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The project Vehicle Tracking & Ticketing System (VTTS) mainly deals with identification of vehicles and ticketing the passengers using these vehicles. The project is implemented with the help of Radio Frequency Identificati on (RFID) Technology. The major area of implementation of our project is for ticketing bus passengers in college bus electronically and obtain identification of buses. The project on implementation will fetch added features like speed in transaction, cost efficiency, low frequency of errors etc. Another added feature will be the accuracy in data recorded. Human errors will be rectified to the maximum thereby enhancing the efficiency of the system. The obsolete system of manual entry and calculation can be r emoved and this method could be adopted to bring into action a more efficient system. This VTTS application identifies a particular vehicle by the RFID tag fixed on them. In case of passenger boarding or getting down the bus is identified and ticketed on t he basis of ID card they posses. The system could be more elaborately established for all vehicles and passengers and a complete digital network could be established with the least of its possible errors. The tags are cost efficient and the whole equipmen t once installed can work without any particular attention. The area of application of RFID is very wide and the technology has already proved its value. Thus the implementation and practice of such a digital system would always be worth.
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VTTS is designed to work in an environment where vehicle identification is required. The prototype made is having all the features of the whole project. The current prototype made is to support the needs and requirements of our college and its other organizations. It could easily serve as a model of the whole working project. Moreover a complete functional database with Server and security polices for handling the Server is ready to deliver. The technical details regarding the project are described. For the purpose of Ticketing, the operational feature of the cards is the same but here the tags are attached to the Student or Employee ID cards and the reader collects the detail from them.
Basic Principle of RFID Radio Frequency Identification is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology was first known as Identify Friend or Foe (IFF), which was used for tracking aircraft. An RFID system consists of a tag, which is made up of a microchip with an antenna and an interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends out electromagnetic waves. The tag antenna is tuned to receive these waves. A passive RFID tag draws power from field created by the reader and uses it to power the microchip's circuits. The chip then modulates the waves that the tag sends back to the reader and the reader converts the new waves into digital data. For the purpose of Vehicle Identification, the tags are embedded into the Vehicle. The reader sends the electro magnetic waves to the tag. The tags draw the power from this wave and return back the vehicle information, which are stored in its memory to reader. The readers again demodulate this wave and convert it as a digital data. At the core of an RFID tag or label is a transponder inlay that is inserted between layers, usually in a pressure sensitive construction. The inlays, which are batteryless, are specifically designed to be converted into tag and label applications by a label manufac turer.
Let us see the data flow of RFID in Diagram 1., which shows handling of data in RFID System .
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Diagram 1. The RFID Data Flow Model
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COMPONENETS OF RFID MODEL RFID READER
An Agile Reader An agile reader is one that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tags and readers. Intelligent and Dumb Readers These terms are not precise, but many people use "intelligent reader" to describe one that has the ability not just to run differ ent protocols, but also to filter data and even run applications. Essentially, it is a computer that communicates with the tags. A "dumb" reader, by contrast, is a simple device that might read only one type of tag using one frequency and one protocol. Thi s type typically has very little computing power, so it can't filter reads, store tag data and so on.
Figure 1. RFID Reader Writing Data
Diagram 2. Block Diagram of RFID Reader(Backend)
Many applications of RFID labels include thermal direct or thermal transfer human readable printing and bar codes on the face of the label. Therefore, the logical place for data to be written to RFID labels is at the bar code printer. Printer vendors suc h as Zebra technologies, Datamax, and Intermec have developed RFID writers that are built into their printers.
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RFID Tags There are 3 types of tags available. Active Tags Passive Tags Semi-passive Tags
Active Tags Active RFID tags have a transmitter and their own power source (typically a battery). The power source is used to run the microchip's circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader.
Figure 2. Active Tags
Passive Tags Passive tags have no battery. Instead, they draw power from the rea der, which sends out electromagnetic waves that induce a current in the tag's antenna.
Figure 3. Passive Tags
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Semipassive Tags Semi-passive tags use a battery to run the chip's circuitry, but communicate by drawing power from the reader.
Figure 4. Semi-Passive Tags
Active and semi-passive tags are useful for tracking high -value goods that need to be scanned over long ranges, such as vehicles on a track, but they cost more than passive tags, which means they can't be used on low -cost items. Now End-users are focusing on passive UHF tags, which cost less than INR 18.00 today in volumes of 1 million tags or more. Their read range isn't as far—typically less than 20 feet vs. 100 feet or more for active tags —but they are far less expensive than active tags and can be disposed of with the product packaging. It depends on the vendor and the application, but typically a tag carries no more than 2KB of data—enough to store some basic information about the item it is on. Companies are now looking at using a simple "license plate" tag that contains only a 96 -bit serial number. The simple tags are cheaper to manufacture and are more useful for applications where the tag will be disposed of with the product packaging.
Difference between read-only and read-write RFID tags Microchips in RFID tags can be read -write, read-only or “write once, read many” (WORM). With read-write chips, you can add information to the tag or write over existing information when the tag is within range of a reader. Read -write tags usually have a serial number that can't be written over. Additional blocks of data can be used to store additional information about the items the tag is attached. Read-only microchips have information stored on them during the
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manufacturing process. The information on such chips can never be changed. WORM tags can have a serial number written to them once, and that information cannot be overwritten later.
WORKING SCENARIO Schematic representation of RFID technology used in VTTS is given below in Figu re 4. with a sequential indications to the various features used by the system. The antenna senses the tag and the information are fed into the reader. The reader then decodes these data and sends it to the host system through requires means.
Figure 5. Working Principle of RFID Technology in VTTS
Once the reader has activated the transponder, the transponder responds by emitting a signal to the reader’s antenna, which is converted to an electrical signal in the radiofrequen cy module. This signal, in turn, is sent for further processing to the host computer by the control module.
Basic Principles of Tag Operation The principles involved in the tag operation are, 1. Inductive Coupling 2. Backscatter Method
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Inductive coupling A method of transmitting data between tags and readers in which the antenna from the reader picks up changes in the tag’s antenna.
Diagram 3. Inductive coupling
Backscatter A method of communication between passive tags and readers. RFID tags using backscatter technology reflect back to the reader radio waves from a reader, usually at the same carrier frequency. The reflected signal is modulated to transm it data.
Diagram 4. Back Scatter
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Frequencies in RFID RFID systems generate and radiate electromagnetic waves, they are justifiably classified as radio systems. It is particularly important to ensure that RFID systems do not interfere with nearby radio and television, mobile radio services (police, security services, industry), marine and aeronautical radio services and mobile telephones. Four types of frequency are used in RFID Low Frequency (LF). High Frequency (HF). Ultra High Frequency (UHF). Microwave Frequency (μF) . Low-frequency tags are used for small -scale applications requiring shorter read ranges. High-frequency systems are used for large-scale applications requiring longer read ranges, such as vehicle tracking and ticketing in toll collection etc. Generally speaking, higher frequencies have greater reading ranges and are less sensitive to noise than the lower frequency tags. While high frequency tags transmit data faster and can be read from further away, they also consume more power and are more expensive than low -frequency tags. Currently, the trend is towards UHF because of the greater read distances and lower cost per tag in the future. UHF tags are more sensitive to environmental factors like water, which absorb the tag’s energy and thus block its ability to communicate with a reader. However, this is a crowded frequency spectrum because mobile and cordless phones, Wi -Fi and Bluetooth devices also operate in this range of frequencies. Conversely, RFID tags with microwave frequency do have greater read ranges and higher reading speeds than lower frequency tags, but they tend to be line of sight dependent, orientation sensitive, and require more power.
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Read range for a typical RFID tag There really is no such thing as a "typical" RFID tag, and the read range of passive tags depends on many factors: the frequency of operation, the power of the reader, interference from other RF devices and so on. In general, low -frequency tags are read from a foot (0.33 meter) or less. High-frequency tags are read from about three feet (1 meter) and UHF tags are read from 10 to 20 feet. Where longer ranges are needed, such as for tracking vehicles i n traveling long distances etc. The Table 1. describes the frequency classification table for various real time applications .
LF 125 - 134KHz
HF 1 3 .5 6 M H z
UHF 866 - 915MH z
μF 2.45 - 5.8 GHz
R ea d R a n g e
10 c m
2 -7 M
74% M a g n e ti c
17% M a g n e ti c
6% E l e c tr o M a g n e ti c
3% E l e c tr o magnetic
Coupling 18000-3.1, 15693, 14443 A, B and C
EPC C0, C1, C1G2, 18000-6
1 8 0 0 0 -4
Smart Card, T i c k e ti n g
T r a n s p o r ta ti o n
Transportation vehicle ID, Access/Security
Transportation vehicle ID (Road toll)
Table 1. Frequency Classification Table
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RFID Today RFID systems are used for a variety of industrial and enduser applications. Electronic toll collection and vehicle tracking are a typical use of active and semi -active tags. Automobiles are equipped with an active tag that can be read as the vehicle moves through a toll booth or drives along the road. Each tag has a unique serial number; a database correlates the serial number with an account number that is automatically monitored each time the tag is read.
RFID Tomorrow It is widely believed that RFID tags will migrate int o consumer items as the price of tags drops to INR 2.28. Scanner, the next generation RFID Technology will be based on electronic tags that are “read” using a wireless transceiver. These systems, collectively known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), have been increasingly used throughout the world in recent years. The implementation of RFID for vehicle identification and ticketing was executed to overcome the various shortcomings in the existing system. Some of the added features in this system are listed below: Generally, the BARCODE technology uses the ‘line of sight’ technology. That is, a
scanner has to “see” the bar code to read it, which means people usually have to orient the bar code towards a scanner for it to be read. Radio freque ncy identification, by contrast, doesn’t require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader. Actually, the RFID uses the low -end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus waves coming from readers are not dangerous and ar e similar to those waves coming from our car radio. Just as our radio tunes into different frequency to hear different channels, RFID tags and readers are tuned to the same frequency to communicate. Radio waves travel through most non -metallic materials, so they can be embedded in packaging or encased in protective plastic for weatherproofing and greater durability.
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Over the next 5 years, end-user awareness of RFID technology and benefits may foster wider adoption and increased demand. Respondents curren tly using RFID are concentrated in Transportation ticketing and vehicle monitoring. End users indicate limitless possibilities for RFID applications. End users believe in accelerated adoption as RFID technology develops, standards emerge and tag prices get cheaper. The Chart 1. Portrays Current RFID End Users based on the Real Time Application Strategy. It is crystal clear that end user voted 58.8% for transportation segment. Chart 1. Current RFID End users Segmented by Application
Applications of RFID in Vehicle Tracking & Ticketing Applications are constantly being developed to streamline data capture applications. Point-of-Sale – on the Point of sale RFID Technology Operate as part of toll road applications. Electronic toll collection systems and parking garage access are the examples of point-of-sale applications.
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Closed Loop or Tightly Coupled – Systems under the control of a single owner or authority as a standalone solution. Closed loop systems are used in medium scale organizations and the retail industry sectors. Open Systems – Systems with multiple, disparate stakeholders – ie) separate tracking, transportation, utilizing a common system. Because a single universal set of standards and protocols for RFID technology does not yet exist, open systems are not currently in use. However, their potential is tremendous.
Features of the VTTS Project Features Automatic and Manual Operational logs. Vehicle Profile Analysis. Traffic Density Analysis. Customized Management Reports. Advantages Faster Through put of vehicles. Easy Administration and Planning. Shorter vehicle delivery time due to locating vehicles faster. Improved processing and speed even when re -work is needed - required repairs are tracked electronically and automatically updated when work is completed. Improved quality control due to real-time physical tracking of vehicles throughout the delivery process.
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Manual Ticketing and vehicle identification was the obsolete method available but the frequency of getting errors and mismatch in entri es was a serious problem. An interesting area applicable in a similar situation was the BARCODES. But this had the major problem of line of sight that is the coded card had to be taken to the reader to validate an entry. Even though the method is bit less expensive the security that could be offered was very less. Another technique for implementing such a request is by using Biometric devices. But the comparative cost of implementation is very high and the system being dependent on physiological characteristics will not function effectively as expected if there is an unexpected change in the physiological characters of the client.
Another technique can adopted for this implementation is SMART LABEL.
Figure 6. A Smart Label
The Figure 5. shows Smart Label has an advantage of the thinner smart labels over conventional smart tags is that they can be manufactured in bulk by special printers. Current costs of these are in the INR 13.50 to INR 22.50 range. These can be produced in high volumes, are thin and flexible, can be read/write, and can easily be integrated into the barcode infrastructure. But the security is less compared to the RFID.
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Cost of RFID Tags cost today Most companies that sell RFID tags do not quote prices b ecause pricing is based on volume, the amount of memory on the tag and the packaging of the tag (whether it’s encased in plastic or embedded in a label, for instance). Generally speaking, a 96 -bit EPC tag costs from INR 9.00 to INR 18.00. If the tag is emb edded in a thermal transfer label on which companies can print a bar code, the price rises to INR 18.00 and up. Low -frequency transponders in glass capsules are about INR 159.50 each and a transponder in a plastic card or key fob can be INR 182.36 or more. Highfrequency transponders range from about INR 114.72 (in a card) to INR 273.54 or more .
Cost of RFID readers today Most UHF readers cost from INR 45,590.00 to INR 1, 36,770.00 depending on the features in the device. Organization or Enterprise may also have to buy each antenna separately, along with cables. Antennae are about INR 11,397.50 and up. The price of readers is expected to fall as companies purchase them in large volumes. Low - and high-frequency readers range in price depending on different factors. A low-frequency reader model can be under INR 4,559.00 while a fully functional standalone reader can be INR 34,192.50 . High-frequency reader modules are typically to INR 9,118.00 to INR 13,677.00 . A standalone reader can be about INR 22,795.00.
A fully functional RFID system cost The cost depends on the application, the size of the installation, the type of system and many other factors, so it is not possible to give a ballpark figure. In addition to tag and reader costs, companies need to purchase middleware to filter RFID data. They may need to hire a systems integrator and upgrade enterprise applications, such as warehouse management systems. They may also need to upgrade networks within facilities. And they will need to pay for the installat ion of the readers. Not only do the readers need to be mounted, they need electrical power and to be connected to a corporate network.
One of the largest obstacles to widespread adoption is the cost of an RFID system. The threshold of what end users are a ctually willing to pay for RFID system components (tags, readers,
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software, services) remains a mystery. Cost per tag is dropping and less expensive readers with greater functionality may be soon available. End users prefer that prices drop further. Consumers usually welcome price reduction. For that to be enduring, the supplier and retailer must reduce costs. RFID on buses, cars are achieving this in many ways but the tagging of individual items is revealing yet richer rewards, even though it is at a much earlier stage. Automation is the key, but it comes alongside crime reduction, reducing excess stocks and work in progress and reducing the time taken from raw materials to finished item on the retailer’s shelf (“time to market”) and other benefits that di rectly impact costs. The estimated cost for the implementation of the project mentioned will figure out around INR 10,000.00 -15,000.00. It will have a considerable contribution towards saving the manual scanning, administrative errors, etc. It will increase the rate of efficiency by introduction of a common conduct of operation that will enable the administrators to fabricate a less crime -sensed system. The number of trespassers and other unidentified persons could easily be tracked using the system.
Benefits of VTTS The various benefits expected could be summed up as Speed of transaction. Increased safety. Cost reduction. Fewer queues. Easier evacuation. More reliable equipment. Less frustration. Less violent crime. Faster processing of passengers. Reduces fraud. Greater reliability of equipment.
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Benefits of RFID Non-contact, Non-line of sight nature of technology . Tag can be read from variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime etc. Faster read rates as high as 100 millisecond s. Multiple tags can be read in single pass across the reader . Paper less tracking of equipment and personnel . High degree of scalability.
Benefits of RFID over Optically-Scanned Tags RFID tags offer many advantages over traditional optically -scanned tags: Optical barcodes need to be in plain view to be read; RFID tags can be read through fabric, paper, cardboard, and other materials that are transparent to the frequency of operation. Traditional optical barcodes are limited to 13 digits of information, an d two-dimensional barcodes are limited to several hundred; RFID tags can store hundreds or thousands of bytes of information. Only a single optical barcode can be read at a time; dozens of RFID tags can be read at the same time with a single reader. Optical bar codes are read-only; advanced RFID tags can store information and perform limited processing. Optical bar codes are promiscuous, in that any reader can read any compatible optical bar code that comes in range; RFID tags can be assigned a password, l imiting who has the ability to read them. The only way to deactivate an optical bar code is by obliterating or obscuring it; RFID tags can be electronically deactivated.
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Benefits of RFID over Barcoding The primary benefits of RFID technology over sta ndard barcoding are: Information stored on the tag can be updated on demand. Huge data storage capacity (up to 4k bits). Instantaneous data identification. Data collection from multiple items (hundreds of tags per second). Small surface area requirement. Longer read range; line-of-sight not required. Greater resistance to scratches and physical abuse. Greater accuracy in data retrieval and reduced error rate.
These very strengths of RFID are the Achilles’ heel of traditional barcoding technology. The limitations of label size mean that barcoding holds much less data. In environments where item data needs to be changed regularly, barcoding is unfeasible. Furthermore, printed bar codes are vulnerable to scratching and harsh environmental conditions. An uneve n label surface can affect print quality and consequently, compromise the integrity of the printed barcode. In addition, the read range of the barcode is limited by the capability of the scanning device. This is worsened by the ‘line -of-sight’ requirement: that is, the barcode must be directly in front of a scanner’s beam. Consequently, bar -coded items will need to be scanned manually (incurring labor costs), or extra costs must be incurred to automate the process to satisfy the line -of-sight requirement. Where manual labor is employed for scanning, the possibility of human error adds to the operational costs. Finally, barcodes are designed to be read one at a time. Multiple items cannot be read at one time. This limits the speed of data collection. With R FID technology, all the above barcoding problems can be overcome. RFID offers extended storage capacity, a longer read range, and a “one time scanning” feature. A typical of RFID chip can have storage capability, and does not require line-of-sight for reading. And it is possible to automatically read hundreds of tags in a second.
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Primary Issues Facing the Industry The primary issue barring widespread adoption of RFID is the actual cost of the disposable tags. In 2003, the range of prices for tags was sti ll as high as INR 22.50 to INR 49.50. The RFID industry has long claimed that the critical price for widespread adoption is the INR 2.25 tag. But a recent study from RFID research firm Arc Advisory Group predicts the price of RFID tags will only drop to a low of INR 7.50 by 2008, despite other industry estimates that the cost will reach the INR 2.25 mark in the next four years. • Cost: – Tags – currently INR 22.50 – need to be INR 2.25 or less – Readers – currently thousands of dollars – need to be hundreds of dollars – Implementation – distribution centers relatively low tech – need networking, power, etc.
Research on RFID It is evident that RFID privacy and security are challenging areas of research. There are a number of specific areas of research which will g reatly benefit RFID security and privacy and the outcome of this research will be the wide spread adoption of this technology. Cost effective and efficient hardware implementations on specialized nature of low cost RFID Labels. Development of new hardware efficient systems suitable for low cost RFID systems. Development of protocols with the flexibility to incorporate different security measures and safeguards to prevent rendering labels vulnerable during sudden communication interruptions. Improve and optimise coupling between readers and labels. This may involve developing new concepts for formulating coupling between antennas, new antenna design, and analysis so that the available source power to the IC is maximised.
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We have underwent a detailed study about the RFID application and implementation and found it applicable to the upcoming industries and IT sectors. Vehicle tracking and ticketing is just a low level application to imprint the wide level of application po ssible in this field. The implementation in college or enterprise transport section would make it easy for the detailed study of various aspects of the project. Some of the references that guided us and helped in designing the project are listed below:
Websites: 1. www.rfid-journal.com 2. www.oclinfo.com 3. www.tutorial-reports.com 4. www.idtechex.com 5. www.usingrfid.com 6. www.rfidupdate.com 7. www.ansi.org 8. www.rfid-weblog.com 9. www.whitepapers.frontlinetoday.com 10. www.rfidtoday.co.uk 11. www.rfid.bluestarinc.com 12. www.rfid-world.com 13. www.informationweek.com 14. www.accuracybook.com 15. www.rfid.zebra.com
Forums: 1. www.insightu.org/proforums/ 2. www.rfidexchange.com/forum/default.asp 3. www.globalaviationrfidforum.com/2005 -agenda.html
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Blogs: 1. www.rfid.weblogsinc.com/
Books and Papers: 1. RFID Handbook - Radio-Frequency Identification fundamentals and applica tions Published by John Wiley & Sons UK 1999 2. RFID Field Guide: Deploying Radio Frequency Identification Systems by Manish Bhuptani, Shahram Moradpour (Paperback) 3. RFID - Radio-Frequency Identification concepts and case studies by steven Shepard, McGraw-Hill, 2004 4. RFID : Applications, Security, and Privacy by Simson Garfinkel, Beth Rosenberg , 2005 5. RFID Sourcebook by Sandip Lahiri, 2005
Group contacts: 1. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sdforum_rfid/ 2. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe-westmichigan/ 3. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SV_RFID/ 4. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe/ 5. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/indusrfid/ 6. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -software/ 7. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -security/ 8. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RFID_TECHNOLOGY/ 9. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -chennai/
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10. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -bangalore/
Power Point Presentations (PPT) and PDF’s 1. RFID Applications for Owners and Contractors , CII Research Team 151, ADCIC, April 2003, PowerPoint Presentation (PPT). 2. Radio Frequency Identification Opportunities and Challenges in Implementation , Department of Commerce, Washington D.C., April 2005 (PDF). 3. Radio Frequency Identification Applications and Implications for Consume rs, A Workshop Report from the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission March 2005 (PDF).
The history of RFID, An AIM Publication, Pittsburgh, October 2001 , W hite Paper (PDF).
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology and its Applications in the Commercial Construction Industry, University of Kentucky, April 2003 (PDF).
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The vehicle ticketing and tracking system is applicable under normal environmental conditions. The users/clients are provided with a RFI D tag enabled card having their details printed as usual. The RFID tag will be saved with information regarding the user previously. This forms basically forms the input for the system. The passengers while boarding or getting down the bus are made to pass by a RFID reader fixed somewhere on the way. The readers read the cards with the passengers and the data is fed into the local terminal. The details of the client are matched with the database in the server and later the observations are recorded accordin gly. A user/client who pays an initial amount is given a minimum permit to use the bus. This is accounted in terms of chances he uses the bus. He can use the account until he finishes his quota that has been allotted to him. A diagrammatic representation of the proposed system to be implemented is given in Diagram 5. USER WITH TAG
SERVER Diagram 5. Proposed System to be implemented
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RFID implementation on VTTS The Project VTTS system based on RFID , implements with the following counter parts Air Interface Protocol - The way tags and readers communicate. Data Content - Organizing of data. Conformance - Tests require to meet the standard. Applications - How applications are focused.
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The confronted issues in VTTS system are The server should always be in working condition and proper connectivity of server with computer terminals should be assured. Passengers should be checked to have proper cards that could be read by the tag while boarding or else provision should be given to issue cards for everyone. Selection of frequency of the tags and the reader is a major issue and it should be properly taken care of. The tags are having a proprietary technology and the tags may not be sensible inside some other readers. The range of the reader and tag plays an important role and hence the tags and reader should be confirmed of contact. Tag collision or reader collision is another important factor that causes malfunctioning of the whole system. Trespassers should be taken care of or else the system may not be that effective.
Reader Collision One problem encountered with RFID is that the signal from one reader can interfere with the signal from another where coverage overlap s. This is called reader collision. One way to avoid the problem is to use a technique called time division multiple access, or TDMA. In simple terms, the readers are instructed to read at different times, rather than both trying to read at the same time. This ensures that they don't interfere with each other. But it also means any RFID tag in an area where two readers overlap will be read twice. So the system has to be set up so that if one reader reads a tag, another reader does not read it again.
Dense Reader mode This is a mode of operation that prevents readers from interfering with one another when many are used in close proximity to one another. Readers hop between channels within a certain frequency spectrum and may be required to listen for a sig nal before using a channel. If they "hear"
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another reader using that channel, they go to another channel to avoid interfering with the reader on that channel.
Reader interference challenges • • • • • Reader must deliver enough power from RF field to power the tag . Reader must discriminate backscatter modulation in presence of carrier at same frequency. 70db magnitude difference between transmitted and received signals. Interference between readers. Huge volume of tag data – readers need to filter data before relea sing to enterprise network.
Drawbacks of RFID The main drawback of RFID technology is the higher costs. A typical barcode label costs about 1.07 INR, whereas an RFID tag label can costs upwards of 53.55 INR. The initial implementation of RFID is also hi gher, depending on requirements and equipment specifications. Although initial RFID implementation may cost more at this time, researchers predict that within five years, smart RFID tags will become pervasive in Industry.
RFID Threats Security Threats Jamming. Replay attacks. Covert reading. Privacy Threats Covert reading. Tracking over time. Individual profiling.
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Security and privacy risks It is important to define the term ‘security’ and ‘privacy’ in the context of RFID. In terms of RFID, security refers to one or a combination of the following 'Confidentiality’ or message content security. Integrity of message content. Authentication of the Sender and Recipient. Non-repudiation by the Sender and Recipient. Availability. It is important to note that privacy is a multi dimensional issue involving many areas such as policies, security and law enforcement agencies. Criteria for evaluating RFID systems Privacy implies providing factors: Anonymity. Unlinkability.
Challenges to RFID Security and Privac y There are many challenges in providing security and privacy for low cost RFID systems. These difficulties are a result of the nature of electromagnetic waves and the constraints placed upon RFID systems. The primary challenge lies in the scarcity of res ources on an RFID IC. Low cost labels are not self-powered and only consist of a fraction of the gates available on smart cards. Cryptographic systems and protocols need to fit into a label footprint without dramatically increasing the cost of a label. The number of gates available for a security mechanism is in the range of 400 -4000 gates. Security mechanisms and communication protocols need to be carefully designed to avoid leaving the label in a vulnerable state during sudden loss of power or interrupti ons to communications. Furthermore, a security mechanism employing a memory write will have to account for the additional power required to operate a labels E2PROM. Furthermore, user performance requirements establish a time limitation on a label operation since at least 100-300 labels must be read per second.
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Privacy Issues Deployment of RFID tags in vehicles could pose several challenges to end user privacy Tags could be read by unauthorized readers. (Although 13.56 MHz tags cannot be read from more than a meter away, unshielded passive 915 MHz tags can be read from many meters.). Since human beings are not sensitive to radio signals, RFID tags could be read covertly. A database could be used to build long -term tracking associations between tags and h olders. Alternatively, such a database could simply be created at the checkout counter by correlating RFID tags with payment information. The communication between the reader and the tag could be covertly monitored.
Technological Challenges There are challenges in integrating the components for RFID -based systems and making them actually work. Tags and readers perform differently under varied configurations and different environments. Which tag is used, where it is placed on vehicle in the case all have a major impact on the performance of the system. There are real challenges around interference and wave collision that need to be addressed, in addition to the yield rates in the production of the tiny chips used and ultimately the converted tags and label s. There is also the pressing issue of cost for the technology, which is largely brushed aside at this point by the industry as a problem that will go away when the volumes go up. But unfortunately at this point the volumes are still low, and thus the pric es are still high.
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The Resource Requirement for the project could be charted under three sections. They are RFID SECTION COMPUTER SECTION SOFTWARES AND DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
Let us go ahead with these sections i n Detail.
RFID SECTION This section is mainly focusing on the tools required for tracking the various tags used in the VTTS. They are mainly three categories. RFID Tag enabled ID card RFID Writer RFID Reader
RFID Tag enabled ID card The tag carries the information about the client and forms the basic input of the system. RFID Writer The device used to write the details about the client onto the tag. RFID Reader The device used to read the details about the client from the tag.
COMPUTER SECTION This section mainly deals with the computer systems required for the implementation of the VTTS. They could be classified as: Computer Terminals LAN connectivity Computer Server
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Overview A Computer terminal is an electronic or electromechan ical hardware device used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. A device that enables a computer to receive or deliver data. The computer terminals are the computer systems used for operating the VTTS. Computer terminals vary greatly depending on the format of the data they handle.
What's a LAN? A LAN, or Local Area Network is a group of two or more computers, physically close together (usually in the same building), that are linked to each o ther. LANs can contain devices other than computers. It establishes Proper connecting devices between the terminals and server. Connection Method The various types of Connection method to use for networks are Ethernet Wireless Direct Cable Connection (only for two computers) SECURITY ISSUES FOR LAN CONNECTIVITY Security concerns should be carefully integrated into every step of the network design and Planning. Security is becoming more important as enterprises keep connecting their private internetworks to the Internet as well as their organizations and remote workers.
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Effective actions to take for Securing LAN There are many things can do to secure networks, the following two things can secure network atmost 95%. Separate your LAN onto its own Net work while connecting to Internet. Unbind Microsoft Networks from TCP/IP on any Network adapter that is connected to the Internet. LAN Security Threats LAN security risks come in different forms. Here is some information on the most common ones. Viruses Viruses are generally not a "security" threat to the computers on LAN . The main effect of viruses can be erratic operation of your computers, possible data loss, and the ability to pass on the virus to other network users. Viruses are most commonly sprea d through two methods: Floppy disks or other removable media that are used to transfer files from one computer to another. E-mail attachments. Probes Probes or port scanners check for improperly secured servers or services that may be running on computers on your LAN. These checks are usually performed by programs that take a range of IP addresses selected by the person running the program, and look for common services like Web, mail, FTP, Telnet, proxy servers.
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Trojan Horses In LAN "Trojan Horses", are programs that are somehow downloaded an d installed on computers. Although physical access to the target computer is a common method of installation, these programs can be installed via network access to an unprotected shared network drive. Worms These troublemakers are self-replicating, self-propagating programs that are spread through the Internet and generally don't require any action on the part of the computer owner to be activated. All they need is an unprotected connection to the Internet. Security Tools There are many resources available to help secure your LAN. They fall into four main categories Security scan programs that you run from a web page . Port monitors and Trojan cleaners . "Firewalls" that you run on your computer(s) . Security related Web sites. Security applications.
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Computer Server . A note on Terminology of Server The term "Server" is used in this module to mean the combination of the hardware, operating system, network service, application software, and network conne ction. The server is a computer system used for maintaining the database. Servers are often dedicated, meaning that they perform no other tasks besides their server tasks. On multiprocessing operating systems, however, a single computer can execute several programs at once. A server in this case could refer to the program that is managing resources rather than the entire computer. Server Hardware A server computer shares its resources, such as peripherals (i.e printer: print server) and file storage (i.e. disk: file server), with the users' computers, called clients, on a network. Thus, it is possible for a computer to be a client and a server simultaneously, by connecting to itself in the same way a separate computer would. Servers are normally specialist machines to provide the reliability expected by the end users. Server Operating Systems The rise of the microprocessor -based server was facilitated by the development of several versions of the Unix operating system to run on the Intel microprocessor arch itecture, including Solaris, Linux and FreeBSD. The Microsoft Windows series of operating systems also now includes server versions that support multitasking and other features beneficial for server software, beginning with Windows NT. There are many serve rs running Linux versions such a RedHat, Debian, etc which have generally proven to be more stable than Windows machines. There are an increasing number of servers running Mac OSX as organisations realise the potential and stability from having the hardware and software properly fitted and vetted. Most technical servers continue to run some flavour of UNIX so they tend to go for SUN, SGI, or HP workstations as proven and stable servers.
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Threats to Server Security Server security is as important as network security because servers can hold most or all of the organization's vital information. If a server is compromised, all of its contents may become available for the cracker to steal or manipulate at will. There are many ways that a server can be cracked. The following sections deals with the main issues security threats to server.
Securing Servers The primary purpose of these machines is to provide services, including both computational and data services, to other computers on the network. Security breaches on a server can result in the disclosure of critical information or the loss of a capability that can affect the entire organization. Therefore, securing servers should be a significant part of your network and information security strategy. Many security problems can be avoided if servers and networks are a ccurately configured. The practices recommended here are designed to help for configure and deploy servers that satisfy the organization's security requirements. The practices may also be useful in examining the configuration of previously deployed servers. Practices to be followed in organization These practices are applicable to the organization if Plan to operate a networked system of workstations that depend on servers for information or computation services. Plan to operate a public network server connected to an external network such as the Internet.
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Security requirements for informat ion resources on Servers These are the security requirements for information resources stored on servers : Some or all of the information is sensitive or proprietary. Access must be limited to authorized and properly authenticated users (inside or outside your organization). The integrity of that information is critical. It must not be compromised; that is, not modified by unauthorized users or processes operating on their behalf. That information must be readily accessible by authorized users whenever they need it in the course of their work. Security requirements for capability on Servers These are security requirements for the capabili ties provided by those servers : Only authorized and properly authenticated users may use these capabilities. Users must be able to access these capabilities quickly. Security issues to Servers There are three major security issues related to servers: Confidentiality - Maintaining the confidentiality of information stored on the servers. This includes, Ensuring that only authorized users can access the services and information. Ensuring that authorized users can access onl y the services for which they are authorized. Integrity - Maintaining the integrity of information stored on the servers. This includes , Ensuring that we can recognize and recover from breaches of integrity.
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Availability - Maintaining the availability of the services. This includes , Ensuring that services are uninterrupted even when there are hardware or software failures or during routine system maintenance. Ensuring that you can recognize and recover from security incidents in a timely manner. Intruders Target on Servers There are other aspects of servers that can make them tempting targets for intruders : Public servers often have publicly known host names and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. Servers usually actively listen for requests for services on known ports, and they try to process such requests. Servers are often remotely administered, so they willingly accept connections from privileged accounts. Servers often are configured to reboot automatically after some kinds of failures, which can offer opportunities for intruders. SERVER SECURITY POLICY Ownership and Responsibilities Servers must be registered within the corporate enterprise management system. The following information’s are required to positively identify the point of contact : Server contact(s) and location, and a backup contact . Hardware and Operating System/Version . Main functions and applications, if applicable . -to-date. Configuration changes for production servers must follow the appropriate change management procedures.
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Security improvement approach The practices are designed to improve security in two major ways: Host security is also a first-line of defense against internal threats, which generally have a higher probability of occurrence than external threats. They prepare us to better recognize and recover from security breaches. Monitoring All security-related events on critical or sensitive systems must be logged and audit trails saved as follows: All security related logs will be kept online for a minimum of 1 week. Security-related events will be reported to admin, who will review logs and report incidents to management. Corrective measures will be prescribed as needed.
Security-related events include, but are not limited to: Port-scan attacks Evidence of unauthorized access to privileged accounts Anomalous occurrences that are not related to specific applications on the host. Practices to be followed while implementin g a server AREA Planning deployment RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1. Develop a computer deployment plan that includes security issues. Configuring workstations 2. Keep operating systems and applications software up to date. 3. Offer only essential network services and operating system services on the server host machine.
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4. Configure computers for user authentication. 5. Configure computer operating systems with appropriate object, device, and file access controls. 6. Identify and enable system and network logging mechanisms. 7. Configure computers for file backups. 8. Protect computers from viruses and similar programmed threats. 9. Configure computers for secure remote administration. Maintaining workstation integrity 10. Allow only appropriate physical access to computers.
General Server Configuration Guidelines Operating System configuration should be in accordance with approved guidelines. Services and applications that will not be used must be disabled whe re practical. Access to services should be logged and/or protected through access -control methods such as TCP Wrappers, if possible. The most recent security patches must be installed on the system as soon as practical, the only exception being when im mediate application would interfere with business requirements. Trust relationships between systems are a security risk, and their use should be avoided. Standard security principles of least required access is used to perform a function. The Server is restricted from a non-privileged account. If a methodology for secure channel connection is available (i.e., technically feasible), privileged access must be performed over secure channels, (e.g., encrypted network connections using SSH or IPSec). Servers should be physically located in an access -controlled environment. Servers are specifically prohibited from operating from uncontrolled cubicle areas.
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SOFTWARES AND DEVELOPMENT TOOLS This section deals with the various design tools used in sys tem for the purpose of design and implementation. Front End Tool Backend Tool Crystal Reports
FRONT END TOOL The client part of a client/server application that request services across a network from a server, or back end. It typically provides an inte ractive interface to the user, For example, a data entry front end, allowing data to be entered into a server through the use of SQL (Structured Query Language). Introduction Visual Basic (VB) is an event driven programming language and associated develop ment environment created by Microsoft. It’s an Event driven programming language used for designing the interface and connecting the various sections. Visual Basic (VB) is a programming environment from Microsoft in which a programmer uses a graphical user interface to choose and modify preselected sections of code written in the BASIC programming language.
Scope of Visual Basic VB enables Rapid Application Development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using ADO( ActiveX Data Objects), and creation of ActiveX controls. A programmer can put together an application using the components provided with Visual Basic itself. The language is designed to make it easy to create simple GUI applications, but can be used to develop fairly complex applications as well. Programming in VB is a combination of visually arranging components on a form, specifying attributes and actions of those components, and possibly writing additional lines of code
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for more functionality. Since defau lt attributes and actions are defined for the components, a simple program can be created without the programmer having to write many lines of code.
Form Creation Forms are created using drag and drop techniques. A tools palette is used to place contro ls (e.g., text boxes, buttons, etc.) on the form (window). Controls have attributes and event handlers associated with them. Default values are provided when the control is created, but may be changed by the programmer. Many attribute values can be modifi ed during run time based on user actions or changes in the environment, providing a dynamic application.
Components of Visual Basic A Visual Basic application can consist of one or more windows, or a single window that contains child windows, as provide d by the operating system. Dialog boxes with less functionality (e.g., no maximize/minimize control) can be used to provide pop -up capabilities. Controls provide the basic functionality of the application, while programmers can insert additional logic wit hin the appropriate event handlers. Alternatively, a Visual Basic component can have no user interface, but be available to other programs, providing objects that implement functionality. This allows for server -side processing or an add-in model. The language is garbage collected using reference counting, has a large library of utility objects, and has basic object oriented support. Since the more common components are included in the default project template, the programmer seldom needs to specify additi onal libraries. Unlike many other programming languages, Visual Basic is generally not case sensitive. String comparisons are case sensitive by default, but can be made case insensitive if so desired.
Criticisms Of Visual Basic Not being very portable. It is only available for Microsoft Windows. However, much of the code can run in Microsoft Office applications using VBA, including those applications running on Mac OS. Having bugs in the IDE. This has been fixed to some extent by a series of service packs from Microsoft.
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In VB6 and prior versions, the use of many core OS functions required directly calling the Windows API. Due to the poor integration of VB with the native Windows API, this many times led to need for conversion code and low level memory "tricks" that were more complex than lower level programming languages like C. Another point concerns the communication of the toolkit and the computer. At the moment it is all wire-based whereas for many real -world applications it would be much more con venient if it was wireless.
Alternate Approach to Visual Basic Also the current programming interface, which is only available for Visual Basic at the moment, restricts the usefulness. A Java or C -interface would allow more possibilities for RFID based projects.
BACK END TOOL(Ms-Access) The server part of a client/server application. It provides across the network that have been requested by the client. For example, a back may be a database server that responds to SQL requests from a workstation runnin g a front end application. Introduction Microsoft Access is one of the Back end software to keep record of the database. It’s a Database management system (DBMS) that functions in the Windows environment and allows to create and process data in a database . Benefits of MS-Access over SQL Server SQL is a highly used and reliably secure database server. The reasons for its popularity and high regard are numerous, but the fact that it is a database server designed to be accessed securely over the Intranet is the leading reason why it is the database of choice.
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However, this is not to say that Microsoft Access cannot be a great database application. Because MS Access is not designed to be a database server, it does not do as proficient of a job as SQL in providing clients with access to database information in a secure and reliable fashion.
MS-Access vs. SQL Server Nevertheless, many organizations elect to use Microsoft Access instead of a program like SQL Server as the back-end database for their Active Server Page Applications (ASP).Creating and setting up a database in Access is much easier than in SQL Server. Most end users can afford Microsoft Access but the requirements for SQL Server beyond just the software itself can be a problematic one. Security Issues Security in Access works through the "data database" and a "user database". The "data database" is the database with tables, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules. The "user database" stores user name, password, identifiers, groups and grou p membership information. All the "user database" does is validate a user and a password and provides the specific "permission" within itself. Database Components used in MS -Access The Components used in the Database are Database – A collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data. Database Management System – Software package that allows to use a computer to create a database; add, change, and delete data in the database; sort the data in the database; retrieve data in the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database. Record – Information about a single person, product, or event.
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Field – A specific piece of information within a record. File – A collection of records. Unique Identifier – Data will appear only in a single record in the table; no two fields will be assigned the same data ( Primary Key). Shortcut Menu – A menu of the most frequently used commands. Process of Database Create the database and its tables. o Define the fields. o Define the type of data each field will contain. Add the appropriate records to the tables. Print the contents of the tables. Process the data (sort, retrieve, change, delete, etc.). Create a report. Print the report. Table Structure Field Name – An unique name for the data. Data Type – The type of information the field will contain. Description – A detailed description of the field. Data’s view in a Database Datasheet View – All the data is displayed as a table; may not see all the fields at the same time. Form View – A single record of all its fields is displayed.
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CRYSTAL REPORTS Introduction It’s Report generating software for creating reports. Crystal Reports is an intuitive reporting solution that helps users rapidly create flexible, feature -rich, high-fidelity reports and tightly integrate them into web and windows, other platform applications. The Crystal Reports reporting solution consists of: Powerful Report Design: Enduser can design highly formatted, interactive, and professional looking reports. Flexible Application Development: Developers can leverage cross -platform support for Java, .NET, and COM development technologies. Easily access, format, and integrate dynamic data into web and windows applications while maintaining tight con trol over end user interactivity. Report Management and Delivery: Reports can be exported and repurposed to the electronic formats used by most end users (e.g. PDF and Excel). Faster Data Presentation for Web and Windows App lications Crystal Reports is an intuitive reporting toolkit that helps solve the challenges associated with presenting formatted data in web and Windows applications. It provides a fast, flexible way to access, format, and integrate dynamic data into J2EE and .NET applications for an i nteractive end user experience. With Crystal Reports, You Can Easily access and format data into dynamic content. Tightly integrate reporting functionality into web and Windows applications. Deploy interactive presentation layers that can scale as requir ements evolve.
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For Report Design Crystal Reports is a powerful reporting toolkit that helps you design flexible, feature -rich reports, use extensive formatting and interactivity options to empower end users. Its proven query technology gives you access t o virtually any data source, including XML, OLAP and organization data sources. For Custom Use within IDEs Crystal Reports can be also customized and is available as a tightly integrated feature in leading Java and .NET IDEs. Crystal Reports for Java (BEA WebLogic Workshop, Borland JBuilder) . Crystal Reports for .NET (Microsoft Visual Studio .NET, Borland C#Builder ).
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Sample cards for Demo The ID cards with RFID tags could be demonstrated with fully functional features. Reader/Writer for Demo To obtain the data from the tag and write details to the tag for client information. Fully connected working model For Demo A fully operational prototype with all the features. Fully functional Database Software A complete database solution for the whole application.
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