. ... ....................................... 1
2. Who is this AC for? ............................................................................................ ...... ........ .. 2
3. What has Changed in this AC from the Previous AC? .................................................. .... , 2
4. Does this AC cancel any prior ACs? ....... ... ... ... ............................. .. ................. ... ............... 3
5. Where Can I find This AC and other FAA publications? ........ ......... .......... ........................ 3
Chapter 2. Gaining FAA Approval for Fire Extinguishers ............ ........ ....................... ....... 4
1. How are Hand Fire Extinguishers Approved? .... ......... .... .. ........... ......................... ...... . , ..... 4
2, How are Halon 1211 Replacement Extinguishers Approved? ..... ................................ ", ... 5
3. How are Halon Agents Approved? ..................................................................................... 7
Cbapter 3. Selecting the Correct Hand Fire Extinguisher ., ........... ........ ........ ...................... 9
I , What are the Different Types of Fires? .................. " ........................................... ................ 9
2. What do the Numeral Ratings Mean? .... ...... ... .................................................................... 9
3. What Extinguishing Agents are Appropriate for the Different Types of Fires? ................. 9
4. What Extinguishing Agents are Compatible with Aircraft Materials? ............................. 1 t
5. What are the Operating Temperature Tolerances? ........................................................... t t
6. General Guidelines for Hand Fire Extinguishers? ............................................................ 12
Chapter 4. Safe Use of Hand Fire Extinguishers ..................................... ......... ...... ............ 14
I. What Basic Fire Fighting Training Should be Provided? ........... ...................................... 14
2. What are Some General Guidelines for the Safe· Use
of Halocarbon 6xtinf:,TUishers? ....... ............................... ..................................................... 15
3. How to Prevent Hypoxia in an Unpressurized Aircraft ............. " ......................... ............ 16
4. What are the Guidelines on the Selection of Halocarbon Extinguishers? ......................... 17
5. How to Safely Use Halocarbon Extinguishers in Accessible Cargo Compartments .. " .... 19
6. How to Inspect and Maintain the Hand Fire Extinguisher for
Continued Safe·Use ...... ..... .................... ............ , ................... ........................................... 20
it
01114/ 11 AC 20-420
PtirlIgraph Page
Chapter 5. Locating and Mounting Hand Fire Ext inguishers ....... .......................... .......... 22
1. Where to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in
Passenger Compartments ....................................................... .................... ..... ...... ............ 22
2. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in Flight
Deck Compartments .......................................................................................................... 23
3. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in Small Single Engine and
Multiengine Aircraft .................. . .................. ......... , ..... .. .......... ... .. .... .... . . ,23
4. How Many Hand Extinguishers Should I Install ... , .. , ..... , ....... , ...... , ....... " ......................... 23
Appendi\' 1. List of Acronyms ......... ................... .... .... .... ....... .. .. .... ...... ............ ....... .......... Al ·l
Appendix 2. Definiti ons and Terms ....... ............... ....... .. .... .... .... ....... .......... .......... .......... Al-I
Appendi x 3. Related Publications and How to Get Them .. ............ .. ........... .... ....... ... ... AJ-I
I. Code of Federal Regulations (eFR) ............................. ............................. .. ................. A3-l
2, FAA Airworthiness Directi ve (AD) ............................ , .............................. , .. , ............. ,. A3-1
3. FAA Advisory Circulars (AC) ................................. .............. .............................. ... .. .. .. A3-l
4. FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) ........... .... ..................................... ... .. .. ....... .. .... . A3-2
5. FAA Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFOS) and Infonnation for Operators (inFOs) ... AJ-2
6, FAA Training Videos ..... .. , ......... " .... ,., ..... " .. .... ....... ... , ...................... ," .... , ......... .......... A3-2
7. Reports and Papers ....... ,., ...... ..... .. ..... . " ...... . " ... , ... " .. , .. , .............. , ...... " .. , .... ...... , .. , ......... A3-2
8. American Society ofTesting and Material s (ASTM) Standards ............. ... ................. . A3-4
9. Factory Mutual Research Corp. (FM) ........................................................................... A3-5
10. International Organization for Standardizati on (ISO) , ...... , ....... , ...... ,", .... , ................... A3-5
1 J. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) .............................................................. A3 -5
12. R TeA Inc. Documents ................................................................................................. AJ-6
13. SAE Documents .................. , ................................. ............. .......... ' ................................ A3-6
14. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc (UL) ............................................................................ A3-6
iii
01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420
Paragraph Page
Appendix 4. Explanatory l\1aterial ...................... .. .................... .... ................. ............... . A4-1
I . Effective ThrO\V Ranges ...... ",., ........ __ ... , .................................. _ .......... _ ........................ A4· 1
2. Safe-Use Guidance . ...................................................................................................... A4-1
3. Extingui sher Weights .. .... ........................................................... ........................... .... .... A4-4
4. Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation .... ......... ........................ .... ................... ................. , ... A4-5
Table of Figures
Figure 1. Relative Toxicity of 5 B: C Halocarbon Extinguishers ............................ , ..... 18
Figure 2. Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extingui shers Required for Transport Category
Aircraft Passenger Compartments . ............... .. ........... .. ................... . ...... . 24
Figure 3. Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Required for Transport Category
Rotorcraft Passenger Compartments .............................................. " ...... 25
Figure 4. Effective Throw Ranges for Halocarbon Halon Replacement and Water
Extinguishers ............................................... . ....... . ....... . ... . .. ........ A4-\
Figure 5. Safe-Use Agent WN for Halocarbon Extinguishers in Unventi lated
Passenger and Crew Compartments .............................. .. .... .. ... . ........... A4-2
Fi gure 6. Multiplication Factors (MF Verltilated) for Ventilated Compartments .......... .. .... A4-2
Figure 7. Minimum Safe Compartment Volume for One Extingui sher in Unventi lated
COlnpartments .................. .. ....... .. . ..... .. ... . ............................ . . ....... A4-4
Figure 8. Fire Exti nguisher Performance and Gross Weight s ............................. .. .... A4-5
Figure 9. Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation ..... ..... ............................................. A4-6
IV
OJ/l4/ 1 J AC 20-420
Chapter 1. General Information about this Advisory Circular (AC)
1. What is the Purpose of this Advisory Circular (AC)?
a. We provide guidance for fire-fightjng effectiveness, selection. location and mounting
of hand fire extinguishers.
b. We establish the halocarbons hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Blend B,
hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-227ea, and HFC236fa as FAA approved replacement agents to Halon
12 11 and Halon 1301.
c. This AC recommends that you transition to using these new halocarbon clean agents
in fire extinguishers kepI onboard aircraft and rotorcraft. We explain how to gain certification
for halocarbon clean agent extinguishers intended to replace Halon 1211 hand-held
extinguishers.
d. This AC recommends that dry chemical. dry powder, and carbon dioxide hand
extinguishers, in general, should not be used in aircraft.
e. We also explain how to gain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification for
replacement agent fire extinguishers, which you may use to comply with Title 14 of the Code of
Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 23, 25, 29, 91, 121. 125. 127, and 135.
f. Thi s AC establ ishes an FAA approved minimum perfonnance standard (MPS) for
halon replacement agents which includes a hidden fire lest and a seat fire/toxicity test.
g. This AC reco!,.'11izes that toxicity of halocarbon agents and their decomposition
products is a concern and should be a consideration for extinguisher selection. However, given
the variability of extinguishers. appli cation, compartment sizes and air change times, establishing
specific selection criteria is impractical. The toxicity hazard is a secondary concern to an
unextinguished in-flight fire.
h. This AC provides new general guidance in the fann of safe-use weight per unit
volume (W/V) that may be useful in extinguisher selection. and establishes marking criteria for
halocarbon extinguishers.
i. We show how to reduce the health and safety risk of exposure to halocarbon clean
agents and how to use halocarbon clean agent fire extin!,.ruishers.
j. We offer updated guidance on the continued safe-use of Halon 121 1, Halon 1301. and
Halon 1211/ 1301 Halon blend extinguishers.
01/14/11 AC 20-420
k. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. ft is not intended to
require you to do anything beyond what is specificall y required by the regulations. In it. we
describe an acceptable means, though not the only means, to gain certification for fire
extinguishers kept onboard ai rcraft and rotorcraft. However, if you use the means described, you
must follow it entirely.
2. Who is tbis AC for?
a. We wrote thi s AC for those responsibl e for selecting, approving, purchasing, and
maintaining hand fire extinguishers. The guidance in this AC is also for manufacturers,
installers, modifiers, owners, and operators of airplanes and rotorcraft.
b. This AC is a method ofcompliance for transport category aircraft. Operators of non-
transport category airplanes or rotorcraft should become familiar with the infonnation,
precautions, and the safe-use guidance in this AC.
c. Existing halon handheld fire extinguisher installations are not affected by the updated
guidance in this AC. The guidance in prior revisions of this AC applies to specific extinguisher
installations on existing approved type design aircraft. These extinguishers remain suitable for
continued use based on a history of safe use of halon extinguishers on aircraft. However,
although not required. for new installations and in-service aircraft where practical , we encourage
owners and operators to consider using FAA approved halon replacement extinguishers.
3. What has Changed in tbis AC from the Previous AC?
a. Replacement halocarbon clean agents were developed in response to restrictions on
the production of ozone-depleting halon fire extinguishing agents. The restrictions were
introduced under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 which implemented the Montreal
Protocol signed September 16, 1987. as amended. In addition, the International Civil Aviation
Organization is considering further mandated limits on halon use in aircraft.
b. Since 1994. Halon 1211 has not been produced in the U.S. By 20 I 0, Halon 1211 will
no longer be produced anywhere in the world. However, recycled Halon 1211 is available for
new and existing fire extinguishers. Halocarbon clean agent extingui shers
hydrocWorofluorocarbon HeFC Blend Band hydrofluorocarbons HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa
are now commercially available. These halocarbon hand fire extinguishers have been evaluated
and found to be effective fire-fighting agents. If properly used., these agents are safe to human
health.
c. Safe-use guidance is provided for Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 and blends of these
agents. Safe-use concentrations of Halon 1211 are lower than in the previous AC, because the
guidance in this AC is more conservative.
2
01/14/ 11 AC 20-42D
4. Docs This AC Cancel Any Prior ACs? This AC cancels AC 20-42C, dated March 7,
1984.
S. Where Can I find This AC and Other FAA Publications? You can find this AC on the
Regulatory and Guidance Library (RGL) website: hnp://rg,1.faa.gov/, See appendix 3 in this AC
for additional infonnation and related documentation.
3
01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-42D
Chapter 2. Gaining FAA Approval for Fire Extinguishers
I. How are Hand Fire Extinguishers Approved?
a. Federal ReguJations for Hand Fire Extinguishers. Hand fire extinguishers are
required under 14 eFR §§ 23.85 1, 25.851 (a)(I), 29.851 (a)(I), 29.853(e) & (I), 91.513(c),
119.25, 121.309(c), and 135. 155. We approve hand fire extinguisherSlo be used on aircraft
Wlder the provisions of 14 CFR § 21.305(d). Accordingly, this AC is provided as one means
acceptable to us for the approval of hand fire extinguishers, other than water solution
extingui shers approved under TSO·CI9.
Note: Although 14 CFR parts 9 1 and 125 don' t require OUf
approval of hand fire extin&ruishers: we consider the infonnation in
this AC acceptable for use by Part 91 and 125 operators.
b. Extinguishers Approved Under Industry Standards Organizations. We approve
hand fire extinguishers for use in aircraft when they meet industry standards. Extinguishers
approved in this manner should also meet the safe-use guidance provided in this AC. In
addition, replacement agents must meet additional requirements specified in paragraph 2 below.
We accept hand fi re extinguishers approved by:
(I) U.S. - Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (U.S. - UL) according to U.S. - UL
Standard 711 , Rating alld Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, and U.S. - UL construction and
perfonnance requirements for specifi c agent extinguishers with aU,S. - UL Listing mark (See
paragraph 3c below.) or equivalent such as:
(2) Factory Mutual Research Corporati on (FM) with li sting mark, or
(3) The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with marking per 46 CFR § 162.028.
c. Minimum Rating. Your hand fire exti ngui sher should be rated per the requirements
of U.S .. UL 711 , dated December 17,2004 or equivalent, as noted in paragraph 1 b above. Hand
extinguishers produced in the U.S. or those used on airplanes and/or rotorcraft operated within
the U.S. should meet U.S. - UL fire rating standards.
(I) Large Aircraft. The required hand exti nguishers should be listed and have a
minimum U.S - UL SB:C rating or the equivalent. Exception: See chapter 4, paragraph S of this
AC for minimum extinguisher ratings for use in accessible cargo compartments.
(2) Small Airpl anes or Rotorcraft. You may use an extinguisher with a minimum
rating of U.S, - UL 2B:C or equivalent on aircraft with maximum compartment volumes of up to
2001\]
4
01114/ 11 AC 20· 420
2. How arc Halon 121 I Replacement Extinguishers Approved? Hand extinguisher
replacement agents, such as the halocarbon clean agents intended to replace the required 2 %
pound U.S. - UL 5B:C Halon 1211 extinguishers, may be approved for use on aircraft if the
agent complies wi th the following requirements:
a. Replacement Agent Health and Environment Approval.
(I) Evaluate any halon replacement agent using the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) Significant New Alternati ves Policy (SNAP) program according to
40 CFR part 82, subpart G. This process characterizes the health and environmental risk of a
proposed replacement agent.
(2) The three halon replacement agents covered by thi s AC were evaluated under
the SNAP program. Halocarbon clean agents HCFC-Blend B. HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa arc
approved for environmental and toxicological acceptabi li ty.
b. Replacement Agent Hand Extinguisher MPS. Evaluate the replacement
agent/extinguisher usi ng the two fire tests specified in the MPS technical report cited in appendix
3 paragraph 7s. MPS testing of replacement agents should be coordinated with and approved by
your local ACO with the suppon of FAA Te. These fire tests ensure that the replacement agent
extinguishers provide equivalent fire fighting perfonnance to Hal on 1211. Clean agent
extinguishers designed to replace the requi red 2Y: pound Halon 12 11 extinguisher onboard
aircraft should comply with the fo ll owing MPS provisions:
( I) Hidden Fire Test. The hidden fire test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics
of the replacement agent against a hidden in-flight fire and detennines the ability of a streaming
agent to function as 8 flooding agent. This is a hardware-specifi c test and the extinguisher
design affects its perfonnance. Each required 5B:C extingaisher model should pass this test to
be certified as a Halon 121 1 replacement on aircraft.
(2) Seat Fircrroxicity Test. The seat fire test is a baseline test that evaluates the
effectiveness of the replacement agent in fighting a fl ammable fluid seat fire scenario and the
associated toxicity hazard of the decomposition products of that agent. Thi s test measures the
agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft under in-flight conditions and ensures
an acceptable level of toxicity for the thennal decomposition products of the replacement agent ....
If a particular required 5B:C extinguisher model passes the seat fire/toxicity test, other models of
extingui shers do not need to be tested, if the same agent is used
Note I: Select a replacement agent or halocarbon extinguisher for
your aircraft compartment according to the fire rating per its U.S -
UL listing, not the agent weight.
Note 2: The effectiveness of a hand fire extinguisher relies upon
the training, expertise and capabi lities of the crew member
utilizing the device.
5
01114/ 11
(3) HCFC-Blend B, HFC-227ea, and HFC 236fa have demonstrated
to meet the MPS and are approved for use.
c. National Certification. U.S. - UL 2129, Halocarbon Clean Agent Fire
AC20-42D
Extinguishers, dated January 3. 2007 with a required rating of U.S. - UL 5B:C or equivalent per
U.S. - UL 711 or equivalent (see paragraph I b above).
Note: Use the FAA approval marking label , (see paragraph 2e
below) and the U.S - UL numeric rating listing, not the agent
weight to select extinguishers for an aircraft compartment.
d. Specifications for Approved Halocarbon Clean Agents to Repiac,e Halon 1211.
For hand fire extinguishers employing halocarbon clean agents replacing Halon 1211, the
foUowing American Society of Testing and Material s (ASTM) specifications apply:
( I) HCFC Bl end B must meet ASTM 0 7122-05, Standard Specifications/or
HCFC Blend B;
(2) HFC-227ea must meet ASTM 06064-03, Standard Specifications/or
HFC-227ea, I, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3. 3-Hepwf/ollropropalle (CFJCHFCFJ) ;
(3) HFC-236fa must meet ASTM 0 6541-05, Stondard Specification/or
HFC-236a. l .l,l,3.3,3-Hexafluoropropane (CF,CH , CFJ); or
(4) New Halon 1211 replacement agents must have and meet an applicable ASTM
or equivalent specification.
(5) Fire extingui sher manufacturers are responsible for the validation of agent
purity whether using new or recycled agent.
c. Marking. If you area manufacturer, each of your models of U.S. - UL 5B:C Halon
12 11 replacement extinguishers that have passed the test specified in paragraph 2b(l) and 2b(2)
above should be pennanently and legibly marked with the foll owing:
( I) "Meet s FAA approved MPS per DOT/FAAIAR-01/37"
(2) The name of the listing agency and rating according to U.s. - UL 711 or
equivalent. U.S. - UL extinguishers must have the UL listing mark (include UL copyright logo)
with the four required elements: UL in circle mark; word "listed;" product or company name;
and issue/serial number or control number.
f. New Technologies and Extinguisbers Containing New Replacement Agents.
Nothing in this AC is intended to restrict new technologies or use of new replacement agents
provided they meet the regulations and guidance prescribed in paragraph 2 above.
6
01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420
(1) New agents introduced after the effecti ve date of this AC should compl y with
the provisions of paragraph 2a through 2e above.
(2) If the documentation needed in paragraph 2f( I) is not yet officially publi shed
for a particular halocarbon agent, use the NOAEL values approved under the SNAP program
mentioned in paragraph 2a( l ) above. They can be obtained from the SNAP Probrram
Coordinator at the EPA Office of Air and Radiation or on the public docket for that office and
used to detennine safe-use WNs in the absence of publi shed FAA safe-use guidance. Safe-use
WNs may be calculated usi ng EPA's NOAEL values foll owing the methodology outlined in
appendix 3 reference paragraph 7m of this AC.
(3) The FAA Technical Center (FAATC) intends to publi sh future guidance on
handheld extingui shers. This guidance will include safe-use W/V for ventilated compartments
using FAA approved fire extinguishers containjng hal on replacement agents introduced after the
issuance of thi s AC.
3. Hon
'
are Halon Extinguishers Approved?
R. National Certification. Required halon hand-held fire extinguishers approved for
use on ai rcraft should have a minimum rating of UL 5B:C. Halon 130 1 and Halon 121111301
blends are also used. Halogenated fire extinguishers must compl y with U.S. - UL 1093,
Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, or equivalent, for Halon 12 11 , Halon 1301 and Halon
12 11 / 1301 blends per U.S. - UL 711 or equivalent (see paragraph Ib above). It should be noted
that on March 12, 2009, UL announced the withdrawal of US - UL 1093 and the continuance of
existing certifi cations to the wi thdrawn US - UL 1093. UL will no longer accept the submittal of
new or revised products. but all current compliant products covered under US - UL 1093 will
continue to be authori zed to bear the classificati on mark of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. until
October 1, 20 14.
b. Specifications for Approved Balon Agents. For hand fire extinguishers that still
empl oy halogenated agents, only Halon 1211 , Halon 130 I, or blends of the two have been
previously approved and used aboard aircraft. The following specifications cover the
requirements fbr halogenated agents:
(I) Halon 12 11 should meet the requirements of ASTM D7673-10, Standard
Specification/or Haloll 1211 -Bromachlorodifliloromethone or ISO 7201-1: 1989,
Fire protectioll - Fire e.xtinguishing media -- Halogenated Hydrocarbons -- Parr 1,'
Specifications/or Halon 1211 and Halon 1301.
(2) Halon 1301 should meet the requirements of ASTM D5632-08, Standard
Specification /01' Halon 1301 -Bromotrifluoromelhalle (CFJBr)), or ISO 7201-1 : 1989.
7
01114/11 AC 20-420
(3) Hand fire extingui shers with halon agents may continue to be used on aircraft as
long as recycled halon of proven acceptable quality is available. Recycled agents are still
available for purchase, but the duration of their avai lability is unknown. Therefore, we
encourage operators to consider replacing halon extinguishers after discharge with approved
halon replacement extinguishers.
(4) An EPA exemption allows the production of hal an blends from recycled halon
for aircraft use. There are strict conditions to this exemption.
(5) Fire extinguisher manufacturers are responsible for the validation of agent
purity whether using new or recycled agent.
c. Marking. If you arc a manufacturer, mark your halon extin.b'llishers pennanently and
legibly with the name of the li sting agency and rating according to U,S, - UL 711 or equivalent.
U.S. - UL extinguishers must have the UL listing mark (include UL copyright logo) with the four
required elements; UL in circle mark; word "listed;" product or company name; and issue/serial
number or control number. FM extinguishers must have the FM listing mark. And. USCG
exti nguishers must have the "USCG approval 162.0281XX" marking.
8
01/ 14/11 AC 20-420
Chapter 3. Selecting the Correct Hand Fire Ext inguisher
I. What are t be Diffe rent Types of Fir es?
a. Classes of Fires. To properly select an appropriate hand fire extinguisher for use in
an aircraft, you should consider the following classes of fires that are likely to occur onboard
your aircraft, as defined in the appendix 3, paragraph II a of this AC.
( I) Class A. Fi res involving ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth,
paper, rubber, and plastics.
(2) Class 8. Fires involving flammable liquids, petroleum oils, greases, tars, oil
base paints. lacquers, solvents, alcohols, and fl ammable gases.
(3) Class C. Fires involving energized electrical equipment where the use of an
extinguishing media that is electrically nonconductive is important.
(4) Class O. Fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium,
zirconium, sodium, lithium, and potassium.
b. lithium Battery Fires. Do Dot treat a fire involving a small number of lithium
batteries as a Class 0 fire. We consider a small number of rechargeable lithium batteries as what
would be found in portable electronic devices (PED) e.g. laptop compulers, cell phones. pagers,
audio/video/data recording or playback devices, messaging devices, personal digital assistants
(PDAs), and two-way radios. See chapter 4 paragraph I f of this AC on fire fighting training for
further information.
2. Wh at do the Numeral Ratings Mean? The labeling on tire extinguishers consists of
numerals and letters used in combination to describe the extinguishers relative effectiveness on a
specified Class/type(s) of fi rers).
a. Numerals are used with identifying letters for exti nguishers labeled for Class A and
Class 8 fires. The "numeral," which precedes the letter, indicates the relative extinguishing
effectiveness of the device on a given size fire. This is dependent on the agent, the capacity of
the device, di scharge limes, and design features. For example, an extinguisher rated as U.S. - UL
4A should extinguish about twice as much Class A fire as a U.S. - UL 2A rated extinguisher.
Numeral ratings arc not used tor extinguishers labeled for Class Cor D fires. Extinguishers that
are effective on more than one class of fi res have multiple "numeral-Iener" and "letter'
classifications and ratings; for example, U.S. - UL 5B:C.
9
01114/11 AC20-42D
b. Additional Rating Guidelines for Halocarbon Extinguishers. For occupied spaces
on transport category aircraft, extinguishers employing halocarbon clean agents, replacing
required Halon 1211 extinguishers, should have a minimum U.S. - UL 5B:C or an equivalent
rating. Halocarbon extinguishers are most effective on Class Band C fires. Extinguishers with
greater capacity are also rated for Class A fires. Extinguishers with a 2B:C or 5B:C U.S. - UL
rating, although not rated for use on Class A fires, have been shown to be effective in
extinguishing surface Class A fires.
3. What Extinguishing Agents are Appropri ate for the Different Types of Fir es? The
following extinguishing agents are appropriate for use on the types of fires specified in paragraph
I a above:
a. Water. Class A type fires are best controlled with water by cooling the material
below its ignition temperature and soaking the material to prevent re-ignition.
b. Carbon Dioxide. Class S or C fires are effectively controlled by carbon dioxide as a
blanketing agent.
Notc: Carbon dioxide is not recommcnded for hand-held
extinguishers for internal aircraft use.
c. Dry Chemicals. Class A, S, or C fires are best controlled by dry chemicals. The
only "all purpose" (Class A, S, C rating) dry chemical powder extinguishers contain mono-
8rrunonium phosphate. All other dry chemical powders have a Class B, C U.S ~ UL fire rating
only,
Note 1: In general, dry chemicals are not recommended for hand
extinguishers for internal aircraft use, due to the potential for
corrosion damage to electronic equipment, the possibility of visual
obscuration if the agent were discharged into the flight deck area,
and the cleanup problems from their use.
Note 2: When approving a non-gaseous agent for installation on
aircraft, evaluate the contamination impact to the structure, wiring
and surrounding systems, and consider potential mix.ing oflhe
agent residue with waler. Using such extinguishers may require
specific maintenance procedures addressing cleanup.
d. Halons. Class A, B, or C fires are appropriately controlled with halons. However, do
not use halons on a class 0 fire. Halon agents may react vigorously with the burning metal.
Notc: Whil e halons are still in service and are appropriate agents
for these classes of fires, the production of these ozone depleting
agents has been restricted. Although not required, consider
replacing halon extinguishers with halon replacement extinguishers
when discharged.
10
01/ 14/ 11 AC 20-420
c. Halocarbon Clean Agents. (Halons are a subcategOlY of halocarbons.) Class A. B,
or C fires are appropriately controlled with the use of halocarbon clean agents. Never discharge
halocarbon clean agents or water on a Class D (burning metal) fire. Halocarbon agents may
react vigorously with the burning metal.
f. Specialized Dry Powder. Class D fires are best controlled by dry powder, Follow
the recommendations of the extinguisher manufacturer because of the possible chemical reaction
between the burning metal and the extinguishing agent.
Note 1: Specialized dry powder is not recommended for hand
exti n!,ruishers for internal aircraft use.
Note 2: Fires involving a small number of Lithium primary
batteries (containing molten Lithium) should not be treated as class
o fires and specialized dry powder should not be used. See
chapter 4, paragraph If of this AC for a discussion of appropriate
extinguishing agents for Lithium battery fires.
4. What Extinguishing Agents are Compatible with Aircraft Materials?
a. Corrosion by Extinguishing Agents. Halocarbon clean agents are not corrosive, but
review the material compatibility properties for acceptability to aircraft materials. Water itself is
not corrosive, but may be rendered corrosive by the addition of antifreeze solutions. Specialized
dry powder and monammonium phosphate dry chemical are corrosive to most sensitive
electronic components and instruments.
b. Material Compatibili ty. Halocarbon clean agents can be used in numerous aircraft
applications and it is important to review the materials of construction for compatibility when
des igning new equipment, retrofitting exist ing equipment, or prepari ng storage and handling
equipment to incorporate halocarbon clean agents. Materials that should be considered include
metal s. elastomers, and plastics. Halocarbon clean agents or water should never be djscharged
on Class D (burning metal) fires. These agents may react vigorously with the burning metal.
See paragraph Ib above for the exception: Lithiwn battery fires involving carry-on appliances.
c. Corrosivity of Decomposition Products. The thennal decomposition products of
halocarbon extinguishing agents are corrosive, particularly the acid halides: HP, Hel and HBr.
The decomposition products ofbuming aircraft material s are also corrosive. Yet decomposition
products are minimized by quickly extinguishing the fire. Acid halide production is also based
on the agent used and the size of the fire.
5. \Vhat are the Operating Temperature Tolerances?
3. Halocarbon clean agent extinguishers should operate properly after being conditioned
at -40' F (-40'C) or -65"F (-54'C) as applicable and 120"F (49'C) for 16 hours as specified in
U.S. - VL 2 I 29 or U.S. - UL 1093, as appli cable. Water extinguishers should be protected to
-40°F (-40°C) by adding antifreeze and stipulated on the extinguisher nameplate.
I I
01/14/11 AC20-42D
b. Cold operation may require additional consideration in the selection of an
extinguisher. This is particularly true for general aviation aircraft in extremely cold climates.
The hidden fire extinguishment tests in the MPS were conducted on halocarbon extinguishers
equjlibrated to 70°F. More agent, a lower boiling point agent, or an extinguisher design change,
may be needed to extinguish hidden fires. Testing may be needed to select an appropriate
extinguisher. The boiling points of the halocarbons (at I atmosphere) li sted in this AC are:
( I) HCFC Blend B = 80.6' F (27 .O°C),
(2) HFC-227ea = 1.9°F (-16.4°C),
(3) HFC-236fa = 29.5°F (-1.4°C),
(4) Halon 1211 = 26.0°F (-3.4°C), and
(5) Halon 1301 = -72.0°F (-57. 8°C).
6. General Guidelines for Hand Fire Extinguishers.
3. Consider the effects of agent toxicity, aircraft ventilat ion, agent stratification and
hypoxia whcn selecting and sizing the necessary fire extinguisher for your specific application.
Chapter 4 of this AC provides morc details.
b. Provide the required minimum number of hand held extinguishers. See chapter 5,
paragraph 4 oftms AC. All extinguishers must have the proper U.S. - UL rating, even in spaces
where the safe use guidelines, as outlined in chapter 4 paragraphs 2, 4, 5, and 6 of this AC, are
exceeded. The failure to extinguish a fire has catastrophic consequences for all aircraft
occupants. Agent toxicity should be considered secondary to the immediate need to extinguish
the fire.
c. follow the safe· use guidance recommendations in chapter 4 of this AC for selecting
ext inguishers for your aircraft compartments to, •• ... minimize the hazard of toxic gas
concentration ... ", mentioned in 14 CFR §§ 23.851(c)(2), 25.85 I (a)(8), and 29.851(a)(3).
d. Do not substitute two smaller extinguishers for one extinguisher of the proper UL
rating. except as provided for accessible cargo compaI1ments, as noted in chapter 4, paragraph 5c
of this AC. The fire can grow quickly prior to the di scharge of the second extinguisher.
e. Due to the relatively short discharge time of hand fire extinguishers: a U.S. - UL 58
and a U.S. - UL 1 A: 1 OB:C rated exti nguisher at approximately 8 seconds; and J 3 seconds for a
U.S. - UL 2A: IOB:C extin,bTUi sher; training on the proper use of the fire extinguishers is very
important.
12
01114/ 11 AC 20·420
r. For access to under seat, overhead, and other difficult to reach locations, hand
extinguishers equipped with a discharge hose or adjustable wand mounted directl y to the
extinguisher are highly recommended. A discharge hose or adjustable wand is preferred because
it is likel y to result in the extinguisher being properl y held in an upright position during use and
provides a means of directing a stream of agent to more inaccessible areas. Adj ustable wand or
fixed nozzle extinguishers allow for one-handed use. See AC 120-80 for more detai ls and
guidance on in-flight fire fighting. A video for flight crew training is avai lable from the FAA.
The title of the video is "Aircraft In-flight Fire Fighting. " The tape version of the video is
referenced as "MST 730" and the DVD version is referenced as "MST 730.0 I." It can be
obtained from Dale Dingler, FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Advanced lmaging
Division, AJ p. 7960, Atlantic City [ntemational Airport, NJ 08405. phone: (609) 485· 6646,
email:dale.dingler@faa.gov. TIle in-flight training video is also available at the following public
websi te: http://w \vw .Ii re. te. faa. go v 12007 Con (erencc/ sc!'s i a "_ <leta i I s.asp? sess i onlD =26.
g. U.s. - UL 5B:C extingui shers should have no less than an 8 foot (3 m) throw range
(passing the MPS seat tests assures a 8 foot throw range). Longer throw ranges of to feet and
greater provide a signi ficant advantage in fighting fires in large transport category aircraft. See
appendix 4, paragraph I of thi s AC for more infonnation on replacement agent throw ranges.
h. Halocarbons that are gaseous upon discharge have a more limited throw range.
Halocaroolls have discharge characteristics dependent on the halocarbon, nozzle design,
extingui sher super pressurization, cold soak times, and operational temperatures.
7. Replaccment ofTSO Water Extinguishers:
3. Halon replacement extinguishers with a minimum rating of 5B:C can be used in place
of required technical standard order (TSO) C 19 water extinguishers, if you can show that the
replacement extinb'1lisher has comparable or better Class A extinguishing perfonnance than the
TSO'd water extinguisher. A TSO C19 water extinguisher can fight small Class A fires but arc
not large enough to have a I A rating. The halon replacement ext inguisher must have a sufficient
throw range to extinguish tires likely to occur.
b. For aircraft that are required to carry two or more extinguishers and two water
extinguishers are in close proximity, the two water extinguishers may be replaced by one halon
replacement extinguisher. This is allowed only if the extinguisher has been shown to have
comparable or betler Class A fire extinguishing capability as both water extinguishers and a
sufficient throw range to extinguish fires likely to occur.
13
01/14/11 AC 20-420
Chapter 4. Safe Use of Hand Fire Extinguisher
1. What Basic Fire Fighting Training Should be Provided?
a. Flight crewmembers should be trained on the urgency of immediate and aggressive
extinguishment of an onboard fire. As fires call grow exponentially with time, the risks of
exceeding the hazardous concentration levels of extinguishant are considered minimal compared
to the risks of an in-flight fire.
(I) Quickly extinguish the fire.
(2) Immediately turn off all air recirculation systems, as permitted by your flight
manual.
b. Train flight crewmembers on the proper use of hand extinguishers. See AC120-80,
ill-Flight Fires, for additional guidance. A training video on the use of hand extinguishers to
fight on-board fires is available at the following website:
hllp:/ Iwww.tire.le. faa . govl2007Conferenceisessioll_ detat ls. asp?session I 0 =26.
c. Operators should ensure that all crew members receive proper training in the
appropriate use of hand fire extinguishers onboard their aircraft
d. Attack the base of the fire at the near edge of the fire and then move the fire
extinguisher nozzle with a side-to-side sweeping motion, progressing toward the back of the fire.
The optimum firefighting technique differs for each approved extinguisher.
e. Do not direct the initial discharge at the burning surface at close range, if the burning
materiaJ might splash and/or splatter.
f. Lithium Battery Fires. Crew members should be trained not to treat a smal l
number of lithium batteries as a Class 0 fire. Halon, Halon replacement, or water extinguishers
can be used to control fires involving a small number ofrechargeable lithium batteries as found
in PED e.g. laptop computers, cell phones, pagers, audio/video/data recording or playback
devices, messaging devices, PDAs, and two-way radios. Water or other water based liquid from
any available source should be poured over the cells immediately after fire knockdown or
extinguishment, since only water or water based liquids can provide sufficient cooling to prevent
re-ignition and/or propagation of the fire to adjacent cell s of the battery pack. A water
extinguisher, by itself, can be used safely (from a distance) to extinguish a lithium battery fire
and will usually cool it sufficiently to end the event. Ifneeded, it can be followed up by water
from any available source.
( I) Crew members should be trained not to use fire resistant bum bags to isolate
burning Lithium batteries. Transferring a burning appliance into a bum bag may be extremely
hazardous.
14
01114/11 AC 20-420
(2) See SAFO 09013 and the training vi deo referred to in paragraph 1 b above for
further guidance on how to fight Lithium battery fires.
2. What arc Some General Guidelines for the Safe-Use of Halocarbon Extinguishers?
3 . Quickly Extinguish tbe Fire. Although exposure to halocarbon agents and their
decomposition products are a concern, it is far less of a concern than the consequences of an
unextingui shed in-flight fire. It is criticall y important to quickly extinguish an in-flight fire. The
consequences of an unextingui shed in-flight fire include the loss of the aircraft and its occupants
and immediate toxic hazards from exposure to thennal decomposition products of the burning
materials, including carbon monoxide. hydrogen cyanide, smoke, heat, and subsequent oxygen
depl etion.
h. Control Exposure to Combustion Gases and Halocarbon Vapors. The following
guidance is affected by and may be adjusted for agent stratification and localization, as discussed
in chapter 4, paragraph 4b(4).
(1) Turn off all air recirculation systems immediatel y. if allowed by your aircraft
flight manual (AFM) or flight crew operations manual (FCOM). Halocarbon agents are much
heavier than air and under most conditions they stratify with time at lower levels. Turning off
the recirculation allows the agent entering the low level ai r returns to be directed to the air
outflow valves and out of the aircraft. This increases the rate of agent removal from the aircraft.
Some aircraft have up to 50% recirculation) so it is important to turn off the air recirculation
quickly.
(2) While it is impossible to accurately predict the hazard level in most situations,
try to avoid selecting extinguishers that could result in exposure to halocarbon vapors above the
safe-use levels. Exposure may result in dizzi ness, impaired coordination, reduced mental acuity,
and heart arrhythmias.
(3) Halocarbon agents also decompose when they contact open flames or hot
surfaces. The decomposition products have a characteristic sharp, acrid odor, and an eye
irritating effect, even in concentrations of only a few parts per million. See Annex A, Paragraph
1.5. 1.2 and 5.7. 1.2 of the standard in appendi x 3, paragraph II d of this AC, or the most current
revision, for more detai led inforn1ation on the effects of neat agent and hydrogen fluoride (HF)
respecti vely, as well as further discussion of factors affecting the fonnati on ofthennal
decomposition products.
c. Use Portable Protective Breathing EqUipment (PBE). In compartments where
extingui sher(s) are used that do not meet the safe-use guidance in thi s AC, flight crewrnembers
should use portable PBE, if available and/or as directed by FCOM procedures or AFM.
Unprotected personnel should not enter a protected space during or after agent discharge, until
ventilated. Crewmembers should follow fire fighting procedures when using portable PBE. See
paragraph 5b below for additional infonnation on portable PBE use in cargo compartments.
15
01/14/11 AC 20-42D
d. Ventilate the Compartment.
(1) When you are reasonably sure the fire is extinguished, ventilate the
compartment overboard at the highest possible rate allowed by established crew procedures for
your particular aircraft to rid the cabin and flight deck of hazardous gases and smoke. Stay alert
when increasing airflow, if the fire is not completel y extinguished or smoldering, increasing
airflow could promote fire growth.
(2) Small aircraft lack some of the safety advantages available to large transport
category aircraft. Large aircraft with small volume occupied spaces (flight decks) have a forced
venti lation system, availability of supplemental oxygen (quick donning oxygen masks), and a co-
pilot available. Therefore, operators of slUall unpressurized aircraft should open a window, if at
all possible.
3. How to Prevent Hypoxia in an Unpressurizcd Aircraft. You can avoid life-threatening
hypoxia (low oxygen) hazards that may result from the discharged halocarbon agent displacing
air in unpressurized aircraft, by following the descent, ventilation, and supplemental oxygen
guidance below. See the report referenced in appendix 3. paragraph 7m of this AC for
information on the development of the guidance below.
a. Extinguish Fire and Ventilate Cabin. As mentioned above, make sure the fire is
completely extinguished. To rid the cabin and flight deck of hazardous gases and smoke,
ventilate all unpressunzed aircraft compartments overboard at the highest possible rate allowed
by established crew procedures for your particular aircraft. lfthe fire is nol completely
extinguished, or a smoldering fire exists, increasing airflow could promote fire growth
b. Descend to Lower Altitudes. Immediately descend at the maximum safe rate to
8,000 ft. or to an altitude that is as low as practicable. Descending di lutes agent concentration,
lowers exposure to agent and combustion gases, and increases oxygen concentration. We
recommend descending regardless of the amount of agent used, the aircraft: size, or ventilation
rate. Aircraft with a maximum flying altitude of 12,500 ft. are protected from hypoxia, without
the need for supplemental oxygen, by immed.iately descending as described above.
c. Use Supplemental Oxygen. Use of supplemental oxygen can prevent hypoxia.
However, if a supplemental diluter demand personal oxygen system at ePAs above 12,500 ft., a
nasal cannula up to and including 18,000 ft CPA, or an o r a l ~ n a s a l mask between 18,000 ft. and
25,000 ft. CPA are used, the user will not be fully protected from hypoxia, This lack of
prolection is because the oxygen flow control for these systems is based on pressure altitude, not
oxygen partial pressure.
(I) Occupants flying at altitudes above 12,500 ft. should immediately switch their
masks or nasal cannula to the maximum flow of oxygen, if so equipped, to get additional
protection during the time it would take to exchange the air in the compartment three times.
16
01114111 AC 20-420
(2) Fingertip probe oxygen sensors should be used with oxygen systems on
unpressurized aircraft with maximwn flying altitudes above 12,500 ft. These devices provide
user feedback on the effects of hypoxia after halocarbon agent discharge such that the wearer can
increase the oxygen flow to their breathing device to compensate for the hypoxia.
(3) Unpressurized ai rcraft are allowed to use nasal cannula supplementary oxygen
systems up 10 18,000 ft. altitude. These systems provide no protection to a wearer when he or
she breaths through the mouth, which can occur at times of stress.
4. What arc the Guidelines on the Selection of Halocarbon Extinguishers?
a. Extinguisher Performance. Primary consideration in selecting a fire extinguisher
should be perfonnance, size, and weight (see appendix 4, paragraph 3 of this AC), hardware
configuration, extinguisher throw range (see appendix 4, paragraph I of this AC). ease of use for
novices, commercial availability of the agent, and environmental issues (ODP and GWP).
Special consideration needs to be made for cold temperature operation. as noted in chapter 3,
paragraph 5b of this AC. Agent physical and chemical properties may also be considered.
b. Toxicity/ Human Exposure. As mentioned previously, human exposure to
halocarbon agents is a concern and needs to be addressed as noted in paragraph 2b above.
However. il is far less of a concern than the consequences of an unextinguished in-flight fire.
From a hazardous exposure perspective, you may elect to select a halocarbon hand extinguisher
using the safe-use WN guidance (based on perfect mixing) described below for your specific
compartment size. Safe-use WN guidance provides an objective scientific evaluation of the
currently approved agents.
(I) The exposure hazard presented by the decomposition products of the agent may
be considered when choosing a fire extingui sher for a particular installation.
(2) Safe-use WN guidance for various air change times, assuming perfect mixing. is
presented in appendi x 4, paragraph 2 of thi s AC. The methodology used to develop the safe-use
WNs ofhaloc8rbon agents and their blends was developed in the report referenced in appendix 3,
paragraph 7m of thi s AC. The safe-use WN guidance is based on the discharge of the largest
extin&'1lisher in a compartment at 70° F at the aircraft certificated CPA.
(3) These safe-use WNs may be used as general guidance and are based on perfect
mixing gas concentration histories. This safe-use W N h'11idance is not rigid, as there are many
variables that can affect the agent concentration histories. Actual concentrations encountered by
occupants may be significantl y lower than would be encountered if there was perfect mixing
depending on agent stratification, air distribution, air flow, and geometry of a particular
ai rcraft/aircraft compartment and may be adjusted accordingly.
(4) Agent stratification/locali zation within a compartment, as mentioned in
paragraph 4b(3) above, will be addressed in a report to be published at the FAA Technical
Center. Thi s report will provide limited examples and the method to properl y adjust the safe-use
concentrations for those examples. See appendix 4, paragraph 2a(4)
17
01114/11 AC20-42D
(5) For unpressurized aircraft, you should consider safe· use guidance for the
highest alti tude for which the aircraft is certified.
(6) The cabin is considered and referred to as a compartment. The total charge
weight of the largest exti nguisher divided by the compartment volume should not exceed the
safe·use W/V.
(7) ln a pressurized aircraft (6000 to 8,000 ft CPA), the hypoxic hazard is minimal
for the safe-use concentrations for the halocarbon agents in this AC. Immediate descent is not
necessary. Pressuri zed aircraft benefit (increased oxygen and decreased agent concentrations)
only from descent to altitudes below the CPA. The worst case oxygen equivalent CPA for
pressurized aircraft using the safe-use WN guidance provided in thi s AC is 10,000 ft at 2
minutes aft er di scharge when 8
1
000 ft CPA is maintained. However, landing as quickly as
possible is always recommended when an onboard fire is suspected.
c. Relative Agent Toxicity. You may want to consider the relative toxicity of
extinguishers in Figure I below when selecting an extinguisher. Figure I shows the normalized
toxicities of approved 5B:C extingui shers relative to the NOAEL-based toxicity of a 5B:C Halon
1211 extinguisher. These nomlalized toxicities are based on exposure to neat (un-decomposed)
agent using 3 different measures: NOAEL, Safe Human Concentration and LOAEL.
"
~
.!! ::
, N
r-
- ~
~ .
u X
.. S
~ .
~ ~
. ~ ~
." .
~
Figure l.
1.3
1.2
1.1
' .0
a.'
0.8
0.7
0.6
o.s
0.4
0.3
02
a .•
0.0
"
, ~
,0
0
"
Relative Toxicity of 5 B:C Halocarbon Extinguisbers
Ageo'
[!] NOAEL Basis
o Safe Human CO,,,",,",,'oo I
Basis
8 LOAEL Basis
d. Minimum Safe Volume. Alternatively. you may consider minimum safe volumes to
make your extingui sher selection. In thi s case, the minimum safe volume of one extinguisher is
obtained by di viding that extinguisher' s charge weight by the safe-use agent WN for the
appropri ate altitude and ventilation (See appendix 4, paragraph 3 of this AC).
18
01114/ 11 AC 20-42D
5. How to Safely Use Halocarbon Extinguisbers in Accessible Cargo Compartments.
a. Unsafe Concentrations of Extingui shing Agent . 14 CFR § 25.857 and § 29.855(d)
require aircraft to be designed to prevent the harmful accumulation of smoke, flame,
extinguishing agent and noxious gases from entering occupied areas. Airplane Flight Manual
(AFM) fire fighting procedures should state that the crew member should close the Class B cargo
compartment door after extinguishing a fire.
b. When to Use Portable Pr otective Breathing Equipment (PBE). Portable PBE
should be worn before entering the cargo compartment and attempting to extinguish a fi re, as
outlined in 14 CFR § 25. 1439. Note that AFM and/or Crew Operations Manual are required to
have the appropriate procedure incl uding calling out the use of portable PBE and other
em<.. .... gency equi pment necessary to figh t a fi re.
c. Compartments Under 200 Cubic Fect. Halon replacement extinguishers should
have a minimum fire rating classification of U.S. - UL 2A: IOB:C for accessible Class B cargo
compartments, combination passenger/cargo (combi) and cargo airplane/rotoreraft. The fire
threat for accessible cargo compartments is primarily from Class A fires. Usually, one
exti nguisher with a U.S. - UL 2A:l OB:C rating is sufficient to fight most fires likely to occur.
( I) Multiple hand-held ti re extinguishers may be shared to comply with the cabin
and accessible Class 8 cargo compartment regulations, if they 8re located where a person
fighting a fire in the compartment could quickly retrieve them and continue fighting the fire with
minimal delay between the discharges. It must be demonstrated that the extinguishers, as
installed, can extinguish 2A and I OB:C rated fires. The combined rating is to be detennined by
perfonning the U L 711 fire tests by discharging the extinguishers with a delay between the end
of each extinguisher' s discharge and the start of the discharge of the next extinguisher based on
the location of each extinguisher and an assessment of factors such as:
(a) The manpower avail able to fight the firc. If two trained crew members are
available to fight the fire, it may be possible to avoid a delay between discharges of the
extinguishers.
(b) The time to recognize the completion of the discharge, to walk to the
location of the next bonle, remove it from it's mounting bracket, pull the pin, return to the cargo
compartment, position the extinguisher to continue to fight the fire and initiate discharge.
(2) The rating is based on UL 711 perfonnance tests, not agent weight, as the agent
weight is not sufficient to predict perfonnance. Nozzle design. super pressurization and other
factors affect perfonnance. The UL fire tests can be prefonncd by the applicant or an approved
test laboratory such as UL.
19
01114111
Note: The recommended extinguisher rating of 2A: 1 OB:C is lower
than the 2A:40B:C rating in AC 20-42C. This is because the fire
threat for accessible cargo compartments is primarily from Class A
fires. The prior guidance in AC 20-42C was based on the need for
alleast a 2A rating for class A fires usi ng a Halon 1211
extinguisher to extinguish a fire. Halon 1211 extinguishers that
have a class A rating of2A also have a 40B:C rating. It has been
detelmined that a IOB:C rating is more then adequate for the type
and size of class B and C fires likely to occur in a Class B cargo
compartment.
AC 20-420
d. Compartments Over 200 Cubic Feet. Accessible cargo compartments of 200 ft3
and larger, in combination passenger/cargo and cargo aircraftlrotorcraft, should comply with the
requirements of the FAA Airworthiness Directive (AD) 93·07-15, This AD speci fies acceptable
fOllTls of fire protection equipment and operational procedures, The options provided include
converti ng the compartment to meet the requirements of a Class C cargo compartment, use of
hand·held fire extinguishers, or the use of fire containment containers or covers. fire
extingui shing systems and smoke or fire detectors.
(I) If yOll elect to use hand fire extinguishers provide the following:
(a) A minimum of three U.S. - UL listed Halon 1211 or its equivalent
2A: 1 OB:C hand held fITe extinguishers (equivalent to the AD's requirement of 481bs. of Halon
1211) readily available for use in the cargo compartment.
(b) At least two U.S. - UL 2A (2-1 /2 gallon) listed water portable fire
extinguishers, usually TSO C 19 or its equivalent, adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance for
use in the compartment.
(c) Protective gannents stored adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance.
(d) Portable PBE with a minimum of 15 minutes of protective breathing, per
14 CFR § 25. I 439(b)(5) , Thi s portable PBE should be TSO CJ 16 approved or equivalent, and
be stored adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance.
(2) If no extinguisher is available that meets the safe-use criteria for the
aircraftlrotorcraft cabin, consider converting that cargo compartment to a class C compartment
with a built-in fire suppression system, or any other technology that would provide effective fire
protection. Restrict personnel from entering the cargo compartment for the duration of the flight.
6. How to Inspect and Maintain the Band Fire Extinguisher for Continued Safe-Use.
Maintain and inspect hand fire extinguishers in accordance with the manufacturer's nameplate
instructions. Follow lhe maintenance procedures, inspections and testing specified in the
applicabl e NFPA and U.S. - UL standards.
20
01114/ 11 AC 2042D
a. Non·refillabJc, disposable fire extinguishers may have plastic discharge heads
installed. Locate this type of fire extinguisher in a safe area to assure there will be no damage to
the plastic di scharge heads.
b. Non-refillable, disposable fire extinguishers are exempt from periodic hydrostatic
testing. However, replace these extinguishers with a serviceable unit upon reaching:
(1) The service life where hydrostatic testing would nonnal1y he required for a
similar exti nguisher, or
(2) The service life guidelines established by the manufacturer if sooner.
c. Recommended procedures for the inspection, hydrostatic lest and life limits of
pressure cylinders are outlined in:
(I) Specification of cylinders is in 49 CFR. part 178, subpart C.
(2) Inspection and maintenance of cylinders is in 49 CFR, part 180, subpart 8.
(3) Fire extinguishers are addressed in 49 CFR § 173.309 and in 29 CFR § 1910. 157.
d. Manufacturers of fire extinguishers containing halon replacement agents approved for
use on FAA certified aircraft should take immediate action through the appropriate channel(s) to
have their retest requirements included in the aforementioned regulatory guidelines.
2 \
01/ 1411 1 AC 20-420
Chapter 5. Locating and Mounting Hand Fire Extinguishers
I . Where to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in Passenger Compar t ments.
Lnstall fire extingui shers in passenger compartments according to 14 CFR §§ 23.851, 25.851, and
29.853 and the following criteria:
a. Locate hand fire extinguishers adjacent to hazardous areas (for example, galleys,
accessible baggage or cargo compartments, electrical equipment racks, etc.) to be protecied.
b. If there are no defined hazardous areas, locate the hand fire extinguishers as follows :
( I) When one extinguisher is used, locate it at the flight attendant's station.
(2) When no fl ight attendant is required, locate the extinguisher at the passenger
entrance door.
(3) When two or more extinguishers are used, locate one at each end of the
passenger compartment and space the remainder uniformly within the cabin area.
c. Mount hand fi re extinguishers for ready accessibi lity. If they are not visible in their
mounted position, use a placard to indicate their location.
(I) Aircraft structure and mounting brackets are required to withstand the
applicable inertia forces required in 14 CFR §§ 23561 , 25561 , 27.561 , and 29.561, with the
hand fire extinguisher installed. Replacement of halon extinguishers with halocarbon
ext inguishers wi ll require an evaluation of the mounting system strength. The mounting
structure may need to be strengthened. Halocarbon clean agent extinguishers of the same listing
can be 2-3 times the weight of the halon extinguishers they arc replacing.
(2) For large transport category aircraft, installation of an ext inguisher should
include vertical reach combined with horizontal (offset) reach to ensure ease of retrieval from
overhead compartments. The vertical reach should not exceed 74.5 in. (189.23 em) combined
with an offset reach of7.87 in. (20cm) to pennit a 5 percentile female, 60.5 in. (153.67 cm.) tall
to quickly access the extinguisher. Consideration should be allowed for assist steps (or seats) or
other factors.
(3) Add the weight of the hand fire extingui sher and its mounting bracket to the
aircraft empty weight and a compute a new empty weight center of b'favity.
d. Consider the type offire hazard (Class A, B, C or D) expected to be encountered
when you select a hand fire extinguisher. If extinguishers intended for different classes of fire
are grouped together, consider marking their intended use conspicuously via a placard or other
means (near the extinguisher) to ajd in the choice of the proper extinguisher at the time of the
fire.
22
01 /J4111 AC 20·420
2. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in Flight Deck Compartments.
Consider using the fo ll owing criteria if you install a fire extinguisher in the flight deck
compartment :
a. Each hand fire extinguisher should be conveniently located, readily accessible, and
it 's location obvious.
b. Hand fire extinguishers should be mounted tor easy release and removal. For aircraft
designed for single pilol operation, the hand fi re extinguisher should be located for release and
removal by the pilot in the seated position.
(I) Secure the extinguisher(s) in mounting bracket(s) such that it requires a
deliberate action to release the extingui sher from its primary restraint for removal from its
mounting. Design the mounting bracket so that upon release from their primary restraint, the
extingui sher remains in position until removed from its mounting by the user.
(2) Aircraft structure and extinguisher mounting brackets must be capable of
wi thstanding the inertia forces specified in paragraph Ie above.
c. Fire extinguishers for the flight deck compartment should be able to extinguish Class 8
and C ftres.
3. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguisbers in Small Single Engine and
Multiengine Aircraft.
a. Locate hand fire extinguishers so that they are easi ly accessible to the, flight crew and
the passengers.
b. Do not allow hand fire extinguishers to li e loose on shelves, seal back pockets or
seats. Properly mount the hand fire exti nguisher to the ai rframe structure.
c. Aircraft structure and extinguisher mounti ng brackets should be capable of
withstanding the inertia forces specified in paragraph I c above.
4. Row Many Hand Extinguishers Must I Install?
a. TraDsporl Category Airplanes. 14 CFR §§ 25.85 1(0) and 121.309(c) requires a
minimum number of hand extinguishers to be installed on transport category airplanes.
(I) The minimum number of hand fire extinguishers that must be conveniently
located and evenly distributed in passenger compartments are as shown in Figure 2 below.
23
0\ / \4/ \\
Figure 2. Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers
Required for Transport Category Aircraft Passenger Compartments
Passenger No. of
Capacity Extinguishers
7 through 30 1
31 through 60 2
6 1 through 200 3
20 1 through 300 4
301 through 400 5
401 through 500 6
501 through 600 7
601 through 700 8
AC20-42D
(2) AI least one hand fire extinguisher must be conveniently located in the pilot
compartment.
(3) At least one readily accessible hand fire extin!,ruisher must be avai lable for use
in each Class A or Class B cargo or baggage compartment and in each CJass E cargo or baggage
comparnnent that is accessible to crewmembers in flight, per 14 CFR § 25.851 (a)(3).
(4) At least one of the required fire extinguishers located in the passenger
compartment of an airplane with a passenger capacity of at least 31 and not more than 60, and at
least two of the fire extingui shers located in the passenger compartment ofan airplane with a
passenger capacity of 61 or more must contain Halon 1211. or equivalent, as the exti nguishing
agent.
(5) The quantity of extinguishing agent used in each extinguisher required by this
section musl be appropriate for the kinds of fires likely to occur where used.
b. Transport Categor y Rotorcraft. Title 14 CFR § 29.853 requires a minimum
number of hand exti nguishers to be installed in passenger compartments:
(I) See Figure 3 below for the minimum number of hand fire extinguishers that
must be conveniently located in passenger compartments.
24
01114/11 AC 20-420
Figure 3. Minjmum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Required for
Transport Category Rotorcraft Passenger Compartments
Passenger No. of
Capacity Extinguishers
7 through 30 I
31 through 60 2
61 or more 3
(2) There must be a hand fire extinguisher for the night crewmembers.
(3) There are no requirements for extinguishing systems or hand extinguishers for
accessible cargo or baggage compartments in transport category rotorcraft. Use the hand
extinguisher guidance provided in chapter 4, paragraph 6 of this AC for these compartments.
c. Small Airplanes. Title 14 CFR II 23.85 1 and 91.513(c) requires a minimum
number of hand extinguishers to be installed on small part 23 airplanes.
(I) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be tocaled within easy access of the
seated pilot.
(2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be in the passenger compartment of an
airplane that accommodates more than six passengers. The extinguisher must minimize the
hazard of toxic gas concentration.
25
01114111
14CFR
AC
ACO
AD
AFM
ASTM
CAA
CFR
CPA
DOT
EPA
FAA
FAATC
FC
FCOM
FIC
FK
FM
HCFC
HF
HFC
ICA
ISO
LOAEL
MF
MPS
NOAEL
NFPA
PFC
PBE
PBPK
PDA
PED
RGL
RTCA
SAE
SNAP
1. Tau
TSO
UL
USCG
WN
%v/v
Appendix 1. List of Acronyms
Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations
AdviSOry Circular
Aircraft Certification Office
Airworthiness Directive
Airplane Flight Manual
American Society of Testing and Materials
Civil A viation Authority
Code of Federal Regulations
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Department of Transport ati on
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Aviation Administration
FAA Technical Center
FI uorocarbon
Flight Crew Operations Manual
FI uoroiodocarbon
Fluoroketone
Factory Mutual Research Corp.
H yd roc hlorofl uorocarbon
Hydrogen Flouride
Hydrofluorocarbon
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
International Organization for Standardization
Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level
Multi plication Factor
Minimum Performance Standard
No Observable Adverse Effect Level
National Fire Protection Association
Pcrfluorocarbon
Protective Breathing Equipment
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic
Personal Digital Assistant
Portable Electronic Device
Regulatory Guidance Library
Radio Technical Corporation of America
Society of Automotive Engineers
Significant New Alternatives Policy
Air Change Time
Technical Standard Order
Underwriters Laboratories
Uni ted States Coast Guard
Weight per Uni t Volume (WN) Ratio
Volume Percent
AI- I
AC20-42D
Appendix I
01114/ 11
Appendix 2. Definitions and Terms
AC 20-420
Appendix 2
The following definitions and terms apply when following the procedures outlined in thi s AC:
1. Air Change Time, t , is the time in minutes, it takes for the inflow of fresh air into a
compartment, wi th a volume equivalent to the volume of the compartment.
2. Cabin Pressure Altitude is speci fied for transport aircraft by regulation to be the air
pressure in the cabin or compartment of a commercial airliner and it must not be lower than that
found al an altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m) under normal operaling conditions, per § 25.841(0)
3. Cargo Aircraft are aircraft configured solely to carry cargo and no personnel other than
the flight crew and any additional crew required for the care of the cargo.
4. Clean Agent is electrically nonconducting, volatil e or gaseous fire extinguishant that does
not leave a residue upon evaporation. The word agent as used in this circular means clean agent
unless otherwise indicated.
5. Combi Aircraft are designedlconfib'lired to transport both passengers and cargo on the
same level within the fuselage.
6. Compartment is an encl osed space on an aircraft. Examples of compartments are a flight
deck. a crew rest. and a cabin. The aircraft cabin is considered one compartment.
7. Dry Chemical is a mixture of finely di vided solid particles, usually sodium bicarbonate,
potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium phosphate-based with added particulate material
supplemented by speciaJ treatment to provide resistance to packing. and moisture absorption
(caki ng) and to promote proper fl ow characteristics.
8. Dry Powder is solid material s in powder granul ar fonn designed to extinguish class D
combustibl e metal fires by crusting, smothering, or heat transferring means.
9. Flight Crew arc responsible for the operation and management of the aircraft flight
control s, engines, and systems, including. but not limited to, pilot in command (captain). first
officer (copilot), second officer (flight engineer).
10. Flight Deck is the compartment of the aircraft arranged for use by the flight crew in
operating the aircraft.
J 1. GaUey is the area of the aircraft for storing, refrigerating, heating and dispensing of food
and beverages.
A2-1
I O/XXlI 0 AC20-42D
Appeodix2
12. Halocarbon Agent is comprised primarily of one or morc organic compounds containing
one or more of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. Halocarbon agents are
electrically non-conducting, volatile liquids, or gaseous fire extinguishants. As "clean agents",
they do not leave a residue on evaporation. Halocarbon agents (haJons and halon replacements)
that are currently commercialized include the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).
perfluorocarbons (FCs or PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Ouoroiodocarbons (FICs), and
fluoroketones (FKs), as well as the completely halogenated halocarbons (halons). Halocarbon
agent s are mullipurpose class A, B, C rated agents and are most effective on Class B and C fires.
Advantages of halocarbon agents include low cold shock characteristics on electronic equipment,
no degradation of visual acuity, and low pressure.
13. Halocarbon Blend is a mixture of2 or more halocarbon agents in a portable extinguisher.
14. Halon is a short derivation for "halogenated hydrocarbon." The chemical structure is
identified as a four digit number representing, respectively. the number of carbon, fluorine,
chlorine, and bromine atoms present in one molecule. Both Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 are
liquefied gases and typified as "dean agents." Halons primarily extinguish fire by chemically
interrupting the combustion chain reaction rather than by heat removal or physically smothering.
15. Halon Equivalent Extinguisher is an extinguisher containing a dean agent which meets
tbe MPS for hand-held fire extinguishers (see appendix 3 reference paragraph 75 of this AC).
Equi valency does not refer to agent weight, but the effectiveness of extinguishing a fire. Halon
replacement extinguishers may be more than twice the weight of halon extinguishers.
16. Balon 1211 has the chemical name bromochlorodifluoromethane, CBrCl F
2
. Halon 1211
is a multipurpose, Class A, B, C rated agent effective against flammable liquid fires. Due to its
relatively high boiling point of +26°F (_4°C), Halon 1211 discharges as an 85 percent liquid
stream offering a long agent throw range.
17. Halon 130 I has the chemical name bromotrifluorornethane, CBrF
3
. Halon 1301 is
recogni zed as a multipurpose agent having Class A, B, C capabi lity in total flooding systems.
However, Halon 130 I offers limited Class A capabili ty when used in portable fire extinguishers.
The boi ling point forthis agent is ·72°F (·S7.8°C). Halon 1301 discharges as a gas.
18. Halon Replacement Agents are any clean agents which can be either a non-halon
(halocarbon agent) or halon alternative (all other substitute agents) that have SNAP approval by
the U.S. EPA and meet the MPS for hand fire extinguishers.
19. Hand Fire Extinguis ber is an approved, aircraft portable fire extinguisher which can be
used by aircraft occupants to combat accessible, incipient. on· board fires.
21. A FC-227ea is an extinguishing agent that is comprised of the chemical 1,1 , 1,2,3,3,3·
heptafluoropropane (CF, CHFCF,). The boiling point of the agent is 2.S' F (-16.4"C). Due to this
boiling point, HFC·227ea is discharged as a mixed liquid and vapor stream which readily
evaporates. It is a multipurpose agent with class A, B and C capability.
A2-2
01/ 14111 AC 20-42D
Appendix 2
22. HFC-136fa is an extinguishing agent that is comprised of the chemical 1, t, 1 ,3,3,3
hexafluoropropane (CF JCH1CF]). The boiling point of the agent is +29.5°F (-1 AOC). Due to its
relatively bigh boiling point. HFC-236fa discharges predominately as a liquid stream which
readily evaporates. It is a mUltipurpose agent with class A, Band C capabi lit y.
23. HCFC Blend 8 is an extinguishing agent that is a tertiary blend compri sed primarily of the
chemical 2,2-dichloro-l, 1, t -trifluoroethane HCFC-123, (CF 3CHCh). Two inen gases are
blended with the HCFC·123 to enhance flow distribution and fire extinguishing perfonnance.
The boiling point of the blend is 80.6'F (27'C). Due to its high boiling point, HCFC Blend B
di scharges primaril y as a liquid stream which readily evaporates. It is a mUltipurpose agent with
class A, B, and C capability.
24. Labeled equipment or materials have an attached label, symbol, or other identifying mark
oran organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with
product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or
materials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate
standards or performance in a specified manner.
25. Listed refers to equipment, materials or services included in a list published by an
organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation
of products or services. The organization maintains periodic inspection of production oflisted
equipment or material s or peri odic evaluation of services, and who's listing states that the
equipment. material or service meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and
found suitable for a specified purpose.
26. L.isting Mark is a certification mark aJlowed to be carried as a stamp of approval by
nationally recognized standards/testing organization.
27. Lithium Ion Battery is a rechargeable battery that has an anode made from a metal oxide
composite containing lithium ion, and a cathode made from a specialized carbon materiaL
Charge and discharge of the battery is facilitated by the movement of lithium ions in electrolytic
solutions. Lithium ion baneries are used in small electronic devices such as pagers, portable
computers, camcorders, and portable telephones.
28. Lithium Primary Battery is a rechargeable battery thai has a lithi um anode and a cathode
system consisting of carbon and either thionyl chloride or sulfuryl chloride.
29. Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) is the lowest concentration at which
an adverse physiological or toxicological effect has been observed in dogs.
30. Maximum Certificated Occupant Capacity is the maximum number of persons that can
be carried for each specific aircraft model as certified by the authority havi ngjurisdiction.
A2-3
01/ 14/ 11 AC 20-420
Appendix 2
31. M.inimum Performance Standard (MPS) for Hand Extinguishers refers specifically to
two tests that hand extinguishers containing halon replacement agents must pass. See appendix. 3
reference paragraph 75. These fire tests demonstrate equivalent fire extinguishing performance
currently used in aircraft and assess the toxicity of the decomposition products.
32. Minimum Safe Volume refers to the smallest compartment volume into which one
extinguisher could be discharged, assuming perfect mixing of agent, without posing a toxicity
hazard. Minimum safe volumes are dependent on the agent, the agent weight, ventilation, and
pressure altitude of the discharge.
33. Neat in this context refers to un-decomposed agent.
34. No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) is the highest concentration at which no
adverse physiological or toxicological effect has been observed in dogs.
35. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model is a mathematical model for
human health risk assessment and investigation of toxicity. The health concern for halocarbons,
including halons, is cardiac sensitization which occurs at a fixed target arterial concentration.
The model estimates the allowable arterial blood concentration as a function of agent exposure
time to establish both the concentration of agent and duration to which personnel could be safely
exposed. The PBPK modeling is endon;ed by the U.S. EPA and the NFPA.
36. RatedIRating is a numerical value assigned to an extinguisher based on its fire
extinguishi ng capability.
37. Safe 1·luman Exposure Concentrations are based on PBPK modeling. Safe human
concentrati ons are exceeded when the simulated arterial concentration exceeds the target arterial
concentratjon.
38. Small Aircraft are defined by part 23.
39. SNAP Program is EPA's significant new alternatives policy (SNAP) program to evaluate
and regulate substitutes for ozone depicting chemical s that are being phased out under the
stratospheric ozone protection proVisions of the Clean Air Act.
40. Time of Useful Consciousness is the time availabl e to don an oxygen mask without
assistance.
41. Unventilated Compartment for the purposes of the AC is a compartment where the air
change time is not known or exceeds 6 minutes.
42. Ventilated Compartment is a compartment where the air change time is known and does
not exceed 6 minutes.
43. Volume Percent (% v/v) is the gas volume in liters per 100 liters of the resulting gas
mixture, e.g. 2% v/v Halon 1211 mixture contains 2 liters Halon 1211 per 100 liters volume.
A2-4
01114/ 11
Appendix 3. Related Publications and How to Get Them
AC 20-420
Appendix 3
l. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). You can get copies ofTitle 14, 40,46, and 49 of the
Code of Federal Regulations, parts from the Superintendent of Documents. Govenunent Printing
Office, P.O. Box 37154, Pittsburgh, PA 15250·7954. Telephone (202) 512-1800; fax (202) 512-
2250. You can order copies Title 14 through the FAA website at hup:llrgl .faa.gov/. Select
"Access" then "Online Bookstore." Select "Aviation:' then "Code of Federal Regulations."
You can also get copies of 14 CFR sections on-line at www.®Oaccess.gov/cfr/ and copies of 40
CFR sections on-line at www.cpa.gov/epahomelcfr40.htm. The following is a list of applicable
Federal Regulations used for this AC:
a. 14 CFR §§ 21.305. 23.561. 23.851 . 23. 144 1,23.1443·1 449. 25.56 1, 25.851. 25.857,
25.1439, 27.56 1, 27.86 1, 29.561. 29.851 , 29.853(e) and (t). 91. 122. 91.2 11 . 9 1.193. 121.309(c),
125. 119(b)and(c).127.107(c),135.155.
b. Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Chapter I--Environmental
Protection Agency. part 82-Protection of Stratospheric Ozone, subpart G-Significant New
Alternatives Policy Program and subpart H-Halon Emissions Reduction (40 CFR part 82).
e. Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations (46 CFR). Chapter I-Coast Guard,
Department of Transportation, part 34-Fire Fighting Equipment.
d. Title 49 of tile Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR), Transportation.
2. FAA Ain vorthincss Directive (AD). You can get copies of the foll owi ng AD from the
FAA's website at www.airwcb.taa.gov/rgl.
a. AD 93·07·15, BoeiogAnd McDonnell Douglas Models 707, 727, 737,747, and 757
and McDonnell Douglas Models DC-8, DC-9, and DC- IO Series Airplanes
3. FAA Advisory CircuJars (Ae). Order copies of Advisory Circulars (Ae) from the U.S.
Department of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, M-30, Ardmore East Business
Center. 3341 Q 75th Avenue. Landover. MD 20795. Telephone (301) 322-5377. fax (301) 386-
5394. To be placed on FAA's mailing list for free ACs contact, U.S. Department of
Transportation, Di stribution Requirements, Section, M-494.I , Washington, D.C. 20590.
You can also get copies at www.airweb.ftla.gov/rgl . On the website. select "Advisory
CircuJars," then select "By Number."
a. AC 120-80, In-Flight Fires
b. AC 20-42C, Hand Fire Extinguishers/or Use in Aircraft
c.. AC 25-17. Transport Airplane Cabill Interiors Crashworrhill ess Handbook
d. AC 25-18, Transport CategOlY Airplanes Modified for Cmgo Service
A3-1
01/ 14/ 11
e. AC 25-22. Cerr{ficorioll q(Transpon Ailplane Mechanical Systems
f. AC 25-869- 1, Fire Protection Systems
AC 20-42D
Appendix 3
g. AC 6S-9A, [Large AC] Ail/rame and POlvelplanl Mechanics General Handbook
h. AC 65- 12A, [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplam Mechanics Powelpla1lf Handbook
4. FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO). You can find the foll owing technicaJ standard
orders on the FAA website at http://rI!IJaa. gov/ oratwww.airweb. faa.gov/rg1. You will also
find the T50 Lndex of Articles at the same site.
a. TSO-C 19, Portable Water-Solution Type Fire Extinguisher
b. TSO-C 116, Crewmember Portable Protective Breathing Equipment
S. FAA Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFOS) and Information for Operators (InFOs)
a. SAFO 09013 Fighting Fires Caused by Lithium Type Batteries in Portable Electroni c
Devices, lune 23, 2009,
www.faa.gov/other visit/aviation industIv/airiine operators/ai rline safety/safo/all safos/medial
2009/SAFO090 13.pdf
b. lnFO 09010 Availabili ty ofa Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) In-fli ght
.Firefighting Training Video, lune 23, 2009,
visit/aviation industrv/airline operators/ai rli ne safetylinfo/al l infos/medi al
2009'inlo090 10.pdf
6. FAA Training Videos;
a. "J:. "xtingllishing In-flight Laptop Computer Fires " and "Cabin Crew Firefighti ng
Training Video," a training video on the use of hand exti nguishers to fight on-board fires are
available for viewing at www.fire.tc.faa.gov/2007Conferencelsession dctaii s.asp?sessionID- 26
7. Reports and Papers. Order copies of the followi ng reports and papers from the National
Technical lnfonnation Service, Spri ngfield, Va. 22161 , FAA publications can also be found on
the fo ll owi ng Web Site of the FAA Fire Safety Branch:
htt p://www. fire.te. faa.I!Ovlreportslreports.asp. lournal articles can be obtained directly from the
publi sher. Printed copies ofCivii Aviation Authority documents are available from Documedia
Solutions Ltd. , 37 Windsor Street, Cheltenham, Glos. , GLS22DG, United Kingdom.
a. Abramowitz, A. , Neese, W., Slusher, G, Smoke and Extinguisher Agent Dissipation
in a Small Pressurized Fuselage, Federal Aviation Administration, Report No. DOTIFAAlCT-
89/31, 1990.
A3-2
01114/ 11 AC20-42D
Appendix 3
b. Blake, n.R., Effectiveness of Flight Attendants Attempting to Extinguish Fires in an
Accessible Cargo Compartment, Federal Aviation Administration Technical Note
DOTIFAAIAR-TN99/29, 1999.
c. Chattaway,A., The Development of A Hidden Fire Test/or Aircraft Hand
Eninguisher Applications, Civil Aviation Authority Paper No. 95013, London, 1995.
d. Cherry, R.O. W. et at, A benefit Analysis/or Enhanced Prolecfionlrom Fires in
Hidden Areas all Transport Aircraft. Federal Aviati on Administration Report No.
DOT/ FAA/AR-02l50, CAA Paper 2002/01 .
e. Colton, 8. , Gargas, M. , Sweeney, L. , "Setti ng Acute Exposure Limits for the
Hal otTon I Clean Agent Onboard Aircraft Using Physiologicall y Based Pharmacokinetic
Modeling, Submitted to Louise Speitel , Federal Aviation Administration, July 16,2008.
f. Eklund) Thor I. , Analysis of Dissipation a/Gaseous Extinguishing Agents in
Ventilated Compartments, Federal Aviation Admini strati on Report No. DOTIFAAJCT· 83/ 1,
1993.
g. Hill , R.G., and Speitel , L. , In-Flight Aircraft Seat Fire Extinguishing Tests (Cabin
Hazard Measurement. Federal Aviation Administration Report No. DOTIFAAlCT-82/ 1 II ,
December 1982.
h. Krasner, L.M. , Study of Hand-held Fire Extinguishers aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft,
FactOlY Mutual Research Corporation, Federal Aviation Administration Report No.
DOTI FAAlCT-82/42, 1982.
i. Lain, MJ .. Teagle, D.A., Cullen, 1., Dass,V., Dealing wilh In-Flight Lithium Ballery
Fires in Portable Electronic Devices, Civil Aviation Aut hority Paper No. 2003/4, London, 2003 ,
©Civii A viation Authority 2003.
j . Slusher. G.R. , Wright, I.A. , and Speitei, L.c., Halon Extinguishment olSmall
Aircraji ins!rumen! Panel Fires. DOT/FAAJCT-86/26, December 1986.
k. Slusher, Gerald R.o Wright, Joseph, Demaree, James, Halon Extinguisher Agent
Behavior in a Venlilated Small Aircraft. Federal A viation Administration Report No.
DOT/FAAlCT-8615, 1986.
I. Slusher, G.R., Wright, 1. , Demaree, J.E., Neese, W.E .. Extinguisher Agelll Behavior
in a Vantilaled Small Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration Report No. DOTfFANCT-
83/30, 1984.
m. Spei tel, Louise C., Lyon, Richard E., Guidelinesfor Safe Use of Gaseous Halocarbon
ExtingUishing AgeJl/s in Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration: Report No. DOTIFAAlAR-
08/3.
A3-3
01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420
Appendi.'t 3
n. Tabscolt, R.E. and Speitel, L.c. 005., "Options to the Use ofHalons for Aircraft Fire
Protection Systems- 2002 Update", Federal Aviation Administration Report No. DOTIFAAlAR-
99/63, Task Group on Halon Options, International Halon Replacement Working Group. U.S.
Department ofTranspon ation, FAA Willjam J. Hughes Technical Center, February, 2002.
o. Vinegar, A. , Jepson, G. W. and Overton. J.H (1998). PBPK Modeling ojShorl-lerm
(0-5 min; Human I"halarioll Exposures to Halogenated Hydrocarbons, I"halation TOXicology,
10:411-429.
p. Vinegar, A., Jepson, O.W., Cisneros, M., Rubenstein, R. and Brock, W.J. (2000),
Seftillg Safe Acute Exposure Limits for Halon Replacement Chemicals Using Physiologically
Based Plwrmacokinelic Modeling. Inhalation Toxicology, 12:751-763 .
q. Vinegar, A (200 I), Modeling Cardiac Sensitization Polential of Humans Exposed to
Halon J 301 or Halon 1211 Aboard Aircraft, Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol.
72, No. 10.
r. Vi negar, A., Jepson. GW., Hammann, S.J., Harper, G. , Dierdorf, D.S. and Overton.
J.H.(1999), Simulated Blood Levels ofCFj ! in Personnel Exposed During Its Release/rom an
F-15 Jel Engine Nacelle and During ]nlellfionalllllzalaIion, AIHA Journal , 60:403-408.
s. Webster, Harry. De\'e/opmelll a/a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS)for Hand-
Held Fire Extinguishers as a replacement lor Halon 121 J On Civilian Transport Category
Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration Report No. DOTfFAN AR-01 /37, 2002.
t. Webster, Harry, Flammability Assessmellf a/Bulk.- Packed, Nonchargeable, Lithium
Primmy Batteries in Transport CategOlY Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration Report No.
DOT/ FANAR-04/26,2004.
u. Webster, Harry, Flammability Assessment 0/ Bulk- Packed, Rechargeable, Lithium-
Ion Cells in Transport CalegOlyAircraji. Federal Aviation Admini stration Report No.
DOTfFANAR-06/38,2006.
8. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards. You can get copies of
the following ASTM standards from ASTM [nternational , 100 BaIT Harbor Drive, PO Box C700,
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Telephone (6 10) 832-9585. You can also order on-line at
www.asun.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@aslm.org.
a. ASTM D7673-I O, SlOndard Specification jar Holan / ]J / ,
Bromochiorodifllloromethane (CF1CIBr)
b. ASTM D5632-08, Standard Specification/or Halon 1301. Bromotr(f!uoromefhane
ICFJBr)
c ~ ASTM D5631-08, Standard Practice/or Handling, Transportation and Storage of
Halon 1301. Bromotl'if/Iloromethane (eF ;Br)
A3-4
01114/11 AC 20-42D
Appendix 3
d. ASTM 0 7122-05, Standard Specification/or HCFC Blend B (CF,CCI,H, Ar. and
CF,)
e. ASTM 0 7123·04, Standard Practice for I-landling. Transportation, and Storage oj
IiCFC Blend B (CF,CCt, H. Ar. and CF,)
f. ASTM 6064-03, Standard Specification/or HFC-227ea 1.1.1.2,3.3.3-
Heprajllloropropane (CFJCHFCFJ)
g. ASTM 0 6065-05, Standard Praclicejor Handling. Transportation, and Storage of
IiFC-227ea I, I, 1,2.3.3.3-Heptajluoropropane (CF,CHFCF,J
h. ASTM 06541-05, Standard Specification/or HFC-236/a. 1.1.1,3,3.3-
I-Iexajllloropropane (CFjCH
1
CF
J
J
i. ASTM 06427-04, Standard Practice/or Handling, Transportation, and Storage of
HFC-236/a, I, 1,1.3.3,3-Hexajluoropropane (CF,CH,CF,J
9. Factory Mutual Research Corp. (FM). Order copies of the FM approval standards from
FM Corporate Headquarters 11 5 1 Boston-Providence Turnpike. P.O. Box 9 102, Norwood, MA
02062 USA. Telephone + 1-78 1-762-4300. You can also order on-line at www. fmgJobal.com:
10. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Order copies of the following
ISO standards from ISO! 1, rue de Varernbe, Case posrale 56, CH-1 2 11 , Geneva 20, Switzerland.
Telephone +41-22-749-01- 11 . You can also order on-line at www.iso.org;
a. ISO 7201- 1 : 1989, Fire Protection -- Fire Extinguishing Media - Ha/ogenated
Hydrocarbons -- Parl/ : for Ha/oll /211 and Halon 1301.
11. National fire Protection Association (NFPA). Order copies of the foliowingNFPA
standards from NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471 . Telephone +1 800344-
3555 or + 1 6 17770-3000. You can also order on-line at www.nfpa.org:
a. NFPA 10. Stalldard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2007 Edition
b. NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Sysrems, 2009 Edition
c. NFPA 128, Standard on Halon 12// Fire Extinguishing Systems, 1990 Edition (No
longer an active standard)
d. NFPA 200 I, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, 2008 Edition
A3-S
01 /14/ 11 AC20-42D
Appcndi'\': 3
l2. RTCA Inc. Documents. Order copies of the foll owing RTCA fnc. documents from RTCA
Inc., 1828 L Street NW, Suite 805, Washington, D.C. 20036. Telephone (202) 833-9339, fax
(202) 833-9434. You can also order copies online at www. l1ca.org.
a. RTCNDO-160F. Environmental Conditions and Test ProceduresJor Airborne
£quipmcl1I
13. SAE Documents. Order copies ofSAE Aerospace Standards from SAE International , 400
Commonwealth Dri ve, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Telephone (724) 776-4970, fax (724)
776-0790. You can also order copies onli ne at WWW.S<lc.or!!..
14. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc CULl. You can get copies of the following U.S. - UL
stand.rds from UL Corporate Headquarters, 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
USA. Telephone Customer Service + 1-877-ULHELPS (1-877-854-3577). You can also order
on-line at: www.ULStandarufoi.com.
a. U.S. - UL 154, Carbon-Dioxide Fire EXlblglljsliers (Ninth Edition), April20, 2009.
b. U.S. - UL 299, Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers (Tenth Edition), April 20, 2009.
c. U.S. - UL 626, Water Fire £<linguishers (Eighth Edition), January 31, 2007.
d. U.S. - UL 7 11 , Rating and Fire Testing o/Fire El.·(jngllishers (Seventh Edition), April
13.2009.
e. U.S. - UL 1093, Standard/or Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers (Fifth Edition),
November 30, 1995. (UL intends to withdraw this standard effective October 2014)
f. U.S. - UL 2129, Halocarboll Clean Agenl Fire Extinguishers (Second Edition).
January 31.2007.
A3-6
01 / 14/ 11
Appendix 4. Explanatory Material
AC 20-42D
Appendix 4
1. Effective Throw Ranges. Typical throw ranges for halocarbon and water extinguishers
are li sted in Fib'1Jre 4 below.
Agent
Figure 4. Effective Throw Ranges for Halocarbon Fl alon
Replacement and Water EXtinguishers
Effective Throw Ranges for UUULC
Rated Extinguishers·,b (ft.)
2·B:C 5·B:C 1A·10B:C 2A 2A·10B:C 2A·40B:C
HCFC Blend B 6·10 9·15 9·15 N/A 12·18 N/A
HFC·236fa 8·10 10·12 14·16 N/A 14·16 N/A
HFC·227ea N/A 8·10 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Halon 1211 9·12 9·15 12·18 N/A N/A 12·18
Halon 1301 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Water C N/A N/A N/A 45·55 N/A N/A
Q Throw range is extinguisher dependant and may differ from tabulated values.
b Check fhe literaturefor the throw ranges o/their extinguishers.
c Initial Throw Range
2. Safe-Use Guidance. The toxicity guidance for the inhalation of halocarbon vapors is
conservative. The development of this guidance can be found in the report referenced in
appendix 3. pardgraph 7m of this AC. The methodology used applies phannacokinetic (PBPK)
modeling of canine blood concentration data to perfect mixing agent decay cutves. A particular
PBPK model and target arterial concentration was used, as outlined in Section 4.1.2 of the
aforementioned report. It assumes a compartment temperature of 70° F (21 °e) at the stated
pressure altitude, perfect mixing of the agent, and an agent weight of the largest extinguisher in
that aircraft compartment. As a result, Halon 1211 safe-use concentrations are lower than in the
previous AC. The guidance allows for adjustments for ventilation, localization and agent
stratification, resulting in higher safe-use concentrations. You may elect to use safe-use W/ V
guidance or the mjnimum safe volume guidance. Both are outlined below. If used, this
generally conservative guidance should protect passengers and crewmembers from neat agent
toxicity, i.e. both cardiotoxicity and anesthetic effects.
a. Agent Safe-Use WN Guidance. Consider the following:
( 1) The total agent charge weight of the largest required extinguishers in a
compartment divided by the compartment volume shoUld not exceed the safe-use WN.
A4·1
01114/ 11 AC 20-42D
Appendix 4
(2) Multiplication factors, MFVcUliJaled' may be applied to the safe-use W Ns found in
Figure 5 below resulting in higher safe-use agent concentrations in venti lated compartments
where the air change time is known. See Figure 6 below or reference report appendix 3,
paragraph 7m of this AC for the multipli cation faclors. These multiplication factors, referred to
as the ventilation benefit in the reference report, are based on perfect mixing.
Figure 5. Safe-Use Agent WN for Halocarbon Extinguishers
in Unventilated Passenger and Crew Compartments
Maximum Safe WN (lb,/f!')
Sea Level Pressurized Unpressurized Aircraft
Agent
(For info Aircraft
12.5k ft . 14k ft. ISk ft.
only) (Sk ft. CPA)
BCFC Blend B " 0.00499 0.0037 1 0.003 11 0.00293 0.00249
BFC-227ea " 0.055 1 0.0409 0.0344 0.0324 0.0275
BFC-236fa " 0.0595 0.0442 0.0371 0.0349 0.0297
Halon 1211 b 0.00224 0.00\66 0.00139 0.00131 0.0011 2
Balon 1211 r:.-a--
0.00449 0.00334 0.0028 1 0.00264 0.00225
Halon 1301 n 0.0260 0.0193 0.0162 0.0153 0.0130
25k
0.00185
0.0205
0.0221
0.000829
0.00166
0.00968
a Values are based on s ( ~ r e human concentrations. See reference report appendix 3,
paragraph 7m a/this AC
b This vaille is based all the NOAEL Halon 121/ concentration ofO.5%.
c This value is based all the LOAEL Halon 1211 concentration 0/1.0 %.
d Safe human concentrations are not available for Halon 12//. 71IC Halon /211
LOAEL concentration of / .0% (v/v) has been shown 10 be safefor humans. See
reference report in nOle a above. However. the safety factor is smaller than that sel
jar 'he other agents.
Figure 6. Multiplication Factors (M F Ventilated) for Ventilated Compartments
Agent
0.5 1.0
Air Change Time, T (minutes)
1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 >6"
HCFC Blend B 2. 80 2.33 2.14 2.02 1.89 1.79 1.70 1.62 I
HFC-227ea 1.90 1.53 1.39 1.32 1. 24 1.1 9 1. 16 1.14 I
HFC-236fa 1.98 1.58 1.42 1.34 1.25 1.20 1.1 7 1.15 1
lIalon 1211' 1.96 1.57 1.42 1.34 1.25 1.21 1.1 7 \.1 5 I
Balon 1301 \.96 \.57 1.42 1.34 1. 25 1.21 1.l7 1.15 I
a No MF Venti/wed is applied if air change time is greater than 6.
b More conservative MF Vemi/a/ed than actual. Based on Halon 1301 MF Velltilaled.
(3) Safe-use selector curves may be used in lieu of Figure 5 and 6 above. They can
be found in the reference report mentioned in paragraph 2a(2) above and can be used to obtain
safe-use W N for ventilated aircraft .
A4-2
01114/ 11 AC 20-420
Appendix 4
(4) Actual concentrations encountered by occupants may be significantly lower
than the perfect mixing model concentrations, depending on agent stratification, air distribution,
and geometry of a parti cular aircraft/aircraft compartment and the height and position of the
occupant. A correction ultimately may be made for stratification/localization which may further
increase the calculated safe-use concentration. See chapter 4, paragraph 4b(3) of this AC. The
FAA will publish a report with limited examples of stratification and a methodology for use in
determining this correction to adjust the safe-use concentrations for those examples. This report
will include a comparison of actual post-di scharge halocarbon concentration histories with
perfect mixing concentration histories. The safe-use concentrations can be determined from the
kinetic solution of equation 6 of the report referenced in appendix 3, paragraph 7m of this AC
along with the target arterial concentrations and/or other calculation guidance provided in that
report.
b. M1nimum Safe Volume. This guidance may be used in place of the safe-use WN
guidance. It establishes a basel ine minimum volume at which an extinguisher may safely be
used, assuming perfect mixing.
(I) The minimum safe volume is a useful tool for comparing the toxicity of hand
extinguishers with the same fire fighting perfonllance, i.e. the same U.S. - UL rating. The lower
the minimum safe volume used, the comparatively less toxic the agent. Therefore, the safest
extinguisher ofa given rating has the lowest minimum safe volume. Obtain the minimum safe
volume of an extingui sher by dividing the charge weight of the agent in the largest extinguisher
in an aircraft compartment by the safe-use agcnt WIV for the appropriate altitude and ventilation.
MiflimumSaJeVolume =
Charg e

Where, ( ';) is the safe-use WI Vobtained from Figure 5 and 6 oflhis AC.
(2) Extinguisbers in Unventilated Compartments. The minimum safe volume
for unventilated aircraft should be used when the air change time is unknown or exceeds 6
minutes, and when mUltipli cation factors for ventilated aircraft, MFvenlilslC'<h are not available for
a particular agent. If the safe-use WN can not be met for any of the agents. consider the relative
neat agent toxicities of extingui shers in Figure I when selecting an extinguisher. See Figure 7
for the minimum safe volumes for extinb'Uishers in unventilated compartments.
A4-3
01/ 14/11 AC 20-42D
Appendix 4
Figure 7. Minimum Safe Compartment Volume for One Extinguisher
in Unventilated Compartments.
Minimum Safe Volume for One 5 B:C Extinguisher (ft')
Agent
Sea Pressurized
Agent Weight"
Level Aircraft
Non-Pressurized Aircraft
8,000 ft
(Ibs)
(info
only) CPA
12,50011 14,000 II 18,000 II 25,000 II
HCFC Blend B 5.5 1102 1482 1768 1877 2209 2973
HFC-227ea' 5.75 104 141 167 177 209 280
HFC-236fa' 4.75 79.8 107 128 136 159 214
Halon 1211' 2. 5 1116 1502 1790 1908 2232 3016
Halon 1211"" 2.5 558 751 895 954 1116 1508
Halon 1301 ' 5.0 192 258 308 327 385 517
a Agent weight for a 5B:C extinguisher is extinguisher dependent. Nozzle design,
pressurization differences and other factors can result in difjerelll agent weights for
extinguishers using the same agent. The tabulated minimum safe volumes should be
corrected for the aellla! agent weight if different from tlte agent weight ill this figure.
b Vailles based all the safe "uman concentration. See reference report appendix 3.
paragraph 7m o/this AC.
e Vailles are based 011 the Halon /21/ NOAEL concentration 0/0.5% (vI. v)
d Values are based on the Halon 1211 LOA£L concentration 0/1.0 % (v/ v).
e Safe human cOllcemralions are not available for flal on 1211. The Halon 12/1 LOAEL
cOllcelllrarion of 1.0% (v/ v) has been shown to be safe for humans. See report
melltioned in note b above. Also. the safety factor is smaller than that set for otizer
agents.
(3) Extinguishers in Ventilated Compartments. The minimum safe volumes
of vari ous si ngl e 5B:C exti nguishers when used in ventilated compartments, and assuming
perfect mixing can be obtained by applying applicable mUltiplication factors found in Figure 6
above as a divi sor to the minimum safe volume obtai ned in Figure 7 above.
3. Extinguisher Weights. Figure 8 below illustrates the fire fighting performance, agent and
gross extinguisher weights of some halocarbon and water extinguishers.
A4-4
01 / 14/ 11 AC20-42D
Appendix 4
Figure 8. Fire Extinguisher Performance and Gross Weights
UL Class A Class A Class B Class B
Agent and Extin! uishers Weights'
listing Panel Crib Fi re Novice J;:xperienced
Halon Halon HCFC HFC· HFC·
Fire 1211 1301 Blond B 2270. 2361. Water
Agent Agem Agem
2·B:C
I.3lb N/A 2.5 Ib Agent 2.51b N/A
N/A N/A 2 ft' 5 fi' Gross WI. Gross Wt. 2.751b Gross Wt.
2.31b 5.31b 5.01b
Agent Agent Agent Agcm
2.5 Ib Agem 5.51b 5.751b 4.751b
5· B:C
N/A N/A 5 ft' 12.5ft! Gross Wt. 2.5 lbb Gross WI. Gross WI. Gross WI. N/A
3.71b
b
9.31b 9. 12 1h 9.51b
(72)
1·A:
8 ftx 12 layers 5 ft' 12.5 ft2
Agent
3.51b N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
5-B:C
8 ft 6·2x2x20 Gross WI.
in. 4.4 lb
(72) Agent Agent Agent
1·A:
8 th 12 layers 9 Ib Illb 9.5 lb.
10·B:C
8ft 6· 2x2)(20
10 ( ' i ' ~
25 ft' Gross WI. N/A Gross Wt N/A Gross Wt. NlA
in. IS.7Ib 22 lb 21.811b
( 112) Agent
10 ft .'t 161Byers 22lb
2A
lOti 7·2x2:t25 N/A N/ A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (2.5gal)
m. Gross WI.
281b
(112) Agent Agent
2· A:
10 ft x 16 layers 10 ft 2 25 ftl
N/A NIA 15.5 lb N/A 13.31h. N/A
10·B:C
10 ft 7·2x2x25 Gross WI. Gross WI.
in. 27 lb 25.61b
(1 12)
2A·40
10 fl x 16 layers
40 ft2 100 ftl
Agent
13 Ib N/A NIA N/A N/A N/ A
B:C
10 ft 7· 2x2x25 Gross Wt.
in. 20 Ib
a Weights are extinguisher dependent. Extinguishing efJectiveness is determined by test.
Optimization o/hardware may result infulure lisled units with lower gross weights
andlor smaller dimensions.
b Halon 1211 is no longer in productioll. However, Haloll 1211 extinguishers are still in
production /Ising recycled agent.
4. Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation. Figure 9 below provides general infonnation on
various sizc aircraft, i.e. number of seats, volumes and ventilation. Only use this table as general
guidance. The accuracy of this data has not been verified. Check aircraft manual for accurate
guidance for your aircraft. The infonnation in this table is taken in part from: Hocking, M.B.
( 1998). Indoor Air Quality: Recommendations Relevant to Aircraft Passenger Cabins. American
industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 59:446-454.
A4·5
01114/ 11
Figure 9. Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation
Air Change
Transport Category Aircraft
Per Hour Air
Minimum Change,
Reported Minutes
Airbus A300-600 36.7 1.6
Airbus A310 36.7 1.6
Airbus A318 35.3 1.7
Airbus A319 36.2 1.7
Airbus A320 36.7 1.6
Airbus A321 40.3 1.5
Airbus A330-200 31.3 1.9
Airbus A340-200 31.3 1.9
Airbus A340-600 35.0 1.7
Airbus A380-800 34.0 1.8
Boei ng 727-100 22.9 2.62
Boeing 727-200 18.8 3. 19
Boeing 737-100 26.1 2.30
Boeing 737-200 17.7 3.39
Boeing 737-300 (42) 14.2 4.23
Boeing 747 (26) 14.7 4.08
Boeing 757 (48) 15.6 3.85
Boeing 767-200 52) 10.3 5.83
Boeing 767-300 -) 11.1 5.4 1
Lockheed L101l-1I1oo 17.8 3.37
Lockheed L1011-50 19.3 3. 11
McDonald Douglas DC9-30 27.3 2.20
McDonald Douglas DC9-50 18.8 3. 19
McDonald Douglas DC9-80/MD80 (22) 19.7 3.05
McDonald Douglas DC I 0-10 22.8 2.63
Donald Douglas DC I 0-40 (35) 14.9 4.03
Smaller Commercial Aircraft
Bombardier CRJ200
Bombardier CRJ700 19.5 3. 1
Bombardier CRJ900 17.3 3.5
Bombardier DASH-8, QIOO & Q200
Bombardier DASH-8, Q400
Embraer Brasilia EMS-f20 3.8 15.9
Embraer ERJ-135 11.1 5.4
Embraer ERJ-145 5.7 10.5
Embraer ERJ -170 11.6 5.2
Embraer ERJ -190 10.7 5.6
A4-6
Number
of Seats
266
220
107
124
150
185
253
261
380
525
50
73
94
37
70-80
30
37
50
86
124
AC 20-420
Appendix 4
Cabin
Volume,
fl'(m') .
10135(287)
8617(244)
3637(103)
4238(120)
4909(139)
5474(155)
12184(345)
12184(345l.
15892(450)
38917(1 102)
5333( 151)
5827(165)
4238 120)
4626 131)
5262 149)
27899(790)
9747(276)
11265(319)
151 15(428)
18964(537)
17445(494)
4379(124)
5227(148)
6109(173)
14797(419)
2015(57.1 )
2682(76.0)
3228(91.0)
1328(37.6)
2740(77.7)
968(27.4)
1650(46.7)
1872(53. 1 )
2315(65.6)
3203(90.7)
01 /14/ 11
Air Change
Per Hour
Minimum
Reported
Fairchild Domier 328
Saab 340A & 340B
Saab 2000
Rotorcraft
Sikorsky S76
SikorskYS92
Bell 206B3
Bell 407
Bell 412
Bell 430
Small Aircraft
Bombardier Challenger 300 19.2
Bombardier Challem!cr 605 19.0
Cessna Caravan n
Cessna Caravan 675
Cessna Caravan Amphibian
Cessna Grand Caravan
Cessna Citation CJ 1 2.8
Cessna Citation el2 3.3
Cessna Citation X 1.7
Cessna Corsair, Conquest I
Cessna 152
Cessna 210e
Cessna 414
Cessna 421 B 1.8
Dassault Falcon 7X 10.8
Dassault Falcon 50EX 8.9
Dassault Falcon 900EX 9.1
SmaU Aircraft
Dassault Falcon 2000EX 10.5
Embrear Le.acv 600 24.0
Embrear Phenom 100 28.7
Embrear Phenom 300 29.0
Gulfstream Turbo Commander
Gul [stream J etoroD
Gulfstream G I 00
A4-7
Air
Change, Number
Minutes of Seats
32
33
50
7-14
12-24
5-7
7
8-15
9
3. 1 14
3.3 14
6-8
6-8
6-8
6- 12
31.3 4-7
18.3 6-9
35. 1 10
6-8
2
6
6-8
33.2 6-8
5.5 12
6.7 II
6.6 10
5.7 8
2.5 13
2.09 4
2.1 7
6
AC 20-42D
Appendix 4
Cabin
Volume,
ft3(m
3
)
1183(33.5)
1180(33.5)
1860(52.7)
204(5.8)
700(19.8)
40( 1.11
85(2.4)
220(6.2)
224(6.4)
850(24.0)
1150(33.0)
152(4.3)
254(7.2)
254(7.2)
340(9.6)
300(8.5
350(9.9
593{l7)
193(5.5)
77(2.2)
140(3.9)
226{6.4)
217(6.2)
1836(52.0)
1059(30.0)
1695(48.0)
1483(42)
1650(47.0)
300{8.5)
357110.1)
184(5.2)
184(5.2)
367{ 10.4)
01/ 14/ 11
Air Change
Per Hour Air
Minimum Change, Number
Reported Minutes of Seats
Gulfstream G 150 6-8
Gulfstream G200 6-8
Gulfstream G350/450 12-1 6
Gulfstream G550 14- 18
Gulfstream G650 11-1 8
LearJet3 1A 35.0 1.7 \0
LearJet 40 36.0 1.7 6-9
LearJot 45/45XR 6-8
Learl et 60/60XR 26.0 2.3 6-8
Pi latus PCI2
Piper PA31 T Cheyenne
Raytheon Beeehcraft King Air B200 32.0 1.9 7-9
Raytheon Bcechcraft King Air B300/350 28.0 2.1 9-11
Raytheon Beechiet 400lHawker 400XP 8
Raytheon Premier I 27.0 2.2 6-8
Rockwell Gulfslream Commander GC- IOOO
Socata TBM -700 estimated by Pil atus
Sino Swearingen S130-2
Visi onAire Vantage
(l Includes lavatory and infernal baggage compartment.
A4-8
AC20-42D
Appendix 4
Cabin
Volume,
ft\ m')
465(13.2)
868(24.6)
1,525(43.2)
1669(47.3)
2138(60.5)
27 1(7.7)
363(10.3)
41 0(11.6)
453(12.8)
330(9.4)
15 1(4.3)
393(1 1. 1)'
443(12.5)'
305(8.6)'
400( 11.3)'
249(7. 1 )
155 4.4)
190 5.4)
3 \0(8.8)

01/14111

AC 20-420
Table of Contents

Paragraph

Page

Chapter 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

General Information about this Advisory Circular (Ae) ................................. 1

What is the Purpose of this Advisory Circular (AC)? ........................................................ 1 Who is this AC for? ............................................................................................ .............. .. 2 What has Changed in this AC from the Previous AC? .................................................. .... , 2 Does this AC cancel any prior ACs? ............................................... .................... ............... 3 Where Can I find This AC and other FAA publications? ........ ........................................... 3 Gaining FAA Approval for Fire Extinguishers .................................................. 4

Chapter 2. 1. 2, 3.

How are Hand Fire Extinguishers Approved? .... ......... ................................................., ..... 4 How are Halon 1211 Replacement Extinguishers Approved? ..................................... ", ... 5 How are Halon Agents Approved? ..................................................................................... 7 Selecting the Correct Hand Fire Extinguisher ., ................................................. 9

Cbapter 3. I, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What are the Different Types of Fires? .................. " ........................................................... 9 What do the Numeral Ratings Mean? ................................................................................. 9 What Extinguishing Agents are Appropriate for the Different Types of Fires? ................. 9 What Extingu ishing Agents are Compatible with Aircraft Materials? ............................. 1 t What are the Operating Temperature Tolerances? ........................................................... t t General Guidelines for Hand Fire Extinguishers? ............................................................ 12 Safe Use of Hand Fire Extinguishers ................................................................ 14

Chapter 4. I. 2.

What Basic Fire Fighting Training Should be Provided? ................................................. 14 What are Some General Guidelines for the Safe· Use of Halocarbon 6xtinf:,TUishers? ....... .................................................................................... 15

3. 4. 5. 6.

How to Prevent Hypoxia in an Unpressurized Aircraft ............. " ..................................... 16 What are the Guidelines on the Selection of Halocarbon Extinguishers? ......................... 17 How to Safely Use Halocarbon Extinguishers in Accessib le Cargo Compartments .. " .... 19 How to Inspect and Maintain the Hand Fire Extinguisher for Continued Safe·Use ...... ..................................... ,................... ........................................... 20

it

011 14/ 11
PtirlIgraph

AC 20-420
Page

Chapter 5.
1.

Locatin g and Mounting Hand Fire Extingu ishers ........................................... 22

Where to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in
Passenger Compartments ................................................................................ ...... ............ 22

2.

How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extingu ishers in Flight

Deck Compartments .......................................................................................................... 23 3. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extingu ishers in Small Single Engine and Mu ltiengine Aircraft .................. ................... ......... , ..... .. .......... ... .. .... .... .. ,23 4. How Man y Hand Extinguishers Shou ld I Install ... ,.. ,..... ,....... ,...... ,....... " ......................... 23

Append i\' 1. Ap pendix 2. Appendi x 3.
I.
2,

List of Acron yms .......................................................................................... A l ·l Definitions and T erms ................................................................................ Al-I Related Publications and How to Get T hem ............................................ AJ-I

Code of Federal Regulations (eFR) .......................................................... ................... A3-l
FAA Airworthiness Directi ve (AD) ............................ ,.............................. ,.. ,............. ,. A3-1

3. 4. 5. 6, 7. 8. 9.

FAA Advisory Circulars (AC) ................................. .............. .............................. ....... .. A3-l FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) ......................................................... ................ A3-2 FAA Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFOS) and Infonnation for Operators (inFOs) ... AJ-2 FAA Training Videos ....... ,......... " .... ,., ..... " ...... ....... ... ,...................... ," .... ,......... .......... A3-2 Reports and Papers ....... ,., ...... ....... ...... " ...... ." ... ,... " .. ,.. ,.............. ,...... " .. ,.... ...... ,.. ,......... A3-2 American Society ofTesting and Materials (ASTM) Standards.................................. A3-4 Factory Mutual Research Corp. (FM) ........................................................................... A3 -5

10. International Organization for Standardizati on (ISO) , ...... ,....... ,...... ,", .... ,................... A3-5 1 J. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) .............................................................. A3 -5
12 . RTeA Inc. Documents ................................................................................................. AJ -6
13. SAE Documents .................. ,................................. ............. .......... ' ................................ A3-6

14. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc (UL) ............................................................................ A3-6

iii

01 / 14/ 11
Paragraph

AC 20-420
Page

Appendix 4.
I.
2.

Explanatory l\1aterial ................................................................................. A4-1

Effective ThrO\V Ranges ...... ",., ........ __ ... ,.................................. _ .......... _ ........................ A4· 1
Safe-Use Guidance . ...................................................................................................... A4-1

3. 4.

Extingui sher Weights .................................................................................................... A4-4 Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation .... ......................................................................... ,... A4-5

Table of Figures
Figure 1. Figure 2. Relative Toxicity of 5 B: C Halocarbon Extinguishers ............................ , ..... 18 Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extingui shers Required for Transport Category Aircraft Passenger Compartments ................ .. ........... .. ................... ....... .24 Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Required for Transport Category Rotorcraft Passenger Compartments .............................................. " ...... 25 Effective Throw Ranges for Halocarbon Halon Replacement and Water Extinguishers ............................................... ........ . ....... . ... ... ........ A4-\ Safe-Use Agent WN for Halocarbon Extinguishers in Unventi lated Passenger and Crew Compartments .............................. .. .... .. ... . ........... A4-2 Multiplication Factors (MF Verltilated) for Ventilated Compartments .......... .. .... A4-2 Minimum Safe Compartment Volume for One Extingui sher in Unventi lated COlnpartments .................. .. ....... .. . ..... .. ... ............................. ......... A4-4 Fire Exti nguisher Performance and Gross Weight s ............................. .. ....A4-5 Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation ..... ..... ............................................. A4-6

Figure 3.

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

Fi gure 6. Figure 7.

Figure 8. Figure 9.

IV

'11izes that toxicity of halocarbon agents and their decomposition products is a concern and should be a consideration for extinguisher selection. We establish the halocarbons hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Blend B. We explain how to gain certification for halocarbon clean agent extinguishers intended to replace Halon 1211 hand-held extinguishers. i.. b.OJ/l4/ 1 J AC 20-420 Chapter 1. j. selection. 29. We provide guidance for fire-fightjng effectiveness. We show how to reduce the health and safety risk of exposure to halocarbon clean agents and how to use halocarbon clean agent fire extin!. This AC recommends that dry chemical. and carbon dioxide hand extinguishers. This AC provides new general guidance in the fann of safe-use weight per unit vo lume (W/V) that may be useful in extinguisher selection. should not be used in aircraft. The toxicity hazard is a secondary concern to an unextinguished in-flight fire. This AC recommends that you transition to using these new halocarbon clean agents in fire extinguishers kepI onboard aircraft and rotorcraft. This AC reco!. We offer updated guidance on the continued safe-use of Halon 121 1. establishing specific selection criteria is impractical. General Information about this Advisory Circular (AC) 1. and Halon 1211 / 1301 Halon blend extinguishers..ruishers. 91. and 135 . e. 121. Thi s AC establ ishes an FAA approved minimum perfonnance standard (MPS) for halon replacement agents which includes a hidden fire lest and a seat fire/toxicity test. which you may use to comply with Title 14 of the Code of Federa l Regulations (14 CFR) parts 23. appli cation. in general. g. 127. What is the Purpose of this Advisory Circular (AC)? a. location and mounting of hand fire extinguishers. f. d. 125. We also explain how to gain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification for replacement agent fire extinguishers. dry powder. c. h. 25. compartment sizes and air change times. and HFC236fa as FAA approved replacement agents to Halon 12 11 and Halon 1301. hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-227ea. given the variability of extinguishers. . However. Halon 1301. and establishes marking criteria for halocarbon extinguishers.

These extinguishers remain suitable for continued use based on a history of safe use of halon extinguishers on aircraft. If properly used. though not the only means. precautions.01/14/11 AC 20-420 k. recycled Halon 1211 is available for new and existing fire extinguishers. The restrictions were introduced under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 which imp lemented the Montreal Protocol signed September 16. However. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. ft is not intended to require you to do anything beyond what is specificall y required by the regulations. we describe an acceptable means. In it. although not required. these agents are safe to human health. Replacement halocarbon clean agents were developed in response to restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting halon fire extinguishing agents. The guidance in this AC is also for manufacturers. owners. Since 1994. These halocarbon hand fire extinguishers have been evaluated and found to be effective fire-fighting agents.S. 2. c. By 20 I 0. In addition. for new installations and in-service aircraft where practical. b. This AC is a method ofcompliance for transport category aircraft. and the safe-use guidance in this AC. c. b. Safe-use guidance is provided for Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 and blends of these agents. Halon 1211 will no longer be produced anywhere in the world. Halocarbon clean agent extingui shers hydrocWorofluorocarbon HeFC Blend Band hydrofluorocarbons HFC-227ea. Halon 1211 has not been produced in the U. to gain certification for fire extinguishers kept onboard aircraft and rotorcraft. However.. purchasing. installers. and maintaining hand fire extinguishers. the International Civil Aviation Organization is considering further mandated limits on halon use in aircraft. as amended . The guidance in prior revisions of this AC applies to specific extinguisher installations on existing approved type design aircraft. modifiers. we encourage owners and operators to consider using FAA approved halon replacement extinguishers. 2 . Safe-use concentrations of Halon 1211 are lower than in the previous AC. and HFC-236fa are now commercially available. you must follow it entirely. We wrote thi s AC for those responsibl e for selecting. Existing halon handheld fire extinguisher installations are not affected by the updated guidance in this AC. 1987. because the guidance in this AC is more conservative. However. 3. if you use the means described. and operators of airplanes and rotorcraft. What has Changed in tbis AC from the Previous AC? a. Operators of nontransport category airplanes or rotorcraft should become familiar with the infonnation. approving. Who is tbis AC for? a.

01 /14/ 11 AC 20-42 D 4.gov/. S. See appendix 3 in this AC for additional infonnation and related documentation. 1984. Wh ere Can I find This AC and Other FAA Publications? You can find this AC on the Regulatory and Guidance Library (RGL) website: hnp://rg.faa.1. Docs T his AC Cancel Any Prior ACs? This AC cancels AC 20-42C. dated March 7. 3 .

01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-42D Chapter 2. should meet U. c. We approve hand fire extinguishers for use in aircraft when they meet industry standards. replacement agents must meet additional requirements specified in paragraph 2 below. 29.UL construction and perfonnance requirements for specifi c agent extinguishers with aU .028. .S. dated December 17.UL Listing mark (See paragraph 3c below. (I) Large Airc raft. Federal ReguJations for Hand Fire Extinguishers. How are Hand Fire Extinguishers Approved? a. as noted in paragraph 1b above. We approve hand fire extinguisherSlo be used on aircraft Wlder the provisions of 14 CFR § 21. (U. You may use an extinguisher with a minimum rating of U. The required hand exti nguishers should be listed and have a minimum U. paragraph S of this AC for minimum extinguisher ratings for use in accessible cargo compartments. 29. Inc. Accordingly. 25.UL) according to U. or those used on airplanes and/or rotorcraft operated within the U.S . Coast Guard (USCG) with marking per 46 CFR § 162. 91. .25. . 121. UL 7 11 . .851 (a)(I).S.S.S. .UL Standard 7 11 . We accept hand fi re extinguishers approved by: (I) U.) or equivalent such as: (2) (3) Factory Mutual Research Corporati on (FM) with li sting mark.Underwriters Laboratories.S. and U. other than water solution extingui shers approved under TSO·CI9.309(c).UL fire rating standards.S .S . Gaining FAA Approval for Fire Extinguishers I. . . Extinguishers approved in this manner should also meet the safe-use guidance provided in this AC.S .155.853(e) & (I).5 13(c).851 (a)(I). this AC is provided as one means acceptable to us for the approval of hand fire extinguishers.UL 2B:C o r equivalent on aircraft with maximum compartment volumes of up to 2001\] 4 . b. (2) S mall Airpl anes or Rotorcraft.2004 or equivalent. Hand extinguishers produced in the U. 119. Rating alld Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers.85 1.S . Your hand fire exti ngui sher should be rated per the requirements of U. Note: Although 14 CFR parts 9 1 and 125 don't require OUf approval of hand fire extin&ruishers: we consider the infonnation in this AC acceptable for use by Part 91 and 125 operators. Minimum Rating.UL SB:C rating or the equivalent. Hand fire extinguishers are required under 14 eFR §§ 23. Exception: See chapter 4. Extinguishers Approved Under Industry Standards Organizations..S. and 135. or The U.S. In addition.305(d).

. (I) Evaluate any halon replacement agent using the U. expertise and capabi lities of the crew member utilizing the device. 5 . Note 2: The effectiveness of a hand fire extinguisher relies upon the training. other models of extingui shers do not need to be tested. Thi s test measures the agent's ab ility to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft under in-flight conditions and ensures an acceptable level of toxicity for the thennal decomposition products of the replacement agent. HFC-227ea. These fire tests ensure that the replacement agent extinguishers provide equivalent fire fighting perfonnance to Hal on 1211. This process characterizes the health and environmental risk of a proposed replacement agent.01114/ 11 AC 20·420 2. not the agent weight. How arc Halon 121 I Replacement Extinguishers Approved? Hand extinguisher replacement agents.S UL listing. b. (2) The three halon replacement agents covered by thi s AC were evaluated under the SNA P program. may be approved for use on aircraft if the agent complies wi th the following requirements: a. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Significant New Alternati ves Policy (SNAP) program according to 40 CFR part 82.UL 5B:C Halon 1211 extinguishers. Halocarbon clean agents HCFC-Blend B. The seat fire test is a baseline test that evaluates the effectiveness of the replacement agent in fighting a fl ammable fluid seat fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard of the decomposition products of that agent.S. MPS testing of replacement agents should be coordinated with and approved by your loca l ACO with the suppon of FAATe. Clean agent extinguishers designed to replace the required 2Y: pound Halon 12 11 extinguisher onboard aircraft should comply with the fo ll owing MPS provisions: ( I) Hidd en Fire Test. Replace ment Agent Hand Extinguisher MPS. Replacement Agent Health and Environment Approval. If a particular required 5B:C extinguisher model passes the seat fire/toxic ity test. This is a hardware-specifi c test and the extinguisher design affects its perfonnance.S. Evaluate the replacement agent/extinguisher usi ng the two fire tests specified in the MPS technical report cited in appendix 3 paragraph 7s. such as the halocarbon clean agents intended to replace the required 2 % pound U. Each required 5B:C extingaisher model shou ld pass this test to be certified as a Halon 121 1 replacement on aircraft. The hidden fire test eva luates the "flooding" characteristics of the replacement agent against a hidden in-flight fire and detennines the ability of a streaming agent to function as 8 flooding agent. (2) Seat Fircrroxicity Test. if the same agent is used Note I: Select a replacement agent or halocarbon extinguisher for your aircraft compartment according to the fire rating per its U. and HFC-236fa arc approved for environmen tal and toxicological acceptabi li ty. subpart G. .

. 3. U.UL extinguishers must have the UL listing mark (include UL copyright logo) with the four required elements: UL in circle mark .S . For hand fire extinguishers employing halocarbon clean agents replacing Halon 1211 . 2007 with a required rating of U.l. f. not the agent weight to select extinguishers for an aircraft compartment.S.S. Standard Specifications/or HCFC Blend B. I.UL 711 o r equivalent (see paragraph I b above).S .UL 5B:C or equivalent per U. . dated January 3.e Halon 1211. . National Certification. (5) Fire extingui sher manufacturers are responsible for the validation of agent purity whether using new or recycled agent. Standard Specifications/or HFC-22 7ea. Note: Use the FAA approval marking label . word "listed.3. 1.01114/11 AC20-42D (3) HC FC-Blend B." product o r company name. 1. Nothing in this AC is intended to restrict new techno logies or use of new replacement agents provided they meet the regulations and guidance prescribed in paragraph 2 above. 3-Hepwf/ollropropalle (CFJCHFCFJ) . and HFC 236fa have demonstrated to meet the MPS and are approved for use. .UL numeric rating listing.l. 6 . Halocarbon Clean Agent Fire Extinguishers. the fo Uowing American Society of Testing and Material s (ASTM) specifications apply: ( I) HCFC Blend B must meet AST M 0 7122-05. . Stondard Specification/or HFC-236a.UL 711 or equivalent. HFC-22 7ea. c.S. If you area manufacturer. New Technologies and Extinguisbers Containing New Replacement Agents.3.UL 2 129. 2.CH . Marking.s . Specifications for Approved Halocarbon Clean Agents to Repiac. and issue/serial number or control number. d. .3-Hexafluoropropane (CF. CFJ). c. (3) HFC-236fa must meet ASTM 0 6541-05. (see paragraph 2e below) and the U. l . each of your models of U. (2) HFC-227ea must meet ASTM 06064-03.UL 5 B:C Halon 12 11 replacement extinguishers that have passed the test specified in paragraph 2b(l) and 2b(2) above sho uld be pennanently and legibly marked with the foll owing: ( I) " Meet s FAA approved MP S per DOT/FAAIAR-01/37" (2) The name of th e listing agency and rating according to U. U. or (4) N ew Halon 1211 replacement agents must have and meet an applicable ASTM or equivalent specification. 3.S.

Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers.UL 711 or equivalent (see paragraph Ib above). b. The following specifications cover the requirements fbr halogenated agents: (I) Halon 12 11 should meet the requirements of ASTM D7673 -10. only Halon 1211 . (2) Halon 1301 should meet the requirements of ASTM D5632-08.S. 7 . Halon 1301 and Halon 12 11 / 130 1 blends per U. Halon 130 I. It should be noted that on March 12. . until October 1. 2009. (2) If the documentation needed in paragraph 2f( I) is not yet officially publi shed for a particular halocarbon agent.S. UL will no longer accept the submittal of new or revised products. 20 14.Halogenated Hydrocarbons -. Halon 130 1 and Halon 1211 11301 blends are also used. Standard Specification/or Haloll 1211 -Bromachlorodifliloromethone (CF1CIB1 ~). for Halon 12 11 . For hand fire extinguishers that still empl oy halogenated agents.UL 1093 will continue to be authorized to bear the classificati on mark of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. or blends of the two have been previously approved and used aboard aircraft. or ISO 7201-1: 1989. or equivalent. Fire protectioll .xtinguishing media -.UL 1093 and the continuance of existing certifi cations to the wi thdrawn US . Hon' are Halon Extinguishers Approved? R. but all current compliant products covered under US . 3. Safe-use WNs may be calculated usi ng EPA's NOAEL values foll owing the methodology outlined in appendix 3 reference paragraph 7m of this AC.UL 1093.UL 1093.Parr 1. UL announced the withdrawal of US . Standard Specification /01' Halon 1301 -Bromotrifluoromelhalle (CFJBr)). .' Specifications/or Halon 1211 and Halon 1301. This guidance will include safe-use W /V for ventilated compartments using FAA approved fire extinguishers containjng hal on replacement agents introduced after the issuance of thi s AC. (3) The FAA Technical Center (FAATC) intends to publi sh future guidance on handhe ld extingui shers. Halogenated fire extinguishers must compl y with U. use the NOA EL values approved under the SNAP program mentioned in paragraph 2a( l ) above. Required halon hand-held fire extinguishers approved for use on aircra ft should have a minimum rating of UL 5B:C.Fire e.01 / 14/ 11 (1) AC 20-420 New agents introduced after the effecti ve date of this AC should compl y with the provisions of paragraph 2a through 2e above. or ISO 720 1-1 : 1989. They can be obtained from the SNA P Probrram Coordinato r at the EPA Office of Air and Radiation or on the public docket for that office and used to detennine safe-use WNs in the absence of publi shed FAA sa fe-u se guidance. Specifications for Approved Balon Agents. National Certification.

Therefore.0281XX" marking.01114/11 AC 20-420 (3) Hand fire extingui shers with halon agents may continue to be used on aircraft as long as recycled halon of proven acceptable quality is available. UL in circle mark. legibly with the name of the li sting agency and rating according to U. but the duration of their avai lability is unknown .UL extingu ishers must have the UL listing mark (include UL copyright logo) with the four required elements. And. word "listed .S.S. U.UL 7 11 or equivalent. Recycled agents are still available for purchase. USCG exti nguishers must have th e "USCG approval 162.b'llishers pennanently and c." product or company name. There are strict conditions to this exemption. FM extinguishers must have the FM listing mark. 8 . . If you arc a manufacturer. . mark your halon extin. Marking. and issue/serial number or control number. (4) An EPA exemption allows the production of hal an blends from recycled halon for aircraft use. (5) Fire extinguisher manufacturers are responsible for the validation of agent purity whether using new or recycled agent. we encourage operators to consider replacing halon extinguishers after discharge with approved halon replacement extinguishers.

UL 4A should extinguish about twice as much Class A fire as a U." which precedes the letter.UL 5B:C. sod ium . and plastics. (2) C lass 8. tars. Classes of Fires. To properly select an appropriate hand fire extinguisher for use in an aircraft. Wh at do the Numeral Ratings Mean ? The labeling on tire extinguishers consists of numerals and letters used in combination to describe the extinguishers relative effectiveness on a specified Class/type(s) of fi rers). Selecting the Correct Hand Fire Ext inguisher I. for example. lithium. personal digital assistants (PDAs). indicates the relative extinguishing effectiveness of the device on a given size fire.S. laptop compulers. the capacity of the device. We consider a small number of rechargeable lithium batteries as what would be found in portable electronic devices (PED) e. paragraph II a o f this AC. petroleum oils. cloth. paper. Numerals are used with identifying letters for exti ngu ishers labeled for Class A and Class 8 fires. See chapter 4 paragraph I f of this AC on fire fighting training for further information. What are tbe Diffe rent Types of Fir es? a. Fi res involving ordinary combustible materials. (4) C lass O. and two-way radios. zirconium. lithium Battery Fires. . so lvents. Fires involving flam mable liquids. messaging devices. oil base paints. lacquers. N umeral ratings arc not used tor extinguishers labeled for Class Cor D fires. 9 . di scharge limes. (3) C lass C. The "numeral. cell phones. . . Fires involving combustible metals. an extinguisher rated as U. such as magnesium. pagers. and fl ammab le gases. as defined in the appendix 3. Do Dot treat a fire involving a small number of lithium batteries as a Class 0 fire. a. ( I) Class A. such as wood. b. and design features. Extinguishers that are effective on more than one class of fi res have multiple "numeral-Iener" and "letter' classifications and ratings. you should consider the fo llowing classes of fires that are likely to occur onboard your aircraft. For example.S. U. and potassium. 2. titanium .0 1/ 14/11 AC 20-420 Chapter 3. Fires involving energized electrical equipment where the use of an extinguishing media that is electrically nonconductive is important. alcohols. audio/video/data recording or playback devices.UL 2A rated extinguisher.S.g. rubber. This is dependent on the agent. greases.

dry chemicals are not recommended for hand extinguishers for internal aircraft use. should have a minimum U. Class A type fires are best controlled with water by cooling the material below its ignition temperature and soaking the material to prevent re-ignition. Note 1: In general. extinguishers employing halocarbon clean agents. wiring and surrounding systems. Class A. Extinguishers with greater capacity are also rated for Class A fires. and consider potential mix. do d. Dry Chemicals.S. Class A. not use halons on a class 0 fire. Carbon Dioxide. Using such extinguishers may require specific maintenance procedures addressing cleanup. or C fires are appropriately controlled with halons . Notc: Whil e halons are still in service and are appropriate agents for these classes of fires.01114/11 AC20-42D b.ing oflhe agent residue with waler. evaluate the contamination impact to the structure.UL rating. and the cleanup problems from their use.S ~ UL fire rating only. consider replacing halon extinguishers with halon replacement extinguishers when discharged . However. due to the potential for corrosion damage to electronic equipment. b. Although not required . Halocarbon extinguishers are most effective on Class Band C fires. Halon agents may react vigorously with the burning metal. 10 . . S . C U. All other dry chemical powders have a Class B. replacing required Halon 1211 extinguishers. have been shown to be effective in extinguishing surface Class A fires. only "all purpose" (C lass A. The c. Notc: Ca rbon dioxide is not recommcnded for hand-held extinguishers for internal aircraft use. 3. Halons. the possibility of visual obscuration if the agent were discharged into the flight deck area. or C fires are best controlled by dry chemicals.S. Extinguishers with a 2B:C or 5B:C U. Water. the production of these ozone depleting agents has been restricted. What Extinguishing Agents are Appropri ate for the Different Types of Fir es? The following extinguishing agents are appropriate for use on the types of fires specified in paragraph I a above: a. Additional Rating Guidelines for Halocarbon Extinguishers. . For occupied spaces on transport category aircraft. C rating) dry chemical powder extinguishers contain mono8rrunonium phosphate. B.UL 5B:C or an equivalent rating. Note 2: When approving a non-gaseous agent fo r installation on aircraft. S. Class S or C fires are effectively controlled by carbon dioxide as a blanketing agent. although not rated for use on Class A fires.

halocarbon extinguishing agents are corrosive. 5. Corrosivity of Decomposition Products.) Class A. Note 2: Fires in volving a small number of Lithium primary batteries (containing molten Lithium) should not be treated as class o fires and specialized dry powder should not be used. as appli cable. Ma terial Co mpatibili ty. Halocarbon clean agen ts or water sho uld never be djscharged on Class D (burning metal) fires. Haloca rbon Clean Agents. \Vhat are the Operating Temperature Tolerances? 3. retrofitting exist ing equipmen t. Specialized Dry Powder. These agents may react vigorously with the burning metal. Acid halide production is also based on the agent used and the size of the fire.VL 2 I 29 or U. Hel and HBr. What Extinguishing Agents are Compatible with Aircraft Materials? a.ruishers for internal aircraft use. II . See paragraph Ib above for the exception: Lithiwn battery fires invo lving carry-on appliances . . or C fires are appropriately controlled with the use of halocarbon clean agents. Specialized dry powder and monammonium phosphate dry chemical are corrosive to most sensitive electronic components and instruments. Water extinguishers should be protected to -40°F (-40°C) by adding antifreeze and stipulated on the extinguisher nameplate. Co rrosion by Extinguishing Agents.01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420 c. applications and it is important to review the materials of construction for compatibility when des igning new equipment. particularly the acid halides: HP. The decomposition products of buming aircraft material s are also corrosive. See chapter 4. 4. Never discharge ha locarbon clean agents or water on a Class D (burning metal) fire. but may be rendered corrosive by the addition of antifreeze solutions. Yet decomposition products are minimized by quickly extinguishing the fire. Materials that should be considered include metal s. but review the material compatibility properties for acceptability to aircraft materials. paragraph If of this AC for a discussion of appropriate extinguishing agents for Lithium battery fires. elastomers.S. The thennal decomposition products of c. Class D fires are best controlled by dry powder. Halocarbon clean agents can be used in numerous aircraft b. Halocarbon agents may react vigorously with the burning metal. (Halons are a subcategOlY of halocarbons. Water itself is not corrosive.UL 1093. Halocarbon clean agents are not corrosive.S. Halocarbon clean agent extinguishers should operate properly after being conditioned at -40' F (-40'C) or -65"F (-54'C) as applicable and 120"F (49'C) for 16 hours as specified in U. B. Note 1: Specialized dry powder is not reco mmended for hand exti n!. and plastics. Follow the recommendations of the extinguisher manufacturer because of the possible chemical reaction between the burning metal and the extinguishing agent. or prepari ng storage and handling equipment to incorporate halocarbon clean agents. . f.

.4°C).4°C).85 I (a)(8). = (2) 1.UL 1A: 1OB:C rated exti nguisher at approximately 8 seconds.S. b. d. 3..851(c)(2). ".S. minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentratio n . All extinguishers must have the proper U. or an extinguisher design change. paragraph 4 oftm s AC. . are exceeded. . 25. except as provided for accessible cargo compaI1ments.9°F (-16. aircraft ventilat ion. Testing may be needed to select an appropriate extinguisher.0°F (-3. paragraph 5c of this AC . as noted in chapter 4. may be needed to extinguish hidden fires. training on the proper use of the fire extinguishers is very important. and 29. 8°C).UL 58 and a U. This is particularly true for general aviation aircraft in extremely cold climates. Provide the required minimum number of hand held extinguishers. and 6 of this AC. Do not substitute two smaller extinguishers for one extinguisher of the proper UL rating. ext inguishers for your aircraft compartments to.O°C). Consider the effects of agent toxicity. .. as outlined in chapter 4 paragraphs 2. mentioned in 14 CFR §§ 23 .6' F (27 . 5. More agent. The hidden fire extinguishment tests in the MPS were conducted on halocarbon extinguishers equjlibrated to 70°F. e. Cold operation may require additional consideration in the selection of an extinguisher. Chapter 4 of this AC provides morc details.UL rating. •• . agent stratification and hypoxia whcn selecting and sizing the necessary fire extinguisher for your specific application .bTUi sher. The fire can grow quickly prior to the di scharge of the second extinguisher.UL 2A: IOB:C extin.01/14/11 AC20-42D b.4°C).S. 4. a lower boiling point agent. Due to the relatively short discharge time of hand fire extinguishers: a U.0°F (-57. follow the safe· use guidance recommendations in chapter 4 of this AC for selecting c. . and = -72. (3) = (4) (5) = 26.851(a)(3).5 °F (-1. 6. The boiling points of the halocarbons (at I atmosphere) li sted in this AC are: ( I) HCFC Blend B HFC-227ea HFC-236fa Halon 1211 Halon 1301 = 80. even in spaces where the safe use guidelines. 12 . and J3 seconds for a U.S. General Guidelines for Hand Fire Extinguishers. Agent toxicity should be considered secondary to the immediate need to extinguish the fire. 29. The failure to extinguish a fire has catastrophic consequences for all aircraft occupants. See chapter 5..

asp?sess i onlD =26. overhead. Replaccment ofTSO Water Extinguishers: 3.dingler@faa. hand extinguishers equipped with a discharge hose or adjustable wand mounted directl y to the extinguisher are highly recommended. nozzle design. Adj ustable wand or fixed nozzle extinguishers allow for one-handed use. TIle in-flight training video is also available at the following public websi te: http ://w \vw . if you can show that the replacement extinb'1lisher has comparable or better Class A extinguishing perfonnance than the TSO'd water extinguisher. See appendix 4. Longer throw ranges of to feet and greater provide a signi ficant advantage in fighting fires in large transport category aircraft. For access to under seat. and operational temperatures.gov. See AC 120-80 for more detai ls and guidance on in-flight fire fighting. b. extingui sher s uper pressurization." It can be obtained from Dale Dingler. Ha locarbons that are gaseous upon d ischarge have a more limited throw range.UL 5B:C extingui shers should have no less than an 8 foo t (3 m) throw range (passing the MPS seat tests assures a 8 foot throw range). faa. A video for flight crew training is avai lable from the FAA. Advanced lmaging Division.te. Ha locaroolls have discharge characteristics dependent on the halocarbon. U. g. 13 . paragraph I of thi s AC for more infonnation on replacement agent throw ranges. h. . The title of the video is "Aircraft In-flight Fire Fighting. NJ 08405 . cold soak times. 7. AJ p. For aircraft that are required to carry two or more extinguishers and two water extinguishers are in close proximity.01114/ 11 AC 20·420 r. This is allowed only if the extinguisher has been shown to have comparable o r betler Class A fire extinguishing capability as both water extinguishers and a sufficient throw range to extinguish fires likely to occur. and other difficult to reach locations. email:dale. phone: (609) 485· 6646.s. 7960. A discharge hose or adjustable wand is preferred because it is likel y to result in the extinguisher being properl y held in an upright position during use and provides a means of directing a stream of agent to more inaccessible areas. Halon replacement extinguishers with a minimum rating of 5B:C can be used in place of required technical standard order (TSO) C 19 water extinguishers. FAA William J. the two water extinguishers may be replaced by one halon replacement extingu isher.0 I. Hughes Technical Center. Atlantic City [ntemational Airport.go v12007 Con (erencc/ sc!'s i a "_<leta i Is. The halon replacement ext ingu isher must have a sufficient throw range to extinguish tires likely to occur. A TSO C 19 water extinguisher can fight small C lass A fires but arc not large eno ugh to have a I A rating.Ii re. " The tape version of the video is referenced as "MST 730" and the DVD version is referenced as "MST 730.

14 . Lith iu m Battery Fires. if the burning materiaJ might splash and/or splatter. Halon. messaging devices. Crew members should be trained not to treat a smal l number of lithium batteries as a Class 0 fire. Water or other water based liquid from any available source should be poured over the cells immediately after fire knockdown or extinguishment. the risks of exceeding the hazardous concentration levels of extinguishant are considered minimal compared to the risks of an in-flight fire. (I) (2) manual. Attack the base of the fire at the near edge of the fire and then move the fire extinguisher nozzle with a side-to-side sweeping motion. Quickly extinguish the fire.01/14/11 AC 20-420 Chapter 4. Ifneeded. A training video on the use of hand extinguishers to fight on-board fires is available at the following website: hllp:/Iwww. c. PDAs. As fires call grow exponentially with time. Transferring a burning appliance into a bum bag may be extremely hazardo us. Operators should ensure that all crew members receive proper training in the appropriate use of hand fire extinguishers onboard their aircraft d. Halon replacement. audio/video/data recording or playback devices. cell phones. since only water or water based liquids can provide sufficient cooling to prevent re-ignition and/or propagation of the fire to adjacent cell s of the battery pack. b. The optimum firefighting technique differs for each approved extinguisher. laptop computers. Immediately turn off all air recirculation systems. See AC120-80. What Basic Fire Fighting Training Should be Provided? a. e. as permitted by your flight ( I) Crew members should be trained not to use fire resistant bum bags to isolate burning Lithium batteries. Train flight crewmembers on the proper use of hand extinguishers. Do not direct the initial discharge at the burning surface at close range. for additional guidance. and two-way radios.govl2007Conferenceisessioll_detat ls. f. or water extinguishers can be used to control fires involving a small number ofrechargeable lithium batteries as found in PED e. it can be followed up by water from any available source. Flight crewmembers should be trained on the urgency of immediate and aggressive extinguishment of an onboard fire. can be used safely (from a distance) to extinguish a lithium battery fire and will usually cool it sufficiently to end the event. Safe Use of Hand Fire Extinguisher 1.tire.g.le. asp?sess ion I0 =26. pagers. by itself. A water extinguisher. ill-Flight Fires. progressing toward the back of the fire. faa .

impaired coordinatio n.01114/11 AC 20-420 (2) See SA FO 09013 and the training vi deo referred to in paragraph 1b above for further guidance on how to figh t Lithium battery fires.5. as well as further discussion of factors affecting the fonnati on ofthennal decomposition products. even in concentrations of only a few parts per million. if available and/or as directed by FCOM procedures or AFM. (2) While it is impossible to accurately predict the hazard level in most situations. paragraph 4b(4). and subsequent oxygen depl etion. This in creases the rate of agent removal from the aircraft. Control Exposure to Com bustion Gases and Halocarbon Vapors. See Annex A. hydrogen cyanide. as discussed in chapter 4. Exposure may result in dizzi ness. See paragraph 5b below for additional infonnation on portable PBE use in cargo compartments. Some aircraft have up to 50% recirculation) so it is important to turn off the air recirculation quickly. 2. Unprotected personnel should not enter a protected space during or after agent discharge. 1. It is criticall y important to quickly extinguish an in-flight fire. What arc Some General Guidelines for the Safe-Use of Halocarbon Extinguishers? 3. including carbon monoxide. The decomposition products ha ve a characteristic sharp. Quickly Extinguish tbe Fire. if allowed by your aircraft flight manual (AFM) or flight crew operations manual (FCOM). Although exposure to halocarbon agents and their decomposition products are a concern. The consequences of an unextingui shed in-flight fire include the loss of the aircraft and its occupants and immediate toxic hazards from exposure to thennal decomposition products of the burning materials.7. (3) Halocarbon agents also decompose when they contact open flames or hot surfaces. (1) Turn off all air recirculation systems immed iatel y. flight crewrnembers should use portable PBE. Turning o ff the recirculatio n allows the agent entering the low level air returns to be directed to the air outflow valves and out of the aircraft.2 and 5. Use Portable Protective Breathing EqUipment (PBE). acrid odor. and an eye irritating effect. Crewmembers should follo w fire fighting procedures when using portable PBE. reduced mental acuity. or the most current revision. h. fo r more detai led inforn1ation on the effects of neat agent and hydrogen fluoride (HF) respecti vely. 1. until ventilated . 15 . The following guidance is affected by and may be adjusted for agent stratification and localization. paragraph II d of this AC. c. and heart arrhythmias. smoke. try to avoid selecting extinguishers that could result in exposure to halocarbon vapors above the safe-use levels. Paragraph 1.2 of the standard in appendi x 3. In compartments where extingui sher(s) are used that do not meet the safe-use guidance in thi s AC. H alocarbon agents are much heavier than air and under most conditions they stratify with time at lower levels. heat. it is far less of a concern than the consequences of an unextingui shed in-flight fire.

increasing airflow could promote fire growth. not oxygen partial pressure. are protected from hypoxia. Use of supplemental oxygen can prevent hypoxia. CPA are used. if the fire is not completel y extinguished or smoldering. by following the descent. and supplemental oxygen guidance below. Stay alert when increasing airflow. if a supplemental diluter demand personal oxygen system at ePAs above 12. or ventilation rate. a. c. Large aircraft with small volume occupied spaces (flight decks) have a forced venti lation system.01/14/11 d. As mentioned above. Extinguish Fire and Ventilate Cabin. make sure the fire is completely extinguished.500 ft. or to an altitude that is as low as practicable. Descending di lutes agent concentration. ventilate the compartment overboard at the highest possible rate allowed by established crew procedures for your particular aircraft to rid the cab in and flight deck of hazardous gases and smoke. the aircraft: size. if at all possible. lfthe fire is nol completely extinguished.000 ft. Aircraft with a maximum flying altitude of 12. However. paragraph 7m of this AC for information on the development of the guidance below.iately descending as described above. hypoxia (low oxygen) hazards that may result from the discharged halocarbon agent displacing air in unpressurized aircraft. to get additional protection during the time it wo uld take to exchange the air in the compartment three times. operators of slUall unpressurized aircraft should open a window.000 ft CPA. without the need for supplemental oxygen. (2) Small aircraft lack some of the safety advantages available to large transport category aircraft. We recommend descending regardless of the amount of agent used.000 ft. availability of supplemental oxygen (quick donning oxygen masks). lowers exposure to agent and combustion gases. 16 . To rid the cabin and flight deck of hazardous gases and smoke. How to Prevent Hypoxia in an Unpressurizcd Aircraft. You can avoid life-threatening 3. ventilate all unpressunzed aircraft compartments overboard at the highest possible rate allowed by established crew procedures for your particular aircraft. Use Supplemental Oxygen.. This lack of prolection is because the oxygen flow control for these systems is based on pressure altitude. AC 20-42D (1) When you are reasonably sure the fire is extinguished.500 ft. or a smoldering fire exists. if so equipped.500 ft. See the report referenced in appendix 3. or an oral~nasal mask between 18. and 25. by immed. a nasal cannula up to and including 18. and a copilot available. Descend to Lower Altitudes.000 ft. Ventilate the Compartment. (I) Occupants flying at altitudes above 12. increasing airflow could promote fire growth b. and increases oxygen concentration. should immediately switch their masks or nasal cannula to the maximum flow of oxygen. ventilation. the user will not be fully protected from hypoxia. Therefore. Immediately descend at the maximum safe rate to 8.

01114111 (2) AC 20-420 Fingertip probe oxygen sensors should be used with oxygen systems on unpressurized aircraft with maximwn flying altitudes above 12. hardware configu ration. and geometry of a particular ai rcraft/airc raft compartment and may be adjusted accordingly. These systems provide no protection to a wearer when he or she breaths through the mouth. Safe-use WN guidance provides an objective scientific evaluation of the currently approved agents. The methodo logy used to develop the safe-u se WNs ofhaloc8rbon agents and their blends was developed in the report referenced in appendix 3. Primary consideration in selecting a fire extinguisher should be perfonnance. halocarbon agents is a concern and needs to be addressed as noted in paragraph 2b above. Extinguisher Performance. you may elect to select a halocarbon hand extinguisher using the safe-use WN guidance (based on perfect mixing) described below for your specific compartment size. and weight (see appendix 4. paragraph 7m of thi s AC. Actual concentrations encountered by occupants may be significantl y lower than would be encountered if there was perfect mixing depending on agent stratification. (I) The exposure hazard presented by the decomposition products of the agent may be considered when choosing a fire ex tingui sher fo r a particular installation. (2) Safe-use WN guidance for various air change times. The safe-use WN guidance is based on the discharge of the largest extin&'1lisher in a compartment at 70° F at the aircraft certificated CPA. paragraph I of this AC). which can occur at times of stress. Unpressurized aircraft are allowed to use nasal cannula supplementary oxygen systems up 10 18.500 ft. assuming perfect mixing. is presented in appendi x 4. extinguisher throw range (see appendix 4. air distribution. human exposure to b. paragraph 3 of this AC). See appendix 4. This safe-use WN h'11idance is not rigid. Agent physical and chemical properties may also be considered. Special consideration needs to be made for cold temperature operation. ease of use for novices. Toxicity/ Human Exposure. will be addressed in a report to be published at the FAA Technical Center. (3) These safe-use WNs may be used as general guidance and are based on perfect mixing gas concentration histories. as noted in chapter 3. From a hazardous exposure perspective. air flow. paragraph 2a(4) 17 . As mentioned previously. il is far less of a concern than the consequences of an unextinguished in-flight fire. paragraph 5b of this AC. Thi s report will provide limited examples and the method to properl y adjust the safe-use concentrations for those examples. altitude. (3) 4. What arc the Guidelin es on the Selection of Halocarbon Extinguishers? a. as mentioned in paragraph 4b(3) above. (4) Agent stratification/locali zation within a compartment. size. as there are many variables that can affect the agent concentration histories. and environmental issues (ODP and GWP). However.000 ft. commercial availability of the agent. paragraph 2 of thi s AC. These devices provide user feedback on the effects of hypoxia after halocarbon agent discharge such that the wearer can increase the oxygen flow to their breathing device to compensate for the hypoxia.

2 1. The worst case oxygen equivalent CPA for pressurized aircraft using the safe-use WN guidance provided in thi s AC is 10.0 " Ageo' d.'oo I Basis 8 LOAEL Basis a. The total charge weight of the largest exti nguisher divided by the compartment volum e should not exceed the safe·use W /V.".8 0 .3 1. o.6 ~ ~ . (7) ln a pressurized aircraft (6000 to 8.. rS ~ N -~ ~ u X 0 .3 02 a.s 0 . These nomlalized toxicities are based on exposure to neat (un-decomposed) agent using 3 different measures: NOAEL. landing as quickly as possible is always recommended when an onboard fire is suspected. Figure I shows the normalized toxicities of approved 5B:C extingui shers relative to the NOAEL-based toxicity of a 5B:C Halon 1211 extinguisher.01114/11 AC20-42D (5) For unpressurized aircraft. . 18 .0 .' 0.. c.. Immediate descent is not necessary. the minimum safe volume of one extinguisher is obtained by di viding that extinguisher' s charge weight by the safe-use agent WN for the appropri ate altitude and ventilatio n (See appendix 4. Pressuri zed aircraft benefit (increased oxygen and decreased agent concentrations) only from descent to altitudes below the CPA. Relative Agent Toxicity. ' .• 0 .4 0 .!! :: [!] NOAEL Basis " . Figure l. Relative Toxicity of 5 B:C Halocarbon Extinguisbers 1 .0 o Safe Human CO.000 ft C PA). However. the hypoxic hazard is minimal for the safe-use concentrations for the halocarbon agents in this AC. You may want to consider the relative toxicity of extinguishers in Figure I below when selecting an extinguisher.1 ~ .000 ft at 2 minutes aft er di scharge when 81000 ft C PA is maintained. In thi s case." ~ . you should consider safe· use guidance for the highest alti tude for which the aircraft is certified.~ " 0 . Alternatively. paragraph 3 of this AC). (6) The cab in is considered and referred to as a compartment. you may consider minimum safe volumes to make yo ur extingui sher selection. Safe Human Concentration and LOAE L..7 .".~~ . Minimu m Safe Volume..

combination passenger/cargo (combi) and cargo airplane/rotoreraft.. gency equi pment necessary to figh t a fi re. If two trained crew members are available to fight the fire .855(d) require aircraft to be designed to prevent the harmful accumulation of smoke. Co mpa rtments Under 200 C ubic Fect. to walk to the location of the next bonle. Portable PBE should be worn before entering the cargo compartment and attempting to extinguish a fi re. b. as the agent weight is not sufficient to predict perfonnance. flame. Unsafe Concentrations of Extingui shing Agent . super pressurization and other factors affect perfonnance. as outlined in 14 CFR § 25. Usually. position the extinguisher to continue to fight the fire and initiate discharge. When to Use Porta ble Pr otective Brea thin g Equipment (PB E). 19 . 1439. ( I) Multiple hand-held ti re extinguishers may be shared to comply with the cabin and accessib le Class 8 cargo compartment regulations. (2) The rating is based on UL 711 perfonnance tests.. The UL fire tests can be prefonncd by the applicant or an approved test laboratory such as UL. . remove it from it's mounting bracket. extinguishing agent and noxious gases from entering occupied areas. . Nozzle design. not agent weight.857 and § 29.S. a.UL 2A: IOB:C for accessible Class B cargo compartments. How to Safely Use Ha loca rbon Extinguisbers in Accessible Cargo Compartmen ts.. it may be possible to avoid a delay between discharges of the extinguishers.S. pull the pin. The combined rating is to be detennined by perfonning the U L 711 fire tests by discharging the extinguishers with a delay between the end of each extinguisher' s discharge and the start of the discharge of the next extinguisher based on the location of each extinguisher and an assessment of factors such as: (a) The manpower avail able to fight the firc. Note that AFM and/or Crew Operations Manual are required to have the appropriate procedure incl uding calling out the use of portable PBE and other em<. 14 CFR § 25. It must be demonstrated that the extinguishers. Halon replacement extinguishers should have a minimum fire rating classification of U.UL 2A:l OB:C rating is sufficient to fight most fires likely to occur. return to the cargo compartment. if they 8re located where a person fighting a fire in the compartment could quickly retrieve them and continue fighting the fire with minimal delay between the discharges. can extinguish 2A and I OB:C rated fires. (b) The time to recognize the completion of the discharge.01114/ 11 AC 20-42D 5.. Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) fire fighting procedures should state that the crew member should close the Class B cargo compartment door after extinguishing a fire. c. . The fire threat for accessible cargo compartments is primarily from Class A fires. one exti nguisher with a U. as installed.

The options provided include converti ng the compartment to meet the requirements of a Class C cargo compartment. Restrict personnel from entering the cargo compartment for the duration of the flight. 20 .UL 2A (2-1 /2 gallon) listed water portable fire extinguishers.S. should comply with the requirements of the FAA Airworthiness Directive (AD) 93·07-15. consider converting that cargo compartment to a class C compartment with a built-in fire suppression system.S. Halon 1211 extinguishers that have a class A rating of2A also have a 40B:C rating. This AD speci fies acceptable fOllTls of fire protection equipment and operational procedures. . or the use of fire containment containers or covers. Accessible cargo compartments of 200 ft3 and larger. (c) Protective gannents stored adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance. Compartments Over 200 Cubic Feet. How to Inspect and Maintain the Band Fire Extinguisher for Continued Safe-Use.UL standards. . adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance for use in the compartment. This is because the fire threat for accessible cargo compartments is primarily from Class A fires. of Halon 1211) readily available for use in the cargo compartment. use of hand·held fire extinguishers. per 14 CFR § 25. or any other technology that would provide effective fire protection. (d) Portable PBE with a minimum of 15 minutes of protective breathing. It has been detelmined that a IOB:C rating is more then adequate for the type and size of class B and C fires likely to occur in a Class B cargo compartment. Maintain and inspect hand fire extinguishers in accordance with the manufacturer's nameplate instructions. The prior guidance in AC 20-42C was based on the need for alleast a 2A rating for class A fires usi ng a Halon 1211 extinguisher to extinguish a fire. . 6.01114111 Note: The recommended extinguisher rating of 2A: 1OB:C is lower than the 2A:40B:C rating in AC 20-42C. Follow lhe maintenance procedures. (b) At least two U. in combination passenger/cargo and cargo aircraftlrotorcraft.UL listed Halon 1211 or its equivalent 2A: 1OB:C hand held fITe extinguishers (equivalent to the AD's requirement of 481bs. (2) If no extinguisher is available that meets the safe-use criteria for the aircraftlrotorcraft cabin.S. I 439(b)(5) . fire extingui shing systems and smoke or fire detectors. (I) If yOll elect to use hand fire extinguishers provide the following: (a) A minimum of three U. usually TSO C 19 or its equivalent. AC 20-420 d. inspections and testing specified in the applicabl e N FPA and U. and be stored adjacent to the cargo compartment entrance. Thi s portable PBE should be TSO C J 16 approved or equivalent.

d. Locate this type of fire extinguisher in a safe area to assure there will be no damage to the plastic di scharge heads. disposable fire extinguishers may have plastic discharge heads installed.309 and in 29 CFR § 1910. hydrostatic lest and life limits of pressure cylinders are outlined in: (I) (2) Specification of cylinders is in 49 CFR. However.01114/11 AC 2042D a. c. or (2) The service life guidelines established by the manufacturer if sooner. subpart C. Non·refillabJc. subpart 8. Recommended procedures for the inspection. part 180. Manufacturers of fire extinguishers containing halon replacement agents approved for use on FAA certified aircraft should take immediate action through the appropriate channel(s) to have their retest requirements included in the aforementioned regulatory guidelines.157. In spection and maintenance of cylinders is in 49 CFR. part 178. b. 2\ . Non-refillable. replace these extinguishers with a serviceable unit upon reaching: (1) The service life where hydrostatic testing would nonnal1y he required for a similar exti nguisher. (3) Fire extinguishers are addressed in 49 CF R § 173. disposable fire extinguishers are exempt from periodic hydrostatic testing.

installation of an ext inguisher should include vertical reach combined with horizontal (offset) reach to ensure ease of retrieval from overhead compartments. If they are not visible in their mounted position. (I) Aircraft structure and mounting brackets are required to withstand the applicable inertia forces required in 14 CFR §§ 23561 . (153 . Consider the type offire hazard (Class A. Locate hand fire extinguishers adjacent to hazardous areas (for example. locate the extinguisher at the passenger (3) When two or more extinguishers are used. locate one at each end of the passenger compartment and space the remainder uniformly within the cabin area.561. galleys. and 29. 60. Consideration should be allowed for assist steps (or seats) or other factors. accessible baggage or cargo compartments. If extinguishers intended for different classes of fire are grouped together. etc. (3) Add the weight of the hand fire extingui sher and its mounting bracket to the aircraft empty weight and a compute a new empty weight center of b'favity. Where to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extingu ishers in Passenger Co mpar tments. The vertical reach should not exceed 74. with the hand fire extinguisher installed. (2) For large transport category aircraft.) to be protecied. c. When no fl ight attendant is required. Lnstall fire extingui shers in passenger compartments according to 14 CFR §§ 23. 27.851.67 cm. Locating and Mounting Hand Fire Extinguishers I. locate it at the flight attendant's station.851. (189. b. Mount hand fi re extinguishers for ready accessibi lity.853 and the following criteria: a. The mounting structure may need to be strengthened. When one extingu isher is used.5 in. electrical equipment racks.5 in. (20cm) to penn it a 5 percentile female. d. 25561 .) tall to quickly access the extinguisher. If there are no defined hazardous areas. Replacement of halon extinguishers with halocarbon ext inguishers wi ll require an evaluation of the mounting system strength .561 . 22 . locate the hand fire extinguishers as follows : ( I) (2) entrance door.01/ 1411 1 AC 20-420 Chapter 5. and 29. consider marking their intended use conspicuously via a placard or other means (near the extinguisher) to ajd in the choice of the proper extinguisher at the time of the fire.87 in.23 em) combined with an offset reach of7. B. use a placard to indicate their location. C or D) expected to be encountered when you select a hand fire extinguisher. Halocarbon clean agent extinguishers of the same listing can be 2-3 times the weight of the halon extinguishers they arc replacing. 25.

Row Many Hand Extinguishers Must I Install? a. c. flight crew and the passengers. c. Consider using the fo ll owing criteria if you install a fire extinguisher in the flight deck compartment: a. Aircraft structure and extinguisher mounti ng brackets should be capable of withstanding the inertia forces spec ified in paragraph I c above. b. Each hand fire extinguisher should be conveniently located. Design the mounting bracket so that upon release from their primary restraint. and it 's location obvious. For aircraft designed fo r single pilol operation. (I) Secure the extinguisher(s) in mounting bracket(s) such that it requires a deliberate action to release the extingui sher from its primary restraint for removal from its mounting. Properly mount the hand fire exti nguisher to th e airframe structure.01 /J4111 AC 20·420 2.85 1(0) and 121. 23 . Locate hand fire extinguishers so that they are easi ly accessible to the. Fire ex tinguishers for the flight deck compartment should be able to extinguish Class 8 and C ftres. 3. TraDsporl Category Airplanes. the extingui sher remains in position until removed from its mounting by the user. the hand fi re extinguisher should be located for release and removal by the pilot in the seated position. a. Hand fire extinguishers should be mounted tor easy release and removal. readily accessible. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguishers in Flight Deck Compartments. How to Locate and Mount Hand Fire Extinguisbers in Small Single Engine and Multiengine Aircraft. seal back pockets or seats. (I) The minimum number of hand fire extinguishers that must be conveniently located and evenly distributed in passenger compartments are as shown in Figure 2 below. b. Do not allow hand fire extinguishers to li e loose on shelves. 4.309(c) requires a minimum number of hand extinguishers to be installed on transport category airplanes. 14 CFR §§ 25. (2) Aircraft structure and extinguisher mounting brackets must be capable of wi thstanding the inertia fo rces specified in paragraph Ie above.

b. of Extinguishers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (2) compartment. as the exti nguishing agent. and at least two of the fire extingui shers located in the passenger compartment ofan airplane with a passenger capacity of 61 or more must contain Halon 1211.851 (a)(3). Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Required for Transport Category Aircraft Passenger Compartments Passenger Capacity 7 through 30 31 through 60 6 1 through 200 20 1 through 300 301 through 400 401 through 500 501 through 600 601 through 700 No. per 14 CFR § 25.0\ / \4/\\ AC20-42 D Figure 2. or equivalent. Title 14 CFR § 29.853 requires a minimum number of hand exti nguishers to be installed in passenger compartments: (I) See Figure 3 below for the minimum number of hand fire extinguishers that must be conveniently located in passenger compartments.ruisher must be avai lable for use in each Class A or Class B cargo or baggage compartment and in each CJass E cargo or baggage comparnnent that is accessible to crewmembers in flight. 24 . Transport Categor y Rotorcraft. AI least one hand fire extinguisher must be conveniently located in the pilot (3) At least one readily accessible hand fire extin!. (5) The quantity of extinguishing agent used in each extinguisher required by this section musl be appropriate for the kinds of fires likely to occur where used. (4) At least one of the required fire ex tinguishers located in the passenger compartm ent of an airp lane with a passenger capacity of at least 31 and not more than 60.

c. 25 . At least one hand fire extinguisher must be tocaled within easy access of the (2) At least one hand fire extinguisher mu st be in the passenger compartment of an airplane that accommodates more than six passengers. (I) seated pilot.85 1 and 91. Use the hand extinguisher guidance provided in chapter 4. Minjmum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Required for Transport Category Rotorcraft Passenger Compartments Passenger No. There are no requirements for extinguishing systems or hand extinguishers for accessible cargo or baggage compartments in transport category rotorcraft. Title 14 CFR II 23. of Capacity 7 through 30 31 through 60 61 or more Extinguishers I 2 3 (2) (3) There must be a hand fire extinguisher for the night crewmembers. The extinguisher must minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentration. paragraph 6 of this AC for these compartments.01114/11 AC 20-420 Figure 3. Small Airplanes.513(c) requires a minimum number of hand extinguishers to be installed on small part 23 airplanes.

Tau TSO UL USCG WN %v/v Instructions for Continued Airworthiness International Organization for Standardization Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level Multi plication Factor Minimum Performance Standard No Observable Adverse Effect Level National Fire Protection Association Pcrfluorocarbon Protective Breathing Equipment Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Personal Digital Assistant Portable Electronic Device Regulatory Guidance Library Radio Technical Corporation of America Society of Automotive Engineers Significant New Alternatives Policy Air Change Time Technical Standard Order Underwriters Laboratories Uni ted States Coast Guard Weight per Uni t Volume (WN) Ratio Volume Percent AI.I . List of Acronyms 14CFR Title 14. H yd roc hlorofl uorocarbon Hydrogen Flouride Hydrofluorocarbon ICA ISO LOAEL MF MPS NOAEL NFPA PFC PBE PBPK PDA PED RGL RTCA SAE SNAP 1 .S.01114111 AC20-42D A ppendix I Appendix 1. Code of Federal Regulations AdviSOry Circular Aircraft Certification Office Airworthiness Directive Airplane Flight Manual American Society of Testing and Materials Civil A viation Authority Code of Federal Regulations Cabin Pressure Altitude Department of Transport ati on U. Environmental Protection Agency Federal Aviation Administration FAA Technical Center FI uorocarbon AC ACO AD AFM ASTM CAA CFR CPA DOT EPA FAA FAATC FC FCOM FIC Flight Crew Operations Manual FI uoroiodocarbon Fluoroketone FK FM HCFC HF HFC Factory Mutual Research Corp.

t . refrigerating. engines. Flight Deck is the compartment of the aircraft arranged for use by the flight crew in operating the aircraft. 4. Dry Chemical is a mixture of finely di vided solid particles. Flight Crew arc responsible for the operation and management o f the aircraft flight control s. potassium bicarbonate. Cabin Pressure Altitude is specified for transport aircraft by regulation to be the air pressure in the cabin or compartment of a commercial airliner and it must not be lower than that found al an altitude of 8. it takes for the inflow of fresh air into a compartment.01114/ 11 AC 20-420 Appendix 2 Appendix 2. smothering. Definitions and Terms The following definitions and terms apply when following the procedures o utlined in thi s AC: 1. heating and dispensing of food and beverages. Examples of compartments are a flight deck. wi th a volume equivalent to the volume o f the compartment. J 1. 2. The aircraft cabin is considered one compartm ent.841(0) 3. A2-1 . pilot in command (captain). 8. and a cab in . Air C hange Time. 7. including. a crew rest. Combi Aircraft are designedlconfib'lired to transport both passengers and cargo on the same level within the fu selage. GaUey is the area of the aircraft for storing. Dry Powder is solid material s in powder granul ar fonn designed to extinguish class D combu stibl e metal fires by crusting. but not limited to.43 8 m) under normal operaling conditions. usually sodium bicarbonate. and systems. or ammonium phosphate-based with added particulate material supplemented by speciaJ treatment to provide resistance to packing. C ompartment is an encl osed space on an aircraft. 5. per § 25. 10. is the time in minutes. and moisture absorption (caki ng) and to promote proper fl ow characteristics. 9. 6. Clean Agent is electrically nonconducting. Cargo Aircraft are aircraft configured solely to carry cargo and no personnel other than the flight crew and any additional crew required for the care of the cargo. The word agent as used in this circular means clean agent unless otherwise indicated.000 ft (2. volatil e or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation. or heat transferring means. first officer (copilot). second officer (flight engineer).

B. Halocarbon agent s are mullipurpose class A.CHFCF. B. 15. 1. Ha lon is a short derivation for "halogenated hydrocarbon. B and C capability. bromine. incipient. 16. Class A. Ha locarbon Agent is comprised primarily of one or morc organic compounds containing one or more of the elements fluorine. Equi valency does not refer to agent weight. or gaseous fire extinguishants. Ouoro iodocarbons (FICs). Advantages of halocarbon agents include low cold shock characteristics on electronic equipment. and fluoroketones (FKs).8°C). respectively. Ha lon 130 I has the chemical name bromotrifluo rornethane. As "clean agents". Halocarbon agents are electrically non-conducting. Halocarbon agents (haJons and halon replacements) that are currently commercialized include the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The boi ling point forthis agent is ·72°F (·S7. no degradation of visual acuity. Halon replacement extinguishers may be more than twice the weight of halon extinguishers. as well as the completely halogenated halocarbons (halons). aircraft portable fire extinguisher which can be used by aircraft occupants to combat accessible. EPA and meet the MPS for hand fire extinguishers . C capabi lity in total flooding systems." T he chemical structure is identified as a four digit number representing. A2-2 . C rated agents and are most effective on Class B and C fires. Halocarbon Blend is a mixture of2 or more halocarbon agents in a portable extinguisher. fluorine. Due to this boiling point. It is a multipurpose agent with class A. or iodine. However. they do not leave a residue on evaporation." Halons primarily extinguish fire by chemically interrupting the combustion chain reaction rather than by heat removal or physically smothering. 21.2. Halon Replace ment Agen ts are any clean agents which can be either a non-halon (halocarbon agent) or halon alternative (all other substitute agents) that have SNAP approval by the U. 14. Halon 130 I offers limited Class A capabili ty when used in portable fire extinguishers. but the effectiveness of extinguishing a fire. Both Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 are liquefied gases and typified as "dean agents. CBrCl F2 .S' F (-16. C rated agent effective against flammable liquid fires. on· board fires. chlorine. the number of carbon. Halon 1211 is a multipurpose. hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). 19.1 .). HFC·227ea is discharged as a mixed liquid and vapor stream which readily evaporates.4"C). volatile liquids. The boiling point of the agent is 2. A FC-227ea is an extinguishing agent that is comprised of the chemical 1. Ha lon Eq uivalent Extinguisher is an extinguisher containing a dean agent which meets tbe MPS for hand-held fire extinguishers (see appendix 3 reference paragraph 75 of this AC). and bromine atoms present in one mo lecule. chlorine. Halon 1301 is recogni zed as a mu ltipurpose agent having Class A. Han d Fire Extinguis ber is an approved.3. CBrF3 . 13. Due to its relatively high boiling point of +26°F (_4°C).I O/XXlI 0 AC20-42D Appeod ix2 12. B. perfluorocarbons (FCs or PFCs). and low pressure. 17. 18. B a lon 12 11 has the chemical name bromochlorodifluoromethane. Halon 1301 discharges as a gas.S . Halon 1211 discharges as an 85 percent liquid stream offering a long agent throw range.3.3· heptafluoropropane (CF.

6'F (27'C). 1. or other identifying mark oran organization that is acceptab le to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials. Maximum Certificated Occupant Capacity is the maximum number of persons that can be carried for each specific aircraft model as certified by the authority havi ngjurisdiction. and who's listing states that the equipment. Band C capabi lit y.3. 1. HFC-136fa is an extinguishing agent that is comprised of the chemical 1. and C capability. HCFC Blend B di scharges primaril y as a liquid stream which readily evaporates. t. 27. L. Due to its relatively bigh boiling point. 30. The organization maintains periodic inspection of production oflisted eq uipment or material s or peri odic evaluation of services. Two inen gases are blended with the HCFC·123 to enhance flow distribution and fire extinguishing perfonnance. 29. 28. 25. It is a mUltipurpose agent with class A.3.3 hexafluoropropane (CF JC H1CF]). Listed refers to equipment. and portable telephones. The boiling point of the agent is +29. 26.isting Mark is a certification mark aJlowed to be carried as a stamp of approval by nationally recogn ized standards/testing organization. Lithium Ion Battery is a rechargeable battery that has an anode made from a metal oxide composite containing lithium ion. portable computers. Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) is the lowest concentration at which an adverse physiological or toxicological effect has been observed in dogs. The boiling point of the blend is 80. It is a mUltipurpose agent with class A. Lithium Primary Battery is a rechargeable battery thai has a lithi um anode and a cathode system consisting of carbon and either thionyl chloride o r sulfuryl chloride. and a cathode made from a specialized carbon materiaL Charge and discharge of the battery is facilitated by the movement of lithium ions in electrolytic solutio ns. Labeled equipment or materials have an attached label.01 / 14111 AC 20-42D Appendix 2 22. 24. Due to its high boiling point. symbol. materials or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services. material or service meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. B.2-dichloro-l. camcorders. HFC-236fa discharges predominately as a liquid stream which readily evaporates. and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner. Lithium ion baneries are used in small electronic devices such as pagers.5°F (-1 AOC). 23. (CF 3CHCh). A2-3 . HCFC Blend 8 is an extinguishing agent that is a tertiary blend compri sed primarily of the chemical 2. t -trifluoroethane HCFC-123.

34. ·luman Exposure Concentrations are based on PBPK modeling. The health concern for halocarbons. SNAP Program is EPA's significant new alternatives policy (SNAP) program to evaluate and regulate substitutes for ozone depicting chemicals that are being phased out under the stratospheric ozone protection proVisions of the Clean Air Act. Safe human 37. the agent weight. 41. Sma ll Aircraft are defined by part 23. M. is cardiac sensitization which occurs at a fixed target arterial concentration. ventilation. e. The PBPK modeling is endon. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model is a mathematical model for human health risk assessment and investigation of toxicity. Minimum safe volumes are dependent on the agent. Minimum Safe Volume refers to the smallest compartment volume into which one extingu isher could be discharged.ed by the U. 42. A2-4 . The model estimates the allowable arterial blood concentration as a function of agent exposure time to establish both the concentration of agent and duration to which personnel could be safely exposed. Ventilated Compartment is a compartment where the air change time is known and does not exceed 6 minutes. No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) is the highest concentration at which no adverse physiological or toxicological effect has been observed in dogs. See appendix. without posing a toxicity hazard. 36. Neat in this context refers to un-decomposed agent. Volume Percent (% v/v) is the gas vo lume in liters per 100 liters of the resulting gas mixture. EPA and the NFPA. 33. including halons. and pressure altitude of the discharge. 35.inimum Performance Standard (MPS) for Hand Extinguishers refers specifically to two tests that hand extinguishers containing halon replacement agents must pass. Safe 1 concentrati ons are exceeded when the simulated arterial concentration exceeds the target arterial concentratjon.01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420 Appendix 2 31. RatedIRating is a numerical value assigned to an extinguisher based on its fire extinguishi ng capability. 32. assuming perfect mixing of agent. Unventilated Compartment for the purposes of the AC is a compartment where the air change time is not known or exceeds 6 minutes. 38. 3 reference paragraph 75.S. Time of Useful Consciousness is the time availabl e to don an oxygen mask without assistance. These fire tests demonstrate equivalent fire extinguishing performance currently used in aircraft and assess the toxicity of the decomposition products.g. 43. 40. 39. 2% v/v Halon 1211 mixture contains 2 liters Halon 1211 per 100 liters volume.

faa. Select "Access" then "Online Bookstore.309(c). MD 20795.127. part 82-Protection of Stratospheric Ozone. U. parts from the Superintendent of Documents.gov/epahomelcfr40.1 93. Order copies of Advisory Circulars (Ae) from the U. AD 93·07·15. Distribution Requirements.1439. Telephone (30 1) 322-5377.taa. Landover. Related Publications and How to Get Them Code of Federa l Regu lations (CFR)." a. 27. AC 120-80. 122.2 11 . 25. Transport Airplane Cabill Interiors Crashworrhilless Handbook AC 25-18." Select "Aviation:' then "Code of Federal Regulations.cpa.ftla. a.htm . DC-9.gov/cfr/ and copies of 40 CFR sections on-line at www. 91. Box 37154.23. 25. select "Advisory CircuJars.851 . b.851. You can also get copies at www.853(e) and (t). Chapter I--Environmental Protection Agency. 3. and 757 and McDonnell Douglas Models DC-8. PA 15250·7954. Ardmore East Business Center.gov/rgl .airwcb. You can order copies Title 14 through the FAA website at hup:llrgl . Department of Transportation..747. fax (202) 5122250. You can get copies of the following AD from the FAA's website at www. A3-1 . b.I . Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regu lations (40 CFR). Transport CategOlY Airplanes Modified for Cmgo Service d. 27. In-Flight Fires AC 20-42C. Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations (46 CFR). 40.®Oaccess. Section. a.S.IO Series Airplanes FAA Advisory Circ uJars (Ae). Title 49 of tile Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR)." You can also get copies of 14 CFR sections on-line at www. part 34-Fire Fighting Equipment. Washington . You can get copies ofTitle 14.857. D.155. 23. fax (301) 3865394. 9 1. and DC. Department of T ransportation. BoeiogAnd McDonnell Douglas Models 707. Govenunent Printing Office. subpart G-Significant New Alternatives Policy Program and subpart H-Halon Emissions Reduction (40 CF R part 82). To be placed on FAA's mailing list for free ACs contact. and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.C. 121. 23. Hand Fire Extinguishers/or Use in Aircraft AC 25-17. FAA Ain vorth incss Directive (AD). 14 CFR §§ 21.851 ." then select "By Number. 727. Subsequent Distribution Office.gov/.1443·1 449.135. 25.gov/rgl. 20590. 29. On the website. 125. 144 1.S. e. The following is a list of applicable Federal Regulations used for this AC: l.305. Chapter I-Coast Guard. 25. M-30.46.561. c. 3341 Q 75th Avenue.86 1. Department of Transportation.O. M-494. Pittsburgh.107(c). d.airweb. Telephone (202) 512-1800.01114/ 11 AC 20-420 Ap pendix 3 Appendix 3. P. 2. 119(b)and(c).561. Transportation. 29. 23. 29. 91.56 1. 737.56 1.

pdf 6. gov/ oratwww.te. www. DOTIFAAlCT 89/3 1. . ." a training video on the use of hand exti nguishers to fight o n-board fires are available for viewing at www. You can find the fo ll owing technicaJ standard orders on the FAA website at http://rI!IJaa. [Large AC] Ail/rame and POlvelplanl Mechanics General Handbook g.faa. lune 23. 22161 . a.gov/other visit/aviation industIv/airiine operators/airline safety/safo/all safos/medial 2009/SAFO090 13.I!Ovlreportslreports.pdf b. Smoke and Extinguisher Agent Dissipation in a Small Pressurized Fuselage. b. Glos. "J:. Slusher.gov/2007Conferencelsession dctaii s.tc. 2009.asp.fire. FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO). A3-2 . 37 Windsor Street. W. 2009.12A. Printed copies ofCivii Aviation Authority documents are available from Documedia So lutions Ltd.airweb. A. AC 25-22. FAA Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFOS) and Information for Operators (InFOs) a. FAA Training Videos . TSO-C 19. [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplam Mechanics Powelpla1lf Handbook 4. h. Neese. GLS22DG. Spri ngfield. FAA publications can also be found on the fo ll owi ng Web Site of the FAA Fire Safety Branch: htt p://www . a. Order copies of the followi ng reports and papers from the National Technical lnfonnation Service. j~la.g(lv/other visit/aviation industrv/airline o perators/ai rline safetylinfo/al l infos/medi al 2009 'inlo090 10.Firefighting Training Video. Cheltenham.faa .26 7. Report No. lnFO 090 10 Availab ili ty ofa Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) In -fli ght ."xtingllishing In-flight Laptop Computer Fires " and "Cabin Crew Firefighti ng Train ing Video.. G. Portable Water-Solution Type Fire Extinguisher TSO-C 116. faa. Abramowitz. lournal articles can be obtained directly from the publi sher. a. Federal Aviation Administration. www . . AC 65. Cerr{ficorioll q(Transpon Ailplane Mechanical Systems AC 25-869. Crewmember Portable Protective Breathing Equipment S. fire. You will also find the T50 Lndex of Articles at the same site.asp?session ID. lune 23.01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-42D Appendix 3 e. SAFO 09013 Fighting Fires Caused by Lithium Type Batteries in Portable Electroni c Devices.gov/rg1. 1990. faa. Reports and Papers.1. United Kingdom. Va. f. Fire Protection Systems AC 6S-9A.

Halon Extinguishment olSmall Aircraji ins!rumen! Panel Fires.R. . A benefit Analysis/or Enhanced Prolecfionlrom Fires in Hidden Areas all Transport Aircraft... James. . G. Federal Aviation Administration. Federal Aviation Administration Technical Note DOTIFAAIAR-TN99/2 9. 1993. Co lton. et at. DOTIFAAlCT-82/ 1 II .A. Extinguisher Agelll Behavior in a Vantilaled Small Aircraft... Lain . D. "Setti ng Acute Exposure Limits fo r the Hal otTon I Clean Agent Onboard Aircraft Using Physiologicall y Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling. 1986. R. Federal Aviation Administration Report No. DOT/FAA/AR -02l50. Cherry. g.. L.. . DOTIFAAJCT·83/1. . Federal Aviati on Administration Report No. Effectiveness of Flight Attendants Attempting to Extinguish Fires in an Accessible Cargo Compartment. DOTIFAAlCT-82/42. Krasner. Dealing wilh In-Flight Lithium Ballery Fires in Portable Electronic Devices. Sweeney. Louise C.E . FactOlY Mutual Research Corporation. 1995. . 1. Guidelinesfor Safe Use of Gaseous Halocarbon ExtingUishing AgeJl/s in Aircraft. Spei tel.A. 950 13.R. ©Civii A viation Authority 2003. 1. December 1986. Lyon. The Development of A Hidden Fire Test/or Aircraft Hand Eninguisher Applications. London. c. Federal Aviation Administration Report No. Slusher. m . Demaree. Federal A viation Administration Report No. L. Blake. Gerald R. R. L. In-Flight Aircraft Seat Fire Exting uishing Tests (Cabin Hazard Measurement. J. Wright.. Slusher. .A.G. Submitted to Louise Speitel. Chattaway. MJ . DOTIFAAlAR08/3. DOTfFANCT83 /30. G. 1982. Joseph. London.E . L. Neese. and Speitei. Wright. Wright. Study of Hand-held Fire Extinguishers aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft. n. Federal Aviation Administration Report No... Slusher. W. DOT/FAAJCT-86/26.Teagle. Federal Aviation Administration: Report No. Civil Aviation Authority Paper No. Civil Aviation Authority Paper No. e.... Analysis of Dissipation a/Gaseous Extinguishing Agents in Ventilated Compartments. and Speitel .O. Hill . Demaree..01114/ 11 AC20-42D Appendix 3 b. Federal Aviation Admini strati on Report No.. i. 1999. 2003/4. 1984. o I. k. Richard E.R. W. A3-3 . d. 2003 . December 1982. f. DOT/FAAlCT-8615. Eklund) Thor I. Halon Extinguisher Agent Behavior in a Venlilated Small Aircraft. Gargas.2008. M. j. Dass. CAA Paper 2002 /01 .c.. 8.M. I. h. .V. Cullen. July 16.

DOT/ FANAR-04/26.2004.01 / 14/ 11 AC 20-420 Appendi. u. Vi negar. LithiumIon Cells in Transport CalegOlyAircraji. Flammability Assessmellf a/Bulk. Jepson. No. Dierdorf. Vinegar.. SlOndard Specification jar Holan / ]J / .Packed. Nonchargeable..S.(1999). 60:403-408... Vinegar. Vol. You can get copies of the following ASTM standards from ASTM [nternational. Bromotl'if/Iloromethane (eF. or contact ASTM Customer Service at serv ice@aslm. Modeling Cardiac Sensitization Polential of Humans Exposed to Halon J301 or Halon 1211 Aboard Aircraft. AIHA Journal . 100 BaIT Harbo r Drive.. Aviation. Rubenstein. s. A (200 I). Webster. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards. Telephone (6 10) 832-9585. M. t.org. p. Department ofTranspon ation. and Overton. 12:751-763 . J . Flammability Assessment 0/ Bulk.H (1998). February. 2002. Jepson. You can also order on-line at www.Br) A3-4 . S. Bromochiorodifllloromethane (CF1CIBr) a. q... Hammann.J. Simulated Blood Levels ofCFj ! in Personnel Exposed During Its Release/rom an F-15 Jel Engine Nacelle and During ]nlellfionalllllzalaIion. DOTIFAAlAR99/63. ASTM D7673-I O. A. PBPK Modeling ojShorl-lerm (0-5 min.org. A.as un. Human I"halarioll Exposures to Halogenated Hydrocarbons. R. Rechargeable.W. Lithium Primmy Batteries in Transport CategOlY Aircraft. L. U.'t 3 n. R. Webster. Harper. Federal Aviation Admini stration Report No .S. Vinegar. W. 10. Seftillg Safe Acute Exposure Limits for Halon Replacement Chemicals Using Physiologically Based Plwrmacokinelic Modeling. Cisneros.Packed. b. Harry. and Overton. Hughes Technical Center. Standard Practice/or Handling. Bromotr(f!uoromefhane c~ ASTM D5631-08. Jepson. 72. and Speitel.J. Tra nsportation and Storage of Halon 1301. Harry. Federal Aviation Administration Report No.E. 2002 . 005. and Brock. Harry. Tabscolt. O. Space and Environmental Medicine. Federal Aviation Administration Report No. ICFJBr) ASTM D5632-08. PO Box C700. . W.. A. (2000). .H. 8. International Halon Replacement Working Group. G. Webster. "Options to the Use ofHalons for Aircraft Fire Protection Systems. 10:411-429.2002 Update". G.2006. Standard Specification/or Halon 1301. Task Group on Halon Options. DOTfFANAR-06/38. o. PA 19428-2959. DOTfFAN AR-01 /37. GW. J. FAA Willjam J. Inhalation Toxicology. West Conshohocken. Federal Aviation Administration Report No. De\'e/opmelll a/a Minimum Perf ormance Standard (MPS)for HandHeld Fire Exting uishers as a replacement lor Halon 121J On Civilian Transport Category Aircraft. I"halation TOXicology.c. r. D.

Fire Extinguishing M edia . Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Sysrems. I.nfpa. Standard Practice/or Handling. Standard Practice for I-lan dling.Parl/ : Spec~fications for Ha /oll /211 and Halon 1301.3.2. 1 Batterymarch Park . I. Order copies of the following ISO standards from ISO! 1. b.org.11 . and d. Box 9 102 . Fire Protection -. NFPA 200 I. Standard Specification/or HFC-227ea 1. 1. You can also order on-line at www. MA 02169-7471 .3. ASTM 6064-03. Transportation . and Storage of IiFC-227ea I. You can also order on-line at www.org: a.3. Quincy. National fire Protection Association (NFPA).Ha/ogena ted Hydro carbons -.3. NFPA 10. 11. Telephone +41-22-749-0 1. and Storage of HFC-236/a.J h.3-Hexajluoropropane (CF. P.1. ISO 720 1.H.3.01114 /11 AC 20-42D Appendix 3 ASTM 0 7122-05. CH-1 2 11 .J g. rue de Varernbe.1.1.iso. fmgJobal. 1.CCt. Standard Praclicejor Handling. longer an active standard) d.CF.CH. A r. 2009 Edition NFPA 128. Switzerland. MA 02062 USA.O.CCI. H. Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. a. 1. ASTM 06427-04. 2008 Edition A3-S .3Heprajllloropropane (CFJCHFCFJ) ASTM 0 6065 -05.1. ASTM 06541-05 . CF.2. Yo u can also order on-line at www.3. 9.3-Heptajluoropropane (CF. ASTM 0 7123·04. Factory Mutual Research Corp. Case posrale 56. Telephone + 1-78 1-762-4300. Transportation. Order copies of the foliowingNFPA standards from NFPA . Norwood.CHFCF.1: 1989.3I-Iexajllloropropane (CFjCH1CF JJ i.) e.3. 2007 Edition NFPA 12A. and Storage oj IiCFC Blend B (CF.) f. Telephone + 1 8003443555 or + 1 6 17770-3000. Standard on Halon 12// Fire Extinguishing Systems. International Organization for Standardization (ISO).com: 10. and CF.1. Order copies of the FM approval standards from FM Corporate Headquarters 11 5 1 Boston-Providence Turnpike. Stalldard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. Geneva 20. Transpo rtation. 1990 Edition (No c. (FM). Ar. Standard Specification/or HFC-236/a.3. Standard Specification/or HCFC Blend B (CF.

.UL stand.S. U. You can get copies of the following U. 14. U. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers (Tenth Edition). (UL intends to withdraw this standard effective October 2014) U.UL 2129. April 13.2007.com. . You can also order on-line at: www . Telephone Customer Service + 1-877-ULHELPS (1-877-854-3577). Documents. Standard/or Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers (Fifth Edition).UL 626. You can also order copies onli ne at WWW. d. Telephone (724) 776-4970. Carbon-Dioxide Fire EXlblglljsliers (Ninth Edition). 2009. November 30. Suite 805. c. fax (202) 833-9434. 2009. documents from RTCA Inc. U. Washington.UL 1093. D. . Underwriters Laboratories.. Warrendale. U.C.·(jngllishers (Seventh Edition).S. You can also order copies online at www. January 3 1. Water Fire £<linguishers (Eighth Edition). Environmental Conditions and Test ProceduresJor Airborne 13. Telephone (202) 833-9339. IL 60062-2096 USA.ULStandarufoi.. f. Order copies of the fo ll owing RTCA fnc. PA 15096-0001. Order copies ofSAE Aerospace Standards from SAE International . April20. £quipmcl1I RTCNDO-160F.UL 154. U. . 2007. Rating and Fire Testing o/Fire El. 400 Commonwealth Dri ve. 1828 L Street NW.rds fro m UL Corporate Headquarters. Halocarboll Clean Agenl Fire Extinguishers (Second Ed ition). Inc CULl. e.or!!. A3-6 .UL 299. fax (724) 776-0790.S. a.S. b.2009. . January 31. 20036. a. SAE Documents.S.org.S. .S.UL 7 11 . l1ca . RTCA Inc. Northbrook.S<lc. 333 Pfingsten Road. . April 20.01 /14/ 11 AC20-42D Appcndi'\': 3 l2 . 1995 .

Consider the following: ( 1) The total agent charge weight of the largest required extinguishers in a compartment divided by the compartm ent volum e shoUld not exceed the safe-use WN. It assumes a compartment temperature of 70° F (21 °e) at the stated pressure altitude. Halon 12 11 safe-use concen trations are lower than in the previous AC. perfect mixing of the agent.) 5·B:C 9·15 10·12 8·10 9·15 N/A N/A 1A·10B:C 9·15 14·16 N/A 12·18 N/A N/A 2A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 45·55 2A·10B :C 12·18 14·16 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2A·40B:C N/A N/A N/A 12·18 N/A N/A Water C Q b c Throw range is extinguisher dependant and may differ from tabulated values. You may elect to use safe-use W/V guidance or the mjnimum safe volume guidance. The toxicity guidance for the inhalation of halocarbon vapors is conservative.. Check fhe mafll~raClU . Safe-Use Guidance. A particular PBPK model and target arterial concentration was used. Effective Throw Ranges for Halocarbon Fl alon Replacement and Water EXtinguishers Agent HCFC Blend B HFC·236fa HFC·227ea Halon 1211 Halon 1301 2·B:C 6·10 8·10 N/A 9·12 N/A N/A Effective Throw Ranges for UUULC Rated Extinguishers·. Effective T hrow Ranges. The methodology used applies phannacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of canine blood concentration data to perfect mixing agent decay cutves. Initial Throw Range 2. Figure 4. The development of this guidance can be found in the report referenced in appendix 3. Typical throw ranges for halocarbon and water extinguishers are li sted in Fib'1Jre 4 below. pardgraph 7m of this AC. Explanatory Material 1.er 's literaturefor the throw ranges o/their extinguishers. As a result. A4·1 . Both are outlined below. as outlined in Section 4. a. resulting in higher safe-use concentrations. i. Agent Safe-Use WN Guidance.01 /14/11 AC 20-42D Appendix 4 Appendix 4. this generally conservative guidance should protect passengers and crewmembers from neat agent tox icity. The guidance allows for adjustments for ventilation.b (ft.1.e. and an agent weight of the largest extinguisher in that aircraft compartment. localization and agent stratification. both cardiotoxicity and anesthetic effects.2 of the aforementioned report. If used.

25 1. See reference report in nOle a above.20 1.0153 ISk ft./f!') Agent B CFC Blend B " BFC-2 27ea " BFC-236fa " Halon 1211 b Balon 1211 r:. referred to as the ventilation benefit in the reference report.0 2.96 \.0349 0.0260 (Sk ft.1 5 1. Figure 5.0 1.00499 0.21 5.14 1. More conservative MF Vemi/a/ed than actual.00968 Values are based on s(~re human concentrations. CPA) 0.00293 0.62 1.01114/ 11 AC 20-42D Appendix 4 (2) Multiplication facto rs.1 9 1.00249 0. T (minutes) Agent HCFC Blend B HFC-227ea HFC-236fa lIalon 1211' Balon 1301 a b 0.89 1.0193 12. are based on perfect mixing.003 11 0.39 1.0037 1 0.0 1.0595 0.00 11 2 0.14 1.79 1.0 2.055 1 0.33 1.98 1.037 1 0.0013 1 0.25 1.96 1.42 1.-a-Halon 1301 n a Sea Level (For info only) Pressurized Aircraft Unpressurized Aircraft 0.70 1. 0.57 \. MFVcUliJaled' may be applied to the safe-use W Ns found in Figure 5 below resulting in higher safe-use agent concentrations in venti lated compartments where the air change time is known.00139 0.5 2.0297 0. However. Based on Halon 1301 MF Velltilaled.00\66 0.00185 0.1 7 1.0% (v/v) has been shown 10 be safefor humans.1 7 1.00225 0.25 4.57 1. paragraph 7m of this AC for the multipli cation fac lors. Figure 6.42 2. paragraph 7m a/this AC b This vaille is based all the NOA EL Halon 121/ concentration ofO.00449 0.0409 0.32 1.0 130 25k 0.5%.0442 0.0 %.0221 0.0028 1 0. See Figure 6 below or reference report appendix 3. d Safe human concentrations are not available for Halon 12//.24 1.53 1.15 \. 71IC Halon /211 LOAEL concentration of / .0205 0. c This value is based all the LOAEL Halon 1211 concentration 0/1. the safety factor is smaller than that sel jar 'he other agents. 0. Safe-Use Agent WN for Halocarbon Extinguishers in Unventilated Passenger and Crew Compartments Maximum Safe WN (lb.42 1.0275 0. (3) Safe-use selector curves may be used in lieu of Figure 5 and 6 above.15 >6" I I 1 I I No MF Venti/wed is applied if air change time is greater than 6.5k ft .02 1.0344 0.00334 0. Multiplication Factors (M F Ventilated) for Ventilated Compartments Air Change T ime.34 3.0 1.000829 0.90 1.00264 0. 16 1.l7 6. See reference report appendix 3. A4-2 .58 1. These multiplication factors. 0.0 1.34 1.5 2.0162 14k ft.00224 0.80 1.0324 0.00166 0.34 1.2 1 1. They can be found in the reference report mentioned in paragraph 2a(2) above and can be used to obtain safe-use W N for ventilated aircraft .

) is the safe-use WI Vobtained from Figure 5 and 6 oflhis AC.UL rating. assuming perfect mixing.S. b. (I) The minimum safe volume is a useful tool for comparing the tox icity of hand extinguishers with the same fire fighting perfonllance. air distribution . paragraph 7m of this AC along with the target arterial concentrations and/or other calculation guidance provided in that report. If the safe-use WN can not be met for any of the agents. ( '. Therefore. depending on agent stratification. This report will include a comparison of actual post-di scharge halocarbon concentration histories with perfect mixing concentration histories . the same U. The safe-use concentrations can be determined from the kinetic solution of equation 6 of the report referenced in appendix 3. the comparatively less toxic the agent. paragraph 4b(3) of this AC. It establishes a basel ine minimum volume at which an extinguisher may safely be used. See chapter 4. MiflimumSaJeVolume = Charg e WeightA~~1 (~) Where. . This guidance may be used in place of the safe-use WN guidance. The minimum safe volume for unventilated aircraft should be used when the air change time is unknown or exceeds 6 minutes. The lower the minimum safe volume used. i. See Figure 7 for the min imum safe volumes for extinb'Uishers in unventilated compartments. A correction ultimately may be made for stratification/localization which may further increase the calculated safe-use concentration. and geometry of a parti cular aircraft/aircraft compartment and the height and position of the occupant.011 14/ 11 AC 20-420 Appendix 4 (4) Actual concentrations encountered by occupants may be significantly lower than the perfect mixing model concentrations. consider the relative neat agent toxicities of extingui shers in Figure I when selecting an extinguisher. MFvenlilslC'<h are not available for a particular agent. The FAA will publish a report with limited examples of stratification and a methodology for use in determining this correction to adjust the safe-use concentrations for those examples. and when mUltipli cation factors for ven tilated aircraft. the safest extinguisher ofa given rating has the lowest minimum safe volume. Obtain the minimum safe volume of an extingui sher by dividing the charge weight of the agent in the largest extinguisher in an aircraft compartment by the safe-use agcnt WIV for the appropriate altitude and ventilation. (2) Extingu isbers in Unventilated Co mpartments. A4-3 .e. M1nimum Sa fe Volume.

and assuming perfect mixing can be obtained by applying applicable mUltiplication fac tors found in Figure 6 above as a divi sor to the minimum safe volume obtai ned in Figure 7 above.5% (vI.5 2.5 5.000 II 25.50011 14. 3. Vailles are based 011 the Halon /21/ NOAEL concentration 0/0. The Halon 12/1 LOAEL cOllcelllrarion of 1. The minimum safe volumes of vari ous si ngl e 5B:C exti nguishers when used in ventilated compartments. pressurization differences and other factors can result in difjerelll agent weights for extinguishers using the same agent.0 b e d e Agent weight for a 5B:C extinguisher is extinguisher dependent. Nozzle design.0% (v/v) has been shown to be safe for humans. Safe human cOllcemralions are not available for flalon 1211.5 5.75 4. See report melltioned in note b above. the safety factor is smaller than that set for otizer agents. A4-4 . See reference report appendix 3.000 II only) CPA 1877 1102 1482 1768 2209 2973 104 141 167 177 209 280 79.000 II 18. Minimum Safe Compartment Volume for One Extinguisher in Unventilated Compa rtments.75 2. Vailles based all the safe "uman concentration. (3) Exting uishers in Ventilated Co mpartments. v) Values are based on the Halon 1211 LOA£L concentration 0/1. paragraph 7m o/this AC. The tabulated minimum safe volumes should be corrected for the aellla! agent weight if different from tlte agent weight ill this figure. Figure 8 below illustrates the fire fighting performance.000 ft 12.8 107 128 136 159 214 1116 1790 1502 1908 2232 3016 558 751 954 1116 895 1508 192 308 327 385 517 258 Agent Agent HCFC Blend B HFC-227ea' HFC-236fa' Halon 1211 ' Halon 1211"" Halon 1301 ' a Weight" (Ibs) 5.01 / 14/11 AC 20-42D Appendix 4 Figure 7. Minimum Safe Volume for One 5 B:C Extinguisher (ft') Sea Pressurized Non-Pressurized Aircraft Aircraft Level (info 8.0 % (v/ v). Extinguisher Weights. Also. agent and gross extinguisher weights of some halocarbon and water ex tinguishers.

31b Agcm 4. NlA Agen t 21. Halon 1211 is no longer in productioll.3lb N/A Gross WI.5 ft2 in.5ft! Agent I.51b N/A N/A N/A 8 ftx 8 ft (72) 12 layers 6·2x2x20 5 ft' 12. Aircraft Vo lumes and Ventilation. 10 ft . 27 lb 25.B.'t ( 112) 161Byers 7·2x2:t25 m. 5.01 / 14/ 11 AC20-42D Appendix 4 Figure 8. However. N/A Gross Wt. Check aircraft manual for accurate guidance for your aircraft.7Ib Illb Gross Wt 22 lb Agent 9.5gal) Gross WI.5 Ib Gross Wt. 281b N/A 2A lOti N/A N/ A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2· A: 10 ft x 16 layers 10·B:C 10 ft 7·2x2x25 2A·40 B:C in.5 lbb 2. N/A IS.51b Gross WI.751b Gross WI.31b Agent 2. (72) Agent 3.:xperienced UL Agent and Extin! uishers Weights' Halon Halon Fire 1211 N/A 1301 HCFC Blond B Agem HFC· 2270. Only use this table as general guidance. 2.51b Gross WI.751b Agent 5.5 lb N/A Agent 13. Optimization o/hardware may result infulure lisled units with lower gross weights andlor smaller dimensions. number of seats.31b 2.811b 22lb (2. Fire Extinguisher Performance and Gross Weights Class A Class A Class B Class B listing Panel Crib Fire Novice J.31h. Gross WI. Indoor Air Quality: Recommendations Relevant to Aircraft Passenger Cabins. 2. American industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Gross WI. Agem Water N/A 2·B:C N/A 2 ft' 5 fi' 5· B:C 1·A: 5-B:C N/A N/A 5 ft' 12. 5. (112) 9 Ib 10 ('i'~ 25 ft' Gross WI. Figure 9 below provides general infonnation on various sizc aircraft. A4·5 . M. N/A NIA 20 Ib a b Weights are extinguisher dependent. The infonnation in this table is taken in part from: Hocking. Agent 2. Extinguishing efJectiveness is determined by test.51b Gross Wt. Gross WI.4 lb Agent N/A N/A N /A Agent 8 th 12 layers 1·A: 10·B:C 8ft 6·2x2)(20 in. 4.e.5 lb. ( 1998).71bb 9. volumes and ventilation. 4. 3. 9. The accuracy of this data has not been verified. 10 ft 2 25 ftl N/A NIA A gent 15.01b Agent 5.12 1h 9. Haloll 1211 extinguishers are still in production /Ising recycled agent.5 Ib Agem Gross Wt.61b N/A N /A N/ A 40 ft2 100 ftl Agent 13 Ib Gross Wt. 59:446-454. (1 12) 10 fl x 16 layers 10 ft 7· 2x2x25 in.751b HFC· 2361. i.

3 27.7 1.05 2.7 15.4 1 3.08 3.7 11. 19 2. of Seats 10135(287) 266 86 17(244) 220 3637(103) 107 423 8(120) 124 4909(139) 150 5474(155) 185 12184(345) 253 26 1 12 184(345l. fl'(m') .6 50 73 94 37 70-80 30 37 50 86 124 2015(57.4 10.62 3. 1 3.5 1.7 36.0 22. 1) 2315(65.37 3.1 17. 15892(450) 380 38917(1 102) 525 5333( 151) 5827(165) 4238 120) 4626 131) 5262 149) 27899(790) 9747(276) 11265(319) 151 15(428) 18964(537) 17445(494) 4379(124) 5227(148) 6109(173) 14797(419) Bombardier CRJ200 Bombardier CRJ700 Bombardier CRJ900 Bombardier DASH-8.3 31.85 5.7 1.6 1.5 17.9 1.7 22.0) 1328(37.3 11.1 ) 2682(76.3 35.9 Change.0 34.7 35.7 14.6 10.6 10.6) 2740(77.1 5.63 4.7 15.0) 3228(91.39 4.8 14.2 14.7) 968(27.83 5.20 3.7 40. 11 2.4) 1650(46.5 5. 19 3.5 Embraer Brasilia EMS-f20 Embraer ERJ-135 Embraer ERJ-145 Embraer ERJ -170 Embraer ERJ -190 3.6 1.9 18.3 18.7 1.3 31. Aircraft Volumes and Ventilation Air Chan ge Transport Catego ry Aircraft Per Hour AC 20-420 Appendix 4 Air Minimum Reported 36.30 3.7) 1872(53.3 36.3 3.8 11.1 17.8 26.8 19.8 2.2 5.7) A4-6 .6) 3203(90.8 19. Q400 19.9 5.01114/ 11 Figure 9 .6 1.03 Airbus A300-600 Airbus A310 Airbus A318 Airbus A319 Airbus A320 Airbus A321 Airbus A330-200 Airbus A340-200 Airbus A340-600 Airbus A380-800 Boei ng 727-100 Boeing 727-200 Boeing 737-100 Boeing 737-200 Boeing 737-300 (42) Boeing 747 (26) Boeing 757 (48) Boeing 767-200 52) Boeing 767-300 -) Lockheed L10 1l-1I1oo Lockheed L 1011-50 McDonald Douglas DC9-30 McDonald Douglas DC9-50 McDonald Douglas DC9-80/MD80 (22) McDonald Douglas DC I 0-10 Donald Douglas DC I 0-40 (35) Smaller Co mmercial Aircraft Cabin Number Volume. Minutes 1.2 36.9 1. QIOO & Q200 Bombardier DASH-8.23 4.

2) 340(9.2) 254(7.4) 220(6.9 9.5 2.2) 140(3 . Conquest I Cessna 152 Cessna 210e Cessna 414 Cessna 421 B 2.5 350(9.0 3.0) Dassault Falcon 2000EX Embrear Le.0) 1150(33.01 /14/ 11 AC 20-42D Appendix 4 Air Change Per Hour Reported Air Minimum Change.7 31.0 5.2 19.1) 184(5.0) 1059(30.3 Cessna Citation X Cessna Corsair.9 593{l7) 193(5.8) 40( 1. Number Minutes of Seats 32 33 50 Cabin Volume.6 14 14 6-8 6-8 6-8 6.2 5.0) 152(4. 1 3.8) 700(19.1 Gulfstream Turbo Commander Gul [stream JetoroD Gulfstream G I 00 8 13 4 7 6 1483(42) 1650(47.3 18.8 8.5 6.0) 300{8.5) 357110.9) 226{6.2) 224(6. 1 Dassault Falcon 7X Dassault Falcon 50EX Dassault Falcon 900EX SmaU Aircraft 1.11 85(2.5) 77(2.6) 300(8.3) 254(7.7 29.09 2.12 4-7 6-9 10 6-8 2 6 6-8 6-8 12 II 10 850(24.2) 1836(52.2) 184(5.7) Sikorsky S76 SikorskYS92 Bell 206B3 Bell 407 Bell 412 Bell 430 Small Aircraft 7-14 12-24 5-7 7 8-15 9 204(5.0 28.7 2.2) 367{ 10.acv 600 Embrear Phenom 100 Embrear Phenom 300 10.0) 1695(48.4) Bombardier Challenger 300 Bombardier Challem!cr 605 Cessna Caravan n Cessna Caravan 675 Cessna Caravan Amphibian Cessna Grand Caravan Cessna Citation CJ 1 Cessna Citation el2 19. ft3(m 3) Fairchild Domier 328 Saab 340A & 340B Saab 2000 Rotorcraft 1183(33.7 6.1 33.3 35.4) 2 17(6.8 10.5) 1180(33.3 1.4) A4-7 .5 24.8 3.5) 1860(52.

A4-8 .3)' 249(7.9 2.7 1.8) 330(9. Reported Minutes AC20-42D Appendix 4 Cabin Volume.525(43 .0 1.4) 190 5.6)' 400( 11.3) 393(1 1.2) 868(24.5)' 305(8.8) Gulfstream G 150 Gulfstream G200 Gulfstream G350/450 Gulfstream G550 Gulfstream G650 LearJet3 1A LearJet 40 35.IOOO Socata TBM -700 Sino Swearingen S130-2 Visi onAire Vantage (l 2. 1) 155 4.7 LearJot 45/45XR Learl et 60/60XR Pi latus PC I2 Piper PA31T Cheyenne Raytheon Beeehcraft King Air B200 Raytheon Bcechcraft King Air B300/350 Raytheon Beechiet 400lHawker 400XP Raytheon Premier I Rockwell Gulfslream Commander GC. 1)' 443(12.4) 3 \0(8 .7) 363(10.18 11-1 8 \0 6-9 6-8 6-8 32.5) 27 1(7.0 28.4) 15 1(4.0 36.3 6-8 6-8 12-1 6 14.6) 453(12.2 7-9 9-11 8 6-8 estimated by Pil atus Includes lavatory and infernal baggage compartment.0 27. Number of S eats ft\ m') 465(13.1 2.3) 2138(60.6) 1.01/ 14/ 11 Air Change Per Hour Air Minimum Change.0 26.2) 1669(47.0 1.3) 41 0(11.

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