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, including the introduction of a constant of proportionality. ii) to find a general form of solution for a differential equation in which the variables are separable. iii) to sketch family of curves iv) to use an initial condition to find a particular solution of a differential equation. Differential Equations of Separable Variable dy = tan y cos x, given that when 1. Solve the differential equation dx x=

π

4

,y=

π

4

dy = xe y (where x ≥ 0) and if y =0 when x = 0, prove that y = - 2. 2. If dx dy = xy given that y = 2 when x = 0. 3. Solve the differential equation dx dy = y cot x, (0 < x < π, y > 0), 4. (a) Solve the differential equation dx π given that y = 2 when x = . 6 dy = 1 – y, given that y < 1 and (b) Solve the differential equation dx that y = 0 when x = 0. (c) Find the general solution of the differential equation dy cos2x = 1 – y2, where 0 < y< 1. dx dy = (x + 1)(y + 1), (y > -1), and that 5. Find y in terms of x given that dx y = 0 when x = 0.

6.

dx k = , where k is constant, find an expression for x n terms of t, dt xt given that x = 2 when t = 1. If Find y in terms of x given that (x2 + x) dy = dx y ,(x > 0, y > 0),

7.

8.

dr + r sin θ = 0, given that dθ r = a when θ = 0, expressing r in terms of a and θ. Solve the differential equation cos θ

1

ln(1 - 1 3 x 2) 3 3.9. where 0 < x < 10 and where k is a constant. 2. ln sin y = sin x + ln 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2. where k is a constant. 2 . 10. x = 2 k ln t + 4 7. y= ¼ (ln 10. y = 2e 2 x c 5. A be the amount of unchanged substance and v be the amount which has been changed at time t. 3 The rate at which a radioactive element changes from one form to another is k times the amount left unchanged. 2 Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of change of temperature in a cooling body is proportional to the difference in temperature between the body and its surroundings. 2) and (-1. It is given = dt 10 − x that x = 1 when t = 0 and that x = 2 when t = 1. Find the value of t when x = 5. r = a cos θ 9. giving three significant figures in your answer. 4 Let the rate of production of a colony of bacteria be proportional to the number present and rate of destruction be proportional to the square of the number present.Find the general solution of the differential equation Answers: 1. y = A x2 8. Write down a differential equation describing the rate of growth of the colony. a) y = 4 sin x b) y = 1 − e − x Ax 1+ y = 2 tan x + c) ln 1− y )2 +x −1 6. Let N be the number of bacteria present. Two variables x and t are connected by the differential equation dx kx . dy 2y − = 0. y= e 2 x 1 2 4. Let y be the amount of the radioactive substance present at time t. dx x Sketch the two solution curves passing respectively through the points (2. x for temperature of the cooling body and xo for the temperature of the surroundings (assumed to be constant).04 x +1 Expressing statements in the form of a differential equation 1 It is known that the rate of decay of a radioactive substance is proportional to the amount present. Use t for time. Use t for time. -1).

5 The rate at which the height h of a certain plant increases is proportional to the natural logarithm of the difference between its present height. Hence form a differential equation involving x and y only. If one gram of a radioactive substance reduces to 3 . h. They launch a major advertising programme which results in the number of customers increasing at a rate proportional to the square root of n. and its final height H. y and t: i) the rate of change of y with respect to t is inversely proportional to x ii) the rate of change of x with respect to t is inversely proportional to y. 7 Two quantities x and y each vary with time t. Express as differential equations the progress sales i) before advertising ii) after advertising. Express the following statements as differential equations involving x. A radioactive substance decays at a rate proportional to the amount present. n. Applications of Differential Equations 1. 6 The manufacturers of a certain brand of soap powder are concerned that the number. of people buying their product at any time t has remained constant for some months.

Find by means of Newton's law of cooling i) an expression for the temperature of the rod at any time t. find how long it will be until remains. Hence form a differential equation involving x and y only. Find the number of bacteria present immediately after 5 hours ii) the time-lapse before the number reaches 4000. ii) the temperature of the rod immediately after 9 minutes. A certain radioactive substance is known to decay at a rate proportional to the amount present. A block of this substance having a mass of 100 grams originally is observed. Find i) an expression for the mass of the substance at any time. After 40 hours. The water temperature is held constant at 15 °C. Write down a differential equation for v. 1 gram 10 2. given that y = 0 6. The rate at which a radioactive element changes from one form to another is k times the amount left unchanged. 5. Find the half-life of the 4 . Two quantities x and y each vary with time t. 3. ii) the rate of change of x with respect to t is inversely proportional to y. and prove that the solution is y = Ax n . At time t = 0. dy dx = e x + y . 7. Assume the initial count of bacteria is 1000 and after one hour the count is 1200. It is observed that the rod cools from 60°C to 40°C in 3 minutes. Suppose a metal rod is immersed in water. and solve it to give v in terms of A. its mass reduces to 90 grams. i) 4. Sketch the graph of v against t. The rate of increase of the population of bacteria in a culture is proportional to the number of bacteria present at any given instant. Express the following statements as differential equations involving x. ii) the time-lapse before the block decays to half of its original mass.¼ gram in four hours. k and t. the amount of unchanged substance is A and the amount which has been changed at time t is v. where A and n are constants. where k is a constant. Solve the differential equation when x = 0. y and t: i) the rate of change of y with respect to t is inversely proportional to x.

The constant of proportionality is denoted by k. Answers: 1. i) y = 100e −0. Water is running out of the tank. Water is added to the tank at a rate of 1320 cm 3 per second but the tap remains open. = 3t − 2 . (c) The tank is emptied completely but the person responsible forgot to close the tap. who owns one is proportional to the product of x and (N – x). (b) Given that the depth of water in the tank is initially 38. When t = 1 the amount of drug in the body is Qα. where A is an arbitrary constant. (a) Express this information in the form of a differential equation. and show that the general solution is x = Ae − kt . but at t = 0. where α is a constant such that 0 < α < 1. Before t = 0 there is no drug in the body. 1 N . Show that the amount of drug in the body immediately after t = 2 is Q(1 + α + α2). show that V = (220 − 4t ) 2 . Show that x = Qα t. x = (b) Initially x = 10 1 x N .5 cm and that the tank empties completely in 55 seconds.e. and after one week of aggressive selling. A new and wonderful computer comes on the market. When t = 1 and again when t = 2 another dose Q is administered. a quantity Q of the drug is administered. where N is a constant. 8.element. (Give your answer to 1 decimal place. at a rate which is proportional to the square root of the volume of the water remaining in the tank. The rate of increase in the number of people. A cylindrical tank of radius 20 cm stands with its axis of symmetry vertical. 4 N−x (c) What happens to x as t → ∞ ? (d) Sketch the graph of x against t. 9. Take π = 22/7). Write down a differential equation relating x and t. i. Show that after t weeks. Sketch the graph of x against t for 0 < t < 1. x.64 hours 2. through an open tap. Find the depth to which the water rises in the tank. where V is the volume in cm 3 and t is the time in seconds. (e) Find the time at which ¾ N people own one of these computers. 10. (a) Write down a differential equation relating x and t. At time t the quantity of drug in the body is x. t = 6. The rate of destruction of a drug by the kidneys is proportional to the amount of the drug present in the body. the time needed for half of the amount A to be changed.00263t ii) 263hrs 5 .

A tank. Waste from a mining operation is dumped on a 'slag-heap'. If x is the depth of the water at time t after the leak started. and that the slag-heap remains the same shape as it grows.3. roughly conical in shape.716 = 22. t = 1 k ln2 8. i) dy dt = a x ii) dx dt = b y 5.7°C 7. at any instant. so that V is proportional to h3. In a particular case θ o = 20. In a mathematical model. If the tank is exactly half empty after one hour. Find the time by which its height would grow to 30 m. which is a large mound. 3. v = A(1 . y = −ln(2 − e x ) 5 x = 15 + 45 3 or 9 x = 15 + 45e -0. 2. where A and B are constants. is proportional to the square root of the depth of the water at that instant. and θ = 20 + 60 ( ) 5 6 find. Using t for time in minutes. write down a differential equation connecting x and t. dh 1 ∝ dt h2 Show by integration that the general solution of the differential equation relating h and t may be expressed in the form h 3 = At + B .e -kt ) . The water leaks out of a small hole in the horizontal base of the tank at a rate which. θ = 80 when t = 0. and after 2 years its height was 18 m. Prove that. find the further time that elapses before the tank becomes completely empty. the value of t when θ = 30. Express this statement as a differential equation relating h with the time t. c) 21. at time t.7 cm 9. Show how these assumptions lead to the model described in the first paragraph.60 hour t 4. with rectangular base and having vertical sides of height h. to the nearest tenth of a minute. c) Ans: x → N e) 3 weeks More exercises 1. express the law in the form of a differential equation. Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of decrease of temperature of a hot body is proportional to the excess of the temperature of the body over that of the surroundings. is initially full of water. θ for temperature in degree C. h3 = At + B A new slag-heap was started at time t = 0.196 t ii) x = 22. t 5 and θ = 70 when t = 5. The assumptions underlying this mathematical model are that the volume V of the slag-heap increases at a constant rate. i) 2490 6 i) ii) 7. which continually increases in size as more waste material is added to the top. 6 . and θo for the temperature of the surroundings (assumed constant). the rate at which the height h of the slag-heap increases is inversely proportional to h 2 .

where k (b) Solve the differential equation dt and a are positive constants. A dripping hot-water tap means that water at temperature θ°C is being taken from the tank at a steady rate and being replaced by cold water. Express this information as a differential equation connecting θ and t. at the same rate. the value of t when θ = 2θ o . dt where k is a positive constant. 5. Given that z = 25 when t = 0 and that z = 16 when t = 30. for the case where the temperature of the surroundings has the constant (non-zero) value θo. At time t. a and t in your answer. (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation dx = kx . whereθ is the temperature of the hot object at time t. 8. Given that θ = 5θ o when t = 0 and that θ = 3θ o when t = T.4. dt x (a) Find the general solution of this differential equation. The hot water in a domestic hot-water tank is at temperature θ°C at time t minutes. Show that the general solution of the differential equation may be expressed in the form θ = θ o + A e. find the value of t when z = 0. 2) has an asymptote parallel to the y-axis. 1) is a straight line. 0 < x < a. A vessel contains liquid which is flowing out from a small hole at a point O in the base of the vessel. given that x = ½ a when t = 0. expressing x in terms of k and t in your answer. Write down a differential equation which expresses dz dt in terms of z. expressing y in terms of x.kt. 3 6. in terms of T. dx = kx(a . The positive quantities x and y are related by the differential 2 equation dy = y . It is assumed that the incoming cold water mixes immediately with the hot water already in the tank.x). and that the member of the family which passes through (1. the height of the liquid surface above O is z and the rate at which z is decreasing is inversely proportional to z 2 . that the tank is 7 . Express x in terms of k. (b) Show that the number of the family of solution curves which passes through the point (1. the rate at which the temperature of a hot object decreases may be taken to be proportional to the difference between the temperature of the hot object and the temperature of its surroundings. Under suitable conditions. at temperature 10°C. where A and k are constants. find. 7.

The sum of money owed to the Building society increases. dx r = (x . a) Write down a differential equation expressing this information. (a) Solve the differential equation. show the graph of x against t in the two cases (i) A > a. due to interest. when t = 0. Describe. Under these circumstances the rate at which the temperature of the water in the tank drops is given by the dθ = − k(θ − 10) . what will happen to the temperature of the water in the tank for each of the cases h = 40k and h = 60k. Money is also repaid at a constant rate r. at a rate proportional to the sum of money owed. the volume of the water in a storage tank is denoted by v. Water is lost from the tank by leakage at a rate equal to kv where k is a positive constant. At time t. (ii) A < a. in this case T = ln . again assuming that θ = 60 when t = 0. Water is also lost through evaporation at a constant rate p. with the aid of a diagram. a and A. Show that for x > 0. Given that. the sum of money owed to the Building society is denoted by x and the time is denoted by t. the differential dθ = − k(θ − 10) + h . taken for the tank to empty. − kt − p (1 − e − kt ) b) Given that v = V when t = 0. State the circumstances under which the loan is repaid in a finite a a time T and show that.a) . r. expressing θ in terms of k and t in your answer. and that no heat is being supplied by a waterheater.In a model of mortgage repayment. When x = a. where k is a positive constant differential equation dt whose numerical value depends on the rate at which the tap is dripping. (b) When heat is being supplied by a water-heater. 9. At time t = 0 the water in the tank is at temperature 60° C. Both x and t are taken to be continuous variables. show that v = Ve k c) Find the time. interest and repayment balance. where equation relating θ and t becomes dt the numerical value of the constant h depends on the rate at which heat is being supplied. 10. r a . t. dt a find x in terms of t.fully insulated. clearly labeled sketch. x = A.A 8 . On a single.

Determine the population at the beginning of the fourth day. The net increases during the fourth and fifth days are 350 and 500 insects respectively.dx dt ∝ x and dx dt = dx dt ∝ −r ⇒ dx dt r a = kx − r x=a⇒ Thus dx dt = 0.a) = a x A<a x=a A<a t From the graph. The rate of increase of the population is proportional to the number. the loan is repaid.a) = 11.a = ln . If A >a. where A and k are constants. i. The number of births per unit time is proportional to the population at any time and the number of deaths per unit time is 9 . of insects. ∴ k = (x − a) r a r a rt t ⇒ x = a + (A − a)e Integrate : ln (x . ln Thus dx dt = r a x . Regarding n and t as continuous variables. the loan will only be repaid in a finite time T if A < a. Hence.a = rT ⇒ T = a ln a r A-a A-a A-a a (x − a) r a rt t ⇒ x = a + (A − a)e a Integrate : ln (x .e x = 0 when x = 0. at any time t days after the start of the experiment. form a differential equation relating n and t and solve it to show that n = Ae kt .A population of insects is allowed to grow in an experimental environment. or otherwise. determine the population at the beginning of the first day.A race called the Matrices live on an isolated island called Vector. n. 12.

− dt = k x . Solve the equation for p in terms of t.x0 = Ae -kt . 21.proportional to the square of the population. when θ = 30 .144t iii) Evaluate (a) the water temperature after 4 minutes.Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of loss of temperature of a cooling body is proportional to the difference in temperature between the body and its surroundings. given that 2 a p = ( ) when t = 0.bp 2 . 9. show that dt constants.x0 ) . using symbols t for time and x for the temperature of the body. 2 +1 t = 6.1 mins. Answer: 1.0. Hence find the time taken by the body to cool from 50°C to 25°C.3 years dx 3. θ = 20 + 80 ( 3 65 ° C 4 4 ) 2 = (b) the time taken for the water to reach 50°C. − dx ∝ (x . the water temperature is 80°C. 10 . given that the room temperature is 20°C and that it takes a particular body 12 minutes to cool from 100°C to 50°C. Express this law in the form of a differential equation. 13. t = 49. Solve this equation for x in terms of t.9 mins dt 14. where a and b are positive time t is p. Show that there is a limit to the size of the 3 b population. If the population at dp = ap . x . t θ = 20 + 80 ( 3 4 ) 2 or θ = 20 + 80 e .Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of loss of temperature of a cooling body is proportional to the difference between the body temperature and the surrounding temperature. Find the as a function of time.82 mins. i) Set up a differential equation describing the temperature of the body. − dθ dt = k(θ − θ o ) ii) A beaker of water initially at 100°C is allowed to cool in a room maintained at 20°C. 2. After 2 minutes.

− dv dt = kv − p 11 .6 2 z 9. 44.dz 1 4. − dt ∝ 3 .

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