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Team Work by, Annette Fernandes - Roll No.11 Deepali Mane - Roll No.14 Ganesh Shinde - Roll No.25 Jesna Jose - Roll No.43 Mitali Chemburkar - Roll No.05 Nasreen Shaikh -Roll No.48 Saju John - Roll No.58
“It is a state of mind & emotions affecting the attitude & willingness to work, which in turn, affects individual & organisation objective” - Theo Haimann
What is Morale??
“It is an attitude of mind & esprit de corps, a state of well being & an emotional force.”
What does it do??
It affects output, the quality of a product, costs, co-operation, enthusiasm, discipline, initiative & other ingredients of success.
Where does it reside??
It resides in the minds & emotions of individuals & in the reactions of their group or groups.
What does it affect??
It affects an employee’s or a group’s willingness to work & cooperate in the best interest’s of the individuals, groups & the organisations for which they work.
Whom does it affect??
It affects the employees & executives in their interactions. Ultimately, it affects the consumers & the community.
Measurement of Morale
Morale is an intangible & subjective concept it cannot be directly measured or evaluated. A properly designed programme has, therefore, to be utilised to test the morale of individuals in an organization.
Measures of Morale :
• Observation • General Meetings • Questionnaires • Company records & Reports. • Speaking with departing personnel •Outside Consultants
Indicators of Low Morale
• Work place conflicts. • Absenteeism/ Lateness • Stress. • Trouble with the supervisor. • Performance shortcomings. • Lack of pride in work. • Wastage & Spoilage. • High labour turnover.
Research indicates that the number one cause of conflict & low morale at work is the way the people communicate with each other. Communicate! is a program of continuous morale boosting communication & education for all employees. “There’s only one way to know how good morale really is in your company ask the people who work there.”
Ways of improving morale :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Effective Communication. Review meetings. Counseling. Job satisfaction. Active participation. Friendly atmosphere.
Effective tools for Morale building
• Motivation • Team building • Make time for people • Provide regular feedback • Training & Development • Provide Leadership
IGNITE THE SPARK WITHIN
What is missing is the “SPARK” A Spark Called “Motivation” What is Motivation ? Motivation is the process by which Inner Striving Condition which activates or moves individual into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically. “Motivation is the art of stimulating someone or oneself to take desired course of action”. “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals”.
Motivation is the driving force in our lives It Comes from a desire to succeed. Without success there is little pride in life. No enjoyment or excitement at work or at home Difference between Inspiration & Motivation
Inspiration is “Change in thinking”
Motivation is “Change in Action”
Motive – As an inner-state that energizes activities and directs the behaviour of individuals towards certain goals
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Level of hierarchy of Needs - from
Extrinsic Factors lowest to highest Instrinsic Factors
Upper Level 5
Physiological Protection Needs against Food, Shelter, Danger, Threats Air, Clothing or Harm, Job Security
Prestige, Self respect, Love & Confidence Affections, Friendship,Pu , Courage, Autonomy, blic relations,Stat Achieveme nt, us or Goodwill Appreciatio n, Recognitio n
Self Growth by carrier Plans, Talent, Knowledge, Power, Job Responsibili ty
Assumptions of Maslow’s Theory
Man is a wanting animal Satisfied needs looses its capacity Man’s needs have a hierarchy
Fredrick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Two Factors Motivation Model
Hygiene Factors Dissatisfiers
Company Policy, Administration, Salary, Job Security, Group relations status,Working Conditions,Com munication. Goal oriented
Motivational Factors Satisfiers Achievements, Advancements, Recognition, Growth Opportunities, Power & Work itself. Positive –Y Theory
Negative – X
Job Enlargement: Challenging by increasing expected output Adding other tasks to the job Rotating the assignments Job Enrichment: Removing some controls with retaining accountability Increasing Accountability Granting additional authority Introducing new and more difficult tasks not handled previously Specific and Specialised tasks to make experts
Douglas McGregor -Theory X and Theory Y
Traditional Theory or Theory ‘X’
Assumptions of ‘X’-Theory
Workers are not interested to work
Fear alone can force action Workers are passive as they prefer security Money alone can make people work Labour only a factor of production Authority synonymous with control Lack of ambition, dislikes responsibility Self centered and indifferent to organisational needs.
Modern Theory or Theory ‘Y’
Assumptions of ‘Y’ Theory
Work is reward in itself Inherent sense of responsibility Recognition Financial Reward Decision making ability not the monopoly of a few Democratic nature
The ‘X’ ory Tra ditional Boss-sh ip No Ambition Pe ssimistic
The ‘Y’ ory Mode rn Lea dership Am bition Optimistic
David McCellands’s Theory
There are three major relevant motives or needs in workplace situations.This theory is closely assosciated with the achievement motive. These motives are: - The need for Achievement - The need for Application - The need for Power
Attain personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. Immediate feedback information Moderately Challenging goals Accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying
Achievers closely align with qualities
necessary for successful entrepreneurship. High achievers are attracted to commissioned sales They like to involve themselves with challenging risks Need rapid feedback Opportunities to influence the outcome Habitually spend
Rewards & Achievements
Get more raises in Salary, perks and extra fringe benefits Promoted faster. Organisations with many such people grows faster and earns more profit
Human beings are difficult to research and it is difficult to say which theory of motivation stands completely valid and acceptable. All things do not mean the same to all men. Topic of motivation is an inter relationship type of topic in that worker and the job are continually in interplay one with the other.
Personnel research as defined by Jucius, “is the task of searching for and analyzing of facts to the end that personnel problems may be solved or principles and laws governing their solution derived.” In simple words it provides a way of taking an objective look at problems and developing policies and procedures based on facts obtained through scientific study rather than opinions resulting from personal experiences.
Purpose of Research
The purpose of research is to seek answers to problems through the application of scientific methodology which guarantees that the information is reliable and unbiased. Research has the following advantages:
to measure and evaluate present conditions to predict future conditions, events and behavioural patterns to evaluate the effects and results of current policies, programmes and practices to provide an objective basis for revision of current policies, programmes and practices to appraise proposed policies, programmes and activities to keep management abreast of its competitors by replacing old products by new products, old techniques by new techniques & old organisational practices by new old organisational practices and to discover ways and means of strengthening the abilities and attitudes of employees at a good or a high level and on a continuing basis.
Why personnel research? research Personnel Managers have started to use
findings to solve human problems and to improve management practices. Most managers now rely on research findings for such problems as absenteeism, motivation, wages and attitudes of employees towards their jobs and organisations : 1. To build upon existing knowledge. 2. Appraisal of proposed programmes and activities. 3. Evaluation of current and new policies and practices. 4. Anticipation of personnel problems.
Methods & Tools of Personnel Research
Research is a selection of facts on a specific problem and a search for trends and patterns that will help in solving this problem. We will briefly explain five approaches to Personnel Research :
1. Case Studies :
Case studies investigate a specific problem of an organisation or of an individual in an organisation. The case presents the relative facts and the context of the problem. It presents the series of action/decisions undertaken for the problem under study.Case studies identify and establish problems, objectives and alternative courses of action. Having evaluated the alternatives they choose the most feasible action plan to solve the problem.
2. Historical Studies:
Historical Studies are used to trace the development of problems in order to understand them and isolate possible causative factor. They offer a perspective of current events in view of similar past experiences. The essence of historical studies is their systematic investigation on a time span or longitudinal dimensions. One major problem of historical studies is the time gap between the occurrence of an event and its analysis. Historical Studies take a long time and for that reason are costly.
3. Survey Research :
Survey Research is used for problems requiring a systematic collection of data from a population or a representative sample of population through person contact. Limitations : a. Willingness of the sample to desired information. b. Time limitation. c. Considerable investment of manpower and time.
4. Exploratory Studies :
Exploratory Studies emphasises the discovery of ideas and insights in seeking familiarity with a phenomenon or in achieving new and or greater insights in order to formulate the precise problem or develop hypothesis. Exploratory Studies are not terminal and just a starting point of a large study, they are very useful in formulating hypothesis for subsequent tests. They provide sufficient flexibility in information collection and are less demanding in terms of time and cost.
5. Experimental Studies :
Experimental Studies consist of investigating the effect of one condition on behaviour, attitudes,opinions, etc., while controlling others to establish a casual relationship between any two variables, conditions, or situations. It helps in isolating a single variable that influences a phenomenon thus making its occurrence more predictable and controllable. Experimental Studies is a rigorous method if a researcher can demonstrate proximity between real and simulated situations. It is extremely useful in understanding industrial behaviour.
Process of Personnel Research :
To carry out personnel research a sound knowledge of the process of research, the various steps followed in research i.e.- from identification of the problem to the drawing of conclusion - and the methods of data collection are extremely important.
1. Statement of Purpose :
The researcher must point out what he proposes to do and why and how the research could be useful. The statement of purpose should also point out that the given problem the present research is the most parsimonious way of seeking answers or alternatively that the purpose could not have been achieved without carrying on this research.
2. Statement of Problem :
The most important step in personnel research is to state the problem concretly and explicitly. Once the problem is clearly identified the next step is to develop the hypothesis of the suggested answers. The final step is defining the concept.
3. Statement of Method and procedure :
Method and procedure refer to the arrangement of condition for collecting data in a manner that ensures relevance and economy. Method and procedure will differ depending upon the nature of research problems and hypothesis. An important part in this section is the identification and selection of a sample group. The researcher also has to mention what is dependant and independent variables are. Dependant variables are the reactions, responses and behaviour. An independent variable is one who effect on dependant variable is to be seen. Next is to consider method of data collection, questionnaire, rating scale, interview or simple observation of behaviour.
4. Statement of Results :
Results based on information collected refer to the relationship of dependant- independent variable. They may support or reject the hypothesis. A clear statement concerning the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is the key function of results. Application of statistics quantifies the data, facilitates analysis and summarises the data to permit generalisation.
5. Statement of Analysis and Implications :
The personnel researcher must visualize the implications of the result and utilize them for policy formulation and decisionmaking. The result should not be narrowly viewed to find only the answer to the problem faced. It should also be seen in a larger perspective which may support a theory or a conceptual framework. The personnel researcher ought to point out the limitation of a study because this will open avenues for future research. The ultimate aim of a personnel research is production of organisational behaviour and this possible if a large number of variables are tested and their effect on behaviour is established. The findings from research studies are of little or no value unless they are translated into personnel policies and practices.
Personnel Research is an important activity of personnel manager. It helps in reviewing existing personnel policies and developing more effective systems. It also helps in anticipating personnel problems and building up existing body of knowledge.
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