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Auger Design|Views: 298|Likes: 2

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**Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and
**

Publications

University of Nebraska - Lincoln Year

AUGER DESIGN FOR UNIFORM

UNLOADING OF GRANULAR

MATERIAL: I. RECTANGULAR

CROSS-SECTION CONTAINERS

David D. Jones

∗

Michael F. Kocher

†

∗

University of Nebraska - Lincoln, djones1@unl.edu

†

University of Nebraska - Lincoln, mkocher1@unl.edu

This paper is posted at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/biosysengfacpub/148

AUGER DESIGN FOR UNIFORM UNLOADING OF GRANULAR MATERIAL:

I. RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION CONTAINERS

D. D. Jones, M. F. Kocher

ABSTRACT. Design equations were developedfor two auger configurations that for practical purposes generate uniform

vertical flow of granular material through containers or boxes having a rectangular cross-section. Both configurations

have uniform outside diameters so the simple geometry of the conventional U-trough housings could be used with these

augers. One configuration had a uniform pitch for the auger flighting and decreasing inside diameter. The other had a

uniform inside diameter and a decreasing pitch of the flighting with distance from the outlet end of the auger. Both

configurations dramatically improved the uniformity offlow over the conventional auger. However, confidence intervals

(a = 0.01) generally indicated that flows were significantly different from an "ideal" uniformflow along the length of the

augers. Keywords. Augers, Design, Flow patterns, Granular flows, Grain bins, Containers.

A

ugers (or screw conveyors) are used extensively

for conveying granular materials such as grains,

gravel, and food stuffs. Augers are simple

machines used in numerous settings and are

often the primary means of conveying grains on farms.

Augers are also used to control flow of material out of crop

dryers and other processing equipment.

Auger flighting design considerations and nomenclature

are presented in EP389.1 (ASAE, 1993). This engineering

practice states that the pitch of the flighting should be

between 0.9 and 1.5 times the outside diameter of the

flighting. Figure 1 illustrates auger characteristics and

nomenclature.

Research and evaluation of auger performance was

discussed by Pierce and McKenzie (1984); auger capacity,

and torque or power requirements were discussed by Ross

and Isaacs (1961), Parsons et al. (1969), Rehkugler and

Boyd, (1962); and grain damage was discussed by Sands

and Hall (1969). Rehkugler (1967) reviewed progress on

auger research and recommended use of similitude

technologies for further research and analysis. Also,

Rehkugler (1984) presented a procedure for determining

the optimum design that yields the lowest cost auger. Ross

et al. (1981) developed an auger design in which the screw

length could be modified to change the length of the

exposed auger flighting at the inlet section of an auger. All

of these researchers considered the auger in its primary role

as a device for transporting granular material and ignored

the flow patterns of grain flowing to the auger.

O'Brien (1965) was interested in the flow patterns of

grain flowing to an auger in portable mixers. He observed

that regular augers fill at the inlet end and drag this

Article has been reviewed and approved for publication by the Food

and Process Engineering lnst. of ASAE.

Journal Series No. 10569, Agricultural Research Division, University

of Nebraska, Lincoln.

The authors are David D. Jones, ASAE Member Engineer, Associate

Professor, and Michael F. Kocher, ASAE Member Engineer, Associate

Professor, Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering. University of

Nebraska, Lincoln.

material the entire length of the auger. He developed an

auger design with constant shaft diameter, constant pitch

and variable outside diameter. The goal was to draw

material from each chamber into the auger at the same rate

so the material from four chambers was reasonably mixed

as it exited the auger. The results were promising in that the

four chambers emptied at approximately the same time.

O'Brien (1965) also mentioned that an auger with varying

pitch could be designed to accomplish uniform mixing.

These ideas also have merit in controlling material flow out

of grain dryers and other processing equipment.

To illustrate the flow of' granular material from a bin

with a rectangular cross-section into an auger, consider an

auger in a V-trough that is fully exposed to grain at the

bottom of a bulk bin. When the auger is turned, the

material is conveyed along the length of the auger and is

discharged at the outlet of the auger (fig. I). Granular

material enters the auger at the inlet of the auger. As

mentioned in O'Brien (1965), no material enters the auger

except at the inlet end. This process results in unloading

from the bulk bin in a manner such that grain directly

above the inlet of the auger will be unloaded first. The

resulting flow patterns are illustrated in figure 2.

These flow patterns are of little concern when storage is

the only consideration. However, there are situations when

a first-in-first-out (FIFO) process is desired. One example

is a cross-flow grain dryer with an auger at the bottom of

the dryer. Operation of the auger controls grain flow

through the dryer. Problems occur when the auger is long

enough to cause significant differences in residence time

along the length of the auger. Ideally, grain would enter the

auger at a uniform rate along the entire length of the auger.

Figure l-Illustrations from EP389.1 of auger nomenclature.

Transactions of the ASAE

VOL. 38(4):1 157-1162 © 1995 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 0001-2351 /95/3804-1157 1157

1158

grain surface before augering

-- -- - --- ---- ---- -- -- --- - --- -------

Figure 2-F1ow patterns for conventional auger.

This action would result in flow patterns as illustrated in

figure 3.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this research was to develop equations

for the design of augers that would generate uniform

vertical flow of granular material through containers or

boxes having a rectangular cross-section and to test augers

constructed from the designs for effectiveness. Designs

were for augers with uniform outside diameters so the

geometry of the conventional U-trough housings would not

be affected. This resulted in two auger configurations:

(1) uniform auger flighting pitch, and variable inside

diameter; and (2) uniform inside diameter and variable

auger flighting pitch.

DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN EQUATIONS

An infinitesimally small vertical section of the auger

was considered. The downward flow velocity of material

into the auger (v) must be constant along the length of the

grain surface before augering

---- --- --- - - - -- -- --- - - - -- --- --- --

Figure 3-Desired uniform vertical grain flow pattern from use of

experimental augers.

auger to achieve uniform flow. Figure 4 illustrates the

conservation of mass into and out of the infinitesimally

smalI section. Note that q(x) is the volumetric flow rate

(L3T-I) of the material in the auger at location x. therefore:

q(x + q(x) +v·M

= q(x) + v'w'Ax (1)

where

q(x + == volumetric flow rate at distance x +

along the length of the auger (L3T-I)

q(x) == volumetric flow rate at distance x along the

length of the auger (L3T-1)

x == distance along the auger (L)

== incremental distance along the length of the

auger (L)

v == downward flow velocity of material flow

into the auger (LT-I)

!:"A == horizontal area through which material will

flow from the container into the elemental

section of the auger (L2)

w == width of the container (L)

Rearranging gives:

q(x + !:"x)-q (x)

-'-'----'-----='-'---'- - v .w (2)

!:"x

Taking the limit as!:"x approaches 0 yields:

I

' [q(x +!:,.x)-q(X)] I' [ ]

1m - 1m v·w (3)

tJ.x-.O !:"x tJ.x-+O

and using the definition of a derivative yields:

.iLq(x)-v.w (4)

dx

Another expression for q(x) is found by determining the

flow within the auger as a function of the auger

characteristics and the angular velocity at which the auger

is operated. Referring to figure 1, q(x) can be written as:

(x))2]w.p (5)

4

where

w == angular velocity of the auger [(rev)T-I]

P == pitch of the iuger [L(rey-I)]

OD == outside diameter of the auger (L)

\

\

vtJ.A "

q(x) -q(x + tJ.x) =q(x) + vtJ.A

iJ = q(x) + v·wtJ.x

I I

x x + Ax

Figure 4-F1ow into and out of a vertical section of the auger.

ThANSAcnONS OF TIiE ASAE

ID(x) == inside diameter of the auger as a function of x at

distance x along the length of the auger (L)

Differentiation yields:

.JLq(x) . [0])2- (ID (x »)2) 'CJ)'p} (6)

dx dx 4

(7)

.JLq(x) .CJ).P.2.ID (x)JL ID (x) (8)

dx 4 dx

Recalling that:

-iLq(x)=v.w (9)

dx

gives the equation:

vow (x)JL ID(x) (10)

4 dx

Expressing this as a differential equation yields:

v·w·dx - _li. ·CJ)·P·2·ID (x )·d [ID (x)] (11)

4

Isolating the variable ID(x):

4·v·w

2·ID(x)·d [ID(x)] ----dx (12)

CJ).p

Solving the differential equation:

ION 1%

l

2-ID(x)d[ID(x)]- (13)

1t ·w·p

OD 0

Since no material is allowed to enter the auger at x - 0

[auger inlet, ID(O) - OD], the above integral simplifies to:

[ID(x)]2-[OD]2-- 4 ·v·w·x

(14)

1t .CJ).p

Solving for ID(x) yields:

4·v·w·x

(15)

1t -w·p

In situations where w (the width of the container) is

equal to aD, equation 15 becomes:

VOL 38(4): 1157-1162

(16)

The same grain flow pattern can be achieved with an

auger that has constant ID and OD by increasing the auger

pitch along the length of the auger. The equation describing

auger pitch as a function of the distance down the auger is

as follows (assuming w = OD):

P(x)- 4·v·OD·x

(17)

1t .CJ).([OD]2-[ID]2)

Similarly, the equation for an auger with a constant ill,

constant pitch, and varying OD (as tested by O'Brien,

1965) would be as follows:

(18)

This auger design (eq. 18) was not investigated since the

design did not maintain a constant outside diameter,

therefore allowing for simple constant diameter bottoms

such as those found in auger V-trough housings. With this

design, w must be less than or equal to ID.

TEsTING METHODS

1\\'0 augers were designed and constructed with their

designs based on equations 16 and 17. The design

parameters for each of the augers are shown in table 1 and

illustrations of the augers are shown in figures 5 and 6. The

designs assumed that the granular material had a diameter

of 0 and was perfectly flowable. Furthermore, the volume

occupied by the auger flighting was assumed to be O. This

assumption is particularly important when considering an

auger having a flighting with increasing pitch. In this

configuration, the flighting occupied a significant volume

at the "inlet" end of the auger since the pitch is small at this

location.

A decreasing inside diameter auger, an increasing pitch

auger, and a regular auger were individually installed in a

V-trough housing at the bottom of a rectangular box

container. The box was 60 cm long, 15 em wide, and 80 cm

deep. The sides of the box were of transparent plastic sheet

construction so that the flow of the grain could be easily

Table I. Design parameters for experimental augers

and regular auger

Auger Type

Design

Variable

Decreasing

Inside Diameter

Increasing

Pitch Regular

w

OD

10 rev/min

15cm

10 rev/min

15cm

10 rev/min

15em

L

v

ID

P

60cm

23 ern/min

equation 16

15cm

60cm

23 crn/min

8em

equation 17

60 ern

N.A.

8cm

ern

1159

Figure S-nIustration of the decreasing inside diameter auger.

••-.-'111)

Figure 6-nIustration of the increasing pitch auger.

obseIVed. Each auger was equipped with a hand-operated

crank attached to the outlet end of the auger.

The box was filled with soybeans to a height of 60 cm

above the auger. The auger was turned four complete

revolutions (81t radians) with the hand crank and the

displacement of the grain from the original level was

measured. The auger was turned another four complete

revolutions and the measurements were repeated. The

auger was turned and the measurements taken until the

grain surface was disturbed by the auger flighting. This

resulted in eight levels to be measured for each

experimental auger and six levels for the regular auger.

The distance the grain level decreased and the bin was

measured at 24 locations along the length of the auger. The

grain level was determined to the nearest 6 mm. The

measurement instrument was a ruler with a 10 cm

2

base

piece to effectively average the surface level at each

measurement point. The experiment was repeated six times

for the decreasing inside diameter auger, five times for the

increasing pitch auger, and three times for the regular

_auger.

The average heights above each of the augers were used

as data for a regression analysis to determine the best fit

line. The slope and confidence interval (a. - 0.0l) of each

line was determined.

REsULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figures 7 through 9 illustrate the average height above

the auger for each of the three auger types. It is evident

from visual examination of figures 7 through 9 that the

Decreasing Inside Diameter Auger

(Average of 6 Trials)

70 ,------------, 0 revolutioos

•

60

.

4 revoIutioos

•

'5' 8 revoluhons

-:;50 .

•

I I I I I I I I I o-n--un-rrrro:o 12 revolutions

., 40 o

<>O<>O<X><><>¢OOOooo<>oooooo<><> 16 revolutions

:

o

20 revolutions

000000000000

00000000 0000

)(

'0

20

••••••••••• 24 revoMions

.

26 revolu1ions

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

\. Position AJong Length of Auger, on

Figure 7-Average (of six trials) height of soybeans above the

decreasing inside diameter auger.

1160

Increasing Pitch Auger

(Average of 5 Trials)

70 ,--------------, OrevolulJons

•

4 revoIulJons

.....·--··

•

150 .

8 revolutions

• j ..

12 revolutions

o

16 revolutions

o 30 _000000000000000000000000

20 revolutions

.8

)(

x

20 - xxx

24 revofutions

28 revolutions 10

.........

......

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Position Along Length of Auger, em

Figure 8-Average (of five trials) height of soybeans above the

increasing pitch auger.

augers with the decreasing inside diameter and the

increasing pitch produced more level grain surfaces than

the regular auger. Observation of the soybeans through the

transparent plastic sides of the box as the experimental

augers were turned showed relatively uniform vertical

settling of the entire grain mass. This indicated uniform

vertical flow into the experimental augers along the length

of the augers. Table 2 lists average slopes with confidence

intervals (a. 0.01) of the lines fit through the data points

shown in figures 7 through 9. The confidence intervals

generally do not contain 0 which would indicate uniform

flow.

Even though the confidence intervals revealed that the

slopes of each of the lines were significantly different from

0, it was obvious that the flow of material was

approximately uniform. There are several reasons for this

disparity between the observations and the statistics. The

assumptions in the design procedure about zero material

particle diameter and perfect flowability of the material

make the design equations only approximations. At the

"inlet" end (x - 0) of the decreasing inside diameter auger,

the height of the flighting was zero. With no flighting

height at that location, flighting could not push the

soybeans toward the outlet. One would not expect the

Regular Auger

(Average of 3 Trials)

70 ,------------, 0 revolutions

•

4 revolutions

§ 60 --------

& •••••••••••• •

::t •• • ••••• 8 revolutions

-< 50 - •••• • ••••••••

f ••••• •

g •••

40 •••••••

30 LiJ

20

12 revolutions

[J

16 revolutions

o

20 revolutions

)(

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Position Along Leng1h of Auger, em

Figure 9-Average (of three trials) beigbt of soybeans above the

regular auger.

l'RANSACDONS OF TIlE ASAE

Thble 2. Mean and confidence interval (a c 0.01) for slopes oflincs

fitted to the average height data presented in figures 7 through 9

Number of Mean

Turns Slope

Decreasing inside diameter 0 O.OO±O.OOO"

auger (six replications) 4 0.00 ±0.009"

8 ±0.008

12 -o.02±0.004

16 -0.03 ±0.002

20

24

28

Increasing pitch auger 0 O.oo±O.OOO"

(five replications) 4 0.01 ±0.002

8 0.02±0.001

12 0.02±0.002

16 0.02±0.002

20 0.01 ±0.007

24 0.02±0.009

28 0.02±0.014

Regular auger 0 0.00 ±O.OOO"

(three replications) 4 0.11 ±0.002

8 0.20±0.001

12 0.30±0.005

16 0.38±0.01O

20 0.48±0.004

.. Confidence intervals for slope include zero, indicating a

horizontal surface.

auger flighting to effectively push soybeans toward the

auger outlet at locations where the flighting height was

much less than average soybean diameter. Thus, at this end

of the auger, one would expect that actual bean flow would

be less than expected. This would show up in the physical

tests as a higher than expected soybean surface level at this

location.

Once past the location where the flighting height was

approximately equal to bean diameter, the auger flighting

effectively moves soybeans. At this point, more soybeans

will come from above the auger than predicted, in order to

fill the gap caused by reduced bean volume coming from

the ineffective flighting upstream. This would show up in

the physical tests as a lower than expected bean surface

level at this location.

Further, past the location where the flighting height

became effective, the auger flighting is still moving

soybeans effectively, but has no extra volume to fill as the

upstream flighting is effective in moving the predicted

volume. This would show up in the physical tests as a

soybean surface level equal to the expected soybean

surface level.

In summary, the expected soybean surface level for the

physical tests would be higher than predicted at the auger

"inlet" end, dip lower than predicted in the region where

the flighting becomes effective in moving soybeans down

the auger (flighting height approximately equal to soybean

diameter) and equal to the predicted level farther

downstream. The actual soybean surface showed those

expected patterns, especially after the higher number of

revolutions (fig. 7). This phenomenon would make the

slopes of these lines negative, which agrees with the results

shown in table 2.

The same pattern would be expected for the increasing

pitch auger. At the "inlet" end of this auger, the flighting

pitch was small enough to keep soybeans out of the

VOL. 38(4):1 157-1162

flighting, or soybeans lodged in between the flighting at

this point, reducing the effectiveness of the flighting in

moving soybeans at this location. This phenomenon would

make the slopes for these lines negative which does not

agree with the results as shown in table 2.

When designing a decreasing inside diameter auger

using equation 16, it is important to select parameters v, w,

and P yielding an appropriate value for the ratio

(4·v·OD)/[1t·w·P]. A practical auger requires that ID(L)

(L is the length of the auger) be greater than zero, so the

quantity under the square root sign in equation 16 must be

positive.

1t ·w·p

(19)

Again, this assumes that w = OD.

Rearranging this inequality yields the following

dimensionless ratio (eq. 19) that dictates the feasibility of

the auger design.

_O_D_·_1t_·_W_·p_> 1

(20)

4·v·L

Figure 10 illustrates the influence of this ratio on the

shape of the inside diameter. It is clear that when the ratio

is less than 1, the design is impractical, since the equation

indicates that the inside diameter should be less than zero.

Furthermore, it may be practical to approximate this

relationship as a straight taper (linear, or piecewise linear)

for larger values of the dimensionless ratio in equation 20.

The decreasing inside diameter auger (eq. 16) shows

more promise than the increasing pitch auger (eq. 17) for

several reasons. Constant pitch auger flighting cannot be

easily modified to work with the increasing pitch auger

design. Granular material also can lodge between the auger

flighting near the inlet end of the auger where the pitch of

the flighting is approximately the same size as the granular

material. This lodging of material in the auger flighting

reduces the flow into and along the auger at this point.

Constant pitch flighting can be modified by cutting to fit

the inside diameter of the decreasing inside diameter auger.

Also, as demonstrated in equation 20 and figure 10, design

of a decreasing inside diameter auger with large values for

the dimensionless ratio in equation 1 might be

approximated by a linear taper resulting in flow uniformity

00

Q>

O[}'KoCIJ·p

-->\

CD

4·v·L

E

ctl

is

u

'"

'w

OOx·w·p

c

--.\

OD-It-w·p 4·\' L

--<I

4· ... ·L

o L

Distance Along Length of Auger

Figure of design paramcters on shape of the inside

diameter of an auger designed for uniform flow.

1161

1162

sufficient for most applications. If so, this straight taper

would simplify the manufacturing process. Further testing

of these augers will be necessary to evaluate their

performance in terms of efficiency (power consumption

and auger capacity) and damage caused to the granular

material conveyed.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Design equations were developed for two auger

configurations that for practical purposes generate uniform

vertical flow of granular material through containers or

boxes having a rectangular cross-section. The two

configurations both have uniform outside diameters so the

geometry of the conventional U-trough housings could be

used with these augers.

One auger configuration had a uniform pitch for the

auger flighting and decreasing inside diameter. The design

equation for the inside diameter as a function of length

along the auger was as foIlows:

ID(x)=. 4,v·OD·x (21)

II 1t ·w,p

and is practical only when:

_O_D_·_1t_,_W_' p_> 1

(22)

4·v·L

The other auger configuration had a uniform inside

diameter and an increasing pitch of the flighting with

distance from the "inlet" end of the auger. The design

equation for the pitch as a function of along the

auge< was as follow" 1

P(x)= 4·v·OD·x (23)

1!..([ODJ2_[IDJ2) ,w

4

Both of the auger configurations dramatically improved

the uniformity of flow over the conventional auger.

However, according to the confidence intervals for the

slopes, flows were significantly different from an "ideal"

uniform flow across the length of the augers.

The decreasing inside diameter auger shows more

promise than the increasing pitch auger. The increasing

pitch alJger has potential problems with flighting/granular

material interaction. The decreasing inside diameter auger

will likely be easier to manufacture.

REFERENCES

ASAE Standards, 40th Ed. 1993. SP389.1. Auger flighting design

considerations. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

O'Brien, M. 1965. Characteristics of a tapered-screw conveyor

for mixing granular materials. Transactions ofthe ASAE

(4):528-529.

Parsons, J. D., W. F. Schwiesow and G. J. Burkhardt. 1969. Auid

flow analogy applied to auger conveyance of grains.

Transactions ofthe ASAE 12(5):616-620.

Pierce, R. O. and B. A. McKenzie. 1984. Auger performance data

summary for grain. ASAE Paper No. 84-3514. St. Joseph,

Mich.: ASAE.

Rehkugler, G. E. 1967. Screw conveyors-state of the art.

Transactions ofthe ASAE 10(5):615-618,621.

---.. 1984. Design procedures for auger conveyors in

agriculture - A review and a proposal. ASAE Paper No.

84-3513. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

Rehkugler, G. E. and L. L. Boyd. 1962. Dimensional analysis of

auger conveyor operation. Transactions ofthe ASAE 5( 1):98

102.

Ross, I. J. and G. W. Isaacs, 1961. Capacity of enclosed screw

conveyors handling granular material. Transactions ofthe

ASAE 4(1):97-100, 104. .

Ross, I. J., A. M. White, O. J. Loewer and D. M. Wieman. 1981.

Constant-speed variable capacity screw conveyor.

Transactions ofthe ASAE 24(2):484-487.

Sands, L. D. and G. E. Hall. 1969. Damage to shelled com during

transport in a screw conveyor. ASAE Paper No. 69-826.

St. Joseph, Mich,: ASAE.

ThANSAcnONS OF TIlE ASAE

He observed that regular augers fill at the inlet end and drag this A material the entire length of the auger. This process results in unloading from the bulk bin in a manner such that grain directly above the inlet of the auger will be unloaded first.1 (ASAE. grain would enter the auger at a uniform rate along the entire length of the auger. The resulting flow patterns are illustrated in figure 2. 1993). ABSTRACT. of ASAE. auger capacity. Ross et al. To illustrate the flow of' granular material from a bin with a rectangular cross-section into an auger. Both configurations have uniform outside diameters so the simple geometry of the conventional U-trough housings could be used with these augers. Operation of the auger controls grain flow through the dryer. However. the material is conveyed along the length of the auger and is discharged at the outlet of the auger (fig. One configuration had a uniform pitch for the auger flighting and decreasing inside diameter. The results were promising in that the four chambers emptied at approximately the same time. Kocher Design equations were developedfor two auger configurations that for practical purposes generate uniform vertical flow of granular material through containers or boxes having a rectangular cross-section. Augers are simple machines used in numerous settings and are often the primary means of conveying grains on farms. Problems occur when the auger is long enough to cause significant differences in residence time along the length of the auger. and food stuffs. One example is a cross-flow grain dryer with an auger at the bottom of the dryer. confidence intervals (a = 0. and Michael F. Rehkugler (1984) presented a procedure for determining the optimum design that yields the lowest cost auger. This engineering practice states that the pitch of the flighting should be between 0. Figure l-Illustrations from EP389. of Biological Systems Engineering. 38(4):1 157-1162 © 1995 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 0001-2351 /95/3804-1157 1157 . Jones.1 of auger nomenclature. and grain damage was discussed by Sands and Hall (1969). Research and evaluation of auger performance was discussed by Pierce and McKenzie (1984). constant pitch and variable outside diameter. gravel. 10569. no material enters the auger except at the inlet end. Parsons et al. Also. The goal was to draw material from each chamber into the auger at the same rate so the material from four chambers was reasonably mixed as it exited the auger. As mentioned in O'Brien (1965). (1969). The other had a uniform inside diameter and a decreasing pitch of the flighting with distance from the outlet end of the auger. Augers are also used to control flow of material out of crop dryers and other processing equipment. (1962). When the auger is turned.5 times the outside diameter of the flighting. Rehkugler and Boyd. O'Brien (1965) was interested in the flow patterns of grain flowing to an auger in portable mixers. The authors are David D. All of these researchers considered the auger in its primary role as a device for transporting granular material and ignored the flow patterns of grain flowing to the auger. Grain bins. Figure 1 illustrates auger characteristics and nomenclature. However. ASAE Member Engineer. Granular material enters the auger at the inlet of the auger. Rehkugler (1967) reviewed progress on auger research and recommended use of similitude technologies for further research and analysis. These flow patterns are of little concern when storage is the only consideration. University of Nebraska. Design. Auger flighting design considerations and nomenclature are presented in EP389. Article has been reviewed and approved for publication by the Food and Process Engineering lnst. Kocher. ugers (or screw conveyors) are used extensively for conveying granular materials such as grains. O'Brien (1965) also mentioned that an auger with varying pitch could be designed to accomplish uniform mixing. Jones.01) generally indicated that flows were significantly different from an "ideal" uniform flow along the length ofthe augers. Ideally. Flow patterns. Transactions of the ASAE VOL. D.AUGER DESIGN FOR UNIFORM UNLOADING OF GRANULAR MATERIAL: I. University of Nebraska. M. ASAE Member Engineer. F. Granular flows. (1981) developed an auger design in which the screw length could be modified to change the length of the exposed auger flighting at the inlet section of an auger. Containers. Agricultural Research Division. Associate Professor. Lincoln. Associate Professor. Lincoln. consider an auger in a V-trough that is fully exposed to grain at the bottom of a bulk bin. Augers. RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION CONTAINERS D. and torque or power requirements were discussed by Ross and Isaacs (1961). I). Both configurations dramatically improved the uniformity offlow over the conventional auger. Keywords. there are situations when a first-in-first-out (FIFO) process is desired. Journal Series No. He developed an auger design with constant shaft diameter. Dept. These ideas also have merit in controlling material flow out of grain dryers and other processing equipment.9 and 1.

The downward flow velocity of material into the auger (v) must be constant along the length of the (4) grain surface before augering ---. q(x) can be written as: q(x)~1!-[O])2-(ID (x))2]w.A " q(x) ~ iJ x -q(x + tJ.--.x) =q(x) + vtJ.---- -----.---------- auger to achieve uniform flow.grain surface before augering ---.- (2) tJ.-- -- 4 (5) where w P OD == angular velocity of the auger [(rev)T-I] == pitch of the iuger [L(rey-I)] == outside diameter of the auger (L) \\ vtJ. -'-'----'-----='-'---'.x-. Figure 4-F1ow into and out of a vertical section of the auger.-.w OBJECTIVES The objective of this research was to develop equations for the design of augers that would generate uniform vertical flow of granular material through containers or boxes having a rectangular cross-section and to test augers constructed from the designs for effectiveness.--.- Another expression for q(x) is found by determining the flow within the auger as a function of the auger characteristics and the angular velocity at which the auger is operated..--.. 1158 ThANSAcnONS OF TIiE ASAE .x I x + Ax I Figure 3-Desired uniform vertical grain flow pattern from use of experimental augers.. Note that q(x) is the volumetric flow rate (L3T-I) of the material in the auger at location x. Designs were for augers with uniform outside diameters so the geometry of the conventional U-trough housings would not be affected.x-+O I' 1m [ v·w ] (3) and using the definition of a derivative yields: .... Figure 4 illustrates the conservation of mass into and out of the infinitesimally smalI section..p -~---- .--. This action would result in flow patterns as illustrated in figure 3. where q(x + ~x) == volumetric flow rate at distance x + ~x along the length of the auger (L3T-I) == volumetric flow rate at distance x along the q(x) length of the auger (L3T-1) == distance along the auger (L) x ~x == incremental distance along the length of the auger (L) == downward flow velocity of material flow v into the auger (LT-I) !:"A == horizontal area through which material will flow from the container into the elemental section of the auger (L2) w == width of the container (L) Rearranging gives: q(x + !:"x)-q (x) !:"x Taking the limit as!:"x approaches 0 yields: ' I 1m v .-.A = q(x) + v·wtJ.x)-q(X)] !:"x tJ.--. and variable inside diameter.-.--- ---~. Referring to figure 1.. and (2) uniform inside diameter and variable auger flighting pitch. therefore: q(x + ~x) = ~ q(x) + v·M (1) q(x) + v'w'Ax Figure 2-F1ow patterns for conventional auger...iLq(x)-v. This resulted in two auger configurations: (1) uniform auger flighting pitch.O [q(x +!:.w dx DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN EQUATIONS An infinitesimally small vertical section of the auger was considered.

p (8) (9) Similarly.ID (x)JL ID (x) dx 4 dx Recalling that: -iLq(x)=v... The box was 60 cm long. the above integral simplifies to: [ID(x)]2-[OD]2-.CJ). and varying OD (as tested by O'Brien.([OD]2-[ID]2) (17) . The equation describing auger pitch as a function of the distance down the auger is as follows (assuming w = OD): P(x)4·v·OD·x 1t .OD]. A decreasing inside diameter auger. and a regular auger were individually installed in a V-trough housing at the bottom of a rectangular box container. The designs assumed that the granular material had a diameter of 0 and was perfectly flowable. constant pitch. This assumption is particularly important when considering an auger having a flighting with increasing pitch.p Solving for ID(x) yields: (14) TEsTING METHODS 1\\'0 augers were designed and constructed with their designs based on equations 16 and 17.4 ·v·w·x 1t .CJ). ID(O) .0 [auger inlet.JLq(x) ~_1t .JLq(x) ~. (11) (12) Solving the differential equation: ION l 2-ID(x)d[ID(x)]- 1% -~dx 1t ·w·p 0 (13) OD Since no material is allowed to enter the auger at x .. 18) was not investigated since the design did not maintain a constant outside diameter. [0])2. therefore allowing for simple constant diameter bottoms such as those found in auger V-trough housings. In this configuration. Furthermore. With this design.P. the equation for an auger with a constant ill.ID(x) == inside diameter of the auger as a function of x at distance x along the length of the auger (L) Differentiation yields: . The design parameters for each of the augers are shown in table 1 and illustrations of the augers are shown in figures 5 and 6.d x CJ). 15 em wide._li.A.2. w must be less than or equal to ID.JL{1t . and 80 cm deep.CJ). the volume occupied by the auger flighting was assumed to be O. ·CJ)·P·2·ID (x )·d [ID (x)] 4 Isolating the variable ID(x): 4·v·w 2·ID(x)·d [ID(x)] . equation 15 becomes: OD L v ID P VOL 38(4): 1157-1162 1159 . 1965) would be as follows: (18) (10) This auger design (eq. Design parameters for experimental augers and regular auger Auger Type Design Variable w Decreasing Inside Diameter 10 rev/min 15cm 60cm 23 ern/min equation 16 15cm Increasing Pitch 10 rev/min 15cm 60cm 23 crn/min 8em equation 17 Regular 10 rev/min 15em 60 ern N.·w·P-2·ID (x)JL ID(x) 4 dx Expressing this as a differential equation yields: v·w·dx . an increasing pitch auger. 8cm ~r5 ern ID(X)=~[ODJ2 4·v·w·x 1t -w·p (15) In situations where w (the width of the container) is equal to aD. the flighting occupied a significant volume at the "inlet" end of the auger since the pitch is small at this location.(ID (x »)2) 'CJ)'p} dx dx 4 (6) (16) (7) The same grain flow pattern can be achieved with an auger that has constant ID and OD by increasing the auger pitch along the length of the auger.w dx gives the equation: vow ~_li. The sides of the box were of transparent plastic sheet construction so that the flow of the grain could be easily Table I.

. ~ 10 .0l) of each line was determined..8 ~ ~60~-.. The experiment was repeated six times for the decreasing inside diameter auger.. o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position Along Length of Auger....01) of the lines fit through the data points shown in figures 7 through 9. ... Observation of the soybeans through the transparent plastic sides of the box as the experimental augers were turned showed relatively uniform vertical settling of the entire grain mass.... five times for the increasing pitch auger... The measurement instrument was a ruler with a 10 cm 2 base piece to effectively average the surface level at each measurement point... The average heights above each of the augers were used as data for a regression analysis to determine the best fit line.. 40 o 16 revolutions <>O<>O<X><><>¢OOOooo<>oooooo<><> ~30 ~l()K)()()()()()()()l()ti)( ~ 000000000000 o 20 revolutions )( ~ ~ 40 ••••••• 16 revolutions 00000000 0000 '0 20 ••••••••••• ~ ...0) of the decreasing inside diameter auger..... The grain level was determined to the nearest 6 mm.. The distance the grain level decreased and the bin was measured at 24 locations along the length of the auger.. 150 j . It is evident from visual examination of figures 7 through 9 that the Decreasing Inside Diameter Auger (Average of 6 Trials) 70 .-----"----'--"'-----'~--'-----. .)()()(~)()( 12 revolutions f g -< 50 - •• •••• • ••••• 8 revolutions 12 revolutions [J ••• ••••• -<--<Lr"'~ • • . em o'----'----'--~-l. I I I I I I I I I ~ ~ : ~ o-n--un-rrrro:o )(~*)(.. The auger was turned another four complete revolutions and the measurements were repeated. the height of the flighting was zero.. 1160 l'RANSACDONS OF TIlE ASAE . The confidence intervals generally do not contain 0 which would indicate uniform flow...... The assumptions in the design procedure about zero material particle diameter and perfect flowability of the material make the design equations only approximations... Figure 9-Average (of three trials) beigbt of soybeans above the regular auger.. and three times for the regular _auger. OrevolulJons Figure S-nIustration of the decreasing inside diameter auger.. Table 2 lists average slopes with confidence intervals (a. JJ~~~ .0.. The box was filled with soybeans to a height of 60 cm above the auger..50 '5' ~ 60 ~------..· · 4 revoIulJons 8 revolutions • • . The auger was turned four complete revolutions (81t radians) with the hand crank and the displacement of the grain from the original level was measured. One would not expect the Regular Auger (Average of 3 Trials) -:...· .... Position AJong Length of Auger. This indicated uniform vertical flow into the experimental augers along the length of the augers. With no flighting height at that location.. REsULTS AND DISCUSSION Figures 7 through 9 illustrate the average height above the auger for each of the three auger types.. This resulted in eight levels to be measured for each experimental auger and six levels for the regular auger... At the "inlet" end (x . . .J Figure 8-Average (of five trials) height of soybeans above the increasing pitch auger. 0 revolutions 4 revolutions • § 60 ... & ::t •••••••••••• • •••••••• . flighting could not push the soybeans toward the outlet..-'111) •• - .. ~ 0.Increasing Pitch Auger (Average of 5 Trials) 70 . xxx x ooooooooooooo~oooooooooo 24 revofutions 28 revolutions obseIVed.. ~ 4 revoIutioos 8 revoluhons • • • 70 . em Figure 7-Average (of six trials) height of soybeans above the decreasing inside diameter auger.. There are several reasons for this disparity between the observations and the statistics. it was obvious that the flow of material was approximately uniform.. Even though the confidence intervals revealed that the slopes of each of the lines were significantly different from 0. 0 revolutioos augers with the decreasing inside diameter and the increasing pitch produced more level grain surfaces than the regular auger. 24 revoMions 26 revolu1ions ~ 20 ~ 30 LiJ ~ o 20 revolutions )( o'--'---'-~--'-----'~---"--~-'---'~-' o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 O'---'-~-'--'---'-'--'--~-'-'"--'~-' \...... Each auger was equipped with a hand-operated crank attached to the outlet end of the auger.. The auger was turned and the measurements taken until the grain surface was disturbed by the auger flighting.... on o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position Along Leng1h of Auger. ... ~~xxxx~xx ~x~~xxxx~~* • 12 revolutions rr~: i40~ ~ 30 _000000000000000000000000 ~ 20 ~ o 16 revolutions o 20 revolutions )( Figure 6-nIustration of the increasing pitch auger.. The slope and confidence interval (a.

The decreasing inside diameter auger (eq.02±0.002 0. Also. this assumes that w = OD. Once past the location where the flighting height was approximately equal to bean diameter. 16) shows more promise than the increasing pitch auger (eq.03 ±0. This would show up in the physical tests as a soybean surface level equal to the expected soybean surface level. 19) that dictates the feasibility of the auger design.04±0.\ --<I 4· .002 ~.005 0. dip lower than predicted in the region where the flighting becomes effective in moving soybeans down the auger (flighting height approximately equal to soybean diameter) and equal to the predicted level farther downstream.11 ±0.002 0.00 ±O. more soybeans will come from above the auger than predicted. it is important to select parameters v. in order to fill the gap caused by reduced bean volume coming from the ineffective flighting upstream.oo±O. .002 0.OOO" 0. Furthermore.. design of a decreasing inside diameter auger with large values for the dimensionless ratio in equation 1 might be approximated by a linear taper resulting in flow uniformity 00 Q> auger flighting to effectively push soybeans toward the auger outlet at locations where the flighting height was much less than average soybean diameter.02±0.007 ~. it may be practical to approximate this relationship as a straight taper (linear. one would expect that actual bean flow would be less than expected. as demonstrated in equation 20 and figure 10. indicating a horizontal surface.04±0. Mean and confidence interval (a c 0.OOO" 0.. Rearranging this inequality yields the following dimensionless ratio (eq.00 ±0. but has no extra volume to fill as the upstream flighting is effective in moving the predicted volume.004 flighting.002 ~. A practical auger requires that ID(L) (L is the length of the auger) be greater than zero. This phenomenon would make the slopes for these lines negative which does not agree with the results as shown in table 2. At this point. When designing a decreasing inside diameter auger using equation 16. reducing the effectiveness of the flighting in moving soybeans at this location.009" ~. so the quantity under the square root sign in equation 16 must be positive.009 0.014 0. or soybeans lodged in between the flighting at this point.004 -0. the auger flighting is still moving soybeans effectively.008 -o.01 ±0. which agrees with the results shown in table 2.02±0. This lodging of material in the auger flighting reduces the flow into and along the auger at this point.04±0. In summary.20±0.30±0.48±0.02±0. At the "inlet" end of this auger. past the location where the flighting height became effective.Thble 2. or piecewise linear) for larger values of the dimensionless ratio in equation 20. Granular material also can lodge between the auger flighting near the inlet end of the auger where the pitch of the flighting is approximately the same size as the granular material. This would show up in the physical tests as a lower than expected bean surface level at this location. Constant pitch flighting can be modified by cutting to fit the inside diameter of the decreasing inside diameter auger. especially after the higher number of revolutions (fig.001 0. It is clear that when the ratio is less than 1.01) for slopes oflincs fitted to the average height data presented in figures 7 through 9 Number of Turns Decreasing inside diameter auger (six replications) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 0 4 8 12 16 20 Mean Slope O. since the equation indicates that the inside diameter should be less than zero.007 0. The same pattern would be expected for the increasing pitch auger. _O_D_·_1t_·_W_·p_> 1 (20) ..38±0. Thus. Confidence intervals for slope include zero.009 Increasing pitch auger (five replications) O. and P yielding an appropriate value for the ratio (4·v·OD)/[1t·w·P]. The actual soybean surface showed those expected patterns. 7). OD>~4'V'OD'L 1t ·w·p (19) Regular auger (three replications) Again. This would show up in the physical tests as a higher than expected soybean surface level at this location. ·L OD-It-w·p 4·\' L o Distance Along Length of Auger L Figure l~lnfluence of design paramcters on shape of the inside diameter of an auger designed for uniform flow. This phenomenon would make the slopes of these lines negative.02±0.02±0.Ol ±0.01 ±0.01O 0. Constant pitch auger flighting cannot be easily modified to work with the increasing pitch auger design. at this end of the auger.OOO" 0. the expected soybean surface level for the physical tests would be higher than predicted at the auger "inlet" end. 17) for several reasons.001 0. w.002 0.OO±O. Further. the auger flighting effectively moves soybeans. the flighting pitch was small enough to keep soybeans out of the 38(4):1 157-1162 CD ctl -->\ 4·v·L O[}'KoCIJ·p E is '" 'w u c OOx·w·p --. 1161 VOL. 4·v·L Figure 10 illustrates the influence of this ratio on the shape of the inside diameter. the design is impractical.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Design equations were developed for two auger configurations that for practical purposes generate uniform vertical flow of granular material through containers or boxes having a rectangular cross-section. Wieman. Auger performance data summary for grain. White. Joseph. Isaacs. Pierce. Design procedures for auger conveyors in agriculture . E.sufficient for most applications. M. J. 69-826. A. and G. The design equation for the pitch as a function of ll~'ngth along the auge< was as follow" 1 P(x)= 4·v·OD·x 1!. 1965. O'Brien. 1969. J. 104. Both of the auger configurations dramatically improved the uniformity of flow over the conventional auger. Transactions ofthe ASAE 24(2):484-487. St. D. Dimensional analysis of auger conveyor operation. O. Auger flighting design considerations.. 1962. A. Mich. and G. ASAE Paper No. However.. Auid flow analogy applied to auger conveyance of grains. W. McKenzie. 1984. The design equation for the inside diameter as a function of length along the auger was as foIlows: ID(x)=. E. I. 1981. and L. 40th Ed. Transactions ofthe ASAE 5( 1):98 102. Characteristics of a tapered-screw conveyor for mixing granular materials. 84-3513.v·OD·x 1t (21) ·w. D. 1967.. L. Mich. St. The decreasing inside diameter auger shows more promise than the increasing pitch auger. G. . J. Burkhardt. The decreasing inside diameter auger will likely be easier to manufacture. Boyd.621. flows were significantly different from an "ideal" uniform flow across the length of the augers. 1961. . If so. Screw conveyors-state of the art.4. L. ASAE Paper No.. F. Schwiesow and G. Damage to shelled com during transport in a screw conveyor. according to the confidence intervals for the slopes. M. W. Ross. One auger configuration had a uniform pitch for the auger flighting and decreasing inside diameter. Joseph.: ASAE. Constant-speed variable capacity screw conveyor.. M. E. Further testing of these augers will be necessary to evaluate their performance in terms of efficiency (power consumption and auger capacity) and damage caused to the granular material conveyed. REFERENCES ASAE Standards. 1969.w 4 (23) 1162 ThANSAcnONS OF TIlE ASAE . 84-3514. Joseph. O. Transactions ofthe ASAE 12(5):616-620. The increasing pitch alJger has potential problems with flighting/granular material interaction. Mich. Transactions ofthe ASAE 4(1):97-100. Sands.: ASAE. Loewer and D. Joseph. this straight taper would simplify the manufacturing process.: ASAE. 1993. St. St. 1984. Parsons. G. Transactions ofthe ASAE (4):528-529.A review and a proposal.-. Capacity of enclosed screw conveyors handling granular material. and B. SP389. I. Hall. The two configurations both have uniform outside diameters so the geometry of the conventional U-trough housings could be used with these augers. Transactions ofthe ASAE 10(5):615-618.p and is practical only when: _O_D_·_1t_.1. Mich. Rehkugler.: ASAE._W_'p_> 1 (22) 4·v·L The other auger configuration had a uniform inside diameter and an increasing pitch of the flighting with distance from the "inlet" end of the auger. Rehkugler. J. R. J. Ross.([ODJ2_[IDJ2) . ASAE Paper No. II ~ODJ2.

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