# By: Steven Kowalski

  Kowalski   How

Box Method (KBM) vs. Regular Method

•  A preview

this method was envisioned

  Digits

•  Trick to multiplying AB*11 •  Normal Digit Notation •  Comma Notation •  2-digit by 1-digit •  2-digit by 2-digit •  3-digit by 2-digit

  Kowalski

Box Method

  General

formula: n-digit by m-digit

142

x17 1294 +420 714

42 x17 4,3|0,1|4 7 1 4 More examples toward the end…

 Let

AB be a 2-digit number such as “23” 23 1 1 x11 2 5 3 (no need to write 2a 2a 2b 2a and 2b) 2 + 3 the 1 if necessary.

 Carry

 “Fancy

trick!”  “I know, right?”  Could we do this with other numbers besides 2-digit numbers multiplied by 11?  How would you do it given any two Whole numbers?

 The

Arabic Numerals are the figures {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}, each with a numerical value
•  These are the most common numerals used to

construct numbers.
 Each

number is composed of digits, numbers with a certain place value.
•  one’s-place, ten’s-place, hundred’s-place, etc.

 Let

A, B, C, D, E be any Arabic numerals and let ABCDE be the numeral string.  Then, ABCDE = A*104 + B*103 + C*102 + D*101 + E*100
•  Ex: A=1, B=5, C=3, D=4, E=8. Then ABCDE =

15348 •  ABCDE = 1*10000 + 5*1000 + 3*100 + 4*10 + 8*1 •  ABCDE = 1*104 + 5*103 + 3*102 + 4*101 + 8*100

 ABCDE
Tenthousand’s place

=

1

5

3

4

8
Ten’s place One’s place

Thousand’s place

Hundred’s place

 Let

X be a number with n place values, each of which contains a numeral  X = Xn Xn-1 … X3 X2 X1
10n-1’s place 10n-2’s place 102’s place 101’s place 100’s place

  Suppose

we want to write a number with ANY number in the place values (not just the numerals). Then you use a comma to separate each place value.   So, given ABCDE = 15348, it can be expressed as follows:
•  •  •  •  •  •

  So, in

using comma notation to write a number, we see that in between each comma can be ANY nonnegative integer (or Whole number).

= 1,5,3,4,8 = 1*104 + 5*103 + 3*102 + 4*101 + 8*100 = 15,3,4,8 = 15*103 + 3*102 + 4*101 + 8*100 = 1,5,0,34,8 = 1*104 + 5*103 + 0*102 + 34*101 + 8*100 = 1,4,13,0,48 = 1*104 + 4*103 + 13*102 + 0*101 + 48*100 = 153,1,38 = 153*102 + 1*101 + 38*100 (Diagram on next page)

 15348
[104’s] Tenthousand’s place

=

1 , 4 , 13 , 0 , 48
[103’s] Thousand’s place [102’s] Hundred’s place [101’s] Ten’s place [100’s] One’s place

 15348

=

153 , 1 , 38
Ten’s place One’s place

Hundred’s place

  In

general, where X{1,2,3,…,n-1,n} are nonnegative integers, if X is written in comma notation as:   X = Xn, Xn-1,…, X3, X2, X1 Then…   X = Xn*10n-1+Xn-1*10n-2+…+X2*101+X1*100
  And   But

this can be expressed by: there has to be an easier way to calculate it!!!!!!!!

  1.

The Box Method: Given a number in comma notation, such as X = 12,315,84 , Draw a line before the one’s-place digit for each place in the comma notation: “12”, “315”, and “84”
•

2.

Add the numbers in each box (from right to left), carrying remainders to the next compartment.
1|2,31|5,8|4 1|2+31|5+8|4 (commas mean plus) 1+3|3+1 | 3 |4 (added right to left, carrying remainders) 4 4 3 4 (added right to left, no remainders to carry)

1|2,31|5,8|4

•

More Condensed
•

1+3|2,31+1|5,8|4 4 4 3 4 (added right to left carrying each remainder, while dropping the one’s place)

 This

method is useful especially when multiplying 3-digit numbers by 3-digit numbers or less.  The multiplication can be done from right to left or from left to right.  It also takes up less space on paper.

Let AB and C be whole numbers: AB*C = (10A*C+1B)*(1C) = 10A*C+1B*C = A*C,B*C

AB xC A*C,B*C 25 x6 . 1|2,3|0 1 5 0

Let AB and CD be whole numbers: AB*CD= (10A+1B)*(10C+1D) =100A*C+10A*D+10B*C +1B*D =100(A*C)+10(A*D +B*C)+1(B*D) AB xCD A*C,A*D+B*C,B*D

25 x61 . 1|2,3|2,|5 1 5 2 5 Or… 25 x 61 . 1|2,3|0,|5 | |2 | . 1 5 2 5

Let ABC and DE be whole numbers: (100A+10B+1C) *(10D+1E) =1000A*D+100A*E +100B*D+10B*E +10C*D+1C*E =1000A*D+100(A*E +B*D)+10(B*E +C*D) +1C*E

A*D,A*E+B*D,B*E+C*D,C*E

ABC x DE

514 x42 . 2|0,1|4,1|8,|8 . 2 1 5 8 8

Let X = Xn*10n-1+Xn-1*10n-2+…+X2*101+X1*100 and Y = Yp*10p-1+Yp-1*10p-2+…+Y2*101+Y1*100 where n≥p Then But Let’s make this one summation:

Did it backwards but don’t want to rewrite it… Sorry…

 I’ll

get back to it tomorrow (promise) because I’m too tired to keep writing.