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Chapter 6.0: Cause Effect Analysis & Generating GP options 6 .0 CAUSE EFFECT ANALYSIS & GP OPTIONS
The cause effect analysis was carried out of all the identified waste streams/problem areas. Following are the waste streams/problem areas for which cause effect analysis was carried out: Waste Stream-1 Waste Stream-2 Waste Stream-3 Waste Stream-4 Waste Stream-5 Waste Stream-6 Waste Stream-7 Waste Stream-8 : : : : : : : : Oil loss in DOC Oil loss in Refinery Hexane loss in Solvent Extraction Plant Waste water generation & its treatment Energy loss Inadequate steam generation leading to high oil & hexane loss Inadequate Air Pollution Control Devices (APCD) Improper material handling & house keeping practices
The objectives of cause effect analysis were to generate Green Productivity options for reduction/elimination of waste streams and evolve solutions for problem areas for generating Green Productivity options. For this purpose appropriate tools and techniques such as Fishbone Diagram (Ishikawa Diagram), Eco-mapping, brainstorming etc. were used. The detail of the cause effect analysis is presented below for all the waste streams & problem areas.
OIL LOSS IN DOC (HIGH RESIDUAL OIL CONTENT IN DOC) General observations & present practices
Out of the 19.75% oil content in the seed, an average of 18.57% oil is extracted and the remaining is lost and goes along with DOC, i.e. an extraction efficiency of about 94%. The loss of oil is due to combined effect of several causes at various process stages, each one having some effect on oil extraction efficiency. The residual oil content in DOC varies from 0.7% to 1.5%. The average residual oil content in RPL is 1.18% as compared to 0.5% in Japan. In India, there is no established benchmark for oil loss in DOC.
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India
This oil loss of 1.18% (out of 19.75% oil content in seed) amounts to about 990 tones of oil loss per year. A 10% reduction in this oil loss would save about 99 T/year amounting to about Rs.21.8 lakh/year. Calculation: Seed Processed Average oil content in seed Average oil extracted from seed Crude oil production Cost of crude oil DOC Production Cost of DOC Cost of waste stream: Oil loss in DOC = 10% reduction in oil loss in DOC = [10%x1.18%X1, 00, 000 T/yr seedx84%] Saving potential 99 t @ Rs 22/kg) = (B) Concerned process steps: PREPARATORY: Cracker Cooker Flaker Extractor DTDC 1.18% (goes with DOC) 99 T oil/yr Rs. 21.8 lakh/year = = = = = = = 300 TPD = 19.75% 18.57% 18,000 T/yr Rs.22, 000/T 83,000 T/yr Rs. 7,000/T 1,00,000 T/yr
Environmental pollution problem:
This does not contribute direct environmental pollution problem. But the productivity of the organization goes down in the form of loss of product. 6.1.2 Cause effect analysis The various tools for the identification of the causes of oil loss in DOC have been applied. In line with identification of causes & their effect, a fish bone diagram-(Isikawa Diagram) was prepared showing causes of total oil loss with respect to man, machine, material, methods and environment and is presented in Figure-6.1.
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India
Figure-6.1: Fishbone Diagram depicting Soy Oil loss
Inadequate Temp Machine Environment Non Compliance
Poor splitting Inadequate oil separation Less residence time Inadequate ETP High oil presence in wastewater
Inadequate steam supply in SEP
Less Vacuum High residual oil in DOC
Inadequate Capacity Less heating surface area for indirect steam
Man Improper house keeping Inadequate training
Less drainage time for miscella Inadequate spray of hexane
Presence of stone Worn Out rollers Poor Maintenance
Improper Extractor Unskilled labour Mind set
Worn out rollers
Insufficient Residence time
Leakage from oil
handling pumpsWearing off of oil seal Improper addition of Caustic
Excess water addition
Faulty water flow meter
Absence of flow meter
No proper working Instruction Faulty bleaching Process Combined degumming & Neutralisation
Distribution loss Inadequate Boiler capacity
High moisture content Green seed Damaged seed Excess foreign matter
Improper steam supply No proper record keeping Inadequate Cracking & Flaking Improper seed preparation
Inadequate cooking Absence of flow meter & instant measurement of FFA
Poor quality of seed
Considering average thickness instead of standard deviation Faulty quality control of flake thickness
Poor quality of bleaching earth
Improper Cleaning of seed Poor maintenance of pumps & glands Method
Excess use of bleaching earth Improper addition of Caustic
Faulty flow meter
Excess addition of water No proper working Instruction Material
Improper seed preparation
High residual oil in DOC
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
inadequate Cracking. 4 . stone in seed 2.1. improper hexane spray. inadequate Cracking & Cooking 4. Cooking & Flaking The details of the causes are discussed subsequently: 6. This enables the seed for proper cooking & flaking. Inefficient cooking & flaking results in high oil content in DOC.6 pieces. There should not be any whole grain seed. Less efficient Cracking: wide variation in seed size and there is no grading of seed. Less efficient Flaking: worn out Roller. less heating surface 3. Inadequate Cooking: small size of cooker.1 Cause: Less Efficient Cracking Best practices: The best practice of cracking recommends that the cleaned seed should be cracked by shear action to 4 .2.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Causes for oil loss in DOC: Various causes identified for the oil loss in DOC are summarized below: 1. Field study data: C racking: Cleaned Seed Percentage size distribution of cracked seed Half Seed 34% < Half Seed 37% Whole Seed 29% Whole Seed E scaped seed E scaped seed Half Seed < Half Seed Cracked seed along w ith Whole seed Figure-6. New Delhi (India) Page:6. Less efficient Extraction: low drainage time.2 Seed cracking & size distribution of cracked seeds National Productivity Council. worn out Roller.
38mm 82% 50% 4% No.45mm 80% 54% 9% Ordinary 0. A representative sample was collected at the inlet of the flaker and sieved to separate whole seeds.35mm >0. 5 .2% Ordinary 0.1 Table-6.39mm National Productivity Council.40mm >0. The reasons for inefficient cracking was attributed to the following: • • There is large variation in seed sizes The rollers were found to be damaged by way of pitting of surfaces as well as blunting of cutting edges.1 Narrow 3.1% Flakes Clearance Thickness of flake Average >0. Conduction of trials: The trials were conducted to establish the relation between whole bean content in crushed bean & thickness of flake and between thickness of flake and extraction yield. half seeds and less than half seeds to find out the cracking efficiency of the cracker.1 : Relationship between whole bean content and flake thickness No.3% Ordinary 0. The percentages of whole and half seed are very high. New Delhi (India) Page:6.4% Ordinary 0.2. The trial results are given below: Trial: Relationship between whole bean content in crushed bean and thickness of flake Higher content of thick flakes brought about higher remaining oil content and the large amount of whole bean in crushed soybean led to higher content of thick flakes.36mm 68% 30% 0% Ordinary 5. This relationship was determined quantitatively as shown in Table 6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India The cleaned seed is passed through cracker to break the seed into four to six pieces. This is due to presence of stone in the seed and excess use of the existing rollers. The seed cracking & size distribution of cracked seed is given at Figure-6.35mm 60% 25% 0% Seed Cracker Clearance roller of crushing Ordinary Whole bean after Cracker 8.2 Narrow 3.
35mm thickness) by hand and extracted with hexane for 90 min. National Productivity Council.35mm The results shown in Table 6. New Delhi (India) Page:6.35mm >0.2 indicate that it is very important for low oil content in DOC to decrease the whole soybean contained in crushed bean and to keep the uniform thickness of flakes (0.e.2: Relationship between flake thickness and oil yield Oil yield 19.17% Thickness of flakes <0.33-0. in laboratory.42% 19. 3. Installation of Seed grader with conveyance system for the grading of seed before cracking. The identified reasons are summarized below: (i) (ii) (iii) Effects: Inefficient cracking leads to higher percentage of off-sized cracked seed (powder or hole seed content) adversely affecting further process steps such as cooking and flaking and ultimately oil extraction. 6 . Putting in operation the existing de-stoner equipment. following GP options were evolved: 1.1 & 6.(<0. Observations: Based on the above analysis. 2. Wide variation in seed size and no grading of seed Worn out roller Presence of stone in the seeds GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to less efficient cracking.25% Difference 0. it was identified that the existing cracking efficiency was lower. Table 6. Replacement of worn-out roller of the cracker.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Trial: Relationship between thickness of flake and extraction yield Soybean flakes were separated into two portions i.35mm and >0.37).
1. At times when moisture percentage in seeds is higher. There is no temperature gauge installed to control the temperature inside the cooker.2 Cause – Inadequate Cooking Best practices: As reported by management. and therefore it has been taken out. New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. which is less than the desired value of 45-60 minutes. The indirect steam also contributes in cooking. In such cases. 7 . which (in addition to increasing moisture percentage) contributes in cooking purpose. The inadequate cooking in the cooker leads to poor flaking and extraction of oil and finally contribute in increasing the oil content in DOC The details of the study to identify the causes of inadequate cooking is given below: 1. Presently a sample is drawn into a polyethylene bag in which thermometer is inserted to measure temperature which is done generally two hourly. the residence time needs to be increased or feed rate needs to be reduced. National Productivity Council. the best practices of cooking recommend following controlled parameters for adequate cooking of seeds. The temperature of the cooker is maintained through direct steam as well as indirect steam. a continuous controlled temperature cannot be ensured at all time. It has been observed that the residence time available in the cooker was only 15-20 minutes. 2. 10% Field study data: Cooking of cracked seeds before flaking is required to plasticise the kernel particles. To avoid the same. addition of direct steam would increase further moisture beyond desirable limit.2. The heating surface area of the cooker was found to be inadequate. which leads to erroneous reading. A thermo-couple installed on the cooker frequently comes under maintenance due to dust deposition. As there is no temperature gauge installed. But this leads to inadequate cooking of the material because indirect heating alone is not sufficient to raise the temperature to the desired extent. the direct steam supply needs to be reduced. Plasticity is essential to produce optimum thick flakes. As regards to maintaining requisite moisture percentage direct steam is supplied into the cooker. Temperature during cooking Residence time in the Cooker Moisture in the cooked seed 800C 45 to 60 minutes max.
3 Cause: Less efficient flaking Best practices: The best practices of flaking recommend that the thickness of flakes vary between 0.2. The rest of the flakers required proper maintenance. Increase the heating surface area in the cooker by adding more steam pipes (limpets) Install a new cooker of requisite size. limiting direct steam. New Delhi (India) Page:6.37mm. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to inadequate cooking. as the present heat transfer area of indirect steam pipe is inadequate and to improve the cooking. following GP options were evolved: 1. Thinner flakes (less than 0.33mm thickness) generate more sediments and inhibits during extraction which is carried out by spraying hexane over the flakes in the extractor. Effects: Inadequate cooking has adverse effect in terms of improper flaking due to inadequate plasticity.33mm to 0. the heat transfer area of indirect steam pipe has to be increased. Flake thickness more than 0. The roller gap has to make uniform for uniform flake thickness. Field study data: The flakers in the preparatory section have been examined and found that uneven roller gap in one of the flakers results in the thicker flakes. Thicker flake leads to high oil content in DOC.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Observation: Keeping specially the situation in higher moisture seed. 6. which ultimately affects in terms of oil loss. 2.1. The diagram given below shows the details: F laking : Cracked & Conditioned Seed Flakes National Productivity Council. 8 .37mm leads to high oil content in DOC.
41 0.43 12% >0. 35 0 . 4 0.37 0.41 0. 0. 0. 4 0.3: Measured variation in thickness of flakes & percentage distribution The average of the flakes have been found to be 0. Se r i e s 1 Ser i es 3 Se r i es 4 Ser i es 2 Figure-6. 41 0. 4 0. 0 0 0. 83 0.43 > 0. 3 0.33-0. 31 0. 380. 3 0. 5 0. 383. 4 0. 383 383 3 8 0 0.43 mm 12% Flake thickness range % in total 17% 0. 3 0. 0.25-0. 39 0. 4 0 . 0.33mm. 36 0. To find out the uniformity of flakes produced by flaker.38-0.25-0. 36 0. 383 383 383.6 0.4 0. 28 0. 4 0. 3 0. 59 Thickness of the flake 0. 0.32 > 0. 0. 0. 9 58 1 4 7 . 3 83 38 3 383 383 3 83 383 383 383 383 383 383 3 83 380.37 58% 0. 0. 0. 31 0. The percentage of thick flakes (>0.33-0. 3 0. New Delhi (India) Page:6. 39 0. 4 0.37 0.3. 0. 3 83.1 0 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 sa m p l e n o . 4 0. 3 83. 0.38-0. 0. The measured variation in flake thickness and percentage distribution of flakes thickness is given at Figure 6.29 0. National Productivity Council. 4 0 .7-0. 4 0. 31 0.0. 0. 4 0.43 0. 3 9 0. 0.29 0. 4 0. 45 0.43 mm 58% 0. 383 83 0.2%) in DOC against the achievable 0.43mm thick. 383 383 3 83. 0. Percentage Distribution of Flake thickness 0. 4 0 .7 0.38 mm-0.25-0. 0. 380. 0.38mm) is as high as 70% which is undesirable for proper extraction in extractor. 0 . 0 0. 35 0.33-0. 0.32 mm 17% 0. the samples were collected and measured for the flakes thickness distribution. 0. 0. 0. 0. 4 0. 0 . 0. 0. The capillary paths must be short so that the distance over which diffusion occurs is as short as possible. 383 383. 42 0. 4 0 . 0. 44 0.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India The conditioned cracked seed passes through the flaker to produce flakes.37 mm 13% 0. 0. 47 0. 35 0.2 0. 0 . 0 . 0 0. 25 0. 41 0. 83 3 0. 3 0. 34 0.38-0. The optimum thickness of the flakes is 0.32 13% 0. 41 0. 38 3 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 380. 44 0. 45 0. 0 0 0. 0.3 0. 0. 0. resulting high residual oil content in DOC.37mm.5 0. 0. 4 0.43 0. 0. 0. 42 42 0. 36 0. These thick flakes are causing high residual oil (1.9% residual oil. 0. 3 0. 3 83 383 383 383 383 383 383 3 80. 38 3 383 380. 4 0. 0. 3 8 383 383 383 383 383 383 3 83.
Excessive wear at the centre FLAKER R OLLS FLAKER R OLLS Figure-6. The identified reasons are summarized below: i) ii) Worn-out flaker roller Inadequate cracking and cooking Effects: It is clear that there is direct relationship between flake thickness & residual oil content in DOC.2% is the average content in DOC. It was observed that flakes produced from the centre of the flaker are comparatively thicker than flakes produced from the ends. The foreign material mostly silica related only. New Delhi (India) Page:6. residual oil varies from 0. The residual oil of 1. which are having optimum thickness of (0.33-0. oil content in DOC increases. 10 . Moreover every day 7. Among the DOC.5% to >2. National Productivity Council.5% depending upon the thickness of the flakes.37mm). is abrasive.83 tons of foreign matter (1. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to high thickness of flakes. This is due to excessive wear occurring at the centre compared to the ends because of more material passing through the centre.2% but it yielded poor quality of oil with impurities like phosphetides. As the thickness of the flake increases.4: Uneven gap between rollers affecting efficiency of Flaker Observations: Based on the above analysis and study. it was identified that the flaking is inefficient.82% of raw material) passes through the flaker.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India The unit had already made some attempts to bring down this residual oil level to <1. This has occurred due to the excessive extraction of oil from the flakes. following GP options were evolved: a) Repair worn-out roller of the flaker b) Replace irreparable roller of the flaker.
11 . This helps in carrying oil along with DOC and result in high oil content in DOC. high concentration of hexane in wet DOC leads to high load on desolventisation process in DTDC. only two baskets are kept for draining the Miscella from wet DOC.4 Cause: Less efficient extraction Best practices: The best practices of extraction recommend that the spray of hexane should be done uniformly over larger surface area of flakes/collets. following GP options were evolved: a) b) Increase the hexane drainage time in Extractor Improve the hexane spray system National Productivity Council. it was identified that the extraction efficiency was poor due to following reasons: i) ii) Low drainage time in the extractor Inefficient hexane spray system Effects: Poor extraction leads to high residual oil content in DOC. The residence time in the extractor should be between 1. New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6.5 hrs. GP option evolved: To increase the extraction efficiency. Also.2. There should adequate drainage time to drain out Miscella from wet DOC. There are no baffles to divert the flow of hexane at different angles to reach over maximum surface area of flakes/collets. Observations: Based on the above study. It has been observed that the hexane concentration in wet DOC is more due to less drainage time.5 hrs to 2. In addition. It needs modification. Field study data: It has been observed that the existing hexane spray system does not provide uniform quantity of hexane spray over the flakes/collets.1.
35% in present losses may lead to saving of Rs.2. 23. 6.1 (A) The unit is processing 30. solid and air pollution.35% X30.1. a fish bone diagram was prepared showing causes of total oil loss with respect to man.2 OIL LOSS IN REFINERY General observations & present practices 6.000 Ton crude oil in a year. There is room for improvement and even by reduction of 0. methods & environment and has already been explained in Figure-6. 23.2 Cause effect analysis The various tools for the identification of the causes of oil loss in Refinery have been applied.2. The average refinery losses are 7%. The details are discussed as below: Average Crude Oil processed Average Refined Oil production = = 100 TPD 93 TPD = = 30.1 lakh/year (B) Concerned process steps: SHORT-MIX PLANT BLEACHER DE-ODORISER DEGUMMING & NEUTRALISATION BLEACHING DE-ODORISATION (C) Environmental pollution problem: This is the major area of environmental pollution.900 T/yr Cost of waste stream: Oil loss in Refinery 0. In line with identification of causes & their effect. material.000 T/yr 27. The oil loss results in low yield of refined oil. New Delhi (India) Page:6. National Productivity Council.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. high pollution load to the ETP and generation of low cost by-product like soap stock. spent bleaching earth from bleacher and odiferous compond come out from the de-odoriser are the major water. 12 . The wastewater from the short-mix plant.1 lakh per annum.000 T/yr oil] Saving potential 105 T @ Rs 22/kg) = = = 7% of the crude oil processed 105 T oil/yr Rs. machine.35% reduction in oil loss in Refinery [0.
2. per day) 192 3. per hour) 130 267 360 410 Water saving after calibration (lit. the water is required for the Caustic Preparation depends on the concentration required to neutralize the Free Fatty Acid. Excess water addition in hydration & neutralization: faulty Flow Meter 2. Possibilities of excess caustic addition in neutralization: no Flow Meter. due to faulty water meter/ flow meter. The quantity of water should be equal to the quantity of gum present in the crude oil. 13 . Oil leakage from pump: worn out seal The details of the causes are discussed subsequently.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Causes for oil loss in refinery: The various causes identified for the oil loss in Refinery are summarized as under: 1. Improper bleaching earth addition: addition of powder in place of slurry 6.760 14. Observations & field study data: The hot water is mixed with the oil for hydrolysis of gum and subsequently separation in the separator. the water addition was found to be at higher rate. manual dosing. Use of low grade bleaching earth: high oil carry over (in spent bleaching earth. 6.920 5.1 Cause: Excess water addition in hydration & Neutralisation Best practices: The best practice of water addition for degumming is quantity of water (in %) should be in equal proportion to the percentage of gum present in the crude oil.2. However.452 Page:6.580 4. Absence of one washing separator 3. water is used for flushing of separator. possibilities of color reversal 5. New Delhi (India) Measured water flow rate (lit. excess Saponification 4. Similarly. The monitoring results are tabulated below: Location of water flow meters Before Hydration Tank-1 Before Hydration Tank-2 For flushing water at separator-2 For flushing water at separator-4 Water flow rate as per flow meters (lit. per hour) 122 88 155 170 TOTAL National Productivity Council. In addition.).
National Productivity Council. Observations & field study data: The analysis results of TFM concentration in wastewater indicate that there is problem in washing of neutral oil through single separator instead of recommended two separators.0 m3/day (approx. New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Estimated total water saving = = 14. the total number of separators should be 6.2. Therefore. To explore possibilities of reducing oil loss. There are two sets of separators. But for washing only one separator is used.) 4. 14 . for 100TPD production. following GP options were evolved: a) The existing water flow meter should be rectified/ calibrated to give accurate reading 6. neutralization & washing Operations should be carried out in three different separators. Therefore. there are only 5 separators. the degumming. The present practice is degumming & Neutralisation operations are carried out in one separator and two separators are use at a time for degumming & Neutralisation. trials were conducted. leading to excess refinery oil loss and generation of excess wastewater.2 Cause: Absence of one washing separator Best practices: As per the recommendation of ALFA Level (Supplier of Short-Mix Plant). hydrolysis of oil & fats is given below: NaOH & Water Tri-glyceride Di-glyceride +FFA Heat Hydrolysis of Fats & oil EFFECTS: Excess water addition hydrolyses the oil and forms emulsion and reduces concentration of soap stock. there is high load on the washing separators and it affects the quality of neutral oil and results in refinery loss. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to excess water addition.e.2.200 m3/annum The reaction of water with oil & fats i. But in RPL.
total difference in TFM loss due to single washing separator is 113% i.700 mg/l 0.39 litres/hr Water required for processing of oil at 2500 litres/hr = 2400 litres/hr Total TFM loss = 7. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to lack of one washing separator. following GP options were evolved: a) Use of 2 Washing Separators in place of one.e. b) Separate degumming and Neutralisation. 174 litres/day.68 litres/hr Case (II): Therefore.e.4 14.01% Case (I): Water required for processing of oil at 5000 litres/hr = 1205 litres/hr Total TFM loss = 16.500 mg/l 1. Effects: • • Wastewater difficult to treat because of the presence of hydrated soluble gums.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Trials: The wash water quality and characteristics at different flow rates /processing of oil through the existing washing separator have been monitored & analysed. 15 . at 50% Wash water quantity: 1200 l/h Characteristics of wash water: pH COD TFM FFA 10. The results are discussed below: Case (I): Oil Flow rate : 5000 litres/hr Wash water quantity: 1205 l/h Characteristics of wash water: pH COD TFM FFA Case (II): 11.1 58. More oil loss in refinery.12% Oil Flow rate : 2500 litres/hr i. National Productivity Council.32% 24.36% 52. New Delhi (India) Page:6.
adding to the cost of production. which consume more Sulphuric acid for acid oil production and generates more acidic wastewater. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to excess caustic addition. Observations & field study data: There is no flow meter installed to know the quantity of caustic being added.2. National Productivity Council. the color of the oil is not permanent & it is easily come down to desired level through Indian earth. It is judged by checking pH. The quantity of caustic solution addition depends on the quantity of FFA present in the crude oil. This also results in the wastage of raw material. 16 .2. is still unknown to the operator. As per the management opinion. Effects: The excess alkali saphonify the neutral oil and leads to more refining loss.2. About 20% excess caustic is added for effective neutralization of FFA and reduction of color. But how much excess caustic has been added. Thus resulting more pollution. which indicates that the solution has come to the alkaline range only. following GP option was evolved: a) Installation of automatic caustic dosing system 6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. There should not be problem of colour reversal and retain lesser oil in the spent bleaching earth.3 Cause: Possibilities Neutralisation of excess caustic addition in Best practices: To neutralize the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) present in the crude oil. OBSERVATIONS & FIELD STUDY DATA: The unit is using Indian earth during season (i. from October to March).e. New Delhi (India) Page:6.4 Cause: Use of low grade bleaching earth BEST PRACTICES: The bleaching earth is used to reduce the colour to the desired level.2. It generates lower cost soap-stock. during this time. caustic lye at 16 to 20 degree Boumen is added.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India
Whereas, during off season (i.e. from April to September), the unit is using Tonsil to reduced the permanent colour up to desired level. The unit is facing color reversal problem from the market. Therefore, the APO-Oil Expert suggested using Tonsil in place of local Indian Bleaching Earth for better stability of oil.
Characteristics & cost of different bleaching earth: a) Indian Earth: • • • • b) Tonsil: • • • Bleaching efficiency Cost Oil content in spent bleaching earth Consumption of bleaching earth = = = = 75% Rs. 30,000/- per ton. 19 to 20% 6 kg/T of oil Bleaching efficiency Cost Oil content in spent bleaching earth Consumption of bleaching earth = = = = 65- 70% Rs. 18,000/- per ton. 22 to 25% 6 kg/T of oil
The local bleaching earth does not give stability to the colour of refined oil. Further, the efficiency of colour removal is not effective.
GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to the use of local (Indian) bleaching earth, following GP options were evolved: a) Use of Tonsil in place of Local (Indian) bleaching earth.
Improper bleaching earth addition
Best practices: The bleaching earth should be added in slurry form instead of powder. The slurry should be prepared with the neutral oil to be bleached separately and mixed into the bleacher.
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India
Observations & field study data: The bleaching earth is dosed through hopper into the bleacher. The dosing is adjusted based on the flow rate & color of oil, quality of bleaching earth. The bleaching earth freely falls on the surface of the oil in the bleacher. Effects: The fine powder of bleaching earth is being sucked during charging into the bleacher over the oil surface due to vacuum in the system. This is a loss of bleaching earth. The mixing of powdered bleaching earth is not uniform results in ineffective bleaching of neutral oil. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to wrong method of bleaching earth addition, following GP options were evolved: a) Addition of bleaching earth slurry in place of powder. b) Lowering the pipe and dip in the oil. 18.104.22.168 Cause: Oil leakage from pump
Best practices: The oil is transferred at various stages by means of pumps. The seal of the pumps should be properly maintained so that there should not be any spillage/leakage from the pump gland. Observations & field study data: It has been found that the gland seal of transfer pump transferring crude oil, neutral oil, bleached oil and refined oil were faulty. It was not replaced/maintained for the long time resulting in the leakage of oil through gland seal. Effects: The oil leakage results in a low yield of refined oil. It creates major pollution load in the wastewater once it mixed into the waste streams. Further, it is the loss of resources. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to oil leakage from pump, following GP options were evolved: a) Preventive maintenance of gland seal & timely replacement
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India
HEXANE LOSS IN SEP General observations & present practices
The hexane is used as a solvent for the extraction of oil. On an average, specific hexane loss/ consumption is in the range of 4.93 (3.64- 5.4) litres per ton of seed processed compared to 1.0 to 1.5 litres per ton in Japan. The hexane loss is due to following points: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Carry over along with crude oil Uncondensed vapor going through final vent of recuperation unit Carry over with meal drying air in Meal Dryer Carry over with DOC Hexane loss from Leakage
Carryover along with Crude oil: Stripping is the final step in separating the hexane from Miscella and is carried at 1200C and 380 mm Hg vacuum. The desired vacuum is 450mmHg. Live steam is also sparged. It was estimated that hexane loss through crude oil accounts for 2-3% of total losses.
Uncondensed vapor going through final vent of recuperation unit: Wet DOC entering into the DTDC contains approximately 30-40% solvent. Since wet DOC has less draining time available in extractor, the solvent content in DOC is high. Only two hoppers are provided to collect the solvent draining from wet DOC by gravity. Sufficient draining time curtails desolventisation load on DTDC. Uncondensed vapour loss through final vent accounts for 10-12% of total loss. This is due to the inefficiency of condensers. In addition to this, air ingress takes place from the DOC outlet due to lack of rotary valve at DOC outlet. This leads to lower condensation temperature at which solvent does not condense.
National Productivity Council, New Delhi (India)
This is due to the incomplete desolventisation of DOC in desolventisation section. Steam is given from the bottom of the section and it travels towards the upper section where the DOC falls from top to bottom.5 lit/ton. mineral oil does not absorb uncondensed vapour efficiently. steam loses temperature by supplying its specific heat to the final traces of solvent contained by meal and in the upper tray steam condenses to give its latent heat to the meal to vaporise the solvent. In this unit DTDC contains only two desolventisation trays and two toasting trays. and passes to the upper trays through the meal outlets. In lower trays. The residual hexane carried by the air is impossible to recover.6. The system contains mineral oil in closed system.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Wet DOC Solvent Vapor Air ingress Desolventiser Scerewconveyor for tranferof DOC Toaster Air inlet Dryer Cooler Air outlet Figure. In most of the plants. Since the DTDC is inadequately designed desolventisation remains incomplete and the residual hexane is being carried over to the dryer section where it is being exposed to large quantity of air/ hot air. therefore. Due to fluctuation in the steam supply and insufficient heating surface available for solvent release from absorbing oil in recovery system. Heat is transferred efficiently from the steam to meal. 20 . hexane concentration increases in the mineral oil and. New Delhi (India) Page:6. which absorbs uncondensed vapour and release upon heating the recovery system. which have reduced their hexane loss to 1-1.5: DTDC stages Recuperation system is provided to absorb the uncondensed vapour before going to the final vent. has been provided. National Productivity Council. Carryover with meal drying air in Meal Dryer: There is 70%-80% of total hexane loss in meal drying section. Steam is supplied at the bottom of the two toasting sections through a 50mm perforated coil placed at the circumference of the tray. a counter current DTDC with four desolventisation trays and four toasting trays.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Meal outlet Meal Outlet Sparge Ste Sparge steam coil Figure-6.6: Internal arrangement of DTDC National Productivity Council. 21 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.
93 lit/T 4.18%.40 lit/T (non continuous operation. Also.) = interruption) Best figure for hexane loss = 4. Field data Reported hexane loss = During season (Oct-March)= Off season (April-Sep.49% (4.64 lit/T (continuous operation.5 lit/t of seed (Japan) Cost of waste stream: 10% reduction = 0.0 to 1.4 lakh per year (B) Concerned process steps: PREPARATORY : Cracker Cooker Flaker Extractor DTDC SEP : (C) Environmental pollution problem: The fugitive hexane emission generates air pollution.43 lit/T) Saving potential (0. which also contains some hexane. New Delhi (India) Page:6. 22 . This adds to the problem of incomplete desolventisation.) = = 49300 lit/yr 9. more 1.49 lit//Tx1 lakh T/yr @ Rs. excess concentration of hexane in the air may lead to fire hazard. Hexane loss (emission) from Leakage The poor maintenance of the extractor gear box and DTDC shaft leads to leakage of hexane from the system. less interruption. Improving the process conditions in desolventisation section can bring down the entrapped solvent percentage in DOC. National Productivity Council. Though the concentration is negligible but smell of hexane from the gearbox of extractor and DTDC shaft has been observed.) 5. 19 per lit.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Carryover with DOC: Hexane carried over with DOC is estimated to be 5-7% of the total hexane loss.93 lit/T of seed 3. The DOC contains average residual oil content of 1.
1 Main Cause: Inadequate vacuum in DTDC & distillation Best practices: The vacuum in DTDC & distillation is required for efficient separation of hexane from the DOC & crude oil respectively. In line with identification of causes & their effects. The details of the causes are discussed subsequently: 6. inadequate cooling & condenser 2. The steam used in the DTDC and distillation is 50-54 MT and 28 MT/day respectively. There is fluctuation of steam due to power interruption and poor performance of Boiler. Field study data: Presently.2. inadequate heating surface area 3. whereas in Japan the temperature used is 6 deg C through refrigeration plant. New Delhi (India) Page:6. National Productivity Council. Previous year. a fish bone diagram was prepared showing causes of hexane loss with respect to man.3.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6.1. Inadequate de-solventisation in DTDC: inadequate steam.3 Cause effect analysis The various tools for the identification of the causes of oil loss in DOC have been applied. Causes for hexane loss: 1. Inadequate drainage in extractor: inadequate drainage time. The desired vacuum should be 5 to 10mm/wc. machine. higher hexane concentration in wet DOC 4. The cooling water temperature was monitored to be 25-27 deg C. The difference of temperature at the inlet & outlet of cooling tower is 5 deg C. The constant and uniform steam supply is required for better performance of SEP. Inadequate crude oil stripping: inadequate steam & vacuum. Cooling water temperature affects the condensation of the hexane vapor. methods and environment and is presented in Figure-6. Inadequate vacuum in DTDC & distillation: inadequate steam. vacuum in system is 380 mmHg at stripper condenser against desired vacuum of 450 mmHg. 23 .7. material. Inadequate recuperation: inadequate absorption/release of hexane 5. inadequate condenser size. the unit faced 189 times power failure up to 78 hrs and steam interruptions of 249 times up to 421 hrs.
24 . Fluctuation in steam pressure High DTDC Inadequate bed thickness Insufficient Boiler capacity Man Work instruction not duly followed Negligence of plant periodic maintenance Mind set Shortage of skilled manpower Inadequate Design Insufficient contact between DOC and steam Less heating surface area for indirect steam Improper Extractor Less drainage time for miscella Less absorption of hexane by Mineral oil Inadequate recuperation system Poor recovery of Hexane Inadequate recovery facility Inadequate recuperation system Inadequate Vacuum Improper Condensation Air ingressment Absence of rotary valve at out let Fouling of condenser Leakage through Extractor Sealing Considering average thickness instead of standard deviation Faulty quality control of flake thickness Improper flaking Improper Cleaning Insufficient plasticity Worn out flaker rollers Improper flake thickness Hexane Loss Improper seed preparation Inadequate Cracking & Flaking Inadequate cooking Hexane retention in DOC High residual oilby residual oil High solvent seed ratio Presence of foreign matter. which is being considered as seed Common condensation High moisture in seed of vapour High moisture in collets Method Material Power interruption Damaged / green seed National Productivity Council.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Figure-6. New Delhi (India) Page:6.7: Fishbone diagram depicting hexane loss Inadequate steam supply in SEP Machine Environment Large quantity of hydro carbons discharged into atmosphere.
following GP options were evolved: 1.2 Main Cause: Inadequate desolventisation in DTDC Best practices: The wet DOC passes through desolventisation unit of DTDC where steam is used to increase the temperature of DOC to 90 -110 deg C. 2. hindering the heat transfer. the bed thickness was also found to be more.0 Kg/cm2 Field study data: The steam supply from Boilers is not meeting the demand.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Observation: Based on the above analysis. the steam supplied to the DTDC is 50-54 MT/day against desired value of 55-60 MT/day. Trials Conducted: National Productivity Council. The quality of crude oil & DOC may further degrade due to presence of high concentration of hexane. New Delhi (India) Page:6. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to inadequate vacuum in the system.3. Ensure adequate steam (quantity & pressure) Provide cold/chilled water for effective condenser cooling 6. The heating surface area in the DT is not sufficient to transfer heat through existing limpets. 25 . it was identified that the existing vacuum in the system is inadequate. Further. It also helps in blending of wet DOC to loosen the DOC for hexane escape. Presently.2. The identified reasons are summarised below: (i) (ii) Inadequate supply of steam (quantity & pressure) Poor vapour condensation due to high temperature of cooling water Effects: Inadequate vacuum leads to poor separation of hexane in the DTDC and distillation unit increasing the specific consumption of hexane. The bed thickness in the desolventisation column is normally kept at 400mm and steam pressure at 2.
7 0. the available lysine content will be low and.5 2. Also. The desirable UA should not be greater than 0.8 1. Trial-1: Bed thickness reduced from 400mm to 250mm keeping direct steam & indirect steam in the desolventisation compartment constant. Due to variation in quality of the seed.3 mg/M/gm/at 30 oC and not less than 0. the feasibility of implementation of this trial can be worked out. Bed thickness reduced from 400mm to 250mm and direct steam increased from 2 Kg/cm2 to 2.0Kg/m 400 mm: standard condition during usual operation (i) However.07 to 0. hence Poultry Farm will not accept.1 to 0.241 ppm (60%) 2 • 2.25 Seed Flakes Expander DOC National Productivity Council.5 0.5 Kg/cm2 without changing indirect steam supply. the effect of UA were found out. it will retard the growth of chicken. Conclusion: 1. the permissible value is between 0. Height of bed Hexane loss in MD discharging gas Trial-2: Direct steam * 2. increase in direct steam in the DTDC brought about lower Urease Activity (UA) which is used as an indicator for proper heat treatment of DOC for animal feeding. and is tabulated below: Different process stages of seed Urease activity Today's value (mg/M/gm/at 30 oC) 1.3 mg/M/gm/at 30 oC. Since the presently available seed is having very low UA compared to the previous few years due to unfavorable weather conditions. 26 . If the value is less than 0.4 1.1 3-years before (mg/M/gm/at 30 oC) 2. if the value is greater than 0. the hexane loss was decreased substantially by increasing the direct steam in DTDC and decreasing the height of bed.0 400 1.5 0.053 ppm.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Two trials were conducted to reduce hexane loss from existing DTDC by doing little modifications.3 mg/M/gm/at 30 oC. As shown in the above Table. 2. 0 kg/m2 400mm 2.1 mg/M/gm/at 30 oC. Therefore.1 mg/M/gm/at 30 o C.5 250 1.642 ppm (80%) 2. (100%) 2. New Delhi (India) Page:6.
National Productivity Council.2. Observation: Based on the above analysis.2. following GP options were evolved: 1. it was identified that the existing steam supply to the SEP is not sufficient.4 Main Cause: Inadequate recuperation Best practices: The function of recuperation unit is to recover the uncondensed hexane vapor from the common condenser (DTDC & Distillation). New Delhi (India) Page:6. UA will go down. The mineral oil is used as an absorbent to recover the hexane after heating it through Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE). resulting more hexane losses.3.3. thus reducing the value of UA. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to inadequate steam supply & less heating surface area in DT. The identified reasons are summarised below: (iii) (iv) Low capacity & efficiency of existing Boilers Inadequate heating surface area in DT. Ensure adequate steam supply Increasing heating surface by providing more limpets in DT 6." RESIDUAL OIL CONTENT IN DOC" 6. 2.3 Main Cause: Inadequate drainage in the extractor It has already been discussed in WASTE STREAM. 27 . Effects: Inadequate supply of steam and less heating surface area leads to hexane being carried over through meal dryer air. ♦ By increasing the retention time in cooker. indirect steam can be increased.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Operational Control: ♦ By increasing direct steam in Desolventisation compartment of DTDC.
6. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to inadequate recuperation system. it was identified that the existing recuperation system is inadequate. National Productivity Council. FIELD STUDY DATA: The vacuum in the stripper was found to be 380 mmHg.5 Increase mineral Oil Flow rate Increase heating surface area of PHE Increase chilled water flow rate in vent condenser Main Cause: Inadequate crude oil stripping Best practices: Stripping of crude oil is carried out to remove traces of hexane present in the crude oil. the recovery of the uncondensed hexane in the common condenser is low resulting in high hexane loss. The vacuum maintained for efficient stripping should be 450 mmHg. The flash point has been analyzed to be more than 120 deg C.3. the need of increasing the heating surface area of Plate Heater Exchanger came into existence for proper absorption and release of hexane at desired production rate. The identified reasons are summarized below: (i) (ii) (iii) Low flow rate of mineral oil Less Heating surface area of Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) Low flow rate of chilled water Effects: Due to poor recuperation system. Therefore. The hexane carried along with crude oil has been estimated to be 1-2%. 2.2. Observation: Based on the above trial. The minimum flash point test for crude oil should be more than 120 deg C. following GP options were evolved: 1. New Delhi (India) Page:6. 3. 28 . The increase in flow rate of chilled water in vent condenser further results in lowering the mineral oil temperature before absorption results in better recuperation.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Field study data: A trial has been conducted by increasing the flow rate of mineral oil to reduce the hexane concentration in the final vent but this lowers down the temperature of mineral oil.
The flow and characteristics of wastewater is discussed in Chapter-5.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India It can be further improved. New Delhi (India) Page:6. ♦ The seal cooling wastewater in refinery also discharged along with washing wastewater. following GP option was evolved: 1. The quantity of seal cooling wastewater is about 25-30 m3/day. ♦ In refinery. The identified reasons for this is: (i) Inadequate vacuum due to small sized condenser Effects: Due to poor oil stripping. it was identified that the existing oil stripping system is inadequate. if vacuum in the system could be increased upto 450 mmHg. 29 . This results in high wastewater generation. It also affects the quality of the crude oil. The characteristics of wastewater are discussed in Chapter-5. Observation: Based on the above study.1 (A) ♦ The major sources of wastewater generation are (i) refinery process wastewater and (ii) acid oil recovery plant (AORP) process wastewater. GP option evolved: To minimize the adverse effect due to inadequate stripping. process wastewater is generated from washing of traces of soap stock present in the oil after degumming & Neutralisation operation in the washing separator. The problem was discussed with the external consultant and was found that the size of the condenser is small. National Productivity Council. The quantity of wastewater generation from refinery is 62 m3/day. The separate condenser with ejector is required for better stripping. Install separate condenser with steam ejector in stripper to increase vacuum 6.4 WASTEWATER FROM REFINERY & ITS TREATMENT PROBLEM" General observations & present practices 6.4. the hexane loss increases.
20 per m3 300 m3/d make up Acid Oil Recovery Plant (AORP) : National Productivity Council.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India ♦ In AORP. the process wastewater is generated from reaction tank. ♦ The wastewater generated from refinery section & acid oil recovery plant is treated in the existing ETP The performance evaluation of ETP (discussed in chapter-5) indicates the poor performance of ETP. The quantity of wastewater from AORP is 25 m3/day. New Delhi (India) Page:6. The characteristics of wastewater are discussed in Chapter-5. ♦ The washing operation is carried out through single separator instead of recommended two by the supplier. Due to faulty water flow meters. Baseline data: Sources of water Average Cost of Raw Water Cost of soft water Total water in circuit (450 m3/d) 150 m3/d recycled Areas of water loss: • ETP discharge • Evaporation from Cooling Towers • Moisture added in products • Direct steam evaporation • Other discharges-blow down. 15 per m3 = Rs. 30 . Analysis results shows there was high Pollution load due to non-availability of one washing separator. ♦ The flow meters installed in the short-mixed plant for water addition was found to be faulty. Average makeup water Annual cost of make up water (soft) (B) Concerned process steps Refinery Section : Washing separator Seal Cooling Water Separator cleaning Reaction Tank Settling Tank = = 300 m3 per day Rs. 18 lakhs per year = Bore Well & Tankers = Rs. Softener's backwash etc. It was crosschecked with the bucket-stop watch method. the excess water addition to the ETP is 14 m3/day.
Presently the treated wastewater from ETP is not meeting the discharge standard stipulated by the M. High pollution load due to non-availability of one washing separator in shortmix plant. 31 .4.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India (C) Environmental pollution problem: The wastewater from above mentioned sources create high pollution load. New Delhi (India) Page:6. Causes of waste water generation & its treatment problem 1.4.2. Poor performance of the existing ETP due to high pollution load from Refinery washing separator and Reaction & settling tanks of Acid Oil Recovery Plant.1 Cause: High water consumption in short mix plant due to faulty flow meter Refer: " Oil loss in refinery" 6. High water consumption in short mix plant due to faulty Flow Meter 2. The excess quantity of wastewater generated due to mixing of seal cooling water was monitored to be 25-30 m3/day. Discharge of Seal Cooling Water to ETP 3. The details of the causes are discussed subsequently.P. the potential of recycling of seal cooling water was recommended.2. therefore it is polluting the receiving media. National Productivity Council. 4. 6. It should be in a closed circuit and not be discharged into the drain. Field study: Presently the seal cooling water is mixed in the slop oil tank along with refinery wash water and sent to the ETP for treatment. Observation: Keeping in mind the scarcity of water in the region and scope of recycling of seal cooling water after minor treatment.2 Cause: " Discharge of seal cooling water to ETP" Best Practices: The seal cooling water used in the separator flows indirectly and there is no mixing/contamination of oil/soap-stock during degumming and neutralisation or washing of oil. Pollution Control Board.
The detailed performance evaluation of the ETP has been discussed in Chapter-5.2. 6. The nature of Refinery wastewater is alkaline and AORP wastewater is acidic. The acidic wastewater from AORP is not mixed properly with the alkaline wastewater of refinery in the channel. It results in poor splitting of oil emulsion.4 Cause: " Poor performance of the existing ETP due to high pollution load from Refinery washing separator and Reaction & settling tanks of Acid Oil Recovery Plant " Best Practices: The wastewater generated from refinery & acid oil recovery plant should be pretreated to recover free oil & soap-stock. Provide separate collection & treatment systems for seal cooling water & recycle. following GP option was evolved: 1. It increases the pollution load to the ETP.2. high consumption of lime and inconsistent characteristic at the inlet of ETP. National Productivity Council. The retention time in the slop oil is not adequate resulting in poor recovery. GP options: To minimize the adverse effect due to mixing of seal cooling water into the other wastewater streams. It leads to poor operation & maintenance of ETP.3 Cause: " High pollution load due to scarcity of one washing separator in short-mix plant " Refer: " Oil loss in refinery " 6. New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Effect: The mixing of seal cooling water into the other wastewater streams results in the high hydraulic load to the ETP. 32 .4. Field study: The wastewater from Refinery is pre-treated in the Slop Oil Tank for the recovery of free oil and soap-stock. It should be mixed properly before treatment in the ETP.4. A proper retention time need to be provided for breaking the oil emulsion.
33 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Observation: The performance evaluation of the ETP shows that the treated wastewater is not meeting the discharge standard stipulated by the Pollution Control Board. Design & Upgradation of the ETP to treat & meet surface discharge standards stipulated by the Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board. following GP option was evolved: 1. the treated wastewater does not meet the norms stipulated by law. Steam trap. 6. Further. The coal used for steam and power generation pollutes the environment. the treated water not meeting the various process water quality for recycling into the system.5 ENERGY LOSS General observations & present practices 6. GP options: To minimize the adverse effect due to poor performance of the ETP. New Delhi (India) Page:6. flanges & valves. Effect: Due to poor performance of ETP. Environmental pollution problem: The electrical & thermal energies losses are directly or indirectly affects the environment. It is also a loss of natural resources.5.1(A) Following areas have been identified during detailed study as energy loss areas where the potential of energy saving exists: • • • • • (B) Cooling Tower (electrical energy) Thermic Fluid Heater De-odoriser (steam) Steam distribution lines (un-insulated) Steam loss (steam trap) Concerned process steps: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ (D) Cooling of water in SEP & Refinery by Cooling Tower Diesel fired Thermic Fluid Heater Generation of high vacuum in de-odorisation Steam pipelines. National Productivity Council.
2 Cause effect analysis: The critical examination of production processes and utilities led to identification of the causes for energy loss in the plant as mentioned in section 6. .7 Amp 10. Similarly. There are two Cooling Towers for the Solvent Extraction Plant. The capacity of each pump is 15 HP. the replacement of Aluminium blade with FRP was recommended.5 Amp 9.1(B).2. each fan of 10 HP capacity.5. Most of the units have already installed cooling tower with FRP blade. High electricity consumption due to Aluminium Blade in Cooling Towers fans. flanges and valves Passing of steam traps leading to steam loss The details of the causes are discussed below: 6. National Productivity Council. the utilities of FRP blade is increasing day-by day over aluminium blade.5. 4. Observation & field study: The blades of the Cooling towers have been found to be made up of Aluminium.5.7 Amp 8. Studies suggested that fan with FRP blade consumes 20-25% less current than that of fan with Aluminium blade of similar dimensions. 5. 34 . New Delhi (India) Page:6. there are two Cooling towers in the Refinery Section.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. The causes are summaries below: Causes of energy loss: 1.1 Cause: High electrical consumption due to Aluminium Blade in Cooling Towers Best practices: Being lighter in weight and less power consumption.5 Amp 39.4 Amp Keeping in view the electrical saving potential of 20-25%. 2. 3. The monitored data on electrical consumption with Aluminium blade is given below: Particulars Load on AL Fan SEP-Tower-1 SEP-Tower-2 Refinery – Tower-1 Refinery-Tower – 2 Total Current 10. Higher cost of energy due to diesel as fuel in Thermic Fluid Heater Supply of low pressure steam ( 7 Kg/cm2 against 10 Kg/cm2 required) Heat losses from un-insulated steam lines.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India GP option: To minimize the adverse effect of Aluminium blade.500/. Replacement of diesel by Coal in Thermic Fluid Heater Cause: Supply of low pressure steams (7 Kg/cm2 against 10 Kg/cm2 required).2. 9. The designed nozzle of the ejector is to function at 10kg/cm2.5. GP option: To minimize the adverse effect of diesel fired Thermic Fluid Heater.2 Cause: Higher cost of energy due to diesel as fuel in Thermic Fluid Heater Best practices: With the rapid increase in the cost of diesel compared to coal.per day. the appropriate sized nozzle should be installed in the steam ejector. 6. the coal-fired Thermic Fluid Heater is a better option. New Delhi (India) Page:6.. The diesel consumption in thermic fluid heater is 500 litres/day costing Rs. 1. Effect: The operating cost of diesel-fired thermic fluid heater is more than the coal-fired thermic fluid heater leading to high-energy cost. following GP option was evolved. following GP option was evolved.3 Best practices: The vacuum required in the existing de-odorizer is 730 mmHg.2. For this. ♦ Replace Aluminium Fan Blade with FRP Blade in Cooling Towers 6.5. National Productivity Council. 35 . Observation & field study: Thermic Fluid Heater is used to raise temperature of circulating fluid to 240oC which in turn is used to heat the bleached oil in de-odorize.
2. Observation & field study: During detailed study.5. 36 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Observation & field study: Steam ejector is the source of vacuum in De-odoriser in the Refinery section. Best practices: The pipe-lines carrying steam and flanges. An ejector with motive steam pressure of 7 Kg/cm2 was installed. steam consumption increased. to connect the two steam pipelines. GP option: To minimize the adverse effect due to low vacuum generating nozzle. should be insulated by appropriate insulating material for reduction of heat loss from the surface. 14. consequently leads to high fuel consumption. The details are: ♦ Total length of un-insulated pipelines ♦ Number of un-insulated flanes ♦ Number of un-insulated valves National Productivity Council. to control the supply of steam. Due to inadequate supply of steam from the boiler. the requisite steam. and valves. New Delhi (India) =20 metres =30 =40 Page:6. After installation of FBC Boiler. both in quantity & pressure would be available in the de-osoriser. The flanges & valves in most of the cases are un-insulated leading to loss of thermal energy through radiation. Because of low vacuum in De-odoriser. flanges & valves. both in quantity & pressure. following GP option was evolved. Effect: It results in high steam consumption. Installation of high vacuum generating nozzle 6. 1. the required vacuum is not achieved. The total number of un-insulated flanges and valves present in the steam carrying pipelines has also been quantified. There is a proposal to install 15 TPH. it has been observed that steam insulation over the steamcarrying pipeline is not present in various portions. It increases the steam demand and. The un-insulated portion of the steam pipelines was measured.5 Kg/cm2 pressure Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boiler.4 Cause: Heat losses from un-insulated steam line.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Effect: It results in high steam consumption. New Delhi (India) Page:6. GP option: To minimize the adverse effect due to un-insulated steam pipe-lines. 1.5. 6. Observation & field study: Most of the steam traps are bypassed because in the existing Boiler the steam requirement is not fully met in the process. flanges & valves. 1. Best practices: Steam traps are provided to trap un-condensed steam at the Condensate pipeline for recycling. Entire steam bypass should be closed and the bypass connections may be disconnected with condense line. Provide insulation to expose steam line.5 Cause: By-passing of steam traps leading to steam loss. the required steam quality as well as quantity is ensured and hence.2. following GP option was evolved. to minimize the adverse effect due to by-passing of steam traps. The rapid gain in temperature in the production unit is achieved through bypassing of steam traps. It is expected that reduction of nearly 15-20% steam consumption can be achieved if bypass is closed. GP option: With the new FBC Boiler. following GP option was evolved. Effect: It results in high steam consumption. flanges & valves. 37 . National Productivity Council.
the boilers operate at Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR).1(A) The unit has two stationary grate coal-fired water tube boilers. the Upgradation/replacement of the boilers is suggested.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. The efficiency of boiler is only 65%. there is no recovery of heat from the flue gas. The rated capacities of boilers are 6TPH & 3TPH. 6.6 INADEQUATE STEAM GENERATION LEADING TO HIGH OIL & HEXANE LOSS General observations & present practices 6. The efficiency of boiler should be about 75-80% for proper burning of coal and efficient utilization of heat.6. New Delhi (India) Page:6. (B) Concerned process steps: AREA : Boiler (E) Environmental pollution problem: The running of boilers at MCR with low efficiency leading to excess pollution in the environment. Field visit and observation: The unit has two stationary grate coal-fired water tube boilers. In addition. Causes for inadequate steam generation: The inadequate steam generation is evident from the performance evaluation of existing Boilers carried out during detailed study.6. Therefore. But due to high demand. The rated capacities of boilers are 6TPH & 3TPH. main cause of the inadequate steam generation is less efficient boilers. National Productivity Council. Therefore. 38 .2 Cause: Less efficient boiler Best practices: The boiler should supply appropriate steam at desired pressure in the Solvent Extraction Plant for efficient distillation of Miscella and desolventisation of wet DOC. There is problem of fluctuation of steam resulting in high residual oil content in DOC and hexane loss.
National Productivity Council.5 Lb/Ft2 Kg/Kg Coal TPH Basis TPH 5. In normal operating condition.55 TPH.55 8. New Delhi (India) Page:6.4 5. 39 . the Boiler can generate only 7. need for more efficient FBC boiler Effect: The low efficient boilers lead to high oil content in DOC and hexane loss in SEP. the boiler should always operate at the peak load.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India The boilers capacities were assessed with heat transfer area & existing grate area and it was worked out that with manual firing boiler can generate steam of 5.01 Ave.45 7. to increase steam generation (quantity & quality) further may not be possible with existing boilers as already operating at MCR. the quantity as well as quality of the steam can not meet to fulfill the process requirement.70 Total steam generation Total steam demand(185 T/d+10 T/d loss)/24 Constraints: shortfall at MCR (8. Therefore.5 @ 5. In order to meet the process steam requirement. Need & reasons for installing FBC boiler: • Constraints in existing steam generation capacity: Calculated steam generation capacity & shortfall is discussed below: Boiler Heat Transfer Area ft2 Grate Area ft2 Grate Loading Factor Kg/Ft2/Ft Coal Firing Rate Kg/Hr Big 2450 75 Small 1280 35 13 (with WHR) 12 975 Steam Generation (Calculated) @4. it was observed that deteriorating steam quality is due to carryover of water. The average steam requirement of plant is 8. Even the Boiler operating at the peak load. TPH 5.85 • Due to shortfall.55 7. Gen.25 2. Steam pressure is inadequate in certain processes increasing the cycle time as well as material losses etc. During the course of study. It is suggested that Boiler should not operate at MCR.3 420 1395 2.3 TPH respectively at Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR).1 TPH.10 0.75) Shortfall at NCR (8. So.3 2.35 0.1-7. otherwise it will increase the boiler maintenance cost.4 TPH & 2.1-7. inadequate steam supplies as a result of lower pressure & more wetness in steam.
LEADING TO AIR POLLUTION IN WORK 6.7 FUGITIVE EMISSION ENVIRONMENT 6. pollutes the surrounding environment. seed is transferred to the Vibrating Screen for cleaning. transferring. The seed is conveyed by means of Redler / In-Mass conveyors and bucket elevators to & from seed cleaner to storage silos/ day silo. The dust & other foreign materials in the seed are sucked by Dust Extraction System and taken to the Cyclone. fine dust escaping from Cyclone discharge through Chimney Inadequate extraction & control of fine dust emitted from the seed at Bucket Elevator discharging to Cracker National Productivity Council. Improve the efficiency of the boiler by installing Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system (For Short Term Measure) Install more efficient Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boiler of higher capacity (For medium term measure). New Delhi (India) Page:6. screening gives rise to dust emission. open conveyors and absence of dust extraction system at seed transfer points leads to dust entrainment into the environment (B) Concerned process steps: Cleaning section – vibratory screen Areas: • • (C) Seed unloading & vibrating screening system Bucket Elevator discharge to Cracking Section Environmental pollution problem: The fine dust (not collected in cyclone) released to atmosphere. 40 . The high fugitive dust emission is also attributed to the poor performance of existing APCD including dust extraction system. Normally.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India GP options: In order to maintain the required quality & quantity of steam. From hopper. following GP options were evolved: 1. poor seed cleaning. 2. It was observed that un-bagging. Causes of fugitive emission: 1 2 Inadequate extraction of fine dust from vibrating screen. the Air Pollution Control Devices [APCD].1(A) General observation & present practices The seed is un-bagged and poured into the hopper manually.7.
Therefore. 6. dust extraction and control system need to be modified. New Delhi (India) Page:6. fine dust escaping from Cyclone discharge through Chimney Best Practices: The dust in the seed should be sucked by proper dust extraction followed by air pollution control devices (APCD) before discharging into the atmosphere.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6.0 to 1.5%.2. The detail is discussed in Chapter-5. Field measurement data-& observation The procured seed contain 2. the SPM at the outlet is more (330 mg/Nm3) than the regulatory norms (150 mg/Nm3). the dust spread over in the working environment and affects the health of the workers. The fine dust is sucked through the existing dust extraction system followed by Cyclone. 41 . The dust concentration is in the range of 1. Improve extraction capacity/efficiency by way of additional extraction point & higher extraction capacity.1 Cause: Inadequate extraction of fine dust from vibrating screen. During seed cleaning operation.5%. GP options: To minimize the adverse effect due to poor extraction of dust in the seed cleaning section. following GP options were evolved: 1. 2. National Productivity Council. Though the cyclone efficiency is 88. A stack monitoring study was carried out for the performance evaluation of the dust extraction system.5 to 3.25% foreign matters.2. Install bag filter house in place/in addition to cyclone for capturing fine dust.7. Effects: Due to poor performance of dust extraction system & air pollution control devices (APCS).2 Cause: Inadequate extraction & control of fine dust emitted from the seed at Bucket Elevator discharging to Cracker Best Practices: The seed transfer points should be connected with the common dust extraction system followed by Air Pollution Control Devices.7. the heavy foreign matters get separated by vibratory screen.
Section/unit wise recommendation is given in Table-6. Further. National Productivity Council. Improve extraction capacity/efficiency by way of additional extraction point & higher extraction capacity. measures have been recommended for improvement in material handling and house keeping practices. the dust carries over to the preparatory section. Therefore. due to running of machines like cracker. The dust is deposited over the machines of the preparatory section. Effects: The dust generation at the transfer point in the preparatory section badly effects the working environment. during transfer of seed from day-silo to the cracker through the conveyor.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Field measurement data & observation: The seed containing high dust is not cleaned properly in the seed cleaning section through the vibrating screen and the dust extraction & control system. Install bag filter house in place/in addition to cyclone for capturing fine dust. 42 .. the free dust partly come out at the transfer point.8 IMPROPER MATERIAL HANDLING & HOUSE KEEPING PRACTICES A study was conducted to assess prevailing material handling and house keeping practices. 6. In view of the observations.2 in Chapter-5. Keeping in view improvement in productivity in terms of saving of time (man-power and machine hour). The observation of the study is mentioned at section 5. following GP options were evolved: 1. The above options are already discussed in previous section.3. dust reintrapped into the working environment. GP options: To minimize the adverse effect due to poor extraction of dust in the seed cleaning section and subsequently dust generation in the preparatory section. Subsequently. material and space. New Delhi (India) Page:6. 2. flaker etc.
• Trucks should be cleaned in charging area so as to collect the material in the Grill. the empty bags should be kept in a grill. 3.0 Truck Movement and Parking area: (Refer Figure-6. New Delhi (India) Page:6. No. 2. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6.1). 1. 43 . conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6. National Productivity Council.1) Solvent Extraction Plant Recommendations Sr.1).10) • During sieving operation.0 Seed Sampling Area (Refer Figure-6. Refinery Section Sr.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Table-6.8) Recommendations for material handling & House keeping Seed Charging Section Recommendations • Token system should be introduced based on FIFO (First-in-first-out) systems for parking Trucks in specified location. No. 1.3 Sr.0 For continuous improvement in shop floor activities.0 Seed Unloading Area (Refer Figure-6.0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. • Stacking area should be specified and marked.9) • A plat form should be constructed and used for unloading the soybean bags • After charging soybean in the hopper. Recommendations No. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6.0 For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. 1. • A grill similar to cattle track should be provided in the area where trucks are parked during charging. the material should be collected directly in a bag. No. 1. • The ramp should be constructed connecting sampling area and charging area so that the material is moved through optimum route and safe walking conditions. Preparatory Section Recommendations Sr.
13) • A taper should be provided in oil opening to eliminate the spillage of oil.0 Oil Filling and Packaging Section (Refer Figure-6. jars and packing materials. breadth and height shall be marked in the storage area. 4. No.12) • A chute should be constructed to move the material from first floor to • • • • 3. Separate designated area should be used to store empty tins. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided National Productivity Council. New Delhi (India) Page:6. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided DOC Packing Section Recommendations Sr. Open rack should be provided to store packing materials Rack should be provided to store 15 litres filled jars in storage area The stacks with proper length. The stack card should be introduced to keep proper accounting of stocks Worktable of filling 15 litres tins and jars should be shifted to packing area Oil Filling and Packing of 15 litres tins (Refer Figure-6. • DOC should be stacked based on FIFO (first-in-first-out) system • Storage area for empty gunny bags. • Jute thread should be kept collected properly in a bin.14) • The empty jars should be stored near work center. jars.11) Oil Packing Section Recommendations • Filling of oil and weighment should be carried out simultaneously to avoid double handling of drums as well as the spillage of oil 2. 44 . trolley. 1.0 ground floor. 1.0 Filling of oil in Drums (Refer Figure-6.0 • Stacking area should be marked with stacking plan as well as stack no. • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. • Area for storage of trolleys are not specified resulting in blockage of space • It should be standard practice to fill the bags to appropriate height to avoid spillage during movement and packing. filled tins.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Sr. • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities.0 Oil Filling and Packing of 5 litres jar (Refer Figure-6. No. bin etc.
1) National Productivity Council. Recommendations No. 1. Mechanical Workshop Sr. 1.1) ETP & Boiler Section Sr. 1.1).1). conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure6. 1.0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities.0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6. 1. Recommendations No. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6.1) Laboratory Section Sr.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Stores Section Sr.0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure6. 45 .0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. New Delhi (India) Page:6. conduct regular housekeeping audit based on 5S Checklist provided (refer Annexure-6. Recommendations No. Electrical Workshop Sr.0 • For continuous improvement in shop floor activities. Recommendations No. Recommendations No.
New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council. 46 .
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council. 47 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.
New Delhi (India) Page:6. 48 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council.
49 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council. New Delhi (India) Page:6.
50 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council. New Delhi (India) Page:6.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council. 51 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.
52 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council.
and less heating surface) Less efficient Flaking (worn out Roller. Table-6. inadequate Cracking. oil content in DOC increases. Possibilities of excess ♦ oil loss due to caustic addition in Saponification neutralization: ♦ Increased consumption Sulfuric acid for acid oil (no Flow Meter.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. New Delhi (India) Page:6. inadequate Cracking & Cooking) Less efficient Extraction Poor extraction leads to high (low drainage time.9 SUMMARY OF CAUSE-EFFECT ANALYSIS The summary of cause-effect analysis as mentioned in section 6. leading to excess oil loss and generation of excess wastewater. worn out Roller. manual production dosing. Also. contribute to oil loss in refinery.4: Waste Streams Oil Loss DOC Cause of waste streams/problem areas & their effect Effects Less efficient cracking leads to inefficient cooking. excess Saponification) National Productivity Council. flaking and extraction subsequently. hexane spray.4 for ease in understanding and interpretation.1 through section 6.8 is compiled and presented at Table 6. Absence of one washing Gives rise to hydrated separator soluble gums in wastewater rendering it difficult to treat. Cooking & Flaking) Oil loss Refinery in Excess water addition in Excess water hydrolyses the hydration & neutralization oil and forms emulsion and concentration of soap stock (faulty Flow Meter) reduces. 53 . improper residual oil content in DOC. Inadequate cooking leads to incomplete flaking and extraction subsequently As the thickness of the flake increases. Causes in Less efficient Cracking (non-graded seed. & presence of stone in seed) Inadequate Cooking (small cooker.
inadequate heating surface area) Inadequate drainage in ♦ Leads to additional extractor hexane carry over with wet DOC. condenser size) crude oil Poor oil stripping leads to hexane loss and also affects the quality of the crude oil. increasing the specific inadequate cooling & consumption of hexane. higher hexane concentration in wet DOC) Inadequate recuperation ♦ Recovery of the uncondensed hexane in (inadequate absorption / is not completed release of hexane) Inadequate stripping (inadequate vacuum.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Waste Streams Oil loss Refinerycontinue Causes Effects color removal in Use of low grade bleaching ♦ Poor earth efficiency. (inadequate drainage time. ♦ Color reversal problems ♦ High oil carry over with spent bleached earth (by weight) Improper bleaching earth ♦ Poor bleaching of oil addition ♦ Loss of bleaching earth (addition of powder in place ♦ Increase in cost of production of slurry) Oil leakage from pump (worn out seal) ♦ Low yield of oil ♦ High load to ETP Hexane Loss Inadequate vacuum in DTDC ♦ Leads to poor separation & distillation of hexane in the DTDC and distillation unit (inadequate steam. Inadequate de-solventisation ♦ Leads to hexane carry in DTDC over along with meal dryer air. 54 . condenser) ♦ The quality of crude oil & DOC may further degrade due to high concentration of hexane. steam & inadequate National Productivity Council. New Delhi (India) Page:6. hexane losses. resulting (inadequate steam.
Increase in hydraulic load to ETP High water consumption in Excessive short mix plant due to faulty Wastewater generation and Flow Meter poor treatment Discharge of Seal Cooling Water to ETP Non-availability of second Leads to high pollution load washing separator in short. Kg/cm2 required) Heat losses from un. in work environment the seed preparatory section Principle of Industrial Loss of man & machine Improper Engineering and 5S not hour.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Waste Streams Causes Effects Increase in the hydraulic & pollution load to ETP. New Delhi (India) Page:6. flanges and valves Passing of steam traps It results in excess steam leading to steam loss consumption. 55 . Higher cost of energy due to Contributes to higher cost of diesel as fuel in Thermic product. Cooling Towers fans. in work environment work the seed cleaning section environment Absence of air pollution Leads to air pollution in the control system (APCS). Fluid Heater Supply of low pressure It results in excess steam steam ( 7 Kg/cm2 against 10 consumption.It results in excess steam insulated steam lines. air pollution Leads to air pollution in the Emission in Inadequate control system (APCS). and loss of space Material resulting in overall loss of Handling & applied productivity House Keeping practices Inadequate steam generation less efficient boilers National Productivity Council. Less efficient boilers leads to high oil content in DOC and hexane loss in SEP. consumption. Poor performance existing ETP Energy Loss of the Non compliance with effluent discharge standard High electricity consumption Leads to 20-25% excess consumption due to Aluminium Blade in energy compared to FRP impellers.to ETP mix plant.
Total 36 GP options were generated.8. The technique wise distribution of GP options is depicted by Figure-6. 56 . Figure-6.1 through section 6. (I) housekeeping improvement. 1 for recovery and 17 for technology (equipment) change.16: Distribution of GP options under various techniques 36% 42% House Keeping Improvement Material Subtitutions Recycle/Reuse Recovery 3% 11% 8% Technology (Equipment) Change National Productivity Council. 4 for recycle/reuse. (IV) recovery and (V) technology (equipment) change. 3 for material substitution.5.10 GREEN PRODUCTIVITY OPTIONS In view of cause-effect analysis Green Productivity options were generated with an objective to minimize or eliminate the causes and associated impacts/effects of waste streams/problem areas. As mentioned in the Table 6. New Delhi (India) Page:6. The GP options generated against waste streams/problem areas are mentioned along with cause-effect analysis in section 6. there are 11 GP options for housekeeping improvement.5. (III) recycle/reuse.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India 6. The GP options evolved were classified into 5 groups based on the techniques viz.16. (II) material substitution. List of GP options under these 5 groups is given in Table-6.
57 . Cat-II: substitution Material Use Tonsil in place of local WS-II/GPO-5 (Indian) Bleaching Earth Replace diesel fuel by coal in WS-V/GPO-2 TFH Replace aluminium impellers WS-V/GPO-1 of Cooling Tower Fans by FRP impeller Steam using sections Solvent Extraction Oil Refinery Solvent Extraction Solvent Extraction Solvent Extraction Solvent Extraction Steam using sections Oil Refinery Oil Refinery Cooling Tower National Productivity Council. flanges & valves Increase the hexane drainage WS-I/GPO-8 time in Extractor Introduce preventive WS-II/GPO-8 maintenance of pump gland seals Ensure adequate steam WS-III/GPO-1 (quantity & pressure) in SEP Provide cold/chilled water for WS-III/GPO-2 effective condenser cooling Increase mineral oil flow rate WS-III/GPO-4 in TFH Increase chilled water flow WS-III/GPO-6 rate in vent condenser Eliminate by-passing of steam WS-V/GPO-5 traps.5 Classification of GP options based on techniques involved GP Options Description Code Section/ Unit Concerned Seed Preparatory Oil Refinery All sections Categories of GP Option Cat-I: House keeping Repair worn-out roller of the WS-I/GPO-6 improvement Flaker Recalibrate Water Flow Meter WS-II/GPO-1 in Short Mix Plant Improve material handling and WShouse keeping practices as VIII/GPO-1 per recommended measures Provide insulation for exposed WS-V/GPO-4 steam lines. New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Table-6.
Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Categories of GP Option Cat-III: Recycle/ Reuse GP Options Description Code Put in to operation the existing WS-I/GPO-3 De-stoner Use two existing Washing WS-II/GPO-2 Separators instead of one at present Reuse seal cooling water WS-IV/GPO1 generated by short mix plant Replace 7 kg pressure steam WS-V/GPO-3 nozzle by existing 10 kg pressure nozzle in De-odoriser Install Waste Heat Recovery WS-VI/GPO(WHR) system in existing 1 boiler Install seed grader with WS-I/GPO-1 conveyance system for the grading of seed before cracking Replace worn-out roller of the WS-I/GPO-2 Cracker Increase the heating surface WS-I/GPO-4 area in the cooker by adding more steam pipes (limpets) Install a new cooker of WS-I/GPO-5 requisite size Replace irreparable roller of WS-I/GPO-7 the Flaker Improve the hexane spray WS-I/GPO-9 system Install automatic caustic WS-II/GPO-4 dosing system Lower the earth dosing pipe in WS-II/GPO-7 the bleacher below oil level Separate degumming & WS-II/GPO-3 neutalization Add bleaching earth in to WS-II/GPO-6 Bleacher as slurry and not as powder Section/ Unit Concerned Seed Preparatory Oil Refinery Oil Refinery Oil Refinery Cat-IV: Recovery Boiler Cat-V: Technology ( Equipment) Change Seed Preparatory Seed Preparatory Seed Preparatory Seed Preparatory Seed Preparatory Solvent Extraction Oil Refinery Oil Refinery Oil Refinery Oil Refinery National Productivity Council. 58 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.
59 .Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India Categories of GP Option GP Options Description Code Cat-V: Technology ( Equipment) Change -continue Increase heating surface by WS-III/GPO-3 providing more limpets in DT Increase heating surface area WS-III/GPO-5 of PHE Install separate condenser WS-III/GPO-7 with steam ejector in stripper to increase vacuum Upgrade Effluent Treatment WS-IV/GPO-2 Plant to meet surface discharge standards stipulated by MPPCB Install FBC boiler of requisite WS-VI/GPO-2 capacity Improve dust extraction WS-VII/GPO-1 capacity & efficiency of existing Cyclone Install Bag Filter in addition to WS-VII/GPO-2 cyclone to capture fine dust Section/ Unit Concerne d Solvent Extraction Solvent Extraction Solvent Extraction ETP Boiler Seed Cleaning Seed Cleaning ***** National Productivity Council. New Delhi (India) Page:6.
60 . New Delhi (India) Page:6.Report on GPDP Project in an Edible Oil Industry in India National Productivity Council.
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