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Curso Ingles II Edicion 2008

Curso Ingles II Edicion 2008

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Basic english grammar structures and vocaBulary

A short course in english for Adult students

Prof. Juan gmo. moya montaña
DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY
A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

Profesor Juan Guillermo Moya Montaña Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y Traductor de la División Doctrina del Ejército de Chile.

jmoyam@profing.tie.cl Cel. : 08-3619605 Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Nº151.465 I.S.B.N. Nº 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar Julio 2008 2da. Edición

ÍNDICE
Pág
• Presentación _____________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apéndices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Presentación
Presentación En la actualidad, nadie pone en duda que las exigencias que la sociedad le atribuye a las instituciones armadas son variadas y complejas. En este sentido y ya en pleno siglo XXI, las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional, impulsan a nuestros soldados a tener un dominio cada vez mayor del idioma anglosajón. El material que se presenta a continuación, ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las esctructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal. Por este motivo, el Ejército decidió reimprimir este completo manual de autoaprendizaje, cuyo autor es el profesor Juan Moya Montaña, con el propósito de seguir contribuyendo a la formación y perfeccionamiento de todos sus integrantes.

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO.

A short course in english for adult students

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3. Estudiar las ilustraciones. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. 2.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir.). Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. A short course in english for adult students 7 . Leer. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. adjetivos. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. estudiar y estudiar. preposiciones. 6. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. 5. 8. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. etc. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. 9. 4. verbos. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. 7. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar.

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at present. at this time.57 • VOCABULARY: . These. How long?. Why?. little. quarter past / to. Past and Future) • SOME . their. us.Adjectives KEY TO ANSWERS 37 39 39 41 43 45 • • • • • • He has got a big house Uncountable nouns: money.NO . them. the day before yesterday. yours. Past and Future) THE ENGLISH ALPHABET THE PHONETIC ALPHABET KEY TO ANSWERS 15 22 23 25 • What?. The . Whose?. a lot. 47 . etc. How? Whom?.Professions And Occupations • KEY TO ANSWERS 77 78 83 84 86 87 89 • • • • He worked here yesterday Last week. her.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: .etc. UNIT 5 • ARTICLES II . never. For • Now.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and P. work. 1996. three times a year. What sort of?. last month. There are 3 cars in the garage • How much? How many? • Much. its.NOT ANY . his her. A(N).. How far?. Countable nouns: people. your. 27 . How deep?. water. yesterday evening. P. Who?. the day after tomorrow. very little. last week / last year / last Monday. theirs. etc. etc.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 P. milk. • Mine..36 • THERE TO BE (Present. At. etc. two days ago UNIT 2 P. on the fifth of May. today. every week. his. 15 . Yesterday morning. How thick?. etc. yours. midnight PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS TIME AND DATES ORDINAL NUMBERS QUESTION WORDS 1 UNIT 4 For describing people and things. When?. etc. Until. our. tomorrow.Numerals. In . • Me. Always. at the moment. Why?. 77 . like? • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. How wide?. books. yesterday. generally. last night.. Which?. How high?. On.75 Which • VOCABULARY: . What time?. usually. 59 . • My.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . What is / are .. last Monday.45 • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I .. next week. etc. many. temporarily. What color?. That. 37 . it. • How old?. How fast?. you. A short course in english for adult students 9 .25 • • • • TO BE (Present. thirty minutes ago. sugar. What shape?.Clothes • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • He works here every day Every day. Time and Dates • KEY TO ANSWERS • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • TIME EXPRESSIONS (I): ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • • • • • 47 48 52 52 54 55 57 59 61 66 67 68 71 73 • He is working at the moment • Now. How many?. few. Where?. your.People • KEY TO ANSWERS 27 27 33 34 36 • There is a car in the garage. How big?. How long?.. him. often. How?. hers. etc. sometimes. Those. Once a day. How tall?. Who?. lots of. O´clock. very few • • • UNIT 3 • • P. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. UNIT 6 P. What size?. for the time being. every month. men. How old? How long? What time? • This. What kind of?. How often?. Two weeks ago. at night Noon / midday. half past. you.90 • SIMPLE PAST TENSE • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS • USED TO + INFINITIVE • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS • VOCABULARY: . students. twice a week.. What?.. ours. How much?.

SOMEWHERE UNIT 8 AND DERIVED WORDS P.Our Health KEY TO ANSWERS 127 129 131 135 136 139 141 143 144 145 146 147 • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. please. Jones. more intelligent than.. • What a tall woman!. You may use the phone now. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. • On Fifth Avenue.. a secretary.. • Somebody / someone. not anywhere. not anybody / not anyone. • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. TOO. 10 A short course in english for adult students . • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. etc..• PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .. too / as well. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: . a Chilean.. in the West Indies. etc... • He said that he was tired.. • Bob can swim very well. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. Bob sent her some flowers. not anything..102 • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . an engineer. He speaks Italian.. White. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year. AS WELL. NOT. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers.. nowhere • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who. • Open the door.Nationalities..The house • KEY TO ANSWERS 91 94 95 96 99 101 • He was working here at 9:30 last night • At that time. professions. Whom.. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now..the shortest • Intelligent..140 • VOCABULARY: . • An American. OUGHT TO UNIT 10 • HAVE TO = TENER QUE P.. The man whose car is parked outside. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. etc. etc. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian. Scott. etc..best. etc. in North Carolina. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. in the USA. Please. / IT TOOK.. the most intelligent • As fast as. Cpt.. something. • Good . MUST. titles and ranks.The City • KEY TO ANSWERS 103 106 109 111 113 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO. cities... Dr. • A doctor.114 • VOCABULARY: . Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow. 115 .. SHOULD... In Salt Lake City... = DEMORAR UNIT 9 • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES P.. 141 . • IT TAKES.126 • VOCABULARY: . They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. nobody / no one... • It takes me 20 minutes to..Food • KEY TO ANSWERS 115 116 119 123 125 • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week.? • Short . • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. don´t do that. When Peter arrived this morning. • Mr. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. / IT WILL TAKE.. nothing. when they got married. at 10:30 last night. etc. • The boy speaks Italian.. 127 . streets... but the girl doesn´t. 91 ...154 • 150 152 153 • • • • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. SO.better .. 103 . countries and UNIT 7 geographical names. somewhere.Parts of the Body Time Expressions (II) • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO.EITHER. SOMETHING.. In Canada. etc. an Englishman. This one is too old UNIT 11 P. P.shorter than. He told me that he was tired. etc... MAY. • How long does it take to. etc.

since. twice. etc. Sooner. not yet. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . etc. yet / already?. soon More quickly. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing.Sports and Recreation • KEY TO ANSWERS • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS UNIT 14 • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” P. three times. certainly. 203 . day / days. early.190 D.214 CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . He will let them play He wants us to go. for. He cut himself. Fast.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING UNIT 15 .202 • VOCABULARY: . Verb + to-infinitive B.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND UNIT 12 • VOCABULARY: . MIGHT. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. lately. too I saw her crossing / cross the road.The Weather • KEY TO ANSWERS 203 205 205 207 207 207 209 • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. keep talking. hard. once. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop 210 212 213 A short course in english for adult students 11 . Verb + gerund / bare UNIT 13 infinitive P. He himself did it. etc. late.Prepositions and Connectors P.Nature • KEY TO ANSWERS 175 177 177 178 179 179 181 184 187 189 • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater.before. already. earlier. 157 . brush / brushes. baby / babies. etc. etc. 191 . / P. harder. ever Book / books. did he? 191 194 196 198 199 201 • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly.174 • KEY TO ANSWERS 157 161 164 • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. never.MAY. etc. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . knife / knives.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. 175 . I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. Go skiing. carefully. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. go shopping. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. more carefully. 170 173 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: .

STATEMENTS B.296 • TEACHER’S TEXT SCRIPT • KEY TO ANSWERS 277 279 283 291 293 295 APENDICES • CHART 1 BASIC VERB TENSES • CHART 2 BASIC VERB TENSES A) CONTINUOUS TENSES B) SIMPLE TENSES C) PERFECT TENSES 4) PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES 297 299 299 300 302 303 12 A short course in english for adult students . 215 .Regular and Irregular Verbs • KEY TO ANSWERS • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS 225 231 233 235 • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 237 244 245 248 251 253 253 254 254 257 261 263 • • • • • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.261 .. COMMANDS. OR ELSE / OTHERWISE P.The Workshop • KEY TO ANSWERS 215 217 218 • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. 219 221 223 210 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO UNIT 17 • VOCABULARY: .. 263 . 253 .275 • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping • ASSESSMENT TEST • QUESTION BOOKLET (Listening Part) • QUESTION BOOKLET (Reading Part) UNIT 21 • ANSWER SHEET P. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi.The Armed Forces II P.The Armed Forces I P.. He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 P. UNTIL.252 • KEY TO ANSWERS • REPORTED SPEECH A.. ETC. ORDERS UNIT 19 • VOCABULARY: P. When I see her tomorrow. UNIT 16 • USE OF ELSE. 277 ..223 • VOCABULARY: .236 • KEY TO ANSWERS • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE UNIT 18 • VOCABULARY: . 237 . QUESTIONS C. or else I´ll miss my flight. 225 . AS SOON AS..• FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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/iés. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. los.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /!éi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. We´re. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?.) un/a. /áim fáin. it is. Now /náu/ ahora. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT.it iz. /its on !e désk/ They´re in the car park. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . /iés. thanks. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. It is. la. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. She´s. /!ei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. It´s. !ei á:r. /!eir !e stiú:dents/ He´s at home. the new instructor.!eir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. Thanks /"æ#ks/ gracias. /!eir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. /hi:z !e niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. /hí:z mátch béter. IS /iz/. Who are those men? /hú: a:r !óuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz !e ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz !e búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r !e ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r !e stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r !e tchíldrn/ It is a pen. "æ#ks/ They´re very well.UNIT 1 PART I.. /!éir in !e ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. The / !e (antes de cons. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz !is/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots !æt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r !í:z/. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r !óuz/. He´s. /!eir véri wél "æ#k iu/ 2. Thank you /"æ#k iu:/ gracias. "æ#ks/ He´s much better. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. In /in/ en. thanks. its a pén/ Yes. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz !is a pén/ Is that a house? /is !æt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r !í:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r !óuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz !æt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z !æt wúman/ . ARE /a:r/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . It´s a pen /iés. Escuche. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. On /on/ encima de. they are. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. las. /shi:z !e sékretri/ They´re Bob. They´re. You´re.IS . These /!í:z/ estos/as.) . /!éir in !e læb/ I´m fine. Fine /fáin/ bien. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. thank you. normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /!ei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /!ei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /!eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . !i/ (antes de vocal) el. They´re books. !ei á:r. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. /its in !e gæridll/ It´s on the desk. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. Jones. they are. That /!æt/ ese/a. Those /!óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. Jim and Tom. This /!is/ este/a.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. the students.They´re cars. At /æt/ en. It´s a house. the secretary. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. !eir búks/ Yes.

are not /a:r nót/. Escuche. (It´s not a tank. is not /iz nót/. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. 3. I ______ an undergraduate student. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. 7. it isn´t. Are we ready to go? 4. over there /óuver !éar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. The train _____ ten minutes late. (It´s not a pen. 2. He is not here /híar/._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. They aren´t there. there /!éar/ allí.) It´s a truck. (sala de profs. Yes. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. 9. They´re not there. Clark? 3.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r !ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? EXERCISES Ex. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. /trák/ No. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent !ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt !is kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. It isn´t a train. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. they aren´t. He isn´t here. He´s not very well. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæ#k/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. (armas-poderosas) 6. /pénsl/ No.Escuche. It´s not a train. they aren´t. They´re tables /téiblz/. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe.rent !ei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. isn´t /íznt/ ._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . Is that man Mr. 10. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r !ei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. aren´t /á:rent/. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. The men ______ tired. 8. 3. He´s not here. Are the students in class? 6. They´re not in the lab. 4. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. He isn´t very well. They aren´t in the lab. 5. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. (They´re not chairs). (They´re not books. /mægazinz/ No. They are not there /!éar/ It is not a train. it isn´t. Am I a good instructor? 5.) It´s a pencil. Are you in the office? 2. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. He´s a pilot. Answer these questions.) They´re magazines. 1. he is. 2. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. here /híar/ aquí. John and Mary _____ good friends. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1.

The cigarettes are in the bag 4. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. 4 Ask questions. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. as in the example: It´s a plane. How?.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . as in the example below: The Browns . The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No.at home 1. Your friends / from Canada 5. Are your friends American? (British) 7. They´re books 3. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. The books are on the table 9. Who?. The children are tired 10. Where?. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. 5. I´m fine. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2.8. The course / interesting 4. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. The children / in the playground. Peter and John / in class 3. The pictures / clear (nítidas. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. claras) 8. That boy´s my brother 8. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. It´s a knife 2. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. 3. they are not. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. The computer / connected to the Internet 6. 1. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. The cat´s under the sofa 6. thanks 5. The manager / in his office 2.Is Cpt. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. It´s a chair 7. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) 3. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Is the bank open? 10. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No.(patio) 9.

Oh. 1. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Mike Hello. I ______ ______. I ______ with my friend Janet. Pleased to meet you. 6. Jane. I ______ from Appleton. Oh. Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer. My name ______ Frank. Come and meet her.WERE /we:r/ 1. (pausa) This ______ Janet. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?. That´s bad news. She ______ a new student. I ______ glad to meet you. Where ______ you.Ex. thanks. Jim? I ______ here. she ______ ______. Jack. Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . Hello. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Jackson was here three weeks ago. in the library. / méri woz !e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. Brown? I ______ American. Where ______ you from. Peter. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. How ______ you? I ______ fine. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /!ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. ______ she single? No. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. She ______ married. That ______ very interesting. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). B. Oh. She ______ from London. I ______ not. ______ you a student here? No. ______ you alone? No.WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días. Sir. The day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer. Hello. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. How ______ you? I ______ fine. 18 A short course in english for adult students . Frank John Frank John Frank 3. I ______ an instructor. too. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . Mr. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. /!ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. Wisconsin. She ______ my classmate . Hello. I´m glad to meet you.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week.M. 4. 6. 3. 5. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. The weather was fine that day. present or past: 1. George was a little better this morning. Liz was in bed because she was sick. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás !is mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at !is táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. They ______ free today. Where?. 7. 5. 4. They were good friends at school. Ask questions using wh-words like What?. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. Escuche. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. 1. 3. /!ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki#/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. but they ______ at work yesterday. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. How old. 3. 2. 6. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. but he ______ much better today. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. 4. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. 2. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. John was in the car at that moment. 6. The men were tired after the long walk. When?. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. but it ______ working well now.Why?.2. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . 2. Yesterday ______ Sunday. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. How?. 2. The secretary was busy at midday. Tom was at home at midnight last night. Mary was late for the train this morning. Who? 1. 5.Y. /dllón wóznt at hóum !is mórni#/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. Today ______ Monday.

7. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. Complete the sentences. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. /ai wil nót bí: véri bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. 3. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu ló#/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. Escuche. /!ei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. John isn´t absent today. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 4. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. We are not busy right now.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. serán / estarán) They will be /!ei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. I am not in my office at the moment. The weather was not very nice last month. 5.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. 2. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrow. /ái wil bí: véri bízi !is a:fternú:n/ . but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. For /for/ por. as in the example: John is not at home today. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vni#/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil !e tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil !ei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿Estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. but it _____________________________________________ next month. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ella será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. They won´t be here all day.C. A short course in english for adult students . It is not very cold now. 6. 1. The day after tomorrow /!e déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /!eil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. but he 1. para What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. Mr. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. Escuche. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. bi: at !e mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil !ei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu lo# wil !ei bí: in wóshi#ton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. but they _______________________________ next semester.

Ex. 3. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. ¿Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? 11. 6. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. 10. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. Mary will be in New York next weekend. 1. 7. 2. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. 4. 9. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio 8. 6. 7. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. Mr. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. 4. The program will be interesting. When is the next general meeting? 9. 2. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 7. How are you today? 4. They will be in the next town before midday. 2. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 9.Why?. Where were you last weekend? 7. 3. I´ll be in the first team. 13. 5. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. Este no es un libro muy interesante. 4. 3. 5. 1. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . 5. Answer the following questions. When will you be on vacation again? 3. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. 2.When?. ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? 5. 14. John will be in class today. It´ll be hot tomorrow. How long?. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. etc. Los informes no estaban listos todavía. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. in English. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. They will be here at ten-thirty. Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. Ask questions using Where?. 1. The weather will be very nice this month. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? 4. ¿Quién era ese hombre? 12. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. 6. Ella será una excelente secretaria. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 3. 8. How?. My friends will be here before 12. What time?.

W .V -B 3.O .X . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se llama /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex. it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.Y .F .K . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.Q .D .Q . ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .L .W .R .A 5.I .S .L . P . E .X .Y .M .Y .H .N .N . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mán" ái bó:t it at !e pí: éks/ B: No.W .Z .C . lea y aprenda: 1.X . 1.O . J .Z .X . Tom works for IBM in LA.A -E 2.J .K .I .J . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. /mái la:st néim is váskes.U . ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.I .Q .G .T .O .I .U .B .E .V . 3.L .H .Q .B . My last name is Vasquez.C .I . B: Can you spell that.D . please? A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /"æ#kiu:/ /kán iu: spél !æt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái brá!erz néim iz ignásio/ 2.A Ex.T .N .L .V .K .A .Y .r/ B: Last month.G .E .F .X . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.O . Escuche.I .M . U .E . 2.I . /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.F 4. How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.C .S .G .P .G .E .O . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.O .T .B .R . 4.X .W . E .A .A .U .A .C .B . !æts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.PART II.

The commander´s last name is CLARK. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2.m. A. A as in Alfa. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p.D. 5. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 .D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ MBA MBT ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /tá#gou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iá#ki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. U for uniform. I spell: C as in Charlie. FBI OK ITT a. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph.C.m. My name is JUAN. L as in Lima. I spell: J for Juliett.Ex. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B.

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3. 3..are F: am .? C....? 2. He isn´t on duty. 4. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. 1.. Mary wasn´t . Yes. 8... 1. Was . 3.. will be absent 3.? 5.? 7. 9.. I am... It´s open..? Ex.. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4.. He´s an engineer. 14.. They weren´t.. This isn´t a very interesting book.. / Will my friends be... Was . They´re British.... 6.. he is.. Why was Liz in bed? 4.? 4. / Will it be. They were good friends at school. No. At what time will they be here? 5.are Ja: am B.. John won´t be.. they are. Yes. They aren´t angry. 10. 1. Those children are not very good students.. No. 6. No.. Was . 1. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . When will you be free? 3. will be very cold 4. I´m not.. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2.. 1.. What are these / those? 3. / Were they. They´re updated. 1.was 4. 7. are 5. it´s not. / Was the weather. 1. will be very busy 5. I´m hungry. 2.. we are-We´re ready to go. I´m in the office. Are the pictures clear? 8. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not .. 1..are 3. they´re not.. will be very nice. Yes. he´s not. are 6.. Why will they be at home all day? 9. He´s Mr.. Are Peter and John in class? 3.. they´re not.. Are the maps in the library? Ex. will be at the meeting 7... No. 2. 13. How will the weather be this month? 6.? 3. Mary won´t be. Where was Tom at. Ex. Were . Who was here this morning? 5. Is the manager in his office? 2.. 3.. Are . M: is P: is . 5. It won´t be . 10. Who´s that woman? Ex. He´s at work. 7.. Yes. They´re young. he´s not.are 5.. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7.. it is. 2. is 10. they´re not.am J: is 2. / Will I be . They won´t be. When will she be back in Chile? 8. 10. 1.is 2. It isn´t clean.. / Was Henry. Where are the cigarettes?. 1. 1. Yes.. will be in the same class 2... Now. No. How was George. Yes. he´s not. They aren´t happy... 1.. it is.is Ex. / Were the men .. The program won´t be .was 7..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. Clark.. When are they free all day? 11.... am 9. I´m not thirsty. 5. Is the computer connected to internet? 6.? 3. Are the children in the playground? 9.? 3. 2.. You´re a good instructor. No.? 2. 3.R: is J: is . will be in my office 6. 4. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. / Will John be . They´re sad. they´re not.were 3. Henry wasn´t . is 7. 2..? 6.am (pause) is . Who was that man? 12.... I´m hungry.is J: is . is 2. How are the children? 10... Yes. 6. Ex.. They aren´t American. 1. 1. they are. 4. They´re in class.? 6. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10... It´s dirty. Was . / Will Mary be. Ex... What´s this / that? 7./ Will they be. (open answers) Ex... The weather wasn´t . The secretary wasn´t... How old was Mr Clark when.are Ex.you are. They´re hungry.. 5.. Who was in the car.? 5. / Was the secretary .am 3. Ex. 1. He isn´t a doctor. How are you? 5. she is.. 4.. 6. / Will the program be. Yes.? 4... Mr Jackson was in the office all day. They aren´t old.. No. Where´s the cat? 6.? 4. / Was Mary. When will Mary be in New York? 7.. are 4. No. Yes.? 6.. Is the course interesting? 4. I won´t be. Yes. 1...? 5. I´m not. Where are the books? 9. The reports weren´t ready yet. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . When were the Smiths .is 6.. Is ... 2.No..is Ja: am .. 9.Are J: am .is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t .? Ex. 8. I´m not an navy officer... I am. Is the package light or heavy? 7. Who´s that boy? 8. Where are your friends now? 4. F: is .. Ex.. It´s a modern plane.are R: am . I´m a army officer.is 4.. Are your friends from Canada? 5. We weren´t here last week. He isn´t at home. 9.is . Ex. is 8.. 8. My friends won´t be. The men weren´t . She´s a secretary. What´s this / that? 2.? 2. He´s off duty. 5. 3.

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Is there a book on the desk? /íz !ear e búk on !e désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz !ear e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz !éar éni wóter in !e glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r !ear tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r !ear éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). There is a book on the desk /!ear íz e búk on !e désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. THERE TO BE (HABER. /!éar íznt éni wóter in !e glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /!éar á:r sam trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /!ear íznt éni wóter in !e glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. There are three (windows). ha advertido. /!ear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. en el singular. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. /!ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /!ear á:r sam tchéarz in !e rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /!ear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /!ear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. THERE ARE /!ear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. /!ear á:rent éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. There´s only one (door). /háu match/ Como ud. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. /!ear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. /a:r !ear éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. There´s a lot (of ice). Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. There´s no water. There are no chairs. There aren´t any (chairs). se usa la contracción THERE´S /!éarz/.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. /!éarz e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass.PART I. Normalmente. EXISTIR) A. en castellano. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /!ear á:r nóu trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz !ear éni wóter in !e glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /!ear a:r nóu tchéarz in !e rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. There isn´t any (water). /!ear iz nót e búk on !e désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. / !éar íznt e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. THERE IS /!ear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. /!ear á:rent éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass.

There´s no water in that bottle. La expresión A LOT OF normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras MUCH o MANY. There is a tree in the garden. /!ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. 1. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. EXERCISES Ex. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /!éarz véri lítl wó:ter in !e glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. /!ear a:r véri fiú: desks in !e rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. por lo tanto se omite. There are many trees in the garden. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. only one student in the lab now. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. Normalmente el artículo A/ AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). very few people at the conference. 2. /!éar íznt match shúgar in !e bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. /!éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. . very little money left in the box. 3. /!éar á:r e lót ov buks on !e shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /!éarz e lót ov shúgar in !e bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. 4. /!éar á:rent méni buks on !e shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz !éar match shúgar in !e bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r !éar méni buks on !e shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. There are flowers in the garden. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings.. sir. There are some students absent today. Ej. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. a lot of mistakes in your composition.: How many dictionaries are there? 1. 5. ___________________ women_______________ in that group? 10. 3. 5.5. There are 30 days in February. 4.. 3. There is another chair in that room 8. There are more than 10 students. ___________________ people _______________ in the room?. very few. 4. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. ___________________ secretaries____________here? 9. There are more women than men. Change the following statements into the negative form. 4. no time left. Use LITTLE. two. There are a lot of people in the room.. 9. 7. There are some more books. 2. There are very ______________________________ books in the school library. There´s a telephone in the room.. 7. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. There are 24 hours in a day. 9. There are 8. 9. There´s some more money in my pocket.IS THERE? or HOW MANY. ___________________ milk _________________ in the jug? 4. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. 1. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. 5. FEW. 10.. A LOT in the blank spaces. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the answers . There´s a hotel near the Training Center. 2. There´s some more coffee in the cup. 6. 6. 1. Ex. 6. 10. There are some extra chairs in the room. a lot of work. ___________________ video tapes ___________? 5. a lot.. ___________________ money _______________? 2. ___________________ men _________________ in the crew? Ex. 2. ___________________ doors ________________ in the lab? 3. 8. A short course in english for adult students 29 . just one. There are some more clean glasses. 7. 10.. 8.. four men. There´s ____________________________________ milk left in the bottle. five or six.. Complete the following questions and answers. ___________________ work _________________ today? 6.. ARE THERE? in the questions. There´s some more meat in the fridge.. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. some letters for you on the desk.. just a little. several helicopters in the airfield. There are a lot of students absent... There´s central heating in the room. 3. Use HOW MUCH. ___________________ butter ________________in the dish? 8. no milk in it. 2. no more CDs in the box.

There are __________________________________ 8. students absent from class today. whisky left in the bottle. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? 4.. Answer these questions. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. /!ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes.3. /!ear wóznt éni bíar in !e kæn/There was no beer. Escuche.. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. Was there a TV in the room? / woz !ear e tÍ: ví: in !e rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r !ear at !e pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?).. There´s just a_______________________________ B. of trees in that park. It´s very sweet. Change into the Past Tense: 1. How many people are there on board? 7. There wasn´t any beer in the can. There´s ____________________________________ 9. How many students were there in the laboratory? 6. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (about 20) (No. because it was a leap year) ( Yes. There were many people absent. There are __________________________________ 10. There are only a ____________________________ 7. There´s very ________________________________ 4. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /!ear woz e lot ov nóis in !e rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. There aren´t many hotels in this town. Was there enough bread for all the people? 5. tickets available. Are there many errors in the bill? 10.. of errors in my check. There weren´t many books on the desk. How many students were there in this class last year? 2. 2./No había nada de cerveza en la lata. 1.THERE WERE ice in my glass. There isn´t much time to talk. How many days were there in February that year? 7. There´s a lot of work in the office today. How much coffee was there? / háu match kófi woz !ear / ¿Cuánto café había? EXERCISES: Ex. 2. 5. There are very few people in the pub. lots of cars) . of sugar in my coffee. There are __________________________________ 6. 8. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . 9. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /!ear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /!ear wé:rent/. Were there many cars in the street at that time? 30 A short course in english for adult students (yes./ !ear wóz nou bíar. How much milk is there in the fridge? 4. of course) 3. El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /!ear wóz/ / THERE WERE /!ear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. of noise in this room. 3. There are two books missing from the shelf. Is there enough money for the trip? 6. There´s very little whisky left. more than enough) ( not any) (29. /!ear wé:rnt méni buks on !e désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. not more than 30) (very little. There´s ____________________________________ 5.

How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. ____________________________________________ 8. next time? very little food in the fridge now. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. ____________________________________________ 7. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. 6. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. There is a lot of free time in the evening. There will be two more tests next week. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. 3. 2. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /!ear wil bí:/. /!ear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. How much free time __________________________ 5. 5. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. Just one or two bottles. There´ll be another meeting this evening. ____________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________ Ex. /!ear wil not bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ There won´t be two more tests next week. How many students ___________________________ 10. in your class last year? much milk left. very few flowers in our garden. /!ear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil !ear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: !is í:vni#/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil !ear bí.C. Escuche. There will not be another meeting this evening. /!earl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. There are some women at the meeting. 2. /!earl bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ . 3. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /!earl bí:/. How many women ____________________________ 2. Past or Future). ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. 1. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. Escuche. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil !ear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. /!ear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . ______________________________________________________________ 3. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /!ear wil bí: e véri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. 7. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. several trees in the park now. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. not any more exercises in the book now. 31 . ____________________________________________ 6. ____________________________________________ 3. Change into the future tense. There isn´t any food left in the fridge.1. a lot of noise at the disco last night. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. ____________________________________________ 9. En las preguntas. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. 1. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana.

3. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. How many people were there in the room at 8:30? 6. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? 9. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. 10. Answer these questions in English. How many days are there in a week? 2. 5. Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? 8. 8. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . How many students were there in your class last year? 4. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. 6. How many days will there be in February next year? 3. 8. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 1. 11. Will there be another meeting this week? 7. 9. 2. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. 9. 12.. __________________________________________ Yes. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? 4. 4. ¿Cuántos autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? 10. Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 5. 7. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 6. ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? 5. __________________________________________ No. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. __________________________________________ No. How many computers are there in your office? 5.4. 7. No hay tiempo para conversar.

94 ninety-four.971 forty-five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv "áuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. 3.000. 365 three hundred and sixty-five.000 two million /tú: mílion/ 5.. forty. US$ 4.285 d) 94 k) 6.000.365.000 five thousand. 4.687. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. thirty. 3.875 g) 148 n) 5. three hundred and eighty-seven. Ej. Las palabras hundred. 5. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. 400 four hundred. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. million y billion no van seguidas de and. two hundred and sixty-five. 68 sixty-eight. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of.” Ej. thousand.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred "áuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú: hándred/ 2. 70. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. Las palabras twenty. Ej. twenty-one. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.973 f) 28 m) 256.PART II. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.80 Ex.394 e) 33 l) 24. NUMBERS Escuche. 5. Las palabras hundred.5% . 463. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. 21. 2. el punto es coma y la coma es punto.000 one thousand /uán "áuzand/ 200.000 two thousand /tú: "áuzand/ 2.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. las palabras thousand. 12.. Al escribir cifras en inglés.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv "áuzand "ri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45. Ej. Ej.000 three million.45 km. 45 fortyfive.387 five thousand.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . 32 thirty-two. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ 30 thirty /"é:rti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /"ri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /"e:rtí:n/ 18 eighteen /eití:n/ 40 forty /fó:rti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtí:n/ 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1.

grænmá/ father-in-law /fá:!er in ló:/ mother-in-law /má!er in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /brá!er in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:!er/ step-mother /step má!er/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step brá!er/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:!er/ foster-mother /fóster má!er/ god-father /god fá:!er/ god-mother /god má!er/ papá. mujer padre madre hijos. mummy /mam. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad.papi mamá. marido esposa. daddy /dæd. personas niño/s. dædi/ mom. mum. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina 34 A short course in english for adult students . pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman/gentlemen /dlléntlman/-men/ lady/ladies /léidi/léidiz/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero/os dama/as chicos.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE (Personas) GENERAL (General) person /pe:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /ge:rl/ persona gente. niños FAMILY AND RELATIVES (La familia y los parientes) grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfá:!er/ grandmother /grandmá!er/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:!er/ mother /má!er/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /brá!er/ sister /síster/ uncle /á#kl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. grandma/græni. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny.

a lot 6.. Yes... there won´t be another meeting 7.. few 8.. There were 29. 6. 3. 1..? 10. 5..? 7..There are 10..? 5.? There are. Are there more. There are 9. Ex.. 8. 7. 12.. 11. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2.. There is 3..... There´s 6... No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7... There will be some. Sólo una o dos botellas...? 6..There aren´t any extra.. There is no time to talk.. How many. 5. 5. 1. / There´s no more. 10.. 1. few 7. are there. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end.. 5. No. There isn´t any more. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6.. is there? There´s.? There are. 10.? 6. 4. There won´t be any. there aren´t any. There´s no central.. Is there a train. There isn´t much. 9.. 3... 6.? 5. There aren´t 30... 4. There weren´t any 6. There was. 3. Will there be 5. 9. How much... There´s only 25 dollars. little B. There were only two hotels in that town.. is there. a lot 9. 1. 2.. 6. There isn´t any more. / There are no extra. There were. How many. Is there much free.. There is 8..? 4.. there weren´t more than 30 3.. is there.. there was more than enough.? There´s. How much money is there in the wallet? 5. of course.. There isn´t a. Were there 2. There isn´t Ex. Is there any more... There are 7. Will there be more than.. 2. There aren´t many. students. There are 9.. Were there.. 2.people. There weren´t...? 3. 8...? There´s. there were lots of cars. 9.... There are 7. There are 2...? 7.? 7.? There´s.. 1.. There´ll be 28 days... 1. 1. Is there a hotel.? 2. 9. How many.. How many people will there be. How many. Is there another. There was... 5.. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. How much..... Ex..Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora. There were. How many people were there. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. C. How much. there was a lot of work. 3.... There´s just one / There are.. How many. 3. There is 6...? 9. 2.. 8.. 1. 2. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. 1.. 2.Is there a restaurant near here.? 10.? 8. Are there 24. Ex. How much milk was there. Are there more than.? There are.. There won´t be another concert until next week... Are there any more. Ex....? Ex.. How much... 4.. There will be another general meeting next Friday. is there. Yes.. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.. / There are no more. There will be a lot. 2.. 8. are there. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. Will there be any.were there 10.. a lot 10.... 1. Yes. Ex. 7.? There are. are there. There aren´t any more. computers. There was very little free time during the morning. 8.. There was 8. Ex. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4. 2. 9. There were.. 3. There isn´t much money in it. 1.. There was very little.. There are 5. Ex. 4. No. 7. are there. There is 4... 2. 5.. 2. How much money will there be.... / There´s no more. 4.. 1. There were very few children in the street that day..... 1. 10..... How many.? Ex. It was a leap year..? 6.... few 2.? There´s. little 3.. 4.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A.. There aren´t many. 4. There are twelve eggs. A short course in english for adult students 35 . there are no spelling mistakes. 4. / No... a lot 5. There are 4. There are Ex. There´s a lot of noise in this room now. are there.... 1. 1...? 4. There were. 3... 3. 6. little 4... Ex... Are there any students. Was there enough. There weren´t many people in the building at that time. 3. There´s 3..... No. There wasn´t. There were about 20 .. No hay mucha leche sobrante. There are seven days. 5.. 7. are there? There are....

six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. 1.Part II. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. three hundred and twenty-eight. Ex. 36 A short course in english for adult students .

.. John _____________________________ a new uniform..1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. significa TENER. he´s got a lot.. (ones = ears) No. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) (Peter tiene muchos amigos) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /!éiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos./ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) My dog has got long ears. I have. /!e rú:mz hav gót séntral hí:ti#/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NOT GOT y HAS NOT GOT. / No. /!e rú:mz hav not gót ../ They have got a big house... Yes./ Peter hasn´t got many friends./ Have they got a big house? /hav !ei gót. But they´ve got a radio. /pí:terz gót./ Has the dog got long ears? /haz !e dóg gót. /!ei hav gót e bíg háus/ They´ve got a big house./ The rooms haven´t got central heating./ They haven´t got a big house./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót.../ I haven´t got a car. 3.../ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav !e ru:mz got. I´ve only got 5 dollars. He´s got one sister and two brothers. /mai dóg haz gót lo# íarz/ My dog´s got long ears./ Peter has not got many friends. /!e rú:mz hævent gót... lea y aprenda: I have got a car. they haven´t. /mai dóg hæzent gót. /mai dógz gót. /pí:ter haz not gót. It´s got very long ones.... Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´ T GOT /hævent got/ y HASN´ T GOT /hæzent got/ Escuche../ The rooms have not got central heating. es decir... /!eiv gót./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. The soldiers ______________________ a very good instructor. tienen) (ellos tienen) Peter has got many friends... 2./ My dog hasn´t got long ears.. /!ei hav not gót../ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche. they haven´t got one.. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót. 37 . I haven´t.... lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. /!ei hævent got./ My dog has not got long ears. /mai dóg haz not gót. (of friends) No../ They have not got a big house. /ai hav not gót.. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /!éi hav gót/ Escuche. /pí:ter hæzent gót.. They´ve got a small one. I´ve got very little (money). A short course in english for adult students Yes.UNIT 3 PART I./ The rooms have got central heating.... /ai hævent gót. Yes. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ Peter´s got many friends.. it has. tenemos) (uds. Hans ____________________________ long black hair ...

My friends ________________________ 9.. My flat ___________________________ 10. The boy has got black shoes. a small house in the country. 6. Bob´s got five dollars.4. Ex.. 10. The students have got a new instructor. 3. 6.. 6. Bob´s got our address. 2. They ´ve got very little free time. How many children have you got? 3. Ex. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. 5 Answer these questions: 1. My friends have got a telephone. The students have got some experience. My father´s got a modern car. The house has got a garden. four wheels. Bob´s got some money. three children. 4. I ________________________________ 7. We´ve got a small classroom. They´ve got our telephone number. 10. How many rooms has your house got? 8. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. 9. 2. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. The flat has got two bathrooms. 4.? 1. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. 8. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. 3.? / HOW MANY. I´ve got some cigarettes. I´ve got three children. 4. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. You´ve got many things to do today. Nancy´s got a computer. 7. 5. Bob´s got a big family. 5. A car has got four wheels . 2. Mary _____________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 8. They´ve got a big family. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. a new blue dress. 7. a lot of money. The book _________________________ 6. a son and two daughters. Have you got a computer at home? 38 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. two bedrooms. 7. 2 Change into the negative form 1. The car __________________________ Ex. We ______________________________ 5. Bob´s sister has got a car. They´ve got two cars.. You´ve got a lighter. You´ve got your passport here. 5. Have you got a big library at home? 9. 9. 3. 200 pages. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4.

A. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /!is iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /!is iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). altas. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. alta. Ej. There are several books on the desk. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). The woman is very tall. The women are very tall. This is a house /!is iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). There´s a car in the street. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. These are houses. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. SEVERAL /séveral/ (varios/as) o MANY /méni/ (muchos/as). Además. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. todos los sustantivos (noun) actúan (noun) como adjetivos (adj) cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. /!is iz an æ´pl/ (Esta es una manzana). Those are animals /!óuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden / An apple (adj) tree A one-dollar (adj) bill One exercise (adj) book A hotel (adj) manager Three apple (adj) trees A five-dollar (adj) bill Ten exercise (adj) books Two hotel (adj) managers 2. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. He is an honest man. son invariables. This is a one-way ticket. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. The men are very tall. la. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como SOME sam/ (algunos/as). /!i:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas).PART II. ADJECTIVES En inglés. los. determinados. That´s an animal /!æts an æ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. Por lo tanto. That is a tree /!æt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). That´s an orange. /!æts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. /!æts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). ARTICLES (I) 1. Compare: This is an orange. no específico. The books are old. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. This is an old car /!is iz an óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). This is an apple. The book is old. masculino o femenino. That´s a girl. Ej. EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. An apple (noun) A dollar (noun) An exercise (noun) A hotel (noun) B. The man is very tall. This is a book. /!éarz a ká:r in !e strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). altos. /!is iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). /!is iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). There is a book on the desk. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. /!is iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). plural. Ej. Ej. Those are trees /!óuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). Ejemplo. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un.

7.Ex. 1. 2. ________ 25. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . There was a car accident last Sunday. The student has got a new notebook. 6. 3. Please show me a photograph. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. There is a new student in this class. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. 11. 11. There is a letter for you. ________ 31. ________ 28. 3. 4. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. MANY or SEVERAL 1. use SOME. 15. Peter´s got a new pen. 12. ________ 19. ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. ________ 24. 8. Change these sentences into the plural. Use the indefinite articles A or AN 1. ________ 30. 1. 4. ________ 22. Mr. ________ 29. 12. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. There´s a woman in the office. ________ 18. They´ve got a horse on the farm. 14. 7. They´ve got an interesting book in the library 8. Smith. This is a car. Is this an envelope? 4. There is a student in the laboratory now. 3. 16. 9. 10. There´s a tree in the garden. Is that woman a nurse? 11. 5. 10. There will be an interesting program tonight 6. 10. This is an interesting novel. 13. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ________ 23. I´ve got a question for you. 3. That man isn´t a teacher. 9. 8. There´s a textbook on the teacher´s desk. 6. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? 14. 15. 5. 2. 13. ________ 21. ________ 32. 14. ________ 20. There´s a yellow flower in the garden. 2. That is a picture 2. ________ 27. ________ 26. I haven´t got a cigarette. Change the following sentences into the plural. 13. The boy´s got a book in English. Is that man an engineer? 12. 9. This boy isn´t a new student. 5.

It´s five past seven 8.PART III. 1. /pi: em/ It´s seven o´clock p. D. C. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. L.m. I.17:00) in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ (en la tarde / noche. EXERCISES Ex. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. It´s a quarter past two 3.m. H. It´s a quarter to ten 11. de 13:00 . It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. It´s ten past three 4.m. 10:00 p. It´s twenty-five past six 12. /éi ém/ p. 07:00 p. /pi: em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ (en la mañana. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. It´s ten to five 6.m. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a.m.m. It´s five to nine 5. J. F. It´s twenty past twelve 10. please? /wóts !e táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1.m.m. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. K. de18:00 .m. /ei em/ It´s four o´clock p. G. 04:00 p. It´s twenty to one 2. B.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. E.m. It´s half past eight 9. /pi: em/ It´s ten o´clock p.

01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 9.m.m.m. 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24. 04:00 p. 11:00 p. 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 2. 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 15. 08:00 a. 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 23. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 22. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.Ex. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 21. 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 19. Write down the times and read: What time is it? / What´s the time? It´s 8 o´clock 1. 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 20.

no plano temperado ancho. leso libre. completo bueno feliz duro. par (números) caro rápido. estrecho nuevo bonito.liviano largo angosto. brusco. incorrecto joven COLOURS (Colores) What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. enojado malo grande romo. orange /órindll/ gray. sick /il. atrasado flojo claro. sano pesado.contento pobre. amplio sabio. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. fijo. leso. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. agitado triste agudo. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. It´s blue. precursor fácil vacío parejo. bajo de estatura tonto. firme gordo tonto. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. dificil esforzado saludable. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. sik/ interesting /íntresti#/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. gratis lleno.derecho tosco. sensato maravilloso equivocado.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. adinerado correcto. puntiagudo corto. agradable raro. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. fome temprano. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /lo#/ narrow /nærrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /"ik/ thin /"in/ thirsty /"é:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /ro#/ young /ja#/ SPANISH tarde. insatisfactorio bonito rico. grey /gr i/ purple /pé:rpl/ pink /pi#k/ dark blue /dá. white and red.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES (Adjetivos) ENGLISH angry /ængri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /ké:rvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /é:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd wé:rki#/ healthy /hél"i/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /há#gri/ ill.

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12 J . Part III. have got 9.. (open answers) Part II. a 9. It´s five past ten 17...10 D .. 11.. 1. How much milk have we got? / How many bottles of milk have we got? 7. an 32. Has Bob´s sister got a. 2. I haven´t got any cigarettes. has got Ex.? 6. They´ve got horses. an 6. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. an 3.2 E . 5.. an 13. a 14.F..? 4. These boys aren´t new students 9..5 I . There are yellow flowers.. 2. I´ve got several questions.. 1.. 5.. A . 6... 8.10. has got 8. They´ve got some interesting books.. Has the boy got black.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I...? 5. It´s twenty-five past five 20.7 F . It´s three minutes to three 10. 1. The house hasn´t got.? 8.11 L .? 2. has got 3..3 H . The students haven´t got any experience. a 29..1 K . have got 7. 4.. It´s twenty past three 16. 1. an 5. Nancy hasn´t go a.? Ex. a 2. 1. 9. a 27. B. How much free time have they got? Ex. 6.? 7. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. These are interesting novels 10. 1.. There are several letters.6 Ex.. 4. 13. 15. Have the students got a.. There are many textbooks.. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24. It´s five past nine 7. Please.. an 16. There were several car accidents.. an 30. 7...? 10. 3.. I´ve got several magazines. 3. Have they got our. an 28. Have they got a.. It´s quarter past eight 21. 2. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15. We haven´t got a. a 25. There are some new students. has got 6. a 21. She hasn´t got blue. Have you got a. How many children have you got? 3. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. My friends haven´t got.. Ex. There are many women. a 11... Are those men engineers? 12. Have you got your..4 G ... 1. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. How many cars have they got? 2.. There are some trees. It´s ten to nine 3. Bob hasn´t got a. Ex... Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14. 13.9 B .. My father hasn´t got a.. 6.an 4.. 3. I´ve got friends in S. an 22...a 23. It´s half past eleven 19. There are many students. 1. It´s nine o´clock 2.They haven´t got many friends. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . 10.8 C . have got 5.. Those are pictures 2. 12. an 8. 1. 1... has got 10. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9.. How many wheels has a car got? 4. an 26... a 24. It´s twenty-five to five 22. / The students have got no experience. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23. an 12... a 20.. Have you got many.. a 18. There will be many new students.. I´ve got some coins. Ex. 5. Has Bob got any money? 3. It´s quarter to two 18.. 3.? 9... 1. It´s half past three 4. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. Has Bob got our. 7. Peter´s got new pens 8. 2. a 10. It´s quarter past one 6. a Ex. The student has got some new notebooks 14. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. have got 4. 2.. Are these envelopes? 4. show me some photographs... 8.. a 15. Those men aren´t teachers 5.. The boy has got some books. Are those women nurses? 11. a 31. These are cars 3..a 17. It´s twenty-five past three 14. It´s quarter to twelve 5. How much money has Bob got? 5. a 19. an 7.4. 9. has got 2. Ex. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11.

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Escuche. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now.. Mary is not working in Room 10 now.UNIT 4 PART I. I´m not living with my brother John A short course in english for adult students 47 . Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. AT THE MOMENT /at !e móument/ (en este momento). Este sufijo se pronuncia /i#/ . For the time being. lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. actualmente). AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. I am not living with my brother John. El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: to live /liv/ to write /ráit/ (vivir) (escribir) living /lívi#/ writing /ráiti#/ (viviendo) (escribiendo) Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. FOR THE TIME BEING /for !e táim bí: i!/ (mientras tanto. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. /hé:rberts hævi# lántch at !e móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being.Y. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL.parar) (nadar) sitting /síti#/ (sentándose) cutting /káti#/ (cortando) stopping /stópi#/ (deteniendo. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ To cut /kat/ To stop /stop/ To swim /suim/ (sentarse) (cortar) (detener. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado.transitoriamente). según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:ki#/ (hablando) eating /í:ti#/ (comiendo) working /wé:rki#/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. Escuche. They aren´t living in New York at present. They´re not living in New York at present. /mériz wé:rki# in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). parando) swimming /suími#/ (nadando) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. Hay tres grupos de verbos. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. + vocal + cons. /!éi a:r livi# in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. en la actualidad). +cons. I´m living with my brother John. /for !e táim bí:i# áim lívi# wi! mai brá!er dllón/ (Transitoriamente. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at !is táim/ (a esta hora).

ARE) con el sujeto.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. arreglar/arreglando. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. Where. fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo.. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseri#/ arriving /erráivi#/ asking /á:ski#/ asking for /á:ski# fo:r// buying /báii#/ closing /klóuzi#/ coming /kámi#/ cutting /káti#/ doing /dú:i#/ drinking /drí#ki#/ driving /dráivi#/ drying /dráii#/ eating /í:ti#/ finishing /fínishi#/ fixing /fíksi#/ giving /gívi#/ going /góui#/ helping /hélpi#/ inviting /inváiti#/ learning /lé:rni#/ leaving /lí:vi#/ listening to /lísni# tu/ living /livi#/ looking at /lúki# at/ making /méiki#/ opening /óupni#/ paying /péii#/ playing /pléii#/ putting /púti#/ reading /rí:di#/ receiving /risí:vi#/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando pedir/pidiendo. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. Escuche. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´ T / AREN´ T delante del sujeto.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo . When. Escuche. How. IS. tocar/tocando (un instr. Escuche. etc. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: i#/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. How often. The children are playing soccer. 1.

intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando (ropas) trabajar/trabajando. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 ./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:di# létez/!e niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rki# in !i ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:ki# wi! fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:vi# !i ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:i# !e shópi#/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báii# !e péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchi# tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísni# tu !e niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráiti# tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóli# áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléii# kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:ki# tu !e pa:rk/ Running across the park /ráni# akrós !e pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:i# éksersaiz/ Working out /wérki# áut/ Visiting a museum /víziti# a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádii# for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshi# !e ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíini# !e háus/ Making the bed /méiki# !e béd/ Tidying up the room /táidii# áp !e rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúki# a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéari# sam drí#ks/ Going to bed /góui# tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /géti# ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hævi# e ba:"/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /géti# drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hævi# brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góui# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráivi# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.pasar/pasando (tiempo) empezar/empezando. Escuche.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réini#/ running /ráni#/ saying /séii#/ selling /séli#/ sending /séndi#/ singing /sí#i#/ sitting /síti#/ sleeping /slí:pi#/ speaking /spí:ki#/ spending /spéndi#/ starting /stá:rti#/ staying /stéii#/ studying /stádii#/ taking /téiki#/ talking /tó:ki#/ telling /téli#/ thinking /"í#ki#/ travelling /træveli#/ trying to /tráii# tu/ waiting for /wéiti# fo:r/ walking /wó:ki#/ washing /wóshi#/ watching /wótchi#/ wearing /wéari#/ working /wé:rki#/ writing /ráiti#/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. 2.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando.

The girl´s washing the dishes. For the time being. 5. (cut) 12. We´re making a lot of progress. 8. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. 8. Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) 11. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. (go) 3. They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. I´m helping John with the work 5. John´s having breakfast now.They´re looking at the horses. Mary´s eating an apple now. It´s raining very hard now. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . 10. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 4. 11. The students _________________________ to school now. You ___________________________ the exercises well now. 7. George is travelling by plane. The dog´s drinking milk. I´m answering a letter. The students are reading a story. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. There are several students in the gym. The children are watching TV 2. There´s a man in the garden. (do) 8. John and his friends are watching TV. 9. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. You´re doing the exercise correctly. (visit) 6. Why. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. 6. Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) 10. (spend) 9. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. The train_____________________________ at the station at this time.The men are running now. 11. The cadet´s sleeping in class. 9. 2. I´m singing because I´m happy. 6. 12.I´m trying to open the window. 4. Bill´s answering the phone. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. 10. They´re living in Bristol at present. Ask questions using questions word like What. 7. 4. He__________________________ the grass. (arrive) 7. Mr. (listen) 2. The boy´s singing an English song.Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences. 1. Where. 3. 5. (work) 5. The students are writing a composition. 1. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 12. etc. (wait) 4.

of course! Robert : Well.then. 6. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. he isn´t. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. No. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep). That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. let´s go for a walk. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. And Betty´s in the kitchen. He ____________ (study) for a test. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering.. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. I ___________ (go) there.Ex. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. A short course in english for adult students 51 . 3. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. He ____________ (sleep). And Jim´s in his room. you know. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. too.

TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /man"/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. o también. I was born on August the fifteenth. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. se usan para expresar fechas. o también. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. o también. The date today is Wednesday.PART II. Jane´s birthday is on June the twenty-fifth /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on dllú:n !e tuénti fíf"/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /iléven"/ Twelfth /tuélf"/ Thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ Fourteenth /fortí:n"/ Fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ Sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ Seventeenth /seventí:n"/ Eighteenth /eití:n"/ Nineteenth /naintí:n"/ Twentieth /tuéntie"/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti "é:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:r"/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fíf"/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síks"/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti séven"/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éit"/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náin"/ Thirtieth /"értie"/ Thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on !e tuénti fíf" ov dllú:n/. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on !e fiftí:n" ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. Summer /sámer/ Verano. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. May the first. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /"é:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:r"/ 5th Fifth /fif"/ 6th Sixth /six"/ 7th Seventh /séven"/ 8th Eighth /éit"/ 9th Ninth /náin"/ 10th Tenth /tén"/ Escuche. A. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. "áuzand tú:/. Los números ordinales son: 1st. Spring /spri#/ Primavera. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /"é:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi méi !e fé:rst tú. The months of the year are: January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. "áuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mán"s/ in a year. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on ó:gast !e fiftí:n" náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi !e fé:rst ov méi tú.

05.1492 14. What´s the last month of the year? 13. 2.30.09. 01. 02. Answer the following questions: 1. What are the seasons of the year? 7. When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 . How many hours are there in a day? 15.07. What´s the third day of the week? 12.EXERCISES Ex.2000 6.1987 12. What are the days of the week? 9. 18. What day is today? 4.27.2003 The twelfth of September.08.12. What´s the first month of the year? 11. When is your birthday? 2. When was your father born? 3. 05. 07. How many days are there in a week? 6. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 18. When is New Year´s Day? 16. 04.05. What are the months of the year? 10. 12. 1. Write the following dates. How many months are there in a year? 14. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth.1938 3.03.12.03.1956 13. 10.1810 8.11.01. 06.1978 9. as in the examples: 1.28.1956 15.1893 10.09. 02.02.1963 2.1906 4. 12. 10. 08.1900 5. What´s your favo(u)rite season? 8.1999 11. What´s the date today? 5.2001 7.

dark /da:rk/ oscuro.. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu ló#/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu fæst/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu "ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big. Nota importante: Como Ud. habrá advertido... long. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo.. altura size /saiz/ tamaño.? /háu wel/ How heavy. oval /óuval/ ovalado light /láit/ liviano heavy /hévi/ pesado. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /"ik/ grueso.200 mt.like?* /wot. round /ráund/ redondo. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm.. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are.. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. big /big/ grande huge /hiu:dll/ enorme tiny /táini/ diminuto. square /skwear/ cuadrado.70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km.. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were.. Iz /a:r. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km.. new /niú:/ nuevo long /lo#/ largo... 1. young /ya#/ joven old /ould/ viejo.B.? /háu big?/ How well.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. viejo. thin /"in/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. shallow /shælou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto.) para describir objetos. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. light /láit/ claro 54 A short course in english for adult students .. How high is that hill? It´s about 1. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /le#"/ longitud width /wi"/ anchura thickness /"iknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /dep"/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz. etc.

los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.000th 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS (Números ordinales) first /fé:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /"é:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:r"/ cuarto fifth /fif"/ quinto sixth /siks"/ sexto seventh /sévn"/ séptimo eighth /éit"/ octavo ninth /náin"/ noveno tenth /tén"/ décimo eleventh /ilévn"/ décimo primero twelfth /twelf"/ décimo segundo thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:n"/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:n"/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:n"/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:n"/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntie"/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fé:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /"é:rtie"/ trigésimo thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtie"/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftie"/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstie"/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntie"/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitie"/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintie"/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándre"/ centésimo one thousandth /wan "áuznd"/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílion"/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES (Tiempo y Fechas) 1.000 one thousand /wan "áuznd/ mil 1.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.000. DAYS OF THE WEEK (Días de la semana) Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /"e:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ´te:rdi/ Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo Nota: En Inglés. temporada año siglo 2. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS (Numerales) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Números cardinales) 1 one /wan/ uno dos 2 two /tu:/ 3 three /"ri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho nueve 9 nine /nain/ 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /"é:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /"é:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /"é:rti wán/ treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1. UNITS OF TIME (Unidades de tiempo) second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ segundo minuto hora día semana month /mán"/ season /sí:zon/ year /íar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación.

SEASONS OF THE YEAR (Estaciones del año) summer /sámer/ verano autumn / fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ otoño 4. 2001 (the second of May.3. DATES (Fechas) Today is Monday. MONTHS OF THE YEAR (Meses del año) January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. 2nd May. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre winter /wínter/ spring /spri#/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students .

The boy isn´t singing.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. 2. are spending 9. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. What are John and his friends doing? 3. He was born on. Why isn´t he working? 8. 1.. What are the students reading? 6.. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12...going Hans : am going / are . What´s Mary eating now? 2.? 12. The fifth of December. nineteen fifty-six 15... Summer and Autumn / Fall 7. New Year´s day is on the first of January. The second of November.. July the second. We aren´t making much. The date today is. 3.. is waiting 4. You aren´t doing the exercises.. Saturday and Sunday. October. July. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. is arriving 7. October the twelfth. May.... 2.. nineteen hundred 5.3. is working 5... April. February. 4.... The months of the year are January.. The days of the week are Monday. June the third two thousand three Ex. Hans: are . The tenth of August. / Are we making much. Spring. The students aren´t writing. / Are the students writing. The first of January.. Tuesday.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex.. June.. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4.. are going 3. 1.? 9. nineteen eighty-seven 12. nineteen fifty-six 13. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. are working out Ex. The fifth of May.. Jane: is .? 7. Friday.. August.. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. nineteen thirty-eight 3.The first month of the year is January 11.? Ex.. 8. 2. two thousand one 7. eighteen ten 8. is my favority season. 6.. How´s George travelling? 7.. September. February the twenty-eighth. The eighteenth of September. Where are they living at present? 4. Today´s... The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. / Am I helping John. The cadet isn´t sleeping.. fourteen ninety-two 14. nineteen seventy-eight 9. What are the men doing now? 11. 16. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. 5. are visiting 6.? 10. two thousand 6. / Is the cadet sleeping. are doing 8. What are you trying to do? 12. 5. 3. is cutting 12. Why are you singing? 10. There are seven days 6.. 1. 1.? 8. Thursday.. 1. It´s on. The last month of the year is December 13. The seasons of the year are Winter.. There are twelve months in a year 14. am listening 2. 1. eighteen ninety-three 11.driving Bob: are fixing 2. nineteen oh six 4. / Are you doing the exercises. The eighteenth of July. / Is it raining. What are they looking at? Ex. 9.. 4. / Is the boy singing. March... is coming 10.studying / is doing Peter: is planning . Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth A short course in english for adult students 57 . August the twenty-seventh. I´m not helping John..? 5. The twelfth of March. It isn´t raining. November and December 10. Wednesday. What are you doing? 5.. are speaking 11.

Bl 58 .

You. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. the telephone. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega tenis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). -sh. etc. -ch-. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. /ai ófn sí: méri at !e kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). plays /pléiz/.changes /tchéindlliz/. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). etc. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). /hi: spí:ks spæ´nish and í#glish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bien) The secretary answers the telephone. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. persona del singular (he. Los verbos have. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). etc. -x. /wi: góu tu !e bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. A short course in english for adult students 59 . /!e sékretri ánserz !e télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. a month /e mán"/ (al mes). /!éi ólwiz kám híar on sæ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. three times /"ri: táimz/ (tres veces). Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). goes /góuz/. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. Escuche.studies. seldom / séldom/ (raramente). she.). every morning /évri mó:ni#/ (todas las mañanas). The students. Cuando decimos. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:ni#/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). it). “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. /!e bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * Bob washes the car on saturday. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . En la forma afirmativa. watches /wótshiz/.UNIT 5 PART I.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez).vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. You and I. /ai spí:k spænish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) ´ We go to the beach every summer. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. -ce. it. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. change /tchéindll/ . do.rises /ráiziz/. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). does /daz/. se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente). pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . en forma habitual. she. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. /!e sán ráiziz in !i í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. never /néver/ (nunca). EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana).) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal.etc. the boy. /bób wóshiz !e ka:r on sæ My wife watches TV in the evening. el SUJETO (I. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in !i í:vni#/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. /!e stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana) Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. /dllón tchéidlliz !e bátriz wáns e mán"/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra.

HOW.. My friends haven´t got a new car. He speaks English well. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. Escuche. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month?. The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones). Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. We go to the beach every summer. etc. Mary has many friends in Canada. Mary has got many friends in Canada. The bus stops here. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada?. Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car?. comer. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. beber. Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday?. Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home?. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es). My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´ T / DOESN´ T. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well?.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. Do the students play /du !e stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. The students play soccer every day. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning?. Escuche. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car. WHEN. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada. HOW MUCH. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót læ#guidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du !ei góu tu !e bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz !e bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll !e bæteriz évri mán"/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. WHERE. My wife watches TV in the morning. We have lunch at school every day. Does the bus stop /dáz !e bás stóp/ here?. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). Escuche. divertirse). Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day?. o experimentar. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse.

Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b.21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex.TIME EXPRESSIONS (I) EXERCISES Ex. I watch TV after dinner You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . 2. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 . Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri "é:rzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:ni#/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæte:rdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vni#/ Every morning /évri mó:ni#/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vni#/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mán"/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /"ri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mán"/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in !e sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in !i ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in !e wínter/ In the spring /in !e spri#/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. 1.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 .

2. (wash) 9. I have dinner at work. b) interrogative. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. Myriam________________________the floor once or twice a week. The children _____________________ at this time every morning. (speak) 10. We seldom ________________________ to the North in the summer. They live near here. I never __________________________________Spanish at school. (eat) 12.m. John _____________________ the newspaper on the train every day. I do the exercises well You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. The students sometimes ______________________ rugby at school. My wife and I often ___________________________ in that restaurant. Change the following sentences into a) negative. I ____________________________breakfast at 7:15 every morning. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. (leave) 11. (watch) Ex. (play) 6. The train ___________________ in London at 7:50 every morning. (optional) 1. 3. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. (have) 4.c. 4. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. Mr Smith ______________________ TV after dinner every evening. (get up) 2. Then translate them into Spanish. Peter _________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. (read) 5. and c) Wh-questions: 1. The manager generally _______________ the office after 8:00 p. (go) 3. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . I study English every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. (play) 7. (arrive) 8.

1. Answer these questions in English: 1. The students need more practice. WHEN. Peter watches TV every night. We go to the club on Friday. They get up at 7:15 every morning. Ex. She lives near Wimbledon. They play golf twice a week. They come here twice a week. 14. 7. How many weeks are there in a year? _________________________________________________ 2. Ex. The children are in the park. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? _________________________________________________ 10. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. Are there any trees in your garden? _________________________________________________ 5. 10. Bob always drinks beer. 6. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 63 . They don´t like the car because it´s too small. What do you do after dinner every evening? _________________________________________________ 7. etc. 4. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. 7. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. 10. 3. HOW. Bob is in the office. 8. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 5. Peter does everything well. What´s he doing? _________________________________________________ 3. WHERE. They work out every morning. 9. What are they doing? _________________________________________________ 6. They go to the park on Sunday. They need twenty dollars. Mary comes to work by bus.3. They have two cars. How much free time is there in an intensive course? _________________________________________________ 8. 5. 13. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 2. That man speaks German. 9. 6. 8. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. 11. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in class? _________________________________________________ 9. 12. 6. They have two cars now. How many legs has a dog got? _________________________________________________ 4.

Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. 7. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. Ex. We_______ just ____________ TV. (work) 2. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. (understand) 16. 6. 4. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. (do / watch) 14. 3. 8. 9. (begin) 12. (come) 6. (work) 8. every day. 4. He ___________________________ a green uniform. 5. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. 7. 9. 6. (open / close) 13. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. Who can it be? (play) 17. 2. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. 1. I don’t understand this sentence. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. 5. (watch) 4. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. 8. You must always speak to him in English. 2. 10. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. Put the verb into the correct form. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. (go) 5. (come) 7. 5. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. Look at that man. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. 3. Rice ___________________________________ in Britain. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. 3.m. 4. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11.Ex. (not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (banks / close) A: Where __________________________________from? (Martin / come) B: He’s Scottish. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. For the time being. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. Look! John __________________________ over there. He must be a police officer. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. 6. 2. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. Ex. Hello. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). A: What __________________________________? (you / do) B: I’m an electrical engineer. Bees __________________________________ honey. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. 7. Mr. I never ___________________________ coffee. (leave) 3.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p.

not) _____________________up right now. I usually (sit) _______________________ at the same desk in class every day. Alice (take. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. It (rain. Look out of the window. Black´s at home. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. but the children (watch. 11. (Rain. It´s 7:30 a. not) __________________________ TV either. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. There´s a cartoon on TV now. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. 5. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . 4.Ex. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. not) ___________________________________ it. 7. it). Mrs. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. but this morning they (pay. They (play) ____________________________ with their toys instead. It´s 7 o´clock now. She always (eat) ______________________ dinner with her family around six o´clock.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. Arabic is his native language. 1. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. Mrs. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. 10. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. Our teacher (stand. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. 6. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . not) __________________right now. (Rain. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. They (like. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk.m. 3. 2. or (walk. (Take.

to?* /wéar . Jack visits his parents twice a month. 8. 3. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where.with?* /wot. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday.? (Descripción de personas .. 15. las preguntas que comienzan con PREPOSICIÓN + WHOM / WHAT / WHERE.. whom vuelve a ser who) Ex...at?* /wot. 66 A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . A. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14.. 13. 12. 16. 2. It takes me about 20 minutes to get there.. I like Mary because she´s very friendly.with?* /hu:. about?* /wot. They look at the stars with the telescope...wi$/ Who. Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. QUESTION WORDS.. What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?..PART II.. oranges and pears 4... 1.. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?. for/ What.abáut/ What. California 7. We go to the South in the summer.....wi$/ What. 11... Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin... Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1.físico) EXAMPLE What is that? .. 5. normalmente trasladan la preposición al final.. We take photographs with a camera...look like? /wót du /daz.. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning.from/ Where.about?* /hu: . The boys usually talk about football. 6... abáut/ Who. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?.. tu/ Who.. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes 10. They need twenty-five dollars.for/ What. Ann likes apples.from?* /wéar .lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son.. 9.for?* /hu:.at/ What do /does. Nota: Muy a menudo... What´s your opinion? Who is that man?....for?* /wot. I go there three times a week. My friends come from San Diego..

We all need _______________fresh air. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. 13. experience. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. 7. los y las . Supply the definite article (the). Gold is an important metal. We like _________ animals. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. The gold in this ring is of good quality. We are studying ______________history of France.17. students. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. The books which I want are on the table. la. 18. 17. 1. The students go to the gym after lunch. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. people. 12. Books are expensive in Chile. 6.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . I always drink ________________water with my meals. ______________ air in large cities is not very fresh. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. ______________ water in this glass is dirty. 11. milk. ______________ animals in that photograph are wild animals. ______________ history is an interesting subject. se traduce como el. es decir. ______________ fish in the refrigerator is fresh. 3. ______________ children like to watch cartoons. Ann writes detective stories. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. 20. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. 10.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. cats. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. 1. Ex. Girls work harder than boys. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. ______________ light in this room is not good. 15. 14. 5. (Fresh air is good for the health). 8. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún artículo con los suntantivos incontables (water. men. happiness. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. 9. ______________ leather in these shoes is very good. 4. in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. money. 16. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired. 2. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. 19. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. where necessary. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B. ______________ air in this room is not good. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. etc.

Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? 5. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? 13. 3. 2. animal o cosa estamos hablando. 12. The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? 19. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. Smith´s office. Are these the envelopes __________________you need? 14. The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. This is the book which we use in class. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? 6. The woman crossing the road is my wife. 68 A short course in english for adult students . The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. C. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting.Mr. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas. Smith´s office. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona. 3. Ex. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. 4.. I don´t know the man in Mr. 20. I don´t know the man who is in Mr. That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. The cars imported from Japan are really good. 15. 8.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. 9. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? 10. 2. 11. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class.18. The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. This is the book we use in class. (I would like = me gustaría) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. 7. The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. The men trained at our school are good pilots. 16. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. En inglés. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? 20. The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? 17. 18. John is the student_________________ speaks English well.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 4. or the word groups WHO IS/ ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible. Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 3. 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Smith. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The girl with him is his sister 2. 6. 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. Translate the following sentences into English. 11. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 1. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.Ex. 19. 7. 18. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. as in the example: 1. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 16. 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 10. 17. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. 2.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students .5. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas.

arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stóki#z/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fí#ger ri#/ parka /pá:rka /.siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro. anorak /ænorak/ leather jacket /lé!er dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 .BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllæket/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarri#/ sunglasses /sanglá.

72 A short course in english for adult students .

/Does that man speak.......? Do we work here. Ann doesn´t study English.? Do you play tennis..? Do we study English...get up 2. 3........ They have dinner at work..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex....... We don´t do the exercises......? Does Bill play tennis...?/ What time does the bus leave? 5.. Ann doesn´t do the exercises. Peter doesn´t watch.....? Does Ann go to the movies.. Bill doesn´t watch TV.? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex.. You study English every day Bill studies English....speak 10. You don´t study English..?/ What does Peter do every night? 4....... They don´t do the exercises. Mary doesn´t like.. Ann doesn´t watch TV. You don´t play tennis.. They go to the movies. Ann doesn´t have dinner....... Bill doesn´t work here....plays 7. We don´t go to the movies. They don´t study English...... You don´t watch TV...?/ What does Bob always drink? 8...washes 9.. 4.. Ann goes to the movies.. /Does Mary like.? What language does that man speak? 6. We don´t study English.. The bus doesn´t leave..? Does Ann study English....... /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 .? Does Ann watch TV.. They don´t work out..? Do we play tennis. /Does the bus leave.watches Ex.? Do they go to the movies.? Does Ann work here..... Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every..? Do you watch TV. They don´t live... You have dinner at work...... Interrogative Do you work here. Ann doesn´t work here. Bill doesn´t go to the movies. We have dinner at work.. We play tennis.. Bob doesn´t always drink... We don´t have dinner..play 6.leaves 11.... They don´t go to the movies.? Do they study English... You don´t do the exercises.. 2.. 1.?/ Where do they live? 3.... They play tennis.go 3..... Bill doesn´t do the exercises. /Do they work out...? Do we go to the movies...? Does Ann play tennis.... They don´t have.. We don´t watch TV.... /Does Peter watch.reads 5...have 4. Ann has dinner at work.. They don´t watch TV.. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here.....? Do you study English.. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis. Bill goes to the movies.... Ann doesn´t go to the movies......? Do they work here...? Do you go to the movies. Ann studies English. They don´t work here... 1.? Does Bill work here.? Do we watch TV..arrives 8.. Ann plays tennis. Bill doesn´t study English. We go to the movies. We don´t work here../ What does Mary like to drink? 2... Bill has dinner at work.. You don´t have dinner.. Bill doesn´t have dinner..? Do they play tennis. They don´t have dinner..... We study English...? Does Bill watch TV.... They study English. /Do they live .. Bill doesn´t play tennis. They don´t play tennis....? Do they watch TV...? Does Bill go to the movies... Ann doesn´t play tennis... That man doesn´t speak.? Does Bill study English............ We don´t play tennis..eat 12.. You don´t go to the movies.. /Does Bob always drink.?/ When do they work out? 7.

What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. Peter doesn´t do. Ex. stamps . are-doing 15. is wearing Ex. meat 15. 1. 1. 1.they have. translates 8. He hardly ever/never uses it. How many cars do they have now? 12. 2. 8. Is it raining 9. 1. stamps 18.. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. doesn´t grow 3. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18.. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. When does Bob go to bed early? B. The air 12. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. /Does Peter do. rises 4. 5. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. drink 3. Where do your friends come from? 7. It´s got four legs 4. the history 4.coins 19. 1. 1. 10. do-like 18. 15. Yes. Ex. animals 13. How long does it take you to get there? 11.. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. Why do you like Mary? 17. speaks/is speaking 4. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. How much money do they need? 11. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. doesn´t believe 7. The fish 16. 16. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. is not raining / is shining / is 7. 7. am sitting/sit 3. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. do the banks close 3.closes 4. is playing 17. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20.. take place Ex. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. speaks 2. 6. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. English books / The magazines C. good light 5.. They´re playing /running/ etc. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Where does she live? 2. When do you go to the club? 8. leather 10. The stamps . Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. 1. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/ she is sick Ex. 1..don´t play 7. History 3. They don´t come.. do-go 10. flows Ex. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. fresh air 11. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. goes 2. are-living 9.. How often do they play golf? 3. Ex. leaves 3. 9. does Martin come 4. causes 5. There is very little free time 8. 6. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. The water 8.. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. does this word mean? Ex. opens . I usually spend my summer vacation in. There are fifty-two weeks in a year. The book which I want is on the table 3. play . isdoing 11. Where does John go in the summer? 6.water 7. don´t eat 6. John is the student who speaks English well. 74 A short course in english for adult students . The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. are-doing/are-watching 14. does-understand 16. A. do you do 5.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. do-get 20. What do they do on Sunday? 9. live 6. 1. He´s working 3. opens-closes 13. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5.. 9. 1. 1. 10. How often do you go there? 12.the coins 20. How much money do they need? 3. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. is working 8. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. What does Susan look like? 2. 8. is watching 4. The leather 9.. doesn´t tell 9. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. Children 17. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. there aren´t any trees 5.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. there are some trees/No. What do the students need? 5.. is beginning 12. 12. What do you take photographs with? 16. Does it rain 8. The animals 14. 7. is working 2. takes/does it take 6. The light 6. The air 2. go 5. Where do you go in the summer? 5. 1. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. make 5. doesn´t drink 2. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. is sleeping/sleeps 2. is not standing/is sitting 5. is eating/eats 6. 11.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. are-studying 19. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. 1. is coming 6. How does Mary come to work? 7.The men who are working in that room are engineers. comes 7. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. /Do they come.

1. usa todos los días? 19. Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. 3. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. 16. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. The girl with him is his sister 2. 12. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6.18. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. 12. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. ¿Es el Sr. 8.The people who are working in that office are engineers. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. 16. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. 3. ¿Es este el computador que ud. Ex. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. 4.The men working in that room are engineers. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. 15. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 1. 2. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. Ex. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. 1. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. 10. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. ¿Es este el diario que ud. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. 8. The man driving the car is my father 4. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 2. 15. necesita? 14. That is exactly the car I would like to have. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. The people described in the story are very interesting. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3.Ex. 5. John is the student who speaks English well. The books which are on that chair are mine. lee todos los días? 13. The book I want is on the table 3. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6.

Bl 76 .

bought . EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado.bought. We worked hard that day. lea y aprenda: (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 1. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t !e ká:r lá:st íar/ 2.To buy . como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). /pí:ter didnt kám.2. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). To stop . La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (no el pasado) de un verbo principal. 4. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer).. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. To work .came . pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. 2.. /pí:ter kéim híar "rí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: To stop . mientras que los de los ejemplos 4..cleaned . 5.worked 6./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd !éi sí:.-de. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado.. va en INFINITIVO... To clean . Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. completed /komplí:tid/..come. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/... 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. To see . como two days ago (hace dos días). También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO.. estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. needed /ní:did/.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). that day (ese día). / A short course in english for adult students 77 .worked ..../ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. -te.. Escuche. To decide también agregan -ed/-d. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche). al igual que en la forma negativa. /wí: dídnt wé:rk. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd !at déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. /!éi dídnt sí:. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /!ei stópt tó:ki# wen !e tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó) Como ud./ We didn´t work hard that day. En los Ejemplos 1. Escuche. To complete./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). /!éi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4.. 1810)... last night (anoche). To need. last year (el año pasado). A menudo. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year”. They saw a good film yesterday.UNIT 6 PART I. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1.cleaned.seen. To come . tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado). lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. the day before yesterday (anteayer).saw . last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. /méri klí:nd !e háus iésterdi mó:rni#/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana) 5. /ai dídnt bái.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). on September 18th. /méri didnt klí:n. Peter came here three days ago.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares.stopped . como To want.. Los verbos terminados en -t. decided /disáidid/. -d./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. como last week (la semana pasada). 3. o una hora o fecha pasada. en la conversación diaria. Escuche.etc.

?) EXERCISES: Ex. pedir fumar comenzar. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. esforzarse usar. atender . localizar mirar amar. responder llegar preguntar.../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd !éi sí:. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar.. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.... 1./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. WHEN. etc.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.. utilizar visitar esperar. desear invitar escuchar ubicar.../ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dú:/ (¿Qué hizo ud. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. pedir transportar./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n. WHERE..... no gustar ayudar esperar.. HOW.. partir quedarse./ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk. arreglar repetir solicitar. gustar terminar odiar...

colocar leer correr. fabricar reunirse. servirse oir guardar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. creer brillar entender. 2. salir. decir pensar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . obtener.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. mantener saber. narrar. mirar desear trabajar. administrar (un negocio) decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. Study the Past Tense form of the following irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. conocer aprender. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. enterarse partir. saber. funcionar Ex. extraviar hacer. comer. dejar prestar perder. llevar enseñar contar. conocer pagar poner.

To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. 17. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Father tells the boy a story every night. Bob washes the car every Saturday. We have a test every week. 13. __________________________________________ last week. The boy reads a book every month. 10. They bought the car in Paris. They go to Europe every year. The postman brings a letter every Monday. 4. 19. 12. 6. 4. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. 8. It rains a lot here every winter. 18. desgastar escribir Ex. 8.000 dollars. 9. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. 6. 2. 2. 5. 4. I sleep well every night. They sell lots of books every year. They eat fish every Friday. 7. We watch TV every night. 15. We had dinner at the Club. We enjoy our vacation every summer. The boy did the exercise well. 7. They studied English in London. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . John sold his house for 120. 3. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. They saw the car accident. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 14. 16. We went to work by bus. Mary visits her parents every month. They receive a letter every week. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. 3. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. 3. 20. Peter came here yesterday. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. I write to Mary every week-end. 11. 10. 5. Peter comes here every week. I wanted to drink tea. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 9. I give the boy a present every year.

9. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. ___________________________________________________ 6 Did you watch TV last night? If so. The children got up at 6:30 3. He went to the zoo yesterday. etc. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. 8. 6. 6. HOW. How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ 4. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . 5. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. 5. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Did Mr. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. They came here by taxi. What did you eat for dinner last night?. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. I didn´t (go by bus). HOW MUCH. WHERE. WHEN. what did you watch? _________________________________________________ 7. I went by taxi. What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. 7. Bob did the same exercise three times. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. 2. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ 5. 7. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. He went to the doctor because he was ill.Ex. He didn´t go because he was tired. 4. When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ 3. 10. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. Bill spent one hundred dollars. The boy wanted to play. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. HOW OFTEN. Peter saw the film last week. 1. In each case.

Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19.16. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students . Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17.

any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Uncle Paul lived in that house.. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal).. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? (¿Dónde pasabas tus vacaciones de verano cuando eras joven?). anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3... Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4... Explain the change in meaning.. as in the examples Bob used to work in the car factory. I rode the subway to work. He no longer loves her now.. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. (not. Mr. John Kerry went to that school.. I don´t play well now. ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 83 . (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas). En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not.. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) 1. Bob used to love ama). (not. Mary spoke Italian at home. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /!ei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. We exported shoes to the USA. (not. Peter was a good student. (not. Scott smoked cigars... now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. Scott used to smoke cigars.PART II. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. Equivale a la terminación -aba o -ía del español.. (Bob la amaba mucho. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ Bob worked in the car factory. (not... but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway. (Jim no trabajaba mucho en el colegio. anymore. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Escuche. Bill helped me with my homework. Bill brought her flowers every Friday. not. EXERCISES Ex 1. Ann came to class on time every day. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. Mother played the piano well. (not.. (not.. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano). now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10.. (not.

. 1. Mr and Mrs. (de ella) We´ve got a house. 7. Mrs. (mío) Mary bought this car last year. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /!éi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. Clark goes to ___________ office every day 5. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. I walk to ___________ chair 2. Escuche. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y a un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. His /hiz/= suyo. EXERCISES Ex. The teacher writes with ___________ pen. Mr. You walk to ___________ school every morning. 3. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. The car is hers. We moved to ___________ new house last month. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. 8. The house of Mr Smith is very big. This is our house (nuestra casa). agregando un APÓSTROFE + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. That is the car of my brother. They went back to ___________ seats and began to write. The students´ books are new. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. Jones take ___________ children to the park on Sunday. (mi libro) The book is mine. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. John walks to___________ desk. This is my book. This is the house of my parents. The house is ours. A. 1. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). de ud. This is my parents´ house. This is John´s book. Escuche. 6. The books of the students are new. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /!éar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo..(su auto). It is her car. That´s my brother´s car. Escuche. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. es decir. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /!éarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. Smith´s house is very big. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. 4.PART III.

the cat is _______________. as in the example: 1. Jones has a new car. The dog wags ______ tail.9. This is the pen of Helen. 9. the English books are _______________. the dog is mine . 11. What´s the name of that man? 14. Is this your pencil? 10. Helen and Mary have two English books. You have a pen.2 . 10. the dog is _______________. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 7. 5. We have two English books. the English books are _______________. 7. 9. 5. I have a dog. Helen has a cat. 4. That’s the home of my teacher. This is her room. the car is _______________. This is the notebook of William. 3. 10. The friend of my sister is very sick. 8. 12. 2. 3. A short course in english for adult students 85 . This is the wife of Mr Smith. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. the pen is _______________. That is Helen’s notebook. Change the underlined words into the Possessive form. 10. 4. This book is mine. 4. the dog and the cat are _______________. the pen is _______________. The office of Mr. He’s also the teacher of my friend. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. 6. That is the room of the teachers. This is the book of John. 3. John has a dog. You have a dog and a cat. This is the teacher’s desk. 13. 4. These are Peter´s cigarettes. This is John’s office. 8. These are our seats. ____________________________________________________ This room ___________________________________________ This office ___________________________________________ He took his book and left _____________________________ These newspapers ___________________________________ These ______________________________________________ That ________________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Is this_____________________________________________ ? or Is this coat ________________________________________ ? These ______________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Ex. Mr. 2. He’s the teacher of Helen. He took his book and left my book. 3. This is my book. The desk of the teacher is new. These are their newspapers. the dog and the cat are _______________. 6. Smith is very large. Mary has a new pen. My brother drives ______ car every day. Is this your coat or her coat? 11. The house of my friends is beautiful. 12. 6.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. This is my notebook.. 5. 7. I have a dog and a cat. 8. Ex. 9.

(last summer) 9. you. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) 10. it. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. Use object pronouns (me. 14. I know William and his wife very well. I understand the teacher very well. John likes Mary. When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) 8. 7. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. Is this letter for Mr. When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. Substitute the correct pronoun for the underlined word or words: 1. 2. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The teacher likes Mary and William. EXERCISES Ex. Bob studies his book every day. her. 1. When did she send the letters? (last Monday) 5. 8. They are talking about the accident. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. When did they eat the apples? (this morning) 12. them) instead of the underlined word or words: 1. Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un DIRECT OBJECT (complemento directo) o a un INDIRECT OBJECT (complemento indirecto) y. 4.B. She speaks with John. When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) 4. 6. por lo tanto. 11. When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) 6. When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) 3. When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) 7. 5. When did she spend the money. James goes with John and Alice to the club. 9. 12. 13. 2. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /!ei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /!em/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) 2. I like this song very much. him. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. us. William studies the book 3. When did he invite you? (last month) 11. 10.

gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote. sacerdote clerk /kle´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero inspector (trenes) conductor /kondáktor/ doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. boticario clergyman /kle ´:rdlliman/ clérigo.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (Profesiones y oficios) actor actor /æktor/ actress /æktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barbero. peluquero barber /bá:rber/ butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dréser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllænitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dlló:rnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ abogado manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póusman/ priest /pri:st/ real state agent /rial steil éidllent/ realtor /riáltor/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretari/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /sí#ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /tekníshan/ teacher /tí:tcher/ telephonist /teléfonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wótchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. cura corredor de propiedades corredor de propiedades recepcionista vendedor (de tienda) secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario.

88 A short course in english for adult students .

they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. He spoke to me in French...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. He doesn´t go to that school now 10... 12. 20. A. he didn´t (feel weel) .. They listened to the radio. No.. 5..They didn´t buy the.? / Where did we have dinner? 9. 9.. How did they come here? 6... 19. No she didn´t (send me a fax) .3. Part II Ex. She left late.. He said “No” 7. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. No. No. Study List of Regular and Irregular Verbs Ex. He wrote a short story. 1.. At what time did the children get up? 3... 4. They went to . No.. 20. 1. He broke his leg. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. 4. Mother used to play the piano well. 4. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday anymore 7. 1. 12. Part III.our 8. We didn´t go to... 10. 3.. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7... 9. The boy didn´t do the. he didn´t (say “yes”). he didn´t (break his arm).his Ex. / Did they see the. he didn´t (write a poem). / in. It took me about.? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8.. 2. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. I watched. 2...? / What did I want to drink? 4. 19. 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. 1.. I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. he didn´t (go out). He stayed at home.her 5.. 11.. Ex. Ex. We no longer export shoes to the USA... Peter didn´t come.. I didn´t (give him an apple) .. 2.... I used to ride the subway to work. Father told the.. / Did we have dinner. He came at midday.. 6.. 15..? / How much did John sell his house for? 6. I wrote to.. 5. he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. What did the boy want to do? 7. I didn´t. ago / last. I went to..... No. 6. Yes. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. she didn´t (buy a dress). No... he didn´t (come in the morning). How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. We enjoyed our.my 2. 17. This is Helen´s pen. This is William´s notebook 8. & 2.. 4. No.. No. 8. Peter came here. 1.. / Did we go to... We watched TV.. I did. I didn´t (eat fish). They sold lots of. / Where did they study English? Ex..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 6 Part I Ex. she didn’t (leave early)... No. 5.4. No. 18. He felt weak and tired. It rained a lot. I slept well... 18. 13. / No.their 9.. 14. (open answers) 1. I bought the. That´s my teacher´s home 5.. Mary used to speak Italian at home.. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. We didn´t have dinner.. The teacher´s desk is new... I got up at. Bob washed the.. No. No.? / When did Peter come here? 3.? / Where did they buy the car? 7.. Peter drove to.. John didn´t sell his..their 6. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10.. I gave him some money... Bill used to help me with my homework.. she didn´t (wear a short skirt).his / her 7. No. This is Mr Smith´s wife. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9... I began to study English (... Where did he go yesterday? 2.? / What did they see? 5. She doesn´t play it well now 8.17. 7. 15. I read it in French. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. 5. 7.. 6. She wore a long one. Ex. Mary visited her. I didn´t (read it in English). He / she told me to. 1.. We used to export shoes to the USA.. They drank wine..its 10. 8. They received a. he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He doesn´t live there now 2. No. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9.. They didn´t study..? / How did we go to work? 2. 10. We didn´t write the... Why didn´t he go? 8. They didn´t see the. 14. No. What´s that man´s name? 14. That´s the teachers´ room.. I gave the. 11.. 11.. 2. John Kerry used to go to that school. 2. / Did they study... We had a. No. When did Peter see the film? 5. / Did they buy the. they didn´t (watch TV). She bought a jacket. / Did John sell his. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. The postman brought a... 13. Peter used to be a good student. No. (didn´t = did not) 1.his 3... 4. they didn´t (drink beer) .13..your.. She sent me a letter. 3... 6. They ate fish. No. / Did we write the. What are those men´s names? A short course in english for adult students 89 . / Did I want to drink.) 3.. Mother made an. No. I ate chicken.. / Did Peter come. I ate. The boy read / red / a. I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 1. He no longer is a good student 5. 1.. 7. I didn´t want to drink. / Did the boy do the. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. 16. 16.

3. 1. 3. 2.theirs 9. him 4. This office is John´s 4. She spent it last summer. 8. He took his book and left mine. I bought it 5 years ago. She met him last Friday morning. He got it a long time ago. 10. They ate them this morning. 2. 11.yours B. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. him or her?. her 2. him / her 5. Is this pencil yours? 10. us 8. Ex. 6. I visited them last weekend. This desk is the teacher´s. 4. them 10. 3. She sent them last Monday 5. He invited me last month. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. it 7.hers 4. Ex. it 3. 90 A short course in english for adult students . 4.Ex.yours 5. 1. it 9.his 6. This room is hers. This notebook is mine. 1. These seats are ours. 9. 12. it 14.mine 2. These newspapers are theirs. 5. Ex. That notebook is Helen´s. 8.his 3. 7. Is this coat yours or hers? 11.ours 8. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. them 12.mine 10. 2. 12.hers 7. her 11. them 6. 7. us 13.

o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal.. / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´ T/WEREN´ T) Lea. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/. escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráivi#. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado./ A short course in english for adult students 91 . etc. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. /ai woz dráivi# tu !i éarpo:rt at ten oklók !is mó:ni#/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday.UNIT 7 PART 1. /!éi we:r pléi# fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. Lea../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/. /hí: woz víziti# hiz péarents in ditróit on !e fif" ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night... /ái woz slí:pi# wen ! télifoun ræ# la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night./ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: víziti#.. escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning.. /dei wé:rent pléii#../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r !éi pléii#. /wi: wé:rent hævi# lántch...... como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók !is mó:ni#/.. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´ T /wóznt/ o WEREN´ T /wé:rent/: Lea. /ai wóznt dráivi#..../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday./ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday... /ai wóznt sli:pi#. escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning./ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:pi#.. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/./ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hævi# lántch. /hi: wóznt víziti#. /wí: we:r hævi# lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were.

3. WHERE.. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Jenkins entered the room. WHY.. We ________________________near the river that evening. 3.. (have dinner) 11. (leave) 10.En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como WHAT. (shine) 2. The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain.. the train ________________________ ... She was having a bath.. (walk) Ex. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. the underlined part must be the answer to your question. Bill _________________________the report when Mr. 2./ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r !ei pléii# fútbol./ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1.. HOW... se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea. We ________________________when the lights went out last night.. The children were watching TV. ___________________________________________________ 2. WHERE.?) EXERCISES Ex. In each case. Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (live) 9. They were walking in the park at midday.? /wót we:r iú: dú:i#. (camp) 8. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and. We were running down the road.. etc. Ask questions using question words like WHO. (read) 3. The generals were working in the conference room. (play) 4. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning... ___________________________________________________ 3. b) interrogative form : 1. escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:di#. 1. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ______________________________________________ 92 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________ 5. (do) 12. I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (get ready) 6. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. ___________________________________________________ 4. etc. 7. 6. The men were going to work./ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt !ei hævi# lántch. (cross) 5. We ________________________the road when the accident happened. The boys were studying for a test. Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. At that time. 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Alice was making the beds. Mrs. (drive) 7. 5. everyone _________________________to go to work./ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud./ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rki#. When we got to the station. WHAT..

I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet. When the war broke out._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain.arrive) 3. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . 1. Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. 7. What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 11. 9.. (have.. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started.. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only.. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. 2. 3.begin) 6. 6. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company..drive) 9. 4. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. live) 5. Answer the following questions in English. Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired.ride) A short course in english for adult students 93 .have dinner) 8. We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. When John ______________________ us last night. (read..see) 4. they were living in the north of France. _______________________________________________ Ex. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué. 8. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ 8... (sleep.. we ____________________________ ( call on. ___________________________________________________ 9.. todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. (play..become) 12.. Mrs.. __________________________________________ 10. Mr. (work. I ___________________________ very well last night.. 5. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Give complete answers. 4. (go. 5. (work. They _______________________ to the office when I ___________________________them this morning.walk) 7. More than ten people were standing outside the building. 1. (sleep) 2.6... 6. What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) 10.

10. You fill up the tank. Work hard. You listen to the story carefully. You come here tomorrow morning. Work slowly please. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. 1. 2. Look at the map. 4. You eat more slowly. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. Listen to him please. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. Eat my bread and butter. Drive fast please. 2. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. don´t open the window Don´t speak so fast. 6. 8. 1. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 10. please Don´t speak so slowly please. Come again this afternoon. You spell your first name. esta implícito en la orden). Take a taxi. 5. por favor (so /sou/= tan) Ex. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. 3. You call me up after 9 o´clock. please. please 6. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. You write your answer on the whiteboard. Say that again. Give Mary my new address. (you) open the window. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche Por favor. 2. A.PART II. 9. please EXERCISES Ex. /pli:z óupn !e wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. please 3. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. You drink milk every morning. You have another cup of coffee. please. 8. please. Drink black coffee. 7. 5. You study hard every day. 7. (so /sou/= tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . 4. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. 9.

.) EXERCISES Ex. Mrs... President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. 4. 10. calles. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. He lives on Fifth Avenue. 3. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. cuando éstos son usados como nombres propios. Supply the definite article THE. volcanes.) 2.. 7. 8... países. Lady.) Santiago is the capital of Chile. Smith to send the message right away. lea y compare New York is a large city. 6. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. continentes. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. __________ China. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. Senator. A short course in english for adult students 95 . Cpt. Sgt. No se usa THE delante de los nombres de continentes. 1.. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies.) o grados (Gen.. montes. etc. (adj. (adj. __________ United States. 5. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. The New York City subways go very fast. mares.Ms. Escuche. cordilleras. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina.etc. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. President. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. canales. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. ciudades. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. Dr. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido THE. Gen. Prof.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adjetivo+Sustantivo (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal).B. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. where necessary: 1. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido THE delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. etc. They are coming back from China. Johnson ordered Sgt. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Council. 9. Miss. Sir.. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. estados.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening.They´ve climbed Mount Everest.

11. C. 11. 9. 2. __________ Broadway buses are slow. 6. 6.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. Ex. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. 14 15. 5. in __________ Utah. __________ England is a small country. where needed: 1. / adv. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. __________ Mexican climate is warm. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 12. 1. 10. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 4. 8. 3. 7. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 3. (He lives in Mexico. 13. 2. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. 5. __________ London School of Economics is very famous. He lives in __________ Mexico. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (La forma exclamativa) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. 9.) 2. __________. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 10. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. 7. __________ Europe is a large continent. We walked along __________ Broadway. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. _________ English language is easy. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles. 12. 4.11. 8. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!.

or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. a) What a tall man Peter is! b) How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. 4. Mary is a very friendly person 13.. 6. The movie was very exciting. 2. These shoes are very expensive. 5. What. New York is a fascinating city. 8. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. as in the examples Peter is a very tall man 1.. 3. 7. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. 9.!. These photographs are very beautiful 11. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. He runs very fast. It is a beautiful day. This trip is very interesting.! or c) WHAT A(N). ______________________ hot it is today! 6.. She plays the piano well.. Supply HOW. as indicated: 1.Ex. This is a very incredible story.. I was a very stupid person. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. Make exclamations using What a(n).!.. 4. 2. WHAT. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. They are very beautiful women. ______________________ pretty she is! 3... _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. b) WHAT. 2.!.. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! A short course in english for adult students 97 . ______________________ strange remark to make! 4. or How.. 12. She is an excellent pianist. This music is very romantic. This whisky is very good 10.!. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using a) HOW. 4. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. ______________________ well she swims! 5.. 3.. 14.!. John is a very intelligent person. These exercises are very difficult.

15. 17. 16. 14. He is a very tall man. It´s a cold day today. She plays the violin beautifully. 6. 12. You have a beautiful new car. 11. Ann was a generous woman. It was a very fast train. 18. 7. 8. 9. Bob acted very foolishly. She is very pretty.5. He is a handsome fellow. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! 98 A short course in english for adult students . It is very cold today. 10. It was very cold last night. We were very tired after the walk. 13. She is wearing a beautiful dress. Grandfather told us a sad story.

. (UK) bungalow /bá#galou/ bungalow condominio condominium /kondomínium/ cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo. d) The Sitting-room /!e síti#rum/ (El living) arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:rpit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /ké:rtenz/ fireplace /fáiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (UK) reproductor de CD silla loza fina.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero A short course in english for adult students 99 . excusado.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi./ terrace house /térris háus/ villa /víla/ casa de campo departamento (UK) casa choza.quinta detached house /ditætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov !e háus/ (Partes de la casa) ceiling /síli#/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændi#/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana farm house /fá.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE (La casa) a) Housing /háusi#/ (Vivienda) departamento (USA) apartment /apa:rment/ apartment building /apá:rment bíldi#/ edificio de dptos..c.w. cabaña casa pareada casa en hilera casa de veraneo c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov !e háus/ (Piezas de la casa) attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:"rum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáini#rum / kitchen /kítchen/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega (vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /síti#rum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (UK) despensa living estudio baño. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /!e bédrum/ (El dormitorio) alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæ#kit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .f) The Kitchen /!e kítchin/ (La cocina) broom /brú:m/ escoba can opener /kæn óupner/ abrelatas (USA) cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /kó:rkskru:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza aparador cupboard /kábord/ cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora refrigerador fridge /frídll/ frying pan /fráii# pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro-ondas g) The Bathroom /!e bá:"rum/ (La sala de baño) bath tub /bá:" tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /mírror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar shaving brush /shéivi#brash/ shaving cream /shéivi# krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /tú"brash/ tooth paste /tú:"péist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (UK) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos mixer /míkser/ máquina licuadora napkin /næpkin/ servilleta oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refrídllereitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (UK) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /si#k/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spu:n/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (UK) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshi# mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa h) The Studio /!e stúdiou/ (La sala de estudio) book shelf /búk shélf/ bookcase /búk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiú:ter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /désk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáili# kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ (El exterior) fence /fens/ garage /gæri:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:"/ sendero swimming pool /suími# pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

.. were crossing 5. London.. 4.. (Open answers) 1. (in December last year).... 5. Spell your first name.English cities 7. 6.Germany. please... Ex..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex..do 10. Ex.. 11. When I arrived. Call me up after 9 o´clock. 12. 3.What a. 1. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. 4. Why was Mrs. please.The Panama Canal. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. / Were we running...What. England.. The children weren´t watching.. / Were the boys studying.What.Don´t drive so fast. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex.The United States. 1. 4. were going / saw 4.the Persian Gulf.. had / was driving 9.What. 1..... 6.. read / was riding PART II A. 2. York..the Mediterranean Sea. were playing / began 6. (when he phoned me last night) Ex.. 3.. 4. 3... The Mexican climate.What a.. Write your answer on the whiteboard. Drink milk every morning.. 11.. 1...doing 11.. Ex.were playing 4. Alice wasn´t making.What a.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. 10.. We weren´t running... (at this time yesterday. Don´t drink black coffee. The men weren´t going.. Central Park Station 11..What a. 6. 14.? Ex... 2. 3..... What was Mary eating in her room? 3. Spain 10. 9. 2.. The soldiers weren´t doing. was getting ready 6. Don´t work so slowly. please. The boys weren´t studying.... 3.Utah Ex. were camping 8. 2.? 2.. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. The Broadway buses.. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9. C. please. 6.. 4.. was living 9. A short course in english for adult students 101 . was driving 7. please. was . China.... Study hard every day. What a..) 2.. What were you doing at that time? 6. 7. 9. please 2. 1. European cities. 5. Come here tomorrow morning.. was doing 12..What a. / Were the soldiers doing... 9.. please. please.. please. 8.The Atlantic Ocean.. / Were the children watching.What..? 6.Madison Avenue.. please.. / Was she having. I was. I was. (when they got married / then). was sleeping / arrived. 4. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. was working / became 12. please. Europe..The Hudson River / New York City 4.. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8..the Dominican Republic 3. / were the men going. Listen to the story carefully. 1.. 8.What a.. 13..France.. please 5... 3... met / was living 5. were walking Ex... B. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6.? 4. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. I was working. please.The West Indies 7.. everyone was talking. 15.. Salt Lake City.. She wasn´t having... White lying on the sofa? 7. 1. Have another cup of coffee... please. Why weren´t they working that day? 7. The London School of Economics. 8. please. Don´t work so hard.... 5. 2. Fill up the tank. did . please 7.. the United States 6. 1. Where were the generals working? 5.? 5.... 1... Don´t come again this afternoon. 4. 6.. 10..? 3. was reading 3. slept 2. Don´t give Mary my new address... Don´t say that again. The New York City traffic.Berlin 9. 10. 3. was shining 2. 8.What a. / Was Alice making. I was listening to the news at that moment.working / walked 7.. Ex. 2.. were . was leaving 10. 5...What a..Italy. please.Clark Street... please.. called on / were having dinner 8. were having dinner 11. Ex.. 7. 1. They were living in. Eat more slowly.the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8..? 7. Don´t take a taxi. the Suez Canal 12. Don´t listen to him. 3.Broadway. 2.They were playing bridge at that time. 1.What an. Don´t eat my bread and butter.What... 2... please... 10. The English language.. 9.. 1. please 5.

... What a. 12.. How.. 7.What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6.. 6. What. How.. What a. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What. 5... What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. 8. How... 3.. 10. How.. What a handsome fellow he is! 12.. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. 11. What an. How cold it was last night! 10. 14. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. How... How well she plays the piano! 2.. 2. How cold it is today! 7. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. 1.. How fast she runs! 5.Ex. 1. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex.. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9. How pretty she is! 11. What. 2. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. Ex. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. 9. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students ... What a cold day it is today! 8... What a fast train it was! 17. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13.. What a pleasant man Mr. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. 1. What a beautiful day it is today! 4.. What a. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr.. 13..What a. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. 4. What a tall man he is! 9..7. 3. 4. Johnson is!. How. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6.

in three months /in "rí: mán"s/ dentro de tres meses. next month /nékst man"/ el próximo mes. Lea.. En la interrogación. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. Dgo./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil !ei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámi! tu tchíle nekst mán!/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . When. the day after tomorrow /!e déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. Where. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto.. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras.. acordadas o previstas con antelación. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. Peter is coming to Chile next month. /méri wóunt kám. y sugiere la idea de decisión. 3. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. /!éi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow./ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám.. etc. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1../ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt !ei vízit. tu wé:rk tumó:rou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday.. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil !ei vízit. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mán!/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. Peter will come to Chile next month.. promesas o determinaciones. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow.UNIT 8 PART 1.. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. promesa o determinación. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. I won´t be at home. /pí:ter iz góui! tu kám tu tchíle nékst man!/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. by the end of this year /bai !i énd ov !is yíar/ hacia fines de este año. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. intenciones. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. /!ei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow... They won´t visit us next weekend..

using WILL 1. (buy) 11. ___________________________________________________ 5. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 3. Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. 5. NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. Bob will sell the car because it´s old. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 7. (attend) 9. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ 6. What. and b) interrogative. The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. They´ll go to the north in the summer. ___________________________________________________ 10. Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ 8. (have) 4. 3. Where. John will give the answer next week. Ask questions using question words like When. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. Mary will go out this evening. (march) 2. (be) 10. 1.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: WHAT WILL YOU DO? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. We ________________________ a new house soon. (use) 6. The instructor ________________________ the data show. They´ll get married in May 6. (move) Ex. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. How long. (send) 3. (hire) 12. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. John will accept the offer. (sell) 5. The soldiers will wait there until dawn. The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. etc. The train will arrive soon. 1. You will send them a fax. 4. They´ll need five volunteers. (launch) 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué hará ud. 2. My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. (dig) 7. How. 1.? Ex. We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ 9.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . In each case.

what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. 7. 3. 2 Change SAY to TELL. EXERCISES Ex. Helen” Mary said. 11. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. Mr. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. “This book is very interesting “. 3. 2. __________________________________________________________________ 3. Antes de la conjunción that (la que puede ser omitida) John said (that) he loved Helen Mary said (that) she was very tired after the long walk. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons.PART II. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” 4. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. Can you ________________________ me where the office is. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. “I will be back at about 10:30”. “I am very tired after the long walk”. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. please? 12. Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. 9. 2. __________________________________________________________________ 2. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. 14. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much.1. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. Sorry. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. please. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. 5. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. said Mary. la persona a quien se le habló. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. 6. 13. he said. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”. USE OF SAY AND TELL (Uso de los verbos SAY / TELL) Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR). Yesterday. she ________________________ 10. John told Helen that he loved her. Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. A. __________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . Jackson said (to his students). Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). es decir. John ________________________ yesterday. Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. 1. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. “I love you. 8. She said (to me) that she was sick.

The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. El hombre con quien me encontre era el padre de John) Jim was talking about a woman. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. too. La mujer acerca de quien Jim estaba hablando era su esposa) 106 A short course in english for adult students . He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO.4. 3. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. Whom did you see at the party? (¿A quién viste en la fiesta?) La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. _____________________________________________________________________ B. (Me encontre con un hombre en la calle. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The man whom I met was John´s father. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. WHOM.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. WHOM. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. WHOSE (Los pronombres relativos WHO. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Change TELL to SAY. With whom will you go to the party?/ Who will you go to the party with? (¿Con quién irás a la fiesta?) I met a man in the street. (Jim estaba conversando acerca de una mujer. en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? (¿Quién es ese hombre? The man who is in the car is a policeman. WHOSE) Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. (El hombre que está en el auto es un policia) The car which is outside is a police car. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. (El auto que está afuera es un auto policial) WHOM es un pronombre interrogativo que significa a ¿a quién?. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone.

5. (El hombre cuyo auto está estacionado a fuera del edificio es un médico) EXERCISES Ex. He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. Sr. Fill in the blank spaces with Who.La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. To (who. 18. the blue one or the brown one? 2. 14. whom ) are they talking? 8. __________________ are you talking to? 17. whom) is the best student in your class? 4. Ex. whom) I danced was very beautiful. With __________________ will you work on the thesis? A short course in english for adult students 107 . (Who. (El hombre cuya hija lo llamó por teléfono esta mañana desea verlo a usted. The boy (who. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? 16. 10. 12. whom) does he want to speak? 3. __________________ jacket do you like best. 15. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). The man __________________ Prof. whom) did you get the money? 10. The girl with (who. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? 19. 9. With (who. From (who. 11. Clark) The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. 3. but I´m not quite sure. whom) you saw is my new teacher. Choose the correct form. Whose 1. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. The man (who. Whom.whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. They are American. The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. 6. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. (Who. Which. Mr Clark. __________________ are they talking about? 13. 2. whom) telephoned you is my brother. __________________ will you ask for help? 8. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? 4. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. 1. __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? 9. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? / Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo puede ir al final o junto a whose) (¿De quién es este sombrero) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (¿De quién son estos cigarrillos?) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) (¿De quién es ese suéter amarillo?) Whose is that book (which is) on the desk? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) (¿De quién es ese libro que está sobre el escritorio?) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player 7. 1. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. The woman (who. About (who. 6. 7.

. 22. 7. 5. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Peter came to the party with a young woman. That´s not your leather jacket. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. That is not John´s bicycle. 4. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 15. 21. I_________________________________________________________________________________________________ met a man yesterday who wrote detective stories 2.Whose glasses are these? 11. His car was parked outside the school. 3.using WHO. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? Whose car is this? Whose is this car? To whom does this car belong? ___________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ ? 1. 5. He wrote detective stories. Make synonymous sentences using the verb BELONG instead of the possessives. 13. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence. Smith read in class yesterday. 6. It´s hers. 5. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. 24. Exercise 4..This house is ours. That house is ours. 3. I don´t know __________________ watch this is. 14. Those keys are mine. 23.That car isn´t his. 3. 12. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. There´s a man in the lobby. I met a man yesterday. Whose is this watch? 10. He wants to speak with you. This pen is mine 2. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. They found his wallet in the street. Are these cigarettes yours? 9. 1. This is the young woman. 4. Is that car yours? 6. 7. It´s my brother´s _________________________________________________ This pen belongs to me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 108 A short course in english for adult students . These aren´t Mary´s shoes. I met a woman yesterday. 2. WHOM or WHOSE 1.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. It isn´t theirs. Her husband died in a car accident.20. Ex. 8. You were talking to a man in the lobby. The policemen interrogated the old man.I think that this wallet is yours. as in the example. Ask questions with whose. They contacted a man.

SOMETHING.. Change to negative form Use a) NOT.. He gave the book to somebody.. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS (Alguien. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY... I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta (Yo tengo algunos amigos en Atlanta) I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. I saw somebody in the corridor.. alguna cosa).anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8.. There is someone at the door. algo.. Please put it somewhere in this room. es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo... ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2 (p.. ANY o NO.. He said something to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. They will go somewhere after the lesson (Ellos irán a algún lugar después de la clase) They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. Somewhere (algun lugar.anyone Nobody / No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas. I saw somebody in the car (Yo ví a alguien en el auto) I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5.C. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. Anybody Not. algún lugar y sus derivados) Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1. SOMEBODY. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. He lives somewhere in New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. He told somebody about it.27). They need something now. alguna parte). En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT.any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. (Yo necesito algo ahora) They don´t need anything now.. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. There is someone in the room 109 . / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. 1.

3.11. Ex. He has something to do. There is no more coffee.. He´s going to do something now. They found nobody at home. 4. 12. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . I saw somebody at the desk. 9. 6. ANY” negative form: 1. She has something to do. They gave us nothing to eat. 10. He brought something with him. She put it somewhere. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. He took them somewhere on Long Island. 5. 9. 5. She spoke to no one about it. 10. 8. Change to question form 1. 7. They found the money somewhere. 3. He can see nothing without his glasses. 6. I liked something about her. He told somebody about it. 12. He went somewhere last night. He gave it to someone. They will send the goods to someone. We saw nobody at all in the park. 2. Somebody wants to speak to him. There is someone in the next room. 3. They want nothing to drink. 7. 14.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . 8. I saw somebody I knew. 2. We went nowhere after the dance. 4. 2. I want no more. 13. thank you. There is nowhere for him to sit. 11.

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.escrit. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (UK) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.) college /kólidll/ corner /kó:rner/ esquina cruce crossroads /krósroudz/ department store /dipá:rment stó:r/ tienda de depart.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY (La ciudad) airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstorant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte panadería baker’s /béikerz/ book shop /búk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldi#/ edificio bus /bás/ bus paradero de buses bus stop /bás stop/ bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café café /kæfei/ cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos farmacia chemist’s /kémists/ church /tché:rtch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine bus interurbano coach /kóutch/ coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería escuela (univ. disco /dískou/ discoteca lavaseco. tintorería dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (UK) cuartel de bomberos fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería almacén (UK) grocer’s /gróuserz/ grocery store /gróuseri stó:r/ almacén (USA) ferretería hardware store /hárdwear stó:r/ hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel hotel /houtél/ jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósi#/ cruce FFCC (UK) lorry /lórri/ camión (UK) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (UK) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (UK) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /"íater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camión (USA) tunnel /tánel/ túnel underground /ándergráund/ tren subterráneo (UK) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (UK) zebra crossing /zibra krósi#/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 .

Bl 112 .

. Ex.. 1... will have 4.... 2.. 12.. / Will they get married? 6. You won`t send.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. This house belongs to us. whom 2.. Mr Smith told Peter that. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7. 1.. will be 10. 3. 1. Bob said that he. John said that. 4. 2. 2... The man tells me that. Who 19. whom 11. whom Ex. 7.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. which 23. 2.. / Will John accept.. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. 2. B. / Will Mr Smith see.. Whom 5.. 7... 1. whom 18.... Whose 3. 1. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. Who 13. Who 4.. whom 4. That car doesn´t belong to him.whose husband died in a car accident 3.. will march 2.. told 5. 1. 3. 7. told 3.. They won`t get married. 2. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them .. will hire 12.woman with whom Peter came to the party..whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. 4.. will move Ex. 15. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II... Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you.. 1... which 24. That house belongs to us 3. Ex. 6. 13. Where will they go in the summer? 2. said 10.... This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. 5. whose wallet they found in the street. Mary will not go out.. A short course in english for adult students 113 . Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9.. said Ex. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. How many volunteers will they need? 10.? 5. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. told 7. told 14.. whose 21. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. 3. says 2.? 4. will use 6.? 3. 4. The teacher said that. She told me that. 8....which 16.. whom 14. will sell 5. I said that. whom 3. John told his friends that. Helen told the travel agent that.. whom 10. says 8. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John.. The train won´t arrive.... 6. whom Ex. will launch 8 will attend 9. Which 2. Who(m) 8. tell 13. 6. Mr Smith said that. It belongs to her... 5. whom 20. 9. whom 8.. Whose .. will buy 11. said 9. John will not accept.. who 22. whose 5. which 12. He says that she. Those keys belong to me 5.. / Will the train arrive. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. whose 15. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. 2. It doesn`t belong to them. Ann told the office that. Mr Smith won`t see. The boy says that. When will John give the answer? 3. Ex.. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. 14. says 11...... 4. 2. whom 9.. It belongs to my brother. Whose is this brand new car? 4. who 6. 7.. / Will you send. said 4.who wants to speak with you..whom 10. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. Who 17.. will send 3. 1. What will Mr Smith send them? 6.. whom 7. tell 12.5. I said that. A. 3. / Will Mary go out. Whose 9. whom 7.. Does that car belong to you? 6.? Ex. William told the doctor that... says 6. 1. will dig 7.. 5.. Whose is this gold ring? 6. Ex.. 1. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.. which 6.. 8. the boy told us that. 3. 1.? 2.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A..

3.. 1.. 1.. / Please.. He didn´t tell anybody.. Is there anyone in the next room? 7.? 2. 1.C.. Ex. Please. I don´t want any more.3. / There´s no one in. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6. I didn´t see anybody in. He didn´t say anything. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. 1.... Did he bring anything with him? 10.. put it nowhere in. 10. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. / I saw nobody in.. 9. Ex. 7. Did I see anybody I knew? 9.. Did I see anybody at the desk. There isn`t anyone at. 8.. 6... There isn`t anyone in. They didn´t give us anything to eat .. There isn´t any more coffee. 5. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. don´t put it anywhere in. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5. 2. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . They don´t want anything to drink 4.. / Tell nobody about. 11. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. They didn´t find anybody at home 2... / He lives nowhere in. 3... 2.. Did he give it to anyone? 11.... / He said nothing.. Does she have anything to do? 4. thank you.. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. He can´t see anything without his glasses.... / He told nobody.. 10. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. 4. / There`s no one at. Did she put it anywhere? 6. Did I like anything about her? Ex. I didn`t put the money anywhere. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. / I put the money nowhere.... He doesn´t live anywhere in... 7. Did he go anywhere last night? 3. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. Don`t tell anybody about.

EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevarán a cabo en el futuro cercano. Paul will go to Germany and France.. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r !éi góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 1. 2. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góui# tu dú:/ ¿Qué va a hacer usted? EXERCISES Ex. 6. They´ll travel to Mexico in March. 3. I will send Mary a post-card from L. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year.A. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. 2. 5. 4. 8. /méri íznt góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 7. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. 5... The instructor will use a video. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary.UNIT 9 PART 1. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1... escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. 4. /!éi á:rent góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. Mr.”. etc. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r !éi góui# tu vízit as/.. 3. /!éi a:r góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana.”. 6. 2. Lea. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. “TÚ VAS A . 7. “ÉL VA A . Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. Tom will come to Chile next year. Equivale a la expresión “YO VOY A . _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. 8. Lea.”.

La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take.. 5. /it tuk !e stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser !e kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. 3. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks.. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ the students the men me ________________ you the men ____________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. “It didn´t take. Bob and Jim are going to swim.. o “It won´t take.. Bill is going to travel by plane. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. Ask questions using question words like When. 1... Bill is going to answer the question. 3. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds.”. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip !e ripó:rt/ Ud. How long. A. o “Will it take.. 6. 5. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. 4.. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina.. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr.”. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took FUTURE It will take Escuche. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. Where.. It will take you at least an hour to type the report.. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. “Did it take... 3..” Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. 6. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche..?”. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA “IT TAKES.. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. 2.” / “IT WILL TAKE. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway.. 2. Translate the following sentences into English 1..?”. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. 4.” / “IT TOOK.Ex. etc. 4. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take. 7. They´re going to fix the engine.”.

She learned to speak English in only one year. ___________________________________________________ 9. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. ___________________________________________________ 5. It takes me seven minutes to walk there. I found my mistake in a few minutes. 5. 3. IT TOOK.... ___________________________________________________ 10.. ___________________________________________________ 7... Change to negative and to interrogative form. It took Herbert a long time to walk to work. ___________________________________________________ 3. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk to work? How long did it take Herbert to walk to work? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? A short course in english for adult students ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk to work. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report.. ___________________________________________________ 12. en.. 1.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 11. I walked to the station in fifteen minutes.Escuche. They will complete the work in six years. I wrote the letter in a few minutes. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . 2. ___________________________________________________ 8. It took him several hours to finish the report..? 117 . La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. I do my homework every night in a short time. I did my exercise in one hour. en. 4... Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. ___________________________________________________ 4.? How long will it take you to. I finished the work in an hour... or IT WILL TAKE.. en.? How long did it take you to..: 1..? Escuche.) 2. We drove to Philadelphia in one hour.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES.. 2. It took them many years to build the road. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. He does his homework every day in one hour. ___________________________________________________ Ex. They will build the bridge in two years.. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex.. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . It took a month to complete the work. 9. It takes much time to learn English. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. Translate the following sentences into English 1. It will take a long time to get to the airport. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Ud.6. It takes an hour to do this exercise. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 8. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago a Puerto Montt en avión. 7. Uds. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 12. It took them two days to find him. 3. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? Ex. It will take you a week to read this book. 10. It took an hour to discover the mistake.

B. Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. 1. Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.hotter. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. thin . (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. short .bigger. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . es decir son iguales.taller. big.thinner c. (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. Grado Comparativo. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house.shorter b. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. tall . Mary is a beautiful girl. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese).more intelligent important .+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. hot . EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alice) Bob is more intelligent than George. old.smaller.

si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. (hot) 7.biggest hot . (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. o doble cons.prettiest common .most important d.cleverest modern .most modern e.. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est. John is ____________________________ William. pretty . Philadelphia is. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small . En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . (bad) 6.most much .. This article is ____________________________ that one.. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .+vocal+cons.most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more.shortest b.smallest tall . Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.most intelligent important .. (tall) 4.+vocal+cons. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother. 1. dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. This book is ____________________________ that book . (old) 5.hottest thin .. The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday.worst far .most common clever .d. debemos duplicar la última consonante big .farthest little . (El es tan alto como su hermano) He is not as tall as his brother. Compare: pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e.Washington.least many .best bad . (interesting) 120 A short course in english for adult students . (large) 2.as.tallest short . Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses + THAN 1..(larger than). (short) 3.. Henry is ____________________________ I. This summer is ____________________________ last summer. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .as o not so..thinnest c. + as.

. Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) 14.. This street is not wider than that street. This exercise is _______________________________________ 6. (interesting) 4.(tall) 7.. (few) 15. The Mississippi River is... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex.(pretty) 3... This book was __________________________________ 8... (good) 9. Frank is.... John is a.. This is ____________________________ park in the city. and second in superlative form. (young) 6.... 4.. New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: shorter than I 1... He is also ____________________________ student in the class. Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) 11... These apples are ____________________________ those... Henry is ___________________________________________________________________ 2... This street is ____________________________________________________ 5... (intelligent) 8...(tall) 2. Henry is. Helen is __________________________________________________________ 4. This room is ____________________________ that one. (hot) 3. This is ____________________________ apple of all... (good) 10. That city has ____________________________ parks in the region. (bad) 10. Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. New York is ____________________________ city in the United States. 3.. (light) 12... introduce the superlative form of the adjective in parentheses: 1... This is ____________________________ room in the whole building... This exercise is not more difficult than the last one. New York is not smaller than Chicago.. Grace is. State the adjectives in parentheses.The weather today is _________________________________ Ex.......(long) 8. The Empire State Bldg...(intelligent) 4. (large) 5.(interesting) 5. (sweet) 6... Helen is not younger than her sister. (light) 12..... The weather today is not better than it was yesterday.. Today is ____________________________ day of the year... (little) Ex.. (beautiful) 7. first in comparative form. New York is _____________________________________________________ 3. (healthy) 11.. Some people are ____________________________ others. 2.(wide) 9. This book is ______________________________________________ 7.. In the following. John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. This book is. This street is. This book was not more expensive than my French book. (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. This book is not thicker than my French book.. The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday..8. John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group.. Bill is.. Henry is not taller than I.. is... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) 9.. Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) 13. The weather today is ________________________________ 9.... Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. (tall) 2.

.C.. 8. 12. Peter has more money than Henry 14.. New York is more important than Washington D. 5. Our apartment is larger than yours. John is taller than his brother. John has less experience in computers than I. 5.. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . 6. 7. 3.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday. 11. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4.10. 10. This street is wider than that one.. This book is better than the other. 9. John is as tall as his brother.There are more people today than yesterday 13. 2. This exercise is. This exercise is longer than the last one.John makes more mistakes than Henry. The sky is darker than it was yesterday.. Helen is more beautiful than Mary... Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. This corridor is larger than the room.

pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. mejillón ostra gambas. Meats /mi:ts/ (Carnes) beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchíkin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ (Pescados y mariscos) abalone /abalóuni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérri#/ loco almeja caracol. Meals /mi:lz/ (Las comidas) breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /æpetáizer/ 3. Provisions /províllnz/ (Abarrotes) bread /bred/ biscuit /bískit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa o jurel cholga.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skælop/ shellfish /shélfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ (Los alimentos) 1. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drési#/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /sé:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wi#/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (UK) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (UK) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora.

Vegetables /védlletablz/ (Verduras) celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.king crab /ki# kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Fruits /fru:ts/ (Frutas) apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /baná:na/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /túna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nat/ pineapple /páinæpl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /dri#k/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago infusión de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft dri#k/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .

/ Is the instructor going to use... It took me an hour to do my exercise 3.. Jane isn´t going to buy.? 7. / Will it take a long time to. / Does it take me seven minutes to. Ex.... It didn´t take them two days to.? 4. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions... It took me a few minutes to find my mistake.... Tom isn´t going to come to... It didn´t take them many years to build. 4. 2. 8. It won´t take a long time to.. It took her only one year to learn to speak English. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5..? / How long does it take me to. 9.. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report.... 12...? 6.. taller than 4.? 12. Ex.. 6.? Ex...? 5.? / How long did it take to. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer... Are you going to be at home this evening? 5... Paul`s going to go to. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3.? 7. 3..? / How long will it take to. Why isn´t she going to go? 7. I´m not going to send Mary.? 6..? 4.. Tom is going to come to..... The instructor isn´t going to use... It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes. 2. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend..... 3... It will take them six years to complete the work. Paul isn´t going to go to. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 ..? 10.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station .. The instructor´s going to use.? 8. They aren´t going to travel to....? 9.? 8. 9...? 3... It won´t take you a week to. The Johnsons are going to spend. It took me a few minutes to write the letter.... 5.. / Does it take an hour to. How is Bill going to travel? 2. / Did it take an hour to. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. 2. healthier than 11. Ex. 1.? / How long did it take to. 6. / How long did it take him to. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get.. 2.. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. / Are the Johnsons going to spend. / Is Jane going to buy.... Jane´s going to buy..? 5.? / How long does it take to... It takes him one hour to do his homework every day...? Ex.... 3. 7... What are they going to do? 6. / Is Paul going to go to... hotter than 7. 11.? 2. It took me an hour to finish the work 10... shorter than 3.? 11... It didn´t take a month to... It won´t take you very long to read that article. It didn´t take an hour to. It didn´t take him several hours to. 2.... / Are they going to travel to. / Did it take a month to. older than 5.. 4. / Did it take them many years to build.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex. / Does it take much time to. better than 10. Mr Jackson´s going to play.. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5. They are going to travel to. 1. / Will it take you a week to. It doesn´t take an hour to.3.. worse than 6.. 2..? / How long did it take them to.? / How long did it take them to build.. 1.They aren´t going to come to the party tonight. more difficult than 9.. 1... Mr Jackson isn´t going to play. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia. 5. 1.. 8... It will take them two years to build the bridge.? 3. 1.? / How long does it take to.. 4. lighter than 12. 1. 8... It doesn`t take much time to... 3. / Did it take him several hours to.. 2. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7... What are you / we going to buy? 4. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane. I´m going to send Mary.. / Am I going to send Mary. Ex.. more interesting than 8.. Who is going to answer the question? Ex. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6. / Does it take me ten minutes to get..... / Is Tom going to come to..? / How long will it take you to..? / How long does it take me to get. 1. / Did it take them two days to... I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A. B. 4. 2.

cheaper than my French book 8.This corridor is as large as the room. 14. worse than it was yesterday.Ex. 12. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. This book is more interesting than that one. Ex. 2. older than her sister. John has as little experience in computers as I. This exercise is as long as the last. Bill is more intelligent than James. 11. 8. 7. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last one. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. 10. 126 A short course in english for adult students . the best 9. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. Peter has as much money as Henry. the most intelligent 8. 4. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. the worst 10. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. There are as many people today as yesterday. 2. the most 13. Ex. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. the fewest 15. the sweetest 6. 4. thinner than my French book 7. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. This street is wider than my street. the least Ex. Our apartment is as large as yours. 9.5. 9. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. the largest 11. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary.New York is as important as Washington. the most beautiful 7. 5. the most interesting 4. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. 4. easier than 6. the hottest 3. This book is as good as the other. 3. 1. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. Grace is prettier than her sister. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. 3. / This is the widest street in this town. 4. narrower than 5. 3. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. (Open answers) 1. 2. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. This exercise is easier than the previous one. 6. 10. This street is as wide as that one. 2. the most 14. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. bigger than Chicago 3. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. the tallest 2. the largest 5. the lightest 12. 9. 7. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday.. 13. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York.

/méri íznt kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r !éi víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r !éi víziti# ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:i# tumórou mó:rni#/on sándi/ etc. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. por ejemplo: to go. /mériz kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. to leave. Ex. We´re staying there for 10 days. /!éi a:r víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. Lea. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. to visit. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening.UNIT 10 PART 1. I accepted their invitation. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. We´re leaving on January 21st. to fly. 2. ha advertido. He´s attending a meeting. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. /!éi á:rent víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. to travel. to come back. to come. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. We´re going to Cancun again. (¿Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. etc.?) EXERCISES Ex. to drive. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. agendadas. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. to have lunch/dinner. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. to arrive. to stay. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. 1. to attend.

the Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at the Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. Right after lunch. at 16:00. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. “ Yes. Surgeons Club Wed. Mary?”. he _______________________________________________________________________ 10. He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ 3. At 7:40 AM on Thursday. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Brown said to us. How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ 6. Write sentences indicating Dr. 4.3. Sat. We must hurry up. In the evening._________________________________________________________________________ 7. he _____________________________________________________at the Nasa Space Center 11.. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. Dr. When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ 5. Let´s hurry up. 4. The departure of our train is at 8:25. I´ll be away on a business trip”. We just got a telegram from our daughter. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. late in the evening. What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ 4. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. At midday. Make complete sentences: 1. Fri. Mr. On Monday morning. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. After dinner. 07:40 Fly to Houston. He is arriving in Washington DC. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. he ______________________________________________________________________ 9. 1. 3. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at the US. Use the information given below: Dr. “I´m afraid. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. Dr. As you can see. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. At 10:15 on Saturday. 12. Ex. On Thursday afternoon. On Monday evening. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. Answer these questions in English. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. 14. It says. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. On Friday morning. It´s 8:15 now. Texas. Dr. Ex. he ____________________________________________________________________ 13. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. On Wednesday morning. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. After that. Mary: “Yes. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. Novoa is going to the USA next week. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ 3. What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________ 6.Texas 14:00 Conference at the Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. 2. at the Kennedy Center Thurs. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. 10:00 Visit the Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. I want to play tennis tomorrow.

.. Be able to 2. ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ 8. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. Be allowed to Example 1. 2. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. 2. (No se debe decir. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. = I think / assume he is over. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. (No se debe decir. recomendación 1. ___________________________________________________ 7. I think. Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días.. Ej. MAY. PODER = ser capaz de. OUGHT TO) Ej. ¿A qué hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ 10. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. It may rain tomorrow. He can swim well. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. have to 2. ¿a qué hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II.. You must obey orders. 5. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. be allowed to 2. 1. be likely to. He can swim well. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2.Ex. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 5. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. ___________________________________________________ 6. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. Bob can swim well. este fin de semana. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. = Bob is able to swim well 2. Translate the following sentences into English 1. You had better study every day MUST 1. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. 1. MODAL VERBS (I) A. ¿Cuándo tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ 9. Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. You can see the lake from here. 2. Ej. You should study every day. DEBERÍA = consejo. Jones ___________________________________________________ 4. He must be over 70 years old.. / I assume. Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidad) 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. = You have to obey orders. 1. PODER = ser posible 3. A short course in english for adult students 129 . CAN. Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. MUST. Yo no voy a salir de Stgo.. You can use my computer. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. Según el itinerario. Be possible to 3.

Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. (Ud. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. John. según corresponda.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. Para indicar capacidad. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. Peter. It´s not good for your health. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. 130 A short course in english for adult students .(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. Joe. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. 3. 1. 2. mother? 9. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. You may fall down and break an arm. It´s dangerous. puede retirarse. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. 2. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. 6.?) It´s getting cloudy. I think that you should see a doctor /. Complete the blanks with CAN. MUST. (El está usando un uniforme verde. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. 2. Para indicar obligación. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time.. Must (Deber) 1. ____________ I use your pen please. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. 4. Sr. 5. Sir? 8. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. 3. He must be a policeman. 7. if you like. (Ud. (Ud. Gentlemen.. (No te subas a esa silla. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. ____________ I have another piece of cake. MAY o SHOULD. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. if you wish. habilidad o destreza. (formal). Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. Para dar consejos. (Puedes retirarte ahora. It´s out of order. Now I ____________ read better. 4. Tommy. Tommy. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. You ____________ not do that again. (No debería fumar tanto. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. He is a retired civil servant. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. 1. John can swim very well. 2.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. (Uds. (Negative). You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . It may rain tomorrow. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. (Se está nublando. I just put on my glasses.

It´s almost midnight now. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? Ex. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 6. pueden fumar aquí. The man is very strong. You´ll be welcome to our home. We must go because it´s late. He sometimes goes home for lunch. 3. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. John. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. 11. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. You are too fat. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 3.We don´t accept cash. Lea. B.10. 14. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 16. 23. 10. Billy . They should take a taxi. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. 20. Uds. 22. Debe estar cansado. 5. El no puede hablar español bien. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. 2. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 19. señor? 9. I don´t know why they´re talking. A pesar de ser sinónimos. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. 18. It´s too young. You ____________ come and visit us any day. The boss gets very angry when people are late. debe venir mañana nuevamente. 13. They´re very poor. 4. 15. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. They may use Room 203. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. 2. Why don´t you phone at his home. I think you ____________ go on a diet. 17. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. Bob can speak three languages. El puede correr muy rápido. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t even know how to start a car. 4. 12. 3. 21. Ex. He ____________n´t be an engineer. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. El trabajó muy duro. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. He ____________ be there. They ____________ be working instead. Ud. 24.

11. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. We must prepare our lessons every night. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. Lea. Substitute the correct form of HAVE TO for MUST in the following: 1. al igual que con los verbos principales. 5. They must stay there at least an hour. WON´T. John must go out of town this afternoon. Mary must study French next year. 1. 2. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. 10. = Peter has to work until late every evening. DID. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. We must learn many new words every day. Lea. You must read this article. I must work tonight. 4. 7. 9. I must get up early every day. 6. DIDN´T. los verbos modales DO / DOES. John must also take another language. 12. I must write many letters. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. 3. We must write a composition each night. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening.

I had to leave at once. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . Read the following with MUST. They have to study very hard. 10. He has to see a doctor. 5. We __________ telephone her right away. 2. He __________ learn all the new words. They have to come back later. 9. 11. He __________ spend more time on his English. John has to be here at two o’clock. 9. I have to work today. 3. 5. Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. We have to get up early. 10. 2. Then. 6. We __________ make reservations at once. Mr. Change to negative form: 1. 4. 7. 4. They have to write many letters. You have to wait a few minutes. 8. 3. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. Smith has to go out of town. She__________ attend class every day. 3. John has to stop his English lessons. 6. He __________ stay at home and rest. 5. 4. We all have to write a short story. 3. 6. change to past and future time: 1. 8. 2.Ex. I have to get up early. I ____________ answer this letter at once. Ex. We have to study tonight. We have to write a composition tonight. 7. 12. 4. He __________ go to the hospital right away. We had to meet him at noon. I must leave at once. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. Change to past and future time: 1. Mary has to come with him. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. He had to be there at two o’clock.

They had to leave early. 12. 4. 2. They have to study every day. WHERE. We have to prepare our homework every day. WHY. 7. He has to take more exercise. I have to buy a new pen. They will have to come back later. 11. He had to buy several new books. 6.00 every morning. He will have to wait a few minutes. We will have to learn many new words. ask questions with WHEN. 10. He had to leave at noon. They have to rent an apartment soon. We have to work on Sunday. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. 10. Change to interrogative form. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. etc. Did he have to leave at noon? ___________________________________________________ What time/ When did he have to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . 9. 9.7. 5. WHAT TIME. He had to return yesterday. She has to rest a while because she´s tired. 3. We have to get up at 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 11. John had to go to the hospital. 1. 8. 12. 8. Then. 5.

The Trunk /!e tru#k/ (El tronco) back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /blæder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ (Palabras relacionadas) corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /ió:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . entrañas pecho (mamas) nalgas pecho. ti:"/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /la#/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mau"/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piú:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /"rout/ tongue /tá#/ tooth /teeth /tu:".BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov !e bódi/ (Las partes del cuerpo) 1. The Limbs /!e limz/ (Las extremidades) ankle /æ#kl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fí#ger/ foot / feet /fu:t. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fí#ger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ní:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo (mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fí#ger/ middle finger /mídl fí#ger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /rí# fí#ger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /"ai/ thumb /"am / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo (del pie) muñeca 4. The Head /(e hed/ (La cabeza) beard /bíard/ brains /bréinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /íar/ eye /ái/ eyebrow /áibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fó:red/ hair /héar/ head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2.

lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at the moment /at !e móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for !e táim bi:i#/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /iésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /!is mó:rni#/ this afternoon /!is a:fternú:n/ this evening /!is í:vni#/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:ni#/ yesterday afternoon /iésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rni#/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /!e déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in !e sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mán"/ every year /évri iíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:ni#/ every other day /évri á!er déi/ every other three days /évri á!er "rí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mán"/ many times a year /méni táimz e iiar/ a long time ago /e ló# táim agóu/ many years ago /méni iiarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri lo# agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /imídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible. “al tiro” lo antes posible. ASAP /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ (Expresiones de tiempo) ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante.

de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando.sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an !én/ off and on /óf an on/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .

Bl 138 .

.... 10....You must come again tomorrow. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning. B.. 7. Ex. / We´ll have to go.. / Must we go. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial.. 2. / We´ll have to study.. 9. 1.. 1.. Should / ought to 4. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. Can 12..Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. 2. 4.. / She´ll have to attend. 10. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. I have to get up. Should / ought to 21. 7..... They´re going to stay several days with us. Can´t 13. Can . What should I do now? 7.. 9... We must not go.. We had to telephone. 1. He had to stay.. Can / must 16. 2. They have to stay. Ex. 2. 3... We had to hurry.. They may not use. They had to come back. / He´ll have to learn... Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday.. I promise you I will never do that again.. He had to learn. May 8... Mary has to study. 2.. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. He had to see.. 1. Can 5. / We´ll have to telephone. 8. John had to stop. 3. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. / We´ll have to hurry. John had to be... 6... Mary had to come. May 17. 7. 3. / We´ll have to write. 1. We didn´t have to meet. According to the schedule. 9. 1... Can´t Ex. / They´ll have to write. We had to make. Must 11.. 4. Mary will come to see us next week. 5.. He can´t speak Spanish well. You can / may smoke here..We have to learn Ex. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center.... 4.. 7. 4. 5.. -I had to get up. A. Should / ought to 24. We don´t have to get up. 12.. 3. I don´t have to buy. / We´ll have to make. 4.? / Why must we go? 4. We don´t have to write. 6.. Ex.. 8. Must 20.can / may 10.. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight.12. / They´ll have to come back.. Can 9. 6. May I sit here. You had to wait. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. He had to spend. 2. / He´ll have to spend 7. 1. 6. / John will have to be. 5.. We all had to write. They had to write. 2. 12. 2... John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. John has to go out.can´t 14. Bob can´t speak.. 4. He´s flying back to Washington DC. We had to go........ They may visit us tomorrow 5. 6..8. Must 3..... / He´ll have to stay. Should / ought to 7. 5.. 3. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go.... Must 6.. He can run very fast. at what time are we getting there? PART II. / I´ll have to answer..? / Which room may they use? Ex.10.. You have to read. A short course in english for adult students 139 . She had to attend. Mary and John have to fly... They didn´t have to leave. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. 5. Attending a reception at the White House 3.. 3.? / What should they do? 3. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. He´s flying to Texas. 4. Can you help me this afternoon? 8.. Must / should . Open answers Ex.... We have to prepare. / I´ll have to work. 3.. I have to work. He worked very hard. 1. / May they use. Ex. 2. Our train is leaving in ten minutes.. Ex.. 6... Should / ought to 18. Must 23. 4.... I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel.5... What will they do with the money they received? 8...11. 10... They don´t have to study. 11. He didn´t have to be. / He´ll have to see. He had to go. / Mary will have to come. 7.. Should 19. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. Ex. John also has to take.. We have to write.. 8..... / You´ll have to wait. 5... / I´ll have to get up. I have to write. 6..He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center. 2. 5.. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center. Can´t 15...... He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport.. 11. 2.... 9... I had to answer. 3.. 3. / Should they take... 10.. / Can Bob speak. / John´ll have to stop.. 14. That may / can happen again.. May 2.. Must 22.. He must be tired. Ex. 3. Sir? 9...8. 4... / He´ll have to go. 1.? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. We had to study. 1.. They shouldn´t take. 9. I had to work.

. When did he have to return? 8.. How long will he have to wait? 9... 2. We don´t have to prepare.. What do they have to do every day? 4.We don´t have to work. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. John didn´t have to go. Ex. 5. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5...11. 10. 12. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. We won´t have to learn. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. What did he have to buy? 6. When will they have to come back? 10..

2. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. /!éi wóunt bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. (travel) 3. What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. /!éi wil bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. /!e tchíldren wil bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche. (work out) 9. The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. (play) 8. Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. o when the program starts tonight /wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). 4. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. /!e tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl !éi bí: tráveli# in iú:rop at !is táim nékst mán"/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil !e prézident bí: dú:i# at !is táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:i#/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday.?) EXERCISES: Ex. La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. 5. (work) 2. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. (do) 7. /línda wil bí: tráveli# in iúrop at !is táim nékst mán"/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum !is í:vni#/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche.UNIT 11 PART I. cuando otra acción ocurra. 3. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. 2. (visit) 6. Escuche. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /!e prézident wil bí: fláii# tu tókiou at !is táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes. (watch) 10. At this time next month. The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) 5. Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. 3. /wi: wil bí: hævi# lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. lea y aprenda: 1. at this time tomorrow /at !is táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). we ________________________ in the USA. etc. 1. We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. 4. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæterdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). es decir. I ________________________ here. lea y aprenda: 1. (drive) 4.

(spend) 3. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. They ________________________ Brazil next month. Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. (cook) 8. 3. Mr. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. (come) 5. Review Practice. They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. ___________________________________________________ 2. we ________________________. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. (practise) 7. HOW LONG. 3. (work) 4. What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) 18. Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) 16. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. 5. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Use the Present. etc. ___________________________________________________ 6. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. ___________________________________________________ 4. The students will be taking a test at 10. the Past or the Future tenses. John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. 4. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. (play) 2. ___________________________________________________ 5. Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) 9. They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. Mr. Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. 2.Ex. (have dinner) 7. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. 1. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. (see) 6. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1.2. we ______________________________ television. Mr. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. (come) 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. What___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) 11. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future (WILL + INF) or the Future Contínuous Tense (WILL BE + ING): 1. We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) 12. (live) 6. At this time tomorrow. At 10:30 last night. (watch) 4. What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) 142 A short course in english for adult students . ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) 14. They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) 10. What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) 10. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) 17. (come) 13. What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 8. (visit) 3. of course. WHERE. (read) 9. ___________________________________________________ 7. ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. ___________________________________________________ 3. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. They _________ not ________________________ English very often. (have) 2. _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) 15.

. PART II A. 22.... Wait for me in the lobby. 7.PLEASE?. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. Speak more slowly. Repeat your question. Turn the radio down. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Ask somebody to do the following things. Be quiet.. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. A: Will you lend me your pen.. 6... please? Would you mind waiting outside.. 2. Sign your name here. 24.PLEASE? or WOULD YOU. 5. PLEASE?. Take off your hat.. using CAN YOU.. please? Would you sign your name here.... 21. 6. will you? Could you speak more slowly. 4. 3. please? B: Sure Ex. A: Could you help me. Open the window. please? (Informal) Imperative. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wi! pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche.+ infinitive... (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. 2. 7. 4.. Pay attention. 20. as a rule..(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. MAKING REQUESTS . using COULD YOU. instead of the simple imperative form. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 .19. Come back this afternoon... Speak more slowly. Sit on this chair. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying.. 23.. lea y aprenda: 1. Use the other elevator. 1. Help me open the suitcase. Ask somebody to do the following things. (instead of = en vez de) 1. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive. PLEASE? 1. 2. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive..ing. 5..please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. or WILL YOU. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. 3. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please.

You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. Take off your hat. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (solicitando permiso) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. 144 A short course in english for adult students . __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes.Ex. Wait for me in the lobby. B. You : María. You : __________________________________________________________ . Escuche. • Please do. Ask him/her politely. of course. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. 1. You: ____________________________________________________________ . Ask her to do that informally.ING. John? B: Sure. John? John : Certainly. Follow the instructions carefully. go ahead. 2.. Ask him. I didn´t know you were studying.. go ahead. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. S-M-I-T-H. 4. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Ask him. 3. 5. 3. Make requests. Ask him. 3. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. Smith 4. Ask him. You want Sr. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. It´s too cold. 6. 4. You : _________________________________________________________ . You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. Use the other elevator. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. please? Stranger: Sure. Sign your name here. Repeat your question. 7. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). Tom? Tom:: Of course. • Please don´t. 6. PLEASE? 1 Speak more slowly. Turn the radio down. certainly. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form WOULD YOU MIND.

I read it this morning.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. to turn the light on. You want to go in . Bob? Bob: Sure. please do. C. You want to use your friend´s lighter. It´s all yours. Ask his permission. Ask your mother´s permission. 4. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. You want to take a look at his newspaper. 7. here you are. to spell your last name. please. 1.. Ask his permission. Ask your host´s permission. Mr.EXERCISES Ex. 2. mum? Your mother: Yes. You: _________________________________________________________________________________________. 6. Ask the speaker´s permission. Sir? Can/May I help you? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. 1. You want to ask a question. go ahead. You´re at a conference. 5. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Ask his permission. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. Jack? Jack. Ask permission to do things. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . You: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. Jackson: Sure. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • • • • Shall I + Infinitive? Do you want me to + Infinitive? Would you like me to + Infinitive? Can/May I + Infinitive.. Mr Jackson is working in his office. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. please. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . 3. You: _________________________________________________________________________________ .? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. 1. 3. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . 2. please. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. You want to turn on the TV. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. thank you. It´s too cold outside. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. to shut the window. You are at a friend´s house. come in please. but keep the volume down. A short course in english for adult students 145 . Ask his permission. please • No. I´m working. You want to open the window. Mr Jackson. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. I don´t need it now. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. I´ve got a bad cold. Follow the instructions carefully. please.

to help me complete the application form. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes.. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. please. 9. Sorry I can´t. I don´t understand English very well yet. 146 A short course in english for adult students . certainly / Yes. It´s getting late. EXERCISES Ex. I´m a little hungry.. to tell Mary that I want to see her. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. 6.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. to repeat your question. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. please. thanks. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. please. I can manage myself. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. to speak more slowly. 3. I don´t understand French. Why not? Yes. 2. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 7. 4. please. Let´s do that. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. D. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. etc. To spend the summer holidays with us. To go to the seaside next weekend. 1.4. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. of course. I´m a bit busy right now. Sure. 10. that´s a good idea. 8. to call back later today. 5. thanks.

How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. John didn´t like the party. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. but Peter didn´t go to the party. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. Peter went to the party as well.. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. John didn´t go to the party. John went to the party. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter.. It´s a pleasant evening. To go to the arts exhibition. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. Jane: So do I . 10. John went to the party and so did Peter. lea y aprenda. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. but Peter did. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. It´s much cheaper. To play tennis tomorrow morning. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. John went to the party. 7. They´re very nice people. John didn´t like the party. Escuche. Tom: And so was his brother . Peter went to the party. Why not. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). John went to the party. Peter also went to the party. It´s a very interesting exhibition. let´s do that. John went to the party. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. Peter: And so will Janet! 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. 2) John. I´d love to. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. ALSO.too.. 9. Jane: I also like it very much. let´s do that. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party.TOO. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. 6. NOT. but Peter didn´t. Peter didn´t go to the party either. Mary will come to the party tonight. but Peter liked the party. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). 2. A. / BUT +S+ MV 1.. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. Las palabras ALSO. To stay at home and watch TV .5. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. Peter: And Janet will come too! A short course in english for adult students 147 .

Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ 2. Ann: Nor did I! 4. Mary likes pie for dessert.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. Escuche.. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. (Jane) 1. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. Ann: I didn´t see you either. (he) 5. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. 1. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. (We) 7. ___________________ my husband can. So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. (the secretary) 3. 5. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). lea y aprenda. 7. Mary: I don´t like it either. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ 8. 9. He´s going to go to France. Mary is going to go to Spain. Escuche.3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. John walks to school. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. then? Ex. (I) 4. Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. or do you speak another language? 10. He liked the picture. I can´t drive a car. (my wife) 8. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. 3. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it.. Mary: Neither do I. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. EXERCISES Ex. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ 4. Las palabras NOT. What language do you speak. or BUT 1. 148 A short course in english for adult students . 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. EITHER. (Carmen) 2. 2a. lea y aprenda. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. She comes here every day. I watch TV after dinner. ___________________ John is not going to go there. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. I don´t understand it ___________________ 6. Mary can speak Italian well. We´ve got a big house.

(My wife´s car) 12. (I) 13. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. (they) 11. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. (My friends) 10. She doesn´t come here every day. They must pay more. Now. John didn´t go to the movies. (I) 4. They weren´t very busy. John doesn´t go to school . We will go by train.9. (Jane) 1. first use NOT. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert.EITHER. My car is very old. Bob doesn´t like coffee. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). 2b. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. (Peter) 6. I didn´t eat there yesterday. (The children) 9. (They) 11. but Jane does. I ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. (he) 5. (the secretary) 3. (you) 14. Complete these sentences with BUT. Mary can´t speak Italian well. (Carmen) 2. (my wife’s car) 12. They mustn´t pay more.. (Carmen) 2. Mary shouldn´t work harder. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER (o NOR) DOES JANE. (you) 14. but Jane doesn´t. (I) 13. Mary should work harder. We won´t go by train. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John walks to school. 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . (the secretary) 3. (I) Bob likes coffee. Mary can speak Italian well. They were very busy.. My car isn´t very old.

John went to the movies with us. (my wife’s car) 12. They must pay more. 4. “What did Peter send yesterday”. Del mismo modo. Ex. 3. Mary likes pie for dessert. (We) 7. Como ud. (my wife) 8. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones TO o FOR. They were very busy. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. She brought the book to me. The teacher gave some dictation to us. She comes here every day. (they) 11. el complemento indirecto es “her son”.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. (Peter) 6. He sent some candy to his sister. I watch TV after dinner. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. (the children) 9. lea y aprenda.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. 5. We will go by train. I ate there yesterday. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. He sent a letter to me. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. (my friends) 10. 1. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones TO o FOR. 2. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. A su vez. “What did Mary buy?. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). Mary shouldn´t work harder. My car is very old. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. 6. (you) 14. El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. He liked the picture. 150 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . He gave the money to me. He told the story to us. (he) 5. (I) 13.4.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . They sent us the material right away. 7. 11. Ex. 10. 6. He gave a ring to (=phoned) his girlfriend. Please give us some dictation today. He gave some excellent advice to all of us.7. They gave us some magazines. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. 11. 3. 8. They sent an invitation to us. 10. Henry told us the story of his trip. He bought some flowers for his wife 8. I gave him the note which you sent. 5. John gladly lent me the money. 9. 12. John lent some money to his friends. Please hand me that book. They sent us an invitation to the party. They brought us many presents from abroad. Will you lend your pen to me? 12. 2. He sent his mother several letters. 9. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. He gave me some books. 4. 2.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél"/ (La salud) arthritis /a:r"ráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hél"/ heart attack /ha:rt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rú:matizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r "róut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tú" eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:pi# kof/ tos convulsiva.

1. please? 2. 4.come 13.going to be 19... will be working 4.... Ex... Could you / Would you take.? Ex..Would you mind speaking. don´t we travel. Could you / Would you show me.please? 3 Can you / Will you open .do 10. 1. 6. 4.... please? 4. / Will Hans be working. 1.. Do ... please? 2 Could you / Would you wait..be / are . 7. please? / Would you mind spelling... Could you / Would you use.. Would you mind waiting.. will be travelling 3... 10.? 3. 1..write 17..? 3. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.. Would you mind turning... please? 3. May I / Do you mind if I use. Could you / Would you repeat. Ex.... me to speak. Can I turn. Ex. call back.. 4. Can you / Will you give me.. staying.. Ex.. 1...going to go / are .. will .? 5.. 2. 1 They won´t be running. Can you / Will you call me up.. Could you / Would you speak. Did .. please? 6. will be working out 9. Mike won´t be washing... Would you mind signing.. / Will Mike be washing. did .? 3. and resting.reading 9. 8.. don´t we invite.. were . is playing 2.arriving 21.. do . 4. 1.... / Will the students be taking..going to arrive / are . Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me.please? 7.. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6.. will be working 2..... Would you mind taking.. Can I use your. Can you / Will you sit.. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex. / Will they be running. Would you mind using...be doing 11. will be playing 8.? 6. will be watching 10. please? / Would you mind showing me. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3. 3.. 10. please? 6.. 1...? 4.spend . play. to spell my. will visit 3. please? Ex... May I / Do you mind if I go in..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex...? 5. please? 3. 6.? 4. shut. me to translate.? 2.going to stay / are . were ... will .... please? 7.... 1. will . will . A short course in english for adult students 153 .buy 12. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4.. smokes 23. Can you / Will you turn down. Can you / Will you come. The students won´t be taking.? 2. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2..phone 14... Can you / Will you help. will have dinner 7... Will . turn.be doing 10.come 5. saw 6. did .. Can I take.. sitting..3. please? 5. Could you / Would you spell... please? 5. are ..and watching. 1... will ... like to go... me to help you. please? 4..stay / are . will be living 6.be doing Ex.... go.please? 5..travel PART II A.living 16.5.. 5.. don´t we go. will . May I / Do you mind if I open. does . does ...? 2.. please? B. May I / Do you mind if I ask.. will be having 2. will be driving 4.going 20. 1. 1.... did .put on 24.arrive / are .go / are .. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3. were watching 4.....? 6.. 1. comes 5.. please? Ex.. me to get you.stay 9. 1..doing 8.. will..Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5.... tell Mary that you.get up 18. please? 4.please? 2.. Could you / Would you turn. 3. 2.... will be cooking 8. 7.please? 4. like to spend..? 7. 3. Can you / Will you pay. will be entertaining 5. 6.. 2. will .. please? Ex. Mr Perez? 2.? C.. please? 7. Could you / Would you sign. please? 6....staying 22. Can you / Will you be. D.. 5. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7.. me to repeat my. 1....expecting 15. 1..practice 7. don´t we take.. Hans won´t be working. 9.... 8. will be visiting. Ex. will . Would you mind repeating. 9. Could you / Would you help me. Were ... Can you / Will you speak.. did ..... will be doing 7..

.. We´ll go. but my friends did.. and neither / nor do I 4. 2b.. / Mary doesn´t like. / I ate... and I was... but I do.. and my friends also ate... either / Mary can´t. 6... I eat... either / He didn´t like.. / They must pay.either. and Peter also went. and you should work.. but my wife´s car is. and he comes.. but we did. 7... and neither / nor do the children 9. and we didn´t like. either / I don´t eat. He told us the story 5. but I don´t...... but we must B.. and neither / nor was I. I don´t eat.. too / She comes. They were. but Carmen can 2... 8. 12.. also 10.. Mary shouldn´t work. They mustn´t pay. 1. Ex.. / John doesn´t walk.and so did Peter..either / Mary should work. 1. / John didn´t go.. and my wife also watches. 6..5. as well.... and we mustn´t pay. 10. John walks..... / We´ll go. 9. John lent his friends some money 11.. I eat. / Mary likes... 3. I diidn´t eat.. / They weren´t.. 1.. and neither / nor will they. 13..8.. He gave me the money 2. 1. but I wasn´t. but 7.... My car is. and so must we Ex. John doesn´t walk.. 11... She doesn´t come. He liked. too / Mary can. Mary likes. 1.. but you should ..... as well / They were.. 1 gave the note which you sent to him.... and we liked. I don´t watch. 13. 6.too / Mary should work.....either / She doesn´t come. My car isn´t. John walks.either / Mary doesn´t like.either / We won´t go... They gave some magazines to us.11.. I watch. either / They must pay.... They sent us an invitation..... 3 He sent me a letter 4.and neither / nor does he 5.. 2. and the children don´t like.. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work. We will go.. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak.... but 9. Will you lend me your pen? 12.. John didn´t go. He bought his wife some flowers.. and Carmen can´t.. Please give some dictation to us today. 3.12. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. either / John doesn´t walk. The teacher gave us some dictation 6... Mary should work. and so will they. 14. but Peter did.9... and my wife´s car isn´t. John went... but the children do.... and my wife´s car is.. and so should you........ but we didn´t / He didn´t like. They sent an invitation to the party to us. but my wife does... I watch. and so do I 4. and I don´t walk. / I don´t watch.... but they will..... He sent his sister some candy.... 10. She comes.. and the secreatry also eats. / I don´t watch.. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes.... too / as well 2. 3. He sent several letters to his mother.. and neither / nor did we 7.. and the children also like. 11.. / I watch. but my wife doesn´t..... either 4... They were. Mary can......and so does he 5... 2a. / John went. Mary doesn´t like. They must pay.. We won´t go... She comes.. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come... 6.. 2... but the children don´t. They sent the material to us right away. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. / We won´t go. as well / John walks.7... Mary likes. and I wasn´t. Mary can speak... 11.... and I walk. and neither / nor does the secretary.. but I was.. They weren´t.. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t.. 3.. also 5.... but 3... but they won´t. He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex...either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. and so do the children 9..... and so can Carmen 2.... and so was I 13... I ate... either Ex. and they won´t go.PART III A.. Mary should work. too / as well 8. 14. either 6.. and Carmen can.. but he does...They brought many presents to us from abroad. / I eat..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat.. 4. He gave some books to me.and neither / nor did Peter... I ate... and Peter didin´t go. 10... and the secretary doesn´t eat. He didn´t like. 5.. too.. and so does the secretary.. and so did my friends.. and neither / nor must we Ex.. 8. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat.... He liked.... 7. 1. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students . John gladly lent the money to me.either / I didn´t eat.. and neither / nor should you.... but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay.. and they will also go. 10.. either / They weren´t. as well / He liked. 10. 4.. 1... John went. and neither / nor did my friends.. and my wife doesn´t watch. but the secretary does 3.. and my friends didn´t eat. 14.. He gave his friend a ring.. and neither / nor does my wife 8... 1. and you shouldn´t work. and he doesn´t come. She brought me the book. Ex... They must pay and we must pay. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. My wife´s car is. and so did we 7... Henry told the story of his trip to us. Mary can´t. 9. and so does my wife 8.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

studied. forma) de un verbo principal. /aiv/. Como Ud. Curiosamente. /méri haz ríten aná!er nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car.. puede ver. y por lo tanto Ud.. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. You´ve. /áiv bí:n !éar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. She´s /shí:z. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo.. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter..decided . habremos Uds. A short course in english for adult students 157 . María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. To work .studied . habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (HAVE /hæv/ o HAS /hæz/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. etc.. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. /!éiv á:nserd !e léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. To decide . Ej. /ái hav sí:n !æt mú:vi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. Escuche. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. He´s. /hí:z/. como por ejemplo: I´ve. hemos Uds.worked . /iu:v/. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones.worked. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job.decided. Ellos han contestado la carta. To study . habíamos Uds..

.EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SE USA EN LOS SIGUIENTES CASOS: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv !éi éver vízitid iú: in !e wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. since 10:30 /sins tén "é:rti/. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. /!e tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. durante). Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . many times /méni támiz/. hasta este momento. Yes. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived.. once. /hav iú éver. Lea. /áiv sí:n !at dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. /yés wáns !éi vízitid mi in !e wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. Lea. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. Lea.? vez.. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún). escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. /áim shó:r !at áiv sí:n !t fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. never /nóu/néver/ No..? Lea. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/.... for ten years /for tén yíarz/. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá:st mándi/./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud.. several times /sévral támiz/. Lea. etc. They visited me in the winter of 1995. /!éiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio. twice /twáis/. en las negaciones se debe usar yet. three or four times /"rí: or fó:r támiz/. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræ#k tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes. tambien. una vez.

extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /fo:rgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. dejar prestar perder. encontrar olvidar conseguir. salir. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . enterarse partir. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. haber oir guardar. mantener saber.Lea. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigæn/ ´ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. conocer aprender. /áiv olrédi sí:n "æt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. /!éi hav sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. Generalmente ´ ´ se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævent/ HASN´T /hæznt/). obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. Mary hasn´t sold her car. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. We haven´t had breakfast yet. 1.? EXERCISES Ex. /!éi hævent sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ ´ Have they seen that documentary? /hav !éi sí:n "t dokiuméntari/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav !éi sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Mary has sold her car. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ ´ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. servirse. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz !e tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal.

3. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. I don´t remember when. 2. (see) 5. but I´m sure I know him. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. Sir. colocar leer correr. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. John ________________ for that company since 1987. (receive) 7. He knows it well. llevar enseñar decir pensar. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . 5. (go) 8.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. 4. The tennis game________________ just ________________. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. John has sent them a fax. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. (speak) 12. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. The soccer game has already finished. confeccionar reunirse. (leave) 4. Your train ________________ already ________________. He________________ to America. He´s reading it now. creer entender. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. 1. (live) 6. (be) 3. He isn´t in Chile. fabricar. I ________________ that man before. comprender usar (ropa). 3. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. Hurry up! (start) 2. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. (meet) Ex. Peter has had dinner already. 2. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. vestir escribir Ex. (go) 10. 6.conocer pagar poner. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. The plane has already left. (work) 9. They have studied the report.

es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ___________________________________________________ 3. /p/. 2. ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. _______________________________________________ Yes. Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. /d/. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. /t/. 5. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. 8. Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. 10.. _________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. 5. ___________________________________________________ 8. ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. 5. etc. ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. 1. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. /l/. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. etc. ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular.____________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. 7. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. todavía? ___________________________________________________ 9. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ 10. El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. ______________________________________________ No. 6. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. /g/. Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. WHEN. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. 4. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. etc. 9. 2. John? ___________________________________________________ 5. 7. /b/. WHERE. 1. 12. 4. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como WHAT. como /k/. HOW. ___________________________________________________ 6. como /m/. HOW LONG. 3. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . 4. ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. 11. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. 6.Ex. Have you ever been to Japan? (never).

two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. -ge.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. -x. solo. -oof. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. -ff. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. piano. no siguen la regla anterior. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. -sh. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. -ce. etc). banjo. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . -ch. soprano. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ .

volcanos/volcanoes / volkéinouz/ . tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. tornado / to:rnéidou /.: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /"í:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /!í:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipó"esis/ parenthesis /parén"esis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipó"esi:z/ parentheses /parén"esi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memor!da/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:"/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:"/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/.

pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. They went sightseeing in the morning. I heard some surprising news. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). continuar. aceptar como cierto To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. to write. 164 A short course in english for adult students . correr el riesgo de To stop /stop/ dejar de. abandonar To risk /risk/ arriesgar. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóuti#/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuli#/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpi#/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsi#/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhi#/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hæ# gláidi#/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háiki#/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógi#/ ir a trotar To go running /góu ráni#/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séili#/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópi#/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:i#/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéiti#/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:i#/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáivi#/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swími#/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu tréki#/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:i#/ ir a esquiar (acuat. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. they went to the library. writing. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. speaking. no aceptar como cierto To dislike /disláik/ disgustar o desagradar To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. Además. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). etc. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. como ud. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. etc.B. detenerse To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. to speak. I enjoy playing tennis. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). salir. 1. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To practise /práktis/ practicar To quit /kuit/ dejar. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. After playing tennis. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópi#/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. parar. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. seguramente recordará.

mantenerse esperar con ansia..we:r"/ ¿Vale la pena. They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other.Todas las preposiciones van seguidas de un GERUNDIO. (leave) 7. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ Es inutil There´s not much point in /!eaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. mantenerse soñar con...esta/e. It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. They kept on talking for hours. the old woman locked all the doors.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:r"wail/ ¿Vale la pena. (pay) 4. (work) 5. The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? 2. He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. A short course in english for adult students 165 . ______________________________ to bed. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex.... Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. seguir. (say) 2. Por lo tanto. (eat) 3. We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. I look forward to seeing you soon. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. rendirse continuar. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de.. 2.. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /!eaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. discutir pensar en. Bob will soon get used to living in this country.. (go) Ex. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v.?) There´s no use waiting any longer. (take) 6. 1.. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? 4. 1. worth /iz !is. Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. Ann is fond of gardening. We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. planificar Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. I can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. 3. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get "ru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ To think about /"i#k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. seguir insistir en continuar. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. seguir.

The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. Bob: No. 8. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. 5. no problem. Ann: Do you want to play tennis? Bob: No. Ex. 1. 10. I didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Bob: We could go the cinema. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! 10. Sorry! Bob admitted __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. I don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. 2. not really. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer apply be be listen make see try use wash work write 1. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. 2. Use -ING. instead of today? Shall we postpone _________________________________ until _______________________________________? 166 A short course in english for adult students . Ex. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. If you walk ínto the road without looking. He wants to carry on _______________________. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. 4. Shall we go away tomorrow. 7. 6. 9. 4. I aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. You can´t stop me doing what I want. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? 12. Ann: You broke into the shop. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. I dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. It´s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. 11. I enjoy _______________________ to music. it’s true. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. 1. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? 6. I really must do it today. 8. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 7. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? 3. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 5. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. 3. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. He tried to avoid _____answering ____my question. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. 2.5.

We are thinking _______________________ French. 6. 1. There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 5. (drive) 10. John will study to be an engineer. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. He will live in a dormitory. Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. (hit) 6. I aIways enjoy talking to her. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. (see) 7. We look forward _______________________ you soon. l’m not feeling very well. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. 5. John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. He will marry Helen. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. 2. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. 3. 4. (see) 5. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. (wait) 11. They will fly to Mexico. We’re going to the movie tonight. 8. She will study music. (study) 9. They will not drive in their new car. (do) 8. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) 2. They won’t go abroad. Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. She won’t go to the university. (go) 3. She’s a very interesting person. lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. 2. (finish) Ex.4. He will not remain a bachelor. Could you turn the radio down. He will not work in his father’s store. 7. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I will play tennis. Use gerunds. Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) 4. There is little chance _______________________ her again. John got tired _______________________ for us. (take) 12. We will not visit the Smiths. They will stay home this summer. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. ________________________________________________________________________ 3.

. 11. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. I´d be glad to. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. 6. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. 7. B: Let´s go. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. yesterday. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. A: Good. try again. I enjoy _______________________ sports.m. could you help me in the kitchen? B: Sure. don’t give up. I don’t cough any more. 8. It´s driving me crazy. B: Well. if necessary. 13. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. Beth doesn’t like her job. it has. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. I´m not tired yet. 14. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. and I still don’t understand it. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ . lt’s slowly falling apart. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. then. 5. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. Well. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. Add a preposition after the gerund. 4.Ex. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. try. B: Oh. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. she dusted the furniture. 168 A short course in english for adult students . It was cold and rainy yesterday. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. Sometimes students put off_______________________ their homework. 10. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ . 8. 9. 2. news! I feel great. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. They’re considering _______________________ 3. 10. 2. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. The Porters´ house is too small. Keep _______________________. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. We had a blizzard. Ex. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. 9. 6. I’m listening to you. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. 1. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. 12. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3.

14. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. so the lake is completely frozen. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands.ING 1. George and Jane know all the latest dances. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. On weekends in the winter. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 11. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. He usually takes long walks in the woods. Use the expressions GO +.. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Answer the questions. Jim and his wife live near the sea. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . When there’s a strong wind. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. “ Ex. “Three free trees. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Jim Clark is a nature lover. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. A: I didn’t understand what you said. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. I said. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. It´s winter now. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . Mr.9. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things.. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. What do they like to do? They like ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Mr. The ice is smooth. She runs a couple of miles every day. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. She spends hours in the water. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow.

a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. por desde. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students. for 3 days from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . hacia hacia. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (Preposiciones y frases preposicionales) English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / ló#/ among / má#/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t ! bæk v/ ´ at the bottom of / t ! bótom v/ at the top of / t ! tóp #v/ before /bifó.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:"/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúri#/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in ! kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /"ru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wi!/ within /wi!in/ without /wi!áut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. at 4.

.como.. He studied hard as well.. The student speaks English well. He didn´t study hard enough.. First. debido a que no both.bat ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto. He gave her a beautiful diamond. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar..... in addition. I´m getting along quite well. moreover.sino que también. 12.. en consecuencia posteriormente. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdi#li/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ól!ou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /fé:r!ermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando.. but he didn´t do well in the test. de lo contrario similarmente..nor /ní:!er. por otra parte sin embargo. he went to the post office. con posterioridad por lo tanto.and/ either. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. 6. The yard is too big. yet she didn´t pass her exam. 8. no obstante ello de otro modo.. he took her to Europe. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ in addition /in adíshon/ in spite of that /in spáit v !æt/ in the first place /in ! fé:rst pléis/ in the meantime /in ! mí:ntaim/ in the same way /in ! seim wéi/ on the one hand / n ! wan hænd/ ´ on the other hand / n !i á! r hænd/ ´ to begin with /tu bigín wi!/ to start with /tu stá:rt wi!/ de hecho. pues por lo tanto. On the one hand. he seems to know a lot about our customs. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan "i#/ for that reason /for !æt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1. no sólo..ni.o:r/ neither.... 9.. así mismo mientras tanto además.. no obstante después.and. 10. enseguida. sin embargo. besides. 5. por lo tanto then /!en/ sin embargo. no obstante nonetheless /nan!eles/ igualmente otherwise /á!erwaiz/ finalmente. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que... acto seguido sin embargo. my roommate is not doing so well... en realidad además a pesar de ello en primer lugar mientras tanto del mismo modo por un lado por otro lado para comenzar para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . o. por consiguiente así. /bóu". por cierto thus /!as/ inicialmente. 7. on the other hand. the house is not very comfortable. 2.. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. 4. ya sea. del mismo modo por lo tanto. de este modo en cambio.. ni.. nonetheless.no:r/ not only. 13.but also /nót óunli.. we can´t afford the house.. however. CONNECTORS (Conectores) Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque. It´s cold outside.. entonces. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néver!elés/ en consecuencia. He´s my best friend.. aunque. Mary was sick. then. she came to class. he went to the bank.. 3. Alice studied very hard. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital.. next /nékst/ a pesar de. so he failed the exam. we have to wash the car. furthermore. it has an excellent location 14. no obstante therefore /!éarfo:r/ en efecto..or /í:!er.. 11. we´ve known each other all our lives. nevertheless. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad.B..

Bl 172 .

looking for 10.started 2. turning the radio down. No. being 12.been 10. being 8. Where has John been? 9. moving into a larger house 3. laughing 6. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. travelling during the rush hour 3. going away. What have they bought? 3. / Have they given her. of taking 12. has been 3. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. 4. Ex. of swimming 2. 1.. have met Ex. 2. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B.. 3. riding 7. 3. 3.. Why has he gone to bed? 4.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7. visiting Ex. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. going to 4. has .instead of working in his father´s store 6. speaking 13... doing 6. of seeing 7. practising 11. going out this evening 3. They´ve been here several times before. have .Key to answers UNIT 12 A. Yes. Yes. waiting 2. 2. John? 5. 2. has . They´ve studied English for more than two years. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2.received 7. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. What have you eaten? 8. 4.. (Possible answers) 2.. have seen 5. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. trying Ex. before leaving 7. by working 5. hitting 9. 2. have lived 6.. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. going out for a walk 5. Yes. using 9. playing tennis 3. going for a swim 5. working 14. taking 5. in speaking 4.. she´s been there twice 3... The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2. on going 3.. I´ve never seen him in person 7. What has Mary told you about that? 7. he´s lived abroad several times 6. Ex.. reading 4. 6. taking 9. to seeing 5. No. Ex. 6. vacuuming 5. visiting 12.. from hitting 6. breaking down Ex. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. 1. 1. making 3.. applying 5. not having a license 5. How long have you worked in the army? 10. eating 6. How many books have they sold today? 6. has . washing 6. What have the boys done today? 11. 1. 9. Breaking / having broken 6.. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. 1. I haven´t read that book yet 2.instead of going to the university 3. 4. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex... How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. tomorrow 4. 8. has . has gone 8. about studying 9. having 10... of driving 10.left 4. (Possible answers) 2. before eating 3. waiting a few minutes. before going Ex.1 1. 6. No. she´s come here a couple of times. 8. seeing 10. working 8. 5. 5. 1. has spoken 12. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. of doing 8.. speaking 3. answering 11.instead of driving in their new car Ex.Yes. instead of going abroad 4. has worked 9. buying 8. being 7.. without / after saying 2. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. of waiting 11. of finishing Ex. Ex. they´ve never seen one 4. 2. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. 1. standing up 4. I´ve never been there 2. about taking 6. 7... I´ve driven one once or twice 5. without / after paying 4.read 11. listening 4. instead of visiting the Smiths 5. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 .. They haven´t given her..? Ex. please? 6. The general has already gone to the meeting. snowing 7.

tapping your fingernails on the table 9. goes jogging 6. etc. 174 A short course in english for adult students . doing things / doing his homework 7. like to go sailing 12. smoking 5. reading a good book 4. went camping 4. 2. likes trekking 8. go dancing 10. 10. repeating that Ex. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. like to go sky-diving 14. like to go skiing 7. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. helping him 8. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. 11. trying 6. to go shopping 5. are going to go ice-skating 11. to go water-skiing 3. go sight-seeing 13. goes bowling 9. 2.Ex.

(work) 3. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. /!éi hav bí:n lívi# in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. 1. The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. hasta esta fecha. That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. /wí:v bí:n stádii# i#glish for óuver tú: mán"s/ It´s been raining for about an hour. /hi:z wé:rkt !éar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. /hi:z bí:n wérki# !éar for abáut tú: áuarz/. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . /tóm haz bí:n wé:rki# !éar sins éit "é:rti/. Lea.30. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. (sit) 4. 1. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. /!éiv lívd in !e sáu" éver sins !éi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el ´ sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y ´ ´ en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rki# !éar for mó:ar !an tú: áuarz/ ´ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav !ei bí:n lívi# !éar véri ló#/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu lo# hav iú: bi:n præktisi# í#glish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado ´ practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:i#/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. 2. Miami desde 1985. /!éiv bi:n lívi# in !e sáu" for at lí:st tú mán"s/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8.? EXERCISES Ex. /its bí:n réini# for abáut an áuar/. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) .UNIT 13 PART 1. Lea.

The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. (discuss) Ex. 3. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. a) ______________________________________ 2. Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. 1.5. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. a) ______________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ Ex. (write) 9. and b) interrogative. Change the following sentences into a) negative. How long. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. (read) 8. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. When. (run) 7. a) ______________________________________ 5. Where. Jane´s been feeling well since March. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) 6. (work out) 10. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Ask questions using question words like What. The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. etc. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. a) ______________________________________ 3. 1. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. _____________________________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 176 A short course in english for adult students . a) ______________________________________ 4. Bob´s been swimming all morning. 2.

afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To allow /aláu/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disé:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Permitir. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . autorizar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. etc. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. I promise to help you. negarse a Amenazar. simular. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. so I agreed to lend him some money. He pretended to be reading the paper. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. II (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) A. TO DECIDE planear. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. The woman pretends to know everything. no lograr Olvidar Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. /si:m/ parecer. simular. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. que son las siguientes: 1. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. pensar. She promised not to be late.PART II. The students tend to be negligent. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. verse. TO WISH /wish/ desear. verse. 2. Peter wants to study engineering. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. simular Prometer Rehusar. TO PLAN /plæn/ To hope /houp/ To learn /lé:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /"réten/ To want /wont/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. They seem to be doing well now. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir.

VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. etc. Verb + Wh.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. 4. We expect to be there soon. They don´t mean to do it now.. TO TELL /tel/ decir. . He asked them where to go. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. me. I want to go there. madam. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. (El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado) Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. (El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta) Hot weather makes me feel tired. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. when. where. I´d hate the boys to do it here.. (No se debe decir. mostrar. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. He asked to take part. them. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. pedir. preguntar. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. him. I would prefer /wud prife´:r/ preferiría I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. B.Mary. Do you understand what to do? 5. TO ASK /a:sk/ preguntar o consultar. (Por favor. I begged to see the photos. “You make me TO feel happy”. 6. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. I begged them to see the photos. suplicar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. (Permítame llevarle su bolso. I don´t mean you to do it now.3. I´d prefer to do it now. I´d love to go to the club. We expect you to be there soon. saber. señora) Please let me go out. TO KNOW /nóu/. déjeme salir) 178 A short course in english for adult students B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. Bob taught us how to use the computer. I´d hate to do that here. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. (Tú me haces sentir feliz) The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. solicitar To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar. I would like to go. the student. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. implorar. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. (Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola) Let me carry your bag for you.

Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. Put the verb into the correct form TO-INFINITIVE or -ING 1. Mary: OK. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. Hans: OK. It’s relaxing. (acción completa) We´ ve heard them singing a song. (parte de la acción) We´ ve heard them sing ten songs. 1. Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. (bark) 7. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. thanks. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. (call) A short course in english for adult students La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle Los hemos oído cantando una canción Los hemos oído cantar 10 canciones. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. We were all too afraid to speak. We’ve got a new computer in our office. Jack : Please help me. I enjoy _____________________________ television. 2. (acción completa) D. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. She promised not_____________________________ late. It’s driving me mad. They don’t have much money. 179 . I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . I’m not in a hurry. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) 4. When I’m tired. 1. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. Complete the sentences for each situation. 3. It was a nice day. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) 5. 6. 5. It’s a nice day. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. 2. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________ to the airport in time. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. I can manage myself. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. (go) 6. 1.C. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. van seguidos de un GERUND cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. Ex. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. (go) 3. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. I wonder where Sue is. fine. 3. please? EXERCISES Ex. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. 4. (watch) 2.

Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can I go now or do _______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 7.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. (have) 9. We were hungry. I was really astonished. I will. 1.. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. I was surprised that it rained. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? _____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No _____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. (miss) 10. (find) Ex. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. 5. 6. of course. 6. 2. My father said I could use his car. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students .. Tom asked _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 4. 3. 2. 4. 4. 3. (seem) My English is getting better. 1. I didn’t know _____________________________. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Sylvia: Be careful. 2. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. 5. Sylvia warned Hans: OK. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early.. 8. 6. 6. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. 3. Complete the questions. (seem) That car has broken down. 2. (appear) You know a lot of people. 5. (appear) David forgets things.(tend) They have solved the problem. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. TO LEND. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1.(seem) Tom is worried about something. 4. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. TO WAIT 1.. TO SHOW. Sue: Lock the door. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Ex. TO SHUT. He has lost weight. 1. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Jane. Yes. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. Sue told Hans to lock the door.8. CompIete the sentences for each situation. TO REPEAT. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. 7. 5. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

TO STOP / detenerse. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. (I remembered I had to do that. The food is awful (eat) 8. A short course in english for adult students 181 . (study) E. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. I love to go to baseball games. The minister went on talking for two hours. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. We continued to work until 10:30. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. It made me _____________________________ (cry) 9. I remember doing that. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) 7. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. (smoke) 2. recordarse. VERBS +.continuar. TO LOVE /lav/ encantarle a uno. you are able to travel round more easily. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The film was very sad. 9. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) 4. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero.3. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. (I said that. If you’ve got a car. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.. Put the verb in the right form : -ING or INFINITIVE (with or without TO). Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. He looks older when he wears glasses. He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) 6. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. I regret saying what I said. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. stop/ parar. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. I think you should know the truth.. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. I’m in a difficult position. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. I was told that I shouldn’t believe everything he says. a diferencia de los anteriores. I remembered to do that. She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. arrepentirse. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. estos cambian el significado de la oración. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. After discussing the economy. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. (go) 3. My lawyer advised. My lawyer said I shouldn’t say anything to the police. 1. (read) 5. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. sin cambiar de significado. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while.

What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) 16. 1. My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. (go) 17. I won’t be late.EXERCISES Ex. I promise _____________________________ on time. B: Did l? Are you sure? I don’t remember . (want) (go) (sail) Ex. I haven’t got enough money. I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. 1. I’m too tired. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 13. (meet) 8. 1. (cry) 16. We finished _____________________________ around seven. She didn’t answer the phone. Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) 12. (talk) 4. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. They denied _____________________________the money. (move) 15. Ex. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. (help) 10. I want _____________________________this afternoon. (go) 5. (steal) 2. Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. (get). (pay) 12. (break) 11. The company will continue _____________________________ (hire) new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. (be) 14. I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. (drive) 3. I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. (go) 4. (come) 22. I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) 7. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. 3. (eat) 6. Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) 6._____________________________you any money. I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. I need to study tonight (study) 2. 2. The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. (camp) 9. I’ll phone her tomorrow. I like _____________________________ new people. 1. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. 3. 2. I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) 3. 182 A short course in english for adult students . That’s not what I meant! I meant _____________________________ just the opposite. Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. (say) 23. The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) 7. Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) 9. I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. (see) 15. Sometimes either form is possible. (go) (shop) 24. (live) 19. (write) 20. (get) 5. I clean (= completely) forgot. The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. (watch) 11. Some children hate _____________________________ to school. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) 13.’ (shut) 14. Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) 8. (answer) 10. (jog) 21. (lock) 18. One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. (meet) I hope _________________________ you again soon.

(Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. Ex.(buy) 16. I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. GERUND. (wash). We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. (watch) 12. won’t you? 5. (do) 10. TO-INFINITIVE. 9. 4. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . 6. (go) 7. I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 3. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. (talk) 15. Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. Smith. (wash) 2. 11. (go) 6. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) 13. 10. Someone must have taken my bag. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) 5. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. When you see Mandy tomorrow. (lock) 20. (watch) 17. BARE INFINITIVE. (live) 9. This is very urgent. I´ve already done my homework. I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. This jacket is dirty. I saw him _____________________________ his car. I don’t regret _____________________________ it. mum. 8. The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. She looked up and said hello to me. Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. (move) 18. Where did they agree_____________________________. (move) 19. 12. remember _____________________________ her my regards. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning.4. When I came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. I want a different job. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. It is too expensive. He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. or did you forget? (phone) 4.George? (do) 11. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. As a matter of fact I do it every day. 7. 1. It needs _____________________________. It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. 14. (rain) 8. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. I believe that what I said was fair.

Mary is at home now. They will be here early. ha advertido. isn´t she? You know him well. ____________________________________? 7. She studies with you. ________________________________________? 9. George is a very tall boy. did he? The boys can´t speak French. Add the proper tag ending. ________________________________? 13. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. The boy can speak French. _________________________________________? 6. _____________________________________? 8. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. She can speak French well. ____________________________________? 6. 1. He left at two o’clock. ______________________________________? 2. is she? You don´t know him well. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. Smith has seen that movie. ________________________________________? 4. 2. He has to work tomorrow. _________________________? 3. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: isn’t he? 1. Mr. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. He comes here every day. _________________________________________? 14. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. ________________________________________? 5. I´m your best friend. Henry left at two o’clock. ____________________________________ ? 2. ____________________________________________? 8. has he? Como Ud. _____________________________________? 11. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. The boy can´t speak French. ___________________________________ ? 3. He will be back later. You were absent from class yesterday. You live uptown. _________________________________________? 10. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. Helen and her sister are both studying English. You know him well. Both men look very much alike. ___________________________________? 7.PART III TAG ENDINGS. ___________________________? 12. __________________? 5. There´s some more milk in the fridge. ________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. I´m doing the exercise well. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. You don´t know him well. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t he? 1. _________________________________? 4. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. _________________________? 9. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. They were both absent from the lesson. The wind is blowing very hard. You are busy today. ________________________________? Ex. John is a good student. It is beginning to rain. He has many friends here. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto.

________________________________________? 6. __________________________________ 13. Sue was at home when you called last night. _________________________? 3. __________________________________________? 5. _______________________________? 8. _____________________________________ 14. William has been working very hard today. ____________________________________? 4. ________________________________________? 7. _________________________________________? 12. They didn’t arrive on time. They don’t live uptown. But he dropped the letter into the box. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. ______________________________? 11. They didn’t come with her. ______________________ 4. _______________________________ 3. He didn’t visit us last night. John didn’t receive any change.. __________________________ 7. Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. __________________? 8. William was born in Cardiff. __________________________________________? 11. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. ___________________________________ 5. ______________________________? Ex. The sun sets at about six o’clock. _________________________________________? Ex. William will be here soon. __________________________________________? 7. ___________________________? 5. She isn’t busy now. He put a stamp on the envelope. _______________________________? 12. _______________________________________? 9. 4. There are many students absent today. Mr. He never goes there in the morning. There are only a few people ahead of him.. Add the proper tag ending: 1. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. He hasn’t got any money. ______________________________ 6. __________________________________? 9. _________________________? 10. He didn’t mail any packages. ________________________________________? 12. _____________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 185 . They don’t know each other. ___________________________________ 12. Mary goes shopping every day. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. They didn’t have to work yesterday. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. _______________________? Ex. 5. Add the proper tag ending: does he? 1. _________________________________________ 11. _________________________________ doesn’t he? 2. _____________________________ 10. _______________________________________________? 3. The shopping district extends for many blocks. _________________________________________? 4. He doesn’t always buy stamps. The sun is setting now. He doesn’t come here every day. They are leaving early in the morning. _________________________________? 11. There are many people ahead of him. 3. ____________________________________________? 10. José used to work in this office. John often walks to the post office. The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. He gave him the stamps. ___________________________________? 2. She can’t speak French. _____________________________________? 2. ___________________________________________? 6.”. Smith is out of town.10. ______________________________ 8. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t she? 1. They went into the church. _____________________________ 9.

Ask questions. but you are not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. but you`re not sure. using tag endings. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think John put on his new sweater. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think John`s been to England twice. but you`re not sure. You think they have to work a little faster. but you`re not sure. You think there was too much noise in the room. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station. You think my friends come from Wisconsin. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish. You think the boy has had dinner already. doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You think the boys worked harder than the girls. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 186 A short course in english for adult students . You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think I was at the meeting too. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You say: The children can`t swim well.Ex. 6. can they? 1. You think you´re a good student. You say: Mary speaks Spanish. You think. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION (Deportes y recreación) amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ængli#/ ´ athletics /a"létiks/ baths /ba:"s/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuli#/ boxing /bóksi#/ car-racing /ka:r réisi#/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimi#/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikli#/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáivi#/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsi#/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhi#/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidi#/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidi#/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisi#/ hunting /hánti#/ hurdling /hé:rdli#/ ice-skating /áis skéiti#/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógi#/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpi#/ parque de diversiones. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíi#/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit lífti#/ pesas A short course in english for adult students 187 . pesca de río atletismo baños. termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego. partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo jabalina trote viaje salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol.valla paddling /pædli#/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /pénta"lon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo.box) movie theater /múvi "íater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo. etc rink /ri#k/ cancha de patines rowing /róui#/ remo running /ráni#/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:i# túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéiti#/ patinaje skiing /skí:i#/ esquí skiing resort /skí:i# rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfi#/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suími#/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /!íater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje. excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /tréki#/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /trá#ks/ pantalones de atlet.

Bl 188 .

you to know the truth. have been waiting 6. / Has Bob been swimming. cleaning 12. They claim to have solved the problem. 6. 3. to find Ex. jogging 21. having 9. Bob use her phone 4.to see 15. They haven`t been playing. stealing / having stolen 2. to buy 4. missing 10. 1.. it to rain / it would rain. camping 9. / Has Jane been feeling. 8. 9. 3. 8. 1. have been standing 5. . have been discussing Ex. me to phone my sister.... 1. Ex. 4. 3. Ex. to study. asking 9.. 1. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. / Have they been playing. go with you? 2... You seem to know a lot of people. how to use 3. 2. to arrive 16. cry 9.. Ex. to want to go sailing Ex. David tends to forget things. to call 8. 2. cracking 12. 9.. 2. to go 5. how to ride 5. to be 14.. 4. Ex. not to say anything to the police. to cry / crying 16.? 2. what to say 6. Hans to be careful 5. to shut 14. 2. 7. 4. 2... have been running 7. to post. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. to go 6. to go 4. breaking / having broken 11. He hasn`t been living. raining 6. meeting.That car appears to have broken down 6. to go 3. 2. 4. moving 15. They haven`t been discussing.. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to get married 2. you to travel round more easily. / Have they been discussing. to believe everything he says. has been reading 8. going 4.. what to do 4. to buy 7. 1 has been living 2. to become 9. 1. to be 6. to hire / hiring . living 19. to pay 12. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. to get 3. you want me to wait Ex.coming 22. to do 4. to say Ex.. to tell the man her name Ex. barking 7. 1. reading 11. to smoke 2..? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming. me to apply for the job. lend you some 3.Key to answers UNIT 13 PART I. (how) to use 5. 3. to give 5. Jane hasn`t been feeling. 5. Jane to give him a hand. to help Jack 3. 5.. meeting / to meet 8. Ex.to say 23. to tell 8. 1... to carry the woman`s bag 4.? 3. 1. him look older. have been working out 10. saying / having said 7. 1. to help 10. 6. eating 13. Ex. to lock 18.? `t Ex. 1. How long have they been waiting for a taxi? PART II. He seems to have lost weight 2. working 10. lending / having lent you 3. Tom appears to be worried about something. to feed 13.. 2. 4. having left / leaving 6.? 4. to go shopping 24. 1. to get Ex. going / to go 17. has been writing 9. to answer 10. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. read 5. to go 7. (Possible answers) 1. to take 7. 7. 1. shut it 4. eating 6. you want me to repeat what I said 6. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. 5. writing 20. to eat 8. me to use his car. to phone. driving 3. have been working 3. to get 5. Why have they been saving money? 5.. to go 6. him do what he wants. watching / to watch 11. 10. how to get 2.. 1. has been sitting 4. A. / Has he been living. 3. to talk / to meet A short course in english for adult students 189 . you like to show you how to use it 5. Where have they been staying? 4. watching 2.. to go 3. B. 7. waiting 5. whether to go Ex. asking 8. My English seems to be getting better.

. isn´t there? 12... did he? 4... They didn`t have to work. will he? 10.. doesn`t he? 4... Jane shouldn`t do that again...Ex.. William was born in. They have to work a little faster.... She isn`t busy.... 2.... (in order) to rest 14... should she? 7.. won`t he? 7. Sue was at home... They don`t live.. watch 12. doesn`t he? 7. It`s beginning. You live. The boy has had dinner already. phoning 5.. I`m your.. doesn`t it? 9.. They don`t know. The traffic on this street was very. don´t they? 3.... 2... Bob`s going to buy. did he? 12. He left.. aren`t they? 5. He never goes. They were both absent.. 1. aren`t there? Ex.. wasn`t it? 8.. to phone 4... wasn`t she? 3. to rain / raining 8.. doesn`t he? 6. Mr Smith``s seen.. Ex. He didn`t mail. to move 19..... can`t she? 3. did they? Ex. They went.. isn`t it? 10.... don`t they? 6. They`re leaving.. do they? 9. John`s been to England twice... There are many people. 2.. wasn`t there? 9. did they? 11. 6. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station.... didn`t he? 11.. did he? 14. doesn`t she? 9. would you? 12. You were absent. did they? 4. hasn`t he? 5. aren`t I? 7.... William`s been working. does he? 8. He won`t have to wait. wasn`t he? 6... isn`t he? 8.. is she? 3. don`t you? 8. I`m doing... 2. 1..... aren`t you? 6... is there? 5. Ex... moving 18. He put. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle.to go 7. did he? 7..... did he? 9.. had it? 190 A short course in english for adult students .... He doesn`t always have to wait. weren`t you? 9.. isn`t he? 11........ Both men look. didn`t he? 5........ 3.... aren`t there? 7.. doing 10. He didn`t visit. has he? 12. She can`t speak. do they? 6... They didn`t come.. They didn`t arrive. does he? 5. didn`t they? 12. He has many.. George`s a very. to working C. didn`t he? Ex.. does he? 3. John put on his new sweater.. to meet 13...... will she? 8. The sun`s setting. 2. The wind`s blowing. He first goes to. She won`t be. Henry left. He hasn`t got... isn`t he? 11. hasn`t he? Ex.. He gave. There are many... weren`t you? 14.... don`t they? 13. washing 3.. to buy 16.... aren`t they? 12.. Mr Smith`s out of. to living 9.. isn`t it? 4. can she? 5.. But he dropped.. hasn`t he? 2.. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday. The sun sets... doesn`t it. He doesn`t always buy.. didn`t he? 13... 4. William will be.. to going 6. I´m a good student... You`re busy... José used to work. Helen and her sister are both. She can speak.. weren`t they? 3.. do we? 10. You wouldn´t like to go there again... They`ll be..... didn`t they? 11. didn`t he? 11. locking 20.. wash 2.. He has to work. talking 15.. aren`t I? 14. aren`t there? 6. The boys worked harder than the girls... hasn`t he? 8. won`t he? 10.. John didn`t receive... He`ll be back.. 4. aren´t I? 10.... didn´t he? 4. You were at the meeting too.. She studies. isn`t it? 10..... to watch 17... 2. The shopping district extends... do / to do 11.. won`t they? 4. 5. We don`t have to come.. There`s some... didn`t he? 13. Your friends come from Wisconsin. There are only a few... He didn`t have to wait.. There was too much noise in the room. 1...

The old man died at 11:25. se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. By the time the ambulance arrived. la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what. /!éi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.UNIT 14 PART 1. /bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd !e óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó. /!i óuld mæn hædént dáid iét bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had !e shóu stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had !éi lívd bifó:r !éi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. the old man had already died. When Paul arrived at the theatre. el viejo ya había fallecido. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft iét wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. where.. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /!e shóu hædént stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. De dos acciones pasadas. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera.?) A short course in english for adult students 191 . Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo. /!e shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. how.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. etc. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto. /háns had olrédi léft wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. Escuche. /!éi we:r hævi# lántch wen iú: kó. Lea. By the time the ambulance arrived. You phoned at 8:25. mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called).

EXERCISES Ex. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. By the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. 9. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office.Yesterday at a restaurant. (disappear) 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . The show (begin. (take) 8. At first. (put out) 10. 3. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. I (recognize. 4. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. Millions of years ago. I (see. As soon as he opened the door. Change the following sentences into a) the negative.(finish) 4. 10. The children had already had supper. not) ______________________ ______________________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. 1. 2. By the time the firemen arrived. 2. Ex. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ______________________ the art gallery. 3. 5. When the police arrived. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived.(start) 3. Tom had already left the office. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. Jane had seen that movie twice. 1. The teacher (give. the rain __________________________ already (stop) 6. (steal) 7. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. The students (see. (go) Ex. 7. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. Gloria almost missed her plane. (be) 6.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. All of the other passengers (board. 1. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. 4. They´d already spent all the money. 3.already) ______________________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. an old friend of mine. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. 2. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. (go) 2. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. and b) the interrogative. 1. but they (become. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. (leave) 9. 6. She said she ______________________ there several times before. not)_______________________________ him in years. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. Paul had already sent her a fax.

9. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? 8. John had visited them that evening. They´d spent over US $ 3. Translate the following sentences into English 1. How long.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. The girl had studied French at school. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Where. 1. Black had studied at Harvard University. 5. Dr. 4.Ex. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general.UU. 10. 7. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. When. Ask questions using question words like What. 7. Paul had sold his house the previous year. etc. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 2. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? 4. 3. How. 10. 6. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a EE. Ella no había leído ese libro aún. Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. Bill had made the same mistake three times.

dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. (casi no. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER.). atrasados) 2. They took the early (adj.) lesson. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: ´ rápido/rápidamente. Examples: This is a hard (adj. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately . This train is very slow. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /se:rten/ cierto ´ safe /sé:if/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /se:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. tempranamente. vimos que. EARLY. early /é:rli / temprano. He drives carefully (adverbio). late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. A dog runs faster than a horse. I have to study hard (adv. adelantado.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . A. Mr Blake will call later tonight. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. We arrived there early (adv.PART II. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo. A bus runs more slowly than a train. fast /fæst/ hard /ha:rd/ duro. Bob works harder than any of the other students. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected.) train. I got up a little earlier than usual today.). no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. FAST. difícil. LATE y HARD. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). Mike came more quickly than the other boys. es decir. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. Peter hardly works on Saturday. intenso/intensamente. Con los adverbios SOON.

John was very ____________________________. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. EXERCISES Ex. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. (fast) Ex. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________. (often) 3. (beautiful) 8. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . (wise) 11. (frequent) 6. (good) 9. (quick) 8. John works _______________________________________________________ I (hard) 9. as usual. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. He speaks very ____________________________. He always does his work ____________________________. They get up every morning _________________________________________________ we. He gets up as early as I do. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. He comes here _____________________________________________ she. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. (quick) 4. John left the office __________________________ that afternoon. John works better than William. (quick) 2. (easy) 5. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. (easy) 7. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________. 3. This is an ____________________________ exercise. He can run much _____________________________________________________________ I. We walked very ____________________________. (foolish) 10. (fast) 11. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening. (beautiful) 7. She plays the guitar ___________________________________________________ anyone else. (careful) 3. (wise) 12. He did the work____________________________. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________. 8. (good) 10. Bill behaves badly in class. (early) 5. She works very ____________________________ every day. (careful) 2. John works _________________________________________ I. (hard) 5. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. She speaks English_____________________________. (careful) 4. (beautiful) 3. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. He studies __________________________________________________________ Mary. (careful) 2.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. (foolish) 9. (easy) 6. They acted ____________________________ in doing. She prepares her lessons ____________________________. 2. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. He certainly acted ____________________________. (bad) Ex. He always does his work ____________________________.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. We went farther. (fast). (good) 7. He learns his lesson ____________________________. He comes here ___________________________________________________ he did before. He is a very ____________________________ student. I go there _______________________________________________________ he does. that. (careless) 12. He always drives ____________________________.(regular) 4. (early) 6. They went very far.

(soft) 10. They came to work ________________________________________________________usual. (early) 11.. Remember that you can use NOT AS. He didn’t arrive here ____________________________ we expected him. (good) 4. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . (early) 6. (beautiful) 6. (hard) 7. (easy) 5. He can run ____________________________ his brother. She sings ____________________________ she plays.. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. (quick) 8. using equality of comparison (as. He doesn’t walk (as fast as / so fast as) I do. (soon) 12. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /!emsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. (careful) 7. (early) Ex. Bob cut himself with the knife. Express in full form. John speaks English ____________________________I do. (hard) B. He came here ____________________________ he could. (bad) 9. 12. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated area. He came ____________________________ he could. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she does. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. (late) 11. Se usan para expresar énfasis.. (good) 8. (regular) 10. using equality of comparison. Please. AS o NOT SO. He works ____________________________ he can. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (easy) (bright) (fast) 5.. (early) 3. She can’t play the piano ____________________________ she can sing. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. Express in full form. 4. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas..10. 9.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. (fast) 2. I go to bed ___________________________________________________________ you. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. speak __________________________possible. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. (early) 5. You can do it ____________________________ I . (fast) 3. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. She doesn’t speak Spanish ____________________________ her sister. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. He will arrive________________________________________________________ they. as): 1. (late) 2. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. (good) 4. AS: 1. He can’t come ____________________________ we.. He goes to bed ____________________________ I.

2. John ______________________________ wrote to me. 10. 4. I myself will do it. (Hans estudia en un grupo. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice. 6. You ______________________________ have to do it. 12. I do not think he can do it alone. 10. I shave ______________________________ every morning. She likes to study alone. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. 6. 5. boys. (El pobre hombre vive completamente solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. 12. He likes to walk alone in the park. Peter. Do you like to talk about______________________________? 9. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1.3. He works alone in a small office. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 4. Ex. 7. 2. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo. Ex. 11. The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife. 2. I went to the movie alone. Both the boys and the girls study alone. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ 8. The President ______________________________ attended the meeting. 8. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. He prefers to work alone. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell on the pavement. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. The little boy cannot dress ______________________________. 11. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. 12. 9. You ______________________________ must speak to him. sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). 3. 3. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. 10. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. 6. The poor man killed ______________________________. 11. 4. 5. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. 9. We ______________________________ will wait for you. 8. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. 7. 3. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 197 . Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. 7. pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. He wrote the entire book alone. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. William shaves ______________________________ every day. The poor man lives all by himself in an old house. I do not like to eat alone. He is only 2 3.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. 2. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________ 198 A short course in english for adult students . Substitute the past form of GOING TO for the italicized. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad. 2. We intended to wait for you but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. no se llevaron a cabo por algún motivo. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I didn´t. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. (to call on = to visit). Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. Answer the questions as in the example 1.C. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No. I didn´t. 1. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (SUBJECT + WAS / WERE + GOING TO + INFINITIVE) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. I didn´t. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I didn´t . verbs: 1.

foresta galaxia suelo. tierra rada.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ (La naturaleza) a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ (Geografía) air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:r"/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /í"mas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque. rooster /rúster/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave. colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/. bahía cerro. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito. villa volcán agua cataratas b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ (Vegetación) branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ (Animales) ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ´ ant /ænt/ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ buffalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/. summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shó:ar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spri#/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna. satélite nat. pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /má#ki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono A short course in english for adult students rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /tra#k/ planta raíces semilla arbusto. mata árbol tronco 199 .

cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dó#ki/ ´ dragonfly /drægonflai/ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flamí#gou/ vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/ ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena 200 A short course in english for adult students .

better than 7. 1. 4. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8.had lost Ex. well 9. had stolen 7. 1.gone Ex.. was . He said (that) he`d been very busy that day. as early as 11. as / so fast as 2. more regularly than 4. well 10. The children hadn`t had.yet / Had Mrs.put out 10.got 4.Key to answers UNIT 14 PART I Ex. faster than 8. as / so early as 6. herself 11. himself 2. carefully 4. had .yet / Had Paul sent. 1.. himself 4.. as / so regularly as 10. had been 6. / Had the children had. saw . earlier than Ex. 2 . as easily as Ex.visited 9. more frequently than 6.had not seen . herself 7.had collected 5. had been .. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. / Had Jane seen.. wisely 12.started 3. harder than 9. 5 . Paul hadn`t sent. quickly 4. Ex. herself 4. Black studied? 3. Mrs.. 1 1.became 2. had already given . They had not studied there very long.. had . as / so hard as . She´d worked hard very long. himself 12. himself / herself 9.3. careful 2 carefully 3. 3. 2 .. already / yet? 6. carelessly 12.beautiful 7. yourself / yourselves 9. had .gone 2.foolish 9. as / so early as 3.. had already begun . as well as 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. later than 11..They hadn`t spent all.She`d never been abroad before. himself 7. roamed . yourselves A short course in english for adult students 201 . Where had they been that morning? 8. Bentley hadn´t gone. himself Ex.didn`t recognize . 1. Jane hadn`t seen. more carefully than 2.. had . What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. quickly 2. had already boarded .got . 7.? 5. more seriously than 10. quickly 8. as early as 5. easy 5..yet / Had Tom left. himself 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. as / so easily as 5. / Had they spent all. himself 3. fast 11. beautifully 8. ourselves 6. Bentley gone. PART II. fast Ex. 2 1. already / yet? Ex.. 3 1. 4 1. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. herself 8.yet / already? 2. left . hard 5. 2. as late as 2.. as beautifully as 6. She hadn`t read that book before. 1. as / so well as 8. badly Ex. had . easily 6.disappeared 5. easily 7. more often than 3. yourself 12. Ex 1 1..got 10. Where had Dr. foolishly 10. 2. themselves 5. 10. Tom hadn`t left. yet.. wise 11.already / yet? 4. had left 9. ourselves 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. as fast as 12. as fast as 3.took 7. 9.. felt .finished 4. as softly as 10. as / so carefully as 7. 3. as hard as 7. early 6. as / so badly as 9. as / so well as 4. myself 11. had never seen . A. had taken 8. 1. B. as brightly as 9. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. 1. earlier than 5. themselves 8.. as quickly as 8..had stopped 6.had taken 3.already / yet? .sooner than 12. Had you eaten / had this before? 4..yet.. Who had visited them that evening? 10.. himself 10. had . How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. 5. herself 10. beautifully 3. herself 3.appeared 8...had already become .

We were going to wait for you but.. Ex. He wrote the entire book by himself.. but.. I went to the movie by myself 4. He works by himself in a small office 8. 11. We were going to walk in the park but. 5. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage.. 4. 1. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10... 3. She likes to study by herself 3. We were going to go to a movie first but.. 8. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.... I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. We were going to telephone you but. They were going to leave New York yesterday but. 10. We were going to study for our examination but. I was going to go to the beach but.. C....3. 2.Ex. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. 2. 2. Ex. We were going to eat early but.. 4.. I was going to write you a letter last week but.. 12.. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. 7.. He prefers to work by himself. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12..7. 11. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. I do not think he can do it by himself. 202 A short course in english for adult students .. 3. 6.. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to come back earlier but. 9. I was going to go home early.

(rain) 5. /!éi had nót bi:n wé:rki# o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. Lea. They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. /!éid bi:n pléii# sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. The man had been working all day. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. escuche y aprenda: ´ The man had worked all day /! mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. They´d played soccer for about two hours. The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. /! mæn had bin wé:rki# o:l déi/ ´ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. (watch) 2. 1. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had !éi bi:n pléi# sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu ló# had !ei bi:n pléi# sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:i#/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) 6. (walk) 3.UNIT 15 PART 1. báut tú: áuarz/ La forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædent/. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD ´ al sujeto: Lea.?) EXERCISES Ex. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. (study) 4. /!éid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de dos horas. (drink) 7. Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. (fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1.

Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. etc. 5. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The patient had been feeling better. Where. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y ella se sentía muy cansada. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. She´d been reading a magazine. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. 4. Bob had been sleeping since 8. 4. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. 3. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. Mr. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo.30. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. The students had been practising Spanish. 3. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. Ask questions using question words like What. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Ex. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? Ex. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. 1. They´d been studying the report that evening. 2. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. How long. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? Ex. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. La Sra. and b) the interrogative 1.

9.OUGHT TO) Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera). He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE . but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. 8. A.PART II. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. 7. 6. He studied engineering in college. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. 5. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. Compare: I should start to study French now. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) 3. He sent the package by regular mail. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. You telephoned him at his office. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. as usual. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). but he should________________________________________________________ 9. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night.OUGHT TO (El tiempo pasado de SHOULD . He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident.) 2. He left the books in Room 10. She gave the money to John. It was very interesting. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. 2. 1. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. 10. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. but I did not. but you came late. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD .p. Ex. en Unit 10 . We sent her a fax. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. It was excellent. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. He started to study English last month. but they should ____________________________________________ B. Complete the following in your own words.) 2. .129. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. expresa un reproche o crítica. 12. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. He invested his money in real estate. tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. We went to Mexico on our vacation.Smith yesterday 11. 4. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas.

) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. _______________________________________________ 6. 4. BETTER THAN or TO. ___________________________________________________ 3. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. Ex. What would you rather drink. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks.. 3. ___________________________________________________ 5. It will be better if he takes private lessons.. When I choose a book. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. 6. 9. ___________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________ 4. It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. We prefer not to say anything to him about it.. 4... 8. 5.... podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. o LIKE.. 5. (You’d better come back later. I prefer not to go to the party alone. 7. When I’m hot and thirsty.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción.. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1... They prefer not to wait outside.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. 1. 7. It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. ________________________________________ Ex. When I’m hot and thirsty. = He´d better see a doctor immediately. I like hip-hop ______________________________ classical music. 2. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. ___________________________________________________ 8. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. They prefer to speak to him at his home. 3. I prefer to wait here .. 6. It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. When I’m hot and thirsty. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. 2. It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. _______________________________________________ 9. 10. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. What had I better do. She prefers to come back later. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. (I’d rather wait here.) 2. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. 8. It will be better if you rest a while. I prefer to stay at home and watch television. = I prefer to see a movie than to go to the opera He should see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. ___________________________________________________ 10. 206 A short course in english for adult students . It will be better if you come back later. 1. 2. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. TO.. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. EXERCISES Ex.

(Puedo oir algo) (Present). • The phone´s ringing. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. 16. I could hear something (Podia oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. En este caso COULD significa podría. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? 14. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. 15. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. • It´s a nice day. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. 11. Mr.9. I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. I can hear something. podríamos. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). podrías. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. 17. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. You could have stayed with us. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. 12. C. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. • When you go to New York next month. ser capaz de) • Listen. They enjoy their jobs. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. It could be Tim. etc. 18. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. • Jim: If you need money. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. 13. He could have hurt himself badly.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. 10. • I listened. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends.

Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. Answer the questions with a suggestion. A: The phone is ringing.’ 6. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) 6. 1. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 208 A short course in english for adult students . A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 1. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. Sometimes either word is possible. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. Peter is a keen musician. Ex. 3. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. We could go to the cinema. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. EXERCISES Ex. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. Ken was short of money last week. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. ‘I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. If you’re very hungry. we ______________________________ have dinner now. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. Ken had to work on Friday evening. Use COULD. 2. What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) 4. 2.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. Ex. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. 8. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. 2. 5. When shall I phone Angela? (right now) 5. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. 7. You ______________________________ for it. 4. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. 5. • The trip was cancelled last week. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) 3. but it ______________________________ be in the car. Complete the sentences. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. 3. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. I’m really hungry. 1. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. 1. 4. 1. So he didn’t do any of these things. I ______________________________ eat a horse! 3. We ______________________________ watch that’. 4. It’s so nice here.

That restaurant ___________________ be very good. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. Put in MUST or CAN’T. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. es decir. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. o conclusión. 5. debemos usar CAN´T. so they ___________________ be short of money. Congratulations on passing your exam. It rained every day during their holiday. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. They can´t know many people. 6. 1. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. CAN´T. I’ve lost one of my gloves. 3. 8.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. You. /!ei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. He must have been watching the news on TV. 1. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. 4. They can’t _____________________________many people.. You ___________________ be looking forward to it.______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. You ___________________ be very tired. You got here very quickly. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. Ted isn’t at work today. 3. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. You’ve been travelling all day. Tom was in his bedroom. MUST. It’s always empty. You ___________________ be very pleased. He must _____________________________ ill. I must have been asleep. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. You can´t be hungry already. MUST HAVE. It’s always full of people. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. 2. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. que no puede ser cierto. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. Ex. She can´t have seen me. A short course in english for adult students 209 . 1. They haven’t lived here very long. 7. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchi# tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:pi#/ EXERCISES Ex. You’re going on holiday next week. She does the same thing every day.___________________ have walked very fast. You must be very tired.

Look. B: He may not have been feeling well. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. 6. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. It can’t ____________________ Mary. Ann was in a very difficult situation. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.. He must ___________________________ ill. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. She knew everything about our plans. Ex. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. 2. 8. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When I woke up this morning..) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 1.4. He must _____________________________ us. (I/asleep) I must have been asleep. 7. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). Jane walked past me without speaking. 9. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. I may not have enough. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. There is a man walking behind us. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa lo que sucedió) She might know what happened (Ella podría tal vez saber lo que sucedió) = perhaps she knows what happened. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. 10. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t 210 A short course in english for adult students .(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I can’t find my umbrella. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. The jacket you bought is very good quality. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. She’s still at work at this time. He must _____________________________ out. B: She might not have known about it. Ted wasn’t at work last week. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Somebody must _____________________________ it. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. the light was on. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. Carol knows a lot about films. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. 3. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (Quizás ella sabe lo que sucedió) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. B: She may have been asleep.

Perhaps she was ill yesterday.’ Ex. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). Use MAY or MIGHT. she was too far away.feeling well) EXERCISES Ex. 1. I wonder where he is. 1. 1. 3. A: Tom loves parties. ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. 4. A: I wonder how the fire started. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ She might be in her office. 6. 10. COULDN’T. 3. 9. the police aren´t sure. B: Well. 1. She might not have seen you. 4. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Perhaps she went home early. 11. Perhaps she didn´t see me. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. 8. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. Perhaps she was working yesterday. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. Perhaps she is working. 7. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. B: I agree. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. She couldn´t have seen me 2. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. Perhaps she wants to be alone. Perhaps Margaret is busy. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. B: That´s possible. He might ___________________________________ it already. I can’t find George anywhere. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. B: Yes. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE).’ 4. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. I’m looking for Helen. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. It might ________________________________________ her brother. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. They might_________________________ for a bus.’ 2. I can’t find my umbrella. it´s possible. ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. Do you think it was an accident? B. It might ______________________ her brother. In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. MIGHT NOT or COULD. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . Perhaps she had to go home early. 5. ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. He might ___be having lunch. 2. Perhaps she isn’t working today.’ 5.’ 3.

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /!e wé!er/ (El tiempo atmosférico) blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpo:r/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ ´ flashflood /flæshflad/ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárrikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitni# flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. aluvión de agua neblina. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ ´ scattered showers /skæterd sháuerz/ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /"ánder/ thunderbolt /"ánderboult/ thunderstorm /"ándersto:rm/ thundery /"ánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubascos ocasionales chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. remolino tifón remolino viento ventoso 212 A short course in english for adult students . eléctica) tornado tromba.

Key to answers

UNIT 15
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had been watching 2. had been walking 3. had been studying 4. had been raining 5. had - been doing 6. had - been drinking 7. had been flying Ex. 2. 1. She hadn`t been reading... / Had she been reading...? 2. It hadn`t been raing... / Had it been raining...? 3. Bob hadn´t been sleeping... / Had Bob been sleeping...? 4. I hadn´t been working... / Had I been working...? 5. The students had not been practicing... / Had the students been practicing...? 6.The patient hadn´t been feeling... / Had the patient been feeling...? Ex. 3. 1.What had they been doing that evening? 2. What had the boy been watching? 3. Why had Mr. Smith been saving money? 4. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school before he retired? Ex. 4. 1. What had you been doing that morning? 2. Mrs. Brown had been working hard that day and she felt very tired. 3. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived.. 5. It´d been raining all morning . The sky was clear and the sun was shining. 6. She´d been working on that report since the previous week. 7. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time.

PART II
A. Ex. 1. 3. You should have gone... 4. He ought to have come... 5. You should have told... 6. He ought to have started... 7. You should not have told l her... 8. You ought to have telephoned... 9. You should have attended... 10. You ought to have given... . 11. You should not have given... 12. I ought not to have gone... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. have sent it by air mail 3. have given it to Jane 4. have left them in Room 11. 5. to have telephoned him at his home 6. have sent her an e-mail. 7. to have invested it in stocks / shares. 8. have studied medicine. 9. have gone to Tahiti 10. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. Ex. 1. 2. She´d rather come back later. 3. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. 4. They´d rather not wait outside 5, I´d rather stay at home and watch TV. 6. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. 7. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation. 8. John would rather go to the party with Helen. 9. I´d rather not go to the party alone. 10. They´d rather speak to him at his home. Ex. 2. 2. He´d better go to a doctor at once. 3. You´d better rest a while 4. He´d better take private lessons. 5. She´d better spend more time on her homework. 6. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. 7. We´d better not mention it to him. 8. You´d better not work so hard after your illness. 9. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. 10. Helen had better begin more time on her English. Ex. 3. 4. to 5. better than 6. than 7. to 8. better than 9. than 10. better than 11. to 12. than 13. better than 14. than 15. to 16. to 17. than 18. better than C.1. Ex. 1. 2. We could have fish 3. You could give her a book. 4. You could phone her now . 5. We could go and see him on Friday. 6. We could hang it in the kitchen. Ex. 2. 1. can / could 2. could 3. can / could 4. could 5. can / could 6. can 7. could 8. could

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Ex. 3. 2.could have gone 3. could apply 4.could have gone 5. could come Ex. 4. 2. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. 3. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. 4. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. 5. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. 6. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. C.2. Ex. 1. 1. must 2. must 3. can´t 4. must 5. can´t 6.must 7. must 8. can´t Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. have left 2. know 3. be 4. have been 5. be 6. go 7. be going 8. have taken / stolen 9. have been 10. be following Ex. 3. 2.She can´t have seen me. 3. It must have been very expensive 4.They must have gone away. 5. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. 6. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. She must have listened to our conversation. 8. She can´t have understood what I said. 9. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 10. The driver can´t have seen the red light. 11.The neighbors must have been having a party . C. 3. Ex. 1. 2. She may / might be busy. 3. She may / might be working 4. She may / might want to be alone 5. She may / might have been ill yesterday . 6. She may / might have gone home early 7. She may / might have had to go home early 8.She may / might have been working yesterday. 9. She may / might not want to see me. 10. She may / might not be working today 11. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. Ex. 2. (Possible answers)2. b e 3. have been 4. be waiting 5. have bought Ex. 3. 2a. She may / might be watching TV in her room. 2b. She may / might have gone out 3a. It may / might be in the car. 3b. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. He may / might have been in the bathroom. 4b. He may / might not have heard the bell. Ex. 4. 3. might not have been invited.. 4. might have come if he´d been invited. 5. might have been an accident. 6. might have been an accident

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UNIT 16
PART I. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th, by the end of this month, by this time next week, etc. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA, como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche), When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana), if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana), etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : By December 15th, we will have lived in this country five years. /bai disémber !e fift:n" wi wil hav lívd in !is kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre, nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. /bai !i énd ov !is mán" !e spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllú:piter/ Hacia fines de este mes, la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. When Peter gets home tonight, I will have had dinner already. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche, yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow, we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. /wen wi gét tu !æt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld mó:ar !an tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana, nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. ´ If our team wins the next game, we will have gotten our third trophy. /if auar tí:m winz !e nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar "e:rd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido, nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. Escuche, lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h
v dán/

¿Qué habrá hecho Ud.?

Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day. (Tú vienes acá todos los días) When you come here tomorrow... (Cuando tú vengas acá mañana...) I have the information now. (Yo tengo la información ahora) When I have the information this afternoon... (Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde...) She is free now. (Ella está libre ahora) When she is free next time... (Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez...)

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EXERCISES Ex. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. 1. When you arrive at midday tomorrow, the Johnsons ____________________________________ already. (leave) 2. By the end of March, the weather ______________________________________________ considerably. (change) 3. If you come at noon tomorrow, we ________________________________________________ the work. (finish) 4. If he gets here at 6 o´clock, they _____________________________________________ home. (go) 5. If he doesn´t hurry, they ____________________________________________ dinner when he gets there. (have) 6. By December, the students ___________________________________________ their first course. (complete) 7. I________________________________________ in this country two years next October. (be) 8. By tomorrow, I _____________________________________________________ all these grammar rules. (forget) 9. When he becomes a man, he _____________________________________________________ many things. (learn) 10. By this time next month, you _____________________________________________ from your illness. (recover) 11. Before they leave New York next Sunday, they___________________________________ the most important places of interest. (visit) 12. By two o´clock, they ________________________________ and _______________________________ . (come - go) Ex. 2. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?, and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. a) By the end of this month, 1. I will have finished reading this book. 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year, 1. I will have completed this course in English. 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire, 1. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Antes de las seis de la tarde, nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Si no tomamos un taxi, el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro.
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______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Hacia fines de este curso, yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Si sigue los consejos de su médico, muy pronto Ud. se habrá recuperado de su operación. __________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Antes de la medianoche, los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. __________________________________________________________________________________

PART II.
A. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla:

PRINCIPAL VERB
PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales,

SUBORDINATE VERB
PRESENT FUTURE PAST POTENCIAL

a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE, los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO; b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO, los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. De acuerdo con esta regla, los verbos modales am / is / are, do / does, will, have / has, can, must, may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were, did, would, had, could, had to, might. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob.) He says that his first name is Robert. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30)

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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to past tense, following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. He says he will be here at noon. 2. I think I can meet you. 3. He hopes he can be there early 4. I think it may rain this evening. 5. He wants to know where she is. 6. He says he is very sorry. 7. The young man tells us he is married. 8. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. 9. I think he will be there by ten o´clock 10. He believes he can do it. 11. The weather man predicts it will rain. 12. He says he has to work hard every day 13. I know where she lives. 14. Bob wants to know how many people there are. 15. The boy says he has seen the movie. 16. The girl says she is studying for a test. 17. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 18. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 19. I don´t know where Mary is. 20. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. Ex. 2. Choose the correct form: 1. He said he (will, would) be here. 2. He thinks he (can, could) do it easily. 3. He asked me where I (live, lived). 4. I didn’t know what the word (means, meant). 5. The newspaper says it (will, would) rain. 6. She said she (was going, is going) away. 7. I told him that I (cannot, could not) go. 8. He said he (has been, had been) a soldier. 9. She said she (does not, did not) feel well. 10. I don’t know what his name (is, was). 11. I didn’t know what he (is, was) trying to do. 12. She said she (may, might) be late. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

B. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF, aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. Escuche, lea y aprenda : If John comes (no, “if John will come” ) tomorrow, he will see Mary. If it rains (no, “if will rain”) next Sunday, they will not go to the beach. Del mismo modo, debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (después que), UNLESS (a menos que), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.

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If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. they will not wait for him. nobody. anything.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week. 2. nothing. he will keep it. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives. anybody. 5. WHEN. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. we will have to leave without him. WHILE. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. within ten or fifteen minutes. he can go with us on the city tour. 10. AS SOON AS. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. 6. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. The doctor will arrive within a few minutes. too. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. 2. Please.: 1. 8. él verá a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow. etc. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 7. something. 9. Escuche. Ex. please give him the message. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III. A. he will see Mary. some other thing. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. 7. please let me know. I will give him your message. Don´t start moving. AS LONG AS. etc. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. 4. 6. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. no one. 9. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. ANY y NO (somebody. any other thing. 8. we will go to the beach. 12. someone. 5. no other person. BEFORE. 10. anywhere. wait here____________________ he arrives. anyone. we may go to the beach. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. USE OF “ELSE” /éls/ Y “OR ELSE”/o:r éls/. any other person. 4 They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts.Escuche. 3. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. 11. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. 2. 1. Do not leave before I ________________________________________ (tell) you to go. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. 3. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. somewhere.

OR ELSE /o:r éls/ / OTHERWISE /á!erwáiz/(De lo contrario o de otro modo) OR ELSE se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. We must hurry. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. EXERCISES Ex. = You´d better tell him about it. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. You must practise your English every day. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. If I don’t. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. ________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . you will soon forget it. There was no other person in the room at that time. you’ll wake the baby. If you don’t. otherwise he will miss her. Smith? 10. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. If you don’t. 11. 1. No other person helped him with the work. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If you don’t. You must study hard. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. my mother will be angry with me. ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. otherwise he´ll be angry with you. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. ________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Did they go any other place? 2. 2. I didn’t tell any other person about it. 9. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If she doesn’t. Let’s do some other thing tonight. she may have a nervous breakdown. Join the following pairs of sentences. = We must hurry. Turn off the radio. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra OTHERWISE (= de lo contrario o de otro modo) Escuche.B. Put the dog outside. If you don’t. Mrs. We had better hurry. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. = He´d better wait here. If we don’t. otherwise we will be late for the train. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. You must ask some other person about it. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. we´ll miss the train. you won’t pass the course. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Helen must rest more. 8. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. I must go home right away. 4. You must do as your mother says. she´ll punish you. If we don´t. Can I show you any other thing. ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. we´ll be late. If you don’t. Save your money.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We must hurry. Repeat the previous exercise. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(! axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ blowtorch / blóuto:rtch/ chisel /tchízel/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /lei!/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /méllori# téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde soplete cincel taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ (El taller) serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo alambre llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderi# áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldi# tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wire /wáiar/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

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is 11. could not 8. 2. while 7. before 9. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. (Open answers) Ex. 3. will have learnt (or learned) 10. He wanted to know where she was. otherwise she´ll punish you. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. Ex. might B. 5. is 4. 3. comes 5. Before 6 this evening. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 1.hard every day. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation.rain 3. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. 8. go 12. tell 7. does . or else you won’t pass the course. when / as soon as PART III. when / as soon as 8. You must ask somebody else about it. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. otherwise you will soon forget it. We must hurry. The weather man predicted it would rain. will have had 6. until 6. will have gone 5. Turn off the radio. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. did not 10. I thought I could meet you. 9.9. until 4. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. will have left 2. Mrs. We had better hurry. otherwise we´ll be late. as soon as 3. or else you’ll wake the baby. 9. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. will 6. 18. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. I you follow your doctor´s advice. A. Save your money. lived 4. 2. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. You must study hard. 1 1. 3. 6. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. meant 5. would 2. 12. He said he would be here at noon 2. 6. 1. or else we´ll miss the train. He hoped he could be there. will have completed 7. 3. 13. 1. Helen must rest more. or else you will soon forget it. 9. 1. likes 8. will have been 8. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. is 9. 1. will have visited 12. otherwise we´ll miss the train. can 3. was going 7. 1 must go home right away. 4.16. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. 2. 5. will have changed 3. 3. Turn off the radio. Ex. 1. as long as 5. Ex. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon. or else my mother will be angry with me. arrives 2. 2. 2. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. Save your money. will have recovered 11. 1. 19. unless 2. we´ll have processed all the information. 17. Before midnight. until 10. He said he was very sorry. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. We had better hurry. We must hurry. A short course in english for adult students 223 . telephones 10. Put the dog outside.(will have ) gone Ex. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Smith? 10. 3. or else she´ll punish you. 10. 6. was 12. comes 11. You must do as your mother says. 2. 7.come Ex. 1. Can I show you anything else. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. I knew where she lived. 8. Ex. 5. I thought it might rain this evening. 7 You must practice your English every day. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. 1. or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 11. 4. Put the dog outside.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. Helen must rest more. 4. 20. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. 2. 15. You must do as your mother says. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. 7 You must practice your English every day. 8. 1 must go home right away. You must study hard. 7. 4. 6. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. I didn´t know where Mary was. or else we´ll be late. 8. otherwise you won’t pass the course. Nobody else helped him with the work. 1. The girl said she was studying for a test. had been 9. Ex. 3. 14. 1. He believed he could do it. He said he had to work. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. will have forgotten 9. 10. will have finished 4. 10. The boy said he had seen the movie. There was nobody else in the room at that time. Let’s do something else tonight. gets 6. The young man told us he was married. 4. 11. does . will have come . Ex. 5.

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People speak English all over the world. Mr. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car.UNIT 17 PART 1. Mr. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. 3. 5.S. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal BE más el participio pasado del verbo principal. Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ ACTIVA y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ PASIVA. The car had been fixed. She ate the cake this morning. 7.S. People will forget it in a few days. Change to passive voice: 1.O). 12.p. (P. (S) (Tr. The workers will build a new bridge over that river.Jackson saw the accident. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. They will bring the boy tomorrow. 10. (S) (Tr. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. The car will have been fixed. 4.S. She has just taken the newspaper. 16. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). 14. (P. Smith wrote the book last summer. He will have fixed the car. Somebody has taken my book.) (be + p. The car was fixed. 8.V) (D. The car has been fixed. They will leave the tickets for you. THE PASSIVE VOICE (La voz pasiva) A. 2.) (be + p. 9. He had fixed the car. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. 11. 15. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. (P. They have found the child at last. 225 . es decir. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). 18.) (doer) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. They fought a big battle here many years ago.p. Peter wrote the letter last year. The wind blew the smoke away soon.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river.V) (D. 1. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. She broke the plate on purpose.p. 6.O). He will do the work this afternoon. En la voz pasiva. 17. Mrs. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. He will deliver the merchandise today. He has fixed the car.O). They had finished the work by noon.V) (D. Smith teaches that class on Friday. He took the money last Monday evening. 13. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. The car will be fixed. He fixed the car. He will fix the car.) (be + p. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer). En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb).

11. The dish was broken by the maid. 3. This book was written by Mr. Smith. He was struck by an automobile. Scott. The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). 21. 13. The work will be completed tomorrow. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. ___________________________________________________ 5. The lesson is taught by Mr. America was discovered in 1492. 3. The book was found by Mary. The e-mail was sent this morning. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. ___________________________________________________ 3. 2.19. Mary found the book. 8. The cries of the child were heard clearly. The city was destroyed by bombs. They made this gun by hand. 20. The lecture was attended by many people. 22. 6. ___________________________________________________ 15. ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ 9. Our class is taught by Mr. __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They will send the book next week. ___________________________________________________ 7. 2. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . The books will be brought by John. The house was built in 1950. My grandfather _____________________________________ 12. 4. He broke his leg in an accident. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. Longman __________________________________________ 6. Thompson. 10. Smith. 12. 24. Columbus _________________________________________ 14. The book will be published in June. __________________________________________________ 8. The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. Smith. 5. 14. The work will be done by Mr. The town will have been captured by Wednesday. Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. 23. 2. The money has been found. He _______________________________________________ 10. 7. 15. The money was stolen by a thief. They left the wounded soldiers behind. America was discovered in 1492. Change to negative and to question form: 1. The house was struck by lightning. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. They ______________________________________________ 11. The book will be published next spring. They ______________________________________________ 4. The book has been returned by John. 9. Change to active voice: 1. The book was written by Mr. The work had been finished by June. Will the work be done by Mr. Smith. The work won’t be done by Mr. ___________________________________________________ 13.

(When) ________________________________________________? 2. Who was the money stolen by? 6.. The work will be completed next month. _____________________________ by the end of the month. (When) ________________________________________________? 7. _________________________________________ in Chicago. MAY. (In what year) ________________________________________________? 10. se debe usar el VERBO MODAL + BE + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. The money was stolen by one of the servants. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. (Active) They have to send this report today. LA VOZ PASIVA CON VERBOS MODALES CAN. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. By whom was America discovered? 2. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. HAVE TO Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. SHOULD. ________________________________________ by the maid.. is. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. He was injured in an automobile accident. _________________________________________in Scotland. The child was finally found in the park. (Who. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? 9. Why was the train delayed? 10. _________________________________________by the chef.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? 6. must. Change to question form. Where was the child finally found? 7. _________________________________________ in the safe. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. have to. Who will the dinner be prepared by? 8. (Active) They must finish this job today. (When) ________________________________________________? 4. The book will be published in June. MUST. The tree was planted by my father. When was this book published? 4. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: When was America discovered 1. Where was this book published? 5. (Who. may. were) + BEING + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. (Where) ________________________________________________? 5.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. ___________________________________________ in 1492.. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. America was discovered in 1492. _____________________________ because of bad weather. ________________________________________about 10:30. B. By whom was the plate broken? 16. LA VOZ PASIVA EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. In what year was America discovered? 3. A short course in english for adult students 227 . Where was the money hidden? 11. How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus.. 5. (At what time) ____________________________________________? 8. should. a la voz pasiva. When will the work be completed? 13. are. La voz pasiva de los tiempos PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal BE (am.Ex. ____________________________________________in 1999. When was the news released? 12. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. By whom are your exercises corrected? 9. was. The house was destroyed by fire. __________________________________one of the servants. Where was the money put? 17. ____________________________________ by our instructor. 4. etc. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there C. Where were they married? 14. _________________________________________ in the park. In what country was Helen born? 15. Answer these questions: 1. The house was built in 1945. (How) ________________________________________________? 3.

We must lose no time. They were discussing the question when I went in. 11. They cannot put those things here. 3. 2. 11. 7. John brought the mail yesterday. 2. They are sending the material today. 10. 5. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. He should send this message right away. By whom. They are sending troops there today. She is typing that letter now. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 228 A short course in english for adult students . He cannot finish this today. They are holding the meeting today. They have to deliver the books today. 6. They are sending the merchandise today. He wasn’t killed in an accident. 3. 9. We must help him. 6. John has to bring the mail every day. John brings the mail every day. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 7. 8. 6. How. The mail is brought by John every day. 12. 9. They were cleaning the office this morning. 12. 8. They are defending the city well. etc. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ The material is being sent (by them) today. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ This can be finished (by us) right away.: 1. Ex. Change to passive voice : 1. 8. 9. 11. We have to write these exercises at home. The story is being published today. We are using this room. 5. .Ex. He has to do it immediately. They may send the fax tomorrow. 4. They have put the chairs in the room. 3. Change to negative and to question form. Ex. John has brought the mail every day. John will bring the mail tomorrow. 3. Where. 7. 6. He is finishing the work now. They are considering that question now. We can finish this right away. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. He sent the e-mail last week. Change to passive voice: 1. 4. 10. We must find him immediately. They are transferring him to another class. 5. 8. You can use this room for the lesson. John may bring the mail tomorrow. This must be checked twice. The police may hold him for several days. State each question twice. John is bringing the mail now. They are examining him now. He was killed in an accident. 4. 2. 10. 9. 12. Change to passive voice: 1.

5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . 12. 8. 10. It has to be done at once. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. “A big battle was fought here”. The class is taught by Mr. lt can be done three or four times a month. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The material is being prepared by Mr. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. EL SIGNO “SE” EN ESPAÑOL En español. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. lt has to be sent right away. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “Spanish is spoken in this country”. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. 6. This book was published in 1945. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. 7. Smith. This room can be used for our meetings.4. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. It should be sent immediately. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1.Reese. 10. The money has been sent to New York. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? D. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación.

8. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into Spanish, using the word “SE” in each case. 1. A new type of missile has been tested recently. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. All kinds of computers are repaired here. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Several different techniques may be applied. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. It is considered that English has become a universal language. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. During this week, the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. By the end of the 90’s, most goals had been successfully attained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The data was being processed at that moment. 10. Next time, several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness.

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PART II.
THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” (La expresión idiomatica “se supone que”) Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. Se supone que Bob está aquí ahora. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975. Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. 2. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 3. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. 4. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. 5. He ______________________________ (be) here now. 6. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. 7. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. 8. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. 9. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. 10. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. 11. He ______________________________ (know) her well. 12. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. (Passive Voice) 13. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. (Passive Voice) 14. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. (Passive Voice) 15. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. (Passive Voice) Ex. 2. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. We expect John to come at six o’clock. 2. They expect the train to arrive at four o‘clock. 3. We expect her to bring the book with her. 4. We expected him to arrive last night. 5. They expected the war to be over sooner. 6. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. 7. We expect our lesson to last one hour. 8. We expect the parade to begin soon. 9. We expect the bus to stop here. 10. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. 11. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. 12. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Change to negative and to question form. State each question twice, once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN, WHERE, WHAT TIME, etc.: 1. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 2. He was supposed to bring the money last night. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________?

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3. They´re supposed to start the work soon. 4. They´re supposed to finish the job tomorrow. 5. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. 6. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L.A.. 7. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. 8. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. 9. The book is supposed to be published in June. 10. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May.

___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________?

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VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ (Las Fuerzas Armadas (I)) Army /á:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ ´ Ranks /ræ#ks/ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræ#k/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango, grado Oficial superior

´ ARMS /á:rmz/armas, BRANCHES /bræntchiz/(Ramas o servicios) Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Medical /médikal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Artillery /a:rtílori/ Artillería Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ Engineers /endlliníarz/ Ingenieros Signal /sígnal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Transportation /transportéishon/ Infantería Infantry /ínfantri/

Sanidad Mecanizado material de guerra Telecomunicaciones Transportes

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ (Oficiales comisionados) Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Major /méidllor/ Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/Teniente General Captain /kæptin/ ´ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General First Lieutenant /fé:rst luténant/ Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Brigadier General Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Ensign /énsin/ Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Teniente Coronel Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ (Suboficiales) Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sargento Mayor (UK) Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent fé:rst kla:s/Sargento Primero Private /práivit/ Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Sargento Segundo Recruit /rékrut/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ ´ Squad /skwod/ Platoon /platú:n/ Troop /tru:p/ Company /kámpni/ Squadron /skuódron/ Battery /bæteri/ (Unidades tácticas) escuadra pelotón escuadrón (cab.) compañía grupo (cab.blin.) batería (art.) Battalion /batælion/ ´ Regiment ´/rédlliment/ Brigade /brigéid/ Division /dividllon/ Corps /ko:r/ Army /a:rmi

Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Alférez (en la marina) Cadete Soldado Primero (US) Soldado Primero (UK) Soldado Soldado conscripto

batallón regimiento brigada división cuerpo Ejército propelente o pólvora metralla o esquirla

ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ (Tiro de munición) Bullet /búlit/ bala, proyectil Propellant /propélant/ Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ vainilla Shrapnel /shræpnel/ ´ Primer /práimer/ estopin TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ (Armas tácticas) bomba Bomb /bom/ Bullet /búlit/ bala Dagger /dæger/ ´ daga Flame-thrower /fléim "róuer/ lanzallamas Gun /gan/ cañón. pistola ´ granada de mano Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Knife /naif/ cuchillo Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora

Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/arma de destrucción masiva Missile /mízil/ misil Mortar /mó:rtar/ mortero Mine /main/ mina Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ fusil Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ lanzacohetes Sword /só:rd/ espada Shell /shel/ proyectil, bomba
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TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ (Vehículos tácticos) ´ Airplane /éarplein/ avión ´ Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Bomber /bómer/ bombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero cazabombardero Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ Helicopter /hélikopter/ helicóptero LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ (Liderazgo) conducta Behavior /bihéivior/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ cadena de mando Command /komænd/ ´ mando Commander /kománder/ comandante Confidence /kónfidens/ confianza Control /kontróul/ control Cooperation /kuoperéishon/ cooperación Courage /káridll/ valor, coraje decisión Decisiveness /disáisivnes/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ confiabilidad Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Dignity /dígniti/ dignidad Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Endurance /endiúarans/ resistencia PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rts v ráifl/ (Partes del fusil) Aiming mechanism /éimi# mékanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Barrel /bærel/ ´ cañón Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Butt /bat/ culata Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing mechanism /fáiari# mékanízm/ mecanismo de disparo Firing pin /fáiari# pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Hammer /hæmer/ ´ martillo Locking lug /lóki# lag/ asegurador THE TANK /!e tæ#k/ (El tanque) ´ Armor /á:mor/ Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun /gan/ Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Gunner /gáner/ blindaje plancha de blindaje cañón tubo del cañón artilllero

Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæ#k/ tanque de combate Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino Tank /tæ#k/ tanque Truck /trak/ camión Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra ´ Enthusiasm /en"usiázn/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Initiative /iníshiativ/ Integrity /intégriti/ Justice /dllástis/ Leader /lí:der/ Morale /morá:l/ Pride /práid/ Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ´ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Tact /tækt/ ´ Trait /tréit/ Willing obedience /wíli# obí:diens/ entusiasmo espíritu de cuerpo iniciativa integridad justicia líder, comandante moral orgullo ámbito de control subalterno tacto, criterio rasgo, característica obediencia espontánea

Magazine /mægazi:n/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Rear sight /ríar sáit/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sighting mechanism /sáiti# mekanízm/ Sling /sli#/ Stock /stok/ Trigger /trígger/ Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/

cargador trompetilla alza caja de mecanismos mecanismo de puntería correa porta fusil cantonera disparador, gatillo guardamonte

Tank driver /tæ#k dráiver/ ´ Tank commander /tæ#k komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Turret /tárit/ Wheel /wi:l/

conductor del tanque comandante del tanque orugas torreta rueda posición de pie posición en cuclillas

FIRING POSITIONS /fáiari# posillonz/ (Posiciones de disparo) Kneeling /ní:li#/ position posición arrodillada Standing /stændi#/ position ´ Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Sitting /síti#/ position posición sentada

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Key to answers

UNIT 17
PART I.
Ex. 1. 2. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. The book was written by Mr. Smith last summer 5. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. That class is taught by Mr. Smith on Friday. 7. The tickets will be left for you by them. 8. My book has been taken by somebody. 9. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. 10. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 11. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 12. The work had been finished by them by noon. 13. The accident was seen by Mrs. Jackson. 14. The child has been found by them at last 15. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 16. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 17. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. 18. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. 19. This gun was made (by them) by hand . 20. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. 21. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. 22. The book will be sent by them next week. 23, Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 24. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). Ex. 2. 2. A thief stole the money. 3. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 4. The enemy has destroyed the city. 5. Longman will publish the book next spring. 6 Many people attended the lecture. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. 8. An automobile struck him 9. He had finished the work by June. 10. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. 11. My grandfather built the house in 1910. 12. John will bring the books. 13. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 14. Mr. Smith teaches our class. 15. Mr.Scott wrote this book. Ex. 3. 2. The book wasn´t written by Mr. Thompson. / Was the book written by...? 3.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. Smith./ Is the lesson taught by...? 4.The book hasn´t been returned by John. / Has the book been returned by...? 5. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. / Was the dish broken by...? 6.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. / Had the money been stolen by...? 8.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. / Was America discovered in...? 9. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. / Was it discovered by...? 10.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. / Was the house struck by...? 11.The book won´t be published in June. / Will the book be published in...? 12.The money hasn´t been found. / Has the money been found? 13. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. / Was the city destroyed by...? 14. The work won´t be completed tomorrow./ Will the work be completed...? 15.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. / Was the telegram delivered...? Ex. 4. 2. How was the house destroyed? 3. When will the work be completed? 4. Where was the child finally found? 5. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. When will the book be published? 7.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9.In what year was the house built? 10. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. 5. 1. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. It was discovered in 1492. 3. It was published in 1999. 4. It was published in Chicago. 5. It was stolen by one of the servants. 6. He was finally found in the park. 7. It will be prepared by the chef. 8. They´re corrected by our instructor. 9. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. 10. It was hidden in a wooden box. 11. It was released at about 10:30 12. It will be completed by the end of the month. 13. They were married in Valparaiso. 14. She was born in Scotland. 15. It was broken by the maid. 16. It was put in the safe. 17. He was held for about two hours. Ex. 6. 2. That question is being considered by them now. 3. That letter is being typed by her now. 4. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 5. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 6. The work is being finished by him now. 7. The office was being cleaned by them this morning. 8. He´s being examined by them now. 9. This room is being used by us. 10. The city is being defended by them well 11. The meeting is being held by them today. 12. He´s being transferred by them to another class. Ex. 7. 2. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. 3. No time must be lost by us. 4. This room can be used by you for the lesson. 5. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 6. This message should be sent by him right away. 7. Those things cannot be put by them here. 8. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 9. It has to be done by him immediately. 10. He must be helped by us . 11. This cannot be finished by him today. 12. He may be held by the police for several days. Ex. 8. 2. The mail was brought by John yesterday. 3. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. 4. The mail has been
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brought by John every day. 5. The mail is being brought by John now. 6. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. 7. The mail has to be brought by John every day. 8. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. 9. The merchandise is being sent by them today.. 10. The e-mail was sent by him last week. 11. The books have to be delivered by them today. 12. He must be found by us immediately. Ex. 9. 2. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3, This mustn´t be checked twice. / Must this be checked twice? / How many times must this be checked? 4. It can´t be done three or four times a month. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a month / How often can it be done? 5. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. This room can´t be used for our meetings. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. The money hasn´t been sent to NY. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. This book wasn´t published in 1945. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. Reese. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. It doesn´t have to be done at once. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. The class isn´t taught by Mr. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. 10. 1.Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. 2. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. 3. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. 4. New methods are being developed to control inflation. 5. All the invitations were sent by air mail. 6. This book has been translated into several languages. 7. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. 8. Public transport services should be improved in this city. 9. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years. 10. During that year, several important projects have been carried out. Ex.11. 1. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. 2. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. 3. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 4. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. 5. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. 6. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación. 7. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. 8. Hacia fines del la década de los 90, se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. 9. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. 10. La próxima vez, se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad

PART II.
Ex. 1. 2. is supposed to come 3. were supposed to deliver 4. was supposed to send 5. is supposed to be 6. is supposed to be 7. is supposed to be 8. is supposed to call 9. is supposed to meet 10. was supposed to be 11. is supposed to know 12. is supposed to be sent 13. is supposed to have been sent 14. are supposed to be put Ex. 2. 2. The train is supposed to arrive at... 3. She is supposed to bring the... 4. he was supposed to arrive... 5. The war was supposed to be over... 6. Our lesson is supposed to finish at... 7. Our lesson is supposed to last... 8. The parade is supposed to begin... 9. The bus is supposed to stop... 10. The weather is supposed to be hot... 11. He is supposed to leave for... 12. The bank is supposed to open at... Ex. 3. 2. He wasn´t supposed to bring it... / Was he supposed to bring it...? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. He isn´t supposed to be living... / Is he supposed to be living...? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. He wasn´t supposed to telephone... / Was he supposed to telephone...? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. We aren´t supposed to meet them... / Are we supposed to meet them...? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. The King isn´t supposed to visit... / Is the King supposed to visit...? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA?

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iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. introducida por la palabra IF. 4. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 .. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. If the weather is good tomorrow. 4. you will see him. 3. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. you will not get a good mark. I´ll give him your message. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa.. you will see him. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. (Si te sientas aquí. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer.. you will be able to see everything. you´ll have an accident.) 2. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. (Si él viene mañana. (Si él viene mañana. you will see him.. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. (Si no estudias duro. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here.. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. 2. tú lo verás.. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. If he comes tomorrow. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. you would have seen him. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. you would see him more often.... You will see him if he comes tomorrow. If he comes tomorrow. b. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales. (Si.). listen and repeat these examples: 1. 6. she´ll miss her train.. tú lo verías más seguido también) c.) . tú lo habrías visto) I. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. too.UNIT 18 PART I. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. 5. (Si él viene mañana. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow.

etc. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. 12. we could study better. she will see the Prince. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1.) 2. 8. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. (Si John estuviera aquí. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. 6. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. If I ________________________(be) in your position. (lf Mary had more time. “If Mary will come”). ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. this evening. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. he will tell us what happened. 238 A short course in english for adult students . he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. she would study more. If he ________________________ (know) her better. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. (Si Mary supiera nadar. 4. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo.. she would study more. (Si yo fuera millonario. UNLESS (a menos que).1. he would help us. he could go with her to the party. she would go to the beach more often. 3. 9. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. I will give her your message. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. etc. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. we would go for a walk. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). 5. he would be a better student. Read. UNTIL (hasta que). I would study French. 7. I would buy that suit. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). WHILE (mientras). (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. como tomorrow. 10. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. If John were here now he would help us. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. 11. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. she would speak English better. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. AFTER (después que). next Monday morning. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. Del mismo modo. BEFORE (antes que). lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim.

.. but if. but if. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. ___________________________________________________ 9.. If he had more time. but if. If I were you. 11.) 2. She has very little money. but if. 3.... 8. he will meet her.. If he prepares his lessons.. ___________________________________________________ Ex. he will go. 10. If I could speak French. but if. If the weather is cold. William never comes to class on time.. ___________________________________________________ 9.. but if. he. lf John prepared his lessons every night.. I will read more books. If l were in Florida now. we will not go. he would help us. He has very little practice in speaking.. ___________________________________________________ 11. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1.. 5. 2 . 9. I am not in Florida now. he. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________ 8. 8.. If he comes.. If we have more practice.. I. he ________________________ (feel) better. but if. I ________________________ (speak) to her.. 4. If I knew her well.. ___________________________________________________ 3.. ___________________________________________________ 12..... ___________________________________________________ 5. we will speak better. lf I knew her. he ___________________________ (work) harder. I. he ________________________ (be) a better student. he will pass. Complete the following: 1.. He has very few friends. ___________________________________________________ Ex. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. I can’t speak French. If I were free tomorrow. 5. 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. 7. he will see her. 4. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. 10. He doesn’t like to study English. If he has time... If he is here. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly... he will make good progress. He has very little free time. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. ___________________________________________________ 10.. lf they try hard. 11.Ex..) 2. If he came to class regularly. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan.. he can help us.. I. ___________________________________________________ 11. If he came to class on time. (If he had time.. ___________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________ 6. lf he had more money.. but if.. they will succeed. he________________________ (learn) more. He would speak better if. Mary does not prepare her lessons. 3. ___________________________________________________ 7. he ________________________ (help) us. 9. he would go) 2. lf I am free tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 4. If he went to bed earlier. If he studied more. ___________________________________________________ 8. If he goes to the party.. 5.. he.. 4. Mary isn’t here now. he... would be very happy. I don’t speak English well. I. he.. John does not study hard but if.. but if. lf I don’t have to work.. we. 6. If he came to class more often. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. lf John were here. If he were stronger . I will go to the beach. lf he were here. but if. ___________________________________________________ 12. If I have more time .. 6. I will go to the movie. If today were a holiday. 3. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. but if.. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. 7. (If he were here. If today were a holiday.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 . (John does not study hard. If he studies hard. 12. __________________________________________________ 10.

If you knew English perfectly. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I would study French. Mary told me that she (can. will be) nice tomorrow. they would have called you up... If today were Sunday. 12. If he (knows. If you had an automobile. 3. I would.. If I (know. 6. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. could) not come. 13. 15. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. were) in your position. he would have passed his examination.. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. I would go swimming every day. 11.. have) time tomorrow.. If you studied harder. 8. he could telephone me.12. I (will. might) be late. He would speak better if. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I am sure he would. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. knew) my number. We would go for a walk in the park if. will come) here tomorrow.. 9. 6. If I were you.. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. would) be here soon. If the weather (is. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. we may drive to the country. 14. would) walk to school. 5. (lf I were in your position. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . knew) how to swim. could) help us. When John (comes. Answer these questions: 1. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number.. He said he (may. If I (had. Mary would go with us if. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 7. had) the time. If today were a holiday. 7. Mary will talk with him. John said he (will. habría aprobado su examen). I will go to the movie. 10. If he (can. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex..) 2. Choose the correct form: 1. If John had studied hard. If you could visit any country in the world. If today were Sunday. we. Ex. If you had much money. 4. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. If I (was.

If you ________________________ (call) me. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. EXERCISES Ex. I didn’t have your telephone number. He couldn’t speak English at the time. 7. 5. 9. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.En situaciones formales o literarias. 2. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. Ex. Ex. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I didn’t know his name. If I________________________ (be) in your place. I would have called on you. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. 6. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. 8. 2. 4. If he had studied more. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. they would have gone to the park. (succeed) . 6. 5. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. 10. 2. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. 7. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. John didn’t prepare his lessons. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . I didn’t have a car last winter. 9. 1. 3. we would have gone to the beach. He didn’t tell me about it. She didn’t come on time. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. he ________________________(catch ) cold. 8. If I________________________(have) your address. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. 10. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. 3. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. he would not have caught cold. he he would have succeeded. he would have come to see you . Had he known that you were ill. If he had not worn his overcoat. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. I wasn’t in his position. I would have told him. 2. I would have been glad to go. 4. but if. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. I would not have been so angry. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. She didn’t wear her raincoat. I wasn’t in Florida last winter.

4. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If I am free next week. 2. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. she would have spoken to him.Ex. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. she would speak to him. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If it rains. If he has time. If he had telephoned me. If I can do it. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. they will go to the beach a. If he has the money. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. If he works harder. If I see her. If he comes. If he goes there. If John is present. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. b. If he were here. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he came. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. she will speak to him. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. a. If you had asked me. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. he would take part in the game 2. he will go with us a. If the weather is nice. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If I had known about it. If he had come. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. If he is here. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If I were you. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1.

) 2. 9. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 6. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. has been. I would have acted differently. had been) a holiday. If the weather were nice... If it (rains. had been) here last week. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I (could go. 6. will go) too. had known) this yesterday.He will not go unless she (goes. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. were) you. I would not accept the work. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. John looks as though he (was.) (as though = as if = como si. 3. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. I would certainly do it. he would have taken part in the discussion. were) a holiday.If yesterday (was. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. Choose the correct form: 1.If I (would be. we could go to the beach. 4. were) sick. Answer these questions: 1. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 7. 15. 16. If he (was. He acted as if he (had. If England had been better prepared for war. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. If you hadn´t had to study last night. If I had been invited. I (will.9. If I had more time. were) in his position. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 7. had had) a great shock. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. we could have gone to the beach. If I (was.Call me if he (comes. 13. If you had studied harder. 10.I feel as if I (ate. He acts as if he (was. If the weather had been nice. would have come) if we had asked him. were) the manager of the place. will come) before noon. could have gone) if they had asked me. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . I would certainly do it. had eaten) a large dinner. 11. If yesterday had been a holiday. 8. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you had known it was going to rain. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.I think he (would come. 5. will rain) tomorrow.If today (was. If you had had last week off. we may not go away. 14. If I (knew. (lf I were you. 12. Ex.

. I´d certainly invite her to the party... I wish I weren´t so busy.. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura.. I don´t have a car but I wish.. 7. 4. 5... 2. 3. 10.. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. It´s been raining hard for about five hours. 2. I cannot swim but I wish.PART II. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. I wish it would stop raining soon. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. 6.. 8. John wishes she were here now. o “Me habría gustado. 11. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. es decir. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. Ex. (I wish John were here now. 1.. 9. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. I am not a millionaire but I wish.. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.) 2... A. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. 7. “Me gustaría. 8. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night.. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex.. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday... al igual que en las oraciones condicionales. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off.. 9.I have to work this afternoon but I wish. 12. 6. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo TO WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish. Mary isn’t here but I wish. Mary is not here now.” I don´t know how to swim. Complete the following sentences: 1. este siempre debe ir seguido por el MODO SUBJUNTIVO.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim...”. John won’t do it for us but I wish. I wish I knew how to swim. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. 4.. 11.. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday... 10. 244 A short course in english for adult students S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional I don´t have a car but I wish I had one. I wish I had seen her.. 5.I can’t speak English well but I wish. 3. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better.”. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off..

“It´s imperative that. (be) 4. 1. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. _______________________________________________ 6. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) 2. Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo.12.. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. (wait) 3. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night.. He asked that it__________________________ done right away. “It´s essential that. Smith _________________________ a long vacation. He insisted that she _________________________ on with the work. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. (go) (He recommended that she go with him. _______________________________________________ 3. (be) 8.. (take) A short course in english for adult students 245 . I suggested that you should see the manager today. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. He recommended that she _________________ with him. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO 1. TO ASK. “It´s advisable that. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier 4.”.”. EXERCISES Ex. It is imperative that they _________________________ there on time. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. (go) 10. _______________________________________________ 5. TO SUGGEST. I´m sorry John is not here with us. 1a. _______________________________________________ 7. _______________________________________________ 4.. _______________________________________________ 9. _______________________________________________ 10.. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara.) 3. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. Is it necessary that this _________________________ finished today? (be) 9.”. TO REQUIRE. etc.. He proposed that John __________________________ chairman of the committee.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex.. She asked that we should be there before midday. I recommended that you _________________________ back later. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. _______________________________________________ 8. En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas.. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach today. También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como... (be) 5. They insisted that we _________________________ them again. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. “It is necessary that.) 2.) I suggested that you see the manager today. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. (come) 6. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. 3. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. _______________________________________________ 2. TO DEMAND. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach that day. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: I wish he spoke English well. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. He suggested that John_______________________ a few minutes. _______________________________________________ B.. The doctor suggested that Mr. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética... (visit) 7. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.”.

) 2. 5. 12. is sitting) at this desk. Had I had more time. (be) 8. He (is living. John sat between Mary and (I. (come) 6. Were I you. I would go swimming. 1b. John said he (will. 9. I (saw. (wait) 3. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. 10. (be) 4. comes) back later. would) be here tomorrow. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. The doctor suggested that Mr. He recommended that I (am. The merchandise is supposed (to send. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? 4. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 2. We asked them to go with us in our car. I (may sleep. please let me know. If he had felt better. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. If I (were. 246 A short course in english for adult students . 14. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ finished today? (be) 9. They insisted that we ______________________________ them again. 11. 3. be) there early. 9. If he (will come. 3. has been living) here many years. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). (recommend) ___________________________________________ 7. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. I asked John to wait for me. had seen) that movie already. had gone) with you to the party last night. to be sent) tomorrow. 11. He said he (saw. have seen) John yesterday. I asked her to come back later. 5. I ______________________________ (do) it. 3. may be sleeping). Choose the correct form: 1. 6. Ex. 2. He asked me to lend him the money. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. Smith ______________________________ a long vacation. 4. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). I recommended that you ______________________________ back later. He asked that it______________________________ done right away. If he felt better. If you come too early. (visit) 7. He recommended that she __________________ with him. me). It is imperative that they __________________________ there on time. He insisted that she ______________________________ on with the work. I wish I (were. If he had been well. he would have spent it at the beach. (take) Ex. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. 1. John always (sits. 8. he would spend it at the beach. 6. He suggested that John (come. comes) soon. (go) 10. 4. 7. Had I known your number. 10. 7. (insist) ___________________________________________ 3. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 4. 2. John asked me to take a walk with him. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: I suggested that John wait / should wait for me. If John were here. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. (suggest) ___________________________________________ Ex. (insist) ___________________________________________ 6. 13. 12. (be) 5. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. He suggested that John__________________________ a few minutes.Ex. would be) in Florida now. Repeat the previous exercise using SHOULD : 1. would be) in Florida now. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 10. (insist) ___________________________________________ 9. (go) (He recommended that she should go with him. 2. He proposed that John ______________________________ chairman of the committee. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 5. I wish I (went. He asked me to be there on time. 8. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 8.

Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Which would you prefer to study in the future. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Which would you prefer. Which would you prefer to be. Which would you prefer. 5 Answer these questions: 1. Which would you prefer.Ex. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. retreta Review /riviú:/ revista Revolt /rivólt/ revuelta Riot /ráiot/ revuelta Salute /saliút/ saludo Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ tirador escogido Skirmish /ské:rmish/ escaramuza Slaughter /sló:ter/ matanza Spy /spái/ espía Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ estrategia Struggle /strægl/ ´ lucha Surrender /sarénder/ rendición Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ vigilancia Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ táctica Truce /tru:s/ tregua 248 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /!i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atæki# iunit/ ´ ´ Barrack /bærak/ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /difénsiv æktchon/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæ#k/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. auxilio Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ equipo de rescate Reservist /rése:rvist/ reservista Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ toque de diana Retreat /ritrí:t/ recogida. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:pi# fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva /priémptiv æktchon/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchon/ acción preventiva ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ prisionero Raid /reid/ incursión Ranger /réindller/ comando Rear /ríar/ retaguardia Rear position /ríar posíshon/ posición de retaguardia Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ reconocimiento Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ refuerzo Relief /rilí:f/ ayuda.

asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse A short course in english for adult students 249 .Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuó:rterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíli#/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kó#ker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To inspect /inspékt/ To invade /invéid/ guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. bajas maniobras Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wi"dróal/ no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero retirada llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar. pelear disparar rendirse inspeccionar invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverrán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wi"dró:/ matar guiar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar.

Bl 250 .

.. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. I´d have acted differently. If they tried hard.could go on a picnic. 6. 6. he might have helped us. he will let us know..I had had one.. had 11. (Possible answers) 2..he liked to do it. / I´d go to.. would feel 8. he´d make good progress. 7. 5... 2. could 7. Ex.... If he had time. 7...would buy a modern car. would 5. had 5. If I were free tomorrow.. would have been 5. 2. he would have let us know. might 12. they would stay at A short course in english for adult students 251 . 12.... would visit Ex. / If he´d been here. 10. we would speak better. And I´d... 3. If I had more time.. I ´d have done it gladly. 4.. Yes.. 6. (Suggested answers) 1... 12. I´d be planning a trip to France.. would have caught 3. would have helped 4. could 6.... knew Ex. 13. 4. 2. he would meet her. he studied harder 3. 7.she had wore it.. she wouldn´t have caught cold. were 12. I´d would visit. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime ... I´d drive to.. 12.. we would not go. 3.. comes 10.I could speak it.. had gone 9. 4. 1. he would go with us.he´d learn more. he could help us.I had had it.. would work 11. 11. 6. 2. knew 8. I´d go to the movie. 11.. 3. he might he1p us. 4.. prepared 10. (Possible answers) 2. they would have gone to the beach. were 6. 8. would go 10.. had called 5.. 5. I had known it. 2. she would have taken part in the competition.. were 9. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. 5. 7. 9.. If he´d gone there. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. 8. 2. If he came... would learn 4.. 4.. you would have seen him.it were not so cold.. If we had much practice. he´d enjoy living here. she had come on time. 3.. she had come.would do more things every day. had been 8. C) Ex. I would call you up... had been Ex... 8. Ex... 6.she had the day off / free. 10. 4. 3.. would go 12. were 3. he ´d have gotten a better job. have 9. 8. 8. is 3.he had more friends. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Oh yes. (Possible answers). had told 10....I were there now I would visiting Orlando. had had 3.. I´d beging to study.. he had told me. 12. would have driven Ex. 10. would have gone 10. he would see her..she had more money. 5. he´d speak it better.. I´d read more books.If the weather were nice.. Ex. would learn faster 4. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera.. / If I´d been able to do it. 8.. 9. were 7. would speak 6. 9.would invite her out to dinner. would have written 8. 9. I´d go to.. 10. first.. 11. would have told 9.. 1. had known 7. 9.. I would have called you up. I´d have given her the message. would go to the beach. / . I´d go to the beach.. he would pass 5. knew 4. / If he had had time. If it rained.. If 1 were free now. If I saw her.. 2. If he were here... she´d be able to travel abroad more often. of course. 4...I had been in his position.I spoke it well... 7.she were here I would be talking with her now.. He´d certainly speak better. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss. I´d have called you up.. would have been 7. Ex. If he went. 2.would visit Epcot Center 7..he had been there. would have come 6.Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. had 11.. 15.. had worn 6. I would have included it in the list of guests 7. I´d go to. 3.. 5. If I didn´t have to work. were 8. 6. If he went there. 3. 9.. if he studied hard. 6..... If he prepared his lessons.would plan a trip to France.he´d be a better student. had Ex. would take 9. / If I had been free yesterday... / If I´d seen her. 2.he had spoken it..he had more practice in conversation. 14. 2 ..I had been there. he would play tennis more often. Yes. I´d getter better marks. would 4. If the weather were cold. / If the weather had been nice. would speak 3. I´d buy.. If he were here. 1 would do it gladly. If I could do it. they would succeed.. 2. 11. would make 5..he had more free time. had been 4. would be 7.. he came to class on time he´d be a better student. they would go to the beach. I´d speak a lot better . I´d give her the message.. he would have gone with us. 5.

she were here. I love the rain. 2.. I´d prefer to be in good health.. 11.. she were. / If John had been present. had had 12. PART II A) Ex... If he´d worked harder. rains 6.. of course. 7. 8. 5. 10. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. were 6. 3. 5. would go out for a walk 14. 2. Yes. he would be promoted. he had worked harder during the term. the meeting would be good. 7. had 11. 3. 10.. If he worked harder. had eaten 16. I´d be pleased to hear that.. visit / should visit 7.. could Ex. (Suggested answers) 1. had gone 6. He loves sports / No. he wouldn´t have gone. 6. of course.. had been 8. 13. I would have certainly helped him. You´d be right or wrong. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. If he had the money. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies. 3.. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3.. 11. 7. were 9. 1. had known 9. of course. 8. Ex. 9. had studied 4.. 1.were 4. had had 4. / . I wouldn´t have helped him. I wish I knew her better 7. I didn´t have to work. 8. were 10. 2 . come 5. would have helped you 6. I think.had been invited 4. the meeting would have been good. come / should come 6. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. (Possible answers) 1. I wouln´t have gone. You´d be very wrong if you said that. had already seen 14. 12.b) 2. 8.. 7. would 7. were 2. of course. It depends.. 6. 2.. 1. go / should go 10. 2. 4. take / should take Ex. be 4. of course. 10. 12. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. were 14. would have I´d have told him you were here. of course. I´d have gone to. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. had known 5.. 5... were 11. 5. he might have gone with us. he would have been promoted. would have done 7. 5. saw 13. If John were present. 6. would go 9. No. would 10. would have phoned you 3. a) y 1. 12. could have gone 7.. I´d have gone to a concert instead. I had studied 4. I´d be sorry to hear that. 6. be / should be 8... I would have gone all the same. I were 8. Ex. 4. would have telephoned 3.. 5.. knew Ex.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. could 3. I wish today were a holiday. has been living 12. Ex. 4. sits Ex. of course. 252 A short course in english for adult students . he would do it 9. 10. were 3. wait / should wait 3. it were a holiday. he might go with us / If he´d had the money... would have come 8.. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. 9. had gone 3. 2... they would have stayed at home. 9.. were 11. My English is not very good. / . of course. it were nice 7. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. had the day off . He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. 11. had known it started today.. 2.. I was too busy at that moment.. had hurried 6. I´d prefer to be rich. 6.. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. to be sent 10. goes 15. would begin 5. I´d prefer to own a horse. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach.. He hates sports.home. may be sleeping 11. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car.. 10.. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. I like riding horses. would watch TV every day 11. Ex. had been 12. I could speak it . be / should be 9. comes 13. be / should be 4. 10. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. me 9. I hate the rain / Yes.. 2. I´d be very sorry to hear that. You´d be wrong if you said that. Of course he would have gone. 7. comes 8. I could swim 3. If it had rained. I would have gotten a better mark. Yes. 3. 1. were 7.. would buy a Japanese car. were 5.would have attended the conference. be / should be 5. 5. I would have gone to. .. would 8. I wish John were here with us. had been 12.. of course / No. (Suggested answers) 2. 12. would have come Ex. would have gone 10. I would have gone. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 4. 16. it would have been the same 8. Yes. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. 9.we had asked him to help us. / No. 2. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful.. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. 2. I wish he had gone with us last night. would have gone out for a walk 15.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. 4. Yes.. 5. it had been a holiday 6. 3.

John said. He said. “I have worked very hard. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona. “I worked very hard. “I´m busy today. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 . nos preguntó o nos ordenó. “I´m busy at this moment.” He said that he had to do the job well. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. “I must do the job well.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. (Indirect Speech) I.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. He said. He said. He said. “I´m busy now. He said.” He said that he had worked very hard. “I can use a computer. He said.” He said that he could use a computer. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS (STATEMENTS) Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. “I always work hard. He said.” He said that he would work hard all day.” He said that he was working very hard. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. pidió o advirtió hacer.” He said that he was busy then.” He said that he always worked hard. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York.” He said that he had been busy the day before.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. “I´m very busy. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). He said. He said. He said.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo.” He said that he had to do that again. “It may rain again. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. He said. “I´m working very hard.” He said that it might rain again. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativos. “I was busy yesterday. “I will work hard all day. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).” He said that he had worked very hard. “I like New York. “I have to do that again.

He said.” He said that she was very busy that night. “I´ll be busy tomorrow. (ORDERS. “We may have an exam. John said.” ___________________________________________________ 7. “I cannot go with you tonight. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. Change the following statements from direct to indirect form: John said that he had to work tonight. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación. III. ADVICE. ADVERTENCIAS.” ___________________________________________________ 3. “I´m very busy tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 2. He said. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. advertencia. “l have known him a long time. He said. Bob said. Bob asked his friends. un requerimiento.” He said that he was very happy there. II. etc.” ___________________________________________________ 4. “I like New York. Smith said. en el discurso indirecto.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. ‘’I will be back later. REQUERIMIENTOS. ETC. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID.” ___________________________________________________ 6.” Bob told us that he liked New York. “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. The teacher asked the students. “I have no money. “I hope she comes soon. me you him / her us them the boy the boys TO/NOT TO + Infinitive. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS (QUESTIONS) Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto. The doctor said. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex. “We will finish this tomorrow. etc. He said. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb begged asked told warned requested ordered advised Object Pro (Noun).” ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob asked me. “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York.” He said that he would be busy the following day. “I have to work tonight. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. 1. Mr. He said. según vimos en la Unidad 8.” ___________________________________________________ 5.” ___________________________________________________ 9. “John is a very sick man.) Cuando se desea expresar una orden. Mr. Mary said to me. COMMANDS. 1. Mary said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 254 A short course in english for adult students . “I´m very happy here. Smith said. no se debe mantener la estructura interrogativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura AFIRMATIVA (S+VM+VP) John asked me. REQUESTS. He said.

“Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Ex. I asked her.” 11.. etc. ___________________________________________________ 10. Take your feet off the desk. “Don’t forget what I told you. “I am going away tomorrow. The teacher said to us. ___________________________________________________ Ex. Don’t waste so much time.. Answer the following questions in the indirect form. 2. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. ‘’Please send me the money at once.. ___________________________________________________ 5. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: The teacher told me to sit in the first row. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. Go to the whiteboard. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. She said. He said to me. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________ 11. Mary asked. He asked me. 1.Mr Smith asked us. 3. “Don’t write in pencil.” ___________________________________________________ 9. ___________________________________________________ 2. “Don’t cross the road.He asked me. Helen said to me. Sit in the first row. He said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 3.” ___________________________________________________ 6. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. Change the following questions from direct to indirect form: Mary asked where John lived.” __________________________________________________ 10. Wait outside in the hall. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. He said to me. Prepare your lessons more carefully. Sit down and read the story. He said to me.10. I asked him. Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. “Try to come on time.” 12.) ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 .. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13... Is he in the building? (She wants to know. He begged me.” ___________________________________________________ Ex.. ___________________________________________________ 9. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. 5. Come back later. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. She said to him. “Sit down for a few minutes. I asked him. He said. He asked me.” ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 7.. Where does she live? (Can you tell me. Change the following orders.) ___________________________________________________ 3.. requests.” ___________________________________________________ S. Smith. Sit up straight. I asked John. I asked her. “I don’t know her well. He asked me. “Don’t make the same mistake again. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: I don’t know where John is. ___________________________________________________ 12.” ___________________________________________________ 7.. Do your exercíses in ink. 1. He said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 5. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. “Wait five minutes for me. ) ___________________________________________________ 2.?) ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 8. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. “He is supposed to be here now. 1. “Be more careful. Give this message to Mrs. 4. John said to me. ___________________________________________________ 4. He warned the child. He asked me.” ___________________________________________________ 2. How much does it cost? (He wants to know. John said. He asked me. 1. The teacher asked. ___________________________________________________ 3.” ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. “Where does John live?” ___________________________________________________ 2. “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. Where´s John? (I don’t know. to the indirect form: John told me to wait five minutes for him. commands.) ___________________________________________________ 5.. ‘’Please don’t be late. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7.

When will he get back? (I´d like to find out. 8.) 8. 4. ) ___________________________________________________ 11. Can you tell me what time (it is.. 3. .. I asked her whether she (is. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 7. . 10.) ___________________________________________________ 13. is it)? 4. Where is he now? (Can you tell me. She said she was going out of town.. 7. it is).) ___________________________________________________ 15..”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ (He asked me where I lived.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . Where is she going? (She didn’t say. was) going. 12.. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . “I am busy.. He asked me what time it (is. 7. 8. I don’t know whether (I can. He (told me. 6.. He told her to leave the room. He told me not to wait for him. I´m not sure whether (he is. He said he (can. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. could) meet us easily.) ___________________________________________________ Ex. would) come here soon. 9. 11.. Is Mr. Jones wanted to know. 3. He said he would be back soon. He didn’t say where he (is. 2. said to me) that he was busy. He asked how much it cost. He asked me where I lived.. He asked me where I (live. 5.. lived).) _________________________________________________ 9. Change from indirect to direct form: 1. 6. 6.. was). She said her maiden name had been Jones. Is he very tall? (I really don’t know. He said he was busy. She said her last name was Smith. ) ___________________________________________________ 14. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. Choose the correct form: 1.. 9. 5. How tall is he? (I don’t know. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. How is he getting along? (Mrs. 12. Smith here? (I’d like to know. ) ___________________________________________________ 7. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students (He said. meant). What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. was) married.6. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me. is he) here now. He asked her whether she liked New York.) ___________________________________________________ 10.. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where does he live? (Ask him. Answer these questions: 1. I asked him what the word (means. Ex.) ___________________________________________________ 12.. 8.. I’d like to know where (is it. 2. can I) do it.. He said he (will. 11.. He said that he could not meet us.

responder llegar preguntar.BASIC VOCABULARY VERBOS PRINCIPALES: VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: INFINITIVO. /!éi a:r spí:ki# í#glish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ Spanish contestar. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. no gustar ayudar esperar. /wí: hav wé:rkt há:rd !is íar/ We are working hard now. PASADO. localizar A short course in english for adult students 257 . PASADO PARTICIPIO y GERUNDIO. VERBOS REGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. gustar terminar odiar. Escuche. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. 3. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/. -d. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchi#/ working /wé:rki#/ loving /lávi#/ playing /pléii#/ studying /stádii#/ fitting /fiti#/ stopping /stópi#/ guiding /gáidi#/ repeating /ripí:ti#/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. /!éi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. pedir transportar. lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. -te. /wí: a:r wé:rki# ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /!éi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. o cons+cons+vocal+cons. /!éi spóuk í#glish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. 2. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.

esforzarse usar. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. pedir fumar comenzar.To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ mirar amar. utilizar visitar esperar. enterarse partir. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. arreglar repetir solicitar. servirse. mirar desear trabajar. extraviar hacer. encontrar olvidar conseguir. funcionar B. partir quedarse. dejar prestar perder. fabricar A short course in english for adult students . haber oir guardar. salir. mantener saber. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. atender caminar querer lavar observar. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. VERBOS IRREGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ 258 Past Tense began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ Spanish empezar. conocer aprender.

colocar leer correr. comprender vestir. creer entender. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. narrar pensar.To meet /mi:t/ met /met/ To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ put /put/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ stood up /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /"i#k/ thought /"o:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ ´ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn reunirse. llevar enseñar decir. conocer pagar poner. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 .

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4. Ex.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. 13. She didn´t say where she was going . 4. He wants to know how much it costs. 14. it is 10. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. Ex. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 2. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. 8. 7. 8. 6. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. 8. Ex. “Leave the room. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. meant 8. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. Smith. 2. Ask him where he lives. I told him to be more careful. He said to her. 9. 10. He asked me. 8. 6. 6. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. I can 3. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. She said. She said. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. “My last name´s Smith 6. 7. He asked me to try to come on time. 4. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 7. 9. He asked her. was 7. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. He told me to write a short story in English. 7. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. could 11. “My maiden name was Jones. A short course in english for adult students 261 . He said (that) he had known him a long time. 9. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. “Don´t wait for me. Mr. I asked her where it was. 4. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 6. He politely asked me not to be late. He said to me. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. Smith is here. The teacher told me to come back later. 3. He asked me what the word meant. 15. He said (that) he had no money. 9. John asked whether / if it was raining.” 9. 5. He said. . 10. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. 3. 10. 2. 3. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . He asked. “I´ll be back soon. He warned the child not to cross the road. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch.” 8. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 5. 2. 5. 7. Ex. Mr. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. He said he´d seen it. “How much does it cost?” 10. 3. He told me not to make the same mistake again. 12. I asked him when he had read that book. He told me not to forget what he had told me. I asked her whether / if John was here. it is 4. She wants to know how he is getting along. 2. 12. “Do you like New York?” 4. (Possible Answers) . I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. 14. Because there was too much traffic at that time. 1. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. 6. he is 12. He said. 4. 4. 13. 9. 11.” Ex. 3. 12. 12. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. I asked John what time it was. 7. was 9. Ex. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. He asked me. 6. “ 11. “Where do you live?” 3. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. 7. told me 6. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. would 5. I don´t know how tall he is. 5. Mrs. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. 5. 10.She said. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. 8. 8. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. “I´m going out of town. 3. 11.” 5. 5. 8. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. Mr. 2. 1. He begged me to send him the money at once. He asked me to meet him outside the station. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. 3. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. 15. He asked me how I was today. 2. 6. 5. “I can´t meet you . She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. 7. 2. 2. was Ex.

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? ¿Tiene Ud.? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado........? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr. My name is.../ /!is iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor... Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian? No.USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A.. francés/alemán/italiano? No. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. I don´t./ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.? ¿De dónde es Ud. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. Permítame presentarme..? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students UNIT 20 263 ../ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz.. Mi nombre es.. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército... . hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud.Chile ¿Vive ud.. thank you I´m fine. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do.. No entiendo francés Es Ud.. My name is....... casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud.? Vengo de Stgo. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago.. Please let me introduce myself.. Este es el o la Sr. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud. Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento.... Me gustaría presentarle al Sr.. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud. bat ai spí:k spænish and í#glish/ ´ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ ´ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a. un/a. mi nombre es. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræ#k /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórni#/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vni#/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: !is i:vni#/ /"æ#kiu:/ /"ænkiu: véri mátch/ ´ ´ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel "æ#kiu/ /aim fáin "æ#ks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well../ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéii# æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está Ud..

por supuesto No. razón. I don´t mind. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. I think so Yes. Concuerdo con Ud. Sí..? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. por favor No abra la ventana. please Don´t open the window. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. No lo creo así. está equivocado..What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. Ud. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. of course/certainly/sure No. come in and sit down Wait a moment. por favor.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wi! pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:ti# iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn !e wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts !e déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu há#gri/ /a:r iu "é:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r ró#/ /ai agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt "i#k sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai "i#k sóu/ /ies !æts ráit/ /!æts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai !æt/ /wót daz !is wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts !e mí:ni# ov !is wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. creo que sí Sí. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. No concuerdo con Ud. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. Así lo espero.

.etc...)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6.etc.)? will 4. etc...)UD? did 3.)? Can Will 6..... etc. etc... Sentémonos aquí (vamos...)? UD? 4... What´s your. Sit here. etc. etc . etc. por favor.... ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.. ¿Puedo yo.. spell it? (. etc. ¿Podría Ud.. What are you will you be .(fumo....etc)? 9. go... etc.(come here..)? Would 5.. please.(help me.(smoke..)? estaba 2. Siéntese aquí (venga.. ¿Qué (hace. ¿Qué está estará (hizo..... ) 7. Shall I..). (sit here. address. etc) .. Could you.).)? ¿Querría Ud. 8. Don´t.)? were you 2.(sentarme aquí.. etc.). Do you mind if I...( haciendo.etc..(do..(name. etc.Remember: 1.etc) (hará.(nombre dirección.. What do you.... por favor.(ayudarme....) A short course in english for adult students 265 . ¿Le molesta a UD si yo.)? 7..)? Recuerde: 1..etc. 8. 5. help you.... Let´s sit here. Can May I.) please. etc)? 9.. ¿Cuál es su. No vaya allá (hable. etc) 3.(doing. (. go there ( speak.... etc..

Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. por favor.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación? ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish.. Yo no cené aquí anoche. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas. please I need to make an international call to Chile. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis.. por favor. por favor? ¿Dónde está el restaurant? ¿Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2.. me parece.. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from !e houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spænish plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e suími# pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in !e houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e máni ekstchéindll in !e houtél/ /kud iu brí# e. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo.. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz !e réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz !e bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz !er e télifoun in !e lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /!érz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai "i#k/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/dri#k/órder !is/ /iz !er a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust !í:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r !e lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik !e líft/elevéitor tu !e tén" fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at..... por favor.. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido.. please? There´s an error in my bill/check.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik !e sé:rvis/!e fu:d/!e rú. a mi habitación. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta.. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik !is sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz !ér e kólor tí: ví: in !e rú:m/ /!e séntral hí:ti#/éar kondíshoner íznt wé:rki# wél/ /mai béd hæznt bí:n méid iet/ ´ ´ /ai ní:d aná!er blæ#kit/ /kud iu tchéindll !e táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts !e vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz !ear a kóin operéitid wóshi# mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv !i:z klóu!z wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and !e kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key. I want to check out at.B. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. 266 A short course in english for adult students . Is there a barber´s shop here? Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call.

(servirme otro café... ¿Podría Ud..)? Where are the. / teléfonos...Remember: 1.) please? Recuerde: 1.(make a phone call. I want to.(lift. baños....... etc. ¿Dónde está el... bar. etc.etc.etc..) I would like to... (telephones.(wake me up at 7:30. Quiero.etc.) en el hotel? 4.. ) 2..(despertarme a las 7...( have another coffee.(ascensor.(bar..) in the hotel? 4......) 2.)? ¿Dónde están los . Is there a. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 . etc.etc. etc..etc. Where is the. bar.. etc)? 3.? 3... Could you.. toilets.(hacer una llamada.(bar.etc. ¿Hay un. etc) Desearía..

por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu brí# mi !e bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid !e mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /"æ#kiu véri match/iu kan kí:p !e tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor.. (pollo con arroz.. (the bill. salted almonds or peanuts. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio..etc. etc. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. (más té.. etc. cognac o amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. Thank you very much. etc.) 268 A short course in english for adult students . Remember: 1. etc. (una cerveza.)? How would you like your. (a beer. (another whisky. Muchísimas gracias... .)? Could you get me. a sandwich... Quiero servirme. por favor? Realmente disfruté la comida. beer or a soft drink? Can I have a draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. etc. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check..)? 2. It was very good indeed. por favor. (comer.C..)? 3. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. etc. (some more tea. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese.)? ¿Me podría traer. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso.s mi !e só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sám"i# tu drí#k wáin..)? 2... At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area. etc. cherry.. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? ¿Whisky. etc. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. etc.. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. (chicken and rice..) ¿Puedo servirme. almendras saladas o maní. ¿Desearía algo para beber? ¿Vino. Good bye.. etc. (tea.) Desearía servirme. etc. Puede conservar el vuelto.) I´d like to have. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. bíar or e sóft drí#k/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar.. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine. etc.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. (otro whisky.)? I´d like to order.. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores.. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. please? I really enjoyed the meal..)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. etc. etc. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo.. medium or well-done? I want it well done please.etc. cerveza o una gaseosa? ¿Podría servirme una cerveza de barril..)? What would you like to (drink.. (beber. What do you want to (eat.. Hasta luego. How do you want your. etc)? Desearía pedir. Could you pass me the salt. Recuerde: 1.) Can I have. mí:dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. (steak. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne? ¿La quiere a punto. (la cuenta.) /ai ní:d e téibl for "rí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz !er e téibl in !e non smóuki# éaria níar !e wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rvi# lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll !is íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at !e méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:z ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wi!/ ´ /ai "i#k ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi aná!er náif !is wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá. You can keep the change. Fue muy buena en verdad. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. etc. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. un sandwich.)? 3. I want to have. ¿Qué quiere Ud..

plaice /sóul.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Pan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /héri#/ King-crab /ki# kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ Sole.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ Tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drési#/ Fruit /frú:t/ Hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ Main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kæbidll/ Carrot /kærrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . bill /tchek.

rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo Uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /æprikot / éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blækberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tchóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /ræzberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblklo"/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

opposite the cinema. in Park Street. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. It´s not very far. We are here. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. please? Excuse me. Perdón. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ ´ ´ /ai wónt tu góu tu !e ka"ídrl. I´m a stranger here myself. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. No sé. por favor? Perdón. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. en la Calle Park Perdón. there´s one in Bridge Street. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. por favor? Perdón. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. óposit !e sínema/ /wót táim du !e bæ#ks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt ráni#/ /wót taim du !e shóps klóuz/ /dáz !e supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. can you tell me the way to the park. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . Do you know where the station is. Kan iu shóu mi !e wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz !e póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél mi wéar !e bæ#k iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar !e stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi !e wéi tu !e pá:rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu !e miu:zíam/ /luk at !e mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid !e stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu !e brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at !e réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k aló# !is strí:t as fá:r as !e træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at !e nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun !e strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik !e "é:rd té:rni# on !e ráit and !én wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv alo# !is róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/!en té:rn ráit and iul sí: !e táuer at !i énd ov !e róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréindller híar maisélf/á:sk e polísman/ /ikskiu:z mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu !e næshional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz !i éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik !e tréin/ /ikskiú:z mi dáz !is bás go tu !e stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu !i óksford houtél in pá:rk strí:t/ /ikskiu:z mi wéarz !e níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz !er e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/!éarz wan in bridll strí:t. Excuse me. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. outside the station. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. por favor? Perdón.D. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. please? Excuse me. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. Yo también soy forastero aquí. You need to take the train. ¿Sabe Ud. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. Ask a policeman. Excuse me. Necesita tomar el tren. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. hasta el semáforo.por favor? Perdón. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. frente al cine. please? Excuse me. take me to the Oxford Hotel. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. dónde está la estación. Sorry I don´t know. Camine por esta calle. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. Where´s the post office.

por favor? 4.s. I need to buy a / some. ¿Cómo llego a..is. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a. open / close? What time does the..por favor? 3... is..por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. How do I get to. ¿A qué distancia está el / la...... near here? Building /bíldi#/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (UK) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre /shópi# sénter/ Centro comercial Shopping mall /shópi# mo:l/ Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamentos Book store /buk stó:r/ librería Book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /"íater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1... Which bus do I need to take to go to the..? 6. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la.? Is there a..por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement...? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a.... Do you know where the..? 2. /péivment/ vereda(UK) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (UK) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1..? 2..? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la..... ¿Dónde está la.. please? 3. please? Can you tell me where the.. please? 4.open / close? 6.. please?.. How far is the.más cercana.? 5..Useful vocabulary (vocabulario útil) City. Necesito comprar un / algunos... Where is the nearest. from here? 7..... Hay un / una...cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 ..... Where is the.? 5.... Could you show me the way to.... What time do the..de aquí? 7. Could you tell me the way to.

doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. Can you spell it please? /kan ai hæv io:r pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a rité:rn tíkit tu lión/ 274 A short course in english for adult students . Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos /wi a:r lændi# /arráivi# in e fiu: minits/ pocos minutos. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. please? What´s your last name. At the station / airport (en la estación / aeropuerto) ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? /háu mátch is !e bás tíkit tu !e zú:/ Is it a direct journey / flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey / flight take? ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? /háu ló# daz !e dllé:rni /fláit téik/ What time does the train /plane leave? ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin lí:v/ What time does the train /plane / get there? ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin get !éar/ Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu lo# daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? /du !ei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ Can I have a seat by the window? ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai !e wíndou/ ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in !e non smóuki# éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases Estas son mis malaetas /!í:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Please carry my suitcases with care Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wi! kéar/ I will carry this handbag myself.E. Fasten your seat belt. bæk ov io:r sí:t in !i apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo Can I have your passport. ´ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano /ai wil kæri !is hændbæg maisélf/ Where is the luggage /baggage claim? ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? /wéar iz !e lágidll /bægidll kléim/ I have nothing to declare No tengo nada para declarar /ai hæv ná"i# tu dikléar/ How many bottles can I take with me? ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wi! mí:/ Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? /iz !er e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ Where is the bar? /restaurant? ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? /wéarz !e bá:r /restorant/ Are we landing /arriving soon? ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? /á:r wi lændi# /arráivi# sú:n/ We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld !e téibl and put !e Ajuste su cinturón. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil !e pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. Please put your cigarette out now.

We´ll send the items to the plane. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Shopping (de compras) /ai láik !is /!æt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik !í:z /!óuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: !em/ /kan ai trái !em ón // /háu mátch á:r !ei /háu mátch du !ei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ /kan ai péi wi! amérikan máni /iú: és Can I pay with American money /US dollars dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano / dólares? No me gusta el color. ¿Tiene Ud. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 . ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik !e kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. guarde este recibo.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sám"i#/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of lé!er /plástik /wu:l /kóton / góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt.F. /plí:z kí:p !is risí:t /wí wil sénd !i áitmz tu !e pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz !is wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r !ouz glávz/ I like this /that watch /jacket.

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3. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 .Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas.. 5. Preguntas 1 .Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio...LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B.Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas.READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2. 4..50. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma). antes de comenzar la prueba... que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas.UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos.

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wants open the door now. had to be there very quickly. A short course in english for adult students 279 . will give to him your message C. too difficult for him. D. Ud. had been stolen. D. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. C. D. knew her new address. 6. C. opens the door now. 7. give him your message. A. C.15. A. have been having dinner that evening. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. D. C. 15. 5. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. A. 3. everywhere that day. would know her new address. B. D. A. C. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . he works hard as a rule. whose Peter sent Mary last week. D. A. had dinner that evening. B. are having dinner that evening. am going to give him your message D.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. he seldom works hard. B. were having dinner that evening. A. A. C. A. A. quite busy at the moment. A. can see a doctor today. which Peter sent Mary last week. were there earlier. can be there now. C. 12. is trying to open the door now. D. might see a doctor today. B. 14. won’t can see it well. D. B. deberá elegir la alternativa A. will be there on time. B. C. had stolen. won’t be able to see it well. a few difficult for him. B. ought to see a doctor today. A. C. should know her new address. B. 9. En cada caso Ud. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. may see a doctor today. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. have just opened the door. D. B. was been stolen. A. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. “What expensive it is!” C. 4. should to go by taxi. oirá oraciones incompletas. o D. “How expensive watch is it!” D. C. B. somewhere that day. C. who Peter sent Mary last week. anywhere that day. C. too much difficult for him. had better go by taxi. he often works hard. a little bored. so much difficult for him. B. D. 13. D. D. C. Ud. too late right now. deberá consignarla. give your message to him 2. 10. know her new address. he always works hard. B. C. A. B. won’t be allowed to see it well. B. was stealing. 11. A. would rather go by taxi. nowhere that day. are better to go by taxi. very ill now. won’t be possible to see it well A. D. “How expensive it is!” B.

18. D. D. B.He had no time to travel. D. Didn’t remember. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. B. They go there when they have time. C. Didn’t make a decision. 16. oirá oraciones completas y. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. A. Didn’t forget. He must finish the job sometime. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. A. They are 10 years altogether. She’ll show them a map. 17. C. He came to live in this house very recently. A. C. B. He wanted to save money. Didn’t care much. C. Ud. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. On his way to the office. 23. 26. He preferred to go home by taxi. B. D. He must order someone to do the job. B. D. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. C. The weather was awful. C. 30. It was a very crowded place. A dull person. He wanted to take a walk. They went somewhere else together. D. He lived in this house until recently. B. A. He’ s only seen her once or twice. 24. He has to work in the evenings too D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. They go there only when the weather’s fine. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. They are a little younger. He doesn’t see her so often. He hasn’t studied her well. C. B. He was resting all day. D. He’d better stay at home all day today. Because they like the rain. 280 . He wanted to get home more safely. en cada caso. C.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . A. B. He has to decide what to do soon. B. C. They attended a meeting at the club. A kind person. Because they like shopping. She’ll call the roll. 27. 28. A.30. D. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. He was away almost all day. A. C. A polite person. o D. C. He was away all day long. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. 25. C. B. B. A. 21. There were too many people there. 29. C. D. D. C. The buses were crowded at that time C. A. 20. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. A. She’ll go and see them. A. B. They had dinner at the restaurant. He was working at home all day. D. He stayed in the garden all morning. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. He remembered he had a friend. B. He hasn’t told us much about her. que la conteste en mejor forma. deberá elegir la alternativa A. They are 12 years old. B. B. C. Later in the day. 19. A short course in english for adult students 32. A sociable person. They are a different age. B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. D. A. 0 D. D. 22. B. They decided to go home early. They go there from time to time. He would miss his family. C. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. A. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. Away from the office. He hates to be at home during the day. A. D. C. She’ll ring them up. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Ud. D. B. He didn’t like hotels very much. They go there when they want to have fun. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. D. C. He doesn’t feel like going out today. A. Después de cada oración U¡. B. Because it’s a busy little town. At once. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. 31 A.

She did everything following the instructions. 34. They have used that car for a long time. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. D. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. A. 35. At a summer house they had in the south of France. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. Mary telephoned him after she got there.33. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. B. Robert telephoned them in a given order. 39. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. B. A. He should have gone to the reception. A. She did everything as carefully as possible. D. D. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. B. B. D. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. A. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. C. B. Robert called to give them a new order. A. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. D. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm.. C. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. B. It wasn’t warm enough inside. D. 36. deberá elegir la alternativa A. They used to have two cars in those days. D. A. A. At an expensive hotel near Paris. Because they´d been friends for many years. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. They worked in a garage in those days. 41. B. o D. D.. Because he was glad to see her again B. 281 . C. She did everything correctly. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. A. 40. A short course in english for adult students 42. 37. C. C. 43. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. C. B. A. She wanted to buy an air ticket. D. He could not help at the reception. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. En cada caso. so they ate quickly and left the place. C. C. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. No escriba en este cuadernillo. 38. Because she told him about her husband´s death. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. C. B. That area never appears on the maps. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. Escuche atentamente. C. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. A. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. A. B. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. El examinador leerá una historia. C. C. D. She did everything immediately. D.

47. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. 50. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. A. D. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. To spend her summer holidays abroad. B. B. D. C. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. C. A. C. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. A. 46. D. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. C. D. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. D. D. 48. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. 49. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. B. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. A.44. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. C. Because India was an amazing country. B. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. B. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. To visit some friends in Portugal. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. as usual. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. To a particular holiday place in India. A. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. 45. A. C. B. D. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. B. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. A. C.

51. Have . during . José? No. must to B. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. they were having D. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. A. o D. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. Mary seems to be a very responsible person.your friends A short course in english for adult students 283 . enseguida. Have . A. along . better C. hardest D. A. What a lot of D. for . Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. satisfactory 53. John. You are getting too fat. How often . But I know it’s a very strong liquor. B. before leaving B. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A.the high B. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A.them D. Jim. too good B. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. C.. A. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. ought to 59. How much time . I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. What a few B How interesting C.B.drunk A. in order to leaving C. most good 54. should to C.the highest C. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. elija la alternativa A.your family B.been drunk 52. there had been B. never. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. there were C. hard enough D. How many times – theirs C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Will . valuable B. A. it was 55. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie.the most highest D.the higher 57. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. How long . I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. too many C.drink D. before you’re leaving D. Do – drank B. before to leave 58. How much 56. C. since . would rather D.

has slept – already D. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep.can see her .60. A. as B. has decreased D. give her the letter . whom D. have been decreasing . either as or C.am going to see her 65.have talked C. Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. talk 69.produce . who never was able to be will never be 64. would take . are decreased . Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning.will be producing 63. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. A. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. give to her the letter . he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. give the letter to her . in order to 284 A short course in english for adult students . A. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A.are producing .. was sleeping – still C. by the year C. a year D. don´t talk D. very heavy B. slept – also B.see her C. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. A.was allowed 61. Consequently.mustn´t be B. A.had to C.will see her B. too heavy D. had been sleeping – yet 62. for to B. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon. too much heavy C. neither D. give the letter her D. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a friend who was in hospital. whose . for the year 66. An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. in a year B. so to C.will produce C. John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them. had taken – must B. A. not heavy enough 68.are talking B.doesn’t have to be C. both nor and 67. had been taking – should D. are decreasing B. so that D. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. which . was going to take . The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. A.

don’t you contradict D. all the same D.will be C. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. are going to fly B. At this time tomorrow. the accident _____________. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . at all B. right now D. A.should be . were allowed to use D. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. could have been prevented C. will be flying D. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . have used B. had better D. where did the people go B. When I was your age. A. some nowhere anywhere 78. are using C. you don’t contradict B. You _________ do it right now. enough B.70. seldom use 77. had to C. did D. I would have visited some other places too. so I could go ___________ else. ___________ him. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. went 74. what the young man was doing C. would better B. still B. don’t contradict C. used to play D. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. A. can B. Sir. why was sleeping the old man D. A. suddenly 76. A. at once C. I think. must have prevented B. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. He may get angry and reprimand you.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. have been flying 73. He needed the answer urgently. was playing B. any D. 80. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. would rather 79. so I sent him an email __________ A.Tom. yet . A. too much everywhere somewhere C. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. have been prevented 71. For the time being. are flying C. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. It __________ here in a few minutes A. what time was it exactly 72. they _________ the old computer. I didn’t have___________ extra money. could be prevented D. A. do contradict 75. would have had C. Had I had some extra money. Miss Jones? A. had played C.

91. becomes B. somewhere else C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. How frequent 86. wasn’t allowed to B. completely alone D. A. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. 89. got tired of B. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. quietly and secretly. fills C. 81. John didn’t come to class today. A. very often B. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. from a distant place. but Bill didn’t also. hates reading C. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. and so did Bill. prefers to read B. got afraid of D. wasn’t very old D. A. almost D. so he walked home. D. didn’t want to C. simply couldn’t D. doesn’t enjoy reading D. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. refused to 88. was too very young 87. begins D. A. was much too old B. How long B. A. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. dislikes to read 83. B. in the right way B. and Bill didn’t. A. A. B. simply . obtains C. ought to stay D. A. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. punctually 90. would like to stay 84. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. became accustomed to 82. A. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. was too young C. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. became sick of C.95. I think the children would rather stay at home today. What time C. have to be B. How often D. and Bill didn’t either. A. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. D. Elija la alternativa A. too. B. at once C. without anything to eat. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. need to remain 85. and neither did Bill. o D. C. It’s too cold. C.

92. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. A. because it’s a nice city. B. actually C. because the weather’s good there. D. at present.

93. Please cross out my name. I won’t be able to attend the reception. A. underline B. consider C. leave out D. report

94. He is too old and is losing his memory. He’s told me the same thing over and over. A. from time to time B. only a few times 95.What time do you think they will get there? A. be in that town B. leave the city C. get a place D. obtain a room C. with some exaggeration D. many times.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A, B, C, o D, que estime Ud. es la más adecuada en cada caso. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Before she left, Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter, a young girl of seventeen. The girl had never done baby sitting before, and Mrs Soames was a little worried. “Make yourself comfortable, Carol,” Mrs Soames said. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. It’s on the table. You can, of course, listen to the radio or watch television, but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. If the boy wakes up, go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. He´ll go back to sleep at once. Anyway, he’s four years old, so you should not have any trouble. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected. A light was still on in the living-room, and the television could just be heard. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. “He’s wide awake.” “He was looking at the television,” Mrs Soames said. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. “She’s still in the living-room. She’s fast asleep!” 96. What did the Soames do that evening? A. They saw a program on television. B. They had some trouble with their baby. C. They went to visit some friends. D. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. 97. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. Because the boy was not in good health. B. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. C. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. D. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. 98. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. B. Because the boy was going with them as well. C. Because the boy was a newly born baby. D. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry.

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99. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. B. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. C. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. D. They were both in the living-room, of course. 100. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. It was almost midnight. B. It was just before eleven. C. It wasn´t very late. D. It was only a few minutes past eleven. 101. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. B. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. C. Be careful with the neighbours. D. Don´t worry about anything. 102. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 3) A. by no means B. perhaps C. obviously D. however (line 5) (line 3)

103. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? A. He will go to his bedroom again. B. He will fall asleep again. C. He will feel sleepy. D. He will go to his bed. 104. What is the best synonym for “expected”’.? A. decided B. planned. 105. What is the meaning of “holding” A. looking at B. waking up (line 7)

C. promised D. left (line 8) C. looking for D. carrying

Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella, (término excluido). Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A, B, C, D, o E. No escriba en este Cuadernillo. 106. 107 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115.
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A. quickly A. shirt A. narrow A. cousin A. worse A. mine A. rice A. could A. behind A. weak

B. slowly B.neck B.deep B.niece B. cheaper B.our B.butter B.would B. among B. month

C. careful C. sock C. age C. aunt C. clever C. his C. meat C. sight C. throw C. day

D. fast D. tie D. wide D. nephew D. faster D. her D. juice D. ought D. across D. century

E. well E. glove E. high E. sun E, happier E. their E. cotton E. should E. along E. hour

A short course in english for adult students

116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A. grocer A. seldom A. made A. shoulder A. seen

B.customer B. often B. bought B. nose B. brought

C. tailor C. real C. broke C. elbow C. forgot

D. barber D. sometimes D. tired D. arm D. shut

E. butcher E. always E. put E. belt E. come

THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1

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Bl 290

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas)
Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ %

A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. deberá elegir la alternativa A. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. 6. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. Ud. 11. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.15. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. C. oirá oraciones incompletas. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses.John was going to work in the garden that morning. que la conteste en mejor forma. 15. 10. 5. 12. C. you really don’t look well this morning. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . He is only ten at present. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. Ud. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A.Jack and Tom are the same age.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. If you take a taxi. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. 8. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. 3. Después de cada oración Ud. 4. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. 2. 9. B. so he left the job for the following weekend.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. 13. En cada caso Ud. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. 0 D.30. Jack. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. 16. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. deberá consignarla. 14. No escriba en este cuadernillo. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 .The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. but Bill is two years younger. o D. B. Ud. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. John. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. Question: What did A short course in english for adult students 293 . una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 7. They went to the club instead.

“Well. 31. “ Mrs Green shook her head. She did everything right away. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. the previous autumn. 40. en cada caso. “That’s exactly what I don’t want. Then they started to take their holidays in France .” said Mrs Green. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. 33. for instance? A nice. meals and guides. “Look. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. with good weather. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. En cada caso. Ud.. deberá elegir la alternativa A. I’m sure we can arrange something for you. 38. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. El examinador leerá una historia. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. He’d rather stay at home all day today.” Mrs Green went on. It hardly ever snows in that region. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 294 A short course in english for adult students . they had the chance of making friends and visiting places.they do after all of them had arrived? 28. 32. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. He knew her well. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. back in his office asking about holidays abroad.” She waved it at him.. she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. the travel agent was surprised. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. You’ll see the really important places . when their children grew up. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news.They had a good time there because. o D. o D. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. deberá elegir la alternativa A. Why didn’t Mrs. C. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. They used to repair cars in those days. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. 39.” he thought. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. There are plenty of cheap hotels . years before. friendly place.” The travel agent looked puzzled. for example? Complete with air ticket. 35. although the weather was not fine. B. C. 34. 37. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment. B. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant.. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. Mr Green died.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi.and he got them their boat tickets. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do next summer? 47. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29. He got used to living in this house after a few months. Later.” she said.and food is cheap too. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. oirá oraciones completas y. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. he booked a family hotel for them. but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was. “How about Portugal. “As a matter of fact. yes. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. only a few months after her husband’s death.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. at her age. “How about a two-week tour. But then. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you. “A holiday abroad? Yes.” “India …” he said. In those days. of course.. At one time. Escuche atentamente. However. hotels. Mrs Green. What happened a few months ago? 46. No escriba en este cuadernillo. “Well.

2. 57. 54. LISTENING PART 1. 49. 22. 52. 47. 16. 6. 34. 45. 31. 66. 53. 38. 20. 59. 32. 63. 13. 17. 37. 14. 4. 11. 10. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 56. 58. 9. 65. 18.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. 8. 43. 5. 44. 21. 50. 67. 60. 19. 35. 29. 36. 55. 64. 39. 25. 23. 33. 27. 46. 40. 7. 30. 28. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 41. 12. 69. 42. 24. 62. 70. 48. 15. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 3. 68. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 295 A short course in english for adult students .

101. 91. 110. 93. 102. 86. 74. 94. 113. 75. 120. 114. 87. 111. 88. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 296 A short course in english for adult students . 117. 83. 112. 73. 72.71. 81. 97. 76. 115. 106. 118. 116. 95. 90. 80. 105. 79. 92. 107. 100. 119. 98. 104. 103. 84. 108. 85. 77. 89. 99. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 109. 82. 78.

BASIC VERB TENSES PRESENT SIMPLE (S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE) I write (= I do write) a letter every day (Yo escribo una carta todos los días. (Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora) PERFECT (S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE) I have written several letters today. (Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAD BEEN + ING) I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening (Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) FUTURE SIMPLE A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow (Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana) b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.APENDICE 1 CHART 1. (Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING ) I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.) A short course in english for adult students 297 . (Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT (S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE) I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.) Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day. (Mary escribe una carta todos los días) CONTINUOUS (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) I am writing a letter now. (Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT (S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART) I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening. (Yo escribí una carta ayer) CONTINUOUS (S + WAS / WERE + ING) I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening . (Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING) I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning (Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana) PAST SIMPLE (S + DID + INFINITIVE ) I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday. (Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana ) c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes (Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos) CONTINUOUS (S + WILL BE + ING ) I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening. (Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.

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Was your wife with you? No. at this time. Mr Smith? Yes. Sam: Thanks. I´m studying history. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.o´clock tomorrow / next Monday. I have my term test tomorrow. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. haciendo a esa hora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i# at eit "é:rti !is ívni# / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. Sir. I did. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week. momento determinado en el pasado momento determinado en el futuro ESTRUCTURA: S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WAS / WERE +ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Now. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes.etc . John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday? EJEMPLOS: John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. she wasn´t. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. at present EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday. I was washing the car.o´clock yesterday / last Monday. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. she is. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. EJEMPLOS: John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now? EJEMPLOS: John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Peter: Detective: Peter: Detective: Peter: A short course in english for adult students 299 . She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum.APENDICE 2 CHART 2.At.. etc.. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. Bob.. But I was in the garage. etc. I think. She´s reading the paper in the garden. For the time being. a las 8:30 esta tarde? SAMPLE DIALOG: Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No. at the moment. ahora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi# at !æt táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. Bob: Don´t worry. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un realizando o estará ocurriendo en un aún no han concluido.. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE A. I´m not. SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. At. It´s all right Detective: SAMPLE DIALOG: Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house. etc. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Is she at home? Bob: Yes.

.etc..? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow.. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó sucede en forma habitual. siempre... last week. etc.. last night.. Did I speak with the manager..... etc Always. determinada en el pasado.? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. (con He.... I will not speak with the manager.... sometimes.? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud. I´m not going to speak with .. every week... mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói# tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer ... I do not speak with the manager.. I ´m not speaking with . seldom. next month.? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer. it se agrega s / es al infinitivo)..? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow...B. several times a year.etc...... como todos o sucedió en una fecha u hora los días. twice a week. Jane does not speak with the . she. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past..? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow.. Two days ago. como mañana. Does Jane speak with the manager..? 300 A short course in english for adult students . 1997.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday... SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro.prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud. next week... often. Once a day... En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención. last Sunday. Am I going to speak with.. Will I speak with the manager.? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. el sábado pasado. usually. Am I speaking with . I did not speak with the manager. etc. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. next Sunday.. etc.. ten months ago... etc.. como ayer.. on May 4. etc. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad .. in 1986.... every month... el próximo sábado. That day. Do I speak with the manager ...

Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. We will go to Cancun again. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. He usually walks. I went with some friends. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. I didn´t. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . We really had a great time there. Did you go alone? No. When are you going to leave? Well.

before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday.. She had never been in Paris before. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai ! i énd ov ! is mán" / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. twice. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. y que ha continuado hasta este momento... antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a Describe una acción que se realizó u realizarse en una fecha u hora en el pasado ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd ! is mó:rni# / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. Just. three times. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. Mrs. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. many times before. Your train has just left.. we will have had lunch already. Sir. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. Jackson has never travelled abroad. I have never been there. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. not. He had not saved enough money for the tickets.etc. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know. before... EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today. By the end of this month / year. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t..yet. since.Several times. etc.. never... lately. But I had never visited it in the spring. never. already . I´ve come here three or four times.. But one of my brothers has visited it several times.. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992.C.. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No... Once. He says it´s spectacular.. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station.. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before.

I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March... EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month...... PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:i# sins iu: arráivd híar !is mó:rni# / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. since.. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday... ... They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. / for.. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends.... Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que que otra ocurriera. It will all be over before the end of this month.. It´s a shame! Well.. I´ve been working on my thesis.D.. ha continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento... Yes. A.. They´d been dancing and singing. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándo en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B... Mary: Yes. Anyway... Peter: You really look tired. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. antes de una fecha futura. desde que llegó esta mañana? Ud. when S + Past Since. A short course in english for adult students 303 . It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning. I hope they take a stand and vote for it. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:i# bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:i# bai !i énd ov !is mán" / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud.. Peter: Yes. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire.. In the meantime... EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since.. we simply have to be patient and wait. antes que Peter llegara ayer? hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things.. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. and I have been studying for the final exams. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. / for...

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