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Modern Feb0907

Modern Feb0907

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03/18/2014

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Circuit Simulation: General techniques

Mahesh B. Patil Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Circuit Simulation
 DC analysis  transient (time-domain) analysis  AC (frequency-domain) analysis  logic-level simulation  mixed-signal simulation  noise computation  periodic steady state computation  sensitivity
M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Nodal Analysis (NA)

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Modified Nodal Analysis (MNA)

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

MNA: CCCS example

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

SPICE input file: example
V1 1 0 10 R1 1 2 1.5k R2 2 0 1k  How many nodes?  Do we need extra variables (e.g., voltage sources)?  Assemble the system matrix.  Solve.
M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Sparse Tableau Approach (STA)
 Variables: node voltages, branch currents, and branch voltages  No need for special treatment of voltage sources or any other elements  Easier to implement as compared to MNA

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Sparse Tableau Approach: Example

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Time step control in transient simulation
 Rapid changes in voltages/currents require small time steps  At other times, larger time steps should be allowed, in the interest of faster simulation  Two popular methods: (a) methods based on local truncation error (b) methods based on convergence of N-R iterations

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Time step control (convergence of N-R):

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Digital Circuits: “Event-driven Simulation”

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Digital Circuits: event-driven simulation
 Is there an “event” at any of the inputs?  Does it require a change in the output(s)?  How long will it take for the output to change? (What is the delay?)

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Digital Circuits: event-driven simulation
 Computationally much simpler than electrical circuits (since it involves only assignments, as opposed to solving of equations)  Less accurate because it does not give detailed waveforms of voltages/currents.  Power information is not directly available.

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

VLSI Circuits
 Since exact (analog) simulation takes too much time, it is limited to 1,000-2,000 transistors.  In practice, standard cells are simulated and the delay values are extracted for various conditions (inputs, capacitive load, etc)  The delay values are used to perform event-driven simulation of larger circuits, esp. critical paths..

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Mixed (Analog-Digital) Circuits

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

Thank You!

M.B.Patil, IIT Bombay

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