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AERODYNAMICS
By
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A
COMPLETE COURSE IN ELEMENTARY AERODYNAMICS WITH EXPERIMENTS AND EXAMPLES
AERODYNAMICS
BY
N. A. V.
PIERCY
D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., F.R. Ae.S. Reader in Aeronautics in the University of London Head of the Department of Aeronautics, Queen Mary College
Member of
the Association of Consulting Engineers
SECOND EDITION
AA
THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES PRESS LTD
LONDON
ML
1937 FIBST PRINTED REPRINTED 1943 SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLAKGED 1947
......
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Made and
Hagell,
Printed in Great Britain by
Watson
6* Viney Ltd.,
London and Aylesbury.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
THE present edition is enlarged to provide, in the first place, an introduction to the mathematical and experimental study of comThis and other matters pressible flow, subsonic and supersonic.
now becoming prominent
are not collected in a supplementary
section but incorporated in place as additional articles or short Following a wellestablished practice, the numbering chapters.
of original articles, figures and chapters is left undisturbed as far as possible, interpolations being distinguished by lettersuffixes. It is hoped this procedure will ensure a minimum of inconvenience
to readers familiar with the earlier edition.
To some extent the
course of reading, though a modern view of Aerodynamics requires consideration of Mach numbers equally with Reynolds numbers almost from the outset.
unlettered articles indicate a
first
Other matters now represented include various theories of thin and the reduction of profile drag. The brief account of the laminarflow wing is in general terms, but the author has drawn for illustrations on the conformal system, in the development of which he has shared more particularly.
aerofoils
The
at
original text
is
following connection.
revised to bring it up to date, and also in the Experience incidental to the use of the book
Cambridge and London Universities isolated certain parts where the treatment was insufficiently detailed for undergraduates these are now suitably expanded.
;
The aim of the book remains unchanged. It does not set out to and summarise the researches, test results and current practice of the subject, but rather to provide an adequate and
collect
educational introduction to a vast specialist literature in a form that will be serviceable for first and higher degrees, and like purposes, including those of the professional engineer. N. A. V. PIERCY.
TEMPLE,
October, 1946.
reach . Prandtl. which must be consulted for design data. Today. in familiar connections. apart from aircraft stability. and the simpler parts of Chapters VIXII. My thanks are due to Professor W. . were generally adopted. notably by Lanchester. The first five chapters. To facilitate reference. constitute an undergraduate course more advanced matters are included to serve especially the Designer and Research Engineer. much resulting empiricism has been superseded and the subject is unique among those within the purview of Engineering in constant appeal to such masters as Helmholtz and Kelvin. part. many fundamentals had been brothers in 1903. if no longer paramount. a Ccoefficient derived merely by doubling the corresponding ^coefficient. remains as important and there is a continual swinging of the pendulum as analysis between these two. . A complete theory is stiU far out of experiment. so many references will be made in this country to litera' k" notation that the latter has been given some ture using the ental. This book presents the modern science of Aerodynamics and its aircraft.VI PREFACE PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION FIRST steps towards formulating the science of Aerodynamics preceded by only a few years the epochmaking flight by the Wright Within a decade. N. The arrangement is based on some eighteen years' organisation of teaching and research in the University of London. Bickley for reading the proof sheets and making many suggestions . with progress in aviation marking time. established. and Bryan." " No preference. A. its Reynolds and Rankine. Meanwhile. as shown in the list of notations. for the most immediate application to . Joukowski. V. but the treatment is intended to provide an adequate introduction to the extensive libraries of important original papers that now exist in this country and abroad. associated with " k. G. Yet some time elapsed before these essentially mathematical conceptions. though duplication results in several Of the two current instances. PIERCY. distinguished by great matter is involved. TEMPLE." will probably supersede the British. symbols have been retained. the American or Contin C. development proceeded largely by model experiment. No attempt has been made to summarise reports from the various Aerodynamic Laboratories. systems of force and moment coefficients. being However. also to The English Universities Press for unremitting care and consideration.
: .. Atmospheric Stability and Potential Temperature Bulk Elasticity... Experimental Streamlines.CONTENTS ART.... ... The International Standard Atmosphere. 35 Pressure and Skin Friction 4749c.. Irrotational Flow The Boundary Layer Experimentally Considered Constituents of Aerodynamic Force. .. Simple Dynamically Similar Motions.. . 2933. Stream Function.. 23 26 26 32 . 68 75 .. Forces on an Element Bernoulli's Equation Variation of Density and Pressure . Basis of Velocity : . Streamlines and Types of Flow Absence of Slip at a Material Boundary ExViscosity Qualitative Theory Maxwell's Definition perimental Laws Relation between Component Stresses in Nonuniform Flow Static Pressure. Troposphere. Reynolds Number. Atmospheric Tunnels Coefficients of Lift. II AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 2325... 54.. . Measurement Equation of Continuity. and Temperature of a Gas. Adiabatic Flow Temperature Variation the Incompressible Flow Assumption Pitot Tube ... Circulation and Vorticity.... Incompressibility Measurement of Small Pressures Buoyancy of Gasfilled Envelope. .. . .. Density.. Application to Altimeters Gasbag Lift in General. . 1617. 22. Integration .. .. . 4243.. 57. 4 6 11 13 18 1920. 3441... Head across Streamlines.. I AIR AT REST.. WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT Nature of Windtunnel Work.. Balloons and Airships Centre of Pressure Relation between Pressure. Velocity of Sound 20 21 CHAPTER 21. 18. Assumption. Mach Number. 4446. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT Pressure Density Equation.... Vertical Stability . .. and Moment vii .. Rayleigh's Formula... Corresponding Speeds III 58 CHAPTER 5053. Aerodynamic Scale. Drag. PREFACE NOTATION PAGE V xiii CHAPTER 14. . .... Gradient of Pitot ... Properties of Air Hydrostatic 1115. 10.. of 44 52 Normal 54 Froude Number.. 89... Isothermal Atmosphere. 2628....
109 . 106 . Formulae for Velocity Flow through Circulation round Elliptic Cylinder or Plate. Plane Shock . 7779. Wind. C.... Double Balance Method. . Loading. 118120.. . . .. 8689. 86 89 92 97 Scale Effects. Circular Cylinder without and with Circulation Potential Function.. Pitot Tube at Supersonic Speeds. Combined Source and Sink.. . Hyperbolic Channel Rankine's Method. Blockage 66B66C. Elliptic Cylinder or Plate in Motion Acceleration from Rest. Tunnel Aspect of Aerodynamic Gauge of Turbulence . Compressedair . Potential Flow. Suspension of Models. Inducedflow Subsonic Tunnel. Gliding. Location. .. Aeroplanes v.. 6669. Sink. ing of <f>.. Wave 114 CHAPTER IV AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 6769. Landing Conditions Flaps Power Curves Top Speed Rate of Climb Climbing. ArrangeModel Experiment. Doublet Flow over Faired Nose of Long Board.. Flight. Application of Complete Model Data ment 6466. 7072.. . Motorless Gliders Elevator Angle. CHAPTER 66.. . Practical of Single Examples... Wall . CHAPTER V FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 96100. Laplace's Equation Source. . Oval Cylinder. and Partial Engine Failure .. 8183. 115. . Nose Dive Circling and Helical Handley Page Slot.. Boundary Condition. 101106.Vlll CONTENTS PAGE Aero77 ART. dynamic Balance. Effects of 9196.. Correction for Speed Effects of Altitude... Dihedral Angle .. Scale. . Rolling and Autorotation.. 118 126 129 137 140 143 146 149 155 156 . 8485...G.. AirAeroplane Speed for Minimum Drag Airship in Straight Horizontal Flight and Climb Aeroplane in Level Flight. 163 167 116117.. Irrotational Circulation. . .. Size of Wings. 110114. Examples. Illustrative Results 66D. Pitot Traverse Method 60. Impulse and Kinetic Energy of the Flow Generated by a Normal Plate . 106109.. 7376. of Heavierthanair Craft.. . 80. Adjustment. 90... Supersonic Tunnel. Examples.. . Downwash... Aerofoil Characteristics 6163. Physical MeanVelocitypotential. Examples ships. Some Tunnel Corrections 69A. III A 103 EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS Variabledensity Tunnel 66A. 172 180 184 186 190 .
Approximate Formulae. Assumptions. VII VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT Rankine's Vortex. Investigation of Lift. Irrotational Flow. Application to Circular Arc 140D140F.. 121124. General Case. 245 247 260 Theorem 140L140M. General Theorems . Supersonic Speeds...194 Normal Plate by Transformation. KarmanTrefftz Sections 128129B. Aerodynamic Centre.CONTENTS IX CHAPTER ART. 125127. . Kelvin's (or Thomson's) . Shock Stall 140R140T.. Mach Angle. Symmetrical Sections Joukowski Velocity and Pressure. . Streamlines with and without Circulation. 267 Induced Velocity for Short Straight Vortex and Vortex Analogies 272 .. Euler's Dynamical Equations. 148150. Glauert's Theory. Conformal Transformation. Comparison with Experiment and Example 130133A. ... . Pair.. .262 parison with Experiment . Electrical and Hydraulic Analogies . . Method and Equations 140c. Inclined Plate Formulae for Shape. Velocity over Profile. Piercy Symmetrical Sections. . CHAPTER 141147. Joukowski's Hypothesis Calculation of Circulation . . Ackeret's Theory. Flow past . Circular Arc Aerofoil. General Equation of Continuity 140J140K. Comparison with 259 Experiment.. . Definitions. . VI PAGE TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS Singular Points. 237 240 241 CHAPTER VIB COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 140G140i. Com. More General Transformation 203 Formula.. Lift Curve Slope and Moment Comparison with Experiment . Example 227 235 CHAPTER VIA THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 140A140B. Steady Irrotational Flow in Two Dimensions. Integration of Euler's Equations 140N140O. 252 CHAPTER VIC THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 140P140Q. 212 220 140... Joukowski and Piercy Wing Sections 134139. Subsonic Speeds.
.357 205207.312 Drag Reduction Formulae Examples Solution of the Arbitrary Wing by Fourier Series. . . . 287 from Experiment . . . . . . Residual Kinetic Energy Induced Drag Example of Uniform Variation of Circulation in Free Flight. with Monoplane 327 Examples Tunnel Corrections for Incidence and Induced Drag 335 Approximate Calculation of Downwash at Tail Plane Tunnel Constraint at Tail Plane Correction Formulae. Displacement and Momentum Thicknesses. Flat Plates with Turbulent Boundary Layers Power Formulae. . . . CONTENTS PAGE Constraint of Walls.. Theory and Comparison with ExperiTurbulent Flow in Pipes the Seventhroot Law. . Eccentric and Flat Cores in .. Prandtl's Biplane Factor Equal Wing Biplane Comparison Examples... ... 163168. tion to Circular Cylinder. Method of Images Vortex and Vortex Pair within Circular Tunnel. . Example .. . 181186. Flow in Annular Channel. .. : Form of Kdrm&n's Equation . Alternative 200204. . .Lift from Wall Pressures. . .X ART. . VIII WING THEORY 178180.. . Lift. . Extension of Skin Friction Formula . ... Detection of Transition 384 219221... .. Source and Doublet in Stream between Walls 283 Generation of Vortices 156162. . ... Tail Planes of Biplanes 339 . Transition Reynolds Number. Production and DisImpulse Karman Trail Applicaintegration of Vortex Sheets. : ... plication of Conformal Transformation.' Distribution of Given Impulse for Minimum Kinetic Energy Elliptic Loading. General Equations of Monoplane Theory 309 The 'Second Problem. .. . Transitional Friction.. . Streamlines for Vortex between Parallel Walls . . . Comparison with Experiment 320 General Theorems Relating to Biplanes...276 155A155B. 187188. Experimental Results 387 221A221B. . Viscous Circulation. Stability of Curved Flow 365 208209. Form Drag Lanchester's Trailing Vortices... .. 189192. Karman's Theorem Examples 370 2 182 ISA. .. . Other Examples. Oseen's and Prandtl's Approximate Equations 369 Flat Plates with Steady Flow Solutions for Small and Large 2102 1 7 Scales Formation of Boundary Layer Method of Successive Approximation.. Elliptic Shape Compared with Others. 346 Pipes General Equations for Steady Viscous Flow.391 . FLOW AND SKIN DRAG : Laminar Pipe Flow ment. CHAPTER IX VISCOUS 193199.. Minimum . 151155. Starting Vortex. .. . 295 CHAPTER 169171.. . . 172177. . Ap.
461 Example 259260A.. . 393 224230. . . .. Dependence of Friction on Transition Point 230c230F. . . Sweep 409 . Camber and Pitching Moment 230G230H. Review from Model to Full Scale 399 CHAPTER IX A REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 230A230B. .. XI PAGE Note on Laminar Skin Friction of Cylindrical Profiles. . 246260. . Vortex Theory Interference Factors Coefficients . Takeoff and Landing Run. 222223. . Induced. .. Early Example. Skin Drag. Typical Experimental Results : .. . 233238. 242. Position of Maximum Thickness. . Mixing Length..CONTENTS ART. 240241. of Passage Application to Aircraft Surfaces. Effect of Wake. Compressibility Stall . .. . . Subdivision of Parasite Drag 469 254258. Minimum Maximum Velocity Ratio. . Equivalent Monoplane Aspect Ratio. Struts and Streamline Wires . . Profile and Parasite Drags. The 239. Maintenance of Negative Pressure Gradient. Examples of Shape Adjustment. 427 438 440 443 . . Normal Profile Drag. Breakaway.. Similarity Theory.. Method of Calculation Example Variable Pitch. . .. Static Thrust Tip Losses and Solidity.. Ideal Propeller Ideal Efficiency of Propulsion Airscrews. 243245. 412 419 421 back 423 CHAPTER X AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 231232. .. Jones Efficiency Streamline Aeroplane. Prediction of Speed and Climb Bairstow's and the LesleyReid Methods.. Preliminary Design Empirical Formulae for Diameter and Inflow Stresses Shape Helicopter and Autogyro. High Speeds. Cascade Wing 230i. . Eddy Viscosity. . Airscrew Interference . . Examples 451 251. .. Range and Endurance. Incidence Effect Favourable Range. Reynolds Equations of Mean Motion.. Blade Element Theory. Method for Isolated Question 466 261262. Prediction of Lift with Laminar Boundary Layer 230j~230K. . Frictions of Bodies and Flat Plates Compared Turbulence and Roughness. .... . Definitions. 446 CHAPTER XI PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY Preliminary Discussion.. .457 252263. 473 . Boundary Layer Control. Velocity Diagrams. . 425 . Laminar Flow Wings. .. Approximate Theory of Autogyro Rotor....
Damping Factor . . Phugoid Oscillation Reconsidered Effects of Stalling on Tail Efficiency and Damping 513 Level Flight 514 High Speeds Free Elevators Climbing . Glauert's Nondimensional System. SAFETY IN FLIGHT General Problem. Engineoff Stability 508 Example. 270273. . Correction of Flight Observations 489 .. .516 Graphical Analysis Introduction to Lateral Stability 618 Solution with Wind Axes Asymmetric Equations Ap... . . . Wind Axes. XII .. . .. . .. tion of Lateral Derivatives . . . Design and Stalling of Controls. . . Large Disturbances.. Example. CHAPTER 264265. ..493 Introduction to Longitudinal Stability Aerodynamic Dihedral Short Oscillation Examples Simplified Phugoid Oscillation 496 Example Classical Equations for Longitudinal Stability. . . PAGE 262A262F.. . . .519 proximate Factorisation Discussion in Terms of Derivatives. . Airscrew Effects Application to Prediction Wingloading and Highaltitude Laminar Flow Effect 477 Flying 263. . . Approximate Factorisation 503 Force and Moment Derivatives. . . . Recast Equations. . . : 279280. 487 Autogyro and Helicopter 263A. Evalua: .. 274278.. . Control in Relation to Stability. Flat Spin Load Factors in Flight Accelerometer Records . . .. 296. 293295. . .. 287289. .. 266269.. . 523 526 629 531 AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX . Aerodynamic Efficiency Charts. ART.521 . 285. 281284.Xll CONTENTS . 286. 290292. . . .
. . . . Centre of gravity. A. 8 .A. . . . Gas constant number longitudinal moment of inertia of blades of an airscrew. Tailsetting angle. a . . . . .P. basis of stagnation pressure. leverage . A. Aeronautical Research Committee's Reports and Memoranda. etc. Ratio of specific heats tan' 1 (drag/lift). Stability coefficients. Transverse dihedral wing.R. twice the of inertia mean camber . Stability coefficients. a. . . Stability coefficients. moment sectional area of C. . Chord of wing or aerofoil molecular velocity. Diameter . of a a 9 . Elasticity . Directional tunnel. . . .T. . B* .) A . transverse moment A. force about C. . . kinetic energy. . . . . . .I. Stability coefficients. C.NOTATION (Some of the symbols are also used occasionally in connections other than those stated below. of craft slope curve of wings velocity of sound in air.S. D D D . .R. . Angle of incidence. on C. . lt t . Thickness of boundary layer. .. .C. . . . . . . etc. aspect ratio . B . . displacement thickness. Aerodynamic force . C C2 CL C D lf . of a C . Aerodynamic lift of . . . . .G. of inertia. Axial inflow factor of airscrews . c . Air speed indicator. drag. . . Compressed air tunnel. . Nondimensional coefficients of lift. lt 2 . . . . . Slope of lift curve of tail plane. & M. . Centre of pressure. drag. E E E . B b fi lt . y . .G. Rotational interference factor of airscrews.
A coordinate. density . Length .. N. . . Airscrew blade angle coordinate scale . . . Coefficient of ' N aeroplane . P . . . Mass .S. . Yawing moment.P. . . . suffix nondimensional * moment of derivative . of craft. Lift rolling . . . . . n v . . Circulation. on basis of twice the stagnation pressure. Skin friction (in Chapter II) Froude Number. drag. . . Kinematic coefficient of viscosity a coordinate. F g ~ H 6 . relative viscosity . . . . . . . N. X .L. Mach number.G. . Frequency. NOTATION . . . etc. Pitching moment with . . National Physical Laboratory. moment. roughness. Aerodynamic gap . .MV e e . : . momentum thickness. . . Vorticity. k99 kx . Teddington. . Damping factor . leverage of tail lift about C. . total . Radius of gyration Inertia coefficients. pressure gradient . Mach angle. height or altitude. . . . M m ji . L / . Impulse . The advance of an airscrew per revolution in terms of its diameter. . . . . . h 7] .A coordinate . second moment of area. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. .A. . Horse power the boundary layer ratio 8/0. a coordinate. . ^A ^B *c *L *D etc  Nondimensional . . elevator angle. revolutions per sec. . . . . incidence of autogyro disc. . Vl . . . . Angle of downwash. . . . . . British drag and lift coefficients of autogyro rotor. angle of climb angular temperature on the Centigrade / i . . coefficients of lift. Base of the Napierian logarithms. U. . . 5 . . / . . mean free path of molecule mean lift per unit span. .A. . K k . . Distance along a normal to a surface . Acceleration due to gravity. . . . . . efficiency .C.A. . Pitch of an airscrew pressure. as suffix to D : denoting induced drag .
ratio Angular velocity of yaw lift/drag . . T . skin friction in Chapter . . . . mean loading of wing in at potential function $ i^. . . the complex coordinate 5 + j. . lircraft. . Farnborough. vortex Thickness thrust. . semispan. r . . ft. radius. . stress. ra .NOTATION XV . . . . . . p p . . R. . .A. Absolute temperature . resultant fluid velocity. Royal Aircraft Establishment. Period of time in sec. . + )f stability charts. it ibrce. Density of air relative to sealevel standard Prandtl's . yaw. Radius Reynolds number. Angular velocity of roll pressure or Density of air in slugs per cu. o. Deity . . sectional biplane factor of an airscrew.E. r t . / components in the directions Ox. . . . 'dinates . lt . Angular . . a . Distance along contour or streamline . jcity of a body. 'n>n f t . . . . area of . undisturbed velocity in the direc Oz. particularly of wings. Aerodynamic stagger angle of bank helical path of airscrew element . tail angle of aerofoil section tail volume ratio. Q q . Unit of time in nondimensional stability equations. . . . . . . with suffixes : nondimen derivatives. R R Rt . Overall lift /drag ratio. Routh's discriminant. . IX <f> . . . angle of velocity . Torque. 5 s . . Area. velocity of pitch . . . . . solidity .
. Impulsive pressure. Angular velocity.NOTATION z & o> . . The complex coordinate x . + iy. V2 V4 1 . Angular velocity of an airscrew. 9'/ 9* ( t&  . + . .
varying in thickness from 4 miles at the poles to 9 Above it is the is known as the troposphere. Density is thus defined as the ratio of the M A. Atmospheric air contains watervapour in miles at the equator. such as 50 miles. This lower part of the atmosphere. and nearly 1 per cent. oxygen.D. of mercury) ~ mean diameter 15 X 10 5 mil (onethousandth inch).e. nitrogen. possibly hydrogen. varying proportion. the density at a point of a small would be defined as follows considering the mass volume V of air surrounding the point. and at standard barometric pressure (760 mm. Although the constituent gases are of different densities. at great altitudes. of Density Air is thus not a continuum. But we must suppose that the volume V enclosing the point is contracted only until it is M small compared with the scale of variation of density. while it still remains large compared with the mean distance separating the molecules. From the point of view of kinetic theory. together with traces of neon. a layer where the heavier gases tend to be left at lower stratosphere. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT i. to the number These molecules are moving rectilinearly of 44 x 10 11 per cu. levels until. mil. the mixture is maintained practically constant up to altitudes of about 7 miles in temperate latitudes by circulation due to winds. in all directions with a mean velocity of 1470 ft. 21 per cent. may be regarded statistically as composed of discrete molecules. the length of the mean free path being 00023 mil. argon. Air at sealevel consists by volume of 78 per cent. air at a temperature of C.. helium. l 1 .Chapter I AIR AT REST. the density would be the limiting ratio of M/V as V vanishes. however. by weight. i. Clearly. little but helium or hydrogen remains. per sec. They come continually into collision with one another. sometimes exceeding 1 per cent. 2. V can become very small before the continuous passage of molecules in all directions across its bounding surface can make indefinite the number of molecules enclosed and or M/V uncertain. : If it were. and other gases. onethird faster than sound in air.
2 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 00765/g It will be necessary to consider in many connections lengths. This gives p 000238 slug per cu. It will be desirable occasionally to introduce special sq. the aggregate rate of change of it is normal to the surface a force which is everywhere directed represented by angles towards the surface.' viz.e.' for lb. specification of units will often be omitted from calculations for brevity.. so that a rate molecular to strike. Thus the size and speed of aircraft are more easily visualised when weights are expressed in tons and velocities in miles per hour.. Draw the small tetrahedron ABCO.' and this convention is followed. that fluids at rest cannot withstand a tangential or shearing force. The special units will be duly indicated in such cases. It will now be shown that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is uniform in all directions. Density is . the immersed surface. to omit the word weight/ writing Ib. fill a volume. though finite. and standard pressure 1 cu. momentum can be at right per unit t or static pressure. the mass of a body weighing g Ib. Nondimeasional coefficients are employed wherever ' * ' convenient. however great. and so on. however small. 8 In it is convenient to use the slugft. This cannot have a component parallel to the surface. .wt. of the aggregate mass of the molecules enclosed to the volume itself. important to note that the lack of a tangential component to p depends upon the condition of stationary equilibrium. will be implied. We shall tacitly assume a restriction to be imposed on such contraction as discussed above. The molecular motion causes molecules continually tend to strike. To take a further example. The converse statement. It is usual in Engineering. volume of air i. areas. of It is * In this system. or the condition of rest would be disturbed. The intensity of the force area is the pressure p sometimes called the hydrostatic . = = ' ' 3. when the gas is apparently at rest. ft. serves to distinguish liquids from For gases we must add that a given quantity can expand to solids. ft. Pressure Consider a small rigid surface suspended in a bulk of air at rest. however. For example. when a particular value of the kinematic viscosity is given as a number.* 00765 Ib. per sec. units. per sec. system of Aerodynamics At 15 C. or of change of momentum occurs there. of dry air weighs units. when physical properties are attached to a point we shall have in mind a sphere of very small but sufficient radius centred at the geometrical point. Velocities are consistently measured in ft. whilst forces are in pounds weight. ft. denoted by p. Thus. The appropriate unit of mass is the 'slug. mass of this very small. the units of length and time are the foot and the second. and volumes that ultimately become very small. and has the dimensions M/Z. This system being understood.sec.
i. Oy. The pressure pABC a force pAEC S on the From the to DO. S . which acts parallel forces simipressures on the other faces. to the third order of portional small quantities. cos a . is p/w. and to one side of it a right 2). 5 . area OCA is S cos a. it is resolved parallel to Ox. consider only molecules moving . cos a for equilibrium W + pABC where W . cylinder of unit length. But. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 3 which the faces OAB. It will be of interest to have an expression for p in terms of molecular motions.I] AIR AT REST. i. mutually at right angles Erect on a unit area S of the plane. to the second of the is field of force in . a force component on the tetrahedron arising from some which the bulk of air may be situated such general would be the for example. Denote by S the area of the face ABC. They are moving in all directions with mean velocity c along m N X. and is negligible compared with the other terms which are proportional to areas. since that JV/3 molecules move parallel to each of equivalent to suppose the coordinate axes with velocity c during the short time A* required N to describe the mean free path. order of small quantities. larly arise which are wholly perpendicular Sface gives rise to to the respective faces. OBC. is proBut of the tetrahedron if also OB were vertical. If is that it encloses unit volume of air. the gravitational field. OCA are mutually at right angles (Fig. straight paths of mean length instant the velocities of all the molecules can be At a chosen is very large. we need Molecules moving parallel to Oy. Resolving in the direction BO. FIG. so of molecules enclosed the total number the mass of each molecule. draw Oy. i. Hence : Similarly : 4. With the help of OD 1).e. Oz Considering a rigid plane surface suspended in its plane and Ox perpendicular to it (Fig. Oz. weight to the volume of the tetrahedron. W W equation. drawn perpendicular easily verified to this face.pocA . when might be.e. in air. Oz cannot impinge on S . it is from the figure that the . = 0.
as otherwise motion would ensue. is thus given by : 6. will Their number is evidently >JV/6. and so will have its velocity exactly reversed. 3. 2 is suffiaccurate for most purposes. The interval of time corresponding to the free path A* is given by = \/c. from the equator to the poles and decreasing by 05 per cent. Consider an elementcylinder of the fluid with axis vertical. L/T*. towards 5. units. increasing by 05 per cent. in the specific direction Ox (Fig. g has the dimensions of an acceleration. The on its curved surface clearly produces pressure Sh K ^fc^'^ pA Fia. at the beginning of A/. 0) of the molecular kinetic The Hydrostatic Equation now approach the problem of the equilibrium of a bulk of air at rest under the external force of gravity. perfectly Thus the aggregate change of momentum at S in time A2 is 2mc AIV/6. this interval all those mole moving the direction Ox which are distant. . altitude. of length SA and crosssectional area A (Fig.e. Each is assumed elastic. The pressure p. 2). We The value 322 ft. no farther than X from S. momentum.AERODYNAMICS parallel [CH. ciently Since no horizontal component of external force acts anywhere on the bulk of air. the pressure in every horizontal plane is constant. in During cules FIG. to onehalf Ox. from sealevel to 10 miles At sealevel and 45 latitude its value is 32173 in ft. Its value depends slightly on latitude and altitude./sec. 2. so that it increases upward. Let h represent altitude. strike S. and of these only must be taken as moving i. A* = *?* Thus the pressure amounts to twothirds energy per unit volume. 3).sec. representing the rate of change of . 5.
but the particular ftp = pg \dh + const. But above L and the open mouth is filled of T the closed vessel surrounding this tube pressure in A above that in B Excess of air tends to transfer water from A to B with castor oil. by the suffixes or for the change between two levels distinguished 1 and 2 : ~hi)This equation is (3) exact for liquids. Bulk of Air Incompressibility Assumption in a Static Full use of (2) between p and portant. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 6 no resultant force or couple.I] AIR AT REST. Therefore. if A. per sq. > h lt p* C. If p is the pressure acting upward on the lower end of the cylinder. and explains the specification of a pressure difference by the head of a liquid of known density which In the mercury barometer. p t is found from (3) to be 21156 Ib. and up to the levels L contains water. and p l is the atmospheric pressure which example. the density of mercury 760 mm. Chattock gauge (Fig. = = this temperature. 4). cohimn of mercury. At supports the otherwise unbalanced When relative to that of water is 13596. for the pressure difference will support. . 7. ft. A8h. at A! A. the pressure acting downward on its upper end will be p + J~8h. The rigid glasswork AB forms a is the Utube. which also fills the central tube T. We then have requires a knowledge of the relationship existing case where p is constant is imp. ah The gravity on the cylinder pg . These pressures give a resultant force acting downward is force : A~8h.. for equilibrium Thus the pressure decreases with increase of altitude at a rate equal to the local weight of the fluid per unit volume. 6. Measurement of Small Pressure Differences Accurate measurement of small differences of air pressure is often A convenient instrument required in experimental aerodynamics.
The decrease of density 6 or 7 pet cent. These gauges are usually constructed for a maximum pressure head of about 1 in. the wateroil meniscus being observed M for accuracy through a microscope attached to F. about its pivots P by means of the micrometer screw S. Jnstr. Sci. . xiii.6 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 1936. protecting the liquids against appreciable temperature changes and plotting the zero * against time to allow for those that remain. By employing wide and accurately made bulbs together. The wheel fixed to S A W B is graduated. At 15 C. of water is easily FIG. 83. constantly removing slight wear. and a pressure difference of O0005 in. however. CHATTOCK GAUGE. Longer forms extend this range. although no fluid passes. by bubbling through the castor oil.. the sensitivity may be increased five or ten times. 1 cu. Saturation with air decreases this weight by about 0'05 Ib. of water. Thus the excess air pressure in is compensated by raising the water level in above that in A. is 015 per cent. of water weighs 6237 Ib. 4. since the meniscus then remains clean for a longer period. set close detected. also of an airship usually sufficiently small for variation of density to be Cope and Houghton. But this is prevented by tilting the heavy frame F. but other types are used for considerably greater heads. A is commonly used instead of pure water in Chattock gauges. Jour. Buoyancy of Gasfilled Envelope The maximum change of height within a balloon or a gasbag is * Cf. p. carrying the Utube. 8. ft. saline solution from 10 to 20 C.
. The i Since Sa cos oc 8 =A == St cos a l the resultant is upward force on the cylinder due to the pressures Substituting from (3).I] AIR AT REST. and^> lf p 9 act inwardly due to the atmosphere. p' 2t act outwardly due to the gas. section enclosing small areas S lt S a the normals to which (they are not necessarily in the same plane) make angles oc lf a 8 with the vertical. 5). FIG. but in any case its upward value is (Pi P() S I cos . THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 7 Draw a vertical cylinder of small crosssectional area A completely through the envelope E (Fig. if AL denotes the element of lift AL = ~ . which is filled with a light gas of density p'. On these areas pressures />'.. 6. There arises at h 2 an upward force on the cylinder equal to . Let the cylinder cut the envelope at a lower altitudelevel h t and at an upper one A a the curves of interneglected. depending on the position of S l and whether an airship or a balloon is considered.. similar force arising at h^ may be upward or downward. and is at rest relative to the surrounding atmosphere of density p. (pi ^ a)S 2 cos a.
called the centre of buoyancy. filling only at altitude being limp at sealevel. Balloons and Airships 1 In balloons and airships the gas is contained within envelopes of cotton fabric lined with goldbeaters skins or rubber impregnated. But hydrogen is inflammable when mixed with air and is replaced where = 0138 in the pure state. contaminates the enclosed gas. Thus the envelope of a balloon weighing 1 ton would.. I The whole volume of such cylinders. of course.. the lightest gas known. larger. for which a' 9. less the weight of the envelope. so enclosed gas that a resultant couple arises only from a displacement of the centre V It will be noted that the buoyancy from the vertical through the centre of gravity of the attached load plus gas. 6. Diffusion occurs through these comparatively impervious materials. so that densities greater than those given in the preceding assumed. Referring to Fig. in the taut state at sealevel. Practical article must lift be per values feet for thousand cubic are 68 Ib.. at low altitude.hJA (4) the volume of gas enclosed.. for hydrogen and 62 Ib. p')gF' .8 AERODYNAMICS and of the envelope may its total lift is : [CH. for helium actually it would be . a' = 00695. be built up of a large number L where = = (p (P  p'fcZfA. is the total load supported by the gas and a' the density of If the gas relative to that of the surrounding air. The above result expresses. must be weight attached. have a diameter of 398 ft. the Principle of Archimedes. made and FlG . and. 6 . For free equilibrium a of this amount. OA represents . possible by helium. For stability the latter centre of gravity must be below the centre of buoyancy. . (4) gives of W W= 9gV'(lv') (5) For pure hydrogen. together with leakage. for helium. is lift acts at the centre of gravity of the or of the air displaced. for hydrogen and 411 ft.
1* .r>.A.
or dirigible balloon (Fig. divide the great length of the hull into cells. and are shaped to streamline form for economy of power. on the other hand. The upward resultant force and part of the force of expansion are supported by the net N. which may be limp. The modern structural rigid airship (c) owes framework covered with its fabric. Three classes may be distinguished. the section of which is not as a rule circular. fuel. corresponding variation of pressure through the bulk of helium OH filling the envelope. each of which accommodates a gasbag. which tends to blow in at speed.10 AERODYNAMICS [CH. A gondola. The small nonrigid airship. (Only a few of the wires are shown in the sketch. . TABLE I The largest single gasbag in the above has a lift of 25 tons. Some particulars of recent airships are given in Table I. and are secured to the structure by nets. and other loads. especially at the nose. is suspended on cables carrying from handshaped strengthening patches on the envelope. Balloons drift with the wind and cannot be steered horizontally. Several internal staying systems spread the load carried by the girder over the envelope. external form entirely to a Numerous transverse frames. l(a)} has a whose shape is conserved by excess gas pressure maintained by internal ballonets which can be inflated by an air scoop exposed behind the airscrew. the variation of atmospheric pressure from the level of the top of the the open filling sleeve S to that of the crest of the balloon. can maintain relative horizontal velocities by means of engines and airscrews. or gondolas. from which is suspended the basket or gondola B. the power unit. Airships. carrying ballast and the useful load. enabling excess gas pressure to be minimised. Some stiffening is necessary. Single gasbags greatly exceed balloons in size.) In the semirigid type (b) some form of keel is interposed between faired envelope the envelope and gondola. binding together a skeleton of longitudinals or 'stringers. The difference between these external arid internal pressures acts radially outward on the fabric as shown to the right.
Let 8A be the area of a narrow horizontal from a horizontal axis in its plane through B. The centres of with which we are concerned relate to the pressure differpressure Th an from the atmosphere. The high centres of the total gas pressures exerted on walls which restrain a gasbag. 6. and positions of the centres of pressure are ence. = where ing px is the difference in the densities of the gas and the surround air. taken as equal to that of the atmosphere. re Q . BCDE (Fig. Lower Bulkhead BC. and its pressure at B. The longitudinal thrusts P. assumed plane. strip of BC distant Then h = y cos a. 8) is a (full) gasbag of an airship which is pitched at angle a from a level keel. as illustrated in Fig. often called the gas pressure. so that pressure is constant over horizontal planes. y and the total thrust on BC is given by : P= re JB p dA = pig cos a y dA JB = P!# cos a Ay . is * ' gas pressure A'. Gas pressures are envelope separating gas small at the bottom of an envelope and reach a maximum at the top.I] AIR AT REST. as in the case of the wire bulkheads or transverse frames of a rigid airship. Let p be the excess Then from (3) p pressure at height h above the level of B. pigA. P' from the are supported by bulkheads EC and DE of areas A. unevenly spread over part of usually high. lead to moments internal to the structure. The gas is assumed to be at rest. . B and E being lowest and C and D highest points. (i) . THE ATMOSPHERE Centre of Pressure AND STATIC LIFT 11 10. the bottom of the bag. point on a surface exposed to pressure through which the resultant force acts is called the centre of pressure.
and take moments about this axis. BC from the axis the B + Ay from P(y Q + Ay) = JB py dA = ^g cos a y* dA JB = ? cos a 7B . (ii) where 7 B is is the second moment of this moment about f /B =/ the area about the Baxis. In practice. ro / sin &)dA P' Plg (y cos a P'(yi + A/) + pig^'^o cos a + sin a). radius r for example. If 7 a parallel axis through the centroid. / ever. . we have when a correction : P where / = = 9iS(y cos a + / sin a). The BF at which any super pressure would vanish. The result is f independent of pitch. (ii) : Ay <?. . how is often introduced. Measuring now y in the plane of ED from Upper a parallel horizontal axis through E. TD = pig (y* cos a + yl sin <x. Let the centre of pressure of P be distant y axis.i X + / _  ' tan a X" __^? ""yj + /tana M i. Hence (6) is additional term in the denominator is EF. JE / oi This gives A^ ' ~ __ . so that pB is not zero. : must be made.12 AERODYNAMICS [CH. as will be clear from the following Bulkhead DE. Substituting in __ AV" Pl g cos a (J + Ayl)  p _ y* Hence from (i) : where & is the radius of gyration.)dA J E = Ptf[(Ji + AW*) cos + A'yil sin a]. an excess pressure = nr*/4: and For a circular bulkhead of Ay = r/4. is the distance apart of the bulkheads. since it is always possible to draw a horizontal line generalised by (7). where y is the distance of the centroid of through B.
the temperature on the centigrade scale. however. Isothermal We now gravity. Density. is the ixumber of molecules in V. for constant temperature the pressure of a gas is proportional to its density . It follows that B vary from one gas to another in inverse proportion to the density under standard conditions of pressure and temperature. The absolute temperature is denoted by T and. per lb. per C. The units of B are thus ft. if V is the volume of B is a constant which 1 lb. be the same for all gases at constant p and T. Atmosphere examine the static equilibrium its taking into account a bulk of gas under compressibility. for a given Combining these laws. if p is kept constant. for constant volume the pressure of a gas is proportional to its absolute By temperature. and Temperature of a Gas the experimental laws of Boyle and Charles. by Avogadro's law. of B is at once determined from a table of molecular weights. If will. is P/9=gBi: made characteristic (9) of a particular gas by treating pressure will and of the gas . It will be noticed that. B measures the work done by the volume of gas in expanding in consequence of being heated through unit temperature change. Some useful data are given in Table II. pV^Bt where V is the volume. TABLE II 12. Equation (2) of . we have.. or.AIR AT REST. N N = or ft. Relation 13 between Pressure. Hence. gas: mass of a particular (8) 1 lb. it is then evaluated from measurements of volume at a known temperature. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT ii. B' is an absolute constant having the same value for all Equation (9) is more convenient. and the variation gases. is given by T if 6 is = + 273. per degree centigrade.lb. writing pV/N B'T.
The constitution of the air at its lowest levels is as given in Article 1. As altitude increases. be small. The result (10) states that the pressure and therefore the density of a bulk of gas which is everywhere at the same temperature vary exponentially with altitude. . AERODYNAMICS [CH. unlike its pressure. viz. 9g From Hence (9) : 1 _ J5r P ' 9g : . nitrogen. and neon will become rarer at higher levels. From (2) and . tively.14 applies. applies with negligible error to a mass of air under isothermal conditions. The Troposphere The atmosphere beneath the stratified region is perpetually in process of being mechanically mixed by wind and storm. the constitution is to subject a mixture of gases in isothermal equilibrium may be regarded as the aggregate of a number of atmospheres. the uniform temperature being about 55 C. however. : *. has insufficient time for adjustment to the conditions obtaining at the . constant temperature T O so that />/p remains constant. At : Dalton's law greater altitudes 13. Hence argon and other heavy gases and subsequently oxygen. (10) The logarithm in this expression is to base e. unless it is stated otherwise. The value of B for the atmosphere will consequently increase with altitude. miles into the stratosphere will. the law of density variation in each atmosphere being the same as if it constituted the whole. although we have assumed it constant in order to obtain The variation of B for several (10). t and p 2 respec.dh.h. When a bulk of air is displaced vertically. although accurately true only for a single gas. p =p . BiQ = . p. still the temperature increases again.*. The stratosphere is in conductive equilibrium. BT O log (pjpj = h. . one for each constituent gas. The result. provided great altitude changes are excluded. but specification is needed of the relationship between p The simple assumption made in the present article is that appropriate to Boyle's law.. P Integrating between levels A x and h 2 where . its temperature. Throughout this book Napierian logarithms will be intended.
It will be found in consequence that the pressure and density at different levels obey the law k P/9* (11) where k and n are constants. The properties of this part of the atmosphere. approached. to which most regular flying so far has been restricted.. p =p when h = gives for the constant of integration nk" Therefore i : Ml nl n I To evaluate k let p . THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 15 new level before it is moved away again.I] AIR AT REST. (13) v ' .. There exists a temperature gradient with respect to altitude. while and absolute temperature By (9) : (11): by : Hence 1 PS \ P. This relationship we begin by = . _j__ assuming... depending upon the humidity. are subject to considerable variations with time and excepting that B varies only slightly. /rrT?^ or Substituting in (12) p ( n n l h tQ \i .. Substituting for or p from (11) in (2) leads to i  nk ~ =* m w Putting 1 p n = i __ gh const. atA=0. T O be the density . and on the average this is linear... \*A l and . until the merge into the is stratosphere place.
number of atmosphere A countries have agreed upon the adoption of an international standard. viz.000000688A)*' M B *"  ' I 18 ) f a85 Some numerical results are given in Table III.e. : From From From (16) (13) (14) n p/p. 960. approached. definition). the law changes. The International Standard Atmosphere It is necessary to correct observations of the performance of aircraft for casual atmospheric variation. The temperature gradient (11): found as follows. . == 1235 pfp 9 Similarly T ( /288) 4 P / PO == (T/288) = = (1 . and for this purpose the device of a standard is introduced. the gradient steep. representing average conditions in Western Europe. . This is defined by the temperaturealtitude relationship : 6 15 000198 116& (17) A being in feet above sealevel number of significant figures (the given is due to h being expressed in the metric system in the original The dry air value of B. As the stratosphere becoming less and less 14. the temperature variation is is linear. = .16 AERODYNAMICS is [CH. is also assumed. This definition leads to the following approximations . This shows that while n remains constant : dt dQ n 1 i. From (9) and nl =(!)" Substituting in (13) 1 A or 6 denoting temperature in C.
20. (10) and Table III the on the basis of the standard atmosphere. From altitudes indicated are then excessive.000 ft. and pressure respectively. Use suffix for sealevel and write 5 for the temT O == sh. we have from . . and 10. (10) A# = AA. of temperature with increase of altitude is 10 per cent. if s perature lapse rate. corresponding to a from p l to p 2 while AA is indicated by the altimeter p is whose calibration temperature TO . to gauge altitude.I] AIR AT REST. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 17 TABLE III 15. the uniform temperature requiring to be assumed is usually taken as 10 16. . increasing pressure differences are applied to it. by about 57. with the help of a thermometer. at altitudes of Correction for decrease mated mean temperatures if made by assigning estito successive intervals of altitude.^ . temperature. (19) Readings of altimeters with a standard atmosphere scale require correction for casual variation of temperature. so that T temperature remains constant t 1 (i) . TH and p denote the true altitude. . To graduate the instrument. Let H. and the dial is marked in intervals of h according either to the isothermal or to the standard atmosphere laws. respectively.Application to Altimeters A light adaptation of the aneroid barometer is used on aircraft.000. . C. In the former case.000 and 30. decrease of TM applies to the true increase of altitude A#. Thus. and h the altimeter reading corresponding to p and the graduation T. Then from (14).
therefore. approximately. Although the buoyancy depends on differences between atmospheric and gas pressures. The maximum variation from the mean of the air density then follows from the formulae (18). where it is greatest. (i). and. B' are constants. Similarly. these are negligible compared with variations caused in both by considerable changes in altitude. it amounts to 015 per cent. expand to fill an increased volume without loss. always distinguishing the gas by accented 1 symbols __ ~ __V ~~ a' p ~B^ So (21) at all pressures. and it is respect of . L remains constant in change of altitude. . (21) We also have from : (9). structed. 100 examined. so that the gas can. TO Sfl (20) v by 1 6. . L = W'(\Y p ' . becomes (22) seen that since B. . Gasbag Lift in General The assumption expression (4) for the of constant density made in Article 8 to obtain lift L of a gasfilled envelope may now be Although a balloon of twice the size has been conft. Gasbags should be only partly filled at sealevel. Equation (3) shows that the corresponding variations in the gas will be smaller still. Hence To giving .18 AERODYNAMICS : [CH. may be taken as a usual height of large gasenvelopes. on ascent. provided that no gas is lost and that no temperature difference arises between the gas and the surrounding The last requirement involves very slow ascent or descent to air. To study (4) is the condition of a constant weight conveniently written : W' of gas enclosed. altitudes. At sealevel. . the maximum variation of the air pressure from the mean is found to be less than 0*2 per cent.
vertical control by aerodynamic means is also possible. the practical feasibility of craft requires further investigation. when the temperature difference vanishes ballast must be released for static equilibrium to occur at any altitude. Gas having been lost. or. or discharge of ballast. 17. as in the case of airships. restrictatmosphere. Gasbags are too weak to support a considerable pressure. from / (11) the condition it is is that n _Ljmust vary inversely as p*. since their level lighterthanair of riding is not obviously fixed. otherwise a variation of external pressure. THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT 19 allow sufficient transference of heat through the envelope. as is the case with ships only partly immersed The first question is whether. leading to a loss of gas. creates vertical acceleration which leads to vertical velocity relative to the surrounding air. we find from (4) that the gas lift ceiling. Thus the volume held in reserve at sealevel decides the maximum altitude permissible without loss of gas. A difference between gaslift and total . for instance. : . The condition then is that V' remains constant. equilibrium again being attained by the supervention of an aerodynamic force due to the relative motion. In this simple to calculate the excess gas temperature required for static equilibrium at a given altitude in excess of the static ceiling. different from that investigated.l] AIR AT REST. . in water. Variation of weight carried or of gas provides control of altitude. weight. brought about by release of gas. in a stationary a balloon would hunt upwards and downwards. This is called the static A lighterthanair craft can be forced to still greater altitudes by the following means aerodynamic lift heating of the gas by the sun entering a cold atmospheric region or by discharging ballast. ing time in the air through rate of loss of gas due to the need for con . Vertical Stability The foregoing conditions depend upon the absence of a propulsive or dragging force the envelope must move with the wind. will remain constant only if p p' remain constant constant. may contribute to lift. . but even if. by (9) if P \ \ 5 >T W' DT/ way )' i. or the envelope must be held at a new altitude as is possible by aerodynamic means with airships until such transference has taken place. and safety valves operate when they become full. Excluding the case of variation of weight.e if PI \ 1 JD HT7 remain T ) Hence.
the stability in face of downward disturbance is the same. since by accented symbols. AERODYNAMICS [ClL liable to continual whether the atmosphere is These would have the same effect on the duration of flight of a balloon. provided displacement is sufficiently rapid for passage of heat through the envelope to be It is said to be stable in respect of vertical disturbance. = = = . Consider the rapid ascent of an envelope without loss of gas from altitude h lf where the atmospheric pressure p p t and the absolute T When the atmosphere is t TJ. a rapid descent of a gasbag results in temporary excessive buoyancy. 3 = (P*\ (p'J Now assume that initially r( TJ. Thus a lighterthanair craft riding below its static ceiling tends to . = pl = p( and return to its original altitude if displaced./x 0288 T. The 1 8. for the .20 tinual control. and we find that if. Atmospheric Stability and Potential Temperature The foregoing reasoning may be applied to the rapid vertical displacement of a bulk of the atmosphere. the load attached to = Hence. The gas then expands according to the adiabatic law : P r Distinguishing properties 1405: = const. since no further gas is lost. by it being constant. Conversely. we have. Since p* < p lf we then have that ri < T 2 P*pz Article 16 the gasbag will sink. since the weight of gas enclosed decreases. But for upward displacement the stability is greater. to h 2f where p temperature p in standard condition we have is A second question up and down currents. small. / Y= r. but the second question has a wider significance. Very closely. if sufficiently violent. since such currents. state of the atmosphere is part and parcel of the question. for a necessary proviso is seen to be that n < y. would make flight by heavierthanair craft also impossible. If the craft is above its static ceiling. : T* TX = #A W /A\*~T = (*!\ \pj /* \ t1903 ' For the gas within the envelope the thermal conductivity is so small that heat transference can be neglected.
The changes are usually too rapid for mately to the small appreciable heat to be lost or gained. vertical winds occur and make aeronautics dangerous. up and down . viz. the compression taking place without loss or gain of heat. The a volume V to V $p will change pressure from ptop E + strain is 8V I V and E is given by '*/(?) Since dV = E P tfp . = . The interest of E in Aerodynamics is chiefly in respect of changes of In the case of liquids the compressibility is very small.. a condi tion that may ' arise from temporary causes. and (23) thermal conditions under which the compression is supposed to take place. p &p so that from (23) pressure. In these typical circumstances the v adiabatic law is again assumed. The condition for atmospheric stability is discussed alternatively The potential temperature at in terms of potential temperature/ a given altitude is defined as the temperature which a given bulk of air at that altitude would attain if displaced to a standard altitude. having regard thermal conductivity of air. perature the stratosphere is more stable than the troposphere.. currents are 1405. the atmosphere When n > y.l] AIR AT REST. occurring in air moving at approxiconstant altitude. the stability is neutral local or then said to be in convective equilibrium. E= .. the same for is increases upward. 19. W. if not impossible. Bulk Elasticity Fluids at rest possess elasticity in respect of change of volume. The modulus of elasticity is defined as the ratio of the stress causAn increase of ing a volumetric strain to the strain produced. We see that for n = y the all altitudes.. If n = than 1405. THE ATMOSPHERE less AND STATIC IIFT 21 atmosphere. but with gases we must specify the t sufficiently defines (23) and therefore of density. n has a value damped is out. such as sealevel. An potential temperature would be For n < y the potential temperature atmosphere is stable when the potential tem It will be noticed that greater the greater the altitude.
but yet at a considerably greater rate than the (28) body velocities common in aeronautics. A disturbing force or pressure suddenly applied to a part of a solid is transmitted through it almost instantaneously. a VjgBi: (26) The its velocity of sound is seen to depend on the nature of the gas and temperature only. For 15 C. that a moving airship disturbs the air far in front of it fast bullet.22 20.. I (24) has been derived is ideally realised in the longitudinal contractions and expansions produced in elements of the air by the passage of waves of sound.. g 960. : air.. from (24) a or. on the other hand. = = Vy^/p . .. always employ the symbol a for the velocity of sound in air.. Disturbance of the stationary equilibrium of a bulk of air follows from swift but not instantaneous propagation through it of pressure changes.. . From the preceding article we infer that through air such a disturbance is propagated more slowly. .. the flight speeds of low altitude are at least doubled to compensate for the reduced density of the . a = 1118 . Velocity of AERODYNAMICS Sound [CH. overtakes its propagation of disturbance and fails to do so. ft. . It may be noted. This change assumes great significance in connection with stratospheric flying. a 659v/r (27) We shall = = = nearly. per sec. per sec. Thus for gases.. T = 288. = (25) substituting from (9). for two reasons a decreases to between 970 and 975 ft. With y 32173 and B 1405. for a example. Newton demon The condition under which strated the following law for the velocity a of such waves in a homo geneous fluid : a = V(/p).
although this is not sufficient in itself to distinguish tude and direction. although the name laminar is nowadays frequently used in used without qualification. Such motions are properly ' called a wider sense. i. Uniform Flow. but some preliminary 21. however. 23 . but the velocity picture along a streamline varies from one position to another. of the flow which does not vary with time. ' kind of flow that is usually intended by the term steady motion ' laminar. Thus the elements of fluid have accelerations. the velocity at any chosen position in the field of flow does not vary in magnitude or direction with time.Chapter II AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE and Types of Flow It is familiar that motions of air vary considerably in character.e. Laminar Parallel Flow. A It follows that the streamlines are all parallel straight lines. for the velocity of any chosen element of fluid does not vary with time as it (It is specifically in this respect that wider proceeds along its path. The streamlines are riot It is this more general parallel and in general are not straight. They are more than this. streamline. although uniform in direction. In which the velocity of the element. We may have a steady motion which is The streamlines then form a neither uniform nor strictly laminar. Means of discriminating with effect between one kind of flow and another will appear as the subject develops. Streamlines classification is desirable. use is commonly made of the name laminar. The simplest form of flow is uniform motion.) General Steady Flow. There are other motions whose stream lines are parallel straight lines. strictly laminar motions being characterised as parallel/ Both uniform and laminar motions are steady. depends upon distance from some fixed parallel axis or plane. Discussion is facilitated by the conception of the streamline is a line drawn in the moving fluid such that the flow across it is everywhere zero at the instant considered. By this we mean that the velocity of all elements is the same in magniStreamlines. uniform motion.
will be streamlines drawn in all planes parallel to a selected #yplane It is then sufficient to study the motion in the ^yplane. the motion In addition to periodic we may have These may occur on such a scale that irregular fluctuations. Unsteady motions are common in Aerodynamics. of any kind prevails. say v t . Streamtube. the same. Steady motions are often called streamline/ All steady motions have one feature in common the streamlines coincide with the paths of elements. ' Unsteadiness and Pathlines. no fluid can enter or leave the tube through the walls except in respect of molecular agitation. say Ox and Oy. of which we shall that of twodimensional flow. Turbulence. Let the velocity components of any element in the direcTwo of the directions of these axes be u.24 AERODYNAMICS [Cfl. A conception of occasional use in discussing steady This may be defined as an imaginary tube flow is the streamtube. But in transient streamlines might conceivably be determined. other cases the fluctuations are much more finely grained. Twodimensional Flow. with both space and time. v and w respectively. whose walls are formed of streamlines. Oy. of unsteadiness is. the motion is of general twodimensional form. tions. called path: lines. and also if neither u nor v then The vanishes. make very Oz drawn mutually at right angles in the fluid. eddying. Clearly. and in these the The velocity varies pathlines and streamlines are not the same. Consider tacitly assuming that we are dealing with a slice of the fluid in motion of unit thickness perpendicular to this plane. are open to selection. conveying the impression of a chaotic intermingling of very small masses of the This last type fluid accompanied by modifications of momentum. though . the third then following. Oy in such a way that w = for all elements at all times. drawn in the fluid. t 9 frequent use. If besides w = we have another velocity component. but each streamline changes in shape before an element has time to move more than a short distance along it. If the motion is such that we can select Ox. of small but not necessarily constant section. It has come to be the form usually intended by the name turbulence. When unsteadiness is often called turbulent. Another conception. is fixed coordinate axes Ox. unfortunately. At a chosen instant streamlines may be drawn. at once the most difficult to understand and the most important in practical Aerodynamics. An unsteady motion may be such that an instantaneous picture of streamlines it is then said to be periodic or recurs at equal intervals of time use of the latter term is less restricted.
Considering the impinging whole latticework. and very thin material plate to be immersed and held stationary in the midst of a bulk of air in motion let its plane be parallel to the oncoming air. Absence of Slip at a Boundary of Article 3 holds equally for a fluid in uniform the rigid surface exposed in the fluid moves exactly with The pressure in uniform motion is thus constant and equal in all it. we may say that the air is condensed on it.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 25 everywhere vanishing. or parallel. contact whilst fluid that passes close by has its velocity substantially mental reduced. ible. must Regarding the action of the plate on the stream of air. Experiment clearly shows that the fluid coming into with the tangential surfaces of the plate is brought to rest. ' . the motion is twodimensional the flow is of the kind that occurs in certain circumstances along it is sufficient to consider unit straight pipes of uniform section. molecules free energy attains to the latent heat of evaporation the and return to the bulk of the gas thereby only giving themselves Thus the film of condensed gas molecules place. be completely at variance with experifact. the directions. As such it exposes a close distribution of centres of adhesive force. however. to others. each surface being a latticework of atoms of the substance of which the plate is made. where u in the latter. considered for simplicity to be in uniform motion. since the molecules no longer possess a free path. be expected theorem fails. and we may have u depending either upon distance from the plane xOz or upon distance from the axis Ox. however. rigid. is in circulation with the external free gas. Unless the whole motion is uniform. however. the motion is strictly laminar. partly from the body of the plate and and where the partly from bombardment by free gas molecules. on account of its extreme thinness. The force of adhesion is very intense at distances from the surface of gas comparable with the size of a molecule. The disturbance caused by the plate to be negligmight. we . and a molecule on the surface is held there for a time. In the former case. This would. 22. when of the pipe because the distribution of flow will be the same length . To explain this phenomenon in molecular terms we may suppose the plate to be initially chemically clean. But the layer of condensed gas receives energy. is a function of y only. The theorem if motion and considerable investigation is necessary to establish what we then mean by pressure/ precisely Imagine a small. through all crosssections.
t Consider an imaginary plane. requiring to be accelerated by the other Thus molecules.26 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the its initial The velocity of the air immediately velocity at the wall is zero. . uniformity has been destroyed by introducing the plate which has a relative velocity. the rate of change of molecular momentum at the plate is no longer normal to its surface. Let this flow be in the direction Q% and draw Oy so that u. No matter how fast a fluid. ' ' in this affected region away from the plate cannot be equal in all It will be noted that the mass flow is no longer uniform . two effects to result from molecular constitution (a) impinging air molecules are brought to rest relative to the bulk or mass motion just as they are. for example. 9). The phenomenon of absence of slip at the surface of separation of a material body from a surrounding fluid occurs quite generally and is of fundamental importance in Aerodynamics. It is known as the condition for a real fluid. Nature of Viscosity in other than uniform motion. to the skin of an aeroplane at any instant is equal to that of adjacent the aeroplane itself. directions. VISCOSITY 23. the pressure on the plate is oblique. is a function If air is moving property is % of y only. therefore. retard the general flow to an appreciable depth. Further. Its nature will be discussed with reference to laminar (or parallel) twodimensional flow. (b) air molecules released from the plate are de prived of mass motion. the retardation occurring at some distance into the fluid shows that the pressure . in regard to the : molecular motion . the mass velocity. suppose. Density remains uniformly distributed. boundary gaseous or liquid. molecules are continually darting across it in all directions. but owing to molecular motion. for a time. and. but has a tangential component in other words. say y =y' perpendicular to Oy This plane is formed of streamlines. The pressure at a point fluid * ' Thus a uniform in the sidered. unevenly moving fluid will depend upon the direction conThe matter is further investigated in the following articles. a further physical brought into play in consequence of the molecular structure of the fluid. is forced to rush through a pipe. motion cannot persist in the presence of a material boundary which is not moving with the same velocity (although the motion may remain steady). and this condition entails that the same number of molecules crosses a chosen area of (Fig.
per t momentum from bring with them. If p is the density of the air and m the mass of each molecule. Denote by 5 the unit area of the plane which the cylinder encloses. Hence molecules crossing in one direction carry away. mean X. number of molecules within the cylindrical space the is p/w and is constant. unit area of the plane and in unit time. Oy. say. but. We are concerned only with molecules which cross S. subject to the consideration that the u of any particular molecule cannot be modified while it is in process of describing a free path. this procedure may be replaced statistically by imagining that p/6w molecules move at a velocity c in each of the at any instant two which are parallel to each of the three coordinate This equivalent motion must be supposed to extend through the interval of time At which is required for a displacement of the At the end of this molecules through a distance X. These molecules are moving all in directions with a mean molecular velocity c along straight paths of length FIG. equidistant from the imaginary plane y =y f . which it tends to destroy in course of time. a superposed mass velocity u which by supposition is different on one side of the plane from on the other. interval collision occurs generally. 9. Thus A/ X/c. 9) of unit length and unit crosssection. The molecular velocities of all the p/w molecules can be resolved parallel to Ox.n] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 27 the plane in unit time from either side. the number being very large. Qualitative Theory of Viscosity Consider an imaginary right cylinder (Fig. = . it exists only in the presence of a velocity gradient. in addition to their molecular velocity. Hence momentum direction of flow. Clearly. for changes can come only from collisions. They have in addition a superposed mass velocity u whose magnitude depends upon their values of y at the instant considered. Oz. and so ignore directions axes. a different quantity of mass that which those crossing in the opposite direction is being transported across the This phenomenon is called the viscous effect. as in Article 4. whose ends are parallel to and. The molecules possess.
we have. Xp/6w molecules cross in each direction during this time. Thus. But in addition must. For clarity we = speak of y increasing as upward and assume u to increase upward. by Ay end of A. since A = X/c. Oz. t moving parallel to Ox. .28 all AERODYNAMICS [CH. irging forward. find that the fluid we below . aggregate loss is : du . It loses on acshall 9 ' ' count of the downwardmoving molecule momentum whilst it =mlu + it / du ^ receives this by the upwardmoving molecule momentum = mu. add momentum to the incoming molecule du Thus the total change in the momentum of to the amount wX Ay the fluid above y' in respect of a single molecule exchanged with one du from below is a loss amounting to 2wX T. the dy collision at the . i We note the passage downward F acts at / gains momentum at the of momentum and on the that traction it S in the opposite direction fluid below. it may be represented by a force in the fluid at^ =y' acting tangentially on If the intensity of this traction is F. Of molecules moving parallel to Oy only those within a distance X of y y' can cross during Atf. Summing for all pairs. S being unity and there being no displacement of mass. There is also no loss of generality in supposing that all molecules penetrating S from above or below y start at distance X from that plane. dy The rate of this loss is : 1 pX 3 2 du dy AV or. a loss on account of wX du . Consider a single exchange by the fluid above y'. The direction of Similarly. F is such as to oppose the motion of the fluid above. since the fluid above. the rate is du The rate of change of mass momentum being parallel to Ox.ame rate. the velocity at y =y' being u.
ay u + .~. Maxwell's Definition of Viscosity The following example is A number of layers of air. ^_ _ . . the motion in the layer becomes steady. UO and in the direction of ward. 10. = 24. 10) in the fixed plate (taken to be the lower one) y u=U u tr FIG. and retards the stratum . and is denoted by JA. Its dimensions are (Af/Z 8 ) (LIT) L M/LT. that on the upper face is jx ( ~ dy\ . and the = between is urged forward from above. and we shall investigate one except layer fc only. du that on the upper face is u + The intensity of traction F on ^~8y. and Oy vertically upArticle 22 air touching the fixed plate has a velocity By 0. Now it is assumed that. are separated from one t another by a series of infinite horizontal plates.8y Y and tends to accelerate the dy / stratum. If the velocity at the lower face distant y from Ox is u. u = motion of the other. But as the motion is steady. The resultant traction on the stratum in the direction Ox d ( du j du\ = d*u ^ 1S r + pi jj 8y. but the ensuing motion is retarded from below. after sufficient time has elapsed. . for a question of sign. each of thickness h instructive from several points of view. Alternate plates are fixed. ay fluid the lower face is equal in magnitude to u. while the others are given a common velocity U in their own The resulting conditions in all layers will be the same planes. Draw Ox (Fig.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 29 The coefficient by which du/dy is to be multiplied in order to determine F is called the coefficient of viscosity. while for air touching the moving plate u U. In these circumstances consider a stratum of air of thickness 8y between the plates and parallel to them.
the intensity of traction. viz. (z. Similarly. viz. is. as before. F the lower plate by the fluid above is given by is transmitted to the lower plate and a force of equal must be applied in the opposite direction to prevent it intensity from being dragged in the Ox direction.y . Let be. u where = Ay + B A and B w equation for u y = o. there cannot be a resultant force on the stratum. when the special values which are known. Integrating twice. Maxwell's definition of the coefficient of viscosity as the tangential = = .. We find : 5 =0 A = Inserting these values in the original equation for u. B. sufficient to Now insert in this are constants of integration.. ...30 AERODYNAMICS Hence : [CH. as in fact. u = Two equations result. uniform throughout the fluid. = U when y = h. it is found that a This traction force F= /du\ E7 ^ But must be applied to the upper plate to maintain the motion. (30) The fluid velocity between the plates is proportional to y distribution of velocity is plotted in the figure. and reckon it positive The traction exerted on the fluid adjacent to in the direction Ox. 1 If A. u Thus the = j. case of motion is known as uniform rate of shearing. the intensity of either force is equal to on the plates are equal otherwise this obvious. from (30) __ ~~ _ /du \ is ~~~ )y^ Hence the forces h and opposite. F Hence U Hence. : =o + B U =Ah + B which are determine A and Z7/A.
(31) with a numerical value obtainable Equations together give c* = 3gJ3T . (29) Hence. (1) and (9) of Chapter I (32) The value ft. between two dry surfaces. By varying the density... according to (i) The error. N = 358 It is interesting to compare from the qualitative theory. fMfiuid filling the space between them being in steady motion. since can be measured accurately. is 1 Article greater than the mean molecular velocity given in for this temperature.. as will be seen in Chapter IX. of the fluid unless the heat generated is temperature a fjtC7 conducted away. The experimental value of y. 25. Hence the value of \i can be deduced without reference to the theory of Article 23. 1591 per sec. .. the boundary value of the velocity gradient can be calculated in terms of a total rate of flow which can be measured experimentally. sec. of c calculated from this expression for C. for air at 7 C.U] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 31 force per unit area on either of two parallel plates at unit distance the one being fixed while the other moves with unit velocity. In certain cases of laminar flow. JJL independent of density variation at constant temperature. can be built up. is given by .. is 7 . viz. because it is a rootmeansquare value. Laws of Viscosity is The traction on a bounding surface past which a fluid flowing is It differs in nature from the rubbing friction called the skin friction. This . In the general case the moving plate does work on the layer of .. But this mathematical development is not required in Aerodynamics. empirical laws expressing the variation of y. x 1(T this slug/ft.. and temperature of the fluid in a series of experiments.. apart. ' fluid at the rate gradual rise in The result is a /A per unit area of the plate. which shows that the mean free path must effectively be increased in the viscosity formula. while the skin friction can also be measured. pt = 258 x 1G~ removed by more elaborate analysis. for cent. but is essentially the same as the friction of a lubricated surface. amounting to 28 per C. The first law of viscosity is that the value of the coefficient is giving. pressure. such as that of a shaft in a bearing.
because it is obvious that X must be After predicting the inversely proportional. moving with the element. Let Gx Gy' be the principal axes at any instant. 11. 1 1) the principal pressure parallel to Gx' and by p^ that parallel to Gy' . PRESSURE 26. and take a negative sign to indicate that the . law. These axes It will are called principal axes stresses. p xr Oy by The corresponding normal to in the direction and tangential pressures on a face perpendicular Oy are .and^.32 surprising law is AERODYNAMICS expressed in (i). always be possible to find two axes at right angles to one another. Relation IN AIR FLOW between Component Stresses We now an element prove a relationship that exists between the stresses on (in the sense of Article 2) of a fluid in any form of twodimensional motion. In the case we have four comgeneral ponent stresses to deal with. [CH. where (JL O is the value of the coefficient at C. but experiment shows [i to vary more rapidly with the temperature. and the pressures in their directions principal is Let G be the centre of the element which f . in the direction Ox is denoted face by p xx and the ponent tangential com x FIG. and a certain nomenclature is For a adopted. Denote by p^ (Fig. According to (i) a second law would be [i oc VT. the pressures in these directions tend to produce either simple compression or simple dilatation in the element. inclined at some angle a to the fixed axes of reference Ox Oy. as follows. An empirical law for air is ' 4 ' (33 > (Rayleigh). Maxwell showed it experimentally to hold down to pressures of 002 atmosphere. moving in any manner t in the plane xOy. approximately. drawn perpendicular to the normal pressure on it Ox. at the instant considered. such that. It tends to fail at very high pressures. to p.
Similarly the area per that of the GY" face A cos a. resolving in the direction Ox py .A yx or p 1 . " Adjacent to G draw X'Y' perpendicular to Oy and X'Y of equal length perpendicular to Ox.D. are with forces arising from the stresses. . respectively. With regard again to the equilibrium of A. Pyx = (Pi ^2) sin a cos a. p 1 . or Pxy = (Pi P*) sin a COS a Hence : Ay = Py* = i(#i #) sin 2a. cos a + P* A cos a . = 0.e. Let X'Y' to the area of each of these two particular faces of the prisms equal per unit length perpendicular to the #jyplane. A sin a . which are negligible compared to . A8 2 Hence the stresses are related by the condiproportional to A tion for static equilibrium. as A is supposed very small. but resolving direction now in Oy pyy 1 2 p* A cos a p l A sin a parallel to Ox with regard to B . These two equations together give A. . forming with the principal axes the These triangles are elementtriangles GY'X' and GX"Y" (Fig. A cos a . then A is pendicular to the Ayplane. while resolving pxx A . 2 . . . (34) The pressure p xy is identical with the tractional stress (29) and involves an equal tractional stress at right F of equation angles. This the conversely is the condition for principal axes to exist.cti( Resolving in the direction Oy. A sin 2 a = 0. sin a + pz A sin a .II] AIR is FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 33 tending to compress the element and a positive sign that it is tending to dilate it. however. sin a = 0. For the equilibrium of prism A we have. which have the same motion as that of G and whose faces are perX"Y" A. to mass. first. A cos* a : pt . 11). cos a = 0. unit length of the GX' face pressure = = = = . />! . A . and. we have. The prisms accelerations. to be regarded as the crosssections of prisms A and B. etc. of fluid form part of the general motion and have The forces arising from these are proportional. i. in regard to the equilibrium of B p xy A .
This equation is independent of a. (The system of signs adopted in the last article will be found convenient in a later chapter.34 AERODYNAMICS [CH. large or small. its short arm through approximately stationary 22. that the pressure acting through the ring of holes will not in general be the same as with the tube stationary. such that the gauge shows no pressure difference when the tube is given any Adding to the whole system of tube and air velocity. 28. on an Element of Moving Fluid on the threedimensional element fcSyftr are conveniently grouped as due to (a) external causes. although not necessarily equally ' at all points. the tube may be reduced to suitably small dimensions even 05 mm. the ring of holes then degenerating to one or . with motions in which the static pressure varies from point to point. The tube is then set in motion in the direction of air. x and y are any directions at Then p does not depend upon direction right angles to one another. The basis of the experimental measurement of p is as follows. It is apparent. Hence the arithmetic mean of the normal components of pressure on any pair of perpendicular faces through G is the same. tube is immersed in uniform flow or in stationary air. so that the outer air communicates with the gauge through the ring of holes. and a ring of small holes is drilled through the tube wall a certain distance from the closed mouth. if the fluid were devoid of viscosity. The Static Pressure in : a Flow 36) Let us write #=*(#! + PI = *(# + Pyy) where. Nevertheless. The mouth of the short arm of an Lshaped tube is sealed. p would be the pressure acting equally in all directions at a chosen point. The long arm is connected to a pressure gauge. a design for the short arm can be arrived at by experiment. from Article two small perforations. The other side of the gauge is open to the atmosphere.) It will be noted that. and is the compressive pressure we shall have in mind when referring to the static pressure/ or simply the pressure. diameter is practicable. 27. it ( has been found possible to say. such as gravity. Forces The forces . Thus the tube To cope correctly transmits the static pressure of a uniform motion. at a point of a fluid in motion. a velocity equal and opposite to that of the tube converts the case of motion to that of a stationary tube immersed in an initially uniform The pressure communicated is then the same when the airstream.
the velocity gradients are usually sufficiently small for the modification of the motion of the element due to the tractions to be neglected.. the velocity They gradients are steep and the tractions large. (37) * ' This result should be remembered. which is small for air. 8y8z (P + 'r 8*) = (c) ~ dx X the volume of the element . An element of air may be regarded as in neutral equilibrium so far as concerns the gravitational field. p through the field of flow. The air will be deflected upward or downward. The tractions have already been discussed to some extent. Derivation of Bernoulli's Equation The following five articles treat of flow away from the vicinity of material boundaries. because p is varying only in the ^direction. Close to the surfaces of wings and other bodies studied in Aerodynamics. Choose Ox in the direction in which p is varying and consider the forces due to p only on the The forces on all the 8x8y and 8x8z faces of the element 8x8y8z. Away from these boundaries. On the faces cancel. BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 29. f farther from the origin the force is (p + ~ 8x is j 8y8z.nj (b) AIK FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 35 (c) tractions variation of the static pressure on the faces. The resultant force in the direction Ox thus p . however. face that is nearer the origin. the air motions to which they give rise are conveniently considered with the aircraft assumed at constant altitude and generalised subsequently. the force is p 8y8z while on that 8y8z . . its weight being supposed always exactly balanced by its buoyancy. (b) We shall require very frequently to write down the force on an element due to space variation of p. although aircraft traverse large changes of altitude. and such that the tractions on the element can . but its changes of altitude are then sufficiently small for variations of density or pressure on this account to be neglected. are proportional to p. In regard to (a) it may be remarked generally that.
where the conditions are denoted by 1 and 2 . . be neglected. The constant appertains. is Consider steady flow of air at velocity q within a streamtube (Article 21) of crosssectional area A Denote by s distance (Fig. . tions at the pressure p It is also any point. be regarded as a streamline J h l? p a = constant. : {41) . . Another varying form is obtained by integrating (39) between any two values of s. measured along the curved axis of the tube in the direction of flow. 12). . p. [CH. Since fluid does not collect pqA = constant anywhere . Evaluation of the remaining integral requires a knowledge of the relationship between p and p. . (40) v ' This is the important equation of Bernoulli. A may vary but not. with time. and the force is of a small element 8s of the air filling the streamtube on it in the direction of flow due to the pressure variation dp  . The condition of steady motion means that with FlG 12> tion. q~^=Q ds dq v (39) ' Integrating along the streamtube. The mass of the element is and its acceleration is dq/di. assumed to act equally in all direcassumed that the flow is steady.48s. which may now .e. q. only to the particular streamline chosen it must be regarded in general as from one streamline to another of the same flow. unless proved otherwise. p. by (37). . By Newton's second law of motion But = Jt ' ds It =q ds* Hence : I dp ~~~ p ds + .36 AERODYNAMICS i. at any chosen posis. (38) The volume is A 8s.
The adiabatic law then relates the pressure to the density. and. The integral remaining in (40) may then be written 1. Density variations actually occur so rapidly in. Thus : f*dp J i = Y* ( P J i Y P .II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE and Temperature 37 30. (45) From (44) : dp Y*pY  l dp. Variation of Density assume the flow to be isothermal. viz. . specific heats a being the velocity of sound and y the ratio of the This reduction is possible because (Article 1405. : 2. becomes. on evaluating the integral Hence (41) T or Pi Pi Expanding in an exponential series Pl under isothermal conditions. = 20) a remains constant under the isothermal condition. so that p and p obey Boyle's law dp /dp = constant. (44) point to point according . the condition is closely approached that no heat is lost or gained. most aerodynamical motions that the isothermal assumption is inappropriate. Let us first : : C dp * _ P J < Y P from (25). The absolute to p = kf temperature T now varies from . . . in fact.
eliminating AERODYNAMICS k by (44). per sec.38 or. 3#x There is an important limit to the application of (47) q 2 cannot exceed a 2 because # a gives the limiting velocity with which pressure waves can be propagated.. it will (46) be noted.. . Oj = 15 C. would occur. . . expanding by the Binomial Theorem = pi less. applies closely to adiabatic flow. It will be noted that. this gives 0634 max. . 1) ~ > . also 2 1 i J _ I[l \ iL  __ 2dj* \2_ 2a^ / (A0\ * ' Comparison with (42) and (43) shows density variation that the convenient expression P~ now to be =* Ul .e. provided the velocity change is not If qj q* amounts to \a? the error in (49) is only 13 this if q* = 838 ft. (47) Finally.. 'l} where. . = we find the minimum value of the density ratio : But /i Hence : Minimum If TJ ?? = (^y ". (49) great. per sec. i. 1 pi l\pl> . and 2 (50) = 288.. =a = 9 . if <7 2 = 2^ = 912 per ft. since the temperature is reduced on expansion. . cent. a < a x When q 2 = a 2 and q l 0. . or = for example. the velocity of sound introduced from refers to the position s lt where T Substitution in (41) leads to =T (25) t.
= 2q AJA^ = J(p!/p). IV further illustrate adiabatic : Two cases of (q^ common (b) brought to rest Oj = 0). mercury. by use of the relations pi/p* pi/p t for Y for adiabatic flow. a stream In all TABLE IV EXAMPLES OF ADIABATIC FLOW The variation of temperature affects such questions as the troublesome formation of ice on wings and the location of convective radiators.II] AIR ft. to be = = Yl r} = 0. corresponding to (47) (52) Now an outstanding result of the investigation of density variation is that it is small provided velocities do not approach that of sound. with the help of (46).. FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE The final 39 C. : occurrence are studied the velocity doubled (q n = (a) 2^). by which. which alone will now be considered. isothermal and pi/p* Thus Ber(pi/p2) noulli's equation for adiabatic flow. cases the initial conditions = 15 C. They follow : immediately. The values l9 of since q. 31. The examples worked out flow. temperature in Table is 33*7 a drop of C. . Ai\A are obtained from (38). is found. Variation of Pressure Comparison with Incompressible Flow article for densities are Equations for pressures corresponding to those of the preceding obtained in a similar way. assumed are p l = 760 mm. Otherwise it is ignored. however. 1019 487 per sec. (51) This gives.
in particular cases. (55) or ^=A'*UrViWe < 56) These alternative expressions of Bernoulli's theorem for an incompressible fluid are of great importance. such as water.) : 100 200 : 200 400 24 400 800 10 error (per cent. from (40) a constant P ip? (53) for incompressible flow along a particular streamline. incompressible fluid.) 06 . assumption gives at once. and the equation indicates that the error involved in applying (55) to a gas in adiabatic flow is The above 2 Since a is only small. it follows that air in motion may usually be treated as an . (41) becomes + = . (ft. The condition this = constant is then a first approximation. Making . . series is rapidly convergent. = . as for example at the tips of approached by q l airscrews. . this reduces. The 300 600 55 error involved : per per sec.) : sec. theorem Expanding (52) by the binomial "" = ~ 1 fr or 2 ~~^7~~ + sv 7/ Since Y^>I/I S == p! by (25). consider the case q 2 2q t in employing (55) instead of (57) is as follows ql y. of which convenient nondimensional forms are . As an example. now determine the error involved in applying (53) to a gas which is flowing adiabatically. (ft.40 AERODYNAMICS p [CH. with r written for q^q it to A similar expression is readily obtained to compare with (56). . provided always that tractions can be neglected. provided that q? is small compared with a.
Variations of p Q are small compared with^>. per sec. one arm being parallel to it with open mouth direetly facing the oncoming air suppose the other end to be connected to a pressure gauge so that no air can flow through. because some unsteadiness may possibly exist in the mouth of the tube but we can assert that the timeaverage of the square of the velocity will be negligible in ordinary circumstances. or total head. compared with the square of the velocity of the oncoming stream.D. and it is convenient to sometimes called the dynamic head. per sec. gives. and also. (59) Putting a for = : 1118 ft. and use suffix of the tube. Denote by p. p p. . For accurate work the tube must be oriented to lie parallel to the local streamlines of the flow. where the timeaverage of the velocity is zero we refrain from saying that the velocity will be zero. There must exist an axial streamline about which fluid approaching the mouth divides in order to flow past.) : 100 1*002 200 1*008 400 1032 (po 2* p)/foq*: . Ignoring the small unsteadiness that may arise. to which Bernoulli's equation applies.. : (58) Such a tube is called a pitot tube (after its eighteenthcentury inventor). velocity. For incompressible flow. we 2 For the corresponding flow of a gas we find... we note that the constant of that equation is measured by a pitot tube. variation of density. the pressure p in the mouth of the tube is given from Article 31 by . . and p the pitot head. . q. and the velocity of sound at a for the mouth point of the streamline far upstream.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 41 32. for the moment. p. Air following that streamline will arrive at some point within the mouth of the tube.. example q A. Variation of p from one streamline to another is readily determined by a pitot tube in experiment. in the same way as for (57) : s^\ ft 1 . for air flow whose changes of pressure due to variation of altitude can be neglected.. . its diameter being made very small where the spacevariation of total head is rapid. (ft. Comparing with (53). a the pressure. the value appropriate to 15 C. density. The Pitot Tube and the Stagnation Point Consider an Lshaped tube immersed and held stationary in a stream. have p Q Jpy p deal with the quantity = .
enables local velocity to be measured if p is known. Fig. called a pitotstatic tube. Basis of Velocity Measurement a stream is measured as decombination of a pitot tube and a static pressure tube. other designs exist. Thus the correction on (58) due to compressibility remains small for moderately large velocities. FRONT STAGNATION POINT. A ? = (60) The velocity thus obtained may be corrected. and collinear with the axis of the tube. ^ The fact that a stagnation point must exist is of considerable help in constructing curves of pressure variation round the contour of a body from meagre experimental data. 33. for comconcentric form of pitotstatic tube is shown pressibility by (59). to withstand this pressure (cf. 14 . In the above case of motion the dividing streamline is obviously Imagine a solid of straight. although now 13). The point at which the dividing streamline meets the nose of an imfftersed body is called the front stagnation point. requires special strengthening If the body and tube are tilted with respect to the oncoming stream. such that the pressure difference 'in the tube is again Jp# 2 for there must ' . Experiment confirms this con clusion. FIG. 7). although none is so convenient. may be curved (Fig. in the neighbourhood of the nose of the body. if need be. . 13. to find a new position for the tube. ^The increase of pressure there is known as the stagnation pressure. of the shape of an airship envelope. The pressure in the tube remains unchanged. having this same axis and situated with its nose at the mouth of the tube. are given an angle of incidence/ the pressure in the tube deBut it must then be possible creases. A in Fig. The present method has a theoretical advan2 It is usually the latter tage in determining directly not q but pq . still exist a it dividing streamline. Other methods of measuring velocity are readily devised. for instance.42 AERODYNAMICS [CH. i.e. and indicates a pressure An airship nose increase of %pq z occurring at the nose of the body. For from (58) static pressure of The undisturbed scribed in Article 27. revolution.
sec. standard conditions at sealevel This pressure difference balances a head of water 0023. but the required sensitivity makes simple forms unsuited to rapid laboratory use. Wherever located within practical limita A tions. usually of divided type. gives for ft. of the above head is a convenient limit to sensitivity. A mean alignment is adopted. but for the several reasons stated calibration in place is necessary for accurate readings. 1=3 FIG. .L. are described later Various problems in connection with the use of pitotstatic tubes but a certain limitation may be referred to here. depending upon the type of tube. Article 7) can be devised to measure such a pressure with high accuracy. beginning to become important. pitotstatic tube. the tube can only be tangential to the local stream at one speed. Of these. and slight wear are instances. is employed on aircraft to indicate speed. PITOTSTATIC PRESSURE TUBE. deflection of a diaphragm of thin corrugated metal moving a . in. the change in electrical resistance of a fine heated wire due to forced convection in a stream has proved most convenient. is required to be known with accuracy in Aerodyoften a comparatively rough knowledge of q itself is sufficient. for instance. Errors due to an inclination of 10 amount to 23 per cent. which are usually negligible. The tube is connected with a pressure gauge of aneroid barometer type. Gauges (compare. 14. N. it is subject to disturbance from near parts of the craft to an extent depending on speed. Especially if fitted to an aeroplane. per sq. and other means of measurement are then substituted. per p Q p =0119 Ib.AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 43 quantity that namics . Putting q = 10 ft. only.. vibration. or It follows that the pitotstatic tube becomes unsuitable for smaller velocities. 2 per cent. owing to various small disturbing factors. Varia1 tion of temperature.P.
R. Special forms of pressure tube also exist for aircraft.44 AERODYNAMICS [CH.I. A very useful ex pression of the assumption is obtained as follows. and gives the true speed of the craft relative to the air at low altitude only. the static tube is . v being the components parallel to Ox. Since increase of pressure cannot exceed Jp#2 except on account of compressibility. where cr is the relative air density. x (Fig. A. Oy of the resultant velocity. The rate at which fluid mass tends to be exhausted from the rectangle owing to es difference in velocities and . replaced by a device giving less than static pressure. .C. & M. From Article 3 1 maximum . SUBDIVISION OF 34. the which matter S#8y. If true speed is required at considerable altitudes. 1919. Taking advantage of the outstanding result of Article 30. 15.). that the fluid sensibly homogeneous and flows incompressibly. must not approach that of sound in velocities air. formula for the pitot pressure at speeds exceeding the velocity of is sound given later. Xy. readings must be increased in the ratio VT/cr. u. 664. densities at BC and DA is ^ } Sjy / p8y = ~~ 8#8y ox Comparing similarly the massrate at o is flow across the sides AB and CD. is ex hausted from the rectangle on this account * ~ Now density Piercy and Mines.R. it except where stated otherwise. 15). The reading is termed indicated air speed (A. needle over a scale calibrated in miles per hour. will is FLOW PAST BODIES now be assumed.S. designed to permit use of a more robust gauge. Consider part of the a twodimensional flow enclosed within any ABCD small rectangle field of pv o FIG. of sides $x. This sometimes consists of a single or double venturi tube. Particulars of Venturis for this and other purposes are given in the paper cited * (as A exposed on aircraft they are not constrained to 'run full').
When a wind divides to flow past an obstacle. enclosing the body. 36. S l l and 52 ]V2 distance from the surface along either normal being denoted by n and the angle between q and the normal by a. but at first only slowly. Fig. is known as the equation of continuity for an incom 35. integral \q sin a dn on S l N l through which Evaluate graphically it over that part. The flow across any part of a normal is given by the value of the . and is retarded for some distance into the are concerned with the manner in which such retardation fluid. Imagine a hoop of diameter several times as great as the maximum transverse dimension of the body to be held across the stream. this statement becomes less true. is . In other words. the disturbed velocity q were made along several normals to the wing surface values of q sin a/C7 are plotted for the two shown. the speed would reach a maximum there. If there were no friction at the surface of the body. N . the increase of speed increases as the body is approached. so that laterally distant parts are little affected. As the diameter of the hoop is decreased. viz.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE Hence dv : 45 is assumed to remain constant. increases of speed. Choose a point A desired that a streamline shall pass. such as an airship. or aerofoil. is little diminished by the presence of the body. But (Article 22) the air is stationary on the surface. 16 has been prepared from actual measurements of the approximately twodimensional motion in the median plane of a scale model of an aeroplane wing of the section shown. though still close. The model wing. the air flowing faster to make up for the obstructed area. held stationary within it. which are often large. Experimental Streamlines It is always possible to plot the streamlines for a steady motion from experimental knowledge of the velocity distribution. du This expression pressible fluid. The volume of air flowing through the hoop per sec. was immersed in a stream whose velocity U and pressure p Q were Explorations of the magnitude and direction of initially uniform. We consorts with the more distant. the inertia of the air tends to localise to the vicinity of the body the large deflections that must occur in the stream.
.46 AERODYNAMICS q l sin a [CH. . A* on S 2 N Z such that For n small. sin a = 10. .e. O4 05 06 i. such that the area OA^A* equals the area OA ^A^ Similarly. 16. say. Now there is no flow across the aerofoil contour. It is . curve is a streamline. Successive streamlines follow by changing k to k'. determine points A. Now find a point I O2 = O3 FIG. . 16). . dn = k. find the line n A* (Fig. Therefore there is no flow across the curve AA t A 2 A Hence this . k* . . A along other normals. .
YB YA == f \ B . however. a function of x and y t We DC FIG. since otherwise fluid would be compressed within. The fit would not be so close. the area ACBA. J A ? sin a as. is (62) . for then. y) at A k. intervals are sufficiently small. With A fixed let B move in such a manner that the above flow remains constant. if the . = k' = = A most conveniently constructed from the from the second. gives corresponding values of x and y for points lying on one of the streamlines of the motion. 17). Define the flow across this curve by fy 3 t]. on equatfy (#> y)> which. the velocity is inversely proportional to the distance apart of successive streamlines. first. 17. a third The Stream Function would be possible to fit to an experimental streamline a formula x y) = constant. being the same as that across any other curve. for the flow across AB is independent of the shape of the curve. for all = points on the streamline BB'.. of the curve. of course. joining the points. fy is called the stream function of the motion. second streamline . Let and B be two points. A . A Consider a steady twodimensional motion in the #yplane.. and so on. not on the same streamline join them by any curve (Fig.. Then B traces out a streamline. It follows that the equation to ty all streamlines = constant .II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 47 convenient to make k Tc k" fc' . ing to any constant. This value is unique.. on the other difficulties * then have disappear. such as ACB. If the value of fy (x. In a motion hand. or exhausted from. is. that these is known analytically.e. nor the /( original measurements so 37. and let q make an angle a with an element 8s . i. It > accurate as to ensure obtaining another streamline by equating the same function of x and B B' y to another constant. because there is no flow across its path.
Hence u. but at a decreasing distance apart (Fig. suppose u = [7. <j of direction about the origin. components parallel to Ox. A definite value is assigned to the constant of a particular streamline by agreeing to denote some chosen 0. where U is a constant. of the velocity Now 8^ is variables x and y. v = 0. and the flow evidently consists of uniform (63) <]* motion at constant velocity U in the direction Ox. textbooks on Calculus that then shown in Hence : s ty (63) Sx = Uy.48 AERODYNAMICS {CH. A are x and the flow across if AD = x y. dinates of 18. v are the q. v = 0. = = . 2 . that across AE. 1. The coorLet A : <Jj + %%> y + ED less Sy. and we recognise the flow as including that of . . those of that across D and D be adjacent points on two = k and streamlines = fc + Jty. = 0. From As an example. but 38. the constant changing from one to another. again gives streamlines From parallel to 0#. From Fig. Putting a series of streamlines all parallel to Ox 1. 19). Putting <J*/C 0. generally by O FIG. streamline by fy (x. Oy. consider the flow fy Qy where 2 C is a constant. 18. (63) u = 2Cy. respectively. the total variation of a function of the two independent It is assumed that the partial derivatives dfy/dx It is and 3^/3^ are a l so continuous functions of x and y. . y) = A sign is question the increment involved of is taken as positive if the flow is in a clockwise . gives ty/U 8 and spaced equally apart. . Again. . . sign is determined (63) below.
and there are certain restrictions on the area occupied by y/os Wo* y/c=3 the flow. of sides 8x. and a length the angle which q makes with Ss. =4!!:? is  ( 66 ) In words. Similarly DC and BA together contribute Hence : !** 8x8y dx 9y B The finite limit to which VA the lefthand side tends as the area decreases is called Sx ts fy ^vtl^Sx dX TN the vorticity at the point and has the symbol . and this is taken as positive if has a counterclockwise sense. If Ss is an element of of the closed curve of the circuit. 20). Circulation and Vorticity So far we have dealt with the line integral of the normal velocity component across a flow. the circulation that circuit and is K = Jc q cos a ds . Thus : X FIG. STREAMLINES FOR UNIFORM SHEARING. \ 8% = Su S#Sy. 19. Let us calculate the circulation $K round the small rectangle K ABCD (Fig. The sides AD together contribute to counterclockwise circulation and CB an amount (du ^i u + Y 8y\ Sx Sy. drawn in the field of The line integral of the tangential velocity component once round any closed curve is curve called FIG. Sy.n] Article AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE y/c*6 49 24. 39. where 2C = U/h. q the velocity. 20. round denoted by K. (64) There is again a question of sign. the vorticity of an element the ratio to its area of the .
dK/dS = 2to Thus the In the v first the elements of everywhere (65) For the second example. u fluid are devoid of spin. Let the radius of curvature. SK or = 2nr . Let q be the velocity along large. a constant. DC. radius round its contour. being originally devoid of vorticity. the pressures act normally to the faces of the element. Applying the latter result to the motion of Article 24. Consider the fluid element ABCD (Fig. Extension of Bernoulli's Equation is We are now in a position to prove a tance in connection with flow that and of practical impordistant from bodies sufficiently other boundaries. it and the action of viscosity. The element exerts a centrifugal force p$s8nq*/R which. <or . We are thus able to trace the generation 40. distribu theorem A RADR tion exist. vorticity of an element is twice its angular velocity. Imagine the moving plate in Article 24 to be C7/A. 7. the flow . r. denote length measured along Let s AB. constant. city is generated. v and (65) gives 2C. a constant. which. Choose the element as circular. where u = and we now have from == = = = = = = If the pressure had acted equally in all would have exerted no couple on any element of fluid directions. and the fluid is devoid of v started from rest. of and so small that its angular velocity G> can be considered Then K is due to G> alone. assumed of the streamline AB be R. Tangential components being neglected. 2Cy. of the vorticity to viscosity. arising from the boundary condition of zero slip . 21). and n denote length measured along either of the normals towards the centre of curvature. Writing S for area.50 circulation AERODYNAMICS [CH. example of Article 38. Initially u but after a sufficient time a uniform distribution of vortivorticity. = 0. of vorticity is assumed to but tangential components of stress are neglected. or there is a uniform distribution of vorticity. bounded by two adjacent streamlines and the normals thereto. AB. would have remained so.
e. 8K round : the element. Irrotational Flow motion is % = An irrotational one in which it is everywhere true that condition usually 0. on traversing a pitot tube across a field of flow. provided tractions can be neglected. the pitot head remains constant. (i) From the figure CZ> __ AB ~~&T Substituting in (i) CD ~~ _ l __ 8n ~~~R' dn sT R dn q . across the streamlines the pitot head has a gradient proportional to the product of the velocity and the vorticity. . There is no . 41. this . i. The last term : is evidently negligible compared with the others. finally Multiply both sides of (67) by IjR. Thus. (67) pj and substitute from (66) for becomes Now p Jpy* is the pitot head (Article 32). by the force 8s8n(Sp/Sn) : Hence Now calculate the circulation flow along the normals hence . If. (Article 28). Where velocity gradients exist. dq Hence. pressures on the faces balanced by a force due to the difference of the AB. then the flow is devoid of vorticity so far as it + is explored.II] AIR is FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 61 being steady. CD.
but many motions of great Aerodynamic interest approximate closely to the irrotational state. 42. having a chord c (length of section) of l in. mately irrotational. per sec. It was an incidence (angle made with the oncoming stream by the common tangent to its lower surface) of 95 in an initially uniform airstream of velocity U = 41 ft. the pitot head being found to be constant. is approxichapters. Subdivision of It will Flow Past Bodies grounds. and The pressure p undisturbed stream was verified to be sensibly irrotational by tracking across it a pitof 'tube. but typical. we note that the theorem of the preceding article leads. that 00 O lO O Ol O2 O3 05 be separated into two parts an outer irrotational motion and an inner flow characterised by the presence of For this purvorticity. as described. The flow selected is that above the aerofoil of Article 36.52 AERODYNAMICS [CH. These are discussed in later theoretically Meanwhile. . This aero: foil set at small. on experimental theoretically in a later chapter. was . to a convenient method of investigating experimentally whether a given flow. or what part of it. as will be proved Aerodynamic types of flow can now be shown. pose a particular. appears as an ideal which is not exactly attained by a real fluid. case will be described in some detail.
. = = present. head beyond n 004c for the upstream and n 02c for the downstream normal. By traversing a fine pitot tube along a number of other normals. or lines across the stream. the pit< * and is one boundary way of marking out an internal limitation to irrotational flow. for here the one can be calculated from the other by Bernoulli's theorem. approximately just within them the velocity gradients are not large and the tractions may be expected to be small. to h then. 23 shows the wake located in this way behind another aerofoil set at smaller incidence. Afro. Fig. . Actually was no reason to measure the pressure and velocity separately in the outer irrotational region except as a check. Roy. both quantities being nondimensional It is seen from the figure that the aerofoil causes negligible change t . a number of similarly critical points for pitot head can be found. so that. Jour. S 1N 1 and S 2 N 2) distant c/3 and 2c/3. What will now be described is the variation that was found along them of In Fig. for short. respecfrom the leading edge. The there aerofoil pressure decrease p Q p builds up along the normals as the is approached to maxima at the pitot boundary. Beyond these limits the stream is concluded to be irrotational. 22 the first of these is pitot head and static pressure (p). and finally marks out a wake behind the aerofoil. tively. given in the form : . were selected for study as those for which the variation of velocity (q) has been given in Article 36.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 53 The same two normals. from (68). widens as the edge approached. October 1923. Soc. The complete loop may be called. . being the loss of pitot head caused by the model the second is conveniently expressed as (p p )/pU*. we infer vorticity to be of pitot . * For further illustrations see Piercy. The maximum pressure changes generated at the pitot boundary are transmitted without further variation along normals to the aerofoil This important point is clearly seen from the pressure surface. line drawn through all such points forms a loop which wraps itself very closely round the nose of the model (where a A special form of pitot tube for trailing is necessary is detection).
3. These showed the velocities and pressures. 0310 0308 A pressure change of 047 pC7 2 is transmitted to the surface along the Within the pitot boundary adjacent to the aerofoil the velocity (Fig. and some measurements were made in flight. The chainline curve (Fig. 22) gives a wider view of the manner in which the static pressure drop is built up. and are transmitted to the surface of the body through the boundary layer. to be different from those observed with the model but not greatly so. 43. This is separated from the body by a sheath of fluid infected with vorticity arising from the boundary condition of no slip and the action of viscosity. the aerofoil considered. 16) and the pitot head (Fig. but is nowhere thick and is called the Boundary Layer. The Aerodynamic is which force on a body is that resultant force on due solely to motion relative to the fluid in which it it is . as already seen. An aeroplane was fitted with wings of the shape of the aerofoil. This sheath or film of fluid increases in thickness from the nose to the tail of the body. we draw the following preliminary conclusions regarding motions of Aerodynamic interest past bodies 1. Changes in static pressure are built up in the outer flow. 2. the three readings nearest the surface being n\c = 0047 0127 0173 0312 ^~ = more upstream normal. nondimensionally expressed. related to the velocity changes there by Bernoulli's equation. It merges into the wake. second decreases from p + ipt^2 to p'.54 AERODYNAMICS [CH. curve for the more downstream normal. AERODYNAMIC FORCE AND SCALE 44. The pitot boundary was found to be much closer to the fullscale wing surface than it was to the model surface when expressed as a fraction of the chord. 22) fall away The first. There exists an outer irrotational flow. the value of the static pressure on the pitot boundary opposite the position round the contour of . vanishes on the surface the rapidly. The Boundary Layer the From many experiments which have been made on : lines simi lar to the foregoing.
are excluded. : Thus forces acting on the body due to gravity. for example. p and F vary from point to point over the wing. To obtain the resultant force we require to effect a summation of the forces on all elements. Let denote the area. perpendicular thereto. directed along shall we . of an element of the contour of IVeesui increase Pressure decrease FIG. and the angle which the normal SN at makes with SL. 24).8s. EXPERIMENTAL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ROUND SECTION OF AEROFOIL. subtract from the pressure acting on the surface the static pressure of the oncoming stream. sometimes normal pressures (b) from a distribution of skin friction over the surface.Ss. For simplicity assume the flow to be twodimensional. an aeroplane wing of uniform section. 8s Consider. so that F has no component parallel to the span. For convenience.. outwardly figure. 24. Aerodynamic force arises on the body in two . The variation of p is shown by the dotted line in the The force on the element is compounded of p. and let p be the normal component of the remainder and F the tangential component. buoyancy. etc. the section at 8s S (Fig. ways (a) called the from the static pressures over the surface.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 55 immersed. leading to a variation of force from one element to another in both magnitude and direction. the perpendicular to the direction of the relative undisturbed wind. SN and F. per unit of span. SHOWING INTEGRATION OF PRESSURE DRAG AND LIFT.
nor even does its direction necessarily lie in a vertical plane it is perpendicular to the span of the wing and lift.56 AERODYNAMICS : [CH. the also to the relative wind. Evaluation is usefully simplified in the following way components of the resultant force are determined parallel to SL drawn perpendicular to the relative wind and to the aerofoil span. is given in Fig. The sense of depends upon that of the velocity with which it is associated. It will especially be noted that the lift of a wing. if the aerofoil section is drawn accurately to parallel scale and all points on the contour at which p is known are projected line perpendicular to SL (i. is not constrained to be vertical.p sin 6 + F cos 6) Ss and Ss cos are the projections of Ss perpendicular and to SL. 24.e. aerofoil contour. As regards drag. An example of the variation of p round the median section of an aerofoil at a certain angle of incidence. the area ABC giving negative contributions to drag. the area enclosed by the curve obtained by joining the points. is proportional to that part of Now Ss sin upon a the lift which is line parallel to due to p. we have 8L 0) SD = (p cos + F sin 8s = (. and SD in the direction of the relative wind. but the directions of projection are interchanged. . and is taken as positive for 8s if it is directed upward when the wing is the right way up. the net area enclosed by the curve is pioportional to the contribution to drag by p. the simplest curve found for an aerofoil is of figureofeight form. The first component is Aerodynamic the second the drag. experimentally determined at a certain speed. Denoting lift by L and drag by Z). Hence. upon a line parallel to the undisturbed relative wind) and p is set up normally to this line. Apart from scientific . However. the areas under which are proportional to the lift and drag per foot run of the span at the median section. unlike the static lift of a gasbag. one loop of which is positive and the other negative the net area is conveniently obtained by tracing the point of a planimeter round the diagram in a direction corresponding to one complete circuit of the is curve all up normally to this line and a closed points and completing so as to include . The contributions of skin friction to lift and drag are similarly determined. the correct sense is gradient F easily decided by inspection. 45. completed so as to represent the whole contour. and p is If similar projections are made along a set obtained by joining all positions round the contour. Curves are also shown obtained by projection perpendicular to and in the direction of the oncoming stream. SL.
when the contribution of the pressures to drag will be small. Negative drag loops are absent from the normal plate and very small for the circular cylinder. greatly exceeds cot a. skin friction included. resolving subsequently in the wind direction and perpendicular thereto. L/D.e. i. Such drag is small with air as fluid. the flow must envelop the back of the body closely. labour is venient for bodies other than wings will be left for the reader to devise.e. we have L P cos a. providing data essential to the design of sufficiently strong structural members of minimum weight for the corresponding aeroplane wing. At the other extreme. L/D cot a. the projected pressure curve (e. without breaking away from the profile. Such analysis is Since the pressure usually required at several angles of incidence.e. lift and nega . but is less than that of a cupshaped body with the concavity facing the direction of flow. especially in the case of aerofoils. ABC of Fig. the ' ' quantity of significance descriptive of an aerofoil is the ratio of L ~. seen to arise from the pressure distribution round the forward part of the upper surface of the aerofoil. this A comparison is often 'given as illustrating the superiority of the The advantage is aerofoil over the flat plate for aeroplane wings. i. However P varies with a. This drag wholly is comparatively large. for a given L to the drag D.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 57 interest. at flying incidences of a wing. as instanced by a the drag of a thin must arise parachute. flat plate set normal to the undisturbed stream from unequal distribution of pressure. a straight pipe or past a thin flat plate at zero incidence through the drag must be wholly frici. For 'this condition to be realised. and writing P for the any total force due to variations of pressure over the two surfaces.L/D. greatly so at small incidences when the neglected skin friction lift A = = = = becomes relatively important. D P sin a. When a fluid flows 46. parallel to the oncoming stream tional. investigations of distribution of force are of technical importance. L/D wing having also essentially more lifting power than a flat plate. most conveniently be found at the same points round the contour saved by projecting along and normal to the chord of the wing. Since D lift the drag is smaller the greater L/D. 24) may approach that of the positive loop. to lift is Referring to aerofoils. Some limiting cases may be mentioned.g. Considering a flat plate at incidence a and neglecting skin friction. the Nevertheless. Graphical processes of integration conwill for all incidences. the contribution of skin friction The area enclosed by the negative drag loop of negligible. Values given by this formula must always be excessive. providing positive tive drag.
although the pressure varies considerably from nose to tail. liquid the fluid concerned. one after another. purpose we keep the geometrical shape of the body and its attitude in other words. The example illustrates the great economy in drag which can be achieved by careful shaping. strut section.58 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . . immersed. of the drag of a normal disc of diameter equal to the maximum diameter of the . or air in different states. or other exposed part of an aircraft by some suitable formula. Rayleigh's Formula Further investigation of how Aerodynamic force depends upon shape is left to subsequent chapters. . 47. we to the wind constant. at the same incidence in a uniform stream of air. lack of uniformity in the oncoming stream. the bodies may be supposed immersed in uniform streams of different representing a or gaseous. But the velocity of the stream may vary and also the physical condition of the air in fact. unless effects of variation are known in a given case a caution is also necessary against tolerating any to be negligible . . a process known as fairing or So exacting is this process that it pays to shape the streamlining. but allow its size to vary consider a series of bodies of different sizes made from a single drawing. The knowledge required for practical use will result partly from theory and partly from experiment. (69) . contour of a wing. and the drag is almost wholly frictional it may amount to less than 2 per cent. envelope. engine egg. and as common condition in Aerodynamics. As a matter of experiment it is found that the pressure drag of a carefully shaped airship envelope almost vanishes. Geometrical similarity must include roughness of surface. instead of using french curves. so as to avoid sharp changes of curvature which. the general effect of viscosity depends on the ratio of the internal tractions to the Hence it is convenient to subinertia. For both lines of enquiry we need to establish a proper scale For this in terms of which Aerodynamic force may be measured. The depend upon skin friction has been seen to depend upon U and the viscosity jju Comparing different fluids. stitute for IJL the quantity vjji/p . so that compressibility may be neglected. that maximum velocities attained are small compared with the velocity of sound in fluids. which is proportional to p. Preceding articles have shown that the Aerodynamic force A The pressure will arises from pressure variation and skin friction. . although scarcely apparent to the eye. may increase drag considerably. But it is assumed for simplicity. the density p and the undisturbed velocity U.
3p + q + s = on account of the T's. = is : ! s. = l. Article 23) L*/T. Thus. I. occurs mainly as a result of increased density.g. will also depend upon the size of the /. U. It is concluded. can be arrived at in other ways experiments.:[ Writing (71) in dimensional form : ML r For the dimensions of the (M\*(L\< /LV ViV \r/ \T/ it is term to be ML/T*. if a bluff shape. : p ? U q r l v 5 (71) Now A. which is essential to the e. whose dimensions are r M/L* (cf. The Aerodynamic force. for density need scarcely have changed. by any agreed representative length is body. q giving /> = required that 2s r + 2. (70) This conclusion. The principle of homogeneity of dimensions asserts i.e. being a force. such as a normal plate. on account of the L's. *!. ML/T all terms in the formula for A must have the same dimensions. I. q =y = 2 Hence the formula for A A  2p[/ 2 ~'/ 2 ~*v s . It is desired to obtain a general formula for A connecting it with This may contain a number of terms. p 1. The importance of the more careful consideration that we have given to the question lies in the assurance that no important factor has been omitted. on account of the M's. which is specified because the geometrical shape constant.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 59 called the kinematic coefficient of viscosity. U. simple is moved by hand through air. depends upon p. drag can be felt to depend upon size . since it results from the surface integration of pressure and skin M/LT = friction. 2 . has the dimensions of mass x acceleration. If it is then moved through water.. v . then. any one of which p. a great increase velocity. can be written in the form . v. Moving the plate finally through thick oil instead of water shows that drag also and depends upon viscosity. . . by appeal to investigation. that : A and on nothing else.
This important relationship is the simplest case of Rayleigh's formula. there is the same . subject to the restriction that R remains constant. The quantity Reynolds. It will be noted that Aerodynamic force cannot vary with the area of the body or the square of the velocity exactly unless is indepen dent of viscosity. though to ponding points.. Writing (72) as 7//v is called who . the method of Article 47 readily gives for instance u... and is written R.60 or AERODYNAMICS [CH. /.. which 48. any shape of PD if we have. . velocity component there. on the . from consideration of velocity components at right angles at geometrically similarly situated points.. A = P W. the streamlines present the same picture. keeping shape constant. one in each of a series of fields of flow past bodies of the same shape resultant velocity (and attitude) at the same Reynolds number.vnose value for lefthand side. the Since this is true of all sets of corresin direction. flow past the Considering any particular position in the field of for particular shape. a coefficient of Aerodynamic force body and value of R can be found required Still by actual measurement. The investigation equally leads to \ V . any Hence.. called corresponding points. (72) where f(Ul/v) means some particular function of the one variable OT/v. The magnitude of the velocity at corresdifferent geometric scales. Number first Simple Similar Motions discovered the Reynolds number after Osborne its significance. it is (72a) an alternative form of particular use where changte of fluid is involved. let us investigate what similarity in the flow of different fluids at different velocities past bodies exists of different sizes. Reynolds absurd.
It follows that at corresponding points on the contours of the bodies the pressure oc pt/ 2 and the skin friction oc y. Example if also the fluid is constant. and therefore Ul. A oc p[7 2/2 is now true of occurs at the same phase.Il] AIR oc FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 61 ponding points U . etc. as may be shown directly. : The foregoing assumes the motions have frequencies to depend only on ~ to be steady. the fluid be given so that v. ~ oc U/l in ~ . U. I. 25 gives as an example the variation of (drag f. . R 2 2 Fig. . it is clear from Article 48 that all coefficients will lie on a single curve. and 2 2 that part of resulting from pressure variation oc pt/ / . the method of Article 47 gives : Now let them With frequency assumed : While R remains If also periodic motions. freSimilarity of streamlines. v. any picture in one film would be found in the others. work out the coefficients and plot these against R. though related. sometimes very little through a limited range of R. Hence A oc pC7 / or the lefthand side of (73) is constant.p7 / ) with In order to fix for long circular cylinders set across the stream.. if cinema films were taken of the motions.U/1 oc pvt///. This When curve is the graphical representation of f(R) through the range explored. p. Constancy of the lefthand side of (73) is also found by experiment for R constant when the bodies produce flow that varies rapidly in an irregular manner. but it would recur at a different. 49. and the pressure oc pt/ f . show that A is constant. depending upon the shape of the body (or its Now. while that A 2 2 part due to skin friction oc pvl// oc p/ / since v oc Ul. because R is 2 2 constant. then quency. The result the Aerodynamic force at any phase and also of the mean value. of transient configurations but at different rates . ments or calculations we obtain a number of values of A for a given shape. Aerodynamic Scale the Reynolds number changes. and it is found to vary. . (dimensions 1/T). as described above. The motions considered in this article provide an example of what are termed dynamically similar motions. if by a series of experiattitude) and the mean value of R. there is no reason to expect the coefficient of Aerodynamic force to remain constant. with : which we are usually concerned. sometimes sharply. remain constant. oc U* oc l// a The streamlines pass through the same sequence ~=constant.
3 1O 5 1O 6 DRAG OF LONG CIRCULAR CYLINDERS SET ACROSS STREAM AND FREQUENCY OF FLOW IN WAKE (/ == DIAMETER). . the numerical scales.62 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and we conclude that the theory of Article 47 can be accepted with confidence. but they fit the curve closely. though a cluster round a particular Reynolds number may include great 1O FIG. the flow 100. but the drag then relates to a length of the cylinder equal to its diameter. for instance. \OZ 10 _ R. it has been chosen quite arbitrarily to use the diameter of the cylinder in specifyingR and the square of the diameter for /. The rapid rise of drag at 10 e flattens again at 13 x 10 with a value of about 03 for the coefficient. 25. Similar success has been obtained experimentally in many other cases. diameter. the cause is to be sought in the particular realised circumstances of the experiments if geometrical similarity is truly and velocities are demonstrably too small for appreciable . of points These are not shown. variation in. The full line results from a great number of observations. When observations at constant Reynolds number disagree with one another. R= The broken for eddying R > line gives the variation of frequency.
. The more complicated formulae completing this chapter will show that the Reynolds number alone is often insufficient the then becomes more difficult and experiment requires position planning with judicious care.q .2t. Circumstances in which this scale is not suitable are described in the following articles. possible. they constitute merely an approximation to part of the f(R) curve for the shape concerned. =p+ l = 3p + q+r + 2 = .. component parts should. The process usually depends upon discovery of a constant index for one of the variables.II] AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 63 compressions and expansions. otherwise corrections ire sponding quantities at the full scale The proviso can by no means always be satisfied even necessary. such formulae large errors often result from extrapolation.e. Rayleigh's Formula High Speeds If the compressibility of the air cannot be neglected. carried out. and the method of Article 47 gives p q r = = = 1* 2 2 s 5. . The outstanding practical significance of general formulae such as (72) is to establish the basis aircraft or their on which single experiments if on scale models of scale. amount to no more than a convenient mental note of the results from . It should carefully be noted that such formulae apply only through the range for which they have been shown to hold Thus.s .. the cause may be traced to considerable variation of unsteadiness in the oncoming streams. 2s t (i) E are I (M) (L) (T) i. with moderate velocities. be Provided the model is tested at the same Aerodynamic experimental measurements are accurately related to corre. which they are derived . when the gauge of Aerodynamic scale is simply the Reynolds number. Finally. 49 A. 2t . the Reynolds number provides a proper scale for Aerodynamic motions. t M/LT*. it becomes evident that. its modulus of bulk elasticity E must be admitted and the typical term in the new formula for Aerodynamic force becomes ftVWE* The dimensions of . The principle of dimensional homogeneity is often employed to express in a rational formula the results of a series of experiments on a given shape. although this restriction is not necessary.
=  M M stances.h. Now in fullscale flight at little more than this Mach number the effect of varying may be much more important than that of varying R. while (72) can still be relied upon in a great variety of practical circumof the air is J. an inference has been M . a stratoat the moderate indicated air speed of spheric aeroplane flying 200 m. and the formula becomes finally A There being = 9UW. M 58 ? ft P^r se c. M must be the same. M) .p. Considering.. (U/a)*.. at low altitude. . whilst a is (200/Vi) reduced by the low temperature to the value 975 ft. E The pa 2 . leading to For two motions 1 and 2 to be dynamically similar. for values speeds greater of less than J. the importance of the formula is much wider.. where the relative density in a preliminary little From made theoretically. where a is the velocity of sound.f(R. Thus. In speed.e.. (73A) five to relate them. calculation of the stagnation pressure. at an altitude of 40. i. In modern Aeronautics.. .e..p.. however. speeds towards the tips of their blades being so high as to make approach unity.h.64 giving the result AERODYNAMICS [Cfi.000 ft. ratio t//0 is called the Mach number and de noted by M. the airscrew provided almost the only occasion calling for a formula of the type (73A). i. By 2 Article / pt/ = 20. per sec. the occasions on which it is superseded by (73A) are multiplying. for example. U= (22/15) . way that compressibility can be ignored for than 250 m. giving > 0*6 for every part of the aeroplane.. both R and For a dynamically similar experiment on a model of an aircraft it will be plain from the next chapter that the power required to the artificial wind is economised chiefly by reducing the produce But this would involve employing very cold air. and considerably greater values produce in some cases only negligible effects on A Formerly. this dependence cannot be separated. the unknowns and only three dimensional equations new function has two arguments A depends upon both and.
F. and then by the first v oc ^/l*. the task of constructing a data sheet such as Fig. and experiments on the effect of high Mach numbers are usually carried out with no more than the precaution of avoiding very small Reynolds numbers. For dynamical similarity both arguments of the function must be kept constant.II] AIRFLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 66 these circumstances and in view of the labour involved. (a). Then p. A. with g added. Approximate treatment ignores air drag of parts projecting above the surface and also surface tension. we write any term in the formula for drag as Dimensional theory at once gives : (M) (L) (T) whence \=p i==3p + q + r 2 = 2t s q =1 p s 2* q = 2 r = 2 s + t and the term becomes leading to the following formula for drag : . is abandoned. i. the A change from water is not fluid must be changed when Doc pv f oc p/8 modified by . For change of size the second argument gives Ucc<\/l since g is practically constant. 498. (1) Some Other Conditions for Similitude occurring in Aerodynamics When a seaplane float or flyingboat hull moves partly im mersed in water. (73B) The drag is force but modified made up of two parts (a) a part akin to Aerodynamic by (b) wavemaking resistance. Thus gravity comes into the problem of similarity. 25. 3 .D. /.e. waves formed cause variation of pressure over horizontal planes due to the weight of the heaped liquid. C7. which would now embrace a series of curves for a body of given shape. v refer to the water only and. which again is : U*/gl is called the Froude number.
66 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . Another tank (R. The airscrew is a twisted aerofoil.f(R M.A. i. it is therefore necessary that U/nl be constant. deep.(*) + /. A== 9 n*D'. In the latter a ^th scale model of a : ' ' large hull is feasible. /. It is also convenient to replace U as far as possible by n. the revolutions per second n.E. but craft. to write (73B) as 1 D= P l7/ /.e. to which the Reynolds resistance is added after correction for rhange of scale. each section of the blades moving along a helical path defined by the radius.p. To secure geometrical similarity in experiments on airscrews of different sizes. ing speed One ship tank (U. v. long. is chosen for convenience to specify /. 7. with a maximum towing speed of 60 m. Thus a third argument must be added to (73A). in windtunnel tests on unsteady motions of airThe subject is discussed under Stability and Control.h. convenient. to assume the two kinds of resistance to be independent of one another. with a maximum speed of 27 m. with wavemaking. and 12 ft. and the nonThe diameter D dimensional parameter U\nD is given the symbol /. . .h. when its pond to 81 m. * (73C) This is convenient in regard to the wavemaking resistance.) is 1980 ft.) has rather more than onethird these dimensions. But it will now have become apparent that formulae even more complicated than (73D) can be constructed from dimensional considerations almost by inspection.J). and it has been found sufficient. as originally suggested by Froude. because a model of scale e can be towed in a ship tank at the low correspondU^/e. a simple example will shortly be provided by the spinning tunnel/ ' 49C. Now n1!)4 has the same dimensions as E71/ 1 and the formula becomes . (73D) Derivation from first principles on the assumption that A depends on p. wide. E and n presents no difficulty. and the forward speed U. however.p.S. resistance is simply related to that under fullscale condimaking tions. maximum model is speed would corres The wavemaking resistance assessed by subtracting from the The wavetotal drag measured an estimated Reynolds resistance. full scale.p. where U is the fullscale speed. 24 ft. unconnected (2) Froude's law of corresponding speeds reappears. .A. . each made from the same drawing.h. t .
TABLE III A .II] AIRFLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE 67 The following extension of Table III relates to the standard atmosphere and gives approximate values of various quantities which are constantly required in calculations of Aerodynamic scale.
strictly to scale. while other formulae are based as much on experiment as on theory. and designers of aircraft now rely on direct calculation in several connections. as simple cases. Calm days are few. Great progress will be described in subsequent chapters. so that experiments came to be carried out in laboratories. In early days of the science. however. pressure plotting. suspended from a balance in a natural wind (Lilienthal). models attached to a balance were swung uniformly round a great horizontal circle a disadvantage. In the Whirling Arm method (Langley and others). Experiments are now nearly always made in an wind generated by or within a wind tunnel. artificial . by experimentally determined corrections that take neglected factors into account. Theoretical formulae are improved. apart from the formerly provided theoretical work of Lanchester in England and Prandtl in Germany. however.Chapter III WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 50. lay in the swirl imparted to the air by the revolving apparatus and the flight of models in their own wakes after the still . but is economically reserved where possible to the final stages of investigations carried out primarily The calculation of Aerodynamic Thus model experiment. and unsteadiness of winds was soon found to cause large errors. Nature of Windtunnel Work force presents difficulties even in has been made with this problem. by weighing. This method was introduced during the second half of the nineteenth century and wind tunnels were built in various countries during the first decade first revolution. additional to mechanical difficulties arising from centrifugal force. or towed. This method is employed occasionally. during fall from a considerable height (Eiffel). models were sometimes studied outofdoors when flying freely (cf. on models made occupies an important place. Lanchester 's experiments). Yet many effects of change of shape or Reynolds number are of so complicated a nature as entirely to elude theoretical treatment and to require direct Measurements can be made during fullscale flight rfieasurement. comparison of performance. etc. which the whole basis of Aerodynamics.
In elementary Aerodynamics it is advisable to carry out many experiments* which mathematical treatment renders unnecessary in a more advanced course. Questions of this nature as the subject proceeds. can be reduced to This standard of steadiness may be relaxed for experiments cent. It can be pitched. rolled about its longitudinal axis. and it will only be remarked appear here that their investigation invites originality of method and ingenuity in the design of special apparatus.CH. the Wright Brothers carried out numerous experiments in a diminu* tive wind tunnel. The tunnel method of experiment has since been developed to a magnificent degree. described in a later chapter enables due allowance to be made for the limited lateral extent of the stream. Yet with every precaution * A programme of experimental studies requiring only simple apparatus is given in a companion volume to this book. as will be described. and its response accurately determined. although in a small Aeronautical laboratory a single tunnel must serve a variety of widely different uses. Tunnels can be designed to achieve a fair approximation to this requirement. balances and other measuring apparatus surrounding the dynamic working section of a tunnel have usually been installed with this lies in direct purpose primarily in view. less than 2 square feet in sectional area. . but there still remains unlimited scope for windtunnel work on scientific matters in which analysis is of little will avail or particularly complicated. Another and equally important domain of model experiment The Aeroapplication to specific designs of aircraft. Through the part of the stream actually used for experiment. or oscillated in imitation of a variety of circumstances arising in free A special technique flight. and the variation of instantaneous velocity at any one 2 per point. in which it is not of prime importance. for otherwise superposing a velocity cannot change the circumstances of experiment exactly to those of flight through still air. which flew in 1903. A more or less complete model of an aircraft can be suspended in a windtunnel stream of known speed and its reaction measured. in prepara* tion for their brilliant success in the first mechanically propelled A aeroplane. The wide range of modern has led on economic grounds to the evolution of several experiment specialised forms for the wind tunnel. Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 69 matter of great historic interest is that of the present century. the maximum variation of timeaverage velocity need not exceed 1 per cent. The artificial wind should be steady and uniform. though more difficult to suppress. yawed.
and initial same Reynolds number. The consequent problem in this case is the change from two. but there is evidently need to ascertain by suitable tests the degree of turbulence characterising the particular tunnel employed. are considerably affected. It will be seen that.70 AERODYNAMICS [CH. viz. . there is no alternative to large or costly wind tunnels except flying tests. whilst the principles and phenomena of Aerodynamics can be illustrated qualitatively with ease in a modest wind tunnel. even in national tunnels. Such mutual effect is called interference and becomes familiar in windtunnel work. Secondly. for in principle it enters into all experiments in which a model is supported in the stream by attachments. especially at the compressibility of the air. can only cross the threshold of large fullscale Reynolds fall far short in more modest tunnels. For reliable data on wings at greater incidences or on long bodies. fast aircraft numbers Tunnels capable of realising even moderate Reynolds at high speeds are particularly expensive to construct and operate. the interpretation of the observations in terms of fullscale flight is attended with uncertainty. and the effects of compressibility maintained. A new problem introduced is to piecemeal determine how each part will affect a neighbouring part or one to which it is joined. Experiments on complete models. The same device may be applied to wings exposed and tailplanes by testing short spanwiselengths of large chord under twodimensional conditions. The drag of the complete aircraft is then built up from tests on its parts. the turbulence remaining in an artificial wind is sufficient to produce a marked difference in some connections from flight at the numbers. The above expedients leave the second main faced. the constant need for quantitative information makes more serious demands and creates a study within itself. an aircraft by employing enlarged models for component test in an artificial wind of normal density they would be larger than fullscale. The first difficulty can be circumvented parts of in the case of small . difficulty still to is be the effect of initial turbulence. Reynolds numbers being ignored. This question many sided and its consideration must be deferred. It was found in high altitudes.to threedimensional conditions and is left to calculation. by the preceding chapter that for dynamical similarity under these conditions both the Reynolds and Mach numbers require to be Finally. and experiments are usually carried out in small streams. Two outstanding reasons are as follows. determined as corrections of a general nature.
h. guard grid . For some years many of the wind tunnels built were of the type shown in Fig. The airscrew is made as and its shaft is coupled large as direct to the driving motor. plane table S. but they are few. P.p. regenerative cone . described as ' ' straightthrough or ' openreturn/ cas . But in some publications the reciprocal of this ratio is intended. Though the design has been superseded. 4FT. D. inlet honeycomb . If C "is the crosssectional area and V the velocity of the experimental part of the stream. the location of the latter being adjusted to spread the flow evenly over the working section. The term atmospheric applied to a wind tunnel means that the density of its air stream is approximately the same as that of the surrounding atmosphere. H. octagonal. elliptic. honeycomb wall.in] 51. 26. Kramer. Apart from small highspeed tunnels actuated by a pressure reservoir. W. and so the term is commonly omitted in referring to the atmospheric class. or of other shape. WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT Atmospheric Wind Tunnels crosssection of 71 OpenReturn Type the experimental part of a windtunnel stream may be square. Subsequently the stream has most of its kinetic energy reconverted into pressure energy in a divergent duct D. oval. if The only to minimise noise. or similar electrical system. from . tunnel through a faired intake and wide honeycomb. possible. OPENRETURN WIND TUNNEL. The size of a tunnel is specified by the dimensions of this crosssection. 26. numerous examples are Air is drawn from the laboratory into a short straight still in use. . the speed of which is controlled preferably by the WardLeonard. the power factor P is usually defined as ' ' __  550 X input b. Some tunnels employ compressed or rarified air.: \> SCALE OP FEET FIG. round. the flow past the model is induced by a tractor airscrew located downstream.
tunnels are . including . tnio characteristic variation. prevent this. showing a wide central stream almost devoid of vorticity. ClosedReturn Tunnels In the more modern tunnels of Fig. principally through the honeycomb. the type is simple to construct and convenient in use. the working stream is less than the static pressure in the room. Ill disadvantage is lack of economy in running. the boundary layer). At static pressure is obviously less within the tunnel than outfirst sight it appear feasible to calculate the velocity may at the working section from a measurement of the difference in static pressure between there and some sheltered comer of the laboratory. 14* height and width. which accelerates the air rapidly into the working section. but away from this Bernoulli's equation holds closely. A second length. The pressure in a pitot tube within connected with it is calibrated against the appropriate mean reading of a pitotstatic tube traversed across the working section (excluding.72 AERODYNAMICS ' 1 [CH. which conveys it evenly arid slowly back to the intake and thus forms an integral part of the circuit. A small hole is drilled through the side of the tunnel several feet upstream from the working section. The side. which the airscrew exhausts the air into a distributor. In small sizes. By this means velocities can afterwards be gauged without the obstruction of a pitotstatic tube in the stream. The distributor returns the air. the return flow is conveyed within divergent diffuser ducts to the mouth of a convergent nozzle. 4#. however. A boundary layer of sluggish air lines the tunnel walls. A consequent disadvantage is that the laboratory requires to be reasonably clear of obstructions. velocity increases To compensate for sometimes made slightly divergent. the power factor P having the highvalue unity. and also overall large approximate dimensions for a tunnel of size x are diffuser. : . Thus the streamlines are slightly convergent and pressure decreases along the parallel length. a large chamber enclosed by perforated walls W. A ring of radial straighteners is fitted behind the airscrew to remove spin and the circulating stream is guided round corners by cascades . 52. with disturbances due to the airscrew much reduced. of course. This stream slightly narrows along the tunnel owing to increasing thickness of the boundary layer. 27. symmetrically laid out. and the pressure drop in a pipe But losses in total energy occurring at the intake. over a wide area to the laboratory.
(c) FIG. (d). RETURNCIRCUIT open jet 73 . A. lullscale (c). WIND TUNNELS. 27. enclosed section . 8* . (b). (a).D. compact open jet . corner vane.
74
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
of aerofoils or guide vanes (see (d) in the figure for a suitable section), which maintain a fairly even distribution of velocity over the gradually expanding crosssection. The experimental part of the
stream is preferably enclosed, as at (a), but sometimes takes the form of an open jet, as at (b) and (c). An open jet is distorted by a model and is resorted to only when accessibility is at a premium. These tunnels are often known as of closedreturn or race'
'
'
type. They effect a great economy in laboratory space, a small room being required round the working section, and only also in running costs, P having approximately the value J. Wood is not a suitable material for construction, though often used, because during a long run the air warms and produces cracks which are destructive to efficient working since the ducts support a small
course
'
pressure. characteristic of prime importance is the contraction ratio of the tunnel, defined as the ratio of the maximum crosssectional area
A
attained
by the stream to the crosssectional area of the experimental
large contraction ratio effectively reduces turbulence but par*, increases the overall length of a tunnel of given size, since divergent
A
ducts must expand slowly to prevent the return flow separating from the walls. A rather long tunnel has the advantage of preventing disturbances from a highdrag model being propagated completely round the circuit. Modern designs usually specify a contraction ratio greater than 6 values for the tunnels (a), (b), (c) in the figure are 6, 5,
;
and
3, respectively, (a) may be regarded as suitable for general purposes, (b) illustrates the fullscale tunnel at Langley Field, U.S.A.,
which has an oval jet 60 ft. by 30 ft. in section, an overall length of some 430 ft., and a speed of 175 ft. per sec. with a power
input of 8,000 h.p.
(c)
indicates the
for this
it
maximum
;
possible compactness developed at the R.A.E.,
for sizes
type of tunnel
has been used
up
to 24ft. diameter.
1
1
'
i
*
i
53.
FIG, 28.
Spinning Tunnel
SPINNING TUNNEL.
A
as
M, flying model; O, observation window ; N, net for catching model
;
few vertical tunnels have been built, shown schematically in Fig. 28, for spinning
,
tests.
H, honeycomb.
An aeroplane may fly in a vertical with a velocity of descent VT say. A spiral
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
is
75
question arising
this,
surfaces will steer the craft into a
whether operation of the aerodynamic control normal flight path. To investigate
a light model of balsa wood, similar in disposition of mass as well is set into corresponding spiral flight, a camera mechanism the controls after a delay. Ignoring the effects of visoperating cosity, the Froude number V*/lg must be the same for craft and model. If the latter is made to T^th scale, its velocity of descent JFF This is a small speed, and it is feasible to employ a wide vertical tunnel with an upwardly directed stream, so that the model does not lose height and the action can be observed conveniently. The difficulty with these tunnels is to prevent the model from (a) flying into the wall, (b) spinning upwards or downwards. According to tests carried out on model tunnels, (a) can be overcome by a suitable distribution of velocity along the radius, and (b) by making the tunnel slightly divergent, which gives stability in respect of vertical displacement, since the rising model then loses
as in form,
=
.
flying speed,
and
vice versa.
54. Coefficients of Lift, Drag,
and Moment *
In the general case of a body suspended in a wind tunnel Aerodynamic force is not a pure drag, but is inclined, often steeply, to the direction of flow. This inclination is not constant for a given shape and attitude of the body, but is a function of the Reynolds
number.
When the flow has a single plane of symmetry for all angles of incidence of the body, the Aerodynamic force can be resolved into two components in that plane, parallel and perpendicular to the the drag and lift, respectively. By Article 47 we relative wind
find for
any particular shape and incidence a
lift
coefficient
:
*CL
and a drag
coefficient
:
=*L =
p
/.(*)
.
.
.
(74)
D
*
There are two systems of coefficients in Aerodynamics. In the now prevailing system, associated with the symbol C, forces and moments are divided by the product of the stagnation pressure for incompressible flow, viz. JpF* (cf. Art. 32), and /* or /* ; in an earlier system, distinguished by the symbol k, the quantity pV* takes the place of the stagnation pressure. Thus a ^coefficient J x the corresponding Ccoefficient, as indicated in (74), (76), and (77). Neither system has an advantage over the other, but to secure a universal notation (^coefficients have superseded ^coefficients in this country since 1937. They are generally adopted in this book, but some matters are still expressed in the older system.
,
=
76
AERODYNAMICS
aircraft,
is
[CH.
Most bodies tested are parts of
supports weight
and
L is then positive
if
it
when the aircraft Reynolds number, we have
Aerodynamic
force (4)
right
way up.
*
For any chosen
= foV*PVCL + CD
inclination to the direction of
lift
and,
is
if its
y
(Fig. 29),
tan Y
AX/&D = CJCD and = LjD.
is
= CD/CL
.
.
(76)
called the liftdrag ratio
A
Without a plane of symmetry as above, will have a third component, called the
Again assuming
this plane of
crosswind force.
symmetry,
the line of action of
its
A
magnitude
and
can be found from direction and the
axis
in
moment about some
the
body
perpendicular to the plane, usually through
the quarterchord point. This moment is the pitching moment Af. The method of Article 47 gives for any particular shape and attitude a coefficient
called
FIG. 29.
M

:
.
.
.
(77)
M
is positive when it tends to increase angle of incidence, i.e. to turn the body clockwise in the figure. Other moment coefficients will be introduced later when the motion of aircraft is considered in greater detail. It should carefully be noted that Q, CD CM are different functions of R
,"
;
we
shall often
omit a distinguishing
suffix to
/ without implying
equality.
has been stated that any agreed length may be adopted for I to More specify the size of a body of given shape and attitude. generally, any agreed area may be used for /*, or volume for I9 Practice varies in the choice made. CL CD are always calculated for single wings on the area S projected on a plane containing the span and central chord (line drawn from nose to tail of median section). The length of the chord c is introduced as the additional length required for C M (although not for other moment coefficients, when the
It
.
,
semispan
is
used).
Thus
for wings
:
CL
L/$ P FS, CD
D/*pFS, CM
=
Hi]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
parasitic, or
'
77
extratoaerofoil/ drag of a complete aeroplane, the drag of all parts other than the wings, may sometimes for convenience be referred to 5. But usually for fuselages (aeroplane bodies), struts, and the like, and sometimes for airship envelopes, /* is specified by the maximum sectional area across the stream. 2/8 Another area frequently used for airship envelopes is (volume) enabling the drags of different shapes to be compared on the basis of equal static lift. It is seldom suitable to employ the same / to specify both R and the coefficients for R, the length from nose to tail is
The
i.e.
,
;
usually chosen.
55. Suspension of
Models
It is evident that the foregoing
and other
coefficients
can be
determined through a range of R by direct measurement, given suitable balances. These are grouped round the working section of the tunnel, and the model is suspended from them. Their design and arrangement are partly determined by the following consideration. Suppose the true drag D of a model in a tunnel is required. Let the suspension attachments (called, for short, the holder) have a drag d when tested alone. Let the drag of holder and model be D'. d D D Except under special conditions we cannot write the combination represents a new shape not simply related to either The mutual effect of d on D, or vice versa, is termed the part. mutual interference. An example is as follows. If a 6in. diameter model of an airship envelope be suspended by fine wires, and a
:
=
r
;
side endon, the spindle, the size of a pencil, made to approach its of the airship may increase as much as 20 per cent, before drag contact occurs.
in general depends upon the interference second holder is attached to a different part of the being model and a test made with both holders in place. Removing the the second holder fitted original holder and testing again with only a difference which is applied as holder correction to a third test gives
The approximation used
local.
A
in
which the
original holder alone is present.
The approximation
much disturbance, gives good results, provided neither holder creates to ensure which fine wires or thin streamline struts are used. 30 shows as a simple illustration an arrangement suitable for a
Fig.
heavy long body having small drag. Near the nose the body is suspended by a wire from the tunnel roof, while a sting screwed into the tail is pivoted in the end of a streamline balance arm, for the most part protected from the wind by a guard tube. If the guard
'
'
78
AERODYNAMICS
is
[CH.
tube
is
fixed above in
of sufficient size to deflect the stream appreciably, a an inverted position. Sensitivity, in spite of the
dummy
heavy weight of the body, is achieved by calculating the foreandaft location of the wire to make, following small horizontal displacement, the horizontal component of its tension only just overcome
that of the compression in the balance arm.
To
find the effective
FIG. 30.
TESTING A HEAVY MODEL OF
P, scale pan
;
Low DRAG.
;
G, guard tube
;
S, sting
;
T, turnbuckle
W,
crosshair.
drag of the wire, another test is made with a second wire hung from the nose as shown at (a) and attached to the floor of the tunnel. Next, the sting is separated slightly from the balance arm, support being by the wires (6) from the roof, and the effective drag of the
balance arm measured with the body almost in place. Finally, the model can be suspended altogether differently, from a liftdrag balance as at (c), the wires and original balance arm being removed, and the small effective drag of the sting estimated by testing with it
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
and away.
79
in place
At the same time
special experiments
can be
to investigate the interference, neglected above, between the and the original balance arm. It will be appreciated that the sting reason why the arrangement (c) is avoided except for corrections is that the spindle, although of streamline section, would split the
made
and artificially increase its drag. The model fuselage shown may have a small lift. To prevent consequent error in drag measurement, the wire and balance arm must be
delicate flow near the body,
accurately vertical for a horizontal wind. This is verified by hanging a weight on the body without the wind, when no drag should be
registered.
56.
The
Liftdrag Balance
V
When
several force
and couple components
act
on a model
it is
desirable for accuracy to measure as many as possible without disturbing the setting of the model. Omnibus balances designed for this
purpose tend to be complicated, and reference must be
original descriptions.
made
to
tunnel, however,
equipment an Aerodynamic balance that will measure lift and drag simultaneouslyjand preferably at least one moment at the
is
An
indispensable part of the
of a
same
time.
Aerofoil
Kyn^ Diaphragm
% ''
v
Tunnel Wall
W
FIG. 31.
SIMPLE LIFTDRAG BALANCE.
A simple form of liftdrag balance is illustrated in Fig. 31. The main beam passes through a bearing B centrally fixed to a hard copper diaphragm, 5 in. diameter and 0003 in. thick, clamped to a flange of a casting which abuts on a side wall of the tunnel through The diaphragm gives elastically, soft packing to absorb vibration.
permitting the beam to deflect in any direction almost freely between the fine limits imposed by the annular stop O which is opened by the
80
lever
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
T while observations are being taken. The diaphragm suspen
sion prevents leak into the enclosedtype tunnel assumed ; it may be but sensireplaced, if desired, by a gymbals with an openjet tunnel, The is then more difficult to maintain with large forces. tivity
Ib. The bearing sensitivity of the balance described is 00003 of turning the beam about its axis quickly and accurately permits
by means
of the
worm
gear
W, an
angular adjustment that
is
often
useful, e.g.
when
testing an
aerofoil of the
form which can be sus
Lift is
pended by screwing a spindle into a wingtip as shown in the figure. measured by adjusting a lift rider on the main beam and by weights on the scale pan L. The free end of the main beam carries a knifewheel E, engaging a hardened and ground plate at one end of a
ainaH end
horizontal bellcrank lever, of sufficient leverage to ensure that the movement of the main beam is negligible. This lever is
vertical knife edges, and transmits drag to a subsidiary with a drag rider and scale pan D. balance, Horizontal liftdrag balances are simple to construct and also particularly convenient for testing squareended aerofoils, negligible interference occurring between the aerofoil and a spindle screwed into its tip. They are inconvenient for aerofoils having thin tips and are not readily adaptable to measure pitching moments. Their
mounted on
usefulness
is
enlarged in combination with a simple steelyard
mounted on the roof of the tunnel, as described in the next article. But experience with this doublebalance method of testing suggested the more adaptable modern types of balance described in principle
later.
57.
Double Balance Method of Testing an Aerofoil
distinguishing feature of a good aerofoil, or model wing, at force A is, at fairly large Reynolds numbers is that its Aerodynamic small angles of incidence, nearly perpendicular to the stream ; LjD may then be 25 and y of (76) 23. The point (Fig. 32), at which A
The
P
intersects the chord, of length c, is called the centre of pressure and NP/c the centre of pressure coefficient &CP The method described
.
enables L,
D and P and consequently M to be determined with only a
simple roof balance and a liftdrag balance. The aerofoil is suspended and from from the former by wires attached to sunk eyescrews at the latter through a sting pivoted at E. A drum carried by the roof balance enables the length of the wires to be adjusted and hence the incidence a. The model is suspended upside down to avoid the use of a heavy counterpoise, although a small one is desirable with a
W
HI]
light
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
model
of small
for safety, to keep the wires taut, and to permit upward forces negative lifts.
81
measure
ment
Part L' of the lift L is taken at W, the remainder The at E. wires are set truly vertical at some small incidence a, when they will be also vertical at a small negative a, but at no other incidence. Let
U
FIG. 32.
6 be their small inclination to the vertical, the stream being assumed truly horizontal, and T that part of their tension due to A. They
support a part T sin of the drag D, only the remaining part d being supported at E. The liftdrag balance connected to E provides the must be corrected for accuronly means of measuring D. Thus and the method adopted is as follows. At any setting of the ately aerofoil the zeros of the liftdrag balance are observed, before starting the wind, with and without a known weight hooked on the model. An apparent drag is thus found for a known value of T at the particular value of corresponding to a, but which need not be known. A proportionate correction appropriate to the value of T measured when the wind is on can then be applied to drag observed at E. This correction requires to be determined for all values of a.
Measurements of drag must further be corrected for (a) part of the drag of the wires, for which purpose the measurements may be repeated with additional wires attached in a similar manner, or a calculation may be made based on Fig. 25, the geometry of the rig and the thickness of the tunnel boundary layer (6) the effective
;
82
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
drag of the liftdrag balance 'arm, determined as in Article 55, a effective (c) the being varied through the complete range studied of the sting, obtained by measuring drag with and without the drag sting in place at all incidences with the model suspended in some other manner, e.g. by a spindle fastened to a wingtip. L' L* and taking moments about E Referring to Fig. 32, L we have Tl cos (p A a I cos 6)
;
=
+
.
,
U
.
=
=

giving
since 6
is
small.
where
and
Finally
58.
+ tan Also D = TQ + d Tl a = j(cos + 6 sin p) A A = V(if + &) ~ y = tan (D/L). NP = c {a sec (a y)
L =7(1
9
(3)
(3
l
s }
Aerodynamic Balances
The foregoing method is simplified by fixing and adjusting a E the front wires may then form two longitudinal by displacing vees, and a vertical sting wire at E replace the liftdrag balance arm. The whole of the drag, as well as the major part of the lift, is taken by the veewires, and the sting wire supports only the remainder
;
W
of the
lift.
is the principle of the Farren balance, shown Part of the lift and the entire at (a) in Fig. 32A. schematically are communicated by two parallel pairs of veewires, interdrag secting at W, to the frame F located above the tunnel and pivoted
This in brief
The drag is transmitted by an increase of vertically above W. tension in the front wires of the vees and a decrease of tension in the back wires, and thus a counterpoise must be suspended from
a light model of high drag in order to keep the back wires taut. Such a counterpoise is advisable in any case as a safeguard, and then care need not be taken to locate well in front of the centreThe frame is weighed in the balances L and D for the ofpressure.
W
lift
it. The sting wire, shown fastened to the fuselage of a complete model in the figure, remains truly vertical with change of incidence by virtue of being raised or which is parallel to and pivoted vertically lowered by a stirrup
and drag communicated to
at
E
R
EW
above
W. The
familiar problem
is
to measure the remaining part
Ill]
WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT
of the
lift supported by the sting wire without interfering with the drag balance. This is achieved by pivoting the bell
M
crank
ports
lever, which supthe stirrup, level with the pivot of the frame F. Thus these two
pivot lines are coincident, although in the figure
(a)
they are shown slightly displaced from one another for clearness. If the pivot of the bell
crank lever
the
lift
is
carried
on
beam, the whole of the lift is transmitted
beam, and the balance marked is used to determine the only pitching moment of the
to that
M
Aerodynamic
force
about
(b)
W.
(ft)
The balance shown at in the figure makes
use of a different system, enabling all pivots to be located outside the tunnel.
The model
any
and,
lift
is suspended from the platform F by
convenient
means
are of
provided the two
beams shown
length, the true lift and drag are measured
equal
whatever the position of
the model relative to F. However, the pitching
moment
about
is
determined
line
w/////
the
the intersections
joining of the
FIG.
32A.
AERODYNAMIC BALANCES
84
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
W
centrelines produced of the two inclined pairs of sloping struts This is readily verified in the figure. which support F, i.e. about the effect of a load acting in any direction through by considering it would evidently cause tensions and compressions in the Hence the sloping struts but no force in the moment linkage. from the platform will in practice usually be so arranged suspension that the pitching moment is measured about a significant point in the model. The linkage connecting the drag and moment balances should ensure that these give the drag and moment separately, i.e. without interfering with one another. The third balance (c) is an inverted form of (b) with other The moment balance is mounted on the lift platmodifications. form G instead of being attached to a fixed point, a step which
W
;
eliminates the necessity for a linkage to prevent interference between the moment and drag measurements. All weights used on the moment balance are stored on the lift platform so that their adjustment will not affect the lift reading. The drag frame H is supported in a parallel linkage so that fore and aft movements can occur without vertical displacement, and in consequence excessive static stability is avoided without the use of counterpoises. The foregoing illustrates only a few of the many devices put to use in the design of a modern Aerodynamic balance. For clearness, the three balances have been described in 3component form, but all are readily adaptable to cope with additional components. The following constructional features may also be noted. Elastic pivots are preferred to knifeedges or conical points and commonly take the form of two crossed strips of clockspring. The amount of damping required is extremely variable, and therefore the electro
magnetic method is preferred to a plunger working in oil. When a balance is inaccessible or there is need to save time in operation, weighing and recording can be carried out mechanically. from 59. Given tunnel determinations of lift, drag, etc., freed various corrections are necessary before they can parasitic effects, be applied to free air conditions at the same Reynolds number. These are in respect of (1) choking of the stream by a body of relaundisturbed tively considerable dimensions, (2) deviation of the stream from the perpendicular to the direction in which lift is measured, (3) variation of static pressure in the undisturbed stream,
:
of the limited lateral extent of the stream, applying further principally to wings, and developed in Chapter VIII. cause of difference is introduced in Article 65. of Article 35 in approxi(1) It is possible to express the argument
(4) effects
A
III] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 85 mate numerical form for a given shape. The maximum convergence in a parallelwalled tunnel is only about J. Complete analysis of the problem presents difficulty. pressure decreases downstream (x increasing). respectively. For a body whose diameter is J that of the tunnel the correction is usually < 1 per cent. Considering an element cylinder of the body. and a correction factor for general use is worked out by an initial test of this kind.p) = A (sin Y P cos y) = D . and. the error in D is 17 J per This error can be removed by testing the model right way up and upside down. y La a ( ( Thus the this error in La is may be far from true of negligible. inclination of the stream leads If p == Example cent. : . however. parallel to the direction of flow and . (2) Let the stream be inclined downward from the horizontal at a small angle p. taking the familiar case of an aerofoil upside down. balances are set on installation so as to eliminate the error as far as carefully possible. L =A cos D = A sin y = A cos Y . Where their design permits. 33).pi. and L/D ==>20. the more usual case. assuming p small (Fig. are La and Da We have.P) D = A sin Y . and taking the mean. of crosssection AS and length /. same magnitude but opposite in sign. but an inferior limit to the correction is readily calculated by a method that will now be familiar. and to this approximation is easily determined experimentally. 33. (3) Convergence or divergence of the stream leads to an error due to the pressure gradient that exists in the direction of flow prior to introducing the model. let its aerodynamic force be A and its true lift and drag L and The apparent lift and D. when it is seen to follow that the choke correction is small. The process is laborious. In the former. however. Owing to the short length of the model dp/dx may be assumed constant. drag measured. but af for we D have D Upward to an error in drag of the (78) FIG.
a state distinguished u. if . Pitot Traverse Method The drag of a twodimensional aerofoil can be estimated from an exploration of the loss of pitot head through a transverse section of its wake. The correction is important for low resistance shapes such as airship envelopes and good aeroplane bodies and wings at highspeed attitudes. vanishing when the stream is parallel or the model moves through free air. as follows. which is essentially positive for convergence. This force has nothing to do with drag. Dg or = p/(C7 u)dy . approximately. pQ be the undisturbed velocity and and q. Consider first a section of the wake sufficiently far behind the aerofoil for the pressure to be equal to p Q and the velocity to have become by writing q parallel again to the relative motion. but numerically unimportant. of unit = length parallel to the span of the aerofoil. The correction does not it. AERODYNAMICS [CH. the mass passing in unit time is p8y. 1015 per cent. respectively. vanish in the case of bluff shapes of small volume.86 . coming to ends on the surface of the body. giving for the downstream force on the model (dp/dx)V. P* + *pt/  (P + *P? a ) = h . Through an element 8y of this section. and measurements must be decreased on its account. such cylinders. length of the aerofoil is given by . p the corresponding quantities at any pressure. Then the loss of pitot head at the point is efficient h. is readily found to be The whole volume V can be made up of (dp/dx) (AS /). point in the wake. It is much more marked close behind the aerofoil than farther downstream. This loss will be denoted by a nondimensional coLet U. and the rate of loss of momentum parallel to the relative motion is pwSy Hence the drag Z) of unit (U u). (See also Article 230B. iplT*. and 30 per cent.) it is then 59A. for wings. Further analysis shows that the volume should be greater than that of the body. where the wake has diffused outward. an increase of 510 per cent. for compact strut shapes. being required for long bodies of revolution. the downstream force on we apply a method analogous to that of Article 8.
1688.. Hence Far behind the aerofoil h will be small and the term brackets can be expanded as follows in the square 1_(1 tAi*i + ..C. the result can be written DQ lfoU*c. 1936.Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 87 But u/U = (1  A)*. It includes the entire drag under twodimensional conditions but only part of the drag under threedimensional conditions. except at the incidence for zero lift at other incidences a wing has in addition . Exploration on the above lines of the wake of a wing can give only its profile drag. No. The pitot traverse method finds uses in the wind tunnel. 33A. The experimental section near the wing (iii) will be distinguished by suffix 1. A difficulty arising in flight is that the pitot traverse must be made close behind the wing. Jones* has suggested ignoring the turbulence in the wake and relating the pressure and velocity * Jones (Sir Melvill).R.) = t*. approximately. but its chief application is to flight experiments. . so that in this case Defining a drag coefficient C^Q as equal to the aerofoil chord. where c is CDO = (iii) This coefficient is known as the profile drag coefficient of the aerofoil. & M. This correction is rather uncertain. an of inditced drag coefficient. but its induced drag can be estimated separately by calculation. where twodimensional flow can be simulated. see Fig. as will be found in Chapter VIII.R. A. so that the pressure differs from pQ and a correction to becomes necessary. arising lift from the continuous generation and appearing as a modification of the Aerodynamically pressure distribution for twodimensional flow.
= Pi + iPft 1 .A. Z.. Nearer the wingtips the induced flow associated with the production of lift under threedimensional conditions makes the method inapplicable. Bernoulli's equation. vol.  ktf . 1939.R. 7981 by Prandtl in Tietjens.F.. 660. (79) This result is known wind tunnel..and AeroMechanics/ Goett. it was as Jones formula. where : [CH.A.M. Tested in a fullscale found* to be accurate within experimental errors 1 along the middle threequarters of the span of a rectangular wing.C. * t j A Taylor. applied along a suppositions tube. N. Report No. 1925 . see Arts. Then p Q by p mean stream. = Jy and Then for incompressible flow becomes (i) s (^(i&. ' Applied .}~UV U Substituting from coefficient. 1937.f His formula includes provision for dealing with the induced flow caused by threedimensional production of lift. (Sir Geoffrey). 1808. 16.R. 1  (iv) and (v) and again introducing the drag  (1  AJ*J rfn .  (A so that  = (1 . Betz.h.Po + Writing * this gives *~ Again. qn u (V) Let w denote distance perpendicular to the direction of mean motion at section 1. Restrictions of another kind have been discussed by different treatment of the problem has been given by Betz. & M.C. No. A. f Taylor Hydro.88 at section 1 AERODYNAMICS to those at the distant ^section.
dark.R. 1930. The present aerofoil has a partly flat lower surface. 1881. Young. Another aerofoil might have a slight concavity in the lower surface. maximum instance. and Fairtfcorne. in the sense that it depends upon how a is measured. per sec.R. however. with a ratio of span to chord. The aerofoil is of the section shown.. when the common tangent would be employed. is given in Fig.C. whilst in tunnel experiment may sometimes vitiate the twodimensional the section behind which a traverse is made assumption. 1363. may wing characteristics obtainable by the method exist in the of Article 57 at small scale. e. combined with the maximum value attained by CL is of importance in connection with slow flying. also been examined. A M. .R. however. known as Clark YH. Again. velocity trough is rather shallow.R. corrections noted in Article 59 having been made so that the results apply to free air conditions at a small Reynolds number. Features fairly typical of aerofoils in general may be noted.g. * f Bradfield. The exploring method has pitot tube should be fine in order to avoid a systemThe^ effect of compressibility on the experimental error. when the line joining the centres of curvature of the extreme nose Lift attains a and tail defines a. A.. The opentunnel determines this feature more reliably f than the enclosed. especially if C DO has a considerable value.* of by any 60. a close estimate of drag under fairly favourable conditions the briefly when the pressure in the wake differs little from pQ and . may not be truly representative of the average section of a wing or aerofoil. of 6. at a moderate angle. 15 in the present This incidence is known as the critical jet or stalling angle and. The exact theory is complicated. called aspect ratio. Most aerofoils are biconvex. that the traverse should be made well downstream. but this is obviously inconvenient in flight. A. These conditions imply. & M. No.Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 89 The pitot traverse method of drag measurement offers such manifold advantages that the subject is an old one and has received attention on many occasions. after which it falls. The value 3 shown in the present case is arbitrary.C. Such difficulties partly explain discrepancies that are it found to atic exist. 1938. 34. usually small. openjet tunnel at 100 ft. pressure gradient that An example The estimates are not affected empty tunnel. Zero lift occurs at a negative incidence. The method can be relied upon to give viz. and formulae obtained by simple means require to be established by experiment. in a 6ft. which is used to define inclination to the wind.
OPENJET TUNNEL AT 100 FT.). 90 . PER SEC. 34. FIG. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLARK YH WING (ASPECT RATIO 6) AT SMALL SCALE (6rr.075 5 10* <x 15* 20 INCIDENCE.
however. some lift curves branching. illustrated for a rather similar aerofoil in Fig. imagine the aerofoil to be pivoted in the tunnel about a line parallel to the span and distant 03 chord from the leading edge.P. the lightly at oc incidence at which the C.P. meaning that when the resultant force is a pure drag. At 13 the centre of pressure is midway along the chord. is cut by the pivot line. It would also be stable . Thus the C. . at a = 20. This travel results from striking changes which occur in the shape of the pressure diagram. 35.CH. and to be so weighted that it is in neutral equilibrium for angles without the wind (an experiment on these lines is easy to arrange). lift being zero. If now the model be held 5. the C. Minimum drag occurs when the lift is small but maximum LfD at a considerably larger incidence. in such a direction as to increase the disturbance.P. 35. different coefficients being obtained according as to The and is whether a increasing or decreasing. = = The To see travel of the C. flow is often delicate in this region. Between 27 and 45. this. curve has two branches asymptotic to the broken line in Fig. .P. and the wind all = started.P. LIFT PRESSURE DIAGRAMS FOR THE MEDIAN SECTION OF AN AEROFOIL (BROKEN LINE APPLIES TO LOWER SURFACE). is off the aerofoil. a couple tending to increase or decrease a will instantly be felt. which tends to flatter compared with free air. small disturbance of a displacing the C. Drag and the angle y begin to increase rapidly at the critical angle. The aerofoil will ride in stable equilibrium. and then back. there is a the two loops seen in the pressure diagram couple on the aerofoil for become so modified at 3 as to enclose equal areas. D5r of O5 10 15 OUO 10 C 20 FIG. It moves forward as incidence is increased up to the critical angle. 34 part of the negative lift branch is shown near the lefthand zero of the scales. approximately. for a < 16 indicates a form of instability. C CP oo at a 3. in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 91 section tunnel.
foil. Fig.P.P. Writing p. A moment coefficient about a of J chord behind the leading edge. curve is physically indefinite. Its middle point is called the Aerodynamic centre. as the intersection by A of some Thus in line parallel to the chord but displaced from it. Find the drag of the wire under these conditions.h. 36. diameter and 2 ft. but this case only of interest The in connection with the auxiliary control surfaces of aircraft. C. WING CM line CHARACTERISTICS OF CLARK YH (ASPECT RATIO 6) AT THE SMALL SCALE OF FIG. is temporary wire. = pitching J in. above * a position where the pressure drop amounts to 15*36 Ib. ft. in so far as it would have a different shape if we defined the C. per sq. as illustrated in the following. fixed parallel to the span a wing just outside its boundary layer. 006 04 two examples (a) FIG. at low altitude.p. the above experiment different results would be obtained if the pivot line were displaced from the chord plane. is pivoted in front of 0*25 chord. for the local pressure and velocity (ft. First determine the relative velocity of the wire. Application of Complete Model Data Where f(R) has been found 002 in the tunnel through a sufficient range. The moment coefficient given defines the pitching moment about a line onequarter chord behind the leading edge of the aeropreferred for greater precision to that of Article 54. 34. 34 plotted in more compact and practical form. when the aeroplane is flying at 100 m.AERODYNAMICS if [CH. V per second) where it is ex . 36 contains the essential information of Fig. calculations may 004 of be made for the shape body concerned in a variety of practical circumstances. often 61. long. CL being more generally useful than a as the independent variable.
48 WING AT the range of this shape.. ft.F.A. / = diameter : of wire = TV per v = 156 x 10~ * sq. from Fig. and distinguishing normal values by suffix 0. is found in the wind tunnel to vary as in Fig. by Bernoulli's theorem giving ^^ _ ^ ^ ^ _ ^ ^ V =s 1855 ft. (indicated air speed). through = FIG.I. 37. ^ ft ^ Now sec. What lift will ? the wing exert when standard atmospheric conditions prevail . ig<36 ft sec. altitude at the same incidence and 60 m. set at 15 incidence.p. 48) and span/chord ratio (aspect ratio) 6.h. R given. 25. = A. ft.in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 93 posed. 15 INCIDENCE.A.. per Hence giving.S.F. CD = M6 058 == X 000238(1855)' X 2 Drag = 099 Ib. A parasol monoplane fitted with a wing of 6 ft. 37. is required to approach a landing field chord situated at 6000 ft. 96 as (b) The lift coefficient of a wing of the section shown (known R. APPROXIMATE SCALE EFFECT ON LIFT COEFFICIENT OF R.
p. 88 . Article 25). The following may also be verified. as in Article 61 (6). Examples the drags are required of the following aircraft parts 150 m. The true relative velocity of the craft is. X 0862 = = 1*77 x 10 ~4 (cf. or a total of 638 Ib. altitude exposed at A.p. ft. 0296 62.h.000 ft. so that v = 156 x 10 . A scale model of 1 ft. Frequently the drag of some aircraft part is desired accurately only under particular From these conditions. from the figure 216 sq. per ft. Ib. at 10. per sq. V 60 m. and relative p \ 273 / 000238 sec.I. ft. Hence. X 6 10* = 321 X 10*.g. and the true velocity ft. since wing area = L or 115 Ib. III. . ft.p. v is found to be 201 x 10 *. the temperature = ~ For 48 C. e. and sometimes a single decisive test arranged in the wind tunnel under dynamically similar conditions. would apply to the fullscale wing held in a natural wind of 10 m.h.h. : = : 150 X VO738 88 256 60 ft.p. X 000238(88)* X 216 = 2484 Ib. a long strut whose (b) streamline section is 6 in. Assuming standard atmospheric conditions. a Reynolds number = 065 X 10 6 Its CL would be 1164. per sq. at top speed at a certain altitude. at sealevel.94 AERODYNAMICS [CH. chord would have. per sec. per per sec.. Article 14.. per sec.S. = 0624 ft. wind tunnel at sealevel working at 50 ft. in length.h. is 6'1 From Table density 0*862. ft. and it would lift 1063 Ib. (a) a streamline static balance weight of 2 in. diameter. temperature C. Arrangement of Single Drag Experiment Such complete data as in the last article are rare. Arrange suitable experiments in a 4ft. _ R= Vo862 948 = 88 = 948 X sq. per sec. (6 X 6)6 = CL = 1248. the tunnel 15 C. The same fairly low Reynolds number sq. from Article 33. at 60 m. may be assumed. when the total lift would be the same and its mean intensity . specifications and the size of the part the fullscale Reynolds number can be calculated. and. and.
eliminating error due to the tunnel bound ary sion layer. swings with of small clearance be tween the walls. f4 0*625 ft. which will then act as a guard tube.e. shoulders or dummy ends fixed to windtunnel walls. FIG. experiment ft. run of the actual strut. = . The drag coefficient determined will apply exactly to the fullscale The strut at the speed and altitude given. 0738 \201 (b) full scale in Similarly the tunnel the ratio 4. 6 in. model . The drag coefficient measured on a model 4 times as large as the actual weight will apply exactly to full scale under the prescribed From (72a) the forces on the model and the weight will conditions. force measured will be simply related to that on a length 2 ft. by a spindle passing and M. model of the strut should be larger than Applying the factor to the strut section 24 in. be in the ratio = 0816.. = arranged under twodimensional conditions. Suspenor may be by wires sting. run of the strut well away from is its A model of axial length 2 ft. Then d X 50 156 (1/6) X 256 201 or d = 0662 ft.ni] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 95 Models geometrically similar to the parts will be tested in the Distinguishing experiment by suffix T and full scale by J? F suffix F. ARRANGEMENT FOR TESTING UNDER APPROXIMATELY TWODIMENSIONAL CONDITIONS. i. E. the test is limited to finding the drag per ends. through one of the shoulders. = 8 in. 6 in. Fig. say. 38. for dynamical similarity we have JRT Let d be the diameter of the model of the balance weight. 38 shows the rig. Since only a gives a model section of length 4 x 6 short axial length can be accommodated in the tunnel. shoulders same These section fixed to the tunnel dummy ends separate the model from the walls. except near its sockets. (a) tunnel. E. = .
An element of the span of the fullscale wing of a small aeroplane can be tested under two dimensional conditions in a 45ft. found later on that Aerofoil Theory and Skin Friction Analysis can then be used to deduce the drag of the wing in free flight through a useful range of incidence. are and moments Forces measured by special balances located within the shell and controlled FIG. t Jan. To realise fullscale Reynolds numbers by testing at speeds six to twenty times as great as those of flight is impracticable both on economic grounds and as vitiating the used in a incompressible flow assumption. Jour. Relf. cylindrical part. 39. VF where suffix ^ h' Pr' T refers to the example. tunnel as described above for a It will be strut model. H tsi up by a large compressor plant in an adjoining room. per sec. through the working section.L. But certain important phenomena occurring at considerable incidences must be measured directly on models of complete wings. =f If. the air circulates in a compressed state. * N. electrically. Roy. N. Soc. chord could then be 5ft. Not more than 8in. after the test. 1936. the tunnel is sealed and pumped the enclosing steel shell 18 ft. for . 39 illustrates the compressed air tunnel at the N.* The COMPRESSEDAIR TUNNEL. diameter and of annular return flow type. models will not as a rule be smaller than fullscale parts. motor gives a wind velocity of 90 ft. pressures of 25 atmospheres being reached. By Maxwell's Law temperature.p. the working jet being diameter and 2 in. Compressedair AERODYNAMICS Tunnel [CH. but The foregoing examples destructive for large parts. radial vanes to prevent swinging exhaust from the tunnel. Aero. . such as wings. Thus a model wing is seldom larger than th and may be smaller than ^th scale. the last factor is model and F to full ^V an d ^T/^F = iV Vr /VF scale. however. illustrate that. provided incidence is closely that for zero lift. is utilised to drive small highspeed tunnels. to secure dynamical similarity. of flow. tunnel.P. It is Fig. thick in its A 450h. 6 ft. The restriction is unimportant in the case of small components.96 63. In some national tunnels. After rigging a model. when (Article 25) v oc 1/p jx is and ~~ R oc VF independent of density at constant Hence for R constant p.
T. 64.A. ft. some known extreme cases have been omitted in order to preserve a A. TABLE V REYNOLDS NUMBERS OF WINGS (A) denotes atmospheric pressure. chord. which is by no means exhaustive. and might reach 4 cwt. 4 .T. so that VI for the model is 1/6 times that for full scale.T ) for a wing of 5 tons For example. If the geometrical scale of the model lift (I F ) would be = were TaT th we should have for the ratio of the mean of lift intensities IT//T* Z.HI] If 6 is WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 97 the compression ratio required in the C.D. Practical Aspect of Aerodynamic Scale relates to aeroplane wings and complete Table V models of wings. models.A. Such intense forces readily distort C. F //F _ 16 a ~~l!5 or the loading on the model would be 10 times that on the fullscale wing. Maximum sizes are assumed for the models and involve important corrections for the limited width of the tunnel stream (Chapter VIII). In compiling this list. with 6 448 Ib. 25 the aerofoil lift (Z. which are therefore often shaped from metal castings. to secure a fullscale lowaltitude value of R. then by (72) the ratio of any component force on the model to the corresponding fullscale component is also 1/6. and indicates the maximum Reynolds numbers obtained in various types of wind tunnel and the range of Reynolds numbers charR is specified on the mean acterising various aircraft categories. per sq.
and the landing conditions and stratospheric Reynolds numbers of all but the largest aeroplanes. The can be used Reynolds number typical of stratospheric .g. capable of realising . be tested in a fullscale tunnel. models are expensive to construct and the exceedingly heavy air creates experimental difficulties. is required to the stream during a test. of whatever kind. size with pressures number up to 25 atmospheres covers the entire range of Reynolds low power. The tunnels are not is designed primarily for high Mach numbers (as will be described later) but as a compressedair tunnel. connection with deflections. confined to existing plant that last mentioned . The 6ft. altitude in regard to flight at this altitude.98 AERODYNAMICS [CH. For very high compressions. under conditions quite different from those of flight. though the advantage in respect of power is then On the other hand. an atmospheric tunnel has a compression ratio of 4. The relative advantages of the two methods have. generally representative view of the position. as shown. therefore. checked in the same tunnel at a experimentally smaller scale. an aeroplane cannot in general greatly reduced. All the other aircraft data relate to comparatively low altitudes. or details concerned which cannot be reproduced in small models instances of such details are engine cowlings and Aerodynamic controls but it is often claimed that these purposes can be served without going to the extreme of a fullscale tunnel. Scale Effects (a) Since tunnel measurements are made in general at too low a Reynolds number.000 ft. . usually fullscale 65. very large tunnel is desirable in other connections. A e. Further reference to the matter will be made in the chapter on Meanwhile the conclusion testing at high speeds. and that experiments will be made. that are sometimes serious there is a case for restricting the compression to less than 8 atmospheres. for experimental Reynolds numbers can be increased to about 25 million for small incidences by testing under twodimensional for small aeroplanes of conditions and applying a theoretical correction for the change to three dimensions. important differences are to be expected on the . comparatively small flight is due to the large value of v at 40. indeed. a process which is not simple to carry out. without special strengthening. at much smaller Reynolds numbers. and increasing the size. Reynolds numbers are costly. will be drawn that wind tunnels. in when access are . It will be seen that a small tunnel using highly compressed air is much the most economical for a straightforward test on an aerofoil when the Mach number can be ignored. long been contended.
By turbulence is deliberately meant. : : . .Ill] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT These are termed scale ' 99 ' craft. (a) : dotted line : : turbulent wind tunnel .e. To facilitate comparison a lower broken line curve has been added for (b) calculated on the second basis (for (a) there would be no difference). . later on. as we shall find but others. effects. may be introduced here. an . as before. 36 quickly disappears on increasing scale.g. atmospheric tunnel of modercourse. 40. of which we now consider the first. of Aerodynamic scale. however far this may be from that of flight. where possible. the dip in the 06 008 0008j 06 006 CD 04 02 % FIG. By scale is meant. rest entirely on experiment or engineering experience. : Full line C D reckoned on maximum (b) Streamline strut of fineness ratio 3. dotted line CD reckoned on maximum sectional area parallel to the stream. chain line : some experiments under fairly steady conditions. 40 gives further examples off(R). Full line smooth flow dotted line (c) Smooth tangential boards or plates. But the practical term has two meanings. Full line smooth flow Spheres. sectional area across the stream . : turbulent tunnel . e. 37 is an example. Rapid changes often occur in a 5ft. to some extent interconnected. the total change in f(R) through the interval of R between experiment and flight. ate speed. to bodies of studiedly smooth surface in streams comparatively free from turbulence. CM curve of Fig. the upper fullline curve of (b) on maximum sectional area across the for (c) on maximum area projected perpendicular to the stream stream. of which Fig. CD is reckoned for (a) and Fig. i. Thus it is advisable to test at as large a scale as Certain possible. hatched area steadier tunnels. EXAMPLES OF SCALE EFFECT. Two important considerations. subsequent changes can be estimated from theory. The curves given relate.
our mesh screen might be reduced to diminutive proportions if suitably located. though R remain constant. But the second form of unsteadiness is not turbulence. . To make an initially smooth stream effectively turbulent. the tunnel will disagree with itself. notably hand. This is to be expected. Now the initial turbulence in a stream approaching a body is found to affect drag (or lift. We note immediately that at critical scales (1) tunnels of different turbulence will disagree with one another. Effects on drag are expected to be produced chiefly by the turbulence in parts of the stream that pass the body closely. if in a given tunnel size be greatly the relative scale of the turbulence will change and varied.g. Alternatively we could give it large and fairly rapid fluctuations of velocity by operating quickly an electrical resistance in series with the armature or field of the driving motor. etc. the lefthand dotted curve . 40 (a) the fullline curve shows the variation in for CD ( = D/^pF ^. Thus in general a f(R) curve in a given tunnel is a narrow band of readings the same curve for many tunnels would be a wider band. the shaded area indicates common smooth flow. produce. unsteadiness that is finely grained in comparison with the size of the body. change is here so sharp that drag actually decreases with increase of speed. We could make a smooth and steady tunnel stream turbulent by interposing upstream of the body a mesh screen of cords. 1 for diameter d) against R = ( F<J/v) by towing a sphere freely through the turbulent tunnel would give. but except very close to the ground it is free of turbulence in comparison with all ordinary tunnel streams. with wings at variation in different tunnels. as obtained A Similar remarks could be made in connection with the example (c). Again. since geometrical shape is changed. as occurs also with the circular cylinder at much the same Reynolds number.). on the other atmosphere. the natural wind is subject to considerable variation in magni tude and direction of velocity. and not comparatively largescale fluctuations of velocity such as eddying might. (2) free air values oif(R) may differ from those determined in any tunnel. but it may be noted that very slight roughness may increase drag remarkably e. particularly at scales where f(R) changes The sphere at circa 3 X 1C 6 affords a good example .100 AERODYNAMICS [CH. We infer (and may check by direct experiment) that roughness of surface modifies /(/?). Furthermore. sharply. . In Fig. In the limit it might be replaced by a thin wire bound round the forepart of the body.
lowspeed wind tunnel corrected full scale.in] WINDTUNNEL EXPERIMENT 6 . can be inferred from the drag the pressure at the back. etc. .. While postponing further investigation of the foregoing. and at what 41. ing interest include maximum lift coefficient. Now it always happens that scale effect is more advantageous at some . a wide view must be taken of its performance before choice can be made for a particular Features of engineercraft. The aeroplane wing somea single preserves but always assumes shape. Rayleigh's (6) Small formula can only. be applied to a given wing shape at constant incidence. a SCALE EFFECT ON L/D FOR GOTTINGEN 387 WING. Scale Effects (b) ' scale effect The second meaning of is of a more ' applied nature and reserved chiefly to wings and the like. whatever the risk. 5ft.000 in the atmosphere). A controlled turbulence in the tunnel may ease in some cases this difficult process. times various attitudes in course of flight. Spheres are supported from the back to obviate effects of attached wires . the drag coefficient at certain small lift coefficients. Accordingly. of course. The engineer is commonly faced with inadequate data which he must extrapolate. though introducing artificiality at model scale. 101 R> 10 Thus aerofoils are often polished or plated if they are to be tested at large Reynolds numbers. incidences these occur is often INCIDENCE. to a flight scale. maximum FIG. we may note that from the engineering point of view knowledge off(R) in a given case may not be necessary. so that in practice we have to deal with a series of f(R ) curves for a single wing. By convention the degree of turbulence in a particular tunnel is gauged by the Reynolds number at which CD for spheres is 03 (= 385. immaterial to free air. (a) 5 10 liftdrag ratio.
F 38 .F. The change from model to full scale of max. (a) 13 meaning are given in Fig. 14 (a) modi* Further 'RAF 48 scale effect of examples with this wider 42. 48.F. tests would be required at 14' R> 3$ X 10* 55 60 Log. experiments at < 2 x 10 e would give . 38 and the wing FIG. suggesting that it might not maintain its great advantage at the small scale over smaller Reynolds numbers. & M.A. occurs at one and at a different incidence in flight (see Fig.A. while actually it should be tu z given to the first. pass of a highspeed 6ft. lift to be the overruling consideration. Again. Jones.GOTT387 C R 18 tu o J=48 preference to the second. decreasing with increase of R for Gottingen 387. though inconclusive. L/D.A. Ill incidences than at others.. . tests through a range of less.R. istic. The results shown at illustrate L2 a difficulty that will be now thoroughly appreciated in interpreting H R. NevertheGottingen 387. for example).A. 38 and R. A. Such evidence.F. for example. APPROXIMATE SCALE EFFECTS MAXIMUM CL FOR THREE AEROFOILS (ASPECT RATIO 6). sharply. from the same point of view. and max.C. * C L would be shown increasing These and other examples given are based on Relf. so that incidence in the tunnel 41 .R. within the comopenjet tunnel. max. R 65 70 to decide definitely between R.F.20T ordinary windtunnel results Asin terms of full scale.102 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 38. CL much R. 1627. whose max. L/D. provides a better guide than comparison at a single small scale. 15 max. is then called scale effect irrespective of fication of incidence.A. 42. and Bell. would show max. choice to be required suming between the wings R. CL or other character.
In examining tunnels of this type we have to take into account that at high speeds the density p. Adaptation to withstand a crushing pressure of some 12 Ib. or well above it. One method of obtaining subsonic speeds for experiment is to employ a tunnel of the racecourse design partially evacuated. the power factor being defined as in Article 61.PC 5155 '" t M denotes the Mach number V/a b. The latter state will be distinguished by suffix 1. the subsonic and the supersonic.p. a phenomenon that is accompanied by great increase of drag and decrease of lift. and the velocity of sound a in the experimental part of the stream are much less than in the return flow just before contraction.Chapter III A EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 66. Of these two distinct groups the former is the more important. but it is gradually becoming reserved for those in which the density can also be reduced. and justifiably so since their pressure is varied.h. is "" If . Variabledensity Tunnel Highspeed phenomena in Aerodynamics are usually studied in below the velocity of sound. per sq. the absolute temperature T. permits alternative use under a bursting pressure of a few ' ' atmospheres. F the formula may be rearranged = 1100 M'. The power required to maintain a stream of section C and velocity V. as exploring the compressible flow that immediately precedes critical Mach numbers at which is experienced shock. (i) 1100 103 . in. The term variable density is often applied to tunnels arranged only for compressed air. appreciably Comparatively few quantitative measurements have been made for two parts : Mach numbers within the range 09 to 13 owing to lack of sufficient : Highspeed tunnels are consequently divided into stability of flow.
104 AERODYNAMICS Article 30. TI of p t to the standard air density at sealevel. ratio.. Thus for 100 sq.e. ft. The large power. introducing also the approximation 14. by Assuming a substantial contraction as is specially desirable with this kind of tunnel. (47) of Article 30 then gives y = P P = f \ i _ 1 Pi i. [CH. (iii) yields the approxiIf we further assume P= = mate formula bhp    M* Calculations by means of these formulae speedily show that a large power is required to maintain a high Mach number in a stream of moderate size in spite of considerable rarefaction. Vf can be neglected. C J. This can be verified as follows.in comparison with V* and. in a single installation. the working section IJL i.. the h. and also for high experimental Reynolds numbers when low Mach numbers can be accepted. the type possesses the of combining.. comprise the principal disadvantages of this type of tunnel.. Using (ii). and or 08.. ' + (111) M'/5)* 288. I 6 ^Pi Substituting in (i). and the consequently elaborate measures necessary to cool the relatively small circulating mass of air. from (31) and (33) ' = 372 X 10' (T/288) 8 4 where . On the other hand..e. the Reynolds number R is given by R ^ Now (ji is the coefficient of viscosity for air in the state prevailing at . required is nearly 8000 for the empty tunnel and would need further increase to cope with the high drag of models under test.p. and write a for the ratio J. M (1 . provisions for high advantage M = = Mach numbers at a reasonable experimental Reynolds number with a complete model.
and the same Reynolds 25 atmospheres pressure in a tunnel and onethird the speed.000 h. Again. Reservoirs A. It is unfortunate.HI A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS <y 105 Hence. and the limited supply of compressed ft. often about 1 sq. introducing as before and assuming ^= > 288. therefore. 4* . Excessive use of either expedient is to be avoided.velocity air from a pressure chamber entraining the flow of a much greater volume from rest in the atmosphere.p. 1 J million could Referring to the numerical example above.D. Such tunnels are small. crosssectional area. by employing light air for high Mach numbers and heavy air for high Reynolds numbers. always to be limited. and the advantages of moderate compressions and rarefactions on the other. entailing 450 h.p.p. and a small mass of attenuated air in which mechanical energy is being converted into heat at a great rate is difficult to cool. Difficulties arising at the other extreme have already ben mentioned. The Mach number is then so low as to have no = M= M= compressedair tunnel into a tunnel would enable only a small Reynolds number variabledensity to be reached with a complete model at a Mach number of 08. a sheath of high. and the h. number could be realised with of approximately half the size an expenditure of only some can now be seen that adjusting the density of the air used experiment presents opportunities for economy in two directions. putting (j 4 instead of J in (iv) leads for the same case to 028. on the one hand. The number of such tunnels is likely. It for 66A. would be increased to upwards of 2000. in air is expended economically by use of the injector principle. however. that these considerations point to a power equipment of some 10. A very low density leads to unacceptably small Reynolds numbers at high Mach numbers. in view of the evident utility of the variabledensity tunnel. viz. R be expected with a complete model at 08. Thus a compromise is sought between apparent economy. Inducedflow Subsonic Tunnel The imposing installations necessary to maintain experimental streams of ordinary size at high speeds have led to the development of small induction tunnels in which subsonic winds are produced for short periods at a time by the exhaustion of reservoirs of compressed air. and the expectation of a Reynolds number of 11 or 12 million with a complete model. But turning this small significance.
which pressure appears to be the optimum for this tunnel with the model in the blowing pressure pressure . Mach numbers exceeding for the empty tunnel is 3040 Ib. 42A indicates the main points of the apparatus. The aerofoil stretches from one wide wall to the other. The injector stream induces the flow of atmospheric air into the flared intake of fine gauze screens which through a box baffle A B Reynolds number to the satisfactory value of 290.C... drag. The author's acknowledgments are also due to the following. These tunnels may have round. 1791 and 1853 Beavan and Hyde. Ae. in. An = A preliminary description of this tunnel is included by kind permission of the Aeronautical Research Council. as by dotted lines in the figure. the condition of free flight will be simulated. 2640. By (vi) of the preceding article with a 1.C. & M. it will be described * in some detail. No. . the adjustable walls con may verge to a throat.R. and pitching moment at the small incidences of interest in connection with high Mach numbers.AERODYNAMICS [CH. For measurements of lift. the permissible chord of the aerofoil increased. into a long divergent diffuser D. A. If they are shaped to lie along streamlines appropriate to the aerofoil in the absence of walls. per sq. Being of outstanding interest and suitable for wide reproduction.R. or other sections. in. where the stream attains to the velocity of sound and creates a shock wave which has a beneficial effect in steadying the flow upstream. and best use made of the restricted crosssectional area of the tunnel. The downstream end of the tunnel is surrounded by a distributing box or pressure chamber C. Nos. should be large and pumping plants powerful in order to provide runs of sufficient duration at reasonable intervals. whose papers have been read: Bailey and Wood. Rept. Article 65). The section Fig. is 17 J in. are made from opposite indicated raise the turbulence metal strip and can be adjusted separately to streamline forms. the permissible aerofoil chord is 5 in.C. by 8 in. A.000 (cf. pressed air from a large reservoir and exhausts it through injector about 42 millimetres wide. Rept. Towards the outlet. A vertical rectangular form has been developed at the National Physical Laboratory for experiments on aerofoils under twodimensional conditions. square.R. A. the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil.R. parallel. . which receives com slots J. and these walls are flat and The narrow walls. this gives a Reynolds number of 18 million at a Mach number of 08. 1944. 6622. 09 can be produced by an injector of 8090 Ib. No. per sq. but only a moderate pressure is called for. by means of closely spaced micrometer screws. 1942 and Lock and Beavan. and the plane of the figure is parallel to the wide sides. * .
III A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS more than 107 aerofoil of twice the above chord can be tested at zero incidence with only manageable difficulties. g Adjustment Walls. approximately freeair shape for a nonlifting aerofoil is u 3 determined in steps.empty. that lower Hj Pi The roof and floor alone are adjustable in shape. the wider sides remaining flat. but for brevity and the side opthe upper surposite face of the aerofoil clarity will " be referred to as roof Q J3 the and its opposite surface as the floor.0 Reynolds number at need to 4 million. as follows. Inserting the aerofoil varies the pressures along roof and floor . the required shape is neither simple nor predictable. Owing to thickening boundary . increasing the J O 1 JW . but it is easily arrived at by experiment.9 layers along all four sides and the compressible nature of the flow. The . The roof and are first floor give sure (zero longitudinal pressure gradient) adjusted to constant pres If B ftg S % fl * 3 8 with the tunnel . of For various reasons these tunnels are usually vertical.
the peak aerofoil effect opposite the is called solid blockage. The increment of speed at the edge of the boundary layers of the roof and floor is much greater than would by curve (a) exist at the same distance from the aerofoil in free flight and indi cates the difficulty experienced by the air in flowing past the aerofoil in the presence of the tunnel. 42B. (b) pressure along As a second the roof and floor step.BLOCKAGE IN SUBSONIC TUNNEL. Blockage is then eliminated. Hence. The last step gives effect to a theoretical calculation by Taylor and Goldstein concerning compressible flow between two parallel one flat and the other corrugated. from the constant values found empty tunnel. A greater speed becomes But the essential point is that the flow past possible in the tunnel. and the maintained effect behind. 42B. Finally. a wall shaped to lie along free streamlines should exhibit. which accords approximately with absence of constraint. flat wall . under certain conditions. as illustrated of Fig. *** adjusted in shaPe to g* ve constancy aerofoil.108 AERODYNAMICS for the [CH. onehalf the pressure changes caused along a flat wall by a disturbance. This showed that. 42B. the wake blockage. ' ' (a) Pressure along streamline wall. ^^^ of pressure along them. onehalf of the pressure distribution along the flat wall is caused by the corrugation of the other wall and onehalf walls. respectively (the factor constant pressure with the tunnel empty and with it containing the O5 is for greater accuracy replaced by 06). the pressure distributions on roof and floor being reduced to curve (b) of Fig. This is termed blockage . the amount of readjust ment necessary being accurately noted from the graduated heads of the micrometer screws used for the purpose. by the constraint which the flat wall itself exerts on the flow. . the roof and floor are set to shapes approximately midway between those for aerofoil. The roof and floor of the tunnel adjusted to constant pressure with the tunnel empty are regarded as flat in this sense. back part of the tunnel requires widening in the presence of the FIG. and linear variation of pressure change with shape is assumed. the Clearly. under these conditions.
The location of quantities is distinguished below by use of N these letters as suffixes. by pumps. except that it would require to be enclosed or specially designed to take account of the large drop of pressure in the tunnel. In Fig. which is open to the atmosphere or region of lower pressure at R. or incidences. but is different if a lift exists. A test of the sufficiency of the measures adopted is described in Article 66C. 42c the reservoir or region of higher pressure is at O. 66B. a large exaggeration due to tunnel interference having been removed. they are kept very small. The Supersonic Tunnel Raising the injector pressure of a subsonic tunnel of the type Tunnels that just described fails to increase its speed appreciably. as well as for considerably different Mach numbers with the same The shape of the roof is the same aerofoil. and a convergent nozzle leads through a throat T to a long divergent duct D. to which the above Free streamline description applies. lift of the aerofoil per unit length midway between the side walls can also be determined by connecting a multipletube manometer to a line of holes in the roof and in the floor and subtracting the integrals of the pressure changes so recorded this known method is illustrated quantitatively in Chapter VII. The principle of this further step will appear in later chapters. and reference may be made to the papers cited for the best method of shapes for a which is application. and an approximate process is adopted.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 109 the aerofoil should now be characteristic of free flight. lifting aerofoil involve bending the axis of the tunnel. Forces are actually measured by wake exploration drag and by pressure plotting the aerofoil for lift and moment. only a few inches in width. Different settings of the roof and floor are required for different aerofoils. and the only question arising is whether an allowance must be made for restricted length. for The . wind speeds in excess of the velocity of sound are actuated provide by connecting them or to receivers evacuated directly to large reservoirs of compressed air. as that of the floor for an aerofoil of symmetrical section at zero incidence. An Aerodynamic balance could be used to weigh the force components on the aerofoil as with an ordinary wind tunnel. Suffix refers to air sufficiently removed . Methods of Measurement. inconvenient. Making extravagant use of highpressure storage space. but obviously the aerofoil lift must be supported on a long floor and roof by pressure changes.
The expansion further reduces the temperature of the air. For p little greater than p R the apparatus works as a subsonic tunnel or venturi tube. and therefore the local velocity of sound. For 0. by VQ = Wide scope exists provided p /p R can be made large. 42c. The corresponding minimum value of pT/p follows immediately from (50) of Article 30 as . Increasing p /p R at first merely increases the pressure at the throat and the drop But a limiting condition is reached when VT == # the speed. a large pressure drop at the throat where the speed is a maximum being mostly recovered in the divergent duct. from the vicinity small. = 0527. the pressure related to the by Bernoulli's equation by the The boundary layer will be ignored and the tunnel assumed to run full with density adiabatic law. M. (i) Any further increase of at the throat or to p /p R fails to produce a larger pressure drop make VT exceed a T But if p p R be made . When of the intake for its velocity V to be negligibly a supersonic tunnel is working satisfactorily the entire flow. ( y (r + . mm. and the constant velocity over each crosssection. SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL. as indicated schematically by curve (6) in the figure. (51) of Article 31 gives . is is irrotational . Hence the significant ratio VD /aD is increased on two This ratio will be denoted counts. along which the kinetic energy is gradually reduced. Supersonic speeds result from the air expanding more rapidly than the crosssectional area of the duct. pPo = mm. apart from a thin boundary velocity to layer. FIG. This state is indicated schematically by curve (a) in the figure. by (27). further expansion of the air substantially greater than 0473^ occurs along a suitable divergent duct in place of the former compression. T velocity of sound in air of the low temperature then attained at the throat.110 AERODYNAMICS [CH.
14'7. M = ^/2 appears as a matter of recent experience to be to the position along the 10 and 20. An To plotted in Fig. respectively. C = (iii) Now the mass flow through every crosssection must be the same. neglecting the boundary layer. for Putting p /pD = approximately the lowest Mach number at which the flow through a supersonic tunnel is sufficiently stable for accurate experiments made. between 3 and have been obtained in practice. approximate value is for the constant coefficient is find the expansion of the tunnel area required for a given value of M . it is the tunnel beyond the throat will PRESSURE ALONG SUPERSONIC TUNNEL. remembering that the second term in the curly brackets equal to (&vla )*> the expression can be changed to with the understanding that duct at which the pressure is 4. yields M = 215 and 260. Greater values. Hence. 42D. example. Let ST be the crosssectional area of the throat. At the other extreme. For any value * PolPR greater than that required to secure FT = a r the mass flow per second through the tunnel remains constant. in which and then SD /5T (ii) The particular manner chosen to expand FIG. and it gives p lpD = yv l = 3J. and from (i) to be ~ Y . It will be denoted by C. . This result applies to all subsonic tunnels of the type considered 05 and 42D. folpo is fi rst found from from(iv). M applies pD . Substituting for C from (iii).III A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 111 is and.
for. not be increased. Illustrative Results numbers are sparse and Published experiments of aeronautical interest at high largely confined to twodimensional Mach tests. For quantitative twodimensional work with larger apparatus. a battery of long boiler shells of moderate diameter suggesting together with pumps of substantial power. say. in pressure curve along a tunnel which /> R is not greater than . .P. the section will be put to best use if made deeply rectangular in shape. p' is the discontinuous curve appropriate to a pressure shock wave forming at B . In Fig. (c) shows an earlier failure due to a still Irrotagreater value of /> R (b) . But for visual purposes in a small laboratory a modest a small equipment will pressures of supersonic stream very provide a minute at a time. subsonic tunnel. somewhere within if pR and travel upstream towards the p throat if p R is increased further. tional flow is possible only as far front. the necessarily brief time of a run even at a comparatively small Mach number.112 then fix AERODYNAMICS [CH. <Throat Distance FIG. duct. and also to lengthen sufficiently large. provided po/fa is From this point of view. in the position of the experimental station along the divergent Correction is required on account of the boundary layer. 66C. It will M jet. 42B.L. But the small tunnel enables large variations of to be obtained M readily by employing alternative divergent ducts. The flow can remain irrotational throughout the length only if the shock wave is likely to occur pressure p' at S' also satisfies (iv). but a shock wave can be expected in will M as the wave pR < p' . 42E. (a) is the continuous A D > f . or fitted with adjustable sides as described for the N. possible at a fixed Displacing the station is size of the along the divergent duct is usually inconvenient. If downstream SHOCK WAVE IN SUPERSONIC TUNNEL. the issuing be seen that only one value of experimental station along a given tunnel. Downstream of the experimental station the duct expands further some continuous manner to a maximum crosssectional area S' before discharging into the atmosphere or lowpressure receiver. the reservoirs (in the common case of tunnels exhausting into the atmosphere) should be capable of withstanding air many atmospheres and possess a large capacity.
42F gives the drag curves for certain symmetrical aerofoils of three different thickness ratios (maximum thickness of section expressed in terms of the chord) tested at zero inci dence through a range of CD high subsonic speeds. number depending on the what is known as the compressi* Mtty or shock stall.L.. the lefthand side of Fig. at c some critical Mach u os o* 07 os rt section. Thus the test on the * Lock and Beavan. for which the corresponding correction is relatively small.) by streamlining the walls. remains almost constant until. 42F. but it is clear that after a peak value CD decreases as indicated M < small the figure. loe. after . tunnel described in Article 66A. Curve (b) applies to 12in. cit. 42c reproduces some of the results of an investigation * of the reliability in this connection of the small N.Ill A] illustrations EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 113 The way. Supersonic tests are difficult to carry out for 14. rapidly some tests suggest to five or more times its value for incompressible flow. 085 CHECK ON STREAMLINING WALLS. of both with streamlined walls. The determination matter of first of the critical Mach number is evidently a importance and likely to be affected by the presence of tunnel walls. 09 ro ^ rs KM? re w 2 . in.P. there occurs . increases very The curyes (a) (fe) (c) are for 8ymmetrical aerofoils in ascending order of thickness.. . and the fair agreement reached as to the critical Mach number for the given aerofoil section with a test employing a muchreduced chord.. now given are no more than typical in a qualitative As a first example. though not to its qualitatively on the righthand side of initial value. an aerofoil chord of 12 and curve (c) with one 5 in. There CD . 42c. Fig. ^ FIG. 106. CRITICAL MACH NUMBERS. as already mentioned. chord with the walls shaped to give constant pressure in the absence of the aerofoil. .> p. Comparison shows the magnitude of the correction achieved in a rather extreme case (the depth of the tunnel being only 17 J in. Curve (a) was obtained with 0*65 FIG. .
The stall is easily caused to occur early by employing a bluff section e. smaller aerofoil can be regarded with some confidence as approximating to freeair conditions. The initial increase is of special importance in the design of airscrews. as illustrated in Fig. and by shaping the profile to minimise the maximum velocity attained by the wind in flowing past. It can also be delayed to some extent wave at circa by reducing thickness ratio.* The wave may be fitted changes the Bernoulli constant for flow passing through it. and the maximum liftdrag with any aerofoil obtainable has a muchreduced value. In a tunnel. a circular cylinder gives a shock = 045. recovery of lift is poor.g. SHOCK STALL. With further increase of Mach number the wave penetrates more deeply into the stream and becomes rapidly displaced backward. Beyond the fairly thin velocity of sound. drag remains ratio high. creating the compressibility wake already noted. by visually inspecting the flow It is possible to gain a preliminary idea of the nature of the shock stall under suitable illumination . the investigation illustrates the care that should be taken to establish the validity of windtunnel experiments in general. 42n. for this reason highspeed tunnels opposite the aerofoil. The critical with glass sides Mach number is associated with the generation of a shock wave. but the shock stall causes a rapid loss of lift. * See frontispiece. and experiment becomes more difficult.114 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 42F. . formed in front of the body. FIG. which extends from the aerofoil for some distance into the stream and casts a shadow. At supersonic speeds a shock wave is M . Fig. Apart from its immediate interest. increases strongly at first. a stage is soon reached when it extends right across to the roof. 42H illustrates the nature of the lift curve obtained for a CL cambered aerofoil at a small angle of incidence. These considerations apply not only to models but equally to any exposed attachment used to support them in the stream or to explore the flow in their vicinity. 66D. The Pitot Tube at Supersonic Speeds The speed of supersonic tunnels is inferred from the static pressure drop at the experimental station as obtained from a hole in the wall.
the formula /p\2/7 is.e. for irrotational compressible flow.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS 115 However. part of an infinite plane shock wave which is stationary and normal to the wind. with a minimum of analytical complication. Through the very small thickness the velocity of the air is diminished pressure and density to p v p r increased from p. the nature of the phenomena occurring at very high speeds. only the bluntly rounded apex of the cone. and the pressure at a front stagnation point. Rankine's Relationship. p Up to the the pressure and density wave and beyond it are related by the adiabatic law. Fig. be the mass of air crossConsider unit area of the wave. entropy on penetrating the wave. a pilot tube may be used in experiment. the flow is isentropic. in m pressure at the rate pvkinetic energy is lost at the rate . immediately in front of the mouth of tfre tube. Simplification arises from the legitimate assumption that though the wave is in fact flatly conical. in front of the pitot tube. 42i shows. 42i.I) (52) of Article 31 gives for irrota To much the same approximation.7 (MI. to differ considerably the shock wave formed in front causing P from the pitot pressure wave. If p denotes the static pressure of the oncoming wind upstream of the in approximate terms. i. and that this may be treated as plane and normal to the direction of motion. The formula may also be used to estimate the speed of an aircraft diving at a supersonic speed. The theory is due to Rankine and Rayleigh and is summarised below. 5 \pl and the loss of pitot head implied in (81) becomes large at Mach numbers considerably greater than unity. is likely to be effective. and let In doing work against the increase of ing this area per second. and then a special formula is required to deduce the speed from its pressure P. / () tional flow = \2/7 0. partly in view of the importance of the case and partly as illustrating.6. but the air increases from V to V l9 and its A A J c FIG.
' 1 _ Trans. . gives PI _ (Y P . Roy. 160. From whence M F* _ = il oF8 _ y/> * Phil.PlVl + lm(V* F x') + ^ VJ.p = m(V  . Pl . that pV tum . vol.) = ~(pv.  FO. fP 1 \ p Pi\ ' P!/ The principle of the conservation of energy demands.P) (V + v.i)# + (Y + \)p + (Y ( Y +  i) Pi (v) or approximately Pi WilP) (PilP) P + + G' 1 (ii) Pi 6(pi/p) ~ P and (iii).pw + \(p + A) m = pF = Pl (V . i. and the energy at the rate * r by Article 30. 1870. (iii) Hence (i) reduces to This is the Rankine. (t ^) =O (i) Now the increase of pressure is equal to the rate of loss of momenper unit area.. .e.* or RankineHugoniot. . therefore. The Pitot Pressure. . since F x. Soc.116 AERODYNAMICS air also loses internal [CH. relationship between It readily the pressures and densities on the two sides of the wave. (ii) so that the loss of kinetic energy can be expressed as i(A and .
A. . closely. I = *V _ ' Pi*V + ^+T 1 ] < vii > Now. p and (ix) reduces to * (81). 84. the pitot pressure P can be obtained by Articles 30 and 31 in terms of quantities on the far side of the wave as since the flow Equating (vii) between the wave and the and (viii). vol. Soc. Rayleigh. pitot tube is isentropic. / P\ y (p) Vl ( v + 1 T fr . Roy. multiplying through by ^J we have finally p 4Y p (vi).. v p I) A + T + Yl and. Proc.Ill A] EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS (v). 1910. this 117 On substituting for p/p x from gives (vi) In like manner M 1KX . M is obtained from pjp by With the approximation 6 14 for y.
then upon Aerodynamics. Article 46) and the theory formance and minimise structural weight. Many of seaplanes. James Forrest Lecture. 118 . * Cf. per brake h. Description of the latter type must refer to Airscrew Theory. The chapters. Institution of Civil Engineers. mathematically utility of wings of this kind was first realised by Horatio Phillips and Most aircraft avoid flapping as a their principle by Lanchester. But in no department of aviation . as with aeroplanes. highperformance flying first waited upon engine design. which has already received preliminary of which. and so is deferred.* whilst now further improvement is equally concerned with Aerodynamics and new methods of propulsion. following the work of the pioneers. Examples and flying boats. or in respect of their lifting surfaces which then have a relative motion. Useful flying depends acutely upon extremely light power plant. and large units. the principles established also apply in a general way to autogyros helicopters. Specialised development of reliable engines has been remarkable. Aircraft wings are much more heavily loaded than those of birds to improve per and discussion (cf. It may be said that. the subject of later resembles that of the electric motor. but apply equally to the seaplane and flying boat with modifications in detail only. now weigh less than l\ Ib. Relf. These depend for lift entirely upon in Fig.p. Investigations of the present chapter are for the most part expressed in terms of the aeroplane. as with autogyros and helicopters. complete with metal airscrews of variable pitch. No attempt is made in this book to describe the work of the pioneers even a cursory record of their gallant and brilliant achievements would occupy much space. craft are illustrated motion through the atmosphere either as a whole. Aircraft Heavierthanair of airships have been given in Fig. 7. 1936. 43. matter of structural and mechanical expediency.Chapter IV AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 67. All heavierthanair flying depends first and foremost on the lift of wings of birdlike section.
whether by or control. The layouts of the craft illustrated. as yawing. IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 119 control. adjustable from the pilot's cockpit. Safety in the air is a first consideration and depends notably on an inherent stability of the craft. however. Horizontal rudders.CH. 43. Disturbances arise from many causes and a continuous adjustment takes place through either its inherent stability or judicious use of controls by the pilot. tending to conserve any of the various forms of flight to which it may be set. perhaps. gives directional control in a familiar way. Study of an aircraft in these circumstances has for immediate objects the determination of equilibrium and control and the estimation of performance. Early study of the elements of flight is desirable. are hinged to a fixed or only slowly adjustable tail plane. It is assumed. to obtain a general view which will be a guide to the practical aims of the theories that follow in subsequent chapters. that the aircraft in straight flight has a plane of symmetry. were their experiences more valuable than in relation to means of and here especially. in regard and positions of the stabilising surfaces considered in conjunction with the location of the centre of gravity and the moments of inertia about the three principal axes. producing a change of yaw. and only first principles will occupy us for the present. rolling the craft about A fourth control is provided by the engine its longitudinal axis. It is assumed to persist in the present chapter. and angular velocity. These enquiries can quickly assume a rather complicated character. Various assumptions are introduced in order to avoid detail. There has long existed a successful Theory of Stability due to to the proportions Bryan and Bairstow. for instance. a characteristic that can hold exactly only in the . called elevators. and control attitude or incidence to the flight path in side elevation. attached to a fixed fin. Orientation of the craft in plan to the flight path is known as yaw. This is termed pitch. are indicated and named in Fig. Flight consequently proceeds in a series of oscillations or wide corrected curves. 68. throttle. may tribute be paid to the Wright Brothers. express a convenient and usual (though not the only) manner in which the principles established are given effect. Control surfaces. and angular motion that varies pitch is called pitching: The ailerons move differentially. An aircraft cannot maintain exactly a steady state of motion. and also on the provision of adequate means of control. Nevertheless. The rudder. uniform flight is closely approximated to for stability short periods under favourable atmospheric conditions.
120 .
~ a 121 .
and by fixed weights. those of or equipment which depend little on aircraft size. Flight in this plane is known as symmetric flight roll. . Asymmetric flight. These characteristics are implied in the standard coefficients determined from experiments on models in wind tunnels. in straight that in every case L W. assuming the same gas and a constant ceiling. Consider two series of geometrically similar aircraft. components For the airships. The continuous on generation of Aerodynamic lift by aeroplanes and flyingboats. unduly since the velocity of every head wind must be subtracted in full and it is also their prerogative. a sequence comparison with the . the other hand. yawing. and the investigation and performance is consequently straightforward. is postponed. i. though in is considerably affected by variations in practice this relationship and let this W . High speed is especially necessary for aircraft. where S is the wing area and w the wingloading /L will be W/S = LjS in straight. t be sufficiently large for the materials of construction to 3 oc / be used economically. which. absence of airscrew torque. Some simple unsteady motions are referred to briefly. The lift of the aeroplanes depends on speed as well as size. and the transient air loads to which it gives rise. Except for temporary purposes. and are used both in the present chapter But a preliminary discussion technical performance calculations. has the advantage of explaining the reason for the above distinguishing features. being most economically and safely attained in their case. but adequate study of manoeuvring. so Denote size by /. the total weight. rolling. which includes such common motions as turning and side slipping.122 AERODYNAMICS [CH. provided the true air speed V is not decreased. = and level flight. of airships and another of aeroplanes. The and the drag D should clearly be minimised in tare weight W t lift L. Since L/w oc l\ requisite structural strength ' ' W t t W t constant in their case only if w oc L 1/3 . results in peculiarities which have no counterpart in other forms of transport. level flight. can also be uniform. but is equal to Sw. Then approximately. lift is un69. The duty of an aircraft is to carry a large useful or disposable load from one place to another quickly and at low cost in fuel. though of less technical accuracy. which readily suffice to reveal the main features of and in aeroplane flight. L oc /*.e. and crosswind force must all be absent. This slow increase of wing . whence /L is approximately constant. in more general terms introduces an alternative method. Aerodynamic of their equilibrium necessary for airships. yaw.
The question of interest is At what speed (if any) does concerned. lift is derived by the same principle. compare Neglecting Aerodynamical scale effects. Turning to aeroplanes for an answer. as will be illustrated in due course.. : D/L become prohibitively large ? first to note that only part of their drag. 15 Ib. As a matter of experience. This form is also restricted. but the air flown through is affected unequally. . cannot indefinitely increase Aeroplanes in size as. This action communicates kinetic energy to the atmosphere at . a Po being the standard density of the air at sealevel and V. be seen by reference to an artificial system in which the action of the wings in generating lift is represented as imparting a uniform downward velocity v to all elements of a mass of air per second. the indicated air speed. called the total parasitic drag D P can be expressed in the form (i). It may be mentioned at once that in 1903 the loading per square foot of wing area was 2 Ib. size arises geometrically from the linear reduction of the ratio of surface area to volume. but the disparity in gross WJL weight between practicable airships and the largest aeroplanes capable of realising acceptable values of /L is decreasing. theoretically. arises in a complicated manner and takes an drag entirely different form. The fact tha^t small indicated air speeds give very small values of D/L is without interest because of head winds. whilst now wingloadings of about \ cwt. we have = m . so that L mv. (the Wright by 19334 (the end of the biplane period) it had reached and a year or two later J cwt. to the upper twothirds of their speed range owing to increased form drag at the large incidences necessary for lower speeds. per square foot are contemplated. aeroplanes or flyingboats exceeding biplane). viz. 50 tons in weight can realise as small values of as can airships of 23 times the weight. as will be investigated later. Adequate investigation must be postbut the principle underlying its peculiar nature may readily poned. Thus 2 The evident advantage of increasing alternatively D/L oc F. but is evidently not an unreasonable requirement within limits. Thus it is reasonable to the two types on the basis of lift. But pF 2 oc p F. the drag of the airships W t is given by D = CpF where C is a a / . In the actual system. //.. can airships. are in use and f cwt. The remaining part of the drag. (i) a nondimensional coefficient and constant for the shape 2 D\L oc pF /7.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 123 loading with lift entails faster landing speeds for big aircraft. the induced Df (Article 59A).
the formula for the total drag of each of these similar aeroplanes may be taken as D= where scale effects D< + DP =  + BpV#. the rate \mv* which must be equal to the rate of doing work against i. series. Then another expression for the induced drag can be constructed from the reflection that it must be equal to the resolved part of the Aerodynamic force on the wings. which is sensibly equal to the lift. .124 t AERODYNAMICS [CH. . v' v mv ' Comparison with becomes (ii) gives = and the second expression A = i~ L volume ' ' ' ' (iii) Considering change of size and speed with constant shape. Substituting in (iii) and writing When it into account. whence it D D D = ( ^v. becomes possible to take the unequal motion of the air Thus (iv) will be verified to have the correct form.e. travelling with the wings. oc F7 f whence (ii) can be written 4 \k$v*l* and combining with (iii) gives . viz. w/p. the of air affected each second. (v) A and B are constant coefficients in so far as Aerodynamical effects and incidence For any aeroplane of the on form drag can be neglected. . Ignoring the effects of viscosity. The ' alternative expression is _ = v' v v' = \v. D = t v ~ A for 1/2&. (ii) downward velocity of the mass m in the vicinity of the wings. to 4 V. and assume v'jV to be small. the velocity v is essentially residual and cannot come into being suddenly at the wings we must assume that a pressure field. / and L are constant in straight. . . . starts the mass into motion some distance in front and leaves it with the Let v' be the uniform velocity v only at some distance behind. .
larger than the speed of a 200ton airship (about though 100 m. that intermediate speed actually decreases . no great difference exists between the coefficients B and C specified on the surface area. but the aeroplanes have less values of DjL than would When V much is airships at such speeds because their surface area for a given lift further advantage to be derived from increasing smaller.. . and the speed at which far as F. of a large margin of engine power which must in any case be carried in order .). much to provide for doing altitude quickly work against gravity .. or part. in the form . Assuming clean cantilever wings and rigid airship hulls.4x1 //A 1/3 14 (B) . This indicated air speed for minimum drag will be denoted by F0 Thus the essential peculiarity of an aeroplane or flyingboat as a means of transport is that minimum drag occurs at a certain in other words. D when For a given shape of increases. Aeroincurring considerably more than the planes fly faster than F. (vii) (viii) 1 . at a sufficient rate to gain Fio the first term on the right of is i becomes small in comparison with the second.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 126 level flight. V V < F 1/2 . and to be a minimum differentiation with respect to for that aeroplane when .oto minimum value it is (x) is of Z)/L a constant for that w limitations altitude can be varied. . much greater than A wingloading is thus perceived. a p F^(22/15) (vi) gives very closely * = / 1/4 . minimum drag. imposed on the increase of realised can be adjusted in so Subsequent calculations will show that w keep Fi0 too small for lowof aircraft flying. but putting to use the whole. so long as i t0 a / is proportional to the wing area. and (ix) can be written aeroplane. it is judged by modern standards speed. . since pF . t minimum D/L = It is useful to notice that.. = .h.p. when required. for which the value of D\L would be the same. and the drag of (v) aeroplanes tends to become more nearly expressible in the form (i). pF 1 gives the drag ( } and so that minimum D = 2L\^AB 2^/AB. Thus we have that the shape.
T the resultant thrust of the airscrews. L f the gas lift. tail and airscrew struts. in order to economise in the weight of large lightly loaded wings. but possibly above the sum of the drags of envelope.h. The first term on the right of when V is much less than Ft0 i if predominates. the total weight.G. Let this drag at velocity V relative to the wind be D. their drag would become prohibitively large. Airship in Straight Horizontal Flight on Even Keel can be trimmed by movement of ballast or fuel. the line of action of T . if small airships are admitted for comparison). Aeroplanes become inferior to airships on the present basis at speeds less than 100 m. aeroplanes could be designed to really slowly. because the envelope and fin drag. of volume of the envelope . and its line of action is appreciunit. D is . the C. (Fig. 44.p. [CH..p. The centre of buoyancy B.h. a by transference of air between forward and aft ballonets. the total b. On an even keel there is least resistance to motion. of the engines x the of the airscrews. on the other hand. 70. (or 75 m.e.126 AERODYNAMICS (v) . is above the centre couple where H is the thrust h. ably below the centre of volume.. For steady rigid airship dirigible balloon A W rectilinear horizontal flight W =L' and t T =D T satisfies TV = H 550 i. The reason is partly that already fly stated and partly due to B becoming greater than C when. the clean cantilever design suitable for substantial wingloadings gives place first to external bracing and finally to biplane design. W FIG. (G) is low.p. 44). It is also required that no resultant efficiency act.h. gondolas.p.
An Aero . or 025 per cent. The drag . t + d 40 ft. per ton are usually supplied. of the total 15. 46. consider steady straight horizontal flight. Direct model experiment can give only a rough estimate of fullscale drag this is matter for semiempirical theory and fullscale experiment. coefficient varies in a complicated manner through the wide range of Reynolds number (7?) occurring in practice (from very at zero speed to 6 x 10 8 if length of hull be used in specifying R). 45 gives the normal pressure difference O2 0J 2 pv (BOTTOM) 10(TOP) NOSE 01 TAIL FIG. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG AIRSHIP.p. of the whole. perhaps. pitched at a Associated with this is an Aerodynamic pitching moment Re = M . G is forward of B. 71.. moments about G and using the notation of the figure Taking Dd or If there is L'x = + d) = Wx. W length. x has increased owing to the pitch. but only slightly in a practical For example. From 15 to 25 b. D(t case. but with the airFig.000 lb.h. along the top and bottom of the hull of Fig.. constitutes only 80 per cent. T = D = when x = 179 ft. might be 150 tons. . 46. no tail lift.. showing Aerodynamic lift (L) in the latter case. when level and when 10. ferring to Fig. Airship Pitched Now ship pitched nose up..IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 127 acting axially. 7 (c).
and a maximum value will evidently occur at some particular a and V. = = It appears that L may here 47. Little speed is lost. assuming the elevators to be sufficiently large to corresponding permit the last equation to be satisfied. From Fig. at a small angle of pitch. maintaining the pitch. in the preceding article. (1) SPEED Loss (m.L D l ~ = 0. available this maximum percentage would be less. but course. but the decrease in speed will be large With less engine power noted. 46 T sin a L L L' D T cos a W= t Tt + Dd + M L'x.h. FIG. giving. as The T equation as before. of lengths. etc. 47. exceed 12 per cent. so that V must diminish. + + t + are not the same.h. speed has been estimated as in Fig. for example.p. 1 (c) had L' of possible Aerodynamic lift against 4200 . on the other hand. denoted by these symbols must satisfy the same h. 46. mum O15 157 tons and maxiThe airship illustrated in Fig.p. tends to increase.. the curve b. decreased gas resulting from loss of gas or considereither general . With increase of a. Thus L increases on account of a. acts : at a distance behind G. onethird of lift. dynamic force / L it exerted by the horizontal fins and elevators. but decreases on account of 7.128 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the maximum Aerodynamic fly Airships cabrS (tail down) : o 10 20 so 4O commonly for three reasons lift.) Fia. of '.p.
to prevent the elevators from holding the craft to the required pitch for equilibrium.. with a loss of gas that may be needless. 73. inclined at 6 to the horizon L' cos 6 L' sin 6 since + L = W cos 6 + T = Wsin Q + > D.D. Temperature lag in the gas. described in Article 17. depending upon the fore and aft position of the fault. the craft rises until the gasbags fill. A. During such a climb L must gradually be increased. (2) transient overload at the beginning of a long flight due to fuel. to compensate for decreasing gas lift. full. rapid climb to a given altitude by discharge of ballast entails subsequent slow Such waste is ascent. (3) failure of a gasbag. 5 . zero pitch. The engines now do work against gravity in respect of the excess ballast. l ^' Aeroplane in Straight Level Flight > The vertical position of the C. when positive pitch to the upwardly inclined flight path provides Aerodynamic lift. supporting excess ballast until the gas has time to complete expansion appropriate to the new pressure and temperature. minimised by Aerodynamic climb. In the last case the shift of the centre of buoyancy may be sufficient. and an equal mass of gas is valved. Aerodynamic Climb of an Airship While the gasbags remain only partly results in slow attainment of ultimate altitude. of a heavierthanair craft varies considerably with type. Resolving along and perpendicular to the path.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 129 able and sharp change of temperature. but longitudinal position is restricted by l ( *h ' ' 1 ^ FIG. The conditions for steady climb at any instant are simply stated. an airship can be If ballast is discharged during flight at steered to higher altitudes.G. 72. however. L is perpendicular to the direction of motion. Thus.
^V*S (86) (87) (88) where S flight. and DB its value at standard within the range.... the area of the wings and CL their lift coefficient. .. . .. excluding the airscrew thrust T and the tail lift L Thus. . .ISO AERODYNAMICS [CH.. r=550#/F . already described. First Approximation. which require to be counteracted by the tail plane.. The above equations present no : diffi culties given adequate data.. acting at G. i. (85) where H is A the total thrust h. travel of the centre of pressure.wing monoplane of weight W the resultant Aerodynamic force on the whole craft.. Fig. r is the liftdrag ratio of the wings only. Aerodynamic conditions... . leads to unstable moments about the C. the drag apart from the wings.. where single . DB is the 'extratowing' drag. Then for steady horizontal at velocity V. . 48 refers to a low. (3) that p is Then the equations become : T = D = 550 H)V Aa = L t W=LW =C l L .. parison with the lift L w of the wings. (2) that the sum total of the lifts of all components of the craft other than the wings and tail plane can be neglected in comand t may be ignored.. (1) that a small compared with / and that Lt can be neglected in comparison with L. f (89) Dw is the drag of the wings according to data appropriate to a Aerodynamic scale within the speed range of the craft..G. It density and a particular speed V' preferably that we neglect scale effects through the flying range will be observed This applies also to the lift curve of the wings. .. (82) (83) (84) . but the of scale.. . . .. L is the lift and clusions.. as before.e. . with leverages as indicated in the figure flight is t .. with these exL tan y is the drag of the whole craft. but they are complicated by technical first approximation follows the assumptions detail. In order to describe the primary characteristics of aeroplane we adopt these simplified expressions together with the further is : approximations W = const. . In the normal case.p. A D= T cos with p = D Aa=LJ + Tt W = L + L + T sin p t . It is assumed that crosswind force and couples about vertical and rectilinear longitudinal axes vanish..
for each shape.. Before the performance of any given aeroplane is examined. for 160. If at constant altitude V changes from V l to V tt the corresponding lift coefficients are related by : C La provided S remains constant.. The W= = .J P F* (93) = = . assuming maximum C L an aspect ratio of 7). becomes (86) z0 = C L . it is necessary to know 5. when CL p is a maximum. the wingloading already introduced. The speed at which CL reaches its maximum value is called the stalland descent occurs. Without special devices the value 15 for CL is not easily exceeded. S.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 131 scale chosen in their case speed. minimum for a particular craft in steady level flight . but the result will express an ideal that the pilot may not quite realise in practice. Incidence is similarly determined. r is conveniently CL curve if it is continuously variable for changing read from an r r may be read from the evolute of a family of such curves.e. But resulting values of wing drag and incidence depend upon shape. i. at low altitude when C L is a maximum. approximate corresponding values of w. 10 7 at minimum even in the case of large monoplanes for which R In terms of w W/S. speed. following table gives. ing speed further loss of speed leads to L w < . In (90) we also omit to take into account variation in airscrew slipstream effects these will be allowed for in estimating H. and span (on the basis of 10 tons. as is from V is a either true or implied in C L S remains constant. In (89) . . If this is constant. 74. for various speeds chosen as minima. is at least that for the minimum flying we ignore loss of weight through consumption of fuel. one flight. 42 of fullscale maximum values of C L for wings of fixed shape. according to the compressedair tunnel. Minimum (86) Flying Speed and Size of Wings of Fixed Shape While. which with present aircraft is imDB2 follows from Z)B1 by the relation plied conventionally in CL .. Cy  (92) These expressions are independent of the shape of the wings or constancy of that shape. Considerations affecting choice of area are discussed in the following three articles. W Typical examples are given in Fig.
G. CL drops from 148 at 183 to 120 at 13. considerably This disadvantage may be offset by an increase that occurs in a wing is in motion only a few feet above the will be recalled that an aerofoil (It ground. when the fuselage or body should be horizontal iii = level flight. ft. The C. and often w exceeds 40 lb. to prevent overturning on the ground. The smallest span given may be regarded as roughly the greatest for which a reasonably light wing structure of sufficient strength could be expected without external To economise on wing bracing. The lift coeffi: YH .G.) At the greater Aerodynamic higher stalling speed upper curve. On the other : minimum 75. seaplanes. high speeds lead to danger in forced landings on unprepared ground. Such comparisons lead to two general conclusions Really low stalling speeds cannot be designed for economically in aeroplanes. indeed. per sq. 34 (aspect ratio 6) for a small aeroplane (5ft. chord) with low lower curve and for a larger craft of stalling speed (48 m.132 AERODYNAMICS [CH. to have w > 20. 42 shows that maximum C L may require the incidence a of the wing to exceed 18. Special devices to reduce such speeds by adapting wing shape are important. therefore. approximately. < cient available for landing less is than the maximum. of the tail plane is usually distant 04 to 05 of the span behind the C.h.) The tail plane may also contribute to lift. for low drag. for high speeds. usually gives an apmaximum lift coefficient between the walls of an preciably greater enclosedsection wind tunnel than in an open jet. or applying brakes. of the craft. due to running the engines at full power with wheels chocked. Now a 0. 49 gives C L illustrated in Fig. scale. unless Further. apparently.P.p. Thus. Landing Conditions Reference to Fig. a nosewheel exists undercarriage wheels must be located considerably in front of the C. hand. maximum C L when A further correction exists in the hands of experienced pilots who . weight and for other reasons it is advisable. to land at 18 would mean a high and heavy under13 is often the economic limit. carriage a curves for the wing Clark Fig. and flyingboats.
At stalling speed the various Aerodynamic controls of a craft tend to become inefficient. value. out the flight path to within a few feet above the flattening ground. Flaps later.* Wing flaps exist in many different forms. Speed is still high after perhaps. 08 One other point must be mentioned. the liftdrag ratio is high.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 133 land aeroplanes with great skill in an unsteady motion. so that the brakes can bring the craft to a standstill within the distance prescribed by the aerodrome. con20 siderably faster . of its applications. They commonly extend along the inner twothirds or so of the span and are retracted * The variablepitch airscrew also provides. Little drag exists and the aeroplane tends to float/ Yet i. is conveniently effected by use of flaps. and this. together with reduction in speed of approach and a further advantage to ' CL would have 07 of its maximum corresponding to be described 76. when by than 11 incidence with the Clark YH wing. so far removed from the stall. 06 04 02 A in. excess over stalling speed (91) less not uncommon. FIG.' pilot therefore ' brings an i. as one and powerful means for restricting landing runs. additional . than the standing angle. It is desirable to have large drag on landing. is per cent. aeroplane descends 10 15" 20 25 30 preparatory to landing. to proceed a considerable distance before actually landing. Moreover. it is essential with high landing speeds to make contact with the ground quickly after flattening out. or 2 less. 49. LIFT CURVES AT Two SCALES FOR CLARK YH AEROFOIL (ASPECT RATIO 6).e.e. re alising landing which are speeds often lower than designers have reason to expect and which 10 scarcely exceed the stalling speeds.
flap type (Partial span. (5) Split type slotted . (3) . . (1) WING FLAPS OF VARIOUS TYPES. increasing the wing area in such cases coefficients are reckoned on the original wing area. Split flap with displacement . 50. or takeoff. U\ Original form slotted .134 AERODYNAMICS [CH. into the wing section except when required for landing. Several forms move aft on opening. and angle by the downward rotation from the withdrawn position. Size is specified by width expressed in terms of the wing chord. (2) Split flap. flap type 20 per cent. (5) 8 10 12 14 16 18 INCIDENCE FIG. Flaps should be located well aft. at 45. slow flying.) (6) (2) at 30. In an early scheme for modifying wing sections during flight. (6) Split with displacement and trailing edge slot. Original form CL and CD (a) (6) at R 17 x 10 6 : 20 per cent. the .
of the an unflapped to leading greater maximum speeds by skin friction reducing and the parasitic of external bracing (cf. but their reverse use is always far have so available to produce aero planes that will land especially slowly. and development tends to continue on these lines. (3) increase of CL beyond 40 per cent. and (4) a great in (2). 50 and 51 relate to split flaps and show (1) a large and approximately crease of constant in 12 14 16 18 INCIDENCE FIG. (2) little effect on stalling angle. 20 and heavy undercarriage. (1) of Fig. and depressed together to assist landing. the stall. crease of drag at large flap . could be employed at large angles between the ailerons but is less effective than the split flap (2) of the same figure. landing the two as monoplane give as lift much maximum four wings biplane. drag Article 69). (3) little at all flying incidences. But the need to retain lateral control kept angles far too small for the attainment of large lift and drag coefficients.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 135 ailerons were rotated together to give maximum liftdrag ratio at each speed before differential use for control. This original type. The dotted curves (b) of Figs. flap type at 45. Thus landing flaps been applied to improve highspeed performance. which was invented (Dayton Wright) in ' ' 1921 and. flap type 10 per cent. wings of a With its aid.at 90. The split flap was adopted generally in 1934 and enabled much of larger wingloadings to be employed without increase speeds. 51. like most ensuing types. leaves the upper surface of the wing undisturbed. enabling high lift to be realised without a high CL YH (a) (b) FULLSPAN FLAPS ON CLARK AEROFOIL AT R = 39 x 10*. 50.
The extra drag is readily seen to be small. with alterwithout undue drag for takeoff. and assumed to have onehalf the basic is effect. airborne just prior to landing. air brakes of various forms were employed in addition to the mechanical brakes fitted to undercarriage wheels. Before flaps came into general use. 50 is shown a type that is more useful for takeoff than for landing. Fix this at 75 m.136 AERODYNAMICS ' [CH. 51 (b). unless the highresistance area exposed is large. area would not be reduced appreciably if the flap were separated from the wing in the form of a simple air brake. ft. Since CL =156.h. lift coefficients of adjustment for the two purposes capable 3 have been obtained with large flaps of this type extendexceeding ing over the full span. but extending over the inner half of the span adjustable to give high lift . but larger angles may be used to augment drag.p. Comparison with Air Brakes. limitation of landing speeds is chiefly with forced landings from low altitudes. so that for the above area . so that c = 563 = 394 The area of the flap = 01 x 5*63 X \ ft. w 5000/14 With the flap. Choose an aeroplane of 5000 Ib. With improved aerodromes. = ft. a cut slot being fitted to the original form (1) and the hinge being displaced backward and downward so that the slot remains At (6) is shown another form closed when the flap is not in use. a journey. For a long normal plate. S=5000/(l564pF') still = D = D = = = 222 sq. a large area for so small a craft unless continuously as is possible with a flap. increase of width much beyond 20 per cent. CD = 19. and the span 39'4 1 11 = Ic* for chord c and aspect ratio 7. ft. with flap. which depends upon the wing area S. X sq. At (4) in natively fairly high Fig. w This is independent of the speed. by a socalled cut ' operational difficulties. Little is to be gained in lift as a rule by increasing flap angles beyond 6070... Hence the very high wingloadings frequently employed for firstline aircraft present a more pressing problem in connection with takeoff than with landing. free along both edges. drop of lift beyond the stall can be mitigated slot through the wing immediately in front of the flap. an increase of 284 Ib. It is easily verified that this supported. incidence the wing shape gives r = 14. r 78 and 641 Ib. important in normal circumstances weight is especially soon after takeoff much reduced by consumption of fuel before landing at the end of in connection . For this reason flaps are commonly lift and high drag for landing. while the craft 357 Ib. Again. of the wing chord is seldom justifiable in view of extra weight and The severe angles. weight with a flap as given by Fig. approximately. At 13 or.
h. readily will be assumed. Tabs may be regarded as very narrow flaps which are fitted close to the trailing edges of control surfaces. craft is let down to the ground quickly. in accordance with (90). Tabs.p. causing the critical angle to occur Thus the early. Power Curves preceding articles it appears that a maximum CL of 20 is This feasible with a large monoplane using a small flap.p. an aeroplane weighing 10 tons. in position. Practical questions regarding aeroplane performance often lead through equations (86)(90) to cubic equations. at minimum speed. projected from the Spoilers. 5* .h. forward part of the upper surface of the wings when the craft is close to the ground and ready to land. and trimming tabs alter the zero positions of controls.p.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 8 137 304 Ib..D. These consist of long narrow strips. Balance tabs are linked to control surfaces to reduce operational effort in another way. 77. TABLE VI A.. giving wheel brakes opportunity to shorten landing run. Extratowing drag is assumed to be assessed at some high speed and to decrease. Operated from the cockpit.h. 111 D = 095pF X = over the wing. and having a minimum flying speed of 60 m. Though themselves of small area. with reciprocating engines totalling 2000 b. servo tabs enable large control surfaces to be rotated (in the opposite sense) with little effort. But they do not permit the craft they split the flow to be brought in slowly. at 75 m. to 110 Ib. partly destroying lift and greatly increasing drag. It also appears that minimum flying speed forms From a better gauge for wing area than landing speed. little greater than the effective drag of 284 Ib. Graphical presenThe process will be illustrated in the case of tation avoids these.
138 AERODYNAMICS of [CH. at At 70 m. mounting to high values at a comparatively early stage. except in locating the wings on the body and in assess FIG. though special to 1500 the present example. 53. but at high speeds quickly. These results. sub sequently it increases. Given the first three columns Table VI.p. while speed increases from 70 to 128 m. 192 is beyond the critical angle.p. subsequent columns are compiled from equations (89) to (92). 52.p. or afterwards. of wings (flaps closed). the body contributes < 7 per cent.h) FIG. 220 m. it contributes 48 per cent. 52. but at first slowly.h. to the total drag. 50 100 150 200 SPEED (m. An effect of to adding decrease DB Dw is to 500 minimum drag the speed for from 128 m. with lowin speed often craft body drag conciooo appears siderably greater proportion. . are fairly typical of modern craft of medium speed and fine lines . The first column is of no interest. and total drag are plotted against speed in Fig.h.h. The variation of B is parabolic within the approximation contained in (90). low may SPEED IN Columns 46 be evaluated before the m p h speed. of body. ing the available for landing. .h.h.p. decreases by more than w CL Drag D D 50 per cent. All quantities relate to altitude.p. in the present example greater parasitic resistance would produce a . greater change.p. defining the characteristics of the wings. to 112 m. as tabulated.
full power not being required.h. that (88) or.p. and then to solve graphically through a short range of speed. the first four rows of the Table sufficient. they will exert more power than is required for horizontal It flight and the craft will climb. to spare at 60 m. It occurs at a small negative incidence of the wings. more Means for ensurgenerally. The curve (a') relates to constantspeed (b) The and assumes a continuously variable pitch. in preparing Fig. less losses through extra drag of aircraft parts within their slipstreams. (84) can be satisfied at all flight speeds.p. ing place at top speed and tail lift to be changed so as to satisfy (84) only If steady conditions are to result. Curve (a) gives the thrust h. the that can be reached under standard conditions in speed straight horizontal flight . maximum Alternatively.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 139 thrust h. But to answer also applies. viz. The liftdrag ratio of the wings is then 15 far less than the maxi Top Speed The h. would have been for future reference. remain practically unchanged from the value appropriate Speed to the tail lift. Now assume flight to be taking this will be described later. to the further analysis below. with a fixed pitch. if it is exceeded the craft must descend.p. 79. speed must at some lower speed. (see p. only top speed been required. It will be seen that the power available at intermediate speeds is greatly reduced by a fixed pitch. of lift coefficient.h. If the engines are left at full throttle. There is only 100 h. and consequently the work done per second in over . 53. airscrews in the h. of course. required curve between 70 and 60 to flaps in use. are equal at 211 m. which comes to the same thing.p.. Rate of Climb has been assumed.p/s available and required maximum mum .h. 53. 07. available from fixedpitch airscrews. Complete curves have been obtained isolated questions it is economical to anticipate the result from inspection of the character of the craft. let the craft be flying at some speed lower than its with engines throttled. This remark or.p. It is by no means impossible for an aeroplane to have wings equal to a lower horizontal speed than the The dotted elbow power units can manage 78. required for horizontal flight is plotted as curve in Fig. will Now let the engines be opened fully out without modifying tail lift. Had in craft of larger speed range the difference is greater. decrease to an appropriate extent.p. 126).p. applies m.
curve (c) gives the reserve power for fixed mum The reserve power speed. Correction for Speed With the forces acting simplifications already discussed. the relation being 6 (97) . 80. For steady climbing L* = Q. 95 ) c C C c (96) It is seen that lift requires to same incidence. . per min. 54 shows the on an aeroplane whose flight path is inclined upwards at angle 6 to the horizon. Fig. must produce climb.no AERODYNAMICS [CH. but this is not the maximum angle. attaining a maximum of 750 thrust h. but it is zero at small at mini pitch airscrews.p. Hence the additional power A close approximation to the rate of climb is often obtained from the assumption that speed is the same for given incidence. The angle of climb is sin. and v is the rate of climb in ft. The rate of climb is then a speed maximum. when v climb is expressed in ft. 53. flight Climbing conditions are distinguished by suffix c. %? V S = W cos 6 T = 550 H /V = D + W sin * ' ( .p./W maximum.h. together with the coefficients appropriate to the constant incidence. Comparison will be made with horizontal at the same angle of incidence of the wings. : v = 550 H. H available at a given speed over and above that required for horizontal flight at that speed. at 128 550 X 750/22400 184 ft. remain unchanged. whether climbing or flying horizontally. per sec. and it is only assumed that weight. In Fig.p. and the maximum rate of climb of the craft is 1104 ft. Then if f is the excess thrust h. Rate of m. Climbing. per min.1 (184/187) = = = 56. be less than for horizontal flight at the This means a lower speed. per sec. . and may be (94) attains a large maximum at some intermediate with a craft of large speed range. coming drag will hardly change.
and then practical difficulties in design would prevent its taking up the corresponding horizontal flight. The approximate estimate in the of the preceding article can be written form H =H+ c Wv/55Q or jl = + 1 y: y = +r 1 a sin 0. and 15 climbing angles are 04. Thus. certain second angles given by the equation lack practical interest. and 34 per cent. that for all practical for maximum and 53. (98) being the liftdrag ratio of the complete aeroplane at the incidence considered. . we find to flight of the kind under discussion. tiating [ ~ f sin m 6(cos + r" sin 9) + fj ' This is a maximum when sin 0(cos +r sin 0) == f ra or i. felt A difficulty is sometimes for a range of values of C /H there are there is. 55 gives the form of (98) for various values of ra . Hence it is a conservative estimate. Hc jH = 2 and ra = The small angle refers 15. of the type known as a helicopter. and that C /H lies between 50 aeroplanes It will H . writing H with the implications of (98). 10. At the large angle the craft would be almost hovering.e. and would be of different form. 12. J ra tan a + tan f ra = = .no solution. Thus.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 141 and we have LJL . .. ~ when * tan be seen. respectively. from the figure or otherwise. approximately. so that in climbing flight the thrust can be expressed as T =D c / c l 1 + W sin \ = D cos 6j 6(1 + ra tan 6) whence it immediately follows that TT = jf ra (1 + ra tan 0) Vcos 8 . in that two values of 0. D /D C cos 6. The errors in HC /H for 5. DifferenFig. for ra = 15. while for others =4 or 89.
ANGLE OP CUlVfB NUMBERS ATTACHED TO CURVES GIVE OVERALL LIFTDRAG RATIOS.h. the restriction does not apply to military aeroplanes fitted with jet or rocket propulsion. ratios being 265 and 235. Referring to the example of Fig. a craft with sufficient power to exceed this Incidence could not then be maintained and rectilinear climb ratio. Gas turbines and jets. the useful load of such a craft would be C fl maximum H /H = 0618r + feasible to construct . and taking Fig. It would be 05. On the other hand.p. there are two speeds at which ra = 15. the h. viz. With reciprocating engines. u FIG. approximately. will enable large angles of climb to be attained by civil aircraft. if it were not decreased.142 AERODYNAMICS [Of. the craft would result begin a loop.. 53.p. 97 and 132 m. very small. 52 into account. and the climbing angles . 65. in course of development. and onehalf of the supposed power equipment considerably exceeds the economic limit with presentday aeroplanes intended for highspeed transport.
16 O 160 V(m. available decreases for altitudes is higher than that for which the engines are supercharged more rapidly than the atmospheric pressure. With this proviso. when the h.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 143 In a favourable case.p. Had H^/c been 700 THRUST H. required curve (see Fig. respectively.000 ft.53 one h.p.p. ratio would be 34 and the angle of climb 89.p.e.p. on the present basis at the lower speed. will always occur at the same C L and can be plotted . altitude in Fig. i. Equation (86) then shows that horizontal flight at a given CL i.p. where or is the density relative to that at ground level. airscrews might be arranged to give 1300 effective thrust h.e.p.. Effects of Altitude So air far. Variation of performance with altitude depends more acutely. in the ratio h. Every point on a a particular incidence. Part of the curve of Fig. ignoring modifications in coefficients due to increased Aerodynamic scale. can only continue on increasing V. H. low altitude has been assumed. density diminishes (Article 14). at a given a. . (b) 500 120 14O FIG. variablepitch 63 and 51.P. curve (a). required curve would have sufficed for all altitudes. 56. 63) corresponds to Considering the effect of increased altitude its ordinate and abscissa are both increased Vlja.h. D D increases as V. Lwt w and B are independent of altitude.) separately against altitude if desired. Minimum h. on the power units. on any one such point. The direct importance of angle of climb to civil aviation is largely in connection with takeoff. Reciprocating engines are sometimes boosted for short periods to provide additional power for this purpose. however. H. so that pF* remains constant. 56. 53 replotted for 20. Examination for a given . > plotted against F\X a i n Fig. If altitude be increased. 81. as '\fljja. But on the basis of that figure new curves for increasing altitudes can rapidly be derived. however.
This ' ' is 18. defined by the ^altitude at which the rate of climb falls to 100 ft. available curve of Fig. the curves have a common tangent at 145 m. per min. can be worked out by the above method for is . 56. various altitudes less than the absolute ceiling. 57. speed and rate increased to 129 m.000 ft. top speed decreased to 159 m.500 ft. 57 gives this variation without supercharging. * for present purposes. determined by plotting the reciprocal of v against h and measuring 5000 the area under the curve between KXOOO 15.p.p. and limits are inserted as The time may be given. and a curve giving rate of climb against altitude follows. The h. or for a given type. the craft will just fly horizontally at full power at this at any speed other it must descend. . altitude in Fig. Fig.. The altitude at which the rate of climb is zero is known as the absolute ceiling of the craft. per min. Time of Climb. But the rough formula thrust h. engine.000 2QOOO the limits prescribed. in the example..h. For a normally aspirated however. involves technical questions which will not be discussed at the present stage.300 ft. At approximately 20. The reserve h. so that dh .144 AERODYNAMICS [CH.p. at the chosen high altitude. The time required by an aeroplane to climb through a given change of altitude is 5 clearly given 1 by dh v LX where h denotes altitude. 57.h.h. 53 has been replotted on this assumption for 20.p. there is substantially a linear variation of v with A. as illustrated in Fig. Since a craft approaches its absolute ceiling asymptotically. curve (b) It will be seen that. ALTITUDE (FT) FIG. of climb decreased to 23 ft. of normally aspirated engines developing full power at low altitude. a service ceiling is introduced. minimum flying . available oc a1 4 is sufficiently representative.p.p. engine and airscrew.
The drag coefficient by CD reckoned on projected blade area may be as great as 0*75. The solution can afterwards be improved if need be.p. available is then by 50 per cent. required and available curves are plotted. equation can then be framed in W. enabling a h. The h. Variation of Load aeroplane is When the disposable load carried by an abscissae increased. A near approach to this condition would be dangerous. we have Consequently V* oc \/L*.. the and ordinates of points on the altitude both increase. r lo gi L77T '  (") 82. prescribed by local conditions or official regulations. The practical case arising is concerned with the maximum permissible total weight for a minimum value of the maximum rate of climb. whence an estimate follows of the probable h.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT H6 hi denoting the absolute ceiling level. If t is and v the rate of climb at ground the time from ground level to altitude A'. D oc Lac V* and H oc same reason and Keeping incidence constant. whilst also the total drag is appreciably increased the head resistance of the useless airscrew. . the first because sary at any incidence. 83. method of solution will be obvious.p. but is cut usually somewhat less.p. required curve to be derived rapidly for any new total In the limit this curve will have a common tangent with weight.p. The worst case is that of the twinengined craft with fixedpitch airscrews. required curve at any of the greater speed neces Dw increases.p. by integra tion L rfA== z.p. since the rate of climb would be very small. the h.p. Partial Engine Failure Multiengined aeroplanes must be designed to maintain altitude in the event of one engine failing. maximum weight is The first A assumed from experience and parts of the h. available curve. having one term dependent on the h. required for horizontal flight at the assumed incidence and a second on the prescribed rate of climb. when the absolute ceiling of the craft will be at ground level. An available and incidence required in the limiting condition. the second partly for the also because h.
cgnditions often dictate that there shall be an even number. For moderate airscrew drag the h. when the engines are turning just sufficiently fast to prevent the airscrews from con. The resultant two craft flies inclined across the craft in plan. and throttle must be used for steeper angles until eventually the airscrews work as powerful windmills. body drag being increased on account of the airscrew blades. however. Total drag may be forces is appreciably greater in the yawed attitude. which is balanced by an equal moment arising chiefly of the from a crosswind force on the rudder and fin. A as a power dive. indicating an absolute An estimate on these lines of performance with ceiling of 5000 ft. It is often deduced from the above that three engines provide an But it may be stated here that practical especially good layout. Thus. = 550H. AERODYNAMICS [CH. small.. = cot (101) a minimum when ra is a maximum. In very steep dives the above equations are insufficient this case is considered in a later article.p. 53. Particular solutions follow readily from powercurve analysis.p. outboard engine failure must usually. Straight Descent at Moderate Angles If the flight path be inclined downward at to the horizon. There is a particular interest when T 0. = D. i. Twinengined layout has been assumed for the example of Fig. be reduced owing . and the equations give tributing either thrust or drag. but reciprocating engines must be taken into account. airscrew thrust being . Airscrew thrust that is asymmetrical in plan leads to a yawing moment on the craft.e.p.146 . 84. the equations of Article 80 become (suffix e denoting descent) : !> = CL ip7/S = W cos 8 T. in the example of Fig. whence the speed of this flattest 6 is glide follows. Maximum permissible engine descent with engines on known revolutions are attained at a small angle of dive. to the following consideration. finally contributing a considerable fraction of the whole drag. 52. The maximum reserve at low altitude is 107 h. so that the crabwise at a small angle of yaw. . with a fixed pitch. and (/) the reserve h./F. This form of flight is known as gliding. = and when the angle of descent is be included. corresponding to a certain incidence for a particular craft. required with one engine out of action is represented by curve (e) Curve (d) gives that available with only one engine.W sin is 0. The case of engines off may r.
An isolated investigation of the present kind by no means establishes the method. that T 0. as we shall find later.p. Theoretically. less than the speed of 112 m. conditions which are excellently realised by using flaps. feasible. and there are then two incidences from which to choose. of the formula (v) of Article 69.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 147 supposed zero. Remembering that minimum V m. indicated in the figure for minimum drag in horizontal Two aspects of minimum gliding angle may be noticed.p. In case of complete engine failure at a given altitude. It is not easy to ensure plane. but similar examples combine to . It is desirable to be able to approach a confined at a steep angle and a low speed while avoiding very landingground For large incidence in consideration of the comfort of passengers. each part of the total drag is equal to 710 Ib. corresponding to alternative speeds for a given 6. flight.h. and hence at any speed . while also. CL =050 only J per cent. Induceddrag Method The example of Article 77 may also be used to illustrate the utility drag occurs when the induced drag D% is equal to the total parasitic drag Z)P and using the data deduced in the preceding article from Table VI.h. But for a given aeroplane in straight and level flight D< oc 1/F 1 and DP oc F 2 to the present approximation. minimum 6 approximately. Steeper descent is. is = tanT* (1420/22400) = 3'65.) : : 85 95 4 128 1 155 190 212 1 Error (%) :   + i  f   4 Discrepancies are seen to be small through the major part of the speed range. of course. 84A.h. at 112 m. it can be used to determine by observation in fullscale experiment the maximum liftdrag ratio of a complete aeroBut difficulties appear in practice.h. This formula reproduces with the following errors various values of DT listed in Table VI V (m.p. and V.p. this purpose ra must be low and C L large at a moderate incidence. small upward trend of = the wind introduces large error. minimum gliding angle determines the maximum area from which the pilot can select suitable ground for a forced landing.
Powerless Gliders. It is possible to realise high liftdrag ratios motorless glider. greater upwind means that the aeroplane would climb without airscrew thrust. relative to Ground speeds are obtained by adding vectorially the wind proviso The velocity. so that wing loading is small and speed low. DP remaining involved. provided that it has no vertical component. Applications of the complete formula (v) of Article 69 to matters such as those considered by other means in above articles will be evident. approximately. the aeroplane descending through the sphere. of course. and increased speed results for the same engine atmo power towards whatever point of the compass the aeroplane flies. especially in view of the absence of engine nacelles. is of great importance and seldom holds in The practice. carry a minimum of planes. The foregoing principle is put to use in the A Gliders have essentially the same form as aeroBut they are very lightly constructed. for sustentation can be deduced from the engine power required = calculated as necessary at that incidence and speed for level flight without upward wind. . creased from l to for the same speed is W W 2 the total weight of an aeroplane is inthen the additional horsepower required V _ 550 constant provided no great increase of incidence is of at V with the weight equal to t l may be found as indicated above (methods of direct calculation are given in a later chapter). The value D W 85. and have comparatively large wings. Another is as follows If v : denote the upward component of the wind velocity. and any less upwind may be regarded as leaving a corresponding proportion of the power available for increase of speed. presence of an upward wind inclines the lift in horizontal flight forward of the vertical. verify that it can often be employed with fair accuracy except at large or negative incidences. in their case. load. One method of calculating the effect follows from Article 59. (101) shows that an aeroplane will fly horizontally with zero thrust at an incidence such that ra The magnitude of v V/v. Effects of Wind the wind. For example.148 AERODYNAMICS [CH. if . Aircraft speeds are always to be reckoned.
longitudinal balance is commonly secured by a tail plane fitted with elevators. by repeating a climb downwind and taking a mean of the observed rates. Correcrate.. but they are especially strong and extensive through cumulus cloud. or even climbing. 1931.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 149 Consequently. permitting crosscountry glides exceeding 100 miles. Suppose an aeroplane climbing against a headwind which increases (as is usual) with altitude. constant * Rolinson.R. rate of climb. Rising currents sufficient for soaring are found to the windward side of rising ground. to a first approximation. The latter is called soaring in the present case. while its potential energy is increased by the wind at a like Thus the observed rate of climb is fictitiously great. however. horizontal speed relative to the ground becomes less with increasing altitude. has now become a recognised sport. & M. the craft being regarded as stationary. 1406. Downwash We proceed to study longitudinal balance. figures are required.C.R. These are essentially affected by downwash from the wings. and before the cold air fronts of linesqualls with their aid great altitudes may be flight. A. It is evident that wings lift by virtue of downward momentum given at an appropriate rate to the air through which they fly. The effect is of importance in the study^* of the takeoff of aeroplanes. It will be appreciated that observations of top speed of engined aircraft require correction for upwind if representative performance Another assumption in foregoing articles. . a comparatively small headwind enables them to hover. by which intrepid pioneers explored the possibilities of flying before the introduction of the light petrol engine. which has so far been assumed. The craft loses kinetic energy. however. ing. which calls for prior consideration. Although tailless aircraft exist. angular deflection of the air in Downwash is usually defined its by the undis a downward direction from turbed direction of flow. tion at altitude is easily made in this case. a small value of v suffices for level. but the downwash is. and is denoted by e. 86. Glidgained. Again. is that the horizontal wind remains peculiarly affecting constant in respect of altitude. . and in many other circumstances. and may greatly increase rate of climb near the ground. With constant air speed. The form this superposed air flow takes is complicated and its study is deferred.
and equal to that at its centre. tail plane.150 AERODYNAMICS [CH. through the region occupied by a particular span. (a) (b) O C 050. 58. if of small . DISTANCE ABOVE AEROFOIL DOWNWASH BEHIND AN AEROFOIL IN A WIND TUNNEL. to curves give distances behind aerofoil. 2C 3C 4c DISTANCE BEHIND TRAILING EDGE (ce chord) 2C FIG. CL = Numbers attached Numbers attached to curves give levels above trailing edge.
and now in universal use. (a) (b) with distance downstream at various levels above the aerofoil. enclosedsection wind tunnel in the median plane behind a thin aerofoil of 18in. span set at 3 incidence (CL =050). some of the earliest experimental corroborations advanced in support of the theory in this country. Adv. top wing applies to a monoplane aerofoil of different section (lift coefficient = C^) occupying the position of the top wing of the The other two of the three lower curves are derived by reducing the top triplane. DOWNWASH * 6 CHORDS BEHIND TRIPLANB * IN WIND TUNNEL. & M. 58* gives the downwash as measured in a 4ft. 59. The curve marked calculated is obtained by adding the ordinates of the three lower curves and reducing the sum by the factor Ci^/C^ = 076. (Piercy. wing curve in proportion to the known distribution of lift between the planes of the triplane and displacing them to the levels of the appropriate planes.) .IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 151 Fig. Ci* being the mean ' ' : The curve marked lift coefficient of the triplane. indeed. Com.. for Aeronautics. developed by Praodtl and his colleagues. 578. The observations recorded formed. the distribution of e is little affected by minor * The reader already acquainted with Aerodynamics or Hydrodynamics will at once observe evidence in favour of the circulation theory of wing lift originally advanced by Lanchester. 1918. perpendicular to the span at various distances behind. Well downstream. showing variation j FIG. R.
for Aev. to the local wind. It is not as a rule fixed to the of an aircraft at body the same incidence as the wings. 1919.. < dM jdy..152 AERODYNAMICS [CH. at a e to the wing. also desirable for other reasons. the minus right the craft to a being introduced because the moments are of opposite sign. provided incidence is adjusted for constant CL As incidence (or. extent close to the incidence for no lift. the downwash at any fixed point varies closely as C L through normal Deviation from flying angles. provided that the C L of each member is known. the section) changes. Com. will be seen that no reasonable position can be found that is But it removed from the If at is e . must be set at the angle e to the undisturbed flow. and area has to be increased on this account. M M t t (taking If it is desired to * change from a to a.. ticular angle 6 of the flight To that arises from other parts. position to the tail plane.G. & M. but the above is an important condition to that end. it . Given the downwash distribution for a monoplane at a known CL that for a biplane or multiplane wing system may be obtained by superposition. of the craft. . e will same direction. effects of downwash.G.e. Fig. and the difference is termed the tail setting angle change in the tive and denoted by a. . 59* gives the results of superposition by the proportionality law. together with direct measurements made as a check. though at a less rate. account of leverage about the C. within limits. the tail plane and elevators provide a particular moment about the C.) to overcome Q and to In symbols. Thus the effec change of incidence of a tail plane is less than the geometrical change. Stability in regard to flight at a does not necessarily follow. If oc is inadvertently changed to a. a' becomes a e and but the tail plane has at least suffia. 634. changes to cient area to provide a force at its new incidence sufficient a M = + + M M . Increase of e occurs locally in reduced velocity wakes. If wing incidence change. i. 87. Adv. . R. this law occurs near the critical and may also do so to a less angle. Elevator Angle secure longitudinal equilibrium at wing incidence <x at a parpath to the horizon. a. the righting moment towards Piercy. aspect ratio remaining constant. dM/dtx. some wing incidence oc when the downwash at the tail plane no lift is required from a tail plane of symmetrical section. The wake of a monoplane can sometimes be avoided by assigning a favourable . changes in aerofoil section. parbalancing contrary moment The tail plane is at incidence a' a c ticularly the wings.
P. is reduced to precisely the amount required for the compensating If now a moment. (mph) ELEVATOR CURVE. the complete tail plane will right the aeroplane back to a. Example Fig. positive or negative. of the The C. Now 12 flight at particular values 75 100 125 150 175 200 223 Thus the foregoing argument may equally of 0. 88. The curves would be more openly spaced with larger elevators. (measured between the centrelines of the fixed part of the tail plane and of the elevators) from Y) O say. By this means the tail lift. It will be seen that the role of the elevators is to work against the fixed part of the tail plane when required. through a restricted range of incidence a' and elevator angle Y). travel in this . and passing through the C. SPEED FIG. both a and would be indeterminate. change without change of Y). free of downwash effects. For small values of we may ignore the difference between cos In these circumstances we deduce that for a given craft determines the speed of flight. Of course. with an unstable aeroplane. well be expressed in terms of speed if remain constant. 10 new 2* 4 6 a correspond to particular speeds of a . until eventually the tail plane stalls.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 153 a must be This is achieved by adjusting the elevator angle offset. The 10ton aeroplane of Article 73 in horizontal flight with flaps closed is chosen to illustrate a usual method of investigating elevator angle. while it is the airscrews and vertical Y) wind which determine whether the craft shall fly level.G. 60. to YJ. 60 gives (inset) the lift coefficient Cu of a tail plane of aspect ratio 3. descend. Increase of either a' or Y] results in closer spacing. and the maintenance of any average form of flight would depend upon the skill of the pilot. . Lengths are referred to a plane parallel to the wing chord craft. at this speed. or climb or and unity.
. The product of this length and S is called the tail volume. a being the wing incidence.G. is a theoretical result for a monoplane of aspect assumed for dtjdcf. follows the column of values of a' relative to the local stream. is taken as 13 per cent. 2 28 08. I = 2%c t tail that Ltt the tail lift. is assumed to be fixed and distant behind the C. % denoting the distance of the C.1 54 AERODYNAMICS [CH .G. when e a' a e of the tail plane to the direction of motion. St the tail plane area including elevators.p. for zero occurs with the wings at a 3. the tail setting angle a. of the craft measured in the plane. so that LW and that moments of drags and of the airscrew thrust about the C. Its C. whence column 4 of the Table. measured in the plane in the upstream direction from the C. We then have. To lift realise these. so that 128 m.G. No righting moment is required at 128 m. may be ignored.h.G. whence a. = = = = = = + = + . taking moments about the C. is located at 03c behind the leading edge of the wings of chord c. / cos a I . plane for the complete craft less tailplane is given in the third column of Table VII. ~W\ Lw or .P. x cos a =L t . applies to 58 2 the incidence 035 x 58 increase of incidence.P. .G. and it is chosen to have the elevators neutral at this speed. may plane avoids the wake of the wings be neglected in comparison with Lw the wing lift..h.p. W or'LI x L t P F* c' = 2W x c ^"c'lSt 2Wx (102) . Further assumptions made in order to avoid unnecessary detail are that the of that of the wings. TABLE VII The value ratio 6. The C. whence 035. must be 08 . the first two columns of which are copied from Table VI. .
p. Finally. This by righting moment comfort. having regard to the safety of the craft here is . whilst structural difficulties might prevent balancing this bulk Tail lift may be adjusted by trimming precisely about a set C.h. although 5 movement is necessary to decrease speed by the same amount. Control is still satisfactory at 70 m.p. For if it did so there would remain a pitching moment due to the wings.G. another very important variable aft position of the C. farther back by 2 per cent.G. .h.G. Nose Dive of The circumstances tional. 89.G.h. so that the total drag is nearly equal to the weight. 60 by interpolation. which is to determine what displacement of the C. corresponding elevator angles are found from Fig. when \ movement of the T) elevators suffices to add 60 m. The curve is of typical shape.p. The student is recommended to work out further examples. but a desired position cannot always be maintained under for instance.IV] if AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 155 m is the tail volume.. a' and C u being now known. engines off. of the chord. The same figure shows plotted against speed (fullline curve).G. 150 m. But it is easily seen that L w the wing lift.. is the fore and nominally at the choice of the designer. x/c. wings are nearly at the incidence for no lift. 60 gives the result of moving the C. The tail plane gives a righting moment against disturbance at all speeds investigated. but the craft is very sensitive to longitudinal control at speeds > 150 m. together . and should verify particularly that. The broken line in Fig. Values of W/pV* are calculated immediately from Table VI. from its chosen position can be tolerated for a given weight. will not exactly vanish. although insufficient tail volume must be avoided. and column 6 of Table VII follows. or Cu may be by the relation : calculated directly Cu = 308CL . The flight path is then usually within 5 of the The vertical.h. which. an aeroplane is An interesting case in a very steep dive are excepthat in which the craft descends steadily at fastest speed. a condition known as the terminal nose dive. and ease of control..p. Stability becomes neutral for represented V> 90. but is tending to become sluggish. during flight or on changing disposable load. tabs from the cockpit to compensate for shift of the C. But this affects only in a secondary way the problem before the designer. 2 tons of fuel might be varying conditions of loading consumed by the above craft during a nonstop flight of 1000 miles. whence a first approximation to the high speed attained readily follows.
flat yaw can be utilised for this purpose. lift in a horizon tal circle of radius and airscrew thrust must FIG. W (A. L may reach considerable values. Calculations to determine the value proceed by assuming small increasing values for CL All the coefficients are expressed in terms of wing area and chord. and include the drag and moment body. of drag of the 91.156 AERODYNAMICS [CH. with the moment of the body drag. by (i). and a practical plane. a force With crosswind force due to Q */gR.P. we have (i) whence . it must be remembered that they are composite. dividing numerator and denominator by pFS (103) lie c being the wing chord. but maximum . 61. interest concerned with the strength of the structure centres in t. of pressure coefficient for the wings may be expressed A often lies between 022 and 025 . but and the WV R . The centre in the For the very small lift coefficients concerned. including the windmill resistance of the airscrews.= or. now no longer negligible. Circling Flight For an weight at speed W to F aeroplane fly of uniformly R. L w is consequently required in general to secure zero component force across the flight path. balance. the craft sideslipping. centrifugal large. T the total pitching moment. Neglecting body lift. Let / be the leverage of Lit Dr the total drag. in addition to W total drag Z) . the C. and B form A + B/CL where between 002 and 010. M excluding that of L t . must be balanced by a tail moment. determining its maximum value. of the wings may be near or even behind the tail Tail lift.
. on the other hand.p. =W = WV^/gR sin = V^/gR. is to bank the craft an angle Then. necessary for smaller radii. gives Incidence must be increased for CLO > CL . . Comparing with straight horizontal flight at the same incidence and altitude. . Comparing at constant speed. not large. The increase of level to level power required on changing from straight and circling flight at constant speed V is most readily of found from incidence is (v) Article 69. .. (iii) For the moment we assume the further conditions regarding couples to be satisfied. Hence the additional power VD i D is the induced drag in straight and level flight at the speed i concerned and may be found as already indicated. such that no sideslipping occurs. 61). L Q is the lift <f> L L so that But the equation must also be satisfied. . New h. . tan D F = 550 H cos <f> . this is due. since andThe '=' = VsecU . if (Fig. <f> .IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 167 at the normal course.p. required curves are thus immediately constructed for increasing values of <. required increases on turning into circling flight at the same incidence. (i) (ii) . corresponding to decreasing values of R at constant speeds. (104) . to the necessary increase of speed. (105) abscissae of points on a h...p. Although h. the ratio (L^/W) 2 = DP a Assuming that the increase of remains constant while D i increases in is l/cos $. as the equations show. required curve for a particular craft in straight level flight are to be increased in the ratio l/\/cos <f> and the ordinates in the cube of this ratio. . <f> .
is but the motion 92. During circling. and then R a minimum when <f> <f> = of speed and drag prevent (iii) from being satisfied at a much smaller angle of bank. the radius is sin = WV*/gR T = D . Resolving along and perpendicular to the helical flight path.W sin <{> W 6. and in certain circumstances flight may in Notable effects occur when the wing voluntarily result from stalling the wings at altitude. investigated further in the following article. and and <f> may approach 70 or 80. angles of bank and descent being $ and 0. incidence exceeds the critical a slight initial disturbance. But increase stalling angle. we see that all the controls are put into use. This form of is known as the spin. so that the wing on . Of course. tan ^ increased by the factor sec 0. respectively L cos ^ as cos L where R. the radius of the helix decreasing to a fraction of the span of the craft. requiring to be balanced by the rudder. Following produce a stable rolling motion about a longitudinal axis. <f> . of curvaturfc of the path. receive an angular velocity p about its longitudinal axis. 93. Helical Descent flying Direct descent preparatory to landing is conveniently effected by down in a more or less vertical helix. Rolling The matter is and Autorotation t Let a monoplane of constant chord c flying at speed V. the tendency to greater lift of the faster wing must be compensated by adjustment of the ailerons. very quickly by using vertical bank and large incidence. known as autorotation. Rewriting or and substituting from (104) gives CLoip(gU tan <f>)S <f> R sin = &/CLO W/cos . loss of altitude and speed taking place. unsteady.158 AERODYNAMICS (i) [CH. one wing tip is moving faster than the other and a yawing moment arises. Since also incidence is increased. for instance. exceeds the radius of the helix in the ratio I/cos1 0. Again. Thus powercurve analysis decides minimum radius of uniform turning subject to limitation of L /W. For a given craft at constant altitude the equation may appear to suggest R sin to be a minimum when incidence increases on circling to the 90. Compared with level circling. the direction of motion of an aeroplane can be reversed. the wings may then angle. k being a constant depending on wing loading and altitude.
62. distant y on opposite sides of the axis. prior to receiving the rolling disturbance. The change it a span of 2s the yP/V> and occur at the wing sp/V r F of incidence Aoc at these positions amounts to maximum values of this quantity are Provided the new incidence at tips. c 8y . experiences a graded increase of incidence. V . however. are changed couple by the amount * (dCJda) (yp/V). we have for the whole span the couple Hence. the constant incidence increasing to oi. originally the rise to a same. in radians in this and similar expressions. . Then the : lift coefficients of the elements at i y. the downwardmoving tip is considerably less than the critical angle. dC L yp ^ . and evidently tends to damp out the rolling motion very quickly.dcx. neglecting must be expressed This is seen to be of large magnitude on inserting some practical numbers. Let us suppose the monoplane first to be accidentally stalled. we can regard dCL /d& as constant along the span to a first approximation. the monoplane is flying. Consider a pair of wingelements (Fig. while on the other side incidence is decreased.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 159 one side. 62). If.y. giving pV* (a T/i . beating downward. FIG. at a low speed and a large incidence QC O a small value of sp suffices to invalidate the above method of calculation. and we obtain a quite different result. .) the body.
and the motion is evidently stable. downwardmoving elements will of lift. Figs. their changes of lift will now be different. 63. 49 or 63. Let AC L be the whole difference of lift coefficient between them. while along the upwardmoving wing curve of the type shown in now suffer decrease some elements will increase their lift. conin stant p and As p O40 08 10 15 CL creases for a given craft at a given speed. Plotting 016 against yp/V. oosL suitably large incidence in such a way as to be free . or model of an aeroplane. for increase of any further p would pro OO4 duce a damping couple. is mounted at a FIG. An aerofoil. the couple tends still further at first. Considering again two elements distant y from the axis. The expression for the rolling moment becomes which may be rewritten as : 018 a form suitable for graphical integration. and then to receive a small p. ACL yp/V (Fig.1 60 AERODYNAMICS For a lift [CH . 04* 042 63) as far as sp/V the is proportional to at rolling moment V. at V Aa oi 0? This corresponds to a particular angular velocity. This striking result is readily demonstrated in a wind tunnel. the integral vanishing as is shown in the figure. the area under the curve . 20 j 25 to increase p is 30 but a limit reached is when the couple zero.
The Handley Page Slot Recovery from a spin can usually be effected by decreasing incidence. while retaining high drag when required. is step in its development A. might necessitating compensation by use of the rudder. this disadvantage. though not of use in landing. EFFECT OF HANDLBY PAGE SLOT ON LIFT CURVE. Slight disturbance results in the model gathering angular velocity until a certain p is reached. so that the craft direction turns in a to the bank natural the yawing moment . the slot extending the whole length of the aerofoil. but Fig. the next FIG. theory of the of the device. which. we stall note that delay of is important. but at low altitudes there is no space for this manoeuvre. which it will maintain indefinitely. This we shall find also to be a feature of efficient lateral control. 94. ance We with an increase of lift on opening the slot of a stalled wing there occurs also a decrease of drag. a false nose to the wing in front of the ailerons. This insuris admirably effected by the Handley Page slot. As a brief result of this investigation. on opening. 64. and nose diving to recover speed. easily have been in the opposite direction. the wing that is made to rise pushing forward relative to the other. Timing this and comparing with the value estimated as above usually shows good to rotate about agreement.D. 64 shows the effect in a particular working Associated case. 6 . considerably are not here concerned with the delays the stall.IV] AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT 161 an axis parallel to the wind. The to ordinary flap stall and induce autois liable To remove rotation. Thus it is important to retain lateral control in case of inadvertent stalling near the ground.
sideslip occurs. and. 95. when span is horizontal. The Dihedral Angle A damped roll by an aeroplane at normal incidence leaves the wings banked. stability. We adjusting with some care too large a dihedral angle results in an unstable motion of the craft. Considering a pair of elements of span 8y distant longitudinal axis. y. * Cf.. The incidence of the trailing wing is similarly decreased. Hence the total rolling couple is ~ values of factors. each wing is inclined upward towards the tip by a small angle p to the horizon. ~~ Aoc dv. The wings may be regarded in the result as yawed at an angle sin~ l (v/V). Inserting practical numbers into the expression shows the righting rolling moment to be powerful with the small (3 used (cf. excessive. . the lower wing leading. 1936. Flight. c8y . Let the velocity of sideslip be v. they give rise to a couple slC* y from the pF . called the dihedral angle of the wings. Nazir.* One form of slotted flap has already been illustrated. (109) The sense of this couple is clearly to right the aeroplane and stop the sideslipping. shall note further here only that its magnitude requires it The angle 2p becomes . in some The above estimate tends to be Fig. lift beinginclined away from the vertical. owing to various neglected makes up for but a slight increase of p readily is any such deficiency. If. 61). IV and may be achieved by a system. lift assuming incidence to be sufficiently small for the slope of the curve to be constant. . 31st.182 AERODYNAMICS slot [CH. the lower wing tip leading. cases by 30 per cent. in the yaw equivalent to the sideslip the incidence of the leading wing is increased approximately by the amount $(v/V). As will be of great importance in the study of anticipated. Dec. and air passes the trailing edge of the lower wing nearer to the body than it passes the leading edge.
fluid is. and let the velocity q this curve. dominated by viscosity and merging into in which viscous effects are the wake (b) an external motion. simply that the velocity component normal to the surAttention is confined to twodimensional conditions. This is tantamount to assuming that the boundary In the limit layer is everywhere very thin and that no wake exists. are two points in irrotational flow parallel to the #jyplane. Thus the total pressure head given by BerTo take noulli's equation remains constant throughout the flow. so It that at any point the pressure acts equally in all directions. Investigation will now be directed towards this external flow. In Chapter II we found from experiment that the flow past bodies shaped for low resistance comprises two dissimilar parts (a) a thin boundary layer. In (b) occur the important pressure changes scarcely measurable. 65 (a). of the fluid is neglected. and compressibility 97. we must suppose that their surfaces are closely approached. will later be proved that if an undisturbed stream of this inviscid fluid is immersed body. The Velocitypotential Fig. face vanishes. . it will remain irrotational in flowing past an since no tractions come into play which could generate vorticity. account for part of the Aerodynamic : .Chapter V FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 96. irrotational. a field of twodimensional For the present the region curve. . (1 JO) . The fluid is assumed to be devoid of viscosity. is A and B. but not so closely as to enter the boundary layer. transmitted through (a). force on the body. the fluid may be regarded as slipping with perfect ease over the surThe boundary condition for the idealised faces of immersed bodies. Write : assumed to be occupied wholly by fluid. Join the points by any make an angle a with the element 8s of <B ^A = TB COS a ds J A 163 . account of the shape of immersed bodies. which. then.
A be fixed and B moved in such a manner that ^B B will trace out a line of constant ^. the sum of the circulaall common tions round all the elements enclosed. therefore. the circuit equals. constant. and ^A remains Thus the region If zero value of be assigned to one of these lines. ^A evaluated along AB or ACB. . and is called the change of velocitypotential. equipotentials. Let ACB be another curve joining the points. a numerical value follows for the velocitypotential along any other line. the circulation round fore. so that the elementcirculations all vanish separately . Now let A and B be adjacent points not on the same ^contour. independent of the curve drawn. as a consequence oi the flow being irrotational. = Now it is assumed the circulation round is ABCA is zero. If the Hence B same whether <f> conversely. be divided into a large number of small fluid parts lines.16* AERODYNAMICS [CH This quantity will be shown to have a unique value. since it does not include the section of a body. that (W FIG. of flow can be mapped out with contours of ^. everywhere. in the end. The area enclosed may. which are known as lines of equivelocitypotential. shortly. or. by a The fine network of circulatory velo round the elements of area so formed will cancel at cities Thereedges. or along any curve joining the points. and consider the line integral of the tangential plete circuit velocity com ponent once round the com ABCA. Its value is therefore definite. 65.
These might be applied At the point (x y) in is suddenly set in motion. rigid body which the fluid let to be the impulsive pressure and u. 165 A to B. 65 (6). Fig. of incompressible flow holds good. Hence oy ^ex with a similar expression for v. parallel by J Article 28. ~ ex A A 8*8>y and 8#8y. . toy is pv8#8y. Considering the element to x is pw&*8y. . or 1 _ "" dw dx p I dm Now The comparing these equations with to (111). arbitrary constant refers if p is given its proper value. respectively. = p# + const. we may calcu late = + But Hence 98. v the velocity comAn impulse is measured by ponents immediately after the impulse. DB. the change of momentum parallel The impulsive forces in these directions are. (112) assumption will be of particular interest later on. but This interpretation of the following may be noted (1) The equations for u and t. we immediately find. may be neglected while the and. Viscous acting for a short time <f> : to the general hydrostatic pressure. t the change of momentum produced. above all forces which are small compared with the very large force neglect which constitutes an impulse. findinguSx s' vfy. Physical Meaning of Any incompressible flow having a definite velocitypotential could be generated instantaneously from rest by a suitable system of from the surface of a impulsive pressures. . while that 8#8y.V] If FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW ty be the change of velocitypotential from it along AD.
ioo.velocitypotentials are closely angles. 8n are elements of length of adjacent streamlines and equivelocitypotentials. . (2) Rotational motion has no velocitypotential. dy 9d> v = 3ib ". the system of curves that cut orthogonally at all points of intersection will represent the streamlines. Since there is often called potential flow. ox (113) ' Hence U(b CW C(b UW "~~ ' dx dx dy dy result. which occurs frequently in physics and It is written for short engineering. would be in this category. Substituting from (111) in (61) gives for the equation of continuity for incompressible flow which is also irrotational 9z A _L J a* a ^ a*0 L 3y This important equation. inversely proportional to the distance apart of neighbouring streamlines. is known after Laplace. Irrotational flow 99. and could neither be generated nor brought to rest by impulsive pressures alone. . .166 stresses AERODYNAMICS [CH. respectively. In Article 38 the velocity components were related to the stream function fy by the following : = . of a line of constant streamlines cross that line everywhere at velocitypotential. which expresses the above If the spacing of the curves accords with equal intervals of and tf> the resultant velocity q at any point. seen in Article 36 to be fy. . VV=0 the symbol v* standing for d*/dx*  (115) + d*/dy*. Mathematically. will also be inversely proportional to the distance apart of neighbouring equipotentials. For irrotational incompressible flow Laplace's equation be satisfied by the stream function. Thus the equations certainly apply momentarily to air. mapped over a is no flow along any part field of irrotational flow. . (65) gives must also For substituting from (113) in . right If the equi. (no) . if Ss. o .
and </> hence more complicated motions can be built up.v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 167 It follows that either the Alines or the Alines may be chosen as streamlines. But to be of practical interest the solution is additionally required to satisfy certain boundary conditions. (H7) . because the equations involved are linear. but may be regarded as a small circular area from which fluid flows out equally in all directions in the #yplane. The streamlines are obviously straight lines radiating from the centre of the source. and is Suppose the source to be situated at the origin and choose Ox streamline flux <J> for the = 0. These are additive. 66. but for many purposes it will give a close sufficiently approximation. sent out per second. any curve drawn from Ox will equal that across the arc of a circle of any radius this follows from subtending the same angle 6 at the centre there being no flow across a radial line (Fig. 66). m per unit length perpendicular to the xyplane. and at radius wholly r the velocity q = m/2nr radial. the solution of a complementary problem also exists. The and ^ in a complicated case where straightforward calculation of the boundary conditions are prescribed is beyond the scope of this book. But the solutions of several simple problems are easily found. Every solution of Laplace's equation may be taken as representing an irrotational motion. The FIG. 1 01. so that if the solution of one problem of irrotational flow is known. Therefore across . Its strength is defined by the volume of fluid. The final result cannot as a rule be arranged exactly to comply with prescribed conditions. Source A source has no physical significance.
m is the of the sink. and as 1/r4 for a threedimensional + = source or sink. Bernoulli's equation applies in the simple form const. by Evidently the value of fy for any streamline may be increased or decreased by any multiple of m. If this is denoted by m. Other cases will occur where. Away from the immediate vicinity of the source or sink. Measurements of drag are often a stream of air which is slightly convergent in three dimenA close approximation to the conditions is obtained by sions. where the large velocities attained would make untenable the assumption of incompressible flow. as here. the circle of radius unity Choosing for = m For equal intervals of fy tilt? streamlines are inclined to one another at equal angles. and the strength velocity at radius r is m/4nr*. If s denotes distance downstream measured from the position of the body towards the sink Application to in made . except for the addition of a cyclic constant. value of ^ (Fig. a point or small circular area towards which fluid is flowing equally in all radial directions in the #yplane and at which it is supposed to be disappearing. A threedimensional sink is a point or small sphere. assuming the body to be situated at a large distance r from a sink. Experiment. the centre of a symmetrical radial flow from all directions.AERODYNAMICS Evaluating (110) along any radial streamline gives [CH. it from the value obtained from the curve ACD.. It is easily found that the \9f P pressure drop varies as 1/r 1 for a twodimensional. so that the equipotentials are concentric circles. ' ' lie between and 2n and 102. the value is unique. <(. The uncertainty is removed will differ If the m by agreeing that 6 shall between of <]* or of <f> consequently and m. The flow across all surfaces completely surrounding the point will be the same. and for equal intervals of the logs (to base e) of <f> the radii will increase by a constant. Sink Changing the sign of m in Article 101 makes the source into a sink. as is otherwise obvious. 66) is evaluated from the flux across AB.
force in a convergent Or divergent stream require correction for this . *e. it follows is the same round all circuits. m t a const. commonly amounts to 110 x apparent drag arises on a body in a convergent stream. gate. . r width of section. it is given by m is now a The 9 ^ __ ~~ ty Ijr _ ^ = m ~~2nr circulation and constant if r concentric circle is is is constant. . 6* .V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 169 Therefore ^ W. when the stream is dynamic force it vanishes when r Article 59 (3) shows how measurements of Aerodynamic parallel. and equivelocitypotentials ^ where m = logr. . we have the case of fluid circulating irrotationaJly about a centre. 1 AA 'J s r approximately. of the type illustrated in Fig. counterclockwise sense.. An = pressure gradient.e. i. Since drag is inwardly directed. Irrotational Circulation round a Circular Cylinder <f> <J> and in Article 101. 103. differentiating __ _ ~~ s ' ds p^ ds' Hence dp ds _ r 2 P? . show dp Ids oc Experiments with tunnels of parallelwalled type ? giving rQ constant for a given tunnel. Thus the q K round any K = 2nr The that the circulation A. whether the flow is assumed to be towards a sink or from a source. 26.D.^^ (rf _ ds r But since /> + ip# = const. it can have nothing to do with Aerooo. of whatever shape. m constant whose meaning it is required to investiTaken as positive in the velocity q is perpendicular to r. With tunnels a . circulation round all concentric circles being the same. so that the Interchanging the meanings of become the streamlines.
For the present we assume the centre by a concentric circle.170 AERODYNAMICS [Cfl. which oc l/r. If the radius of the circle is a and this circle is chosen for to be isolated fy = 0. the trace of a circular cylinder. and the pressure drop. . must satisfy and we must have . <j = ~~^ l S  . Then the const. Apart from other considerations we should expect to find eventually a hole in the fluid. both become great. Substitution leads to From (120) q = dfy/dr and on integrating Let p = P when r = oo. but the convention there On general hydrostatic pressure would be insufficient to support the loss associated with the high velocity. by Bernoulli's equation. approaching the velocity. is irrotational. TjT If = 1. for any such circuit is equivalent to one made up of arcs of concentric circles and of radial elements. Thus. which may be drawn enclosing the centre. q = 0. a then for a greater radius r ^ = r. An element of fluid circulating round the circular cylinder is in equilibrium under its centrifugal force and the radial pressure A difficulty is sometimes experienced on a gradient.. because the flow Bernoulli's equation. r dr = K/2nr. this result r When = oo. the centre about which the fluid is circulating. a (120) (K/2n) log first reading in seeing the necessity for irrotational circulation to have the above form. The condition for the centre to be formed of fluid will be dis cussed later under vortices. if V is its volume and r the radius of its path f v. and along the latter there is no flow. To the value of <f> for any radial line may be added a cyclic constant as for ty in mentioned is again adopted. . because the Article 101. of sufficient radius to prevent the velocity exceeding that which is consistent with the assumption of incompressible flow when the fluid is air. v (121) ' Now..fv%=o. = P and . a phenomenon known as cavitation.
67). PQ PR from any point P t a streamline. Conversely. 67. be noted that (122) could have been obtained by simply adding together the functions for a separate source and sink. the cyclicity occurring in the value of <f>. less the inward (122) The streamline through A in to B through P. i. It will systems the figure. A source A together with a sink B of equal strength provide an important combined motion.e. a 104. With A B as centres. Combination of Source and Sink The foregoing motions are supposed to be isolated. and let Ax. the form determined for the circulation. flow that is devoid of circulation is termed acyclic. which is evidently flux across any line drawn from to P Ax will equal the flow across PR outward flow across due to B or PQ due to A. Let A and B be situated on the #axis at equal distances from the origin (Fig. explaining The motion investigated is an example of what is often called cyclic flow. the circular arc joining Streamlines for half the field of flow are shown B = The equivelocitypotentials are the orthogonal of coaxial circles with A and as limiting points. . P is (3 const. The t (x. be fy = 0.y) to Ox.V] FUNDAMENTALS O* THE 1KROTATIONAL FLOW 171 On substitution this is seen to agree with the above result.. draw arcs y FIG.
1 y* ( JSs) and as 8s vanishes ty Y = ^r27c. diminishes. . i.e. y  0. (123) ' v A source and sink combined in this way known as a doublet of strength p.172 105. 68. . 71. = t]/ ^ + = 0. the preceding article approach one another inthe streamlines become the family of circles touching the #axis at the origin. The foregoing simple motions will now be combined with a uniform stream of velocity U in the direction Ox. i. ***** x. i. It attains maximum values of y = = TC and r = oo.sin 2nr is 0. Where the curve crosses the #axis. together with the curve 6 ^ TC _. so that m limit. w m r sin 0. The stream function is <. by adding together the stream functions of its component parts.e. and the examples given will illustrate both methods. at a large distance downm/2U. . immediately obtained. . . when stream. as included in Fig.e. or 6 = 2nUy/m. . so that in the Let A and J5 of definitely. when 8s becomes infinitely small and product w8s remains 6 finite and v (0 = m infinitely great.8s v (6  6') ' = /. Let increase as AB. a stagnation point occurs. C7. the (5 (x. Flow over Symmetrically Faired Nose of Long Board or Plate. . for here the velocity due to the source cancels that due to the oncoming stream. (124) Consider the streamline Either y a = . Details of the motion may be investigated is either analytically or mostly by graphical means. + . Consider a simple source at the origin added to the stream. whose The stream function of a resultant flow stream function is Uy. which we will now write 8s. as explained in Article 100. Laplace's equation being linear. When * is small  6' = tan  6') ' = x* . say. Thus this streamline consists of the #axis. Doublet AERODYNAMICS [CH. (i) The curve is drawn in Fig. 2U 2U . 106.
and the source becomes an artifice used to calculate the external streamlines. which give the inviscid flow towards and over the nose^ of the board. and obtain (iii) . 68. cos 6 r 2n 6 Hence. The maximum thickness of the board is seen to be 2n times the distance of the stagnation point from the imaginary source. __ m .v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 178 giving m figure. or in replaced wholly Any of them may by a rigid boundary the without modifying others. boundary in the position of the curved part of ^ 0. shown dotted. of which four are plane. Other streamlines are shown in the ing these graphically is The method of obtain* be described in Article 107. then cease to exist. because the fluid is assumed to slip without friction along a material Let us choose a surface. Differentiating (124) : u = 9y = a* TT U m 30 = msin 2n r U 4^ . perpendicularly to the xyThe streamlines internal to the curve. part = and assume solid it to represent the shaped contour of a board or plate which extends infinitely in the direction Ox and also FIG. for the resultant velocity q at any point rt 6 w Substitute in Bernoulli's equation : f mUcos TC (ii) p where + i?? 1 P+ 2 cos 6 P is the undisturbed pressure.
The %axis beyond the stagnation point. so that the fluid loses no mechanical energy. enabling the pressure to be found at any point. together with the part of to one side of the axis. might be chosen alterthe curve of fy as boundary. and with the real boundary condition of absence of slip a drag would exist. sin 6/6 by (i) and m/27trU = <The pressure on the board equals 6 = 1166 radians = 668. if the external streamlines be ignored. the total pressure exerted by the shaped nose on the remainder. but finally again approaches P.e. when increases decreases shall now investigate the drag This will equal. i. In the present example the pressures given by (iv) would. to that existing over the forepart of a symmetrical tail plane. P when 6 cot 6 = From these points it 2 p/ while downstream it . at towards the extreme nose by first. of the board.e. to a consequence equation applying exactly throughout the fluid. Again. The result of zero drag is direct in Fig. we have the case of flow from a source / of Bernoulli's . if the section were suffiin experiment. since skin friction is excluded. But the of the nose of a board pressuredrag shaped in this way would be exos pu* (f>p)/ pected to be small with air as fluid FIG. . to motorless gliding is developed in the late Mr. But on the boundary.174 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Half the field of flow would then approximnatively ate to the flow of a uniform wind from a plain or sea over a cliff of the The application of this interesting section bounded by the curve. interpretation Glauert's Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory. 69. By Article 44 : We D The pressure difference given by (iv) is plotted against y ym/2u and the area enclosed is seen Thus the drag is zero. = . vanish. over the surface of the board. at least as far along the board as the points of minimum pressure. i. Thus the distribution found approximates pressures near the nose. 69. differ little from those which would be transmitted through the boundary layer For a board of finite length. but this would approximate to the skin friction. the presence of a tail would not greatly modify the ciently long.
attaching to each streamline its value of fy. Oval Cylinder Assume a source and sink x =+ s. controls the final form of choice. Since the expanse of fluid is infinite in the complete problem. the sink at x = fy s. . 70. the source at Combining with uniform flow in the direction Ox. . The FIG. The streamlines of the combined source and sink and of the uniform flow are known. . At any point of intersection the value of ^ equals <j* . circumscribing the whole flow from the source. 70. but. situated on the #axis. 107. the flow far downstream must be uniform and of velocity U. (125) This problem will be developed by the graphical method.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 176 within a barrier. ABOVE STREAMLINES FOR POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CYLINDER. Hence. Superpose these as shown in the lower half of Fig. BELOW GRAPHICAL CONSTRUCTION. : : OVAL closeness of packing of either set for equal intervals of is open to with the distance 2s. together the streamlines. the maximum width of the barrier is m/U as before. we have = Uy + m p.
two values of 41 of the streamlines crossing at that Draw a smooth curve through all points of intersection that point. 108. The ratio of the length of the section to its maximum width across the stream is known as the fineness ratio. Cylinders of elliptic section are treated in Articles 117 and 125.176 the AERODYNAMICS [CH. give in this way a constant resultant value of ^. say. give the . Then the streamlines obtained from (126). together with the oval curve shown. if it is distant x from the origin 2n x or s . together with uniform streaming of velocity [7. and repeat the process for different constant values. Circular Cylinder doublet of strength \i fixed at the origin with its axis (the line joining the source to the sink) in the direction 0%. for that streamline either y = or = /y/ f g^jrA = a. a rigid boundary for Substituting the oval. or by the graphical method of the preceding article. excluding the length of the 2$. 0.e. i. shown in the upper half of the figure. and sink vanishes. Thus a circle of radius a with centre at the origin is a streamline. sum A condition determining the position of the front stagnation point occurring on the axis Ox is that the sum of the velocities due to the stream. The streamline fy = consists of the *axis.The condition Vi m fixes also a back stagnation point situated at an equal distance on the other side of the origin. it becomes the contour of the section of a The cylinder. Then the curves obtained are the resultant streamlines. gives for the combined motionsin 6 A _ / a \ (126) Putting r <J. The flow past cylinders of different fineness ratios is obtained by varying the quantity m/Us. The case of a cylinder of oval section moving broadsideon appears in Article 149. source. we have a const. Let this be a boundary and ignore the internal motion. set of streamlines internal to this oval are ignored.
where the circle cuts giving stagnation points when the #axis. (129) The variation round the cylinder is plotted in Fig. the undisturbed pressure. . (128) and TT. To obtain the velocity qa round the periphery.!L  = 2U sin L 8 .6). From Bernoulli's equation the difference between the pressure at any point on the surface of the cylinder and P. 72. There is fair agreement over .U (r. (126) becomes shown the . i. 71.v] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 177 flow past a long circular cylinder (Fig. 71). we have *[.~] sin si 9 (127) FIG. POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER.e. Dotted : streamlines for doublet. together with some experimental measurements. is 0=0 &W=i (14 sin. where are also streamlines for the doublet alone.
part of the cylinder which may be at extended greater numbers. sin 6 .178 AERODYNAMICS the front [CH. we shall find important uses for the above results. From considerations of it is symmetry apparent at once that the drag for irrotational flow is zero. On adding a countercirculation clockwise K round the cylinder of the preceding (120) article we obtain from 2?r (130) The tangential velocity at r = a now comes to + 2 : and IX P 1 + $ / sin e ^L = 2K 2U sin e for the pressure on the surface . . FIG. 72. Thus the present theory gives no help in calculating the drag of acylinder. Circular Cylinder with Circulation be consulted for variation in experimental data. but approach one another. NORMAL PRESSURE ROUND CIRCULAR 109. 4 (132) The stagnation points no longer lie on a diameter. CYLINDER. being situated (if they remain on the surface of the cylinder) at points given by qa = or sin 8 = K (133) . Nevertheless. but Reynolds a real fluid breaks away. Hatched area includes experiments with R ranging from 2 x 10* to 2 x 10 6 Original papers should .
U denoting by q' the velocity at To Consequently. contain sin 6 to an odd power. find this we note that the lift 8L of an element 8s (= a 80. The fluid between the cylinder and the loop encircling from S circulates conit tinuously round the cylinder.H. If be further increased. But the pressure is less on the upper half of the section than it is on the lower half. It mediately found from for is im (132). 73. 74. :  2K POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH WEAK CIRCULATION circulation alone. 73. failing to pass downstream. of the equation vanish. When 1 6 4naU. that if pi be pressure at the top of the cylinder and p^ that at the bottom P. P from on substituting forp and integrating with regard to 6 (132) and 2.sin 8 . FIG. S being the stagnation point. again obvious from symmetry that the drag is zero. sin and they coincide on the K= K/U still t = bottom of the cylinder. (p 75) of the contour is r = a of the . 76. The streamlines for a much smaller K/U are given in Fig. . since they Hence r L : = pt/K f. 74.y] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 179 an important result. they (133) does not apply . coincide on the axis of y but occur in the fluid. P) a8Q sin 8. example. 7C J . The streamlines in the latter case are shown in Fig.r. POTENTIAL FLOW PAST CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH STRONG CIRCULATION. all integrals between the limits that derived from the third term except so that of the R. Fig. a lift L arises. value of It is FIG.S. (134) FIG.
180 AERODYNAMICS lift [CH. where i denotes V(~~ 1)* * s called the potential function of the irrotational flow. and. Then from (i) we immediately obtain real functions of x and y. if it also moves as a whole. no. The Potential Function <f> The complex function f fy. Therefore. with the help of an analytical process to be explained later. Article 100. which are ary parts. can always be separated into real and imaginand ^. a lift of this kind appears. z For shortness it is usual to w =x + iy. (i) Then we have and ~~ 9y 3y " Hence. (135) A circulation can be generated by rotating The lift is independent of a real circular cylinder in air. = + <f> ify. however. . are the relations requiring to be satisfied for irrotational flow. equating real and imaginary parts which.f(z). the size of the cylinder. + t + so that # + **=/(* + *. This gives a coefficient : The above result is of great importance. . although the flow is not wholly irrotational. shall find that a cylinder of wingshaped section moving through a viscous fluid has the property of generating many We a circulation by other means. any assumption made in accordance with write (i) : leads to an irrotational motion. The function of z. The in principle finds practical expression in Flettner's sailless ship and ball games. <f> . that the method can be applied only to twodimensional problems. It will be noticed. when. we shall be able to calculate the lift of wings with good accuracy from the basis provided by the foregoing results. Let us equate it to any analytical function of the complex variable x iy say/(# iy).
If A = 0.. from (111) =uw in. we note that cos cos + * sin sin i = = 0~* e** . covers all cases of uniform motion. . dw dz j ^T) *r ^T v(p dit> d(x : + iy) dw dx dx dx dy' Thus.V] It is FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW shown in the theory of functions that d(<p ~~~ 181 if w ==/(*) . . Equating real and imaginary parts ^ fy and U=Z v = 3y = Both velocity components are constant for chosen values of A and B and the flow is therefore uniform. As a where A and We have first . . Generally. It is often : convenient to express the complex variable z in the z polar form =x+ iy = f(cos + i sin cos 0). < f ty = A(x + iy) + iB(x + iy) = Ax By + i(Bx + Ay). the flow is parallel to 0jy and of velocity V = B. 12. the flow is inclined to the #axis 1 ( B/A). = Ax By = Bx + Ay fa~ A B. Remembering that = =C  and sin ^ 2i . If B = the constant of (137) is wholly real and the flow is in the direction Ox with velocity U = A. (136) example it will be shown that =/(*) = (4 +iB)z (137) B are real constants. the velocity being equal to 1 VM + B by the angle 9 tan"" 1 )...
With this brief note on the complex variable. r is called the modulus of z and is written mod z is 6 is called the argument of z. The complex = i i. .182 If AERODYNAMICS [CH. Comparing with as 0. to plot x the point % iy x is measured along Ox and the increment y is measured at t + If is right angles thereto (Fig. P = = O FlG X 76 Thus z represents length being \z\ with Ox being 0. i. taken. l/r) sin (127) or by considering the form of the streamline find that (138) gives the flow at velocity A past a circular fy It may be noted also that w cylinder of unit radius. 76). z it can always be obtained in the form = re. the point represented by z.H. = + For.S. 2 we find x r cos 0. consider the function the vector OP. we have x in the form % + iy. 113. (138) term on the R. . y r sin 6. Equating real =A(r =A(r + l/r) cos 0. it will be seen that OP r and tan"" 1 (y/x) 0. and these equations give a unique value of and 2n. so that r 3/2 )> of which the V(* = = positive root between or z . as may be verified independently. turns 1 Since it through the angle TC. we = . Hence. and to this is added a second motion. to w Article =/(*) = Az + A/z. represents steady By A. writing out both sides and equating real and imaginary parts. 1 applied to 0% changes it to For the operator Ox. coordinate z can be represented geometrically. the operator i turns a length through a right angle. A/z represents a doublet at the origin.e. streaming at velocity U The combination may be written in the polar form 111 the first = : w=A(re* and we have + "*) 0) ^ f ity = AY (cos + i sin and imaginary parts $ 4* f (cos i sin 0). its and the angle it makes we proceed .
\dwjdzl  C*"   O" 1 .V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW for Velocity 183 H3A. of <f> and the ty . of which the most useful are the following (a) : Directly from (111). = (' + v') 1 '2 . . the velocity is constant at a given radius from the origin. etc. and v' = 30 ^r> 3r whence q = ('* + t/ 1 (c) By (136).e. 70A. and interchanging if need be the meanings to n. 76A.g. Hence q = (iii) For the potential function of the preceding (iii) article. ^5 . gives. streamlines of rectangular hyperbolas) a stagnation point Fig. 1. FIG. for instance. a doublet with n = 2. since q* = w1 f v*. Formulae The velocity q at the general point in a twodimensional irrotational flow can be expressed in various ways.. respectively. of (consisting in the vicinity with J n For all these. e. J 1/2 As another example consider the function w c ~~z n t n which yields a variety of irrotational motions on ascribing different values choosing straight streamlines through the origin as boundaries. 9= i. (b) Denoting the components of q along and perpendicular to the radius r from the origin by r u' and v'. since dw ~dz W ] =A \ I I y1 (cos 26 t sin 26) 1/2 > .
.*.)]. . (i) to eliminate obtaining 1 d/ f~ v1 j = cos ^ sin 1 cosh 2 ^ c 1 sinh 1 ^ = 1 (ii) or square and subtract c1 to eliminate <. It will AERODYNAMICS [CH .logr + e t . .1 84 114. we may have a function of w. finding alternatively cos 1 ^ 1/ Z c 1 sin 1 <j> = cosh 1 <k sinh 1 <A = 1. i> i. . . 77). cylinder of unit radius with circulation be convenient to have the potential function for a U.(. Equating real and imaginary parts # = c cosh cos < y Square and add x* c2 = c sinh ^ sin <J>. (141) Writing out x f iy = c cosh ($ + *^) = c (cosh cosh + sinh ^ sinh i^) = c [cosh cos + sinh sin < *4> < fy < (i <{.. and so that (139) gives circulation with strength the expression for ^ is unchanged if the circulation is round a circle Hence. (iii) Putting ellipses = a series of constants in = (Fig. . . any one of these ellipses may be taken as . from Article 113 US. : Consider = c cosh w . in a stream of velocity K Let w = * 2?u ~ log ( z. of unit radius. hr K round the origin. c> y Choosing ^ as = the stream function. Hence K K + . Instead z as of w being expressed as z a function of z. (139) Now the Napierian logarithm of x + iy * and = re? 9 ) is log r + *6. . . the foci being at % <^ (ii) gives a family of confocal 0. for this circulation combined with translation we have.
so that the ellipses become the equipotentials. however. to potential flow theory the nozzle may be made as sharp According as we please. we at once have the stream through a long twodimensional nozzle (Fig. at a large distance from the plate or elliptic cylinder. The line joining the foci be taken as boundary. they be Putting </ = same foci.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW JL 185 FIG. when the ellipses become the streamlines may for circulation round a flat plate. and we then have the streamlines for irrotational circulation round a cylinder of elliptic section. we shall have the case of fluid flowing through the whole or part of the #axis between c. and constitute the equipotentials of the circulation. 77. const. 78). interpreted as the streamlines. If. It will be noted that. It is readily seen by plotting or calculation that the velocity and the pressure reduction both become very large as the edges of the plate are closely approached. IRROTATIONAL CIRCULATION ROUND PLATE. Choosing two hyperbolas equidistant from the ^axis as boundaries. the streamlines become the same as for circulation round a circular cylinder. in (iii) gives a family of hyperbolas having the These are everywhere orthogonal to the ellipses. boundary. but a real flow breaks away from the divergent lines for flow . and we shall frequently have to remark on artificiality on this score.
POTENTIAL FLOW THROUGH HYPERBOLIC CHANNEL.. and is often made of quite different form for other reasons. the flow ceasing fill the channel.* Nevertheless. . 78. A pressure reduction obviously occurs at the throat. little fluid may pass through. with poor efficiency. possible. if the divergence is other than small. so that it by no means runs full. But if is exposed in a stream. The complete nozzle is known as a venturi or venturitube. the three dimensional analogue is the applied in design of highspeed wind tunnels. the throat given expendi The idea is of ture of power. p. and. and. convergent inlet is forced to run full. in greater FIG. The inlet part is of less importance. Where smooth flow and high if advisable to shape. of Re pressure covery energy at the outlet from the kinetic energy at the generated throat leads to higher resulting speed at for a efficiency (Article 51). it the divergent wall with some care. free to flow round it. than if the tunnel were parallelwalled. is efficiency are urgent. if it is known in a given instance to what extent the space between the walls is filled with continuous flow. walls. has many practical applications. Application to aircraft in the latter connection associated Motion of a Cylinder through Fluid So far the immersed body has been assumed to be held in a stream. cylindrical A outlet only.186 AERODYNAMICS to [CH. a pressure reduction still exists which can be used conveying liquid. this reduction follows at once from When the venturi forms part of a pipeline Bernoulli's equation. loc. 1 1 6. cit. the is the venturi short and (after calibration) to measure velocity (Article 33). the fluid * Piercy and Mines. With this restriction. in its threedimensional form. or again to is supply power. tunnel is often fitted with a divergent ancient origin. 44. Sometimes it is desirable to consider the body as moving.
79. sin + cos 0. moved in the direction Ox. Udy. O _ FIG. along a normal drawn from the element. round the boundary = Uy + const (142) from a <t ty satisfying Laplace's equation (Article 100) gives this expression a family of curves any one of which may become boundary and. 79 section is in that of the cross of any cylinder supposed to move at uniform velocity U in the direction Ox. + r u cos = U cos figure 9 0. that in the latter may readily be deduced by the superposition of an additional stream function as already explained. If the solution be known in the former case. integrating + TT~ dy = dk = dy 4. The contour shown Fig. is dy ds ds decreasing at the element in the figure as s : is Hence dx ox Finally. while the velocity component is v . increasing as shown. Superposition of motions parallel to x and y enables to be obtained when the cylinder moves with its section pathlines . The boundary condition can now be stated as parts of the velocities of an element of the contour of follows : the resolved the body and of the adjacent fluid. Substituting for u and v.cos 0. But the direct solution may be simpler and a method for this will now be described. and from the ' ds/ noticing that x increasing. Any form of = A to the yaxis. Con along the normal from it is of the fluid there in the same direction Therefore v sin the velocity component of the cylinder f/. will give the pathlines similar expression is obtained for motion parallel constant.v] FUNDAMENTALS. OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 187 being stationary at large distances away. Distance measured round the curve sidering a small element Ss. is X in the direction of 0. denoted by s. must be the same.
The method was employed by Rankine * to find mathematical lines. say. = c cosh cos y = c sinh sin As in that article. YJ. 117. as we shall use it later on as a key to a difficult problem of the greatest practical importance in our subject. is the ellipse : which we shall write for short so that a are its = c cosh . with 5 = So so as to represent the boundary.188 inclined. Trem$. 1864. in (iii) . ( . . making use Ae~*9 sin YJ of the second formula of = Uc sinh 5o sin YJ + const. = x Y].e. The streamlines for the body at rest are immediately found by the addition of an appropriate stream function affecting the fluid as a whole. AERODYNAMICS [CH. Now putting (ii). (i) a real constant. . we find that 5 = const. . Roy. i. as <f>. The following classical example has a particular interest. x y in the same so that way called elliptic coordinates.* + i*. Soc. . . (iv) semiaxes. z = c cosh (? + f>j) . are related to YJ. (142) gives. We have (cos Y) ^ and on separation f fy Ac~* t sin YJ) of real and imaginary parts <J> =<4*~ f sin Y) . * Phil. (ii) The t coordinates 5. none of which has any bearing on Aerodynamics. Assume where for the potential function the w A is = = Ac. (iii) . shapes for ship It is tentative or inverse in the sense that the form selected for ^ (and there is an infinite number) may well lead to a possible variety of shapes for the boundary. and should be studied carefully. . b = c sinh 5o . fy were in Article 115.. Elliptic Cylinder and Plate in Motion form .
. \ >j (145) The pathlines are shown in Fig. Le. because. . and a this important case c. o **civ c sin Y) * .(a c f b) . b = . we have the const. immediately by J J But the StreamA Al _ .. and c 1 SB a1 Thus. c~* cos These expressions are for motion parallel to the major axis. and the last formulae become . They come to cos 73. e~s sin v a 6 Y. (144) ^ = Va /\A4. and so includes the In case of a plate of chord 2c (cf Article 1 15) moving broadside on. Superposition..V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW this 189 and since must be satisfied for all values of >). . . A Hence. PATHLINES FOR PLATE IN BROADSJDBON MOTION. or the plane of the plate. the cylinder components V. ty (v) This result can be simplified. using cr* sinh o (iv) e) = bef* = b (cosh t + sinh 1 ft . if or plate has and of velocity /^ ^N^ the line joining the foci. is the written new stream function down _. 80 If downward motion of the plate. Corresponding results are similarly obtained for motion in the direction of the minor axis. 6=0 < = ^ as = U Vc t~* cos Vc e~* sin for >). ^ FIG.. ^ _ . in order that = 0.. n/lQ\ (I4o) and = Ub A/ r a _ . rtxv 80. be inclined to the direction of motion. = Uce* = 9 sinh 5o (i) should represent the case of the ellipse Uce**~* sinh ^o sin YJ . The solution applies to all confocal ellipses. finally ' ^ .
supposed Another treatment is given in Article 124. just when the drag coefficient C D has. and for these the Vx Uy. in experimental fact. From symmetry. But the flow would still break away. the oncoming stream being horizontal. than the pathlines. there is no component of force in any direction on the plate or cylinder. in the example considered of a flat plate moving at right angles to its plane. 81. and a lift article. as. But it should not be inferred that failure to indicate drag prevents the foregoing theory from being of practical use. way the streamlines for any angle plate at of incidence a can be plotted they are shown a for a flat = 45 in Fig. which would clearly prevent the flow from running smoothly to the back of we might round the edges. It has been remarked several times that the only Aerodynamic force arising on a body in steady potential flow is that due to the superposition of circulation and translation. is complicated. perhaps. by substituting an elliptic cylinder. or transverse force of a would result this will appear as a special case more general investigation in the next chapter. The methods discussed will the plate. must be superposed. if it be inclined. This further instance of absence of force in steady motion is reviewed in the next A circulation might be added from Article 115. Absence of drag is especially striking. representing a particularly large force. in this case that high velocities are built up towards the edges which would invalidate the assumption of incompressible flow with air as force. whatever its inFIG. 1 1 8. where x and y are given by In this . where further details are obtained. as was The subject of drag seen to occur even with the circular cylinder. . and is postponed until later chapters. and even with a liquid such pressure reductions would occur before the edges were reached as could not be supported by the general hydrostatic pressure. fluid. To avoid these objections. although. additional stream function (iii). and is a transverse . a value equal It may be remarked to 2.100 lines are AERODYNAMICS more illustrative [CH. 81. for instance. a couple exists tending to produce broadsideon motion. cidence.
Consider a body at rest in an infinite bulk of stationary fluid. Now. let an it for The impulse is absorbed in generating momentum in the fluid. a drag. Article 44). and. for. There is an indefinitely short is measured by the momentum produced. on integration over the body (cf. we know from Article 98 the distribution over The its surface of the impulsive pressure which generates the flow. whose viscosity requires appreciable time to take effect and so modify the flow. however. the impulse would be given by the momentum acquired by the body. and They could But this will be left readily be developed to a more effective stage. and we shall denote it by /. from the foregoing theory. the present investigation relates to the initial motion of air. This increment alone concerns us. and we have x = Tt At the end of the short is < 146> interval of time T. indefinitely large force act upon time T. will give a resultant force which must exactly balance that part X of the external force applied which is not absorbed in producing momentum in the body. . body under 7. Assuming that the body is of such a shape that the solution for irrotational flow exists. Let it be given an impulse in any direction. In vacuo. the result can be verified by experiment with a real fluid. Its weight will be assumed to be balanced by its buoyancy or by mechanical means. the next chapter. being withdrawn at the end of T. Thus. it known known for that pressure acts normally to the surface of the body at all points. then the flow actually set up will be of that We need not follow out the theoretical argument. regarding the flow generated in the fluid by the motion of the can be proved that if the acyclic potential flow is body. 119. to a reading of original papers. form. we can proceed directly to a very powerful process of solution that readily gives essentially practical forms of potential flow. provided generation from rest is almost instantaneous.e.V] FUNDAMENTALS OF TliE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 191 velocity often suffice to calculate approximately the streamlines and pressure distribution over the foreparts of bodies. Acceleration This is treated in from Rest one circumstance. if removed. during the time of its generation. in which potential flow yields viz. But part of the impulse i. when the impulsive force the motiop of the body and the fluid becomes steady. as will be described in more detail later on. because.
while the im ' pulse pressure at 8s is. Now during T the impulse / does work on the fluid. But the important result now and soon modifies the friction. S Hence ' ' ' (W8) where the integration is to extend round the contour of the body. be brought instantaneously to rest by the application of a reverse impulsive wrench.192 AERODYNAMICS is inviscid. E remains constant after T. and the integration extend over the whole of the ayplane that is not occupied by the section of the body. into the fluid from an element 8s of the element of the normal drawn contour of the body. as also we have obtained is whether the that during instantaneous generation of flow from rest. It is given . in the twodimensional depth perpendicular to the ayplane. property shown by Kelvin to be characteristic of A all Dynamical . q denote the velocity at any point. by . fluid possess viscosity or be conceived to be destitute of be applied whose magnitude. The flow might. viscosity produces friction seen. as well as skin noted. With an inviscid fluid. difficult to carry out. required. and that an impulsive wrench would sometimes be But the moment of the impulse may be found similarly. evidenced by the appearance within the fluid of kinetic energy. the ' final velocity at 8s is dfydn. a force must and point of application can ' ' kinetic energy at the end of T by E. p. as we have and the pressures round the body indicate zero With air. Thus the work done by an impulse is equal to the (positive or negative) <f> increment of the kinetic energy. by Article 98. flow. Thus the kinetic energy at the end of T is at once calculated if be known. (147) for unit The above integration is. leading to pressure drag. Now a familiar theorem of Dynamics proves that the work done by a system of impulses operating from rest is equal to the finite sum of the products of each impulse and This theorem may be applied to the application. in general. however. But E must equal the work done by the impulse during T. E^toJJfdxdy case. which would do work in destroying the kinetic energy of the fluid. Denote the this property. [CH. if E be reckoned . half the final velocity of its point of continuous If 8n be an distribution of impulse which we have to consider. be calculated in suitable circumstances. provided it is irrotational. the latter resistance. direction. It is clear that a linear impulse would be insufficient to generate some motions.
draw Ox in its plane.. 1 20. where the integration extends round the whole contour i.. From Article 117. 2c be its width and V its final velocity. on the plate. Assume twodimensional conditions take the origin midway between the edges of the plate. __ . 7 . where ^ . Impulse and Kinetic Energy of the Flow Generated by a Normal Plate The case of a plate set instantaneously from rest into motion at right angles to its plane provides an important example of the foregoing. from one edge along one face round the other edge and back again along the other face. . For the impulse I per unit length perpendicular to the #yplane / = ds p J (i) .. Hence (i) gives YJ dt\. therefore. and let ...V] FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW 193 systems started instantaneously from rest is that the kinetic energy generated is a minimum. from (149) E= iTrpF'c* . (150) A. = and Y] ranges from article. The motions calculated in the present chapter have the least kinetic energy that could arise from the displacement of the body through the fluid. (ii) Also from that / = T2ir r>Vc* i sin 1 Writing from (ii) sin TJ = on the plate. (f> . Half the final velocity of the impulse is constant across the plate < and is equal to \V. we have Article 117 x =~c cos showing that the distribution across the plate of and. where cosh 5 . Y] dr\ (149) i) = <f>/Vc and from 1. Hence.D.. . dx = c sin Vc sin Y] ^ = to 2n in the integration.e. .. of the impulse is elliptic.
Such an operation is called a transformation. details of irrotational incompressible flow past streamline inferred from that in to enable the flow in analytically complicated circumstances to be some simple case whose solution either is known or can readily be obtained.Chapter VI TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS The present chapter obtains the streamlines and other and aeroThe process employed is an applicafoil sections of practical forms. of the function of z. The method is applicable to twodimensional conditions only. in the simple transformation under discussion the network carried out . which will now be called the 2plane. We have seen how a particular point z' can immediately be plotted in the #yplane. of course. ^ and fy are separately obtainable as the real and imaginary parts. The enables a network to be (i) equally process is. Every point in a field of twodimensional irrotational flow has x attached to it a particular value of z f. the aim of which is 121. : (i) for the flow in question . respectively. reversible transferred from the w. whose rectangular coIf a region of the ordinates. . Now. the whole network can accordingly be replotted in the wplane.to the *plane. tion of the methods of conformal transformation. if by the methods of the preceding chapter we can construct the equation = + = </> /(*) . which is called the transformation formula. iy and of w The relationship between these is known at every point. instead of being x and y are $ and i/. It can only be by means of a formula connecting the coordinates in the two planes. so that the shapes derived must be regarded as the sections of long cylinders whose generating lines are perpendicular to the #yplane. A simple type of conformal transformation will first be described as an introduction. t flow in the 2plane be mapped with a network of equipotentials and streamlines. In like manner w' may be regarded as the complex coordinate of the corresponding point in another plane.ify. 194 . called the wplane.
for instance.CH. 82. a larger square element of the t^plane transforms to a disthe torted figure in illusThis 2plane.plane and dis position geometrically relative to the axes are changed. But this is not true of the corresponding network obtained by transformation to the zplane. : w which can be written as z + a*/z . trates a characteristic transof conformal formation corresponding elements are geo: metrically infinitely similar small. although orientation. (ii) w Fig. its size. as in Article 113 as follows from (iii) we . vi] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS : 195 in the wplane can have only one form it must consist of one group of straight lines parallel to the ^axis and another group parallel to For equal intervals of and fy the mesh will be square. tjjaxis. w. We happen to know from Article 113 the form of (i). 82 shows the results of the transformation = re* + V"*r. A very small element of the will square te>plane evidently trans form to a small square element of the 2plane. but is not so if finite. the <f> Suppose. (iii) of part of the ze>plane above the axis of tf>. Another point in the present example easily obtain. whether it be fine or coarse. which will achieve the result it is mesh net . if zplane FIG. On the other hand. that it is desired to transform the square in the ie>plane to the equipotentiafs and streamlines of the flow at unit velocity without circulation past a circular cylinder of radius a in the *plane.
= + = + that the coordinates in the Jplane are 5 and yj. fy and on the circle. The transformation was so employed by the French engineer Boussinesq in his pioneering work on heat transfer. . 6 . that the transformation (i) becomes of direct use when the real flow in the 2plane is known. the 2a. It may here be remarked. but the is too complicated for the study of some added problem flow obtained by transformation to the z#plane may persimplified mit of a solution there which can be transformed back. and is often known after him. we can find a means of opening out. But as a rule the form of (ij is not known. to the corresponding part of a where the complex coordinate of a point is t nj. <=/(!) . But in other cases of practical interest analytical treatment might be complicated. . 122. Moreover. * maximum and minimum values of on the sides of a line of length 4a lying circle itself corresponds to both on the <axis and bisected by the fyaxis. (i) and assume that throughout the regions considered (i) leads to a unique relationship between z and t and that dtjdz has a definite value. as it were. . where fy = = = <f> f a*/r) cos 6 (r a*/r) sin (r and r = a. then a proper The generalisation of the process gives the flow past the section. the plot in the z#plane can be regarded as representing uniform flow parallel to 0$ past a tangential plate of length 4#. Thus for the present we exclude transformation formulae . Conformal Transformation Consider the transformation of part of the zplane. An intermediate step is then required. If. Now. while a solution might more readily be obtainable by graphical means. The formula (ii) then relates at every point this simple flow to the Thus the flow past a circular cylinder of radius a. however. . as will be described in the following article. = 2a cos (151) < Since varies from circle are to 2n. Similar results are obtained in dealing with a cylinder of any other shape if circulation is excluded. the formula (151) relates each point on this line to a corresponding point on the circle. . example given is fully known in analytical terms. so rfplane. Let . however.1 96 < AERODYNAMICS [CH . where the cox ordinate of a point is z iy. however. a part of the <axis into some section that interests us.
and this transformation is independent of direction. 73) we can substitute for t in terms of z and obtain (i) = w =/(*). infinitesimal correspondfollows that the magnitudes of dt _ : very small corresponding areas are in the ratio 1. velocities at corresponding points are increased in that i. Application . The distribution of velocity in the 2plane. it unchanged by the transformation. Therefore. 2plane and let the boundary there be F^Z. element through an angle equal to the argument of dt/dz. follows at once that angles between adjacent short lines are Further. so that ing areas are similar.e. Elementary lengths in the zplane are = dt increased on transformation in the ratio 1. and = two planes. the transformation is sometimes known as onetoone. ctz Let Such a transformation is said to be conformal.to the plane. while also we assume that in the parts of the planes considered dt/dz has neither zero nor infinite values. defined by < w=F(t). Applying the operator dt/dz to an elementvector in the one plane converts it to an element. we must arrange that the same velocity exists at infinity in the 1. constant in In the same way we can find a new boundary f^x. 8z may be interpreted as very small vectors. If when z is large that in the tfplane will immediately follow from (162). dz lines are rotated It Further.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 197 such as t z*. As in Article 112 82. at corresponding points dz To make such change in the increases in local velocity representative of the boundary shape. say. and fy. be the velocity potential and stream function of a motion in the From constant. Considering a small area mapped with streamlines and equipotentials transformed by (i) from the z.vector in the other. dt/dz but this term often signifies absence of double points. y) the 2plane corresponding to that in "the plane. will be known. ratio. The same functions and ty then hold for the motion in the #~plane. the distances dz = separating streamlines or equipotentials diminish in the ratio j dl> : 1.
and there are two singular points where dt/dz = 0. as in the example mentioned. t=z + dt/dz a'/z . 82 becomes the tfplane. on a second sheet of the other. An motion investigated The opportunity be taken to effect certain calculations required later on. although this also holds for the line as a whole. onehalf of the one plane transforming to the whole of the other. 124. viz. if it is required. we shall always find on extending the region transformed to cover the whole of one of the planes that certain points occur where dt/dz becomes zero or infinite. corresponds to two points in the *plane. It is seen at once that the transformation ceases to be conformal at these points for the angle between adjacent elements of the circle is everywhere TT. A further example occurs in Article 1 17. x = a. Differentiating = I /** . and the transformation ceases to be conformal there they must either receive special investigation or be specifically excluded. which were left over in anticipation. Such points are known as singular points. the circle of radius a x + iy = <* or y cuts the #axis in two singular points. An example occurs in Article 121. if interpreted in this way. For clearness rewrite (ii) of that article as . . = 0. where the whole of the *plane maps into a strip of the Jplane of width 2n. article. of Bernoulli's equation then gives the distribution of pressure in the /plane. Flow past a circle of radius a at unit velocity parallel to Oy is .198 AERODYNAMICS [CH. In words. Transformation of Circular Cylinder into Normal Plate in will alternative solution of the case of Article 117 will now be described briefly. The article is of further interest in that in principle it forms a startingpoint for more difficult work than is attempted in a first reading of the subject.e. The remaining half of the first plane may then be mapped. (i) so that the ie>plane of Fig. A singular point is seen to produce a discontinuity in the transformed contour. at its ends the angle becomes 2?u. Singular Points Reconsidering now the special assumptions made in the last we note first that the transformation formula may be of such a form that a point in the *plane. z = a i. Turning to the second assumption. . . 123. while.
v' are = *V/ 40 a . Squaring both equations and adding w* + t* = 4a* a or w If u'. .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 199 the coordinate obtained from that parallel to it Ox by multiplying a1 I by giving  *+ 5 ~ a*\ A* T> ' ' The circle itself is transformed into a line of length 4a on the 5axis of the /plane by the formula t = z + a*/z . gives u' w' = V{ ( it + ))' 4'}' (iv) In the plane of the plate ' ' 7] = and we have for 5 > 2a Hence beyond the edges u' of the plate. (ii) as of the flow (i) by this formula a normal plate. The expressions for u' considered. To obtain the potential function of the flow in the /plane. . . and transformation will give in the /plane the flow past z. . (153) The is depends upon which side and which face of the plate but is obvious on inspection. w' . sign of ' . == ?/V4a f ' . (iii) the  and vjcomponents of velocity in the tplane from (136) dw = Hence (iii) . in its plane ' = 0. . while over the surface of the plat v' = 0. we require to eliminate we have seen. '  '.
gives zero drag.and i[lines of w = + background the entirely square network obtained the latter potential function by the formula (ii). tfplane. of flow without circulation past an inclined flat plate (cf. Article 117). The result (iii) is not in conPRESSURE DISTRIBU FIG. <f> The One of the points so transferred is shown encircled. leading to the large drag measured.and a ^line nearly and fy where this Read off the pairs of values of of the #flow. For this purpose the direction of the flow in the 2plane to be trans formed. crosses at several points the intersection of a <f>. 84 shows in the plane the streamlines of (i) and. will be approximately on one of the streamlines of (iii) points The and a smooth curve may be drawn through them. superposed.200 AERODYNAMICS v' [CH. Instead of as in Article deriving these. VI . and for If have been obtained for unit velocity parallel to the ^/axis any velocity V the righthand sides are to be multiplied by V. elliptic IN IRROTATIONAL FLOW. 83. The proof is left to the The graphical method can be used to find the streamlines reader. an approximate graphical method of general utility will be described. (153) indicates clearly that the velocity tends to infinity at the edges. instead of being rotated from the #axis through 90 as in is set at the appropriate angle. coordinates being suitable for this 117. when has become established. P is the undisturbed pressure of the stream of velocity F. Fig. the streamline (i). 83 and. being the same over both faces. streamline of the flow by transforming Now follow any plotting being close. venient form for TION OVER A NORMAL PLATE plotting. z a 2 /zIn the /plane is shown as a the <. The calculated pressure is as shown in Fig. In 05  a permanent experiment. the whole of the upstream face has an increased and the downstream face a decreased pressure. and by their use plot points on the square network of the occurs. For instance. (i). Berequation gives for the pressure noulli's p over 8 the plate PP __ P F' ~*L l fi (W 1 l(5/2a)J The elucidate remarks further details calculated above for the normal plate will made in Articles 117 to 119. and regime the flow has broken away from the edges. An alternative graphical method is based on the fact that circles .
84.D. .\ \ \ 7034321 01 2543 8780 10 II ia 2 il i \ O 9 8 5ti V / o \\ a 5 \\ 4 3 2 1 O I 2 3 4 3 / Q m tplane FIG. 201 7* . / 7 9 IO II 12 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE STREAMLINES PAST A NORMAL PLATE.
with centres at the origin in the 3plane and the orthogonal system of radial lines ellipses respectively. foci. + plane. plate is the straight line of length 4a joining the . . ALTERNATIVE GRAPHICAL METHOD. when transformed to the m z ae + tn which = t radial lines making t m represents circles of radii ae together with n with the #axis. FIG. The streamlines leading to the stagnation points are radial for the circle and hyperbolic for the plate. m values of m and n yield the network shown in the *plane. therefore. by formula (ii). 2. yielding the corresponding streamline past the inclined plate. m and n are the elliptic coordinates already = employed in Article 117. 84 A. . represented by the proportional numbers 1. 84A illustrates the method in application to the problem of finding the streamlines of irrotational flow past a plate inclined at an angle 0. where both sides of the straight line map into the circle of radius a. [CH. . Thus mapping the 2plane with a network of such circles and radial lines and the tfplane with the corresponding confocal ellipses and hyperbolas provides corresponding systems of coordinates which enable any curve drawn in the one plane to be transformed at once to the other plane. 3. and the The same .202 AERODYNAMICS become and hyperbolas. The tfplane is mapped for equal intervals of and n. Values of m and n for points on this streamline are read off in the zplane and replotted in the /plane. The transformation (ii) is such that the undisturbed streams are inclined at the same angle 6 to the real axes in both planes. the formula gives angles in) tfplane For substituting In the (m + = 2a cosh (m + in). Hence any streamline may be drawn in the zplane by Article 108 or otherwise. Fig.
these points must be excluded from the area transformed. . 85. the first of OP. that past this greater circle. of centre B and radius b. Dealing with the second * component vector. 162. 85. a* is clearly necessary.. This is . any point on the 6circle. as has been noted. become P' in the /plane. Cf also Art. marked and Q in Fig. Describing such a circle with as centre results in an enclosing ellipse.. = (154) R achieved by applying the formula to a circle of radius > a R. . which will be called the 6circle to distinguish it from the acircle that yields Q and R. 85. To avoid discontinuities in the /plane contour. We have for the coordinate of P z = re" and for that of P' of two vectors. Fig. Let P. singular points at x a. to be will The trans formed now be FIG.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 203 SYMMETRICAL STREAMLINE SECTIONS 125. the modulus a*/r means that P is to be reflected means that OP l in the acircle. giving P lt while the argument Thus the coordinate is of P' is the sum which identical with the vector * The relation OP OPl . Joukowski Sections The transformation formula t=z + a*/z involves. Q and but displaccentre a little ing its upstream leads to a section of the streamline form found in to give experiment small flow drag.. The form of (154) permits the contour in the /plane to be found by a simple construction.
OB/a its = = = FIG. its OP' is radius / being written for r. of thin symmetrical streamline form. The vector is to be reflected in the #axis. drawn by the same method. is Onehalf of the section magnified transversely in the lower diagram to show details. BOTH POLES EXCLUDED. such as might be adopted for an aeroplane fin or tailplane. The . 124. OB/a =0035. a sharp trailing edge is obtained. giving OP 2 found by completing the parallelogram POP ZP'. as illustrated in Fig. of course. is In Fig. passing through Q. of the rear part of the contour is very nearly straight. so that any point on any streamline past the circle can immediately be transformed to the /plane in the same way. [CH. Half the contour is also plotted with thickness magnified ten times to show the slight rounding achieved at the trailing edge which is necessary for practical conAnother point of practical interest is that an appreciable struction.204 so obtained AERODYNAMICS . 86 b/a The transformed section 105. length Fig. If the icircle be so drawn as to enclose R only. This graphical method can be applied. 86. STREAMLINES PAST A JOUKOWSKI STRUT. THIN JOUKOWSKI SECTION. 88. to points outside the 6circle. strut. FIG. 87. 87 shows the streamlines round a thick section suitable for a Here b/a 01 86.
applications of the foregoing the lines of Article 107) and the reciprocal of the fineness ratio. this gives = a* (1 + 2m) (1 or 2m cos 6 . 126. simple. is then introduced. 205 trailing edge is infinitely thin. 89. On some calculations the other hand. For small is little thickness ratios b than a. + 2m) . greater certain dimensions for be evaluated and may the Joukowski aerofoil. STANDARD JOUKOWSKI SYMMETRICAL ONE POLE ONLY EXCLUDED. called the thick ness ratio. Fig. Approximate Dimensions In many Aerodynamic ' ' sections are fine (cf. Unless otherwise will also appear later in the sharp trailing edge. Considering the point (r P (r. 6). the section is analytically may be substituted for a more A theoretical interest complicated shape without serious error. to as a Joukowski symmetrical aerofoil. it is this particular type of section which will be referred stated.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS both surfaces having tangent there. FIG. outwards. symmetrical LetFIG. (i) with a. 88. and making in an unpractical shape. 89 sin 0) a + (r cos 6 am)* = b* = a* (I + m)*. b=a(l+m) where m is small compared . . a common the while rear parts of the contour are concave SECTION. Neglecting the terms (am)* because r* Zram cos m is small. Thickness ratio is accordingly defined as the ratio of the maximum thickness of the section to the chord.
and differentiating and the righthand side of the second formula with respect to equating to zero gives cos Thickness ratio = =m . in the *plane we have for P'. thickness. [CH.206 AERODYNAMICS r/a is positive. . approximately. Hence. . Narrow sections derived by the Joukowski transformation from an eccentric circle enclosing both singular points.e. 88 can be plotted directly. Hence : + 13 ) = The maximum is ^ m= m. expressed nondimensionally in terms of the chord. (165) i. the point corresponding to P. of order Now Again neglecting terms  m* a = m cos 6 + \/(\ + 2m) = + m + cos 6) 1 (1 and a r = i _. Hence if Y denotes the ordinate at X. can be treated similarly. the gives second of (iv) y = 1 = mx sin 4a = 2mX* *(l !  X) 1/3 . = = form shown in Fig. Eliminating leads to a simple formula by which narrow aerofoils . (iii) approximately. be the distance from the trailing edge of a point on the Let chordline. occurring when cos situated at onequarter of the chord from the leading edge. as in Fig. the thickness ratio is the maximum value of 2y]/4a.  . Again.= 2a cos r/ ) 8 (iv) = a sin /r I a\ 1 \a = 2am sin 0(1+ cos 0) when r/ The t first of these formulae states that m is small compared with a the chord of the section is 4a to the first order. 85. . similarly expressed. of the cusped X Then the first of (iv) gives 2 x = 1U = 4# K! + cos m. . m (i + cos 6) . so that sin (1 = \/3. when a. remembering (154) r E= a Y) cos ( \a + . (156) Roundedtail Aerofoils.
but the second Y) becomes (v) Q(m + cos 6). 46.(2/X + m . (a) Joukowski. as already found. Let X' denote the value of Then by differentiating (157) and 'equating to zero. . The f ~ CL m+ / cos = I m / I cos 6.X (1 . leading to predominance of the elliptic term in (157) and consequently to a notably blunt tail. r Thus the first of (iv) remains unchanged. = . 90 is the halfprofile of a symmetrical Joukowski 1. ratio m/l. Hence the roundedtail Joukowski symmetrical section can be described as a cusped aerofoil of reduced thickness enveloping. and let OB following expressions result in place of (iii) 207 a/. a core consisting of an ellipse of the same chord.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS b a(l m) as before. THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION OF SYMMETRICAL AEROFOILS WITH MAXIMUM THICKNESS AT 0'4 CHORD FROM NOSE. (b) K&rmdnTrefftz. ellipse. or built round. The curve (a) of Fig.X) + (m . aerofoil of having a thickness ratio of (H5 and the position f maximum in 06) thickness located at 04 of the chord from the nose (X The curves (b) and (c) will be described later.X) 1 /3 1 1 '3 . (157) and thus The second term is an represents a thinnercusped aerofoil. depending upon the for maximum thickness.1)} . this case m\l = . (vi) The The last expression can be rearranged as 3 /2 Y = 2/X first (1 . = X = 1 JTICK 9o. Introducing y = {i _ (2X ~ !)}{ w + l(2X .X) 2a sin .QX ^! . = 1/3 1/ 3 /) . in (156) term on the right has the same form as X 1 _ gx'(i  X') f i~2X' For mil 7' * ' (vn) Reducing X' from this f. Let = + = where'/ < m. (c) Piercy. X and Y as defined above and substituting. value soon causes mil to increase rapidly. The position of maximum thickness no longer occurs at onequarter of the chord from the nose but farther back.
The the potential function of the flow past ty circle is then w  < + = U(z l + 6V*i).208 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . be noted that thickness ratio by (155). 90A. ( iv ) FIG. 0) : The P the circle corresponding to the given point The transformation formula aerofoil. It will. T) in the 2plane of the = cos I + *V) = TJ z + (r a*/z . 1 26 A. (ii) and combining these leads to sin*0 (iii) cos is + r^ = sin 2r. i . the complex coordinate of a B being the . U and the The undisturbed velocity in the 2plane is taken as circle as of radius b. m is no longer connected with the Velocity and Pressure t velocity q at any point in the flow past a symmetrical Joukowski section at zero incidence is calculated as follows in the zplane of The first step is to determine the point (r. found from the first of (iii) and then r from the second. Oy. in which zl = xl + iy l = B ^d ^ 1 is point referred to axes with as origin parallel to Ox. of course. (i) gives on separation of 5 real and imaginary parts 6. = (r + a*/r) = a*/r) sin 6 .
being due to the similarity between (i) and (iv). cos sin BP r cos r sin =r =r  OB so that tan X = r r sin r sin cos OB' ] sin "07 (v) These together with (ii) enable the coordinate z l corresponding to the point given in the aerofoilplane to be found. and the velocity at the general point of Article 122.e. dz (viii) the similarity to (vi). (vii) U Hence the undisturbed velocity is the 2plane. a feature of the Joukowski transformation. But an important special case arises when the given point is on the profile of an aerofoil of normal thickness with a cusped tail and the corresponding point on the 2 17 sin Q v and 1 Then (vi) reduces to qu cos 0) can be substituted for a*/r*. . The velocity qn at P can now be obtained from (iv) by (iii) of Article 113A dw  U(l b* 4 4 sm . i. Fig. Bernoulli's equation gives u (ix) . 90A. in the figure. Considering the "projections of OP. These formulae are general. (vi) The transformation dt/dz gives = 1 a*/z* = 1 when z is large.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 209 centre of the circle. 2m(l Finally. if P is the undisturbed pressure and pt the pressure at circular boundary. ft in the ^plane as well as in is given by (152) = (vi) it is dt dz In the same manner as for dt found that . = + the given point. A 6.
causing much form drag. If is the tail is sharp it is controlled . KARMANTREFFTZ SECTIONS. K4rm4nTrefftz Symmetrical Sections It has been seen that Joukowski sections suffer limitations. or after K4rm&n and Trefftz. . The angle is secured by choosing for n a value less than 2 according to the relation ' ' n Again. which varies the thickness ratio the position along the chord at which the maximum thickness of the section occurs is invariable and too far forward. defined as the angle at which the two sides of the section meet at the tail. from practical also cusped. An The formula (154) is identical with _ (z + ~V7 which is a special case of the transformation t na z a whose singular points are at z = _ a as before. (ii) maximum thickness can be adjusted while FIG. as shown in Fig. . 2n 5 bja locates this position at onethird of the chord from = . To overcome these and other drawbacks calls for more elaborate transformations . 89. early improvement provided profiles which are known as extended or generalised Joukowski aerofoils.210 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Admitting a rounded tail is ineffectual because the tail becomes blunt. retaining a tail angle by suitably relating b[a to n . briefly as follows. and the shape of the profile viz. enables the aerofoil to be given a tail angle T. Using (158) to transform a &circle drawn through one of the singular points and enclosing the other. by only one parameter. . 127. the position of = 2 T/TT. 01. m. for example. when the position of maximum thickness is moved back appreciably.
Moreover. the simplicity distinguishing the Joukowski transformation is lost (158) is best dealt with.R. is beyond the scope It of this book.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 211 the nose. better tailplane described as having a fineness ratio of 25. The first term on the right is seen to have the same form as in (156). . In these circumstances. c/s decreases.* detailed treatment of these sections is left can be shown. as will be illustrated. The result is a flattening of the front part of the profile as illustrated by the halfprofile (b) of Fig. is rather thicker than would be used for a strut. But modern conditions usually require the maximum thickness to be located still farther back. Two : sections shown in Fig. The transformation (158) is insufficiently elastic from this point of view. that narrow KdrmdnTrefftz sections accord closely with the formula y = where s are + sx(i (159) X and Y have the meanings defined in Article 126 and c and two parameters. Falkner and Walker. 911 . and the second term is a circular arc.R. No. thickness from the tail is given by As the position of maximum thickness is moved backward.R. The . 1241. 90. indeed. for which the maximum thickness is located at 04 of the chord from the nose 0544). in conjunction with (169). Thus the section can be described as a cusped Joukowski aerofoil built round a core of the same chord formed by two segments of a The nondimensional distance X' of the position of maximum circle. A. as a special case of a more general transformation whose discussion . showing. that the circular arc then tends to control the shape except close to the nose. A.C. Page. & M. (c/s = * Glauert. however. 91 have the following characteristics first might be suitable for a the second.R. t No..C. & M. the to further reading.
xxiv. p. Ser. Phil. = = = . v. vol. It follows that v is of a system of confocal hyperbolas. 2 1 and therefore OA 1 OFA cos <r/2. 92 ' AB . THEZ O PLANE. Phil. but it will purpose the complex coordinate transformed into a circle and for this operation the complex also be = pi + iv by the formula z cosh coordinate is changed to are readily found as in Articles 115 and 117 between x 0t Relations y and p. ^/cos The righthand branch will be transformed into an aerofoil. Piper and Preston. ' shows the two branches of an hyperbola whose centre is lies on the origin of a z plane and whose transverse axis at the # axis. 1938 For further generalisation and applications see Ser. Mag. where the number of parameters is further increased. 92. FIG. positive or negative. in that (j. Piper. . Piercy. varied between 03 and 045 of the chord from the nose (for farther back positions the nose sharpens rapidly).. yll&rffa Fig. more amenable family * of aerofoils avoiding the defects of the Joukowski system is obtained by inverting one branch of an hyperbola. The shape is controlled by two independent parameters which may be arranged to secure a prescribed tail angle and position The latter can usefully be of maximum thickness of the section. conwithin the range O to TU. Aerofoils inverted AERODYNAMICS from Hyperbolas [CH. 7. Mag. A description of the A articles symmetrical form of this family is given in the following advanced and provides an introduction to 'methods used in more work. whilst v = = * 425 (1937). p. Piercy. for which 2 == XQ + iy is suitable. Piper and Whitehead. but the new coordinates differ from those of Article 117 ^ = . 7. The foci are jFA FB and the angle between the asympIt is one of the family represented by the equation totes is T. and that constant gives the upper or lower half of one of a system of y. the constant stant gives one being equal to onehalf the angle between the asymptotes. November.212 128. vol. Aircraft Engineering. later publications by Piercy and Whitehead (when released).. 1114 (1937). restricted to lie may assume any real value. xxiv. .
92A.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 213 confocal ellipses. If e Coordinates C c. > = is z 0c = (ji [i c + (JL C . . giving and this t plane z. the the origin in the of figure. : = IJL = F . v increases from to K and \L == from jp A to B v 7i and the oo. 1. between pc and in e = ir/2 If 0. (i) Thus points remote from the origin in the ^plane are close to the remote parts of the hyperbola origin in the tfplane. and the part of the hyperbola in yield . 92A. Thus with l = the complex coordinate in this plane would be z = % + = s + cosh ^. pi tine determinate alquantity itself is rendered though uncertain by the change of sign on crossing the # axis beyond the focus. . are distinguished by suffix < 1. in the ^plane of Fig. cosh in. as aerofoil obtained Substituting t rt =  re t ie t. . v and the sign of is indeterminate from Along the #o axis FA to infinity. . = . . according to whether the latter constant is positive or negative. = The hyperbola of inversion v = C located on the # reckoned positive if C is to left of T/2 will be inverted with respect to a centre axis at a suitable distance e from 0. the neighbourhood of its vertex provides the rounded nose of the . zl l/r lt tz l = 1. = r^i leads at once . The righthand branch the of hyperbola is replotted 2 plane FIG. Some other values of the coordinates are indicated in the figure. where the origin O l is coinci z 2 plane dent with the centre of TO CIRCLE inversion C. sign of p is indeterminate from jF B to Along to oo fyo> v */ 2 and P1 increases from along Oy v Tc/2 and (A decreases from to oo.8 V 6. 1. iyi 1. and vice versa the back part of the aerofoil. In the plane of Fig. C lies since . (160) to . but a change of scale is made below to O^A = marked 92A is shown a symmetrical from the hyperbola by the formula in the figure. respectively. .
and YI * = sinh e LL sin T/2  . . X+ iY = l/(X l + y * x) . i. Eliminating  \i and tail angle T of the following relations between yields &) . and to map the aerofoil we have only to determine X and Y r (161) gives. (vi) v . Xi and Y! where. is .e. but an approximate formula which more direct can usually be employed instead. by Xl X = XJRf where parts. (160) gives Plotting the will X . The above method is exact. T and e comprise the two independent parameters of the family. The chord c of the aerofoil is equal to the inverse of the #r axis beyond A.(161) ' It will be seen that the tail angle T of the aerofoil is equal to the angle T between the asymptotes of the hyperbola. and this is made equal to unity by multiplying cos T/2). (iii) R^ = X^ + Y^. . Thus jx is negative on the axis. : y t = x^ . and vice versa. .i)^ + x == (v) tan T/2 1 and b = ^^ C T e + cos T/2 { . Y have the same meanings as in Articles 126 and 127. . is accompanied by reflection in the real upper side of the aerofoil corresponds to the lower side of the hyperbola.. on rationalising the denominator on the right by multiplying iYl and separating real and imaginary parts. (ii) i. 1/0^4.e. cos T/2 v . Any point on the hyperbolic be denoted by Yl and any point on the aerofoil boundary v the coordinates are nondimensionally expressed profile by X. l and Y = YJRf .214 aerofoil. AERODYNAMICS The inversion [CH.. Y in terms of the chord. and X. Then the distance of C lengths in the ^plane by l/(e to the left of the centre of the hyperbola becomes e/(s cos T/2). on separating real and imaginary s X = + e cosh cos T/2 + cos T/2 __ LL _ 1 l . and the complex coordinate of the general point in the zr plane + + becomes ^ 1 e e + ^ . Aerofoil Profile. so that the upper side of the aerofoil profile. + cos T/2 (iv) v ' for a chosen position of the centre of inversion the aerofoil. With this notation.
The condition for a maximum ordinate.Vl] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS if 215 Noting that R* = X> + Y (ii) equally gives X = l X//?. dY/dX 0. But it contains terms in Y4 which may usually be neglected.A gives Xf^Tj second expression is obtained from (v). . Y' of the aerofoil profile at its position of maximum thickness. + 1) b) Equating the two expressions leads to _ ^'(2^  + X '(2X 1 1  3) where the point v Y l corresponds to the chosen coordinates X'. respectively.l^X. leading to the approximate formula . i. giving X X&=3XJ=Y{ X l/X approximately. (c) The curve . (viii) be employed for aerofoils having thickness ratios within the range 012 to 020 common in practice. so that y= But (162) should xX(l  X)W(I + bX) 112 . It is usually required to determine the parameters x and ft. and may be compared with the corresponding profiles (a) and (b) for the Joukowski and Krm4nTrefftz families.e. 90 is the halfprofile of an aerofoil of the with the position of maximum thickness located at present family 04 of the chord from the nose. etc. may be expressed as1 dY _ 2Xl Y^'dX. and substituting. for an aerofoil of chosen thickness ratio and position of maximum thickness. = For an aerofoil so thin that Y^ may be neglected. (188) V bX)}' Further approximation is permissible in the case of very thin aerofoils. l (ix) reduces further to 2  3X' of Fig. whence T and e follow. Parameters and Shape. *(*)(*+') <> This expression also is exact. which have already been described.. for differentiating both sides of that equation with respect to X^ and dividing by ZYf * (X. for which the denominator will differ little from unity.
92. To enable the be inferred from the above process must conformally the circle into the region exterior must be excluded from these two regions except only the singularity yielding the sharp tail of the aerofoil. aerofoil The Fig. in the 2 2plane it is defined by v r/2. (164) opens out the circle into an infinite straight line. (164) inverts a circle of unit radius with centre at the origin in the zplane into the straight line of the z 2 plane. A circle inverts into a straight line if the centre of inversion lies upon the circle. (163) where iv in which has already been defined. Completion of the Transformation cannot be transformed into a circle directly but only through the hyperbola.  This transformation may be regarded as changing the given hyperbola into the hyperbola which coincides with the jy axis in the 2 plane. 92A. putting z^ = when z2 = 0. . which is changed first into an infinite straight line in a z 2plane. and the formula z 2 (z + 1)  2 . Fig.216 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (163) and (161) giving a singularity at the origin in the z 2plane. . (164) transforms the region exterior to the circle into the region to the left of the infinite straight line in the * 2 plane. . and then into the circle in a 2plane. Hence. an hyperbola. and then the centre of inversion is at the point on the circle which corresponds to the origin in the tfplane. as marked in Fig. the simple transform the region exterior to all singularities to the aerofoil . This completes the transformation of the aerofoil of unit chord In the reverse order. being the complex p between O and TC. 92A. 129. The first step is accomplished by the formula . straight line into one branch of hyperbola into the aerofoil. However. = and the formula (163) arranges that the origin in this plane is at unit distance to the left of the straight line. (163) and (161) turn the into the circle of unit radius. . e" is a constant such as to ensure that the origins in the 2 r and z 2planes shall be corresponding % v is restricted to lie + points. and aerofoil to (160) inverts the flow past the flow past the circle.
(i) 2 t" T/7C The next step is to evaluate mod. from the boundary in the zplane becomes on inversion a doublet at the origin in the z 2 plane. and this boundary pi value of \i is related as follows to the corresponding angle 6 in the ie 1 on the circle) in e circle plane. as in the next article. The final inversion into the aerofoil plane reconverts the doublet into a uniform flow at infinity in that plane. The transformation from the 2 2plane to the ^plane carries over this doublet to the origin in the 2 r plane. I2QA.and ^planes and at infinity in the singularity at the origin in the z r ing points in those others. while the singularity on the circle and aerofoil boundaries occurs at corresponding points in the z. introducing no further The singularity in the region considered not on the boundary. The change of velocity between the circle and aerofoil planes must be allowed for but is easily determined. Velocity on the Aerofoil Boundary Calculation of the velocity in the plane from that in the zplane requires in the first place a relationship between the positions of corresponding points. and z 2planes occurs at correspondtwo planes and at infinity in the z. (ji . (since r Substituting z = = (164) and. though not of the same velocity as the uniform flow in the 2plane. (ii) fa dz 9 dz dt The transformation formulae give Edz * +  '>' cosh T/7C) ft/2 T/7T C'(2 2  .VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 217 transform this region into the entire region to the left of (or outside) the righthand branch of the hyperbola. . can be found from (iii) and (iv) of Article 128. For any point on the aerofoil boundary. only its strength being changed. The foregoing may "be illustrated by considering the nature of The uniform flow at a large distance the flow in each plane. e  tan = i smh 2 dz/dt . expressing z 2 in terms of = (x + n/2 from (163).and 2planes. in the same equation. from dz.
whence (ii) yields after reduction cos' A cosh coefficient 4& *l' (iii) where the constant has the value _ 2(e + ~ e*(2  cos T/2) ' . 00 2 T/7C (vi) sinh But from (v) we can owing to the large values of t and z. [1 oo L<&J and substituting z z t +1 in (vi) gives oo which reduces to dz dt oo  . is given by Thus the proportionate increase U (165) where the modulus on the right is given by (iii) and A by (iv). and gives cosh 00 V write. (iv) T/TT) is The velocity the velocity at infinity in the aerofoil plane U' at infinity in the circle plane by U derived from U For z = U' dt 00 z% are (v) and t large. . at the point t corresponding to the speed point z in the circleplane where the ratio qx f U' is known. (vii) I of velocity from the undisturbed in the aerofoil plane. z l (ii) and the coordinates of the centre of inversion.218 AERODYNAMICS cos T/2 sinh [CH.
91. approximate allowance can be made for the wake by determining the potential function as for an imaginary elongated boundary. t . of the pressure round derived shapes of streamline form. 7. 92s. xxvi. Preston and Whitehead. Mag. for this Experimental observations section obtained at a 5 FIG. except near the trailing edge. vol. Ser. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS Reynolds number of 6 x 10 gave the broken line. is shown as the fullline in Fig. lations to methods enable reliable calcube made. A comparison between theory and experiment has been made* at the National Physical Laboratory in the case of the very thick Kdrm&nTrefftz aerofoil B of Fig. of the contour. According to Piercy. Phil. in which the back of the section is replaced by a narrow extension to infinity. 92c. 802 (1938). and of the velocity FIG. Comparison with Experiment and Example Question arises as to how far calculations of velocity based upon the assumption of wholly irrotational flow agree with experiment in the case of streamline sections. With a small thickness ratio experistill diverges from the present theory as the tailing edge is approached. but to a much less extent than in the extreme case Equally successful comparisons have also been made with symmetrical sections of the simple Joukowski type. of a bluff section p. Agreement is seen to be close over OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENT COMPARED FOR THE SECTION OF FIG. The important conclusion is that for the Reynolds numbers Aeronautics the present of illustrated.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 219 1296. 91. field outside their PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR MAXIMUM THICKNESS LOCATED AT (a) 035 CHORD AND (b) 0425 CHORD FROM NOSE. representing the wake. f * Loc. f In these circumstances the finds many Aerodyt page 211. cit. 92B . B ment 80 per cent. boundary theory layers. sure theoretical presdistribution. ignoring the The boundary layer and wake.
x j. (ii) . and applying it to any point P (r 0) on the 6circle so drawn (Fig. Circular Arc Skeletons sections given by these formulae when applied to a circle of greater radius b with centre on the #axis. This decrease and the the backward displacement the maximum of the position round the profile at which velocity occurs are of importance in designing sections for low drag and high speeds. 92c. . figure there have been drawn two examples of the family of aerofoils inverted from hyperbolas. Skeletons of arched form are obtained by locating the centre B of the 6circle on the 3/axis and drawing the 6circle through both the singular points Q and R. DERIVED WING SECTIONS Joukowski Transformations The straight lines to which the circle of radius a transforms by formulae (154) or (158) are known as the skeletons of the symmetrical 130. but for (a) the position of maximum thickness is at 035 chord from the nose. . experiment except in the region of the a decrease in the position of The difference illustrates maximum velocity ratio achieved by displacing maximum thickness backward. 93. The boundaries distribution of the theoretical pressure distribution round the two is also shown and can be relied upon to agree fairly with tail.220 AERODYNAMICS [CH. in the plane ordinates of the corresponding point r a */r) cos ( TJ P r = = + . 93). In the namical applications. while for (b) it is at 0*425 chord from the nose. Both have a thickness ratio of 015. (i) (r a*/r) sin 0. Dealing first with formula (154). one of which is indicated in Fig. we have as before for the co = t FIG.a.
July 1923. f _ . 94). Detailed investigation of this and other shapes is given in a paper by Mrs. Jour. a circle whose centre on the vjaxis at 73 = (iv) 2a cot 2p. Joukowski Wing Sections analysis. which intersect at Q' R' 9 n at the tail angle T TT (2 n). We now consider in some detail wing sections of a certain type introduced by Joukowski in 1910. OBP with (i as shown 2ra tan p sin 6 8 =a a see p r 1 = ?* + a* tan* p a*/r = 2a tan p sin Hence from (ii) : T) = 2a tan 6 transform to a single showing that two points on point in the plane. 93). which are susceptible to simple To obtain these the formula (154) is applied to a 6circle passing * The transformation is known after Kutta. which should be read. Whilst the formula (154) thus transforms the 6circle passing through Q and R to both sides of a circular arc. ju/2) and equals 2 Q and R transform to Q and R' (Fig. however.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS the triangles 6a 221 From or OQB. giving Q'R' = 40.Ae._ sin 2 _ cos 8 and eliminating 2 by (iii) + (T) + is gives for the equation of the arch 2a cot 2(3)* == (2a cosec 2p) . (iii) equals Squaring (i) and (ii) and by subtraction we find 2 p sin the 6circle at . Glauert.S.. as seen from (i) and (ii). The ratio of the maximum ordinate of the arch to its chord is called the camber and from tan p. formula (158) transforms it into two circular arcs (Fig. and that the maximum ordinate of the transformed curve is situated on the yjaxis (6 OB. The tangent at Q' is inclined at the angle 2p to the axis. the methods of Article 127.* aerofoil sections into = The figure is readily obtained by These and other arched skeletons may be used to bend symmetrical cambered wing shapes. 131. . The modulus is not then known. R. (iii) = .
as is evident from the . since 6fl(l+m). . It is easily found that OA.e. A preceding article. and has a common tangent with the 6circle at Q. with centre B slightly displaced from both axes. 0) on the 6circle in the 2plane exactly as described in Article 125. centre A is called the auxiliary circle. . Joukowski wing sections are infinitely thin at the trailing edge. 5. It may be noted that the locus of P t9 the reflexion of P in the acircle as it moves round the 6circle. like the corresponding symmetrical sections. Q say.222 AERODYNAMICS [CH. OB make equal With the help of the auxiliary circle. P'. . is small we have approximately (i) . FIG. the aerofoil contour in the /plane. the angle (3 which QB makes with Ox requires to be small and EB (Fig. is the centre of the equal circular The circle with locus of P 2 the reflexion of PI in the #axis. through one of the singular points. is another circle of radius < a whose centre The image in the #axis of the centre of this lies on BO produced. CONSTRUCTION FOR JOUKOWSKI CAMBERED WING. 95. Approximate formulae for the coordinates P' on the wing are found as follows : of any point (3 Let m be the small fraction that EB is of a. the point A on QB. latter circle. i. is plotted rapidly. so that. >) 132. transformed profile of this class is shown in the figure. For a section of normal proportions to result. A point P' on it is found from the corresponding point P (r. 96) a small fraction of a. the locus of angles with Oy. and enclosing the other.
VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 223 P FIG.+ ~) cos 6 = 2a cos 6 r/ \a (ii) \ sin . From (PN)* a Fig. a a a 1 The righthand members are obtained by taking account being small and neglecting terms of smaller order. = 1 p sin 6 m (1 f cos 8) Finally = a{. This gives :  = + p sin 6 + m (1 + cos 1 6) to the first order. = a /> 8 r/ \a sn + cos . ( 1 si 8) sn in 8}. 2ra (p sin 8 + m cos 6) = a* (I + 2m) + (BN)* 2 r ((J or ( /r\ a ) sin 8 + m cos 8) 1 2m = 0. 96 and (i) a a 1 (3 (J3iV) (BP)* = (r sin 8 ma sin a tan p) = r sin 8 = (r cos 8 ma cos = r cos 6 = 6 = ((XB) = (a sec p + ma) = a + 2wa a a 2 (i) 2ra$ sin 8 2ram cos 8 a . Hence. (166) . 96. since (PN)* r a of m and (3 = (BP)*.
224
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
These formulae may be compared with those of Article 126 for a symmetrical Joukowski section. The first shows that the ordinate is the same to the approximation considered and the chord equal to 4a as before. The Yjordinate is increased by the term 2#p sin* 6.
133.
Shape of Joukowski Wings The shape depends upon the particular values assumed
for
m and
may
P.
Provided always that these are small, certain characteristics
It is first seen that the thickness ratio is still
be conveniently expressed.
if
v], T)'
any
given by (155). For, are the ordinates of points on the upper and lower surfaces at distance along the chord specified by the thickness T at that
,
position
is
given by
r = ,,v
and if is transformed from a point on the ftcircle whose radius makes an angle with 0%, the corresponding angle leading to 7)' will be 0. Hence from (166) of the preceding article
TJ
:
T = 4am
sin
(1
+ cos
0)
and, on comparison with Article 126 (iv), the result follows. The maximum thickness again occurs at onequarter of the chord from the leading edge.
The mean camber is defined by the maximum value of (7) f 73') divided by the chord, or (YJ V)/8# for m, (1 small, and from the article preceding
+
:
T)
+
7)'
= 40p sin
2
0.
The maximum value of
this,
occurring
when
=
TT, is 4a(3.
. .
.
Hence
:
Mean camber
as
is
=
(3
(167)
seen alternatively from Article 130.
KarmanTrefftz Aerofoils
Wing sections of the generalised Joukowski type with finite tail angle result from transforming a 6circle whose centre is offset from both axes in the zplane by the formula (158). The process is facilitated by the formulae developed in the papers to which
reference has already been made.
foils
K&rmdnTrefftz cambered aerohave recently been developed further by introducing an addi*
tional parameter.*
Betz and Keune, Jahrbuch
d.
LFF., 1937.
VI]
1
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
225
33 A. Cambered Aerofoils Inverted from Hyperbolas
Cambered
wings result
aerofoils closely resembling the sections of
modern
from inverting hyperbolas with respect to a centre of inversion which is displaced from the axis of symmetry. The
transformation into a circle requires only slight modification of the formulae given in Articles 1289 for symmetrical aerofoils of the
family.
FIG. 96A.
Referring to the ^plane of Fig. 92A, let the axis of symmetry of the righthand branch of the chosen hyperbola be displaced parallel to itself through a distance Ay x =* 8 such that the origin in this plane may still coincide with the centre of inversion. Fig. 96A illustrates the modification. The complex z l is then related to by
e
1
MS +
coshi;
V
f COS T/2
'
in place of (161). An aerofoil of zero thickness is obtained in the ^plane when the hyperbola degenerates into both sides of the part of the axis of
(cf. Article 128). symmetry beyond the focus, i.e. the line v This straight line inverts into a circular arc in the ^plane. A cambered aerofoil of small thickness results from v T/2 where T is small, and the above circular arc approximates closely to the median line of its section and is therefore called its camberline. The camberline may be slightly extended to intersect the aerofoil profile at the nose, the extension representing the inversion of the short length Fh A of the # r axis, and then the coordinate of the front end of the camberline, called the nose of the aerofoil, is fT /2. The part of the line O t A beyond the vertex A of the
=
=
=
A.D.
8
226
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
hyperbola inverts into the chordline of the cambered aerofoil, and the angle 2(3 between this line and FA A remains unchanged by the transformation close to the nose of the aerofoil. Hence, at the nose the camberline makes with the chordline the angle 2(3 defined by
(see Fig. 96A)
8
e
~
mean camber,
is
+
cos T/2
and
it
follows that the
amount
of camber, or the
p as in (167). For constant values of the parameters e and T, the maximum thickness and its position along the chord of an aerofoil are only
slightly
affected
by camber.
for
Thus appropriate values
the parameters
may be
deter
mined by means
of the formulae
already given for symmetrical sections of the family whence 8 follows on choosing the camber. If a biconvex section
,
is
desired, the camber must be so restricted that the centre
(b)
between the asymptotes produced of the hyperbola, i.e. 8 must be less than e tan T/2.
of inversion lies of scale
f
FIG. 96B.
of 5
EXAMPLES OF CAMBERED
SECTIONS.
is
Retaining the same change between the zQ  and z r planes, as adopted for the
The value
greater for (a) than for
(b).
symmetrical sections results in
,
the distance between the centre of inversion and the vertex of the hyperbola being no
longer equal to unity. The inversion formula (160) modified for cambered aerofoils to
tz l
is
accordingly
=
1
+
i
tan
2(3
.
.
.
(160A)
in order that they shall have unit chord. The change also rotates the aerofoil through the angle 2(3 so that the real axis of the tfplane contains its chordline, which would otherwise be inclined thereto.
With
this
for points
change the formulae (ii) and (iii) of Article 128 become on the boundaries of cambered aerofoils
X + iY =
(1
+
i
tan 2(J)/(X1
+
iYJ
.
(iiA)
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
.
227
and
X = (X + Y tan Y   (Y  X tan 2P)//?/
l
l
'
(iiiA)
l
l
whilst to relate
X Y
lt
l
to
(ji
for points
on the hyperbolic boundary
we now have
in place of (iv) of Article 128
e
+
cosh
(ji
cos T/2
(ivA)
=
tan
cos
Thus the only modification of the values of X v Y l for points on the hyperbolic boundary is the inclusion of tan 2(3 in the expression
for
Y and Y
1
is
the relation (v) of Article 128 between be applicable to cambered aerofoils of the family if tan 2(3. replaced by Y l Fig. 96B shows two cambered aerofoils of this family.
.
It follows that
X
Y
l l
l
will
LIFT OF WINGS OF INFINITE SPAN
134. Joukowski's Hypothesis
Suitable values being chosen for parameters and a definite aerofoil shape obtained in the tfplane, the same transformation process converts the streamlines past the circle to the corresponding streamlines past the aerofoil. Now when this process is applied to flow
without circulation in the zplane, results follow of which Fig. 97
FIG. 97.
STREAMLINES PAST JOUKOWSKI AEROFOIL WITHOUT CIRCULATION.
the back stagnation point, 5, on the circle transforms typical to the back stagnation point S' lying on the upper surface of the aerofoil some distance in front of its trailing edge. As with the thin
is
;
normal or inclined to a stream, fluid is asked to whip round a sharp edge, attaining an infinite velocity in the process.
plate,
228
AERODYNAMICS
[CH
It is easily proved, as follows, that for all conformal transformations the circulation round the aerofoil is the same as the circulation
circle. Construct any two corresponding circuits enclosing the circle and aerofoil respectively. Then, since is the same at <f> corresponding points (Article 122), the interval of ^ round each circuit will be the same. But the circulation is the interval of <f> round a complete circuit. It is important to note that this result
is
round the
independent of the relationship between the undisturbed velocities
in the
two
planes.
In Fig. 97, therefore, there is no circulation round the aerofoil, and it will shortly be proved generally that no force arises on the aerofoil in these circumstances. Now, the criticism that fluid cannot turn round the sharp trailing edge might be met by rounding that edge, which could be achieved by enclosing all singular points within the aerofoil, as we have seen. But the result of zero lift, incompatible with experiment, would still suggest the streamlines to be discordant with fact.
Modifying the streamlines past the circle by adding a small displaces the point S' backward, and a particular between and the undisturbed velocity makes S' relationship coincide with the sharp trailing edge, so that the velocity there
circulation
K
K
becomes
finite.
is
Joukowski's hypothesis
that
K
is
correctly
and uniquely
deter
the point on the circle which transforms to Q' the trailing edge of the aerofoil. Since dt/dz == O at Q and
Briefly, let
mined by the above
consideration.
Q be
dz
clearly only one condition permits of a finite velocity at Q', viz. when q at Q, i.e. the value of to be added to the flow past
=
K
the circle must be such as to make S coincide with Q. It is applicable only to wings with a sharp trailing edge, although a tail angle for may exist. But it may be supposed that if we determine such a wing, and then slightly round the trailing edge for ease of construction, the effect of the modification will be small.
K
135. Calculation of
K
Denote the undisturbed velocity by qot and let it be inclined at an angle a to the #axis. With K = 0, the stagnation points on the circle are S lt S (Fig. 98). These approach one another in that half
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
229
FIG. 98.
of the circle
when
K
is
which transforms to the lower surface added in the direction shown.
of the aerofoil
Referred to axes
Bx By
lt
l
through
B
as origin parallel
is
and per
pendicular to q 0t the flow past the circle
given
by
(i)
whence
<!
=  J.
(r
')
sin 6

^
+
log
r.
.
.
(168)
If qb
denote the peripheral velocity round the
circle
[3tin
giving
qb
(Cf.
L
K
 "ft
8
K
.
=o
when
471^0 sin 6
Article 109).
Hence, for the stagnation points to recede to Q, S,
from the
The
figure, figure refers particularly to the
is
K = 4nbq s n Y = 4nbq sin (a + p) determining K in the zplane.
9 Q
i
.
.
.
(169)
Joukowski transformation,
When less simple transformations are general. care must be taken to note that the velocity employed, however,
but the theorem
230
AERODYNAMICS
of (169) refer to the circleplane
[CH.
and angles
and
may
be changed
in passing to
the aerofoilplane.
136.
The Streamlines
lines
Plotting (168) with the prescribed value of K/q gives the streamappropriate to a chosen value of a in the 2plane (cf. Article 109). Transforming these gives the flow past the aerofoil. An
is
example
shown
in Fig. 99.
The value
of
K/q and,
therefore, the
FIG. 99.
STREAMLINES PAST THE AEROFOIL OF FIG. 97 WITH CIRCULATION ACCORDING TO JOUKOWSKl'S HYPOTHESIS.
streamlines past the aerofoil, will change if a be varied. Thus the method is generalised as regards angle of incidence of the aerofoil. In the 2plane there is a lift L per unit length of the circular
cylinder given
by
L
This force
is
=
pj^
.
....
.
(170)
perpendicular to the direction of q
The velocity round the profile of the aerofoil may be obtained by the methods already described, and hence, from Bernoulli's
Finally, the lift may be graphical integration (cf. Article 44), and will be found to be the same as L for the same undisturbed velocity.
equation,
the variation of pressure.
evaluated
by a
Analytical investigation
is
given in the following
articles.
137.
The
Lift
In the *plane draw a circle of large radius R enclosing the aeroat its centre (Fig. 100), and take axes 05', OTJ' parallel and perpendicular to q<>. Since R is great, the circulation velocity comfoil
ponent at the
Article 115).
circle is unaffected It equals K/2xR,
it
point
P
(R, 0)
by the shape of the aerofoil (cf. and is perpendicular to R. At any has components cos 8 K/2rcR perpendicular to q<>
.
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
231
FIG. 100.
and
is
sin 6
.
K/2nR
parallel to q
.
Thus the resultant velocity
/
q at
P
given by
K
V
We
pg
.
K
P, and
0.
Consider an element of the mass crossing it per second.
circle J?.S0 at
let
m
be the
fluid
have
m=
R8Q
.
cos
.
.
When P
(ii)
is
on the upstream side
of the aerofoil, the streamlines
having an upward trend, passage across the element communicates
circle.
at the rate cos Q.K/2nR to the fluid within the This calculation is correct wherever the element is situated. Hence the fluid within the circle will, on account of the flux of fluid
its
upward momentum
m
across its whole contour, have increased at the rate
momentum
in the direction OY)'
""* we
We have omitted to attach a sign to q and it is evident that this should be negative, since the velocity is in the direction 0%'. Hence the last member of (iii) when essentially positive gives the rate at which the fluid within the circle is receiving momentum from the aerofoil in a downward direction, i.e. in the direction This
,
OT\
'.
232
is
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
checked by the fact that the aerofoil bends the streamlines downward. The fluid outside the circle exerts, we shall also find, an upward force on the fluid within by virtue of the pressure p acting radially inward. This must also be taken into account. Considering again the contourelement R8Q, the upward force on it is p sin 6 R8Q. Integrating round the circle we find the whole
.
force to
amount
to
f2T
Now
related to q by Bernoulli's equation. turbed pressure of the stream, using (i)
p
is
If
pQ
is
the undis
the velocity term in I/R* with that in l/R, so that
and
since
R is large,
is
negligible
compared
K
Substituting in the circle
(iv)
we
find for the
upward
force
on the
fluid within
P;r
(
(v)
Summing up, we find downward momentum at
the rate
fluid
that the fluid within the circle receives %pKq Q while also it presses down,
wardly on the surrounding
with a force of the same magnitude.
'
Hence the upward reaction L on the aerofoil in the tfplane is given by It is important to remember that by upward is meant (170).
'
the direction 07]' which is perpendicular to that of q Q The equality of the momentum and pressure integrals in the fore.
going has no physical significance, following only from choosing a Variations are dealt with in Tietjen's circle for ease of integration. and Aeromechanics. A wing flying through the Applied Hydroatmosphere must derive its lift eventually from a pressure integral over the ground or sea. This must amount to the same as the lift
calculated above.
The important result of the preceding article does not depend upon the precise shape of the aerofoil. For aerofoils of the in (170), simple Joukowski type we may substitute from (169)
138.
obtaining
L
= 4p
*
.
7c6
sin (a
+
P)
.
.
(171)
VI]
TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
lift
233
that
Introducing the
coefficient
C L and remembering
,
b/a~l+m
f
CL
5
= 2w(a + p)
approximately, when
a, p,
.
.
.
.
and
1
m are small.
(172)
Tsr
i.e. if
.....
C"
In these circumstances
<>">
increase, the
the angle of incidence of a Joukowski aerofoil of infinite span lift coefficient C L increases at the rate 2n per radian, or
degree.
(HI per
139. Pitching
Moment
The most
type
aerofoil shapes
general transformation formula by which the flow past may be derived from that past the circle is of the
*
=z+
C'

, z
+^+ z
......
This gives
where the
coefficients are
complex numbers.
all the zeros, except that yielding the sharp trailing edge of the aerofoil, must be enclosed within the circle. The origin is situated at the centroid of the zeros. Different sets of poles and circles may be chosen to give an infinite variety of aerofoil shapes. Further development of this wider view of a subject of considerable
and
practical importance
is left
to subsequent reading
and research.
the pressures on a given aerofoil can be determined as an application of the process described in Article 136. General analytical investigation may
The pitching moment about any point exerted by
proceed as follows Consider a great
fluid within.
:
circle of radius
R with centre at 0.
round it are everywhere from the rate
of
radially directed
The pitching moment
change
If
M
The pressures and exert no moment on the
about
of
9
can be calculated
of the fluid the resultant velocity q at the point R, 8 is passing through. inclined at e to 0%, the mass of fluid crossing the element RSQ per second is p<? cos(e 0)jRS6, while its velocity perpendicular to R is q. sin(e and the moment of its momentum is accordingly 0),
.
of the
moment
momentum
sin 2(e
2 6)J? 80.
Integrating round the circle
r*
J
A.D.
o
sin 2(c
eye
= o.
8*
234
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
Now from
(136), Article 110, if in the /plane of the aerofoil
u and v are the velocity components
/
\
dw
whence
=u
= foR*
is
iv
= #(cos e
f
i
sin e)
= qe
6)^8
*
*
Mo
and the problem
(
^)
^
sin 2(e
.
(ii)
with reference to the axes 0%,
resolved into finding a tractable expression for q Ot] of the great circle.
The flow round the 6circle is given in Article 135 (i), referred to a Zjplane, whose origin is at JS, and whose axes are at the inclination This is transferred to axes through a. parallel to 0, OTJ by the
substitution
*i
=
(z
z)
e**
.
.
.
(iii)
where
z
is
the coordinate of B, and becomes
^
=
?c
whence
dw
Nowrfze^
rf^
~~~~dz
dz
~dt
'Tt
and on expanding
(i)
(iv)
in descending
powers of
z
and making use of
we
find
The
integral in
the result that
M
(ii)
Q
can be solved * after substitution from
(v),
with
comes to the imaginary part
of the expression
The second term represents the moment of the about the origin 0. Omitting this, and writing ipgft for C', we obtain for the moment B about B
is
where L
lift
the
lift.
acting at
B
M
MB = 27rp
This result
is
*A sin 2(oc
2
+ y)
.
.
.
(175)
it quite general. for zero travel of the centre of pressure, a problem of practical importance, particularly in connection with the structural design of
As an example,
may be shown that
* Mrs. Glauert, loc.
ment
is
This proof is due to v. Mises. A different treatcit., p. 184. given by H. Glauert, The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory, Chap. VII.
from measurements of the line integral of the tangential velocity circuit enclosing the aerofoil and cutting the wake For circuits that approach the aerofoil at right angles.VI] TWODIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS 236 which circumscribes the form of C' in we must have y To see this. so that C' = . however. The fundamental conception that is by graphical determination closely realised on assessing velocity. It is also fitted for measurements of normal pressure round lift. Since the leading edge is then given closely by M = M . A long aerofoil is made to a Joukowski section which has been worked out in detail on the drawing board. so that the velocity at a single point in the stream can be measured in direction and magnitude with the aerofoil in various relative positions. when drag is nil. at the present stage have been devised. Hence. 140. its median section. If we now restrict the result to the simple Joukowski transformaa f y vanishes and tion formula. 2 P ~4 CL ' Comparison with Experiment Comparisons with experiment of practical engineering interest will occur in Chapter VIII. (176) M about the leading edge of the distant 2a from B. the moment must vanish when the lift vanishes. and that the latter wings. by experiments arranged to imitate twodimensional conditions of flow. we note that for a fixed C. it is The moment coefficient Cm is sometimes defined from the moment aerofoil. 2oc = c per unit of span * 2 8 = approximately. MB = 27cpj f a sin 2a. occurs at the incidence p.P. = p. Such investigations are easily carried out and form interesting laboratory work.2aL from (172). where c is the chord = 40. = $K x round any wide . Preferably it is carried on traversing gear. 5 being the area. roughly K per unit of span. (174). after extension of the theory to threedimenNumerous successful checks on the theory sional aeroplane wings. and is mounted to stretch between the walls of an enclosedtype tunnel or right through an open jet. or sections close thereto.
The lift is determined for purposes of comparison from the experimental pressure diagram. Typical pressure diagrams are not illustrated. since they resemble those already given for the median sections of aerofoils of considerable aspect ratio. cutting the boundary layer) decrease by some 10 per cent. . Observations tend.236 AERODYNAMICS [CH. in the case of two dimensional aerofoils whose camber and thickness ratio are small. it will be found that the slope of the lift coefficient curve is less than 2?r. the pressure diagram will be found to conform reasonably closely with that determined theoretically for the section and incidence. K On examination. angle the theory completely breaks down. whilst in the case of the median or other planes of a threedimensional aerofoil it does not do so. differences occurring chiefly near the crest and tail Thus the experimental lift is less of the upper surface of the section. VI may closely (without. to lie within the calculated diagram. often used instead. though the section be the same. If the pressures be observed at various small incidences and suitably integrated. however. the pressure drag becomes small at moderately high Reynolds numbers. of course. as already described. although even this value is too generous and 5 For incidences approaching the critical is much closer to fact. owing to neglect of frictional effects. unless the incidence is such that the lift is also small. The essential difference is that. than the theoretical. although it is in agreement with the observed circulation the theory overestimates what a given shape can do. The value 6 is .
Consideration of cambered aerofoils has so far been limited to those whose camberline is a circular arc. Such variation has several applications and particularly to the reduction of the pitching moment coefficient. Again. Arbitrary shapes can also be dealt with by an approximate method due to Theodorsen. the crest of an unreflexed camberline is advanced from the midchord point characterising the circular arc to a position onesixth of the chord behind the nose. The preceding chapter gives an introductory account of a method by which the potential flow of an incompressible fluid past aerofoil sections resembling those of aeroplane wings can be obtained accurately and without difficulty.. in this cf. . the moment at zero lift almost vanishes and the centre of pressure remains almost stationary at the quarterchord So far forward a position for the crest of the camberline is point. an integral equation whose solution is laborious without special calculating machines. further developed by Goldstein. the potential flow problem could be solved otherwise by determining an appropriate distribution of vorticity round the given boundary. and therefore this line of approach is followed book only in the present chapter. * Lamb. The determination of the said distribution in a given case involves in general. 6th 237 Ed. For it can be proved * that every continuous irrotational motion of an incompressible fluid that extends to infinity and is at rest there may be regarded as due to a certain distribution of vorticity round the surface of the body producing the motion. for example.Chapter VI A THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 1 40 A. p. a shape that is unfavourable for practical use since it entails a large moment coefficient. There is no analytical need for this restriction. (177). Hydrodynamics. however. The fully developed theory provides for some 9 parameters controlling the shape of the profile. so that given wing sections can if desired be fitted closely. and development of the system of conformal transformation described in Articles 128129A and 133A enables the camberline to be varied in shape as desired without loss of ultimate accuracy. 214. When.
and the moment at zero lift will be different in the two cases but negligibly so. for purposes of calculation.238 AERODYNAMICS [CH. though tangential to it at all points. the simple elementmotion described in Article 103 without restriction as to the minimum round a value of r except as stated in Article 39. as follows. A further approximation. Garrard. p. it is assumed that the vorticity may. Similarly. compared with the difference that would result from changing the camberline if both thickness and camber are small. ' skeleton ' ' is intended (in the present connection only) by the circular arc of Fig. constitutes the thin aerofoil (in the present connection) for all the transformations considered in detail in term thin aerofoil/ Thus the Chapter VI.e. London.D. is also introduced at the outset. Piper* has extended the simple profiles of Article 133A so that a stationary centre of pressure is secured by reflexing the camberline towards the tail and displacing its crest upstream. the median line of its upper and lower surfaces. Investigation being limited to small cambers. Determining this by K Joukbwski's Hypothesis secures a finite velocity at the trailing edge but. but evidently some advance from the midchord point is important. * Loc. i. be regarded as distributed along the chord. These and similar precise calculations accord with experimental results known for some time previously.e. 212. at adjacent points on the two sides of the line. magnitude This difference is determined by a distribution along the line of ' ' log r sources/ or point vortices/ i. 1042. thesis. The total circulation circuit enclosing the line is equal to the sum of the circulations of all these elements (Article 97). often unacceptable for other reasons. Ph. the velocity is infinite at the leading edge.. to small deviations of the camberline from the chordline of the section. The bent line to which the aerofoil section is reduced may be regarded as the trace of a surface of discontinuity in the sense that the velocity of the differs in fluid. since the front stagnation point is under the sharp nose. Hence a serviceable approximation to the moment should be obtainable in such cases by neglecting thickness altogether and regarding the aerofoil simply as a bent Such a line. if restricted to a small camber. But they also show f that for small cambers and thickness ratios the effect of the distribution of thickness of the section on the pitching moment is small compared with that of the shape of the camberline. t cit. 93. This may be thickened into a Joukowski section or into one whose profile is inverted from an hyperbola. .
Now this tangent is inclined to V at the angle a __ dyfdx.VIA] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 239 1406. though determined for the point x on the chord. will be approximately the same at the corresponding point P on the But the resultant of v l and V must be parallel to thin aerofoil. so that the normal component of F at P is F(a dy/dx). 100A) component = kdx/2n(x x^. so that K= The lift f MX. whence __L _ Vl ~~ f J kdx 2n X X* (iv) This velocity. (iii) Kdx The contribution. the local contribution to lift being proportional to k moment about the midchord point is given by M t M= P F kxdx. Thus the boundary condition requires + F(a + dy/dx) + v = 0. . Denote the chord by c and be understood that the following integrations with respect to x are to extend from x \c to x \c. . of the element kdx to the normal velocity v 1 at x (see Fig. (i) L per unit of span is L = kdx the and. 8^. The Equations Choose the origin midway along the chord draw Ox along the chordline in the upstream direction and let the undisturbed . the tangent at P. V make an angle a with Ox. . Let k be the local intensity of the circulatory function forming the velocity t let it = = + surface of discontinuity. I .
which is there. . 0. in the present connection. Hence. and from the sin G! cos 6 X figure. as follows. ?I BP makes with the xaxis. it is useful to investigate a case for which the solution is already known. Application to Circular Arc Before attacking directly the problem presented by (v) of the preceding article. Thus the complete solution of the problem follows the determination of the distribution of k along the chord which will satisfy (v) in respect of a specified thin aerofoil defined. since other elements produce only normal velocities Hence k is proportional to this velocity difference. by the chord. the circulararc thin aerofoil of Article 130. to the first order. (ii) . for a and p small. the velocity at any point Pon the circular boundary is obtained from Article 135 as ft = = 2F[sin (G! + a) + sin (a + P)]. viz. where 6 t is the angle that mately. the assumption of small camber implies that the difference in the tangential velocities at the upper and lower surfaces of the thin aerofoil at a given point can arise only from the vorticity at that point. let the chord Q'R' be at a positive incidence a to a stream of velocity V coming from the right. 2F[sin 6 X + oc(cos 8 t + 1) + p]. = (r sin 6 a$)/b = sin 6 p cos = (r cos 8)/6 = cos + p sin 6 cos gives Substituting in ft (i) = 2F[sin 6(1 + P sin 0) + a(l + cos 6)].240 or AERODYNAMICS (iv) [CH. (i) Now by Articles 1323. 93 the circle with centre at B and passing through the two singular points Q and R is transformed by Joukowski's formula into the two sides of a circular arc of camber jp. With a circulation appropriate to Joukowski's Hypothesis. In the nomenclature of the figure. Referring to Fig. readily evaluated. Or approxi. for the case chosen. Generally. by f 7 MX = x ft j xl  dy dxt ^ ^ (y) and this equation is to be satisfied for all points on the thin aerofoil. for a 1 of vanishing thickness r/b p sin 6 r/a = = + Joukowski and x/c = % cos 1 aerofoil 6. 6. variation of the slope dy/dx of the camberline along the I40C.
p sin . This result is quite general. the value of k is zero. (iii) and if Now angle 0. arising from the application of Joukowski's Hypothesis. so that the velocity on the boundary in the aerofoil plane is given byQ* q = ~J^ = vril!E . . The Genera] Case The above result suggests that for more complicated thin aerofoils than the circular arc a suitable assumption regarding the variation of k along the chord is k where 6 is = 2tcF L4 cot  + ItA n sin w8j.VIA] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS 241 squares and products of the small quantities a and p being neglected. Hence the difference between the point subtending the angle increased velocity at the first point on the aerofoil and the reduced velocity at the second point is equal to 2F[2p sin to which k 8 + a cot (6/2)]. p small. . 1400. for any point on the upper surface of the circulararc aerofoil the corresponding point in the circle plane subtends the the adjacent point on the lower surface has a corresponding 0.P sin 6 L! dt/dz I  i . and the last term can be reduced. (iv) is proportional. To the same order the modulus of the transformation simplifies to dt = dz 2 sin 6(1 p sin 6). defined by 6 == n. "^ sin 6(1 6 + cos e . . The first term arises from the camber and the second from the incidence. for the velocity could not otherwise remain finite at the trailing edge. now the chord from its a variable related to the distance x measured along midpoint by X = \C COS 9. Only the second would be present in the case of an inclined flat plate. It will be noticed that at the trailing edge. i 6)J V for a \ L I + 2p sin 6 + a AJ^L ] sm 6 J . .
have to obtain the socalled principal value by evaluating the to e and e integral in two parts. so that the condition k at the trailing edge remains satisfied however many terms are included. * sum of cosines in they may be found by the usual pro Cl. between the limits X X to TT. (i) can be reexpressed and reduced as A Q (l + cos 0) + $XA n [cos (n cos cos 1)0! X 1)0 . . The principal values of the integral + are* With the help follows : of these. (i) T + f dx Jo = We cos 6 The evaluation of the integral gives rise to some difficulty owing to the singularity at 6 P where the denominator vanishes. TU {A TtA n cos nOj}. = Substituting this assumed form for k in equation (v) of Article 140B gives the following expression for the slope dy/dx of the thin aerofoil.. and then evaluating the limit as e becomes vanishingly small.242 AERODYNAMICS [CH.. and only integral values of n are considered in the summation. . for instance..cos (n + 1)0] M sin (n + sin (n 8^ J sin Ui = The this form. Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory. (ii) values of the coefficients may be evaluated directly if the slope of the thin aerofoil can be expressed as a Alternatively. Glauert. or camberline i\ AQ COt  + Cos sn sin 0^0.
. Example Let us assume for the camberline a cubic curve of the form lc = (J  #!<*) (A + BXJC).^) ... they give the following Expressed CL = 2/^ VC = ' f 77 2n\ [A Jo (l + . .. 8 . . terms of coefficients. The value of C M is a measure of the centre of pressure travel sine the distance of the centre of pressure from the quarterchord point is C M /C L It will also be noticed from centre of pressure requires that A 2 Av . The Aerodynamical Coefficients and Centre in Equations (ii) and (iii) of Article 140B are now solved. = (iii) that a fixed i4oF. Denoting by CM the moment coefficient about the midchord point.. dv f dx = ^ cos 3 B cos 29. Q]dQ (i) CM ' 27u'(.. If C M without an CM = = CM .4 + (l i^)... Dropping no longer necessary and integrating cos J4oE. in == *(*lc)(A + Bxfc) 3Bx*/c*. + i^ f ) + cos 6) + 5L4 n sin nQ sin cos 6 dQ (ii) JCL (iii) The last result is independent of incidence since only A Q involves a. cos 6) + 2AM sin nQ sin . so that ^ or.VI A] THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS suffix 1 as 243 cedure employed in the calculation of the coefficients of a Fourier series.. 6] =7c [A Jo accent denotes the moment coefficient about a point onequarter of the chord from the leading edge. ^(4.. The quarterchord point is therefore called the Aerodynamic centre. iB ~B 8 1 2Ax/c terms of cos 0..
. 100B. This shape of camberline is illustrated in Fig.244 This gives AERODYNAMICS [Cn. FIG. vi A A. The condition for a fixed centre of pressure is thus B We 8/4/3. = Sn . 100B. conclude that a camberline of the type concerned will secure zero travel of the centre of pressure for a thin aerofoil provided its equation is =  + S> where C is a small coefficient. showing the magnitude of the reflexure towards the tail.
or when threedimensional concentrations of vorticity exist in otherwise irrotational flow in the latter case there is no stationary streamline state. and we have to face unsteady as well as threedimensional conditions. . and VI A. Generalised Equation of Continuity Threedimensional motions will be referred to fixed coordinate axes Ox. . the motion of the inviscid was assumed to be irrotational and incompressible. the mass enclosed at any instant is p 8#8y8z. It is also assumed that the flow proceeds isentropically without shock (Chapter III). of time $t this mass is increased by (i) 246 . making rapid progress possible. so that the pressure acts equally in all directions at any point and there is no diffusion of any vorticity present. by which is meant generally a sudden large increase of density and decrease of velocity associated with a production of vorticity and other phenomena. Oy. of sides 8#.Chapter VI B COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW In Chapters V. and at the end of a brief interval at . Oz. Fixing attention on a boxlike element of space. w. and the assumptions will often be reintroduced to obtain approximate solutions to practical problems. I40H. with establishing a broader basis of fundamentals for guidance in later investigations. steady and twodimensional. therefore. fluid considered some circumstances they are inadmissible examples occur when high speeds cause appreciable variations of density. ' ' . v. The present chapter is concerned in the first place. The equation of continuity for unsteady compressible flow depends on little more than the conservation of matter no special form is obtained for an inviscid fluid. The fluid is still regarded as inviscid. in the direction of which the velocity components any instant are u. In the succeeding chapter the general theory will be applied to twodimensional aerofoils at high speeds. VI. The velocity potential that exists under these conditions satisfies Laplace's equation. But in 1406. 8z. Sy.
components are u. at any the density is p. (in) v ' dyJ showing a great change from the equation for incompressible flow. y. function of position and time. z) t at time . it gives = I I I u dx dy p\ dp 3p\ ~ + v~ dx } . v The mass entering the box during the time t instant. the total increase of Extending the calculation to include also the other two pairs of mass during the time is But this must be equal to (i). Simplified for steady twodimensional flow to compare with (61). the velocity w and & nearer to the origin is while the mass leaving the box through the opposite face is fluid within In respect of flow through this pair of faces. z. f(x. . It is frequently required to know the component accelera140!. y. varies for a moving element. an instant along can be constructed only by following the element its path a simple example has already arisen . and brief consideration shows that formulae for this purpose for in Article 29. tions of a fluid element. [CH.246 AERODYNAMICS (x. through the ^> Let the centre of the box be at the point y. Hence <> !+++du dv This general equation of continuity for compressible flow can take various equivalent forms. t). the mass of the box increases during 8t by the amount dx faces. The same position arises if it is desired to calculate the rate at which some property of the element other than its We therefore examine the rate at which any velocity is varying. If at time t a particle occupies the position (x. therefore. z) where.
y + 8y. u a/ d~ x + v a/ ty + w a/ dz defined by is sometimes known after Stokes. form of the general equation of continuity.VI B] t COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW (x ( 247 n + 8t it will have moved to the position and the function will have increased to + 8x. the rate at which the density of a moving element increasing is is Dp ~W+ Dt == 3p dt 3p zt+ u dx z+ v 9p Sp ^ + w ~^' dz dy d Substituting in (ii) of the preceding article gives Dp fdu dv providing an alternative. the component accelerations of an element are The force components producing these accelerations are. Euler's From Dynamical Equations the preceding article. only of two kinds. and often more convenient. z + J dx dy dz dt Writing the new value of the function in the form _ a/ Di~dt + Df The operator Z>/Dtf. as described for onedimensional motion in . in the absence of viscosity. For example. The first arise from the pressure gradients. following the motion of the fluid. 140). and its use is called a differentiation It is worth remembering.
the terms in d/dt will be omitted if the flow is steady. Kelvin's (or Thomson's) Theorem It will now be shown that under certain conditions the circulation round any circuit moving at every point with the fluid does not vary with time.248 Article 28. . Hence finally. I40K. z). At any instant let p be the pressure.g. have any distribution of vorticity and is not constrained to be in steady motion (b) There exists an integrable functional relation between the . dp/dx and similar expressions result from resolving in the y and zdirections. Resolving in the ^direction. pF Du/Dt pF . though it may FIG. looc. It is B outstanding importance in Aerodynamics. the only restriction being Substitutions for the lefthand sides will be made from (i) in accordance with given. wind tunnels. The above conditions are as follows is : of (a) The fluid inviscid. etc. Y Z t the components of extraneous force per unit mass at the point (x. and those involving w if it . This theorem was enunciated by Lord Kelvin when Sir William Thomson and is known under both names. airscrews. is twodimensional. and consider an element of volume V with its centre at this point. such as gravity. These equations of motion are general. p the density. and X. The second are due to extraneous causes. of the element. = . y.i^ I (ii) Dv Dt Dw dp p dz' to an in viscid fluid. AERODYNAMICS and are proportional to the volume [CH. X V . Du ~Dt ^X^P pdx = Y . conditions e. exercising a directive influence on the theory and design of wings.
A and J3.. or. it is Hence ~ t (u$x) =D ~** + Sw =D + !(). Hence. *x t the rate at which the projection of an element 8s of is the line on the #axis elongating.VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 249 forces pressure servative._.e. i. Fig. etc. substituting from the equations of motion. D J dy t/ p \ dx dz f /) = 80 P + Integrating along the entire fluid line gives finally [cdfi I ft + i? 1 j p . components a of extraneous force valued potential function single and w$z are similarly is assumed that the unit mass are derivable from per ii. yielding three such equations. rate at which the flow along the fluid line increases is given by The from A to B D Considering the first r I B (udx + vdy + wdz). Differentiations following the motion of vlly It expressed. a line of which every point is moving with the fluid the line selected will always consist of the same fluid particles. lOOc.e. (i) term of . so that X= dl/dx. . and density . themselves moving with the fluid and connected by any fluid thus line/ i. D _ But (D/Dt)(8x) is l _ = Du . . (c) The extraneous are con Consider first any two separated points. ' . this expression. equal to Su. however its shape may vary with time. adding the three equations together. .
irrespective of compressibility. I40M. A B becoming adjacent points.250 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Applications of this result will be discussed in place. (ni) the circulation round a loop of fluid particles remains constant provided it does not enter a rotational field of extraneous force and the chain remains unbroken. it can be shown as before that a velocity potential then exists. v d(f>/dy. (or of a given part of a fluid in motion. and it follows immediately dv ~~ dw dv = __ Su ' " dw = __ (x. w + = wdz is d<j>/dz. If at any instant then u that = udx + vdy d<f>/dx. Hence B p is an integrable function of p. i. components of Assuming (i) in the first instance establishes the existence of a velocity potential at the given instant. but the If the motion of a bulk of inviscid following may be noted at once. and Now let the fluid line be elongated to form a closed circuit. i. an exact differential d<f>. . The need for this . Integration of the Equations of Motion Euler's dynamical equations can be integrated through any part of a fluid in which a velocity potential exists. But the value of the righthand side must be zero K when coincides with A. steady or not) are devoid of vorticity. IRROTATIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW If at any instant all elements of the fluid i4oL. du dy ty~dz The lefthand vorticity of dz Tx ' = ' dx W sides of these expressions are the an element situated at y t z). that the state of irrotational motion is maintained in that bulk of fluid. The theorem then asserts that these circulations remain zero under the conditions assumed. provided as assumed. The theorem of the preceding article then enables us to say that the bulk of fluid considered will continue to possess a velocity potential. DK ^=0. . since zero circulation.e.e. every closed circuit that can be drawn in the region occupied has But the argument can be shortened to the following. . then the circulations round all fluid loops that can be drawn within the bulk vanish for the reason discussed in Article 97. The lefthand side of (ii) then round this circuit varies gives the rate at which the circulation with time. fluid is at any instant irrotational.
for example. Multiplying the first of these rearranged expressions by 8x. respectively. But it will but only pathlines. But Aerodynamical calculations usually suppose an unrestricted expanse of fluid and exclude such external actions. the first of the equations of motion. Y. streamlines in the sense implied do not in general exist. du ot a7 + u a" ox du + du V Tdy + w dz X + a dw du " p 1 3/> *' dx = can be changed to d26 a75 cxct + u^ + dx du dv v *dx + w dx X + ~ a 1 p /= dx df>  Similarly. and u* + v* + w* = q 2 . . . such as a pump. the second and third of the equations of motion can be rearranged to involve partial differentiations with regard to only y and z. the second by Sy.VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW is 2fil reading of the subject in view be reflected that Bernoulli's equation was derived by integrating along a streamline. the Integrating. etc. viz. when C becomes a constant. By virtue of (i) of the preceding article. or absorbed into d</)/dt with this understanding and the lefthand side of the expression then equated to zero. and all particles its value can be altered by. etc. for only at any instant example. In this strict sense the lefthand side of (i) is constant for is In general C an arbitrary function of time. have a potential Q. whilst in potential motions surrounding concentrations of vorticity. so that becomes equation Z X Hence. assuming dd/dx. say.. step first not always apparent on a of Articles 29 and 40. changing the pressure throughout the bulk of fluid by extraneous means. the third by 8z. and adding gives 8 ( & 8(^ a But u8u that X.. last ). is therefore more accurately written as F(t).
(ii) as Bernoulli's equation. this becomes on substituting for u and v in terms of where y1 Differentiating that dpjd? = y^/p = dq* (ii) of the preceding article and remembering aa . from Article 140H. where a is the local velocity of sound i. . _ 2 dp 9p 3# 9p * __ 2a* p 3p 3^' 3^ a? a p rfp _ 2a a p 8y dy' . reduces to  P i. . . The new result is less general in that it is restricted to potential flow. found by integrating along a streamline. obtained by integrating Euler's equations of motion. U the disturbed motion arises from a uniform stream of velocity is p Q the density p and the speed of . 1 / dv du 9p\ 3p __ If the flow is <f> irrotational. air in the If and in which the pressure sound a then by Article 31 .252 AERODYNAMICS [CH. but it is more general in to the same form showing that with that type of compressible steady motion Bernoulli's constant has a single value for all particles. that for the Substituting in (ii). + %q* = constant. region where the velocity is q. As before.e. I40N. Article 29. the pressure is assumed to be related to the density by y the adiabatic law p kp and expressions obtained in Articles 31 = t and 32 are applicable under steady conditions. For steady flow in the absence of extraneous forces the equation (i).e. Steady Irrotational Flow in Two Dimensions The equation of continuity for steady compressible flow in two dimensions is.
vol. 1936. 32. M= . As may be verified directly or inferred from the preliminary discussion of a general nature given in Chapter II. * whilst near the shoulder of the bodysection they separate Rayleigh (Lord). = in. N.  No. the counterpart. .T. 762.C. where further of 7 is changed by this method. Rept. Kaplan. but variation of p must now be taken into account = = by defining 8fy aq oX where a denotes the density relative to that of the undisturbed stream. but . And others. is increased. convergence becomes slow as q approaches a solutions * have been published only for the circular and elliptic cylinders. 1940. Imai and Aihara.. there is no difficulty in appreciating qualitatively the effect of compressibility on the streamlines. has <f> This differential equation for ^. 8. <f> and ^ varied equally through any small region. see the references are also given. Aero. Near the where the density increases. a stage As . Tokyo Univ. is usually expanded in a series of terms of even powers of M..VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 253 in (iii) This expression enables substitution to be variable local speed of sound. when the variation of density is no longer The streamlines for incompressible flow are by then negligible.' . Phil. of (115). 1940. A. 199.N. vol. Hooker.A.. No.. their variations are now inversely proportional to a. & M. giving [2 made for the  (Y is .C. (iv) approximates closely to (115) for The moderately small values of the Mach number U/a Q range depends upon the section of the body since the criterion is associated with the maximum value of q/a attained by the fluid in thus it may be more than twice as great for a wing flowing past it section as it is for a circular cylinder. Hence while formerly. (iv) where qa written for the velocity ratio q/a Q and M for the Mach number U/aQ flow. !)(.M)]V* = (O + W.R. . Karman and Tsien. For incompressible flow. No. Mag. The first of these still holds for compressible flow.. a Joukowski aerofoil and the sphere. 1941. 1684. A hodograph method. for compressible no general solution and is laborious to handle. Whilst the exact calculation of compressible flow in two dimensions for given boundary conditions is intricate even under favourable conditions. with the density constant. Set. $n be elements of length of adjacent streamlines and equipotentials.R.A. respectively. q d(f>/ds d^ldn. the streamlines close stagnation point. The value former. appreciably distorted. early or late. introduced by Tchapliguine in Russia (1904) has recently been developed f in the hope of enabling higher local speeds to be dealt with. M is reached. Jour. 1916. Let Ss.
" all points along any one Thus.._ and horizontal. Math.* A trial exploration of the distribution of electrical potential (which is proportional to <f>) enables the distribution of a in the compressible flow to be assessed. the pressure changes round the profile of the body are augmented so long as the flow remains irrotational. horizontally. and so the main effect of compressibility is sometimes said to be an expansion of scale across the stream.h' b. A. Taylor (Sir Geoffrey) and Sharman. Proc. 108. Jour. . which can be shaped to represent effects of compressibility ments the electrical the boundary condition in the flow case. Sci.264 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Associated with the distortion of the streamlines. No. 1937. Pub. which is assumed to be flat . In comparing the twodimensional flow of a gas and the flow of an incompressible fluid. The latter change is usually the more important in Aerodynamical applications. Roy.. vol. The water is assumed :  to flow irrotationally and its velocity to be constant at vertical line. farther from each other in order to accommodate between them the same mass flow with a reduced density. layer of electrolytically conducting liquid contained in a bath having an insulating bottom.  Jouguet. 1928. 1400. an analogy will be found to exist between the variation of the density p within the compressible flow and the variation of the height h of the liquid surface above the floor of the channel. There has also been suggested an incomplete analogy with the flow of water through an open channel. In an an alternating current is passed through a analogy. des. 121. and the bottom of the bath is then reshaped to make the thickness of the electrolyte proportional to <r and the experiment repeated. Soc. Analogies These and similar considerations have led to the suggestion of certain analogies with a view to inferring from convenient experi on irrotational flow. Let x be measured in the direction of mean flow in the channel and y perpendicular thereto and * . 1920 Miaistre de Fair. see also Riaboushinsky. say water..! as follows Hydraulic Analogy. with a free surface along an open channel having vertical sides. and consider a et rectTech. if w is the com ponent of the (horizontal) velocity in an y direction across a vertical line whose FIG IOOD total height above the channel floor is h' then the flux across a vertical strip of width b perpendicular to the t direction of w is w. but this statement is incomplete.
the other hand. Bernoulli's equation gives in the usual form employed in hydraulics and which is easily deduced from Article 140M: . whilst the velocity % points of AB. respectively. 100D. and expressing the calculated. dh ox + h ox T du + v ~~ dh oy + h~ . whose centre is at #.y. Fig. respectively. we have finally u i. with the relation of the density p to the resultant velocity in the corresponding compressible flow. Hence the rate at which fluid leaving the spaceelement in respect of flow across the faces by the foregoing. . (  &*} (". on the one hand. AB and CD is. on will denote undisturbed conditions. ( i) This result is identical with the equation of continuity for twodimensional compressible flow if p replaces h.VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 255 angular spaceelement A BCD.. across the pair of faces fact that the volume of the incompressible liquid within the space BC element cannot vary. it remains only to compare the relation of h to the resultant velocity q in the channel. y.e. to establish the analogy. CD. its heights at the middle dh 8x. dv =:Q oy Iw + ^wo. Adding the rate of outward flow.4 3* *+ + ( + 9 *f (*+ *!) * dx to the first order. similarly and DA. are h ^ components perpendicular to these faces at their middle points are is u T Su 1 TT SAC. Suffix For the channel. Relations derived by virtue of the absence of vorticity are identical for the two cases of motion and. If the height of the layer of water is h at x.
a is small ^o If 2a<*~~ is . The value required for y is substantially different from and the analogy is therefore incomplete in this connection. 1405. where the pressures p and p are identical. close in the case of thin aerofoils and other slender bodies. Thus the flux across the transverse . the horizontal component of velocity u is sensibly the same at all points of the vertical line drawn from P into the fluid and equal to q. The flux per unit width of the The formula quoted above channel is then chQ Let h denote the height of any point P on the surface of the wave above the bottom of the channel and q the fluid velocity at P. we observe that the incompleteness is negligible if q* compared with 20 *. so that the wave becomes stationary and the entire motion steady. and qh = ch Q. Applying this equation to the free surface. however.256 AERODYNAMICS [CH. c for a Q and if where a . yields equal to the square of the velocity of long waves of small amplitude in a channel. [2_ \ 2a 2 the density ratio f the term omitted in the analogy amounts Thus the analogy is in this case only to about 2 per cent. <? This does not invalidate. where pw is the density of the water. for then (iii) can be expanded as ~~ Moreover. so that putting ghQ c* is But gA = The corresponding expressed in (47) as result for compressible flow has already been is the velocity of sound in the gas where the temperature corresponds to p Thus (ii) is identical to (iii) if h is substituted for p. its qualitative use. long Imagine such a wave travelling upstream and adjust the speed of flow through the channel to c. for the velocity c of propagation of shallow gravitywaves is easily derived as follows. for air. y = 2. plane through P is qh per unit width. Under the conditions postulated. .
Considering first a gravitywave in slightly more detail. This independent of z. write h + z l for h and let z denote height above the channel floor. du dt dp p w dx 1 dz l dx The upward velocity at P. We have 3*. viz. whence dp fix g^. by A D. the pressure increase at the level z gfw is is approximately equal to the static value. Referring to the equations of motion given in Article 140J. small. viz. this quantity is known as the condensation and denoted s. = The culated in this sions. we is restrict investigation to the case of a small disturbance so that 1 p/p small. velocity a of pressurewaves in the atmosphere cannot be calway without large error owing to the variation of temperature consequent upon adiabatic expansions and compresThis matter has already been discussed and a reliable formula The correspondence between the gravitywaves in a channel and pressure. 2$h * This reduces approximately to the result stated. fc* any streamline on the a + gho = k + gh> a Substituting for q. follows at once from the equation of continuity for incompressible flow and the result that du/dx is the same for all values of z since every particle on a vertical line moves equally. Turning now to a plane wave of pressure disturbance moving normal to itself in the ^direction through the atmosphere. c a ghQt on the height ti of the crest of the wave so that A'//*o 1 is restricting small.dz^Jdx. so that every particle in a vertical line is displaced (*o + *i z) = equally. dzjdt. Taking % in the direction of motion and assuming the disturbance to be given. 9 .VI B] COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 257 surface. the Bernoulli's equation gives for pressure being constant. all other terms can be neglected in comparison with dujdt and dp fix consequently .or soundwaves in air can be seen as follows.
If the disturbance in pressure is other than small. of course. effect of friction. since the total variation in p is small (for which reason also a suffix to distinguish undisturbed conditions is unnecessary).258 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the flow in a convergentdivergent channel can be examined in this way and some aspects of the supersonic tunnel revealed. especially of surface waves graphs being above the critical speed c forces on models being measured. however. we have to return to the wave in Article 66D. the floor of the channel will. VI B is With E written for the bulk elasticity pdpjdp and with udu/dx neglected in comparison with Su/dt as before. slope slightly downward to counteract approximately the The method has been widely employed. du dt I 9 dp * dx E dp \_ * i P *a* v vi i ' The equation of continuity for compressible flow must be employed but. t . Apart from these important quantitative applications. For example.9p = du . a surprising degree of utility. establishing the analogy. phototaken of flow patterns. and surface configurations being used to estimate density ratios in the corresponding compressible flows. the equation of motion . more complicated considerations set out for a plane shock The present simplification will be found to possess. this gives approximately 1 . ' ' ' . In application to experiment. corresponding to change from subsonic to supersonic flow. v P 8i ai (V11) Now equations (vi) and (vii) can be reproduced from (iv) and (v) by substituting JE/p for gh and s for z^/h.. the method is convenient to demonstrate changes in flow which occur as the velocity is increased from well below that of propagation of small waves in the medium to well above this speed.
Soc. A. still holds when the undisturbed < application of conformal methods is found in the design of sections for wings and airscrew blades intended for such One = the air stream is sufficiently high as to involve p in the neighbourhood of the aerofoil This generalisation is assumed below. Subsonic Speeds Glauert's Theory high speeds that account must be taken of the compressibility of the air. I (P) + I aw . 250 Ill. dx dy dx dy may then be written approximately ox + dy + p _ o. modifications are required to formulae (169)(173) of Articles 136138. v ' (U) * Pvoc. . . ap P .. Owing to the augmentation of pressure changes. Div.. Aerodynamic Theory.  Investigation is restricted to thin aerofoils at small incidences and having profiles that are everywhere inclined at only small angles to the ^direction of motion. vol. the way of obtaining even an approximate solution of the exact equation for is avoided by deriving in the first instance an approximate form of that equation suitable for thin aerofoils. 1928. The primary aim is to avoid the formation of shock waves by restricting the maximum velocity ratio (cf. . as is assumed in the present Article. and Glauert's Theory* is directed towards The theorem establishing the basis for these. (i) dv if p \ do P i. The flow outside the boundary layer then remains The difficulty in irrotational. 118. Article 129B) for a given lift coefficient. dx . The equation of continuity velocity of U appreciable variation of from its initial value p . proved in Article 137 for incompressible flow. so that the ^component u of the disturbed velocity is little greater than U and the ^component v is of the same order as u U.e. and now written for convenience as L ^KU. Roy. (P*) = o. H. f Proof is indicated by Taylor and Maccoll. vol.Chapter VI C THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS I40P.
(47) of Article 30 gives with the present notation Differentiating with respect to x.260 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Pressure and density variations are appropriately assumed to be is the velocity of sound in governed by the adiabatic law and. The circulation round the aerofoil K= Jc (udx vdy) . if the undisturbed stream. Now (y l)/2 = 1/5 and 1 <5p 2 (u C/ 8 )/a 2 is always small. and the form remains identically the same. The same substitution in the equation the condition for irrotational flow. u du I 3p __ aj dx 2a ' ^ V . whether compressible expressing or incompressible. viz. (ii) for the Mach number U/a Q and substituting in Writing gives approximately for the equation of continuity M Substitution in v' (iii) of = v/(l  M 2 1/s ) and 9 y == y(l  M') 1 '2 reduces that expression to du dx + W_ ~ dy' which has identically the same form as the equation of continuity for incompressible flow. dv  vorhcity gives du = 0. Therefore __ _ u du __ __ U a<f du p dx aj dx dx closely.
: with the present to enable a thin aerofoil to generate a given lift ratio inci an incidence reduced in the Afa ) 1/3 1 compared with the dence required with incompressible flow of the same speed. linear scale appropriate to the incompressible flow. dc "Ha This result is usually stated as an increase in the same ratio of the lift coefficient for a given incidence. IOOE. Whilst this requirement can evidently be ratio. consistently is approximation.. I40Q. : . (1 satisfied with vanishing camber and thickness.R. It follows that the liftcurve slope. The observations are shown as encircled points. the incidence of the aerofoil section must be reduced in the same Afa ) 1/2 1. that neither v nor u The analogy also requires an expansion in the jydirection of the . FIG. while the increase of dCL /da. dC L /d<x. being equal to p Q UK. Fig. remains unaltered.VIC] THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 261 remains unaltered by the substitution since v and y are changed in reciprocal ratios whilst u and x remain unchanged Hence the lift of the aerofoil per unit of its length. 1130. Comparison with experiment. is increased by a 1/3 ) compressibility in the ratio 1 (1 t : M . or on any other streamline.C. No. viz. A. & M. appreciable camber and thickness would usually involve as a secondary effect a change in the shape of the profile in the neighbourhood of the nose but the analogy breaks down for another reason near the nose. and this is compatible with the reduction of incidence of the aerofoil because points on the profile. This mathematical analogy between compressible and incompressible flow at the same undisturbed speed past a thin aerofoil having the same circulation implies an important difference in order that the boundary condition may be satisfied in both cases. Thus the at (1 effect of compressibility. U can be regarded as small in this region. 025 and 05. Since v/u in the compressible flow is everywhere less than v'fu. viz. according Close agreement is to the above theory is indicated by the fullline. Between 05 seen between M= and 07 the slope of the experimental liftcurve * still increased Stanton. IOOE relates to some wellknown * experiments at high speeds carried out at the National Physical Laboratory on an aerofoil having the section inset. .R. 1928. in the incompressible flow case do not correspond to points on a streamline in the compressible flow case. and the flow adjacent to the aerofoil profile must be tangential thereto.
to a much reduced value at The section of the above aerofoil may be regarded as favourable to the conditions postulated in the theory except that the thickness M= ratio was necessarily too large (0*1). at which dCL /d& changes sign is called the critical The value of Mach number for the aerofoil and the phenomenon is known as the It marks the formation of a shock wave. loc. Supersonic Speeds The Mach Angle a body moves through air at a velocity than that of sound a shock wave pregreater cedes it in the form of a bow wave.A. At some undetermined in the neighbourhood of 07 the liftcurve slope began to value of decrease. .T. M attached to the aerofoil at or near the position of maximum velocity round the profile. p. of the effects of compressibility on the lift of aerofoils up to moderate Mach numbers. and velocity change with pressure. showed a less increase of dCL /d<x.. N. No. 1938. Another aerofoil. of more normal section. 100F IOOF. . as so often observed. In any case there appears no reason for supposing that the shock stall must occur at 060'7.. and an earlier maximum others have shown in more recent tests * a substantially greater rate of increase of liftcurve slope than the theory predicts. density. BY Within the sheet. but rather that aerofoil sections can be designed M= to delay this stall appreciably. t K&rman. it has recently been questioned f whether a shock wave necessarily forms at this stage. shock stall (Article 66C). but no more. its velocity is suddenly decreased and its density * When E. The critical Mach number is sometimes described as that at which this maximum velocity attains to the local velocity of sound. 040. very great rapidity. cit. also Article 66C). Thus experiments so far published suggest that the theory provides a fair indication. Such bow waves are familiar in photographs of fastmoving bullets. I4OR. FIG. However.262 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (cf.C. but at less than the predicted rate.g. as indicated schematically by the dotted extension to the M 17. experimental curve.R. which show that the disSHOCK turbance is confined to a thin sheet. Stack. in order to divide the air and deflect it round the nose. Lindsey and 263. Littell.A. Fig. notably. Imagining the air to flow through a stationary shock wave.
but progress can readily be made in the case of a thin aerofoil at small incidence by assuming that the disturbance consists only of a pressure wave. Each sin"" 1 of these planes is is inclined to the flight path at the angle (a/U). be any point on a body FIG. which known as the Mach angle and denoted . however. Article 66D. Fig. and effecting only small changes. halfway through the interval of time when through P has reached a point P" such that PP" \Ut the wave front will lie on a circular cylinder of radius \at and axis at P". It is then easily seen that the waves are inclined to the flight path at a definite angle. central region an additional wake is formed. Investigation of the complete problem is somewhat complicated. as illustrated in the case of the pitot tube. and the streamlines are parallel to the surface. Similarly. for the body continually overtakes the wave it Behind the generates except for a central region of percussion. and reach the position P' at the end of an interval of time t. that PP' A small disturbance of pressure starting from P will in the same interval of time travel a distance at. propagating at the speed of sound. THE MACH ANGLE. But there is no preparatory formation of streamlines ahead such as characterises subsonic flow. Thus no disturbance can have been propagated during the time t beyond the pair of planes through P' tangential to all such circular front will = t cylinders. a being the velocity of sound. whilst air passing through can satisfy Bernoulli's equation. so that in the twodimensional case the wave moving = lie on a circular cylinder of radius at whose axis passes P. THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 263 part of its mechanical energy is converted into heat Bernoulli's equation can only be acquires vorticity. the disturbance and it becomes small and is propagated at the velocity of sound. Let P. let it steadily in the direction PP' at a supersonic speed C7.VIC] increased. and so on. so Ut. lOOo. employed in these circumstances by introducing suitable changes in the constant. At some distance from the body. 100G.
nose and tail of the aerofoil. at the Mach angle m. ^tf^O dy* dx* This equation has the general solution The ny\ ny) fi(* solution over the upper surface of the aerofoil may be regarded as that for a uniform flow plus a function of the type/x whence it is < .M. a writing n for and substitution 2 in M (iii) of Article 140P gives. so that the wave The latter condition may be front is much more steeply inclined.F. vol. Ackeret's Theory The simplifying assumption above mentioned. =  + MX + to be added to that for the uniform seen that the increment of constant. 1925. readily modified to apply to three dimensions. by m..e. 1408. aerofoil is similarly treated. that for thin such as those examined in Article 140P the disturbance be regarded as everywhere small and the aerofoil flow as nearly may * in uniform. Each pair of lines contains between * The wave under the Z. 16. where lines have been drawn at the Mach angle from the Fig. The wave fronts are propagated normally to themselves. viz. i. leading to 100H. the Mach angle will still characterise the outer parts of the wave. drag. In the case of a large disturbance the velocity of propagation may greatly exceed that of sound.e. and pitching approximate aerofoils moment at supersonic speeds. the straight lines y == %/n is constant flow along lines are inclined to the direction of motion of the aerofoil These <f> + at the angle i. in the immediate vicinity of a fastmoving body. on 1. obliquely through the oncoming stream. It loss of velocity must be observed that the foregoing result depends upon the normal to the wave suffered by the oncoming stream being small.264 AERODYNAMICS The above argument is [CH. The velocity potential is related in the same way to the relative motion as for incom M pressible flow. Let the relative velocity U now exceed the velocity of sound a Q in the undisturbed fluid. but since expected a large disturbance tends to die away as the wave proceeds. . so that > 1. was introduced by Ackeret advancing the following method of calculating the lift. the wave front then becoming a cone of angle 2m at the vertex.
little from [7.u sin mY + m) 9 ]}. Considering an element of the profile inclined. u in this equation from (ii). at a small angle z to the relative motion. Hence rk _ finally ' . terms involving p Substituting for p = = p square may be neglected. the pressure p within the standing soundwave is related to the undisturbed pressure p by (52) 'of Article 31. giving approximately u Now q has the components U its u sin m and u cos m. 1 '2 ' (iii) I) Ufa as before. These must be equal. giving C7w sin m. \ "lie as in the figure. whence u provided e is small. But by (i) tan m= p p L a Q l(U* J Po t/  2 p C7 e tan m. a 2 l/2 ) . The increment of additional to that for a superposed uniform flow is constant along the wave front and along any line parallel thereto within the wave. A. all U aerofoil profile. . the component along the of fluid velocity is normal to the element u cos (m component is of the velocity of the element itself in the e) and the same direction t/e. .D. The mally to. = Us sec m. of u appropriate to magnitude any such line is determined by the boundary condition and so depends upon the shape of the stant along. and sub(u cos stituting. / / FIG. . = (M . IOOH. the Mach number. since increase of and p p Q may be expanded as described in that p is small article since the resultant fluid velocity q within the wave differs . small. p Since u is p = Q 1 Ipoff/ [([/. where M .VIC] THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS 265 them a soundwave propagating obliquely upward from the upper surface and downward from the lower surface. . (ii) Assuming now the air to be flowing past the stationary aerofoil. Hence the additional velocity u is con<f> and directed norsuch lines. 9* .
. 1932. Like Glauert's theory for thin aerofoils at subsonic speeds. in a paper by Hooker. 1001 has is developed further been prepared with reference to the above biconvex aerofoil and Mach number. The maximum experimental L/D is only 3^. is about 7 data have yet been published regarding tests on aerofoils of other sections at super neglecting skin friction. No. from this point of view the biconvex circulararc aerofoil of Fig. f A. It is clear that the assumption of soundwaves cannot be justified in OO FIG. may be integrated round the profile of a given aerofoil section. More accurate methods due to Prandtl and Busemann are also The matter available for determining the flow over the profile. Theory (Hooker) Experiment (Stanton) the region of the nose of the aerofoil at a very high speed. the calculated value of dCJdat. achieving success in favourable circumstances. given by (iii). & M. Taylor coefficients. ignoring skin friction.266 AERODYNAMICS [CH. &C 02 I40T. per cent. Article 66D. drag. 1721. the agreement between prediction and experiment is seen to be good. to yield estimations of the lift. but would be greater for a thinner section. 100E. is 285 and the observed value 3. VI C The pressure coefficient. less.C. * A. and likely to be improved is or adapted as more experience is 6 INCIDENCE 01 4 gained in this comparatively new but important branch of our subject. Approximately. Few 03 sonic speeds. No. considerations of the kind investi gated for the pitot tube. and pitchingmoment examined For 17. lOOi. Ackeret's theory for the higher range 01 regarded as an interesting and simple approach to a difficult matter.R. M = 05 Comparison with the experimental value of 4*85 for illustrates the loss At an incidence of 7 \ Q caused by the compressibility stall. 1467.R. the drag coefficeint (CD ) was observed to be nearly 01 and the calculated value. M= * and obtained good agreement with Stanton's experiments. f from which Fig.CR & M. in the manner described in Article 44. 1036. Considering that skin friction is neglected. and that the BICONVEX AEROFOIL AT shock wave there formed will involve M= 17.R.
While again assuming in viscid incompressible flow. begin by considering in detail a simple type of theoretical vortex which long. forming a ring or loop. as in fact. approximates under aeronautical conditions. element of the string is tangential is called a vortex line. Isolated Rectilinear Vortex of Circular Section and Uniform Vorticity The vortex is assumed to be straight and infinitely long. cutting the section at the point. we have from Article 39 that co. they form a vortex tube. But in theory. or else abut on a bounThe line (in general curved) to which the axis of rotation of dary. A difficulty is sometimes experienced at the outset with the foregoing definitions. of which the small area is a crosssection. If every vortex lines be drawn through every point of the periphery of a very small area. . If a is its radius and its uniform vorticity.Chapter VII VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 141. vortex has inseparably associated with it an external motion every for an inviscid fluid this is an irrotational circulation. It will be proved that elements of fluid possessing vorticity are axially continuous with elements similarly characterised vorticity at a point in a crosssection of a bulk of fluid implies the existence of a string of rotating elements. GENERAL THEOREMS AND FORMULAE In Chapters V and VI the motion of the fluid was assumed to be wholly irrotational. and the fluid. which air flow We 142. we shall find. though not where vorticity exists through the latter there will be a variation of pitot head. we now extend its nature to this composite structure. a condition to wind is . its 267 . usually a widespread swirl of air. In general the fluid motions will be unsteady but Bernoulli's equation will apply to irrotational regions. because the tangible evidence of a real vortex in a . but must either be reentrant. straight parts of practical vortex loops resemble. or simply a vortex. is called a vortex filament. but experiment shows motions of practical interest to comprise rotational and irrotational parts (Chapters II and VI B). known as Rankine's vortex. Such a string cannot terminate in the fluid.
q = &TW . Therefore. (178) writing a for the area of crosssection. assumed constant angular velocity. Hence K = 2w . : The circulation 7ra a K round . however.. of course. AERODYNAMICS [CH. = J. an irrotational circulation of strength must surround the vortex.268 angular velocity... within the vortex (I80) Fig. = >a (179) Let P noulli's be the pressure at r oo when q 0. 00. If q is the to vortices of crosssectional area = K velocity at any radius r. the outer flow gives for r equation through = Applying Ber '>to be consistent with the element being in under the pressure gradient and the centrifugal force. but Bernoulli's equation does not apply. its periphery . size to investigate A practical vortex of sufficient experimentally differs in that its spin is not is less constant and its periphery sharply defined. and this definition is carried over cr which are not straight. 103. Outside the vortex the flow is irrotational. is 2na . we have for r < a q t = wr = K~r 8 . equilibrium Within the vortex there is. Any of these quantities defines the strength of the vortex. TT for r > a.. 101 shows the variation of velocity and pressure through the vortex of the diameter shown. Therefore pK*/4n*a Hence. pK* * (i) Now this must the constant =P give the same pressure as when r = a. the same condition for equiSince we have librium. for r < a as was shown in Article 103 dp Tr Integrating and substituting for o> from (178) P = *&** + 2 . and the velocity is assumed to be continuous at r a. showing the simplest condition under which irrotational circulation can occur round a The foregoing supplements Article . =& .
Now. and in a bulk free surface it terminates. of density p lf equations (i) and (180) of the preceding article become (cf. which amounts to pJt a/47rta 1 For the outer flow have. the negative Sign following from choice of counterclockwise sense for r a. of liquid on whose take account of the weight of the liquid. A interest. If z' denotes the depression of the where z is the surface through the dimple z f ==  r. To prevent cavi tation. slight generalisation of the above has an experimental In this the vortex is assumed to be vertical. over the free liquid surface the pressure must be constant.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 269 fluid core. The maximum depth of the dimple is K*/4gn*a* . L for r < a. DISTRIBUTION OF VELOCITY AND PRESSURE THROUGH A RANKINE VORTEX. P must exceed the . K the constant = K/4n and positive. Article 6) To P P r K 47U 2 * gz> f for r >a t Lri = J 8 d\ r *} for Pl 2a*J depth below the general level of the surface. from Article 103 we The stream function inner flow is for the obtained at once as FIG. For (iii) (iii) to agree with (ii) when becomes 143. 101. and hence a dimple is formed. pressure drop at the centre. for r > a.
is Although requiring a knowledge of the strengths and instantaneous disposition of the vortices. example. We These are rigidly true only for the inviscid fluid assumed. The theory of inviscid vortices was. although it is usually more convenient to sprinkle aluminium dust on the surface. whilst the vortex is free to move. the positions of the ends of vortices within the tank terminating on the surface can be found with some accuracy. which tends to condense in the interior of the filaments. Aerodynamical calculations are chiefly concerned with the velocity field. It is clear that K. which reveals the streamlines and facilitates photographs. proceed to prove a number of theorems. in the first place. and it is nearly always permissible to neglect the effects of a vortex diameter and of the particular In the following distribution of vorticity within a given vortex. to take another vortex. the circuit ABCDD'C' The lines AA'. By observing dimples on the surface of water contained in a tank. and the vortex remains stationary. The is outer irrotational flow associated with a vortex is called its velocity The field. DD' are adjacent. Let the circulation round the first section be K and that round the B'A'A being drawn on its surface. further developed by Kelvin. The Strength of a Vortex is Constant throughout its Length Fig. second K'. 102 shows part of a vortex filament. at the centre of an isolated rectilinear vortex in an infinite velocity fluid. so that ABCD and A'B'C'D' enclose two sections of the vortex. K' are the same as if evaluated round normal . liquid is pressed a short distance up into their cores. An essential difference circulation around a solid core between a complete vortex and that the latter may be fixed or constrained to a certain path. due to Helmholtz.270 AERODYNAMICS [CH. they form loops within an air stream. or when one rectilinear vortex near another or approaches a boundary. one way of making them visible is by introducing watervapour. But this is not expanse of the case with a vortex ring or loop. If the vortices are in the atmosphere above the tank and terminate on the water When surface. and the velocity at any point the induced velocity. 144. although 145. but their direct application to air flow is remarkably fruitful in practical results. articles the vortex filaments are assumed to be thin and of uniform vorticity throughout any crosssection. is zero. which is stationary at a large distance from the or within a concentric cylindrical boundary.
the component of spin will be reduced below by the same factor as that by which the area be increased above cr. Let a wide circuit move at every point with the fluid and enclose a single isolated vortex section. K' give Now. Then by the above and Kelvin's 140K) the strength of the vortex is constant with Since also the strength of a vortex is constant along its length. the circulation round ABCD equals that round A'B'C'D'. because. described. but must either be reentrant (like a smokering) or abut on a boundary (as A Theorem (Article respect to time. in Article 143). the angular velocity within a vortex filament varies along its length. . Other Vortex Laws : theorem given in Article 97 can now be restated as follows The circulation round any circuit is equal to the sum of the strengths It should also be noted that this of the vortices it encloses.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 271 crosssections in the positions A. the cylindrical surface having ABCDD'C'B'A'A as boundary may be split up into a large number of elements of area by a fine network of lines drawn in the surface. Also. a vortex cannot come to an end in a perfect fluid. by K= (178). A' along the vortex. Therefore. i. But the surface does not penetrate into the vortex. theorem is not restricted to two dimensions. in such a way that the product of the angular velocity and the crosssection remains constant. and if the actual section be inclined at a small angle to the normal. for instance. A'. the crosssection also varies. and boundary will equal the round the elements enclosed. as in that article the circulation round the of the circulations sum K = K' or fr = If V. which applies to a curved as well as to a straight vortex. or vice versa. the flow along AA' circulation round the boundary is zero.e. the strengths of the vortex at A. and consequently the Hence the circulations round its elements are all separately zero. if a denote the normal crosssectional area and the vorticity at A. as was done in Article 97. will Hence K. cr. cancels the flow along D'D. 146. so that the product cr remains independent of the angle.
like heat. 148. The above laws are of such outstanding importance in Aero dynamics that brief comment on their modification for a viscous In ordinary circumstances fluid such as air may be interpolated here. such as sources. which may be due to a number of A vortex line causes. It will occasionally be convenient to treat of a vortex line constrained to move with a body. If 8q denote the increment at P due to a small length. but from the general field of flow. Formulae for Induced Velocity of Short Straight Vortices The derivation of formulae for the velocity components at a point due to one or more vortex loops is beyond the scope of this book. because of the real boundary condition of absence of slip and the action of viscosity in making the velocity of the fluid adjacent to the vortex line almost equal to that of the body. 147. The laws for a perfect fluid are effectual in air away from boundaries. deviation from Kelvin's Theorem is negligible. Now reduce the circuit to a loop which at some instant encircles the isolated vortex section closely. But this circulation is equal to the strength of the vortex originally Hence the vortex remains enclosed i. sinks. 8s of a curved vortex filament of element of the at fluid mass. it is . Thus a real vortex tends to remain of constant strength but to increase in diameter. and let the loop subsequently move with the fluid so that the circulation round it remains constant. a vortex moves with the fluid.e. condition. also very close to the surface of a body in motion through air actually moves with the fluid. concentrations of vorticity diffuse outward. It is shown in Hydrodynamics that each element of fluid possessing vorticity implies an associated increment of velocity in every other direction of this velocity increment to the plane which contains the point any point perpendicular and the axis of rotation of the vortex element. enclosed. and other vortices. On the other hand. It is seen that the motion of a vortex arises. not from itself.272 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The is distant r from P. from the surfaces of moving bodies by the action of viscosity in the presence of intense velocity gradients. itself constant. while ignoring viscosity and the real boundary The vortex line is then said to be bound. including that a vortex cannot originate or terminVortices may be built up slowly but originate ate within the fluid. and strength found that K the angle between r and 8s. .
We then have lAll + If 77/IiVlsl ' ' ' < 183 ) P is opposite the end of a semiinfinite straight length. to approximations to those . K An . onehalf the induced velocity for a rectilinear vortex. whose other end is a long distance P away.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 273 The total velocity q at due to the whole filament is obtained by integrating along the filament. since ds/dy = h sec 1 y sec 2 K where the limits are now from ( r cos a )* to p. 103) is perpendicular to P P the plane PQR and from (181) amounts ds __ to : _# R f sinjh Q r* Kh 4:71 C R ds 4?u J J Q r*' Changing the variable from 5 to y. measured along the vortex. (182) application of this formula occurring frequently in aerofoil is at a distance x.e. K (184) i. In the case of a straight finite length QR of a vortex. We now consider some twodimensional vortex fields and vortex motions of importance as leading. from theory is when one end of a straight vortex length. the velocity at a point distant h from its axis (see Fig. 149. Hence .
104. Vortex Pair The combination of two parallel rectilinear vortices of equal and opposite called strengths is a vortex pair. Two sets of streamlines arise. FIG. since for A and B alone log =_ respectively. Thus the (185) vortices move in the direction Oz. jyaxis A and B (Fig. remaining a constant distance apart. Let them be situated instantaneously on the at 104). Neither has ^K any motion due to other. distant Construction for the resultant induced velocity. viz. but each has a velocity induced by the by . (186) . equidistant origin INSTANTANEOUS STREAMLINES OF A from the / VORTEX Below : PAIR. and and let apart. The first are identical with the equipotentials of a source and sink occupying the positions of the vortices. the vortex filaments are assumed to extend indefinitely in both directions parallel to the axis Ox. we have for the combination . given itself. figure. downward in the at this constant velocity. But directly. i. their strengths be as shown. those relative to the fixed axes of reference and those relative to the vortices.e. For ease of future reference. in the direction and the third component u = 0. dicular to In the jtfplane perpenthem v is the velocity component in the direction Oy> w that Oz.274 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and might be inferred from Article 104. occurring in aerofoil theory.
105. Careful note should be made that the veFIG 105. but subsidiary effects of this When P lies between A and B. The dimensions of the oval are 105/ by fluid 087/. external to the oval represent the flow past a cylinder of this section broadside on to the stream. To obtain the steady streamlines relative to the vortex pair. In accordance with Article 21 they are more appropriately called pathlines. 104. STEADY STREAMLINES RELATIVE TO A VORTEX PAIR. It will be noticed that approximately.e. where the vortices have been given an appreciable size. I 1/17 Vy ^f . downwardly directed in the figure midway between them tive. i. is given by example. particles contained within a certain oval accompany the vortex The streamlines pair in its career. velocity is equally simply found in analytical terms.. for A and B immediately move away from the ^/axis. w is posisize have been neglected. but represent only an instantaneous plotting. 104. the component w at The For P W = w represents .\ (188) Along the yaxis the formula for the true instantaneous velocity. . Vy\ (189) The distribution of w along Oy is shown in Fig.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 275 The streamlines are shown in Fig. we add to the field of flow a velocity w' or to fy the increment t w'y = Kyfiid. 106. obtaining [ g ? + f)' ' ' (187) These streamlines are shown in Fig. just as the speed of a star makes no difference to the speed of the light it emits. velocity rela The instantaneous at tive to the fixed axes of reference P (y z) in the field is obtained by the construcreadily any point t tion shown in Fig. and it is w = . locity of the vortices does not affect this velocity. . the velocity is four times as great as the velocity of the vortices.
but in opposite directions.e.z /2nl.G. But in the important case when the algebraic sum of the strengths vanishes. & M. If two vortices A.276 AERODYNAMICS [CH. of currents. while K K will . which is easily found. 150. that between a vortex filament and a wire conducting an electric The lines of magnetic force surrounding a current. the velocity of A will be K. be per DISTRIBUTION OF VELOCITY PAIR. the streamlines become distorted. correspond exactly to the streamlines of the vortex case. that of FIG. which can readily be mapped out by experimental means. of considerable experimental use. 905. The analogy can be applied to more complicated dispositions of vortices. for a group of vortex pairs. and so an axis. The analogy finds practical expression in an apparatus called the ' electric tank.R.' * EFFECT OF WALLS 151. is Beyond A or B. parallel to Ox. . i. 106. Both velocities will THROUGH A VORTEX pendicular to the line AB. B be K^nl.R. The fixed point in the last example corresponds to the C.C. There exists another analogy. remains fixed if a velocity is not induced there by other causes. and a motion is * Relf. Thus the line AB has a steady angular velocity and one point on it. The instantaneous velocity at any point due to any number of parallel vortices may be found by the superposition of the velocities induced by the several filaments. can be found for the system which remains fixed (in the absence of other disturbances) as the vortices move. of the two vortices if each is imagined to be a gravitating line of mass equal to its strength. or group current. of this nega interest example in connec tion with aeroplane wings will be described later. Applications of the Method of Images When axial with a vortex approaches a parallel boundary which is not coit.. 1924. viz. B distant / apart have both of z lt strengths the same sign. A. w The special tive. the axis is at infinity.
for this. since the L re/2. is EC CA Thus C and BD = yr = rB = const. Fig. and the motion of. The flow round. The presence of a rigid boundary requires that at every point on it the normal component of velocity shall vanish.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT These effects 277 induced in the vortex. 107. determined one of outstanding because Aerodynamical measurements of flow involving of images. The solution is otherwise evident. Let A. Another example. i. be example. The effects of the tunnel are reproduced by introducing the image of the vortex in the circular wall. 104. vortices are usually As a first K K 152. The condition that the P radial velocity component shall vanish at be a streamline. opposite to the real vortex. rA /rB P Bisect the L BPA internally and externally by PC. is provided by a rectilinear vortex eccentrically situated within a long tunnel of circular section. and whatever its position is that the locus of const. point. an / / / " A \ ^\^^ B imaginary vortex of strength K situated at the inverse FIG. by introducing the image of the vortex in the wall. CD as diameter. may sometimes be is The question made in the presence of walls. In the present case this is to obviously satisfied by imagining a second vortex of strength be situated at a distance %l beyond the boundary. and PD BA . DA rA D traces a circle on are fixed points and. be the real and B the imaginary vortex. then divided internally at C and externally at D. which form the instantaneous streamlines of a vortex pair. the real vortex will be exactly those that would obtain if it formed one member of a vortex pair.e. and P any point on the boundary. by the method interest. for clearly the plane xOz in Article 149 might have been made rigid without effect. The streamlines are determined by the two. Let the radius of this circle CPD = P . which leads to an important case. 107. let a single rectilinear vortex of strength distant \l from a plane rigid wall parallel to its axis. The boundary takes the place of one of the coaxial circles of Fig.
the particular case where the vortices lie on a is given by diameter. chief interest attaches to the effect of the tunnel on the velocity field. In. shown each of the two images being situated on the radial plane containing the corresponding FIG. Then from the above equation and the a OB = = DA (a . if their distance apart is then /. when . for example. w at ^ w = 2n ( I a* (191) Without a boundary we should have at K / /4 Thus the tunnel wall considerably reduces this velocity as a for example. tant frQm Q Each vortex describes But in general a Dshaped path in its half of the tunnel section. 108. IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A VORTEX PAIR real vortex and disIN A CIRCULAR TUNNEL. t . 108. 104.278 be a and figure its AERODYNAMICS centre 0. The image system for a vortex pair. [CH.a) a giving (190) Thus a vortex of strength K distant r from the centre of a tunnel of radius a moves in a concentric circular path with the constant velocity _ K ~~ ' J_ a __ ~~ ___ # " _r_ fl " 2w a / y r 2?c 1 r2 The instantaneous streamlines within the tunnel follow from Fig. the decrease amounts to onequarter. each of whose members is distant r from the centre is of the tunnel in Fig.BC CA a + r) (OB r .
Of*^ Y Sides. 110. when the subject will be systematised in connection with Windtunnel In & ^ terference. (3) The important case of a vortex pair contained within a rectangular tunnel leads to a complicated arrangement of images IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A RECTI'" A RlGHT . 111.ANGLED in doubly infinite columns and rows. A vortex in the corner between two plane walls which meet at right angles calls for three images situated at the I corners of a rectangle. Some further examples of image systems will be referred to FIG.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 279 153. as shown in later to this Fig. 109). 111. 110. IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A RECTILINEAR VORTEX BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS (THE Row OF IMAGES EXTENDS TO INFINITY). . briefly. If h is the distance apart doubly of the walls and z the distance of the vortex from one of them. 109. shown FIG. it is often sufficient to substitute for the actual FIG. vortex parallel to two parallel plane walls gives rise to a row of images (Fig. Reference will be made case. or nearly so. boundary an approximation consisting of a rirrl^ drawn fairltr C rC1C lairl through the J . as in Fig. the vortices are separated alternately by the distances 2z (1) A infinite and2(A (2) z). But when the sides of the rectangle are equal. IN A IMAGE SYSTEM FOR A VORTEX PAIR RECTANGULAR WIND TUNNEL OF ENCLOSED TYPE (THE COLUMNS AND Rows OF IMAGES EXTEND INFINITELY).
1881. this development will be left to subsequent reading. The two paths can be related. it will clearly come to the same thing. that the strength is equal to the interval in once round a circuit embracing the vortex . and transforma = + tion will be If at any the same to a tfplane where the coordinate is t ir\. the transformation having changed the boundaries and the geometrical dispositions of other vortices that may be present. as in problems of . but. our real plane will be the zplane of Article x 122. . if the interval of be evaluated round corresponding circuits in the two But it will be seen planes. is that appropriate to a single vortex near a simplest image system If in the 2plane the trace of the wall coincides parallel plane wall. the vortex particularly considered will not move along a path in the t plane which corresponds to its path in the zplane. Application of Conformal Transformation It will be apparent that the method of images is convenient in some cases of vortices near boundaries but total effect of cumbersome an infinite series of images may be while the stepbystep increments may converge so approximate calculation laborious. <f> that.* in applying conformal transformation is to the configuration of the real system. The general aim The potential flow. is at the point with the #axis and the real vortex of strength will be at the point x l} x l9 3/1. In some cases. again. Lond. at instant a vortex of equal strength will exist at the corres made = + ponding point ti in the transformed plane. lies in finding the transformation formula. since in Aerodynamics we are chiefly concerned with instantaneous induced velocities. . an image system cannot be found. An alternative method of solution is The sum slowly as to make in others.. The most direct is to note that outside the vortex a velocity potential <f> exists . difficult to provided by the use of conformal transformation which applied to parallel rectilinear vortices. that <j> has < the same value at corresponding points in the two planes and so. instant there is a vortex at the point z l in the real plane. the image of strength y lt and K K the stream function of the velocity field is obtained from (186) as * Routh. Proc.280 AERODYNAMICS [CH.yplane.e. XII. so that one can be drawn from the other. i. so that a convenient simplify arrangement of images can be used the difficulty. t. 154. There are several ways of proving this. where the coordinate of a point is z iy. Soc. Math. For ease of reference the vortices are may be now assumed to be perpendic ular to the A.
and the wall coIf a transformation formula can be found inciding with the axis. Choose Ox in the plane. y' ~ y/H. ^ = 0. Article 122) from (i) obtaining i.* *. in the /plane we have a vortex on the Y)axis at unit distance single wall coinciding with the axis. J 55* Vortex Midway between Parallel Walls The image system for this case follows from Article 153 (I). = YJ = 0. TJ in . axis in the /plane.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 281 K 47r g (xxp + byp . the problem in the zplane is at once solved.Y + (y+ yj* (x In the same way the identical system in the /plane (not that obtained by transformation) gives . and corresponding ^ ^ transform to the = 0. we have e n* '. but we shall ignore this and solve the problem by the method of the preceding article. y = H represent the Let %' = x/H. Assume that the distance apart of the walls is H. e"*'..* W lini'^HlH^ log 8 * ' (192) (192) the real vortex being situated at the point ^. the stream function of the velocity field in this plane is given by (192). Thus both walls in the zplane The vortex of strength K at (i). so that y = 0. to convert whatever configuration exists in the zplane to this configuration.. substitute for x' t y' (cf. =0. y' = ^ in the 2:plane transforms. and from a comes to + f = K P + to s^5TRnir'l i )' To terms of find the stream function in the 2plane. Thus. using = 0. to a vortex of 73 1. v^. = strength K in the /plane at the point J. + i sin Try'). Therefore. (193) or = c** __ gKX' (cos Try' Separating real and imaginary parts CQS ^yt ^ __ ^ !* g^ ^y^ 73 Corresponding toy toy %' H we have = . Consider the transformation formula log t = Ttz/H .x. walls and Oy passes through the vortex.. in the /plane.. for instance.
H KX/H sin 2 1 ny/H J y ..282 AERODYNAMICS * ~~ [CH. is given by K f sinh TixjH H/2~ 2 ^ Lcosh nx/H sin icy/H ^ 2H "" X sinh /J? . ity' ~ _^ 4w g f #** cos* re/ ' e2 d 2 "*' cos a _ Try' 71 K 4?r 20 *' Jog 6 *** + 24"* + (e** sin + (^ sin sin Tty' + sin + Try' 1) Try' + 1)' 1 1 This expression reduces on dividing the numerator and denominator of the logarithm by 2e**' to 4^ The pathlines are shown * ="K cosh nx/H 7rA. reduce equal to Kftnx.. . if at distance the velocity midway between them in the ratio sinh . FIG. Hence the walls.. its distance v (196) ' At a distance behind the vortex equal to for example../ff sin ny/H ' g cosh + ' ( sin ' ny/H' in Fig. A particular interest centres in the effect of the walls on the velocity midway between them. 112. STREAMLINES FOR A RECTILINEAR VORTEX MIDWAY BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS. 112..._ 1/2 (195) } ( In the absence of the walls... 2 This velocity . over 30 per cent. the velocity along this line would be apart.. the reduction is from either wall.
the lift per unit length will equal H x the pressure difference recorded. the lift of vortex. one in the floor immediately below the lifting vortex and the other in the roof immediately above it. Bound Vortex in Stream between Walls The necessary modification of (194) to give the stream function for incompressible and irrotational flow past a bound vortex midway between parallel walls will be evident from the preceding Mention was made in Article 66A of a method of obtaining an aerofoil in a wind tunnel by integrating the changes of static pressure on the floor and roof of the tunnel.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 283 155 A.a . poo pjdx = oKU AGO J. Now. respectively. Further investigation in the present article will be directed more particularly to this question under the conditions stated and assuming the aerofoil to be small in chord. Bernoulli's equation gives suffixes u =: ( \U _ K _____ \2Wcosh^r#' by (i) K _ ^ V ~~ \2UH coslTTu*' ~ y V nx' and (ii).i K Adding a uniform stream lift of velocity unit length of the per resultant velocity along these walls L = $KU ?o U to produce an upward bound vortex gives for the = U+ and UQ 1 and ql = U + uv . velocities along the floor (194). The are. so that it may be replaced by a simple article.pKU. the flow being irrotational and incompressible. ___ ~~ and roof due I" to the vortex alone from K cosh rex' cos ny' " [3^1 3yJ^o. or UH cosh ~ L H cosh TT*' ^ We also verify that Thus if a gauge be connected between two static pressure holes at x = 0. (ii) where the distinguish the floor and roof. L = (p JCO .
If the experimental exploration of PQ 0 10 pl extends only to a distance X' lift on each side of the small fraction of the x/H LIFTING VORTEX aerofoil.tan" 1 TU ?* .  2f . = sometimes advantageous to modify r. Hence the may be wind H t plane I regarded as the section of a i 2 plane FIG. of the r I when x = 0. the obtained by integra tion will be dx' FIG. 27uz'. y = 0.284 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 112B. midway between edges (Fig. and the ratio of the two clearly contributions to the total reaction is The two pressure readily determined. but with the its FIG. half of These edges are derived from the two sides of the negative the real axis strip in the /plane. 2plane corresponds to a circle of unit when also 6 radius in the /plane . thejyaxis log r i. if are polar coordinates in the /plane. BETWEEN PARALLEL WALLS. flow between the parallel walls origin transform corresponds to a source radiating at equal at the origin in the /plane since lines angleincrements from that . 112A. and = ^ when y = = \H.1*' (iv) L J_^' This result is plotted in Fig. 1558. (193) to log which may + i0 = 2(nx' + try'). It follows that the whole of the /plane yields in the 2plane an infinite strip of width H t as before. tunnel provided the corresponding flow in the /plane makes the negative half of the real A uniform axis a streamline. #axis 112c). lift A ROOF greater fraction of the will be supported by the roof than by the floor. _ nx . Thus giving log r = 2nx'. 1 12s. 112c. distributions are plotted in Fig. Other Applications of the Transformation In applying this method to other problems of flow between parallel walls t it is be written. INTEGRATED WALL PRESSURE. 112A.e. 6 = 27cy'.
VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 285 to equally spaced lines parallel to the walls in the 2plane. and r oo. z = u % iH/2 giving t = U+ H eM + 1 = U + iw(l + tanh m Tix')jH t from which and Bernoulli's equation may be obtained the pressure distribution along the walls. Substituting gives for the 2plane so that the complex velocity u iv between the **' parallel walls is dw ~dz _ = m +H ?^=T When when z is large z is large and negative. . in The streamline 106. the velocity = U. As a (1) Source in Uniform Stream. point t The potential function in the tfplane is UH. and LL in that plane UH. let 0. and and positive the velocity = U + m/H. On the walls. 112D. m ~ log (*  1). 112D. If the uniform flow has a velocity corresponds to x = U t = the strength of the source is clearly UH. Doublet in Let the source at z now be replaced by a Then doublet of strength (i r a doublet of strength ^ appears at Stream. illustrated in Fig. The corresponding disturbance in the plane is an equal source at the I. as assumed. = t = . parallel (2) more rapidly. a source which is not a singular point. . 1. . of strength first m be located in the stream at the origin z = example. fy will differ from that found Article becoming Uniform FIG.
Hydrodynamics. f p. Proof follows immediately from that for a vortex (Article 154) on substituting fy for <. for illustration. not situated at a singular point. and ed. Article 66A).. as In the above example. Thus whilst q oc l/r It follows that for a source as for a vortex. in other ways. the strength [x in the *plane is equal to p\dt/dz\. q oc l/r* for a doublet. however.286 so that AERODYNAMICS [CH. 6th method of images. by (iii). \H in (ii) gives ^/U Substituting. * Lamb. y Thus the deformation of a circle whose 0254/f. the use of adjustable walls to compensate (cf. ^ diameter is so great as onehalf the height of the tunnel is small. of a doublet since the strength of a doublet is proportional to the product of that of a source and an infinitesimal length. remains unchanged on transformation. The same is not true. 72.* = It is assumed in the foregoing that the strength of a source. H T (*"  1)*' On into real fy = 47cC7 and imaginary parts given it is easily found is ~~ ' cosh 27r#' cos 2TC/ This deformed circular boundary intersects the jyaxis at points to be obtained from " *y tan ?y __ "" and the #axis at the points sinh 'f = = TC// and. ~~ e*"' ' . where the problem is solved by the . and u separating (i) that the streamline iv = dw dz = U by y. t may be proved dt 27C dz Investigations of the kind considered in this and the preceding article become of interest in the estimation of tunnel constraint on large twodimensional models in comparatively small streams.
as will be described in the following articles. be stated at once as a general result that photographs to a very early stage of motion accelerated from rest show relating pathlines which. wheel fairings. because it is difficult to calculate precisely how the vortices are formed. say. Such films show vortices in various stages of growth. upon a knowledge of the vortex distribution and strength. which depends. Under similar circumstances the same sequence of photographs will apply equally to air as fluid. approximate closely to those of potential flow. but viscosity requires time in which to bring about grounds (cf. wings. which can be The matter will be illustrated * with reference to the vortex pair. This information rests principally on observation. As soon as an of the preceding articles then has a practical utility. starting from rest. as might have been anticipated on theoretical It may The motions finally established from those of an inviscid fluid round considerably may the same shapes. and could be generated instantaneously from rest by an artificially calculated. Imagine a very long straight elastic membrane of width / immersed in stationary fluid. a cinema film can be taken of the accelerated motion. But the wakes behind some of its parts e.g. and let it bend transversely in the process in such a way that its final velocity at every point. Articles 98 and 119). Let it be acted upon by a distribution of impulsive pressure. The external flow associated with an inviscid vortex loop is irrotational. differ little or the change. arranged distribution of impulsive pressure. even for bluff bodies. or thick exposed struts are found to contain discrete vortices.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 287 GENERATION OF VORTICES aeroplane. 157. attained at the end * For rigorous mathematical investigation see Lamb's Hydrodynamics. and sprinkling the water surface with aluminium dust. . becomes of the general nature described in Chapter II. however. though it has been seen that they result from viscosity. Impulse We shall have occasion to refer to the impulse of vortex loops. but they are less easy to secure in air. The theory 156. attains the air flow induced past its various components appreciable speed. By starting a body of simple shape from rest in a tank of water.
288 of the impulse. Finally. The irrotational motion of a vortex pair results. containing a not necessarily uniform. In Chapter V the surfaces of bodies immersed in of discontinuity. . . say. is AERODYNAMICS [CH. . Impulse = ?Kl . writing 2ca for the vorticity vortex sheet is A = t 2co . the difference of impulsive pressure between them is p(( B be the magnitude A ). 8n =q the 1 q '. are formed of vortex lines. The impulsive pressure was identified in Article 98 with p^. (197) More generally it can be shown that the component in any direction of the impulse which would generate the velocity field of a vortex loop from rest is equal to pXS where 5 (198) is by the projection in that direction of any area that the vortex loop. a small but variable distance $n. distribution of vorticity. when the sheet is formed simply It is then sometimes called a surface of a single layer of vortex lines. with the long edges Hence. apart. but will locally have the velocity \(q have seen (Chapter II) an example of vortex sheet structure in + We the boundary layer. let the membrane vanish at the end of the impulse. The term is more particularly reserved. the sheet will not be <?') stationary. Hence. if < K of the eventual circulation of the round is lines coincident membrane. though Its two surfaces. for there is no flow along either of the 8wsides. exactly that appropriate to the fluid velocity field of a vortex pair situated along its edges. A and 5. The circulation SK round the element SnSs q') 8s. separating two regions which have different adjacent velocities. . but in Chapter II we saw that a boundary layer of small but measurable thickness represents of irrotational flow thickness 8w . Vortex Sheets a fluid layer. (199) Since the vortex lines move with fluid. is bounded 158. continuous. for a sheet of vorticity out in the fluid. the stream were surfaces of discontinuity. if q q' denote the local velocities on the (q two surfaces of the sheet. on opposite faces of the membrane. Consider a small length 8s of the sheet perpendicular to the vortex lines. and this again is equal to p/. per unit length . Considering any pair of adjacent points. however. . in general curved. Now K constant. The be considered to become indefinitely small while may the product 2to $n remains finite.
159. kind. the element enters and proceeds within the boundary layer. The phenomenon is not. For this reason alone the streamlines of Figs. which. confined to the normal plate. when it is moving against a rising pressure. giving rise to surfaces of discontinuity which spring from the edges and separate flow from the front of the plate from fluid in the wake. Prandtl. successive With no frictional resistance of any crests being horizontally level. In a real case. and a vortex sheet of finite thickness as the practical accompaniment of a sharp lateral change in velocity. would 10 .VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 289 experimental conditions. and the rising pressure of the second part eventually turns the element back. but occurs whenever flow is asked to turn round a sharp edge. Thus the flow must break away. however. result in the ball turning back. for example. a body. Production may be in respect of and Disintegration of Vortex Sheets Three ways may be distinguished in which vortex sheets are commonly produced. has likened the circumstances to those of a ball rolling in a smooth guide of vertical wave shape. 81 and 97 could not persist. and the viscous tractions prevent its motion from obeying Bernoulli's equation. a flat plate started from rest into (1) Considering. A surface of discontinuity out in the fluid may be regarded as the ideally simplified. Kinetic energy gathered in the first part of its passage soon flags. But their persistence at the back of the plate calls for very high velocities near the edges. 80). an element (2) In potential flow completely surrounding close to the front stagnation point arrives near to the of fluid passing its discontinuity as viscosity makes back stagnation point with unimpaired energy. the ball. The jump in velocity magnitude or direction.D. which is converted without loss into pressure energy the again during the second part of its transit. of course. in an analogy. the pathlines at an initial stage closely accord with those of potential flow (Fig. broadsideon motion. This conception led Helmholtz and Kirchhoff to a theory of drag in We inviscid flow. starting from rest at one wave crest. the element is accelerated during the first part of its transit by decreasing pressure. and gathers additional kinetic energy. note that vortex sheets must be expected to replace the surfaces of presence felt. If the contour of body is convex to the fluid. we shall not attempt to follow. such as would lead to cavitation there. A. would accumulate sufficient kinetic energy in the trough just to reach the next But the slightest dissipation of mechanical energy crest.
C. segregated part of the boundary layer. It is a film of intense vorticity. is Linear scale normal to the aerofoil magnified 8 times. 113 shows the breakaway aerofoil * at a low Reynolds number.) (Reproduced by permission of the Aeronautical becomes a vortex sheet in the from the upper surface of an fluid.2 FIG. when it may move except perhaps at very high Reynolds numbers. The position round the contour where this occurs is called the point of breakaway. the vortex sheet being easily recognised by the packing together of the velocity contours. & M. Fig. Reverting to the fluid motion. 1224 (1928). No. 025 0. a return flow near the rear part of the surface of a body wedges the boundary layer away. in the case of a thick strut it may be situated at only a comparatively short distance in front The of the trailing edge at ordinarily high Reynolds numbers. back appreciably.R.. SHOWING BREAKAWAY AND THE VORTEX SHEET.290 AERODYNAMICS [CH.R. A. ISOVELOCITY 21 LINES 10* FOR THE FLOW PAST AN AEROFOIL AT THE REYNOLDS NUMBER x AND INCIDENCE 96. Research Committee. 113. always found near the shoulder of a circular cylinder. . Such a flow would smooth out considerably * Piercy and Richardson. On the other hand.
on the In practice. known as the vortex cylinders of bluff section. As the production Their eventual disposition varies greatly. the pressure gradient not reversing here. and occasionally. Lift can only arise. although moving unequally and doing work in the boundary layer. the same. Zeits. as (3) Consider a wing that has a lift. Phys. bers. infinitely small distur bance instead of being damped out in course of time tend. it characterises the wakes of all long The most familiar arrangement of vortices street. so that the element. for given cases of motion 1 60. The vorticity is zero behind the centre of span. the two rows being of equal strength but to opposite hand. The flat lower surface inclined positively to the stream is free from the phenomenon. therefore. t 1912. although not always. to develop. increasing in strength. The effect of development of disturbance is to make the initially thin even spread of vorticity form marked in other words. The following articles examine in some detail two arrangements which are common and important. Karman Trail is the procession usually Consisting (Fig. but to opposite hand. 114) of a moving avenue of evenly spaced staggered vortices. but such an arrangement is unstable. also K&rman and Rubach. so the gatherway. A By characteristic of all vortex sheets is this is meant that the effects of even an their essential instability. Cf. Viscosity ensures that this surface they merge becomes a vortex sheet. at low Reynolds numAt first sight it would seem plausible to expect the vortices to be disposed opposite to one * showed another. . Kirmdn * Gdtt. of vorticity into hoards continues. from (upon the whole) a greater reduction of pressure on the upper surface than on the lower surface. Viewed in plan the streamlines will be inclined inwardly to a greater extent above the aerofoil than below it. but it is usually. This crowding together of ing vortex lines in patches describes in a qualitative way the formation accumulations . dividing the upper and lower parts of the flow where behind the wing. Nachrichten. Discontinuity in respect of direction of flow occurs in a sheet stretching downstream from the trailing edge. towards the edges of the sheet on either side. only a short length of contrary. of discrete vortices. described in Chapter II. manufactured vortex sheet can ever be found except in newly peculiar circumstances. those of streamline cylinders. 1911. is never actually arrested. the sheet tends to roll up in some of the vortex sheet goes on.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 291 with increase of Reynolds number.
we find a circulation round the circuit.. is ~ of generation of each pair of vortices.. 1H. a .. successfully calculating the layout of the procession necessary for stability.PATHLINES OF THE VORTEX STREET BEHIND A CIRCULAR CYLINDER. and also other matters to which reference will be made. or a little upstream of the tail of a cylinder of streamline section while a fullygrown and long vortex is detaching itself from the other side of the cylinder be drawn round the median beginning to be left behind. This comparatively small velocity u is the same for all is the numerical strength of each vortex. all closed in a zigzag fashion across the avenue behind the extremities of the cylinder causing them. His results state first that if h is the distance between the rows and / that between successive vortices of the same row A// =0281 . the motion is alternatively called the Kdrmdn trail. this theoretically.. Therefore. the eddy system left behind rest at a is not stationary.. one vortex in ~= clearly V ' ' W The K4rmn trail may be regarded as the central region of a large number of very elongated loops. One long vortex length matures during the short time l/~ near to the surface of the body behind the shoulder of a circular cylinder. conceived as having just been left in the wake. if K u = K (201) .292 AERODYNAMICS [CH. If a circuit section of the cylinder in such a way as to include the bound vortex while excluding the free vortex. behind one of the sharp edges of a normal plate. U through fluid at (200) Imagining the body to move at velocity distance. Therefore. FIG. is given by and. V The frequency each row. for each has a forward velocity induced in it by all the vortices in the vortex other row.
Reynolds the exists in for. 121 b is From (200) h = 0281 = / showing that the track of the established vortex street was. change in sign periodically. leads to singing. by the method of Article 47. The periodic force experiment and. if b is maximum width of section. 20 per cent. as usual. in the case of fine wires. observation of the tone of which provides one method of finding the frequency of the eddies. ~ 161. wider than the cylinder. from (201) giving the strength of the vortices for a given speed and size of cylinder. It will be noted that the above equations do not provide a solution of the problem for any particular Reynolds number. since the next vortex to mature will be situated on the opposite side of the cylinder. from (198) first : A = 02 x p X 17 Ub x 121 b . (203) for From this we can deduce the variation of for a given shape. Moreover. From (202) u ~j> _6/ ~ ~U~~l\ lfb U and. the approximation to the drag is obtained as follows of impulse parallel to the direction of motion mean rate of change required to create the vortex loops from rest at the observed rate is. Application to the Circular Cylinder Some observations with a long circular cylinder at a Reynolds number (= f/6/v.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT is 293 This transverse force on the cylinder will expected from Article 109. the number R as well as the shape of the body affect the trail. bodies of different sizes and the same shape at constant /?.. b denoting the diameter) of about 2000 gave approximately: b/U = 02 and /E7=014. but f(R) remains to be determined experimentally for each shape.. that ~=^/(/J) . we easily find.. on substituting the above measurements = 43. Finally.
162. 25 shows the variation of b/U with Ub/v for this shape.294 AERODYNAMICS [CH.. and he shows that the cylinder experiences. i.. approximately. The corresponding decrease in is 096. Equation (204) =i . being associated with the production of lift.e. The drag coefficient obtained by direct weighing at this Reynolds number the circular cylinder for R > 100. ul X 0281 /) Rigorous examination by Kdrmdn takes account of factors neglected above.. frequency begins to increase much more rapidly with for constant diameter and fluid. ==() '* xl lxl ' ' 21 may alternatively be arranged in the form CD = ( ^" X 2V2 . per unit length. the whole difference between weighed drag and skin friction. . Article 44). to form drag . Thus vortex production accounts for nearly the whole of the drag in the case considered. as will shortly appear. . part may be due to a different cause. Form Drag That part of the total drag on a body which can be traced to the shedding of a vortex street is an important instance of form drag. still on account of the vortex street only. giving a drag coefficient c ~Kh = ~b K h Juubb = 082. It is not always correct to ascribe the whole of the pressure drag integral (cf. which arises from a modification sometimes a great change of the pressure distribution pertaining to irrotational flow.. given byCD  1588 O . a 10 per cent. (206) which yields the value 090 from the above measurements. illustrated in Figs. Fig.. At R 2 x 10*. and investigation at other Reynolds numbers suggests this to be generally true for ~ = U drag would be consistent with the vortex street becoming narrower by some 50 per cent. 72 and 92B. greater drag coefficient.
If the body is of short length across the stream a body of revolua vortex tion. The lifting assumed to be of thin streamline section set at a small angle of incidence to the undisturbed wind. We might have in large expected the elongated loops of the vortex street to shrink to a succession of vortex rings. But when required for landing and slow diving it can be obtained measure by exposing a long normal plate (Article 76). 91. it is 10*.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 295 The form drag of long flat plates normal to the stream is nearly 60 per cent. and are then called wingtip vortices. the wake arising from its boundary layer being The vortex sheet stretching downstream from its trailing neglected. when it is entirely parasitic in nature. such as a sphere or an airship envelope wake may be produced. But at a greater Aerodynamic scale the vortices consist of narrow loops in spiral arrangement. and to define to skin friction or lift. where the distance between these long eddies is much less than the span of the wing. = . It is assumed to have no form drag. the whole system spinning about a central axis. and these are observed at low velocities behind small spheres in air. where the vorticity vanishes. To a first approximation Fig. Remembering that vortex lines cannot terminate or originate away . associated with the difference existing in lateral components from above and below. It is in the wake. can be reduced greatly by suitable streamlining. 95 per cent. less at R lo 6 Thus form drag. on the other hand. Their presence was inferred on theoretical grounds by Lanchester in the course of his pioneering work on Aerodynamic lift. but it has a different form. Lanchester's Trailing Vortices 159 (3). for example. but the fully developed motion is a trailing vortex pair. They often partly form close behind the wingtips. greater than for circular cylinders for R between 10* and For the finer strut illustrated in Fig. Again. breakaway may be prevented by turbulence and a wake of vorticity formed without discrete vortices. and of velocity of confluent streams each half rolls up about a roughly foreandaft axis to form downstream one member of a vortex pair. convenient to leave open the question of vortex arrangement form drag as that part which is not due APPLICATION TO WINGS 163. splits into two halves along the centreline. We turn now to the important case of Article of finite wing span is edge. 106 gives the velocity distribution through a crosssection of the wake far behind a wing.
Moreover. 115. 97. 115. Photographs tion ends the vortex sheet ceases to be formed and the starting trailing edge. be moved at constant small incidence in a straight line. from the vicinity of the wing. of span 2s. why 164. it is not clear without further examination the wing should exert the lift on which the vortices depend. (c) in the figure.296 AERODYNAMICS [CH. show that as soon as acceleraas the starting vortex. after a brief period of rapid acceleration. and is left perman The foregoing description applies to the vertical plane of sym s o (c) (b) (a) Q T FIG. These interrelated questions are clarified by following the motion of an aerofoil from rest. again with the help of photographs of the formation of the vortex system. During the period of acceleration from rest. assumed for convenience to be horizontal. Generation of Circulation and Lift Let the aerofoil. as at ently behind at the position A. The high give rise to vortex becomes detached. we are faced with a question as to what may be the complete configuration of which the vortex pair forms part. . start from a position of rest A in stationary air and. the flow closely approximates at first to potential acyclic motion and is momentarily of the type illustrated in Fig. at a velocity U of considerable It is assumed that the time to a position H such that AH is large compared with 2s is sufficiently short for diffusive action of viscosity on the vortices formed to be neglected this is consistent with the long persistence of vortices observed in a fluid of such small magnitude. A pack of vortex lines (b) This is known parallel to the trailing edge begins to appear near A. R FORMATION OF "THE STARTING VORTEX. . the back stagnation line being situated on the upper surface of the aerofoil well in front of the velocity gradients caused near the trailing a vortex sheet which begins at once to roll up in edge the manner shown at (a) Fig. viscosity as that of air.
manner shown diagrammatically in Fig. and still remains so. it will have locally a lift equal to pKU per unit of span.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 297 metry. the circulation round the circuit OSTRO. assumed sharp. Let the circuits shown in Fig. was shown in Article 135 to cause the back stagnaThe hypothesis tion line to be displaced towards the trailing edge. that for a steady state the back stagnation line recedes exactly to the trailing edge. although this would be difficult to imagine. VORTEX PAIR OF A LIFTING WING. 116. such as OSPQTRO may comprise the same fluid particles. Circulation applied a twodimensional aerofoil FORMATION OF THE TRAILING FIG. Therefore. 116. Elsewhere along the span there will be a lift of intensity decreasing outwards because vortex lines leave K before the tips are reached. The aerofoil now having a circulation midway along its span combined with a steady forward velocity 17. The foregoing proves.10* . or any other in the plane embracing the aerofoil but not the vortex. 116.D. K round the median section It follows that the magnitude of the circulation round the member of each vortex to pair is also equal to K. that they must be reentrant. must be equal to K. The vortex lines of the starting vortex cannot terminate in the We might perhaps conceive of their turning at each end and fluid. as indicated in Fig. all the vortex lines being required to induce a circulation equal to of the aerofoil. abutting on the aerofoil. in the by lengths which are ' bound ' to the aerofoil moving with it. The circulation round it was originally zero. now receives experimental support since the starting vortex ceases to form only when this coincidence is attained. The tangential 159 (3) is now identified with the sheet trailing vortex sheet of Article of escaping vortex lines which continue to accumulate into further A. ST has been cut by the aerofoil. introduced by Joukowski (Article 134). 115 be in this plane. The strength of the starting vortex is measured by the circulation round any circuit SPQTS which encloses the vortex only. however. their K loops being closed surface. Since the trailing edge of the aerofoil was to the left of ST in the figure on But a circuit starting from rest.
165. We ignore this FIG. No further starting vortex is formed. p. v. 118. From Article 157 the impulse is $Kl per unit length or./ . enquire what lift and THROUGH A TRAILING VORTEX. . the residual flow in the region due to the passage of the aerofoil \ FIG. Thus Fig. 118 gives the ' _ . full line of Fig. assuming a horizontal EXPERIMENTAL DIS OF VORTICITY TRIBUTION vortex pair. Let / be the distance apart of the vortices and 2a the diameter of each. the . t A. since a * Fage and Simmons. . the vortices are inclined downward by a small angle. . lengths of trailing vortex as the aerofoil proceeds along its path. L_ rr: and. approximates to a length of vortex pair. 225. 117. In calculating lift we neglect the substance of the vortices. of the vorticity through a wingtip vortex well behind an aerofoil. The dotted line illustrates the made assumption as an approximation. owing to their generation by successive elements. picture of the vortex A system anywhere between A and H is merely an extension of Fig. When the latter has progressed a further distance. 1925. Again. angle. Phil. that vorticity is uniform through the vortex and zero in the surrounding flow. mean variation. but cannot do so in calculating drag. Soc. . The vortex sheet wa $ found in this case to be nearly rolled UD. EXPERIMENTAL STREAMLINES 13 CHORDS BEHIND AN AEROFOIL (THE AEROFOIL is SHOWN DOTTED AND ITS SPAN = 3 x WIDTH OF FIGURE). experimen tally determined. as an example. It is easily verified that. 303. the * expathlines determined perimentally 13 chords behind the wingtip of an aerofoil of aspect ratio 6 set at 8. Distance from the startingpoint of the flight and from the aerofoil permits the flow to be regarded as twodimensional.~. drag this simplified system entails at the aerofoil. Trans. Roy. 116 to include a period of uniform motion. viz.298 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Consider a region far from the start of the flight that is crossed by the lifting aerofoil. of the order of 1 in a practical case. the flight path being horizontal. 117 shows.
kinetic energy E per unit length has been generated in the region. p . since work is done at the rate D^U and kinetic energy appears at the rate (E + EJU (211) Induced drag is due essentially to the threedimensional character of the flow. It is important to note that K is we find E=foK \wciy. We have. From Article 119 by way of the artifice of Article 157. the impulse being constant between the vortices. .. given by JL re = 9 KIU . the rate of change of impulse and is directed downward. co a r 2 dr = o> For continuity of velocity at the periphery of the cores = K/2na* a result which is independent of a. It appears on * The vortex sheet behind the aerofoil cannot contain the kinetic energy in the cores of the developed vortex pair. action U is generated per second. pK>p< ^L \+y a i i \ y/ y (209) The kinetic energy Ec of the substance of the two vortex cores is not negligible. .. Associated with the impulse. D% is called the induced drag. balancing the external force. There is thus an upward L on the aerofoil. . (208) where w is the velocity of the points of application of the distributed impulse and the integration is to extend between the vortices..VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 299 is length pX/Z7. and is derived * from the original irrotational motion generated. vanishing for aerofoils of infinite span. Calculating it on the assumption of uniform angular velocity =2 giving . Hence / . (207) here the strength of the vortices. 2n\ r . Let DI denote the contribution to aerofoil drag associated with the continuous production of the kinetic energy of the complete residual vortex system..
. as a sheet at the wing. I. the vortices being spread. is that part of the pressure drag of a wing that is caused by its lift. A first approximation to the size of the vortices may be noted. A later.Arch. Ing. weakened vortex sheet remains between to roll up farther down A stream. ignoring the remaining part and its associated vortex sheet (Fig. wholly or in part. the strength of each wingtip vortex. an appropriate number of vortex lines remaining bound until the tips are nearly reached. J These calculations give a fair idea of the more comdrag wing. Aerodynamic Theory. gives I/a obtains the value 92. Another definition will become apparent in the next chapter. size is considerable. however. the wing as a modification of the pressure distribution appropriate to twodimensional flow past the wing sections at their effective inciHence a simpler but superficial definition is induced drag dences. more physical enquiry by Kaden f suggests a mean value of 017 X the span of the minimum Prandtl's result makes 2a 88. with a Although vortex trailing vortex sheet similar feature at the other wingtip. In pair.300 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The distribution of impulse along the wing will in general be quite different from that which would efficient of t generate the irrotational part of the above residual motion from rest. we should require to know its dimensions besides K. It will be shown that most practical wings have induced 2 drags a little greater than npK /S. which are usual rather than exceptional. Let * { Tragfugeltheorie. 119 (a) illustrates the system diagrainmatically. This we leave to the special investigations of the next chapter. We now treat Fig. no second term appearing in the log of (211). These must not be confused with the residual vortex from the centre of span. of this uniform part of the lift as if it alone existed.. 118). a and U. p. part of the lift is uniformly distributed along the span. plicated vortices found in experiment (cf. 1935. on the other hand. being smaller and situated farther such cases. a developed vortex pair. and it will be = = observed that their 1 66. strong vortices often exist. Uniform Lift lines leave the wing along its span. II. 329. Equating this minimum to (21 1) In the course of a rigorous investigation Prandtl * 102. To carry the foregoing expressions further and calculate the co: induced drag for the wing. 119 (&)). when they turn a corner and crowd together suddenly to form. The circulation K' round the wing is then constant along the span and equal to K. close behind the wingtips. f II. forming a and decreasing the circulation round outboard sections. 1931. Fig.
but little difference resulted from considerably reducing or increasing this distance. Soc.F. According to experiment I is (a) slightly less than 2s. longer necessary r C and then from (211) L = L 2K Uc (213) 2sc (214) Fig. proximately 75 per cent. Jouv. 120. of lift was uniform. October 1923.2s (212) rate of change of impulse required to generate the vortex pair continuously : = KpUl. . . difference. 15 and A = 6 at a Reynolds number of 63 X 10*. 15 AEROFOIL AND THE IMPULSE OF THE VORTEX PAIR EXISTING 2 CHORDS BEHIND IT. Aero. We assume that the pair the accent in (212) as no Omitting /. larger critical. but for simplicity we ignore the lift..VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 301 2s be the span. past the thick aerofoil of EXPERIMENTAL RELATIONSHIP this percentage increased at BETWEEN THE LlFT OF A R. 120 gives the results of experiment * with a thin aerofoil of the section known as R. Then we have and for the for the on the wing . At flying incidences ap08 the FIG. A deep camber and the same * Piercy.A. 119. diameters. while incidence. The measurements were made at a distance of 2c behind the aerofoil. and A the aspect ratio 2s/c. each of diameter 2a. and as before let / be = the distance apart of the vortices. L =K'pU .A. Roy.F. in calculating the vortex lift . and also. c the chord. K' = K and 2s = expressing equality dl/dt if FIG. of vortices remains at 2s apart.
. after a period of steady the velocity is increased. 121. insufficient to keep the back stagnation line on the and trailing a new starting vortex is thrown off edge during the time of acceleration. proach that for twodimensional and increases rapidly towards 1   Lack of knowledge of the tips. DRAG FOR UNIFORM highly reduced pressure are commonly found here on the back A great advantage of aspect ratio in reducing induced drag becomes evident when it is reflected that. (216) in the The induced drag for uniform lift is distributed between the vortices same way as the induced velocity of the vortex pair (Fig. aspect ratio showed 5060 per cent. . for greater span. are complicated. of the lift is uniform. we infer the same distribution along the aerofoil. but small areas of Centre of ntre Span w&ng Wing tip * FIG. developed quickly. and since 2s =/ and the vortex pair forms immediately. .302 AERODYNAMICS [CH. as tends to occur at large 167. A slightly weighted mean of c/a was 13. DISTRIBUTION OF INDUCED LIFT. It is a minimum at the centre of span. of the lift to be of this kind at 8 incidence. lift increases without increase of K. and the assumption is sometimes adopted that the whole part of the upper surface of an aerofoil. Variation of Circulation in Free Flight The argument of Article 164 is readily elaborated to include variation in the velocity of the aerofoil. take 2s /a I/a =78. the curl and spread of the vortices at the tips prevents completion of the figure. we find from (214) CDi For future reference form it is = 0061 CL . = . If. Aerodynamic calculations involving a knowledge of the degree to which the vortex sheet has rolled up. on tailsetting angle. 121).g. . (215) convenient to express this result in the (1+015). the original circulation becomes motion. e. is Alternatively we may assume that the residual vortex pair incidences. or we may If C L C D> refer to the uniform part of the lift. where the pressure distribution will most nearly ap Induced Dra9 ' flow.
e. during the change. length after length of the trailing viscosity. vortex pair far behind the aeroplane will similarly diffuse. tend to move the back stagnation line rearwards to a greater extent than the acceleration tends to move it forwards. is the projected area of the wings.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 303 This joins together additional vortex lines packed into the trailing vortices. we have. and is is /) W.CL/[// 'K~~Cjf i agreeing with (ii) on substitution from (i). the vorticity of the action of original starting vortex will have diffused. through the and as time proceeds. In terms of the lift coefficient. principles apply. This is secured (considering increase of speed) by such a decrease of angle of incidence as will. has lasted for an appreciable time. of course. but the argument needs modification to take account of the fact that the downward component of the constrain The same ing force applied to the wings is weight and any downward air loads approximately constant ( = equal to the sum of the total flying on other parts of the craft. for steady horizontal flight CL 'ipt/"S where S is = CL iptfS = = ' W. to the wings of an aeroplane in horizontal flight. . to move in a straight path in spite of variation of lift. = U/U' (i) variation of speed requires inversely proportional variation of circulation. result. say). Such a sequence of events requires suitable variation of the external force which constrains the aerofoil. in order that flight may remain horizontal r ~ pK'U'l = ?KUl =W . whose incidence is assumed constant. or. Taking for simplicity the case of uniform distribution of span and constant chord. . When flight . and increases the circulaA decrease of velocity produces the opposite tion round the aerofoil. so that the vortex thrown off from the trailing edge is opposite in hand to a starting vortex. from (213) lift along the K . we have. K'jK i. a retardation vortex leaving the aerofoil to close vortex lines no longer required in the weakened trailing vortices appropriate to the reduced circulation. . . since this constant (ii) Q//CL (U/Uy. which are strengthened thereby. When we the velocity of an aeroplane must have (neglecting variation of increased from U to [/'.
122. MAXIMUM DOWNWASH ANGLBS OBSERVED 2 CHORDS BEHIND AN AEROFOIL BY MEANS OF THE METER SHOWN INSET. chord. 2 ft. ft. AERODYNAMICS Example from Experiment [CH. to the stream. (3) the Rankine vortex assumption. This was mounted on a cranked arm turned by a micrometer wheel outside the tunnel about a centreline passing through the point of contact. cit.304 1 68. t p. he. The instrument could be traversed parallel to the trailing edge of the The aerofoil could be traversed parallel to its lift. . The deeply cambered rectangular aerofoil. consisting of two fine tubes inclined at 46 30 20 u. per sec. (2) application of the simplified vortex configuration. Thus. with their open * Piercy. mouths touching. span and 0*33 ft. 227. The following analysis of some experiments * with an aerofoil in a wind tunnel illustrates (1) approximate allowance for wall constraint (technical conversion formulae are developed in the next chapter). 10 O a o *CENTRE OF SPAN ~3c 2c DISTANCE c BEYOND WIND Tip FIG. aerofoil. 122. the undisturbed air speed being Downwash angle was explored by means of the meter shown in Fig. square in section. was suspended symmetrically at 8 incidence in an enclosedtype tunnel 4 31'3 ft.
t due to BC K given by . the FIG. being chosen for reasonable coincidence with the square wall The two imaged vortices AD'. is only 10 per cent. from the figure. so that precision is unneces but this correction Thus. Allowance for constraint on the wingtip vortices will be made by substituting a tunnel wall of circular section. 122 for a line nearly level with the trailing edge. of the mean downwash. but adjusted to give maximum slope to JM. B'C' are distant (2l)*/i(l'89) 467 ft. 123) will be calculated from Article 155. A vortex of 005 ft. Constraint by the floor and roof on the downwash from the bound vortex AB (Fig. downwash angle could be measured by orienting the meter to give equal pressures in the two tubes at any point at a set distance behind the This distance was 0*9 ft. Thus. and lie in the plane containing the real vortices. of that for the side walls and only 1 per cent. diameter with centre at J and of approximThe distance / ately uniform angular velocity is clearly indicated. lift. + cos = x being distance behind AB. behind the centre of pressure of through which the bound vortex lines are assumed. to be concentrated. aerofoil at P distant y from if w BC l : is the downwash v/j. sary. a radius of 21 ft. from the centre of the tunnel. aerofoil. in the subsequent analysis. The last factor 092.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 305 after calibration of the tunnel with the model removed. the constraint will be less owing to the short length of the aerofoil. between this and the corresponding vortex behind the other wingtip was found to be 189 ft. velocity from the w l = K (cos a . Actually. 123. on account of the trailing vortex system. = there (a) is at P An upwash : velocity w . Observed downwash angles are given in Fig.
(c) = K (cos S + 1) An upwash velocity wt due to the image B'C' given by (d) An upwash velocity w 6 due to A'D' given by The total downwash velocity l is given by w =w DISTANCE OUTBOARD FROM \MWOTIP FIG. . A downwash velocity wa due to AD given by w. 124.306 (b) AERODYNAMICS [CH.
125. but upon the whole it is fair. It will be seen that the check was successful. Denoting AF K= = = m t K =K (467)*} where the first term gives the contribution from the circulation round the second that from the the aerofoil. 124. 122 by assuming the horizontal component of velocity to be unchanged beyond the wingtip. VARIATION OF STATIC PRESSURE THROUGH A TRAILING VORTEX. the circles are observations. The curve is theoretical. numbers this reduces to . measurements were made of the pressure within the vortex at a number of radii. assumed constant and and the third that from their images. Let us now calculate the down wash velocity w' at the point F midway between the vortices and 09 ft. 4 and a 0025 ft. which the value 40 has been chosen for K. and K = 40 is justified. . together with the theoretical curve FIG.VII] VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT 307 for Evaluating w for a series of values of y gives the curve of Fig. and are derived from ' the readings of Fig. To obtain an independent check on this value. The fit of the ' curve to the observations is better near to and far from the vortex than it is at intermediate positions. The points marked about the theoretical curve are experimental. as obtained from (179) and (180) with measured. In round vortices trailing . These are shown as points in Fig. behind the centre of pressure of BF by the expression is the aerofoil. 125.
which so close behind this aerofoil 40 per cent. per sec. VII = K. of the vortex lines escaping into the not yet rolled up into the vortex pair. 4?r (148 f 358 051) =K 4rc X 455 = If 145 ft. per sec. A considerably greater value than this is expected owing to the reduction of the horizontal component in the wake. the angle of downwash there would be 27.308 AERODYNAMICS w' [CH. This was immediately evident on weighing the lift came to 1*61 KpUl. The conclusion is that of the aerofoil. viz. all factors have not been taken into account.. 61. clearly. Hence. the horizontal component at F were 31'3 ft. wake had . but not nearly so great a value as measured.
distribution of the vorticity than is available. will be affected much On apart from discrete vortices immediately formed. by theory and experiment. and skin friction drag is and the viscous wake are neglected. The monoplane wing is completely represented in the present investigations by its span. necessitatnow proceed to examine the ing uniform lift along the span. calculation of the second component would be complicated. the aerofoil has been found in some cases to roll up only slowly. critical angle. and would involve more precise knowledge of the threedimensional An approximation. Chapter VII clearly indicates that at a point close to a system of vorticity the velocity less by distant parts of the system than by near the experimental side. assumed to be zero and the incidence It follows that form sufficiently removed from the on the theory of the lifting monoplane have described the residual flow caused in a region of the atmosphere far behind the wing as consisting of a vortex pair. Consequently. however. and some detailed investigation has been given to a simplified vortex configuration in which vortices are conceived to spring from the wingtips. part of which is bound Exact to the aerofoil and produces circulation round its sections. Fluid velocities are compounded of the translational velocity and a component due to the complete vortex loop. as we have seen. The boundary layer is supposed everywhere to be very thin.Chapter VIII WING THEORY 169. to calculations in the vicinity of the wing. This parallel formation cannot extend indefinitely. is at once appropriate suggested. The present chapter studies in more detail wings of the strictly limited span practicable for sustaining heavy flying loads. a reasonable approximation for present purposes is to regard the free vortex lines as trailing behind the aerofoil perpendicular to its span. aspect ratio and the spanwise distribu309 . Introductory articles We flow close to the wing with a view to investigating wing forms. but the form of (182) permits us nevertheless to regard without important error the straight vortex lines as being of semiinfinite length. the vortex sheet spreading behind parts.
Denoting the velocity of this downwash at y l along the aerofoil by 8wlf we have from (184) and by Article 169 sheet. i. over the element of span Sy. The circulation at y + 8y is K+ 8y. Both these quantities are at the choice of the designer within certain Good approximations to a desired lift distribution can be obtained with different shapes of wing to meet other requirements. that the circulation diminishes outwards from a maximum J at the Hence. General Equations of Monoplane Theory Take the origin at the centre of span (Fig. and produce a component of the downwash velocity. the grading of lift intensity.e. vortex lines to the strength Sy leave the aerofoil to form part of the vortex ay and the direction of rotation is such as to cause a downwash nearer the centre of span. J TS wingtip. To calculate the value . 126).310 AERODYNAMICS [CH. but whose solution in a given case may be attended with analytical complication. Trailing vortex lines arise in this way all along the span. whose construction will now give no difficulty. w vortex lines not passing through that point. tolerated. 126. which is in general Its value at any point is due to all the variable along the span. 170. tion of circulation round its sections. from (i) l at y l we have. It is assumed centre of span. The scope of the enquiries is expressed in the following set of general equations. The peculiar nature of the results will fortunately enable us to avoid much of the latter when small errors can be limits. and denote by the circulation round the wing at a distance y towards the starboard K o FIG.
(See also Article 140D. q being the resultant of w and the translational velocity U. (ii) There is also C7. when the whole of the trailing at the wingtips as a vortex pair. and to of lift is is U and to the span. The integrand approaches oo as y approaches y lt so that integration must be stopped short of y l and the limit investiThis kind of difficulty occurs frequently in our subject it gated. must. i.. . . 8L therefore inclined backwards from the perpendicular from the direction of lift. 8y.e. Sy w = ~ 81 . gathered together vorticity provided we exclude a region at each tip where w cannot be deter The above verified in the case of is uniform mined and Let each. an element given SZ)^ of induced drag.e.. be increased to a according its . motion. can usually be met by considering elements close to y l on either side in pairs. . its incidence.VIII] WING THEORY 311 2s being the span. compared with twodimensional conditions. i. 1 . to realise the lift (ii). another effect of w is to reduce incidence from a the incidence it would have consistent with its lift if it formed part of a wing of infinite span so that w vanished. I K is indefinite. by the angle w/U. same results as that described in the last chapter. .. Hence. to a = a + w/U . The element SL = by ?Kq Sy . This is readily lift. . U/q = ?KU . a component parallel to SA = ?Kw For the whole aerofoil . assuming this to be small. be the distance apart of these vortices and 2a the diameter of At any position y along the span of the aerofoil *( l . measured from the angle for no lift. (iii) L = p7 J Kdy s (218) Kwdy (219) Again referring to the element at y. This reaction is perpendicular to the local relative . Its reaction amounts to pKq Sy.) Consider the circumstances of the element at y. (220) alternative theory of induced drag must give the 171.
. . = C. a say. m m of two impulses I lt / 2 regarded as acting and changing their velocities from lt t W W w w lt t. This problem is atmosphere at constant speed U say horizontally exerts on the air a Let / be the rate of change of impulse in a downward direction. We have unit length of the flight path. = const. and we have is given by the change E of . Hence. say. question of the distribution of a given total for minimum induced drag.. from (219) = p *27u . Investigation is possible in several ways. l (w. as in Article 165.). the problem may be restated as follows. It is = m. Kinetic Energy on to Consider first the fluid masses lt sum a. By Article 119 I.. impulse imparted per A wing traversing a region and small positive incidence of the L=IU . Distribution of Given Impulse for Minimum .W. kinetic energy is communicated to the air at the rate E per unit length of the path.  WJ. Total lift and span being fixed. or The work done by the total impulse kinetic energy. . The whole flow is regarded as irrotational.312 t AERODYNAMICS [CH. The ' Second Problem of Aerofoil Theory We now approach the lift over a given span evidently of the greatest engineering interest. what conwe find ditions will make E a minimum ? What form of wing. 172. = EU will realise these conditions ? 173. provided that the distribution found can be realised in a wing which is structurally economical in weight. Dv E. To introduce the method developed below. where a is the extent inwards from each provided y <\l vortex centre of each of the excluded regions.log 6 1 ' (  1 1 \a agreeing with the induced drag evaluated over a corresponding length of the aerofoil by the method of Article 165. f 2 /. the substance of the vortices formed being neglected work is done by the impulsive action at the rate and.. (221) In the process. assumed that the sum 7 t Js C = m w + m^w l = m (w. if any. (m^Wi + m^W n t ).
.. Let these act on 2t W% lt s . 2. The corresponding is result for a number of impulses I lt I 2 7 8 . w 2 i. when. 174.. . Hence.) 1 2 1 2 z . to w w lt 9 . Considering a region of initially stationary air which has been traversed by a wing. W )+ l) 2 9 . writing E Q for the original kinetic energy and the original momentum M for (Lm) (2E + 2E ) (C +M )' =m (m w + m w w + m (m + m* + +m + (m wj + + w (w! + m + m< + m w w + m^m^w{w + 2(m = m m (wt w + w^s w + l l 2 2 l 2 n . We does tion is minimum work when conclude that a distributed impulse of given total magnitude the final velocity of its point of applica everywhere the same. masses . 3 2 . . .) a t 2 2 )* (te^! 8) The righthand side being necessarily positive or z# 8 = hand side is a minimum when w l = w 2 . . .Wi) + m> (w. . the kinetic energy in unit length parallel to the flight path will be a minimum for a given lift and span. . has a w 2 Now all the terms on the lefthand side of the equation are known and prescribed except 2E. . w w 11 proved in exactly the same way.e. . and. The foregoing condition for minimum work done is realised when the impulse is applied through a rigid plate accelerated normally to its plane. zero. The minimum value when w t = .W + m (w . wf . whatever the initial is a minimum when w l last expression. changing their velocities from . = .. have . the left. . W W 2 m m lf 2. if the flow .. .VIII] WING THEORY  313 Therefore (C =mm l + m W + m*W ww (m w + w l l 2 )* 2 2 2 ) l l a ze> 8 ) a 2 2 (z>! + z0 a a 2wjW 2 ) being necessarily positive or zero. * =m l (wf  Wf) +m 2 (w 2 PF 22) +m s (w^  WJ) + .. . .) 2 l . . therefore. velocities. . and let + We 2E 12 +h+ =w t (w 1 = C. . the final velocities are equal.) . . . a constant. Therefore is a minimum under this condition. .
314 there is AERODYNAMICS such that [CH. Twodimensional conditions are appropriate. *Pg*... At outer sections . / and E are obtained immediately from Article 120. . the wing having passed ahead. must also be the circulation round the median section of the aerofoil. Considering two adjacent points A and B. ws sin 7) . If w is the final velocity of the plate and 2s its width 1 / TTpte'S (i) acceleration in a = E= . Elliptic .' 175... < . consisting of a vortex sheet. the plate so far imagined is fluid. 1 ^Trpw's is (ii) The distribution of / across the plate shown in Article 120 to be elliptic.. we note the following : being the circulation round each half of the vortex sheet. .sin 37T\ (iv) 2ws .. Now actually. and this interval of is the circulation round any circuit passing through the centre line and embracing onehalf of the sheet. Hence the central intensity of the lift is pKQ U.. midway between the edges and on opposite sides of the plate. ... (iii) ranging from to 2?r round the surface.. (222) (223) (224) Wingloading In applying this important result to the actual case.. when the motion is generated by a wing of lift L and span 2s.. Denote this circulation Q by K = 2ws K From (iv) or w Substituting in (i) = K /2s and (ii) I = PK.. the interval of </> between them is == . it might have been generated from rest by the normal direction of unit length of a long plate of width equal to the wing span. K .. On the plate <f> is given by ^ 7) = .
is should give the of elliptic planform.e. onehalf value far downstream given by (222).U 2* (226) agreeing with (223) from (221). i.e. according required uniform induced velocity at to theory. at the aerofoil. Substituting for agreement with (224). at the aerofoil its w Knowing this velocity to = K /4s From (225)  (227) be constant along the span.VIII] WING THEORY 316 the lift this is required to fall away elliptically. from Article 148.s gives Di = 2XV7ip?7 a . This shape is quite practicable in modern wing construction. since = K.f ~ dy J . so that camber is constant. dK y . (229a) The best wing shape which. we can readily recalculate its value from (217). having geometrically similar sections.T^= K. . in t . set at constant incidence along the span. Other planforms can be arranged to give approximately elliptic loading by suitably gradating camber and incidence along the span. . The velocity w has. remembering that from (226) and writing X for the K spanloading L/2. applying (217) to y l = 5 w Again. = Ko  w is constant along the span ^ T TC_ (229) from (226) and E =D (227). <') Hence. but these may hold only for a single value of the central incidence. i. intensity at y is given by . . o (225) We note = pK. itself.
small departures from the conditions required cause increases which for some practical purposes are not important. (234) These formulae are often employed to calculate changes consequent upon modification of aspect ratio. (153) gives the spanwise components of velocity over the faces of the sheet.316 AERODYNAMICS [CH. A _n ~ '~~''"~~* X ^ _ ' L ' by (231).. Considering again the thin flat vortex sheet. A 2s/c. be shaped. The form of vortex sheet calculated could not persist at its edges and modifications are to be expected near the On the other hand.. If the For a rectangular planform of constant chord c. For this purpose we have .ior uniform 1 From (229) D A _2D. .. we shall see shortly that (229) is not wingtips.C L lift and constant chord. = 2K/Uc. 124 on analogy with a plate in broadsideon motion. (228) shows that dK/dy tends to oo at the wingEssentially the same result follows alternatively from Article tips. Criticism of the feasibility of realising the minimum of induced drag arises actually on the theoretical side.. . Minimum Drag Aerofoil Formulae Let A be the aspect ratio of the wing giving elliptic spanloading. while the minimum induced drag may be regarded as an ideal impossible to realise exactly. 176. Similarly for the k system of coefficients Formulae (227) and (231) yield w TT ~~~~ I _JL_ A rL * * * * * (9w\ ^*iOOy Substituting in (220) a =a + ~C L . a critical minimum. which tend to oo at the edges. having area S and mean chord c' planform x From (226) 2s 4s f 4s 1 ?iT?=T ~i P C7'S~pC7* 4s . Hence. 2 (230) L U * 2s* This may be compared with the result (213). .
2?r for thin aerofoils of Joukowski shape be "+: An to . Loc. ~ ' 1 =(AA') d<x. 127. They ' are often known as reduc tion formulae/ The follow ing their examples. 91. Jones. Then dCJdcx. and Bell. experiment. the difference between rectangular planforms is for the time being regarded as negligible. rest certain assumptions . t p.g.Q f\ = /. 127 give the experimental * lift and drag coefficients O 10 FIG. (235) By da. A I tc\ A I 177.Q 1'X~ I ( l l \r C differentiation of (234) I ~ jt I ft if the theoretical slope Then accepted. at a fullscale Reynolds number for a rectangular wing of aspect ratio 6 and of * Experimental data in this article are based on Relf. (236) empirical correction is r put where / f\ = 087 approx.27r. applications. These are discussed after further development of the elliptical and theory. illustrating many upon e. Examples foregoing simple are of outstanding The results practical importance. (1) The extended curves of Fig.VIII] WING THEORY 317 1/1 1 . cit. . from = I dC L jd<x.
known as R.h. of the whole drag.A. It must be borne in mind that structural the advantage of high aspect ratio. The advantage of high aspect ratio diminishes. Im mediately from (235) AC^. C^. Of this.p.h.h. and a decrease of only 4 per cent. assuming an airscrew efficiency of 80 per cent. and increase of aspect ratio produces L marked improvement. But at CL 02 the induced drag is only 20 per cent. at C =10 in the present example. would require 450 b. for the wing. forms nearly 80 per cent. Consider a monoplane using this wing. At moderately large lift coefficients and incidences. 38 (thickness ratio == 0127). and the possible saving would amount to only 7 per cent. induced drag is much greater than the AND sum of form drag and FIG. questions qualify Full cantilever construction would . shows CD$ CL for elliptic wings of aspect ratios 6 and and total also the minimum C D that can be expected for a rectangular wing shape of aspect ratio 6 and thick ness ratio = 012. Aoc = CJl2n.318 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. 18 per cent. skin friction.h.h.p. the section shown in Fig. but appreciably below the OO4 Cj) 008 016 maximum lift stage. of C D and increase of A from 6 to 9 would save 25 per cent. Consider the effects of increasing A from 6 to 12. 128.F.p. are left unchanged.p. At a cruising speed of 110 m. could be achieved. A = in practice. (2) Fig. with small lift coefficients. could be saved by increasing A from 6 to 9. Adding these increments to the experimental values of C^ and a corresponding to any value of C L gives one point on each of the derived curves 12 shown. = C L*/l2n. For instance. necessarily included in the experimental This will be shown to be justifiable values. But a speed of 180 m. = by wing alone.p. within certain limits the large decrease in drag at appreciable lift coefficients due to doubling the aspect ratio would be realised for .. about 180 b. of 5 tons total weight and having a minimum flying speed of 60 m.. would be absorbed the . It will be noted that contributions to C D of form drag and skin friction. 42. however. 128 plotted against 9.
h. to 100 m. neglecting their increase in weight.p.h. to increase the rate of climb by = 5 per cent.p.. ft. U 4 MO' 6 or 1 ) X i X 1003 X 2212 X 780 = 33 X 550 A The above data = 803. But a point appears in favour of tapered planform which reduces the bending moment at the root of the wings. for so thin a wing as that considered with 4=9. relate to a modern craft with a usual minimum with split flaps fitted to the wings. owing simply to the reduction of speed.p. A thick wing may be substituted to overcome this difficulty though form drag increases.VIU] WING THEORY 319 be too heavy.h. lift coefficient being supposed constant by reduction of minimum speed. per min. per sec. Let us change them to apply to a slow craft. altitude its maximum rate of climb occurs at an indicated airspeed of 140 m. that must be made available for climbing is 005 X 20160 X 1080 33 ' = 33000 At 5000 If ft. and the smaller induced drag would be offset by the added drag of external bracing. The following . speed would be about 200 m. and whose cruising flying speed. area.p. The additional thrust h. with the materials at present available. and is 1080 ft. The required increase of aspect ratio is then found to be from 7 to 108. which has the effect of increasing incidence suddenly and thus momentarily increasing lift. (4) A disadvantage of high aspect ratio arises in some cases as follows : Wings must be made sufficiently strong to withstand the shock of flying into an upward gust. a saving of 33 thrust h. when C L 06. kept The foregoing examples illustrate that high aspect ratio substantially improves the speed or economy of aeroplanes of restricted speed range. At 5000 ft. (3) A monoplane weighing 9 tons has wings of aspect ratio 7 and 780 sq. and that it regard to rate of climb benefits aeroplanes of large speed range chiefly in and ability to maintain altitude when only part of their power equipment is functioning.p. It is only necessary to change the speed at which maximum rate of climb occurs from 140 m.h. Determine the aspect ratio for new wings.p. pl7* = 1003 and U = 2053/^0862 which will lead to A is the new aspect ratio = 2212 ft.
Jour. defined by a given variation along the span of shape of section. May 11)34. alternatively dCJdv. The sharp increase of incidence comes to 25/176=0142 radian = and C L increases by 0'670 for A = 6 or by 0744 for A = 10. theoretically.p. t The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory.. circulation of Fourier type = s. expressed in a series K = 4sC7SQ sin nQ * (237) An alternative method is due to Lotz . whose book f should be consulted for further details. A factor of safety of 2 is usually called and this excessive loading might provide an overriding condition for the structural design of the wings. S. The wing of the higher aspect ratio is the more severely stressed by the gust. sec. The Arbitrary Monoplane Wing The problem of the wing of nonelliptic form. Thus until incidence and speed have time to change. approximately.h.e. see Shenstone. is then either 4712 . and advance the speed range to 3. R. is = n/2 at the K. 178.. Then 478 .h.h. .p. incidence a and chord c is somewhat complicated.4=6 and 0740 for A = for. i. becoming 0990 or 1064. so that initially C L 128(60/120)*= 032. at the port wingtip. minimum flying speed encountering the gust at 120 m. the area of the wing is written S and its span 2s. for the upward velocity of the Assume the wings to have an effective maximum CL of 128 and to be of aspect ratio 6 or 10. respectively. the lift of the wings is increased in the ratio 310 or 333.320 calculations are based gust. when y and dy = s sin 0^0. brief description is given below of a t A convenient method * of solution developed by Glauert. Consider first a craft of 60 m.p. As before. Let us diminish the minimum flying speed to 50 m. =0114 and C L becomes 0680 for The transient load factors are now ' ' and 520. according to y Then The = = s. s cos 6. or 5236. on 25 ft. Aoc 10. AERODYNAMICS which is [CH. Change the variable so far employed to denote position along the span from y to 6. 6=0 when y = TT centre of span. varying along the span. Ae. which would therefore be heavier with the larger aspect ratio on a score additional to that mentioned in (2). initially C L =0142. per not excessive.
But the particular outboard position. A is the aspect ratio. now also variable. terms are sufficient when. substituting from (237) and remembering (230) gives CL where = 2A p (EC rt sin n8) sin is MQ. .. This distribution depends upon . the distribution of lift along the span. its theoretical value for thin Joukowski shapes. . to a particular value of 0. but in a modify which leaves C L constant. the shapes of the sections. It does not mean that C L oc A. This easily evaluated. under twodimensional conditions lift Also. only the semispan need be considered. their sizes and attitudes all along the span. i.. For an exact solution the summation should be from 1 to oo or at least include a considerable number of terms.e.VIII] WING THEORY for 321 integral in which symmetry about the median plane only odd Since from (218) values of n appear. Fourier series often gives a good approximation when only few terms are used the practical feasibility of the method depends upon this. giving 1 C L ==nAC The result . (238) means that the first coefficient of the Fourier series determines the total C 8. five and usually four or K At any position 29 KU =C L6 pcU>. 2K or = C L9 cU. manner lift coefficient. C 5. Then .. according to the fundamental laws developed in Article 170 and Chapter VI. from symmetry. . if cL Qe is the incidence measured from the angle of no It is convenient to ignore for the moment variation of the slope of the twodimensional lift curve from one section to another and to write for this 2?r. We have to find an equation for Cn which will be satisfied everywhere along the span. In framing the equation we have to relate to the induced velocity w. although in practice it will be satisfied at a few chosen positions only. each relating to a .
. But we shall retain the approximation. and these should be substituted in 27c. than practice for the general equation required. . on (237). results are obtained in terms of the general variable. the induced drag is a coefficients subsequent to the minimum first C L is specified by d. then . (242) The ElHptically (238) Loaded Wing Compared with Others By squaring and substituting in (242) we find < 243> Now the sum is obviously positive. We are now in a position to calculate the total induced drag. . <*. (219) leads to sin = 2A and this reduces to (SnC* n6 sc sin n d ' C w =7i4SnC/. This is sin nQ =~ (~ + sin 6/4s 4s \ sin 6 . dropping the or from (220) K= Ttt/coco K . / or EC. With it. and Therefore.) Substituting this expression for A vr 4sSC w and also for K in [ (239) rt sin Q n6 = nc / a \ . ~).^ nC* sin n 7 sin 6 ) oc \ ). . for a given lift when all The sum will vanish. .322 AERODYNAMICS suffix [CH. but which is which is in constant and equal to 1/2. . . rectangular wing. (241) dCJda. . and hence.rct/c (a Now. Article 140D) to . After substituting for y. 179. (239) substituting the new variable and taking account of (217) can be reduced (cf. More accurate values of 2:r will be known for the sections under twodimensional conditions at the chosen points. . K and w. .4 for a given parameter c/4s.
for constructional reasons. as will be illustrated. when lift the span. uniform loading is The included. although this is not a practical. are illustrated in Fig. The halftaper wing has a tip chord equal to onehalf its central chord. or straighttapered. The distribution for a much sharper taper differs much as does that for the rectangular shape from the ideal. as already proved. 1919. case. With rectangular square tips. t p. and the rectangular shape by Some load distributions different methods. 8 then gives the proportionate increase of induced drag above the For elliptic = value minimum theoretically possible. 129 for equal total lift . and others. employing FIG. results relate to constant shape of section and geometrical incidence along the span. Both these loadings differ widely but in the opposite way. but for other distributions it has a positive loading 8 a small fraction in practical cases. . nor a desirable. 129. G6ttingcn. *Loc. from the elliptic considered from a structural point of view. except for rounded tips.VIII] WING THEORY 323 reduce to unity. these planforms have been investigated by Glauert. t Dissertation. cit. 320. and thus the minimum possible drag coefficient for varies any wing is given by (232). elliptically along The formula (243) is conveniently written  (244) 0. either Aeroplane wings are commonly.* Betz f using the method just described. but the question remains as to how different they may be as regards induced drag. and its loading approximates to elliptic as loading. MATHEMATICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF LIFT FOR VARIOUS PLANFORMS.
at is The A = 10. where for also are shown the uniform result estimated lift with ^4 = from experiment in Article 166 for 6. 10 loading. and to 3 per cent. by assuming elliptic loading. but This point estimated from experiment. 131.) . The best L 004 = taper. The slope of the twodimensional lift curve is assumed to be 2n if it is less. variation of 8 with taper for A 67. 2 RECTANGULAR 132 gives the Fig. i. theoretical error in estimating induced drag for rectangular wings by (232). Induced drag decreases with increase of A but not so . This is illustrated in Fig.e. to 5 per cent. which 008 a large aspect ratio for aeroplane wings. is questions may suggest a sharper taper. aspect ratio should be proportionately increased. at aspect is Induced drag 1 then only per greater than for elliptic cent. t quickly as for the elliptic wing. 130. SHARP TAPER often employed for tailplanes. OO8 130 indicates the Fig. and a theoretical result a pointed wing. at A 67. has a tip chord somewhat less than onehalf 002 the this central chord ratio.324 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 131. Structural (* FIG. INDUCED DRAG AND ASPECT RATIO. O02 8 FIG. 10 showing good agreement. at the aspect ratio 4 = 006 . theoretical variation of 8 with A for OO6 rectangular wings according to Glauert (full line) and Betz (broken line). decreases from 8 per cent. from the present point of view.
the lift curve of sional flow. easily deduced by precisely the same method. whose section has a slope 2n in twodimenis calculated in is approximately allowed for by substituting Comparison with Experiment The for solution for the rectangular wing provides convenient means comparing the results of aerofoil theory with experiment. with 01 pointed wing. 132. the effect 302 for 7t in (236). of moderate aspect and taper. we write remains the same. dimensional slope 27i is 604 x 6/8 = 0453 per radian = 0079 per . compared with twodimensional For rectangular (236). as conditions. For a full discussion of this question reference should be made to the original papers. is OO6 that the The conclusion induced drag of normal types of wing.F. can be ratio first assessed to a good the formapproximation by ulae OO4 OO2 O OZ 04 CK> of Article 176. to secure a specified lift coefficient. are. A number of good = YH aerofoils give a slope rather less than 0076 at this aspect ratio and The theoretical slope for a twoat fairly large Reynolds numbers.VIII] WING THEORY 325 8 then increases until. Associated with this change is a decrease = in the slope of the lift curve. and to O8 1 especially changes due TIP CHORD+CENTRAI CHORD FIG.A. and many The with A aerofoils slope of the lift curves for R. since aerofoils of this shape can easily be made with accuracy. a +  CL (1 + T). If. induced drag becomes as great as has been estimated for uni a 008 form lift [cf. (216)]. 38 and Clark 6 are 00752 and 00742 per degree. 1 80. modifications of aspect ratio provided the type of loading More accurate reduction formulae than (235) however. incidence must be increased more than is provided for by (234). greater than aerofoils. checks of different kinds have been obtained. (245) T increases approximately linearly for rectangular wings from 01 at A 3 to 023 at A =10. on analogy with (244). Increased induced drag implies that.
. A marked difference The angle . drag appropriate to uniform Effects of the foregoing and other discrepancies are minimised in the principal use that is made of the theory in design. Plotting CL against CD for each results in a series of very dissimilar curves. Such a departure from theory line nalises .. The feasibility of this use rests upon experiment. . as illustrated in Article 177. Comparisons between load grading curves are less satisfactory except at very small incidences. broken (Similar differences between theoretical^ theory and experiment are also found on tapered wings. . but of widely different aspect ratios. a knuckle of hoarded yortex lines in Other words.) edge in this region (cf. surface. for given shapes are ideal minima. . as will be appreciated. Wings can be designed to eliminate this feature at cruising or climbing incidence. It appears that at full scale a less factor than 302 should be used in place of n in (236). ' was anticipated on theoretical grounds in Article 175. a . Full line : pressure peak near the tip sig: . so that they lead to a large increase in drag over small The theoretical induced drags areas. of inci dence was 6 typical for the difference is incidences greater FIG. Observations of lift and total drag coefficients are obtained on a series of aerofoils based on the same section. viz. wings apply only the remaining part would appear to have a lift. full scale. The peaks of pressure reduction are situated on the rear part of the upper . discrete trailing vortex of some strength exists near the trailing Article 166). The . will be seen to occur towards the wingtips. Fig. AERODYNAMICS [CH. as described in Chapter VII. and occurs also on tapered aerofoils. and in actual to part of the lift . but the agreement is nevertheless quite good. _ DISTRIBUTION OF LIFT experimental . to calculate relatively small differences between wings of much the same type. than about 1.. 133 shows as a full line the experimental distribution along the span of a rectangular aerofoil obtained by integrating the pressures over the surface.326 degree. but the form of wingtip required is less easy to construct and with most wings the feature is present it has been found at and the closeup vortices must occasionally be taken into account in connection with the controls of aircraft. ALONG RECTANGULAR WING. . 100 133. and as a dotted line the theoretical result.
to agree with one another substantially. we expect to find two vortex pairs of unequal strengths. that the aspect ratio must be greater than a minimum depending upon section and incidence the minimum varies between 2 and 4. If THE LEFTHAND FIGURE ILLUSTRATES POSITIVE STAGGER. When the upper wing is immediately above the and has the same dimensions. ful in some cases up to 15. The two wings trated in Fig. A and located at onequarter of the chords from the leading is the edges. lower wing at ddcalage. . the arrangement is called orthogonal. 134.VIII] WING THEORY 327 When. angle. incidence must in any case be restricted the check has been success. the reduction formulae are used to correct every point on all the curves to some common aspect ratio. THE GEOMETRIC GAP. and even in an orthogonal biplane at have different lifts. cona region of the atmosphere traversed a little time previously sidering by a biplane. B Aerodynamic stagger. BIPLANE WINGS 181. The induced drags of the wings differ from one another and from that of a similar monoplane. h is the +he Aerodynamic gap and B are fixed points. <f> geometric stagger. . If the upper wing leads. when the biplane is sai4 to have note to figure). The limitations are. With positive stagger the upper wing is occasionally set at the greater incidence by 23. usually If. Thus. 134. alternatively. the originally divergent observations are found. and all to lie within a narrow band through which a single curve may be drawn for practical purposes. of a biplane are variously arranged as illusDistance between the planes is called gap (see NEGATIVE STAGGER FIG. chosen as standard. Secondly. A. firstly. however. but the region of maximum lift should be avoided. there is said to be the amount being expressed as an In a positive stagger. h BEING < are the centres of pressure. The two wings interfere with one another in various ways. the lower wing is of reduced span and usually of reduced sesquiplane chord. within certain limits.
the trailing vortex lines behind each member purposes of calculation at the wings. and so on. but with drag distributed between the planes in accordance with the degree of stagger. or stagger. but it should be remembered that a particular layout may be adopted for ease of construction. mutual effect. an effect on 1 due to the vortex system of 2 by the suffix 12. restrictions on span. Some General Theorems for the monoplane. It enables a staggered biplane to be replaced. unchanged by stagger. A slight extension of Articles 1734 leads to the result that minimum drag occurs for a given lift when both wings are elliptically loaded and the induced velocity is the same at each. with the proviso It does not follow that the induced stated. and also to limit the amount of stagger and gap that can usefully be employed. pilot's view. remains unchanged. either positive or negative. Introduce stagger. Elliptic lift distribution will be assumed. however. of either plane is unaffected. theorem. drag This important theorem is known as Hunk's equivalence. by an equivalent system of zero stagger. Distinguish the upper wing by suffix 1 and the lower by suffix 2 and denote an effect on 1 by its own vortex system by the suffix 11. at the same time will. the circumstances of either wing Regarding . A*a + Aii + Aii (246) two terms on the righthand side are calculated as for the last two represent the effects of interseparate monoplanes ference. Thinner wing sections can be used for biplanes. in fact the contrary will be found. for As modifying the incidence of every section of either plane in such a way as to ensure that the distribution of lift throughout the system. the kinetic energy generated within it by the biplane is clearly seen to be independent of the degree of stagger. The drag and weight of the interplane bracing tend to offset this advantage. partly on account of decrease in span for a given lift. Changes of Aerodynamic efficiency from one arrangement to another and in comparison with the monoplane will be studied. be assumed to extend downstream parallel to the direction of motion. having the same total lift and drag. By considering a region of the atmosphere lately traversed. but more importantly by virtue of the external bracing so readily introduced.328 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. for purposes of investigation. whatever it may be. The total induced drag of the biplane is f An = An + The first . and similar practical considerations. Thus the total induced drag is. 182.
Writing 2$ for the span as before. Hence. if AAn be the whole induced drag of a chosen element of wing 1 as due not to other elements of the same wing but to the effects of all the elements of wing 2. appropriate to its span. . can be calculated on the analogy between its vortex sheet and a flat plate in broadsideon motion by the methods of Article 117 or 124. though unequal in spacing and strength. for by this we can replace a staggered biplane by a particular unstaggered system. lt = AA. induce equal velocities at distant corresponding points owing to the equality of the lifts. WiJL UJ * l9 .. . WING THEORY 329 by (a) the bound. . (247) we find AB = An + It is Ai. to which the above result may be applied.. Each separate element produce trailing vortices. since elliptic loading is assumed. (248) important to remember that this result is for zero stagger. With the aid of Hunk's equivalence theorem it becomes of general utility. by summation for all elements Ai2=A Substituting in (246) . If w' represents the induced velocity at the one element due to the trailing vorticity behind the other w" This XT 1== 8L w" XT 8I 2. be evaluated with the help of the monoplane . we can then calculate for zero stagger 1 f An = Fr *. is true of any pair of elements. (249) and (248) can finally formulae. + 2A. Therefore. We only.. the induced velocity at any point some distance downstream due to wing 2. and ADt21 be that part of the induced drag of the whole of wing 2 due to the effects on all its elements of the single chosen element of wing 1 AZ). Now. one on each wing. and (b) the free vortex system of the (6) investigate the mutual effect as for duce a correction for (a) later. and intro number of elements having equal small will Divide the span of each wing of a biplane of zero stagger into a lifts. The point can be moved upstream to the vertical plane containing both wings by introducing the factor ^. which. say.I. Consider a single pair of elements.VHI] are modified other.
and the ratio of gap to 135 gives his values for a through a useful range. [CH. 136..330 AERODYNAMICS form . Prandtl writes (249) in the (250) where a depends on Sj/s. 05 PRANDTL'S FACTOR FOR BIPLANES. (250) takes the Denote the quantity form lift/span for each wing by \i or X.. Fig. mean span. so that . O4 FIG. 183.
so that a biplane has less drag than a monoplane of equal lift and span. the divided equally between the wings. In the biplane of minimum induced drag and is mutually induced drag zero stagger. with a gap of 5 ft.). lift required for minimum drag is usually disfrom a structural point of view. at 150 ft. (252) This is a minimum for a given total lift when Aj oj QTo ^ The value of the minimum is (2H) where the monoplane drag is for equal lift. since the longer wing advantageous The disposition of is much the more heavily loaded.VHI] WING THEORY 331 Since for a monoplane 2/nA plane with elliptic loading is obtained in the same terms as = S/2ns*. whose upper and lower To wings are 30 ft.) = on substituting lift/drag ratios. It is therefore useful to is for practical variations the above minimum not critical note that but flat/ ' 184. span. the wings have equal this is not true if the total lift is differently divided between them. This result neglects. per sec. of course. . the induced drag of a mono < 261 > Hence the induced drag (248) to be given by of the complete biplane is found from t ). for AJ or X. . and we find (/A)i (LJD. i.) aX.e. and 24 ft. we consider a biplane lifting 2700 Ib. But from (253). respectively. . Examples illustrate the significance of the foregoing results. The factor to be applied to DiM is always < 1. + aX. the parasitic of the longer drag of interplane bracing. = Si/(Xi + si/(X. and a span equal to that wing (1) of the biplane.
. = Ib. their lifts are equal. lower wing = 60 Ib. It might be more 422.. gap of 5 ft.e.. We 562. upper wing total induced drag. . approximately. for the total induced drag. increase in the drag due to interference. but 1 per cent. D aa == 212 D + D2l = 271 ia showing 13 per cent. 4 in.. and L a Since now L l = = 1013 Ib. 185.. gap <r = 048. . and that of the lower decreased by 8 per cent. We then have for the complete system minimum induced drag when I + CT) ' (255) where XB is the total lift per unit span of the biplane. X t practical to make X a f X lf so that Xj = = should then have 86*9 follows : Ib. The loss associated with the new loading could be recovered by a small increase of gap. to decrease this by the small required amount. and as the biplane has zero total induced drag. 1687 Ib. only in the whole. span 2 x 8100 X 22500 = M Ib. It is easily found that. The only drag then affected is that mutually induced. Ib.576 720 = ia = L> X 24 30 a La X tl whence L l = D tl 1907 La > == 48 Ib. it is found that for zero stagger the lift/drag (induced) ratio of the upper wing would be increased by 4 per cent. per _ ' == Tip ft. = We note a reason for diminishing the chord of the lower wing. stagger. lift AERODYNAMICS and 30 ft. Since Xj = 636. and the minimum drag 963 (1 023) T~ 096 15 12 X 08 + 064 __ 85 ^ * ' We also have Xa X. cr must be reduced to the value corresponding to a Equal Wing Biplane Comparison with Monoplane Article 183 shows that lift i. aa = 793 Ib. = 25 Ib. as D n = 376 Ib. [CH.. D + D = 24 Ib. made up Ib. but that the difference in loading is rather excessive. occurs for a given the wings have equal span and X is the same for both.332 For a monoplane of the same D since XM == 90 Ib. 963 is For 6ft. X = 330 = 13 Ib..
The results may be expressed in terms of aspect ratio as follows.  (268) coefficient and aspect coefficient of a biplane is greater than that of a ratio the induced drag monoplane in the ratio The the lifts make lifts To are then different. supporting the same load at the same lift coefficient and having the same aspect ratio. so that for wings of the same dimensions A s equals = the aspect ratio of either. for equal span. . the area whence we find that the drag of the biplane. . then 1/V^ times that of that the monoplane the biplane. (257) Example. from f L^ = G 2065 + 152 (h/s) *  /LJ'~\ (^5oj The spangrading of a monoplane carrying the same load as a biplane and having the same induced drag is immediately obtained as AM xB /Y/ii*. A* Example.WING THEORY 333 An approximate expression for Prandtl. be written. 1 + a" A M = 0663 A B . lift = *r TC/IB C LB (1 + <r) . is greater It will be noted a)/l. since the areas are equal. Evidently we must have ^M^^L. 4s = 0653 x 8s whence . From Hence CD* For the same (256). writing h for the gap i 1 1 + cr when Si =s =s a is. For a gapspan ratio of 1/6. the same. If the gap is onesixth of the span of the biplane. however. the spangrading of lift must be reduced for the monoplane by the factor 0875. . 8s*JS. This can . where S the aspect ratio of the biplane being defined by A B is the total area. Let us determine the aspect ratio of the monoplane which will lead to the same induced drag at the same lift and lift than that of the monoplane in the ratio (1 spangrading of lift is + coefficient. of the monoplane must be doubled. .
. Mech. A = 6. For biplane wings to achieve a given coefficient their incidence (a) must be increased from that appropriate to their sections under twodimensional conditions (oc ) to a greater extent than monoplane wings of the same section and aspect On account of the double trailing vortex system a increased to ratio. shows that the forward wing should have the smaller geometrical incidence. . a = 0053 CL (in radians) for a monoplane with an equal wing biplane of gapspan C L at the lower estimate (259). . But the reverse is sometimes adopted. is easily shown to have less induced drag than the The comparisons which have been made with the monoplane neglect increase of form drag of the biplane wings due to their * Bose and Prandtl. incidence increase depends essentially upon the square of the ratio of the chord to the gap. . however A is increased. vii. and improves the shape of the lift curve past the stall. Math. The chord of the monoplane the greater lift by 75 per cent. Zeits. as is usual. This development is left to further reading. the forward wing other. have positive stagger. due to the bound vortex system of the other. is evidently a a + CL (I + a) . General Remarks The form of (260) shows that the secondary. but important.c L < (260) v ' Example. If both wings of a staggered biplane are of equal span and carry an equal load. f. elliptic For loading ratio 1/6 it is 0082 increasing by factor (260). to take account of the neglected 1 86.* An approximate formula is Aa (A 0025  X gap/span) 2 a for . Applying the same reasoning as to mutual effect to biplanes which. Formula (259) can be amended on the lines of (245) for lift distributions other than elliptic. is = 1143 x 2s B . 1927. Incidence. which requires . some 30 per cent. ang. u. (259) A further increase is required on account of the curvature of the streamlines in which each wing operates.334 2s M AERODYNAMICS [CH. Thus. the slope of the lift curve of a biplane is considerably reduced from the twodimensional value.
and the actual tunnel wall by a circular one. the images are distant a*\\l The upward velocity at the centre due to these where C is = 4?c . and is then easier to make accurately for small tunnels. the measurements might be made on a model of appropriately smaller aspect ratio. They also neglect the experimental value of the maximum lift coefficient. replacing the trailing vortex sheet by a vortex pair..VIII] WING THEORY 335 greater incidence for a given lift coefficient. = tf ' (261) Let the radius. The advantage of the latter method is that the aerofoil may have a larger chord. Whence in this case '=? from the centre. or effective radius. The distance apart of the aerofoil. This course of correction is that usually followed.. Enclosed Tunnel Constraint at the Aerofoil When an aerofoil is tested in a wind tunnel of the kind in which the stream is enclosed within walls. If the aerofoil has the same aspect ratio as the wing it represents. or IK.. Alternatively.. Assuming the aerofoil to be located centrally. / of these vortices is determined from the lift For example if elliptic loading is assumed. . The constraint is often calculated with sufficient accuracy by the approximation mentioned at the end of Article 166. 1 4C But the crosssectional area of the tunnel. = SC7CL . which is the lower for the biplane and affects choice between the two in practice. the walls diminish the induced velocity at the aerofoil. observations of drag and incidence must be suitably increased to apply to free air conditions. of the tunnel be a. WINDTUNNEL CORRECTIONS ON AEROFOIL TESTS 187. which consequently experiences a fictitious reduction of induced drag and incidence.
the numerical factor 0125 for the of Article tunnels of circular section alone being 1 H. (263) for a tunnel of circular sec10 tion. any It is usually sufficiently accurate to increase w uniformly along the span by this amount to obtain free air conditions. It will be noticed that the distance / has vanished. 44. Fig. i.e. S . FIG. the sections. We then have finally Similarly l ~C I .. of the final estimatesBut where the clearance between the aerofoil tips and the tunnel walls becomes less than onefifth of the span. comes to less than 1 per cent. Tokyo Repts.. assumption of elliptic loading is unnecessary in the present connection. H 4 /B changed. CL is the lift coefficient and S the area of the aerofoil.. for open correction is usually less than 10 per cent.W C L U. Expressions of the same form are obtained by the T oz method 153 for square or rectangular section. 136. of when S becomes the sum the aerofoil areas. and that the corrections are B O8 H > proportional to lift only. . It will be seen that the variation from 0125 is only 10 per cent. 1 Substituting (262) This result has been obtained without use of (261) and applies to aerofoil. 1928. Thus they apply even to a O6 biplane or triplane model.* The whole when this variation * Terazawa.336 if AERODYNAMICS [CH. 136 shows the variation of this factor. which is denoted by \T for 9 rectangular tunnels.
38 section. gives A chord and 216in. of 4in. VD 10 T . Incidence would also be increased for a given C L e. diameter would give through a limited range of incidence the same lift and drag coefficients as an aerofoil of the same section but aspect = = = same Reynolds number in free air. c 1/3. 137 would be expected from an aerofoil of R. per sec. or more directly 1 ~~ Ac* *8o A Substituting a 4in. span. drag coefficient leading to the lower curve for free air conditions. S/C = 02 0*0133. . The Examples.A. 137. since 9 C = TOI* and A' = 6 !_ 8a ~A i ~ 6* a t By (230) S = 4s /4. upper curve of Fig. _ ~" I 6* 54. ratio 6 at the following this refinement are of the order of 10 per cent. we have. at a speed of 150 ft. and multiplying by half the square of lift coefficients gives increments of 04 06 08 10 FIG. span in a circularsection tunnel of 4ft. aspect ratio would a model of the same chord require for the to coincide ? Comparing (263) with (235).g. chord and 24in.VIII] WING THEORY 337 foregoing approximate method begins to be insufficient and the form of the distribution of w f ao to have an appreciable effect. in a closedsection wind tunnel of 4ft. Thus an aerofoil of 2. = Aa= 00066 What two curves radian =038. in practice. at CL 10. More exact conversion formulae may be developed to take account But the changes of the actual lift distribution of the model tested. while 4s = A*c* 2 c denoting the constant chord. disfree air conditions by the accent tinguishing is_i/a _JA 8C~7cU A') or. diameter. .F. Hence.
so that for the pressure to remain the same as outside the jet. Take first the case of a twodimensional aerofoil situated near a parallel flat fluid surface of infinite extent. vanishes at the surface. An approximate solution is easily seen in simple cases. from symmetry. let p be the pressure and the jet velocity u. With The conformal transformation . which differs essentially. Locate the image as for a wall. corrections are required to allow for its limited section. 138. of Article 155 may be applied to a twodimensional aerofoil in a twodimensional jet. radius a. The normal velocity component there is doubled. but reverse the sign of the image. so that the surface is slightly bent. at an equal distance beyond the is surface. i. These are obtained from the appropri When ate image system. Take next the important case of a vortex pair symmetrically situated in a jet of circular section. instead of normal. U the velocity just within before introducing the model. Thus tangential.e. but not easily. a final variation of usually than per cent. from that for an enclosed tunnel of the same section. neglecting squares of small quantities. Reversing the sign of the images at the inverse points gives the system of Fig. To verify this. as already mentioned. The tangential velocity component due the combination evidently. v. Openjet Tunnel aerofoils are tested in a free jet. 188. u must vanish. which adds small increments of w there.338 AERODYNAMICS 1 [CH. but this effect is often neglected. however. By Bernoulli's equation Hence po p = $>Uu. less representing. The new requirement entails that the tangential velocity at the surface of the jet be reduced to its value in the absence of the aerofoil. with the open jet it is that the pressure at the surface of the jet shall be constant and equal to the pressure of the surrounding air at a distance. velocity components due to the aerofoil are to be cancelled by the image system. beyond which the air is at rest. Whereas in the latter case the criterion determining the image system is cancellation of velocity components normal to the walls. so that circulation round it in the same direction as round the aerofoil and the two form a to biplane of zero stagger. reversing the sign of the single image in the transformed plane.
138..L I  ] j B a*/< V fi 2 r a2 r 32 The expression within the brackets vanishes.C. however. In practice. of the craft at some * A. the notation of the figure it is easily verified that the tangential velocity at the general point P is proportional to sin v s B + s B + a*/s (B . with the last proviso..R. being based on ignoring the distortion of jets. and also that the aerofoil is rotated through a right angle. also used for jets of elongated section.vni] WING THEORY 339 FIG. : It must be confessed. provided the sign is apply changed. 1470.* simple rule appears from this and This method A other investigations The correction formulae for enclosed tunnels to open jets of the same sections. For general treatment reference should be elliptic made to a paper by Glauert. DOWNWASH AT tail TAIL PLANE an aeroplane is required to exert. & M. The tors neutral. a small aerofoil is tested in an openjet tunnel and also in an enclosed tunnel of the same size and section. the correction formulae of the preceding article are applied to an open jet with their signs changed.. such as or rectangular. is not well founded in their case. the mean results should give the free air coefficients and incidence. but the normal component is again varied. But the step is tentative and rests is upon experimental justification. Thus the artifice of changing the signs of the reflected vortices again succeeds in regard to the tangential velocity.R. that the theory of the correction for constraint. plane of .G. zero pitching moment about the C. with eleva189. If. No.
pair. which depends upon the downwash at the tail position (Article 86). e.K \  47cC7 term in the curly brackets is the contribution from the the remainder that from the fully developed vortex wing. rough estimate is obtained by substituting for the actual wing a hypothetical one of equal lift distributed uniformly along a suitably reduced span 2s' (cf. for example. Let the actual wing be of span 2s and aspect ratio A and let C be its lift L coefficient and a its incidence. [CH. then have alternatively elliptic loading along We for the factor ~ n*A ' L s' from (231). Article 166).g. v (264) This result is readily expressed in more practical terms. while from (226) s/s' = 4/w. arranged speed and wing lift coefficient (Article 88) by a suitable tailsetting angle. Assume = CJZnA.340 AERODYNAMICS .P. This is achieved (or may be adjusted by trimming tabs). % plane. the magnitude of the downwash affecting the tail plane is difficult to calculate owing to the lack of precise knowledge of the trailing vortex configuration at this intermediate position behind the wing. and the factor K/2nUs 2s. For uniform loading $' = 5. while is the uniform circulation of the The simplified vortex system. giving for the factor Then using (236) Put. A/(s'' + *n . expression reduces to first The K XL. rolled up. = s to represent a possible position of the tail Then we have for that position . Unfortunately. the downwash angle is given by A . but it is desirable to form a close estimate at the design stage of the required tailsetting angle. Tail planes their lift. We then easily find that at the level of the aerofoil and at a distance x downstream from its C. The vortex sheet will have but not partly. while the existence of any wingtip vortices close to the wing will affect the calculations. completely.
it must not be applied to greater values of x. the approximation being linear..C. 947. (266) for section C. 1935. . substitute for the aerofoil one of appro priately shortened span and uniform lift with a fully developed vortex Assume this to be arranged pair springing from the wingtips. . of the aerofoil through which the bound vortex lines are supposed to be velocity W Q> say. of square section. f Aerodynamic Theory. Tunnel Constraint at Tail Plane aeroplane is tested in a wind tunnel. and those observed in an open jet reduced.P. symmetrically in the tunnel and restrict attention to the constraining velocity w along the tunnel axis at distance x behind the C. In the above form the formula may be applied also to biplane an enclosed tunnel H models. but. Results for other lift distributions along the actual wing are obtained in a similar way. Kdrmdn and Burgers f have calculated by * A. & M. simplifications adopted analysis tends to be com: Glauert and Hartshorn * have obtained 024 CL . correction. to allow for the limited the When a complete model of an downwash expanse of the stream. The constraining . 1924. and the same difficulty arises in determining the amount of this. The formula is especially arranged to hold up to distances downstream representative of normal tailplane positions. On the other hand.R. Tailsetting angles observed in an enclosedtype tunnel must be increased. for instance. for the reasons stated. of side and area of crossS being the area of the aerofoil and C L its lift coefficient. and it is more reliable to determine e by model experiment Observations of down wash require correction for wind(Article 86) tunnel constraint. we then calculate only a small . As in the preceding article. 190. lift But it should be remembered that such values assume a coefficient slope of 2n in twodimensional flow. Even with the plicated. (264) cannot be regarded as adequate. concentrated. and modifications of the numbers may be introduced for sections other than square. However. at the aerofoil has already received discussion. and error is of far less significance. de/da = 046. ii. at the tail plane differs from that in free air.R. while its value w^ far downstream == 2w (Article 148) the present problem is to determine intermediate values.VIII] WING THEORY 341 giving for 4=6.
. circulation wa the velocity at % due to the image system of the aerofoil. 191. which is to be subtracted from observation in a jet or added to that in a walled tunnel.342 AERODYNAMICS of Bessel functions the constraint in [CH. we shall estimate in an approximate way the constraint for a circular section. the circulation round the simplified vortex system. Estimate for Circular Section means Let a be the radius of the jet or enclosed tunnel. (u) . Then^y a f/s' and = =* K From Fig. w =w +w v a. Let the distance of the image of each trailing vortex from the axis. Thus (I) w W/WK =J at the aerofoil and = 1 far downstream. where wa vanishes. vortex pair. we have. round the For the total constraining velocity w at x. 139 K 2=. It is convenient to express velocity contributions in terms of w>. which passes through the centre of span. *' rca* . using the methods of Chapter VII. tunnels of circular section. omitting sign. 139. wv the velocity at x due to the images of the K FIG. be^. 2s' the span of the equivalent aerofoil of uniform lift. open and enclosed Instead of reproducing these investigations.
H The velocity at x due to AB in free air is K47T* (Fig. due to the real vortex would be decreased by the walls in the ratio (cf. using (iv) and by (i) nx/H and (iii) sinh (nx/H).+ +. 139) 2 cos p 1 2 where cos p s'/Vfc' + x ).. substitute for the actual circular contour of side H enclosing . J (267) .+ (iv)  boundary a square . ^ . Applying the approximation gives = and since w* ^^^^ = n K Ks'/H*  Hence. If the _ sinh (nxjH)' Since an image of length 2s' occupies each length of the rows. we assume as an approximation that this constraint is to be reduced by the factor 2s' /H.. so that 1 . HO.VIII] WING THEORY 343 and therefore ^=1(1+ cos Y where cos Y Turning to ) (iii) = %IV(X + y * 1 ) wa . AB indicated in Fig. both columns and rows extending images in the rows were continuous and twodimensional conditions the velocity at x FIG. an enclosed 140 for tunnel (cf. v .. Article 155) held. finitely. 4 H* = Tea or H = ai/n (Fig. in ..+ an equal area. The image system aerofoil of the 139) is .4 + 4 4 Article 153). i nxHJ * _ ^ w = j + cos Y + 2 cos p 1 I ~ Lx^n/a f sinh (xi/n/a) 1 J 1.
and let the area of the aerofoil be S. of (267). Thus (267) appears to jet. Let the working section of the tunnel be enclosed and have a crosssectional area C. which will be known from the conditions of the Then e experiment. A model tail plane will seldom be farther downstream than \a in an enclosed tunnel or \a in an FIG. The curves are obtained from (267) with s'/# \ and f The curves in the upper half of the figure for an enclosed stream are reflected in the #axis to apply to a jet. Denote by B the R. The circles represent Karman and Burgers' results. Then (ii) of the preceding article can be expressed in the form ^_ ~U as ~~ 5 * C Ll may be written down alternatively from (262).NAMICS [CH. the upper half of the figure applying to an enclosed stream and the lower to a jet. shown as circles in Fig. . give open 1 91 A.H. 141. let e be the angle of downwash in the neighbourhood dence of the wings. A of the tail plane and a the inciusual problem is to determine rfe/^a from an estimate of rf /rfa the corresponding quantity measured in a windtunnel experiment with a model. Application Referring to a monoplane in free flight.S. the lower curves those to be subtracted from observations in an open jet. 141. = . corrections to be added to velocities observed in an enclosed tunnel. Kdrmdn and Burgers' results are given as suitable for s'/# n t much exceeding they are . CONSTRAINT WITH A CIRCULAR STREAM. a good approximation. the curves the approxiThe upper curves show mation (267). = and de fa de Wa n + 4C (i) don .
The factor 08 may be applied for aspect ratios in the neighbourhood of 6. that dCL jdu... BS rfCL 4C lift ' . Tail Planes of Biplanes curve is known accurately for Superposition of monoplane results to obtain those for multiplane wing systems has already been discussed in Article 86. Alternatively. de/da. (263) ' by 8C and substitution error for dC^/da.. . Q da. is less for a biplane than for one of its wings separated as a monoplane. however. the slope of the a suitable form the monoplane in free flight.VIII] WING THEORY 345 of the This expression gives a close estimate of de/da provided the slope For lift curve of the model in the tunnel is also measured. (i) can evidently be written from ds dy. 192. 8C rfa can be made without much resulting (236) or a modification of that formula. is less than double its value for the monoplane. It must be remembered. Accordingly. da. if ds Q d&Q d(x.
however. aircraft of large speed range. is now turned to the force arising within the boundary as distinct from that due to pressures transmitted through it. of surface of many aircraft bodies is not and negligible. although the whole friction of a body can be measured with comparative ease. On the other hand. owing to eliminautility. the determination of its distribution even round a model in a wind tunnel is by no means simple. and a feature reinstating viscosity. the force arising is a pure skin But the slight roughness friction. Again.Chapter IX VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG In Chapters VVIII the viscosity of air was ignored. the lift and induced drag of wings. the present we assume sufficient smoothness to avoid the second component. skin friction is of paramount importance. and other results of common (Article modern The artificiality of infinitely thin boundary layers With 43) prevented any investigation of skin friction. Neglect was justified by the successful calculation of practical velocity fields. corresponding boundary layers of experiment may be largely steady. For drag. except 193. introduces additional drag of the nature of a finely divided form The two components together constitute skin drag. calculation immediately becomes diffiof our new study is that analysis alone cannot go very far. On cult. of course. as introduced in Chapter II. Mathematical complexity arises essentially from the fact that the flow within long boundary layers at aircraft speeds is for the most part turbulent (Article 21). independent of one If the surface of the body is Aerodynamically smooth in a another. tion of form drag and the small lift coefficients normally in use. and some of the problems studied are selected for convenience and simplicity rather than on account of their direct application to 346 . surface distributions of pressure for slim shapes. in accounting for the production of vorticityin the simplified distributions assumed. layer although these two forces are not. These and other difficulties necessitate oblique attack from several angles. Attention sense that will be explained later.
FIG. is distance from the inlet is called the stilling length. flow obtains nowhere past an does the special type of turbulent flow occurring in pipes at large Reynolds numbers. Draw Ox ~ (Fig. fluid is commonly supplied to the mouth or inlet in an agitated state. j*. which is constrained by the long The parallel wall to a uniform profile of timeaverage velocity. and this variation is a constant i. This is the simplest problem after that of uniform rate of shearing (Article 24). accelerates by its obstruction a central stream whose After a pressure diminishes according to Bernoulli's equation. transition length the boundary layer fills the whole of the section and. and Oy perpendicular to them. say. partly as an introduction and also in view of a practical use to be deduced by semiempirical reasoning. but in some circumstances they are damped out. VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 347 than is Such application demands greater intuition and empiricism usually called for in Aerodynamics. In experiments with long pipes.CH.e.e. PIPE 194. the streamlines are everyis where parallel to Ox there no variation of the pres. If the flow is steady. Flow for the same as that in an enclosedtype some wind a boundary layer lines the wall. The form of the laminar flow can be calculated by a development of the method tunnel . subject when this is possible. IX] aircraft. P. increasing in thickness along the pipe. FLOW strictly laminar. Parallel. and. except in the direction Ox. 1 ' of Article 24. The run of pipe required to achieve damping. ^dx dz oy sure p . = = = . 142) in the direction of motion midway between the plates. The plates are supposed so large compared with their 9 distance apart h that edge effects may be neglected. Steady Flow between two Fixed Parallel Plates. 142. aircraft. Initial disturbances usually develop along the pipe into turbulent flow. i. gradient OA ^ oj% {jp Cj) i~ x= ofi ~a constant 0. however. neither is of interest. assuming damping. laminar flow becomes established.
as shown in the figure. mean value u we have U 1 = T f* /3 AJ W^V == J rr. Suffix for the boundary value is omitted where no misconception can arise. Hence. . (U) A/2 The propulsive force on the whole mass of fluid per unit length and breadth of the plates is PA. On integration u = fy* + Ay + B Z\L . (4y . . since the motion d a steady r i dy* ^ . (i) The condition of no slip at the boundaries (Article 22) states that when y = i^> giving two equations for determining the constants of integration A and B u = : From these 4 = 0. 2r PA = or T Alternatively.A'). but the change is now made to a nomenclature which is international.A1 12 p. . . Hence. if T * is the intensity of skin friction on either plate. . . . Substituting in (i) = 8{j. . Hy. (iii) we can calculate T from the formula (cf Article 24) . Consider unit length and depth of a stratum of fluid parallel to the In the direction Ox the traction on the lower plates of thickness Sy. obtaining the same result if in this case we draw y from the * It was not possible to use this symbol for the friction per unit area in Chapter II. or there is a resultant traction is  9y direction s 8y. P . and must be balanced by the traction on the two plates. (268) The For its distribution of velocity is parabolic.348 AERODYNAMICS [CH.P = 0. while that on the upper face 32w LL is ^ (u + 8y). _ A ^S face is \i . The force exerted in this is P . v . = iPA . B = u PAa /8ji.
which is a velocity matter of choice. (i) . at the the channel formed between the plates be supposed fed plates. . since u \U results should coefficient associated The above For the same = "51 U 195. ' ' (1V) being zero along Ox. P. its gradient in the Consider unit direction of flow (Ox) is an absolute constant. with the uniform rate of shearing there examined. Flow through Straight Pipe of Circular Section The pipe is supposed to be very long and only a central length is considered. but. the defining R in the same way as for (269). we have. du The vorticity (Article 39) reduces to < * away from the Py 1? axis. of the moving plate were selected to specify R. . the friction coefficient would be l/R. from rising to the maxima i be compared with those of Article 24. on the other hand. with fluid in an irrotational state. force on the shell due to the In the direction Ox the resultant Therefore. tional to distance If having values propor it. of a thin concentric cylindrical shell of internal and external length radii r and r + Sr. is The propulsive pressure gradient of the internal and external tractions comes to . The assumption of steadiness clearly means that the pressure is constant over each section of the pipe . since the flow is steady Integrating u==~r* p + Alogr +B . Steady ' ' ' (270) If.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 349 surface concerned into the fluid. P 2nr 8r. vorticity is seen to be generated by the action of the boundaries and viscosity. %Ph/y. plate is The friction coefficient of either pfi 2p where the Reynolds number R = wA/v.
Well below the critical Reynolds number it was crystal clear ' . . whence (i) gives = PD 1 Hence the expression for the velocity reduces to 0) The . < 272 > Comparison with Experiment The laws demonstrated in the preceding article were first found to hold for small Reynolds numbers nearly a century ago by Poiseuille and Hagen experimenting independently. Experimenting with water in a glass pipe. .350 AERODYNAMICS . This early success furnished a valuable proof of the conception of zero slip at the Some fifty years later Reynolds established that if the boundary. laminar flow can only result when the Reynolds number (uD/v) is less than 2300. [CH. where r = 0. Applied Hydro and Aeromechanics. if wD/v. accurate measurements are easily By fitting * Tietjens. (271) velocity profile is a paraboloid. When Y *= \D the boundary condition of no slip states that u 0. At greater scales the colouring matter could not be followed. becoming mixed with the stream. Later on. the friction coefficient is R= nD at the wall.* Simultaneous changes in the trajectory of the jet showed a greater resistance of the pipe to turbulent than to flow. below the Reynolds number/ a steady line parallel to the axis. it presented a frosted appearance. . which developed a turbulent motion. fluid at inlet is in a disturbed state. approximately. which is given by 4 D/3 The propulsive force on the whole mass filling the pipe is . . Couette examined the jet of water issuing from the outlet end of a pipe. the speed at the centre being twice the mean. 4 PD 1 per unit length. and equals the retarding traction 7 Hence. ^=1 196. well above. steady a nipple at each end of a central length of a long pipe and connecting to a pressure gauge. Denote the bore of the pipe by D. whilst at the critical it oscillated between these two states in a stage periodic manner. p 37. Along the axis of the pipe. so A = 0. he showed that a little critical colouring liquid introduced at inlet formed. u cannot be infinite.
by A of such investigations has been carried out with smooth pipes. the centrifugal pressures introduced giving rise to a double corkscrew motion. FRICTION IN STRAIGHT PIPES OF CIRCULAR SECTION WITH INITIAL TURBULENCE. Saph and Schoder. if necessary. the latter being measured by weighing. or feeding the fluid through a calibrated orifice in the case of air. Experiments of the above kind are frequently undertaken as providing valuable laboratory work.(273) 3 (272T 4 25 FIG. increasing resistance. and readings as far others. The R 2000. when kinetic energy must be progressively added to the . is The result (272) exactly fits these friction coefficient at the critical Reynolds number coefficient is increased greatly if vague. laminar flow can be established at still higher Reynolds numbers. . with a liquid. The dots given in Fig. and some precautions against error may be noted. number 143 are mean values obtained from the tests of Stanton and Pannell.000.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG of the resistance of the length through a 351 made wide range in rate of flow. and by supplying the pipe with an extremely smooth flow the critical stage has been advanced to R 20. but errors on this score are less important than those due to taper. to straightness considerable curvature of the axis produces a steady streamline flow of dissimilar form. 143. Numerous investigators have demonstrated more recently that the disturbances at inlet be reduced below a certain small maximum. but for the turbulent flow thereafter the above its value for laminar flow. 2 . Commercial tubes are seldom round. The pipe should be fitted with a bellmouth at inlet and a stilling length of at least 60 diameters allowed. diameter and fluid being varied. and they provide an excellent check on Rayleigh's formula (Article 47). It should be constrained.
due to Lees.362 stream. we find n/4 1/4 . the maximum velocity at the axis being approximately 124 . 91. when n in (ii) will be a constant. if T denote the skin friction at the wall T If = 00395 a p jR~ 1/4 = 00395 = /4 pfi'/V' /) 4 1'4 (i) that the timeaverage velocity u distant y from the wall can be related to the axial value um by the simple formula we assume =u where a (yl*Y 1' l24fi (y/a) . If large critical Reynolds numbers are desired. and meanwhile kinetic energy is added near the axis. the surface of an aerofoil. great care must be exercised to free entering fluid from even such small disturbances as convection currents. caused by an insufficient transition The laminar velocity profile is approached only asymptoticlength.g. 1015. In such cases it is important to approximate closely to the calculated velocity profile. and the gradient at the wall being steep. (273) v ' and holds as far as jR = 10* as in Fig.* extends agreement to R= A 5 more general x 10 6 . Now it may be Roy. as an approximation. . A. Turbulent Flow in Pipes the Seventhroot Law The unsteady flow beyond the critical Reynolds number Sufficiently is not When referring to the velocity at any susceptible to calculation. times the mean. AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. and substitute in ~ T = 00228 pv V y /V 7 (i).. ally. In some Aerodynamic laboratories air will be used as the fluid. increasing similar error is A pressure drop. The simplest empirical formula for the friction coefficient (Blasius) is ~ pw 2 =00395 tf~ 1/4 shown . (iii) assumed. formula. e. 143. On the basis of (273). radius we mean the timeaverage value there. . 197. far from the inlet the profile across the section of the timeaverage velocity remains constant along the pipe it is much flatter than for laminar flow. that as u increases the velocity profile retains its shape. v. the radius of the pipe. (ii) = JD. but at greater scales divergence again occurs. when a very generous transition length is required. Soc. The orifice box surrounding the inlet should then be of ample proportions and the gauge recording intake pressure difference should be calibrated for low speeds by an aspirator method. * Proc. . Pipe flow is often employed to calibrate anemometers intended for use very close to a boundary.
where molar movements must eventually cease.. Thus the skin friction is ultimately bu. The thin film to the wall through which viscosity predominates is known adjacent as the laminar sublayer. find Through this layer the seventhroot law evidently fails. This is not the case near to the wall. To * Fage and Townend. but at greater Reynolds numbers the index may be progressively decreased as an at about 10 7 it becomes 010. approximation The great increase of resistance to turbulent as compared with laminar flow shows that molecular motion can no longer account for the transverse transport of momentum through the bulk of the stream. Soc. VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR STREAMLINE AND TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES. due to Prandtl.D. breaking down only near the axis and the wall. v. Roy. Proc. 12 . for we on differentiating (ii) that T becomes infinite as y vanishes. to the same range as (273). . 136. on which it depends. is (rather surprisingly) found to hold closely throughout the greater part of the section of the pipe. it If we further assume that must follow that u is independent of in and J= n =\ (274) This law. 1932. compared with the resulting tractional stresses in the fluid. of course. however. A.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG close to the wall 353 a. laminar friction is small. Past the critical Reynolds number molar masses of fluid penetrate from one radius to another and. 144. O FIG. It is restricted.lt up by the same mechanism as for steady flow. A. but observations with the ultramicroscope* prevent its being regarded as in a steady state.
) Mag. Piercy. Some problems geometrically. If the core is of diameter d the constants in (i) of that article are now to be determined with the additional boundary condition u when t : r = \d. v. for parallel flow is actually (The subsequent and Winny. But the range Phil.354 AERODYNAMICS [CH. by considering flow through a long pipe fitted with a core that extends through its entire length. Hooper. a 5ft. 15f 1633. = To evaluate A and B we have and a similar equation with d written for D t whence and for the mean 4 velocity f D/a P Comparison with Article 195 (ii) shows that a central core of diameter only a few thousandths of that of the pipe suffices to decrease the flux for a given pressure gradient. for example. article is based on the same paper. avoid the anomaly we suppose the velocity profile drawn in accordance with (274) to hold only from near the axis to the edge of the laminar sublayer. and to be joined to the wall by a straight line having a slope dictated by the known value of T (Fig. effects of the core on the resistance of the pipe wall and of the general velocity profile on that of the core. . if required. WITH CORES Annular Channel of practical Aerodynamic interest are conveniently studied in a qualitative manner. i. t Ser. wind In these circumstances it is possible to neglect.e. as an approximation. both analytically and experimentally. considerably. to that for flow between parallel planes. The core may be so small compared with a pipe of convenient diameter as to represent. to increase With large cores the friction approximates resistance. PIPES 198. a very narrow body in. 144). by small cores. 50 per cent. where d/D 015 05. The solution for laminar flow through a circular pipe with a concentric circular core is easily deduced from Article 195. tunnel. and increasingly = for * narrower annuli. 7. According to some systematic experiments * the critical value of Z)/v at which turbulence develops is delayed 16 per cent.
e. . Soc. and are not 5OOO 4000 V to be confused with turbulence). straight pipe 8/2000 coefficient lies between 00045 and 00074. 1929. defined as the ratio of the crosssection of a stream to its wetted perimeter. O2 04 06 d/D 145. but some results of interest will be described briefly. owing probably to small variable eccentricity. d). and must be left to further reading. curve gives appropriately R'D/(D pipe without a core. A. v. 199.. Thus critical upper and lower as speeds occur broken in Fig. According to the author's experiments. Ray.) vary as the hydraulic mean depth. a more or ' less periodic ' motion of swaying type setting in.g.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 355 greatly reduced by small cores.. . which increases resistance (such secondary motions often occur in flow through other than straight circular pipes. For annular sections this ratio is evidently (D for a pipe it is Z)/4 so that the d)j . Mag.) 5 curve derives the critical values of wD/v on the assumption that they will (By permission of the Phil. Eccentric and Flat Cores The analytical problem of eccentric cores and of cores of other than circular section is a little complicated. (The broken line gives an approximation based on hydraulic mean depth. The in this figure illustrates a basis of ap shown 2000 1000 line proximation used when. 123. 145. it is sought to correlate results for pipes and channels of different sections. This that is often o FIG. as in some applications to Aerodynamics. * Proc.CRITICAL REYNOLDS NUMBERS FOR PIPES WITH CORES. where R' applies to the Attempts have often been made to relate the incidence of turbu lence in various cases to a common value of the skin friction coefficient. turbulence is developed through wide annuli (djD < with a given fluid and pipe that are pro05) at mean velocities to the ratio of the whole friction to that on the pipe wall portional White * found that T/pw2 = = = only. in curved pipes. 00045 applied approximately in this connection to pipes of various curvatures. The value for the For all annular channels this 0004.
148 indicates the theoretical laminar flow friction variation across a flat core as a central is extending strip . In contrast. In the absence of direct experiments. introduced for constructional reasons along a more or less flat surface. Mag. the result reassuring as to the drag of a very shallow ridge. The flow is notably reduced through the constricted side of the channel. 147 shows the percentage increase of resistance to flow there through a long pipe. FIG.Pipe FIG. in which is a core of onehundredth part its diameter. and the gap is filled in when small.356 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Experiments show the effect of cores to be less Eccentricityi. 147. for varying eccentricity of the core. its maximum velocity being only 30 per cent. of that on the open side. When eccentricity is a maximum and the core extends as a single corrugation along the pipe wall. (By permission of the Phil. A similar obstruction to flow through the passage between two bodies is often encountered in Aerodynamic circumstances beyond means of calculation. Fig. 146. The resistance is 12 per cent. Fig. much less deep than the boundary layer and parallel to the flow. ISOVELOCITY LINES FOR A PIPE WITH AN ECCENTRIC CORE. 146 gives the velocity contours for steady flow in a typical case of eccentricity.) Fig. the increase with steady flow is negligible. less than with the core centrally situated. marked in turbulent than in streamline flow.
. The remaining terms express the velocities of Q relative to those of We have to deal only with these relative velocities. obtained by Lees. and may G. ACROSS A THIN FLAT STRIP WITHIN A PIPE OF CONFOCAL ELLIPTIC SECTION (LAMINAR FLOW). Proc.* considering the resistance to motion of a long plate through fluid contained in a wide stationary cylinder of it obtains also for the corresponding case confocal elliptic section of pipe flow. the element is subject to acceleration. As the element proceeds on its path. t at an adjacent point Q (x + 8x. it is also subject to variation of vorticity and to a We first reduce this certain stretching under the viscous stresses. and such edges along the flow should clearly be avoided. The matter is illustrated for steady twodimensional flow. y \ 8y) are : du _ Bv . v be the velocity components parallel to Ox. Comparing the total friction FIG. the flow is When compound motion to the simplest terms necessary for framing equations of motion. Soc. which can give rise to no internal friction. The rapid increase in friction as the sharp edges are approached will be seen. they come to the same in laminar flow if the diameter VARIATION OF FRICTION 148. Oy of the The component velocities centre G (x y) of any small fluid element. of the cylinder first This result was is onehalf the width of the plate. of a long flat strip with that along the exterior of a circular cylinder. parallel to the Ayplane. A. provided the cores are very small. . 92. du (i) dv oy ox Of the terms on the righthand sides the first represent translation of the element as a whole. Roy.. GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR STEADY VISCOUS FLOW 200. General Motion of the Element steady but nonlaminar in the strict sense of the word (Article 21). v. although the velocity at any point in the field is constant. 1916.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 357 within an elliptic pipe. Let u.
Let these axes be Gx'. ~ cy du\ (Article 39). with angular velocity . It appears. angle a with O the original axes.. Introducing for shortness the symbols du . Gy of this motion of distortion rS' It is H i. dv fdv . G and imagine it to move with the centre of the element. to be . 149. 8v/ = 6'Sy . where the vorticity =^ ex . b t c. with the help of Fig. 149.358 shift the origin AERODYNAMICS to [CH. the above condition for principal axes is expressed as Sw/ == a'S*'. If $u l9 Sv l denote components ' along Gx. The last two terms of the expressions include in general rotation of the element as a whole about an instantaneous axis through G. 8w/ are components of the motion of distortion. (v) Formulae of transformation from the old to the new systems of axes are readily found. now required to find the principal axes of this motion. that the stresses due to viscosity are associated solely with that part of the motion which is expressed by the terms in (iii) involving ' a. directions y at right all angles such that 8x \ lines drawn parallel to \ them within the element will be subject \ only to simple elonga V \ 1 tion or contraction. (n) equations (i) give 8v = (iii) and we note that the last terms express rotations such as a rigid body might possess. oc and let them If a'. which again cannot affect internal friction. in these directions V are component rates of strain while Sw/.e. make an FIG. therefore.. .. Gy'.
cos a +  8v t 8*! . 150). a =a 1 cos 2oc = 0. Eliminating 8v lf 8^. ' .Ix] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 8*' 359 ' 8/ and 8w/ 8v/ Substituting for = 8* = 8y . 8* sin a). .] . cos .8* oc . (lx ^ Comparison of (ix) with (iv) shows that a a b sin c == i (' = a' = a' + cos 8 a + + *') 6' J' sin 1 a. making use of the equation of continuity a b =a' a c = 0' = a' +V cos 2a. sin .. sin a. (275) J 20 1. Application to Laminar Flow As an important example. sin 2a. a sin a. a *= 45 and the principal axes lie along the diagonals of an originally square element (Fig. =0. cos 1 a. being Reference to Articles 24 or 194 shows that y 60. in turn from these equations gives f 2 8 Wl 8^ ( a cos a 6' sin a) 8y (a V) sin a cos 8w t sin a 6' cos 8^ (a 8y (a' a) 6') sin a cos = = + + + + 8 1 f  r a. the velocity u a function of only. cos a + 8y . ^ V1 ' = 8i = 8^ 8*' . cos a . and 8v/. we have. . Since _ a' = 6' =c drawn within the element parallel to Gx* elongate at the rate J(3w/8y). ^^ a. 8/ in (v) from (vi) and 8! cos a + 8v t sin a 8v l cos a 8u t sin a = a' =V (vii) (8* cos a (8y cos a + 8y sin a). sin a. acting parallel to the lines . Finally. principal axes (cf. sin 2a. (VU) 8/. Article 26). These rates of strain result from the stresses whose effects upon the element are fully represented by those of principal component stresses p lt p t tensile and compressive. whJe lines drawn parallel to Gy' contract at this rate. Since a' is not zero. consider the simple type of steady motion consisting of flow in layers everywhere parallel to the plane xOz and in the direction Ox.
and justifies our definition of viscosity. Let us follow what happens to the element during a short time 8*. As before. .?.360 AERODYNAMICS FIG. 202. dy Thus the true orientation and shape of the element after 8* is as shown at C and. and subsequent formulae P*y of Article 26 2{jic. St. so that = 2jjui' p Using (34). we then sin 1 a find pxx = \(Pi . With the help of Article 26 we can now write down convenient formulae for the stresses. it is calculated that the #sides of the readily r\ element at A become sloped as at B ^ at an angle 4 . By the end of the time bodily through the angle $ St. the element has possessed an angular velocity interval this has rotated it = .. But dy simultaneously with the motion of distortion.P*) sin 2<x = = (2(za' p) cos a (2[jia' + p) . It will be found that the definition of requires us to write pl from (275). a positive sign is taken to indicate tension and a negative fx sign compression. we see that the #sides of the element remain parallel to Ox consistently with the type of motion assumed in the first place. 150. diminishing 8* indefinitely. Expressions for the Stresses The foregoing analysis removes a difficulty that is sometimes felt with alternative arrangements of the proofs of Articles 24 and 194. First ignoring rotation.
The remaining jycomponent for a. dy.e. Fixing attention on a rectangular element of fluid of sides &x. 8x. 8y is at G. and must equal the product of its mass and acceleration in this direction. from Article 200 obtaining . while * the tractions on of these the two #sides give a difference Q? 8y dy . If Du/Dt. (276) dv The 203. The sum is the force on the element in the xdirection. element is Oy t which become apparent when the motion of the followed. or Du dx Similarly (ii) Dv l)t A. b t c of stress similarly dealt with. the component velocities u and v of G will change as it moves. (ii). Dv/Dt denote component accelerations. the forces due to the the two jysides give a difference normal stresses on 3px .D. then for steady flow (Article 140i) Du Dt __ du dx du l)y' Dv Dt ~~ _ dv dv (i) U dy l)x Resolving parallel to Ox.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 361 = Now substitute 2{ju*' cos 2<x p = is 2{jia p. i. The Equations of Motion The general equations for steady viscous flow in two dimensions are now easily constructed. _ 9p^ ~~~dy 12* . first of these verifies consistency with the definition of (A. whose centre parallel to Ox.
and making combines them into the single equation for I +!"* Or again they yield a single expression for the stream function (278) : <> They may also be expressed in terms of cylindrical coordinates. from (276) Du Dv p _ 3*w dp /31 ?. p 8y These equations eliminating p by use of (61) and vorticity may be recast in various forms. The Dynamical Theory of Gases. March 1932.\ ae/ * The equations (277). derive them in terms of molecular motion. and subtracting.7T' I . as discussed by Jeans. Jan. in generalised threedimensional form. + q cos 0. Phil.362 Substituting for AERODYNAMICS [CH. Thus if w q denote the velocity components in the directions r 0. so that u = w cos t t the equations transform to Dm Dq __ q*_ 13* 1 V +v /. we have finally " du du dp = VV w . p M3t . Another proof on similar article by the author in Aircraft Engineering. are fundamental to the theory of motion of real fluids and were evolved by Navier. etc.. . de The simplified demonstration given is taken from an Saint.7 ^ 8^ \ and . _'_2 ^v' rt r M( 9q\ . Mag. 1933. 80 . cross differentiation (65). (277) ' dp where v 1 v = . v a* = . q sin 6.Venant and Stokes. . Poisson. It is also of interest to lines has been given by Prescott. ~ + wq_ ~ T 7r ye ^+v (280) / 9 r Vq +f 2 3te... * ** 1 _ =~ a* ^ ~~ a^> + a*w \ Making use of the equation of continuity (61) to reduce the righthand sides and substituting from (i) for the lefthand sides. For example. v == w sin respectively.
. exactly equivalent and no simplification exists in one as compared with another. Substituting for pxy . which will not Aerodynamic force follows exist. Formula 204. acting in the direction upper surface. . . from suitable integrations round the contour as explained in Article 44. which will be known. from which the angle 6 of the normal drawn outwards from the element 8s is measured. 24) relates to strictly laminar flow. as shown. For this purpose it is required.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG all. and n outward along the normal. we have from the figure . the velocities and pressures adjacent to central parts of the surface of a long body such as a wing. Distance s round the contour is positive in the sense of 6 The force on the increasing. 151 represents part of the contour of a cylinder motion without rotation parallel to Ox. . 6 (p xx 8s sin 6) 8s cos 6 . 8s sin 6). FIG. 151. however. 8s cos 6 + pyy + sin . (i) 8y> . from (276) ^ oy/ (sin* 6 . while the only formula we have (Articles 23. +p yx . The curve in relative in Fig.cos 0) 21 i ^ p . v . If TO is the element is due to the stresses pxx s. on the intensity of skin friction at 8s. 363 These alternative forms are of course. to infer the intensity of skin friction at all points from the velocity gradients. and the boundary condition of absence of slip. Extension of Skin Friction Assuming that we can calculate from the viscous equations. T 8s = cos 6 (pxy .
corresponding to those of Article 44. as. Now adjacent = cos n a. Differentiating ^udu q dn vdv q dn sin 0. dn/ . They come X to V ' the suffix indicating that the integrals are to extend completely round the contour. a > dx a 5 dn ds = a sin 6 oy on a + cos 6 os and on the boundary 3/3s = dv/ds = 0.sin 8 . a*A . dv/ds fail to vanish.sin 0r I sin 6 cos \ dn . the formula does not hold. cos h sin dn . Sub or the skin friction is obtained from the boundary value of the velocity gradient along the normal. in the case of a rotating cylinder. dn (ii) Let q = \/( w2 + v *) ^ e th e dq resultant velocity.cos 3 0) ' / 2 ( cos 67. may be left as an exercise. . . 8 Hence (i) becomes 5 = (cos 6 ~ + sin 6 V dn ^ dn/ 4 8 (sin 6 v .364 AERODYNAMICS to the boundary a [CH. It must be observed that if on the boundary du/ds. for example. . It is easily verified that the boundary value of the vorticity at the position considered. This formula is equally significant as giving the skin friction from measurements of resultant velocity. Complete expressions for the drag and lift. though we shall find later on that in experiment a different method is often more convenient. . v dn But adjacent to the boundary u stituting in (ii) =q = g' cos 0.
assume as a solution q Substituting in (ii) = Ar*. to be given a steady The boundary condition of no slip. the velocity q at any point in the fluid it. . conditions. Suppose a long circular cylinder of diameter d. pivoted axially in an unlimited expanse of still air.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 365 VISCOUS CIRCULATION AND CURVED FLOW 205. q = when r = oo.rn ~ l r" = Hence the general solution is are constants to be determined by the boundary which are q = \u> Q d. Thus A =0 and B = Jco ^ a so that finally where A and B : . u fluid. Denoting by &> the angular velocity of any concentric cylindrical surface of the c>#. will generate a motion of the fluid round with the action If this becomes steady. we have v <oy (taking the origin at the centre of round a = the cylinder) and since o = = q/r = B/r* Bx \ d i ( By Hence the viscous flow is indeed irrotational. Since q is a function of r only. most equations of motion. constant. We will first solve the problem as an application of the general and q is independent of 6. together angular velocity to of viscosity.^5r the first expressing the requirement that centrifugal force per unit volume must be balanced by the pressure gradient. = f d*q I 1 *P ' ' ~r=?tr da W (n)  q ^+. must evidently be perpendicular to the radius r. or the product qr It will be seen that the flow tion = is identical with irrotational circula circular cylinder in an inviscid fluid. n(n  1) Ar"~* + n. when r = \d. Since w of the terms of (280) vanish and the equations finally reduce to .
the peripheral speed of the cylinder and R is specified by we find the following convenient formula for the moment q d/v. Let the outer cylinder be of diameter D. . some shell axial cylindrical surfaces in the fluid. of fluid would gain or lose angular momentum. Rotating Cylinder within Fixed Concentric Cylinder This case is readily deduced from the preceding article. . With the viscous fluid. since this is constant = = . and we may choose to evaluate it on the jyaxis where the tractional stress in the fluid is pyK Hence from (276) . The traction is constant round the cylinder.366 AERODYNAMICS [CH. a moment per unit length must be applied to the cylinder to maintain the motion. u ovy. and substitution gives (283). . Then the boundary conditions now determining A and B are the same at the inner radius but q = when r = \D. coefficient The above result may be more simply obtained from the considera tion that the moment just calculated must be the same for all coIf this were not so. which would be contrary to the assumption of steadiness. it is found that the tractional stress Putting v round a coaxial surface of radius r is pr du>/dr. Hence A >' _ rfi 1 . however. 206. M dv du\ = For the torque 2fjto) . r) f _ rf/2 2 7tpia>o^ . and on integrating Applying the boundary conditions evaluates C and E. (Hi) M= If q is (27cfT . do* ^C r* dr where C is a constant. eo#. Hence the moment is (Jt^Ttr* d<A/dr and.
If the force on the element due to the pressure gradient. qr need not be constant. from Article 205 (i) Let it by Rayleigh. viz. the element will be forced back. cylinders of different sizes. which that on the outer one. Curved Flow in Experiment in examining vortices. Thus the motion / if Y* stable or f if .IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG of these values in the expression 367 q = Ar + and substitution gives Bjr ? ~~ _ co <ft />* \ 4y\ IT ><?/ is The torque on the inner cylinder. is equal and opposite to M= giving a 1 moment coefficient on the same basis as before The rotates case of the inner cylinder being fixed while the outer one is solved similarly. . is displaced by a initially circulating at radius r 1 with velocity q lt disturbance to a greater radius r a without change of its moment of momentum. that a similar to that calculated in Article 205 can circulatory flow very When the fluid is contained between two concentric exist in air. exceeds centrifugal force at the new m ~ ( Vt <7i ) . revolving at different rates. ignoring viscosity. Chapter VII. its V~ radius. is acting inwardly. 207. For either radius the condition for equilibrium is. The stability of this more general case was first examined be assumed that an element of mass m and volume V. We have already seen.
. Rotation of the inner cylinder. not familiar. Fluid approaching a body exerts centrifugal force towards the surface.368 i. It is found in experiment that an outer cylinder may be revolved rapidly round a fixed one before eddying occurs in fluid contained between them. 223. produces eddying at a comparatively low speed. v. Rayleigh's investigation may also be applied in principle to explain a striking phenomenon that is observed in front of stagnation Turbulence WIND. Trans.* Steady flow may be realised in a wellknown type of if it is rational viscometer the construction of which will be evident. although viscosity advantageously modifies the foregoing criterion. on the other hand. If this decrease the motion the square of the circulation increase outwards. if displaced outwards by a disturbance. Low Velocity 10 f i FIG. 152. TURBULENCE SURROUNDING THE FRONT STAGNATION POINT OF A STRUT. is unstable. A similar phenomenon : is lower diagram give observed with wings.e. and so are forced * Taylor (Sir Geoffrey). Soc. The contours in the enlarged mean velocity. the outer one being fixed. AERODYNAMICS if [CH. A. at least when the oncoming stream is not specially smooth.. Phil. velocity amplitude . maintaining its path against a pressure drop outwards from the stagnation point (or line). 1923. Roy. find themselves with insufficient centrifugal force to oppose to the pressure gradient. Particles approaching the surface of the body closely have their energy reduced by viscosity and. points.
152 shows the region of instability and. and A. The and also contours of timeaverage velocity (R 21 x 10 5 ). also the & same authors. Trans. 1928 (aerofoil). Thus the stagnation point becomes the centre of a region of weak turbulence extending in front of the body. t Cf.C. has developed integral equations for application to symmetrical cylinders. v. A. .f * Piercy and Richardson. 9. and others. as determined by a hot wire connected with a vibration galvanometer. 223. 1224. Roy. plete account of the inertia terms. The general equations obtained in Article and their solution for flow past a given body. Bairstow has also suggested its U value for obtaining rough approximations at somewhat higher Reynolds numbers and.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 369 out farther. 6.R. though steadiness be use of assumed. 1928 /circular cylinder). with Misses Cave and Lang. that of timeaverage velocity reduction in front of a strut. all the terms on the lefthand side of (279). may be neglected.. Phil. the turbulence out there. however.. The enlarged view gives contours of mean amplitude of velocity variation. and various curtailed forms been suggested as appropriate to different circumstances. reducing the equation to V 4^ This approximation is = (286) due to Stokes. is damped Fig. This equation is appropriate to the Reynolds numbers of anemometry and has been so employed by Lamb.R. even from an experimental point of view. and the range of Reynolds number to which it may be applied is known after him. in fact. taking considerable though incomwas introduced more recently by Oseen it is vv 4 <J> = t/v* (m*x)   (287) where is the undisturbed velocity. for comparison. Farther round the contour of the body the product qr increases outwards. 203 are formidable. Bairstow. having to do with the inertia of the fluid and not its viscosity. v. = APPROXIMATIONS TO THE VISCOUS EQUATIONS 208. Phil.* undisturbed flow in the wind tunnel. . Such motions are minute. presents considerable To make them have drastic simplification is required. in which the experiments were conducted. If the velocity be very small and the viscosity large.. v. Mag. difficulty. Soc. was known to be rather turbulent. 1930. Another approximate form. 1923. Mag. t Phi*. and. so that we should expect stability. M.
370
209. Prandtl's
AERODYNAMICS
Boundary Layer Equations
[CH.
The approximation of greatest interest in Aerodynamics is that due to Prandtl, and depends upon the assumption that viscous effects are
confined to a boundary layer, Article 43, a feature that is characterThe process of simplification istic of most Aerodynamic motions. consists of examining the relative orders of magnitude of the various terms of (277) when a thin boundary layer exists, and will be ex
plained for the case of flow along a flat plate. Ox is taken in the plane of the plate parallel to the undisturbed flow and Oy perpendicular to the plate, the origin being at the nose. On account of the thinness assumed for the boundary layer, y and v
are small compared with x and Since v to be of normal order.
,
is
small,
which, together with p, are taken it follows that in the second
equation of (277) all other terms may be neglected in comparison with the ^term. Hence this equation reduces to
we found, as a matter of experiment, that the generated just outside the boundary layer is transmitted pressure through it to the surface of the body without change. The result
In Article 42
flow. (288) follows equally for curvilinear and unsteady theoretical justification exists for the experimental result. Turning to the first equation of (277), we find that the first
Thus
term comparison with the second v This is the only simplification that can be made in term 9*w/3y*. usual circumstances, and the first equation therefore reduces to I dp d*u du du /^v 289 v "^r + v ^r ^~ a dx dx
of
a
w, viz.
:
9 a /9#a , is negligible in
=
dy
3y
/p
account of the smallness of y, d*u/dy* is large and, if the order of 1 For all the magnitude of y be denoted by z, it will be of order 1/e terms of the equation to be of the same order, v requires to be of order eV The thickness of the boundary layer in the jydirection is
.
On
then proportional to
V
v or >
more
generally, to
FLAT PLATE SKIN FRICTION WITH STEADY FLOW
210. Application of Oseen's Approximation
or tangential plate of limited chord (c) provides the easiest problem of direct Aerodynamic interest. Breakaway (Article 159) does not occur, and the flow is found experimentally to remain steady
The flat
IX]
VISCOUS
to
FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
371
up
Reynolds numbers (Uc/v) exceeding 5
x
10*
even in moder
ately turbulent tunnels.
The problem has been solved
general way.
approximation in a Although, for reasons stated in Article 208, this
* to Oseen's
FIG. 153.
(Figs
STREAMLINES TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE AT R = 4.
1535 are reproduced by permission of the Royal
Society.)
FIG. 154.
AT
R=
4,
VORTICITY CONTOURS TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE SHOWING THE WIDESPREAD DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTIC OF LOW
REYNOLDS NUMBERS.
interest to notice
must diverge from fact at the larger scales, it is of some of the results, particularly as they describe in an approximate manner how a boundary layer comes into being as Reynolds number increases.
solution
*
Piercy and Winny, Proc. Roy. Soc., A,
v. 140,
1933
372
AERODYNAMICS
coefficient is
[Cn.
The drag
found to be given by4
~y
\t\,j.\.i
14839
.
(290)
z\.
Thus the coefficient is large at anemometric scales. Fig. 153 shows the streamlines and Fig. 154 the vorticity contours for R 4, and evidently no boundary layer has begun to form at this small scale. 4 x 10* Fig. 155 shows in contrast the vorticity contours for R the linear scale perpendicular to the plate is magnified in the
=
=
;
figure
FIG. 155.
VORTICITY CONTOURS TO OSEEN'S APPROXIMATION FOR A FLAT PLATE AT R = 4 x 10*.
number.
The linear scale perpendicular to the plate is magnified ten times. Comparison with Fig. 154 illustrates the growth of a boundary layer with increase of Reynolds
ten times, so that the boundary layer that
now
exists
is
very thin.
close to its asymptotic value, the second term of (290) almost vanishing ; this value exceeds that of mean experiment by 60 per cent.
coefficient is
The drag
now
At
large Reynolds
numbers the velocity u at any point
the formula
x, y, is
given theoretically
by
u
=
~
V7TJI
e~**dz
.
(291)
whose values
integral.
be written down from tables of the probability Thus the velocity is then a function of y/Vvx/U only.
may
If we agree to mark the edge of the boundary layer by 1 per cent, decrease in velocity and denote its thickness on either side of the plate by A, then at distance x from the nose
A,
= 364Vv*/t7
A
c
(292)
and
at the trailing edge of the plate
364
(293)
This result
probably within 30 per cent, of the thickness of the experimental boundary layer, which is rather thicker. A point of particular interest may be noted at the trailing edge of
is
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
373
the plate in Fig. 155. The concentration of vorticity there may herald the production of an eddy at larger Reynolds numbers.
211. Application of PrandtPs Approximation
The flat plate problem has been solved to Prandtl's approximation by Blasius.* This solution, as will be anticipated, is essentially
boundary layer to The drag range. Topfer) comes to
asymptotic, applying only to Reynolds numbers sufficient for a thin exist, and cannot be used in the anemometer coefficient (after very slight modification by
CD
= 2656/Vfl
.
....
(294)
and is only some 6 per cent, less than mean experiment through the range R 10* 5 x 10 5 On the same basis as (293) the thickness at the trailing edge of the
=
boundary layer
is
given
by
It thickens It
along the plate in the same parabolic
way
as in (292).
may be remarked that the convention adopted above for markthe edge of the boundary layer is arbitrary, and different writers ing use different systems. If a greater percentage drop in velocity is
adopted, the factors in (295) and (293) are smaller. Instead of discussing Blasius's solution, which is somewhat complex, the problem will be solved approximately by a shorter
method
212.
f
which
is
of use in
some more
difficult cases.
Method
is
of Successive
Approximation
of undisturbed velocity U, and the chord of the plate) sufficiently large for a thin ( being boundary layer to exist. The pressure is then nearly constant throughout the flow, ignoring the edges of the plate, so that PrandtFs equations reduce to
The flow
R =
assumed to be steady,
C7c/v, c
u The boundary conditions
i)
du
+v dx
are
Su
dy
=v
3a
.
.
.
.
(296) v '
dy*
=
u
=v =
on the plate and u
=
U,
at oo.
* Zeits. f.
I
Math.
u. Phys., 1908.
7, v.
Piercy and Preston, Phil. Mag., Ser.
21, 1936.
374
If
AERODYNAMICS
u lt
v l are
[CH.
v,
known
as
first
approximations to u and
3w 2
l
the
equation
3# a
i
^c#
+v
=v
d*u.

dy
3y*
tion u t A corresponding second approximation to v, viz. v a can then be obtained from the equation of continuity and the boundary conditions. Repeating the process gives a third approximation. Successive approximations will not in all problems exhibit the convergence necessary for success, so that application of the method is tentative. But if they do, a sufficient number of reiterations secures what degree of accuracy may be desired in the solution of
.
may be regarded as an equation for determining a second approxima,
(296).
213. Transformation of the Equation
We now make
boundary conditions become u u 1, V = 0.
=
Y)
the substitutions u U
=
= u/U, V = v/U,
on the
so that the
plate, while at oo
Also,
,
we transform the equations from the given by
coordinates x,
y
to
For
this
purpose we note that
^ 8*
?*
dy
a
=
3%
c
.
'
= =
3y
and, since it will be found that du/dr^ gives a solution satisfying the boundary conditions, that with this simplification du __ 3 3i; 3 5 3w STQ
=
3*
3l dx
+
__ " =
3
3i
3Y]
"~"
3w
3y
_
""*
3w 3
35 3^
+
3w
_
/'R
3^ 3^
v
4
whence
also
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG can write down from the preceding
article the
376
We
and y
for determining the nth approximation. dimensional velocities it is
equation in % In terms of the non
a
'
8*
,
+
v)
it
<.
1
=v
**,
3y
8y
and on transformation to
becomes
tinuity,
It is required to substitute for vn which in terms of x and y is
^ l from the equation of con
3*
dy
and transforms to
=0.
Hence
.
.
(298)
on integration by parts, the constant evidently vanishing by the boundary condition on the plate. For convenience write
Wni^Substituting for v n _
1
.
.
(299)
reduces (297) to the simple form
~j?
= /_!
(5)
~/
.
.
.
(300)
Integrating once
or
Integrating again

+
C.
.
(301)
376
Since un
since
H
=
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
=
1
at oo
on the plate, where we have
5=0,
evidently
C
= 0,
and
An
if
J
>*>
,t
.
.
.
(302)
Formulae for the Skin Friction
Denoting by
over the plate
Fn
the nth approximation to the total skin friction
In terms of the
new
coordinates this becomes
or from (301)
^n
rrA/ = VV
V
C Jo \
7o
Hence
(3 4)
214. Evaluation
We have to
assume a
first
take those of inviscid flow, so that u l 2. From (299) we then have/! ()
approximation to the velocities and we 1, v l everywhere.
=
=
=
(302) gives
Then from
(301)
and
(304)
1
S.^fV* ^ V^Jo = 4l(nR) == 2257 I?^C D1
1'2
....
1/2
.
(306)
Comparing with Article
tion
is
2 10, it appears that the second approximathe asymptotic solution to Oseen's equation. Tables exist
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
,
377
w s but we shall approximate by expanding e~^ and retaining only the first term, so that
for the integral in the expression for
Then turning to the calculation of the next approximation w 8
gives
,
(299)
and from
(302) again
*
f
A*
'
'
Jo
a known integral whose value is (3\Ar/2)* F (\), where F () is the gamma function whose value is 0894, which we denote for short
by*.
Proceeding in this way, we find that we can summarise the results
of successive calculations as follows
:
A
*

2
'
~
1/: ' ) "
1
/'_Y
/^
1
AVT/
of the geometric series
\3fc
The ultimate approximation obtainable by the present analytical method is found by putting n = oo, which gives, since the sum to oc
=$
Writing
C D for the ultimate
we
find,
total skin friction,
approximation to the coefficient from (304)
of the
44
a result which
for
*
2734
'
' '
'
(3
6)
is
only 3 per cent, in error.
little
most practical purposes, but a
Reference should be
Such an error is negligible numerical work serves * to
(p.
made
to the paper cited
373) for a convenient
method.
378
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
take into account the neglected terms of (305), when successive approximations are evaluated as given in Fig. 156 and agreement is reached at the eighth approximation with the elaborate solution of
Blasius. Fig. 157 shows dotted the second approximation (305) to the velocity through the boundary layer and also the ultimate result.
The ordinate used permits the one
curve
all
(full
line)
to be
positions
along
given for the plate.
Agreement with experiment at high
12
N? OP Approximation
BIG. 156.
is quite close, although mean results suggest a curve. At small Reynolds numbers, or close to the slightly steeper nose in any case, the dotted line will represent fact. At the nose
Reynolds numbers
itself
the distribution of velocity
is
complicated.
EXPERIMENT AND KARMAN'S INTEGRATION
215. Methods
of
Measurement
of finding the skin friction at a point on the surface is, from Article 204, to estimate the velocity
The direct way
of a plate or cylinder
gradient along the normal. Numerical examples worked out from the foregoing results indicate that the boundary layers of experiment are very thin thus at onetenth of the way along a plate of
;
IX]
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
379
1ft. chord in a stream of 100 ft. per sec. threequarters of the entire It is seen that, velocity change occurs within a film 0012 in. thick. to estimate the boundary value of the gradient directly, measurements require to be made within one or two thousandths of an inch
from the surface. Two methods exist for such fine work. In one a wire, of about onethousandth inch diameter, and heated by an electric current, is held parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the stream by a rigid fork. The fork is fitted with micrometer screws enabling the clearance between surface and wire to be adjusted accurately. Velocity A serious is estimated from the convection of heat from the wire. arises from the cooling effect of the experimental surface difficulty when the clearance is small and the velocity low, and a special * technique is required to determine rather large corrections on this
score.
The alternative method uses the fractional pitot tube introduced by Stanton. The specialised form is flat and sunk beneath the
surface, so that only a very narrow louvre with a thin lip projects into the stream. Photographs and examples of use are given in a
paper by Page, Falkner, and Walker.f Again a difficulty arises, in that, without special calibration, it is impossible to connect the it projection of the lip with effective distance from the surface cannot be assumed that the pressure observed with a given setting refers, for example, to a distance from the wall equal to half the
;
projection. Calibration
may be effected by mounting the pitot tube with the to be used in a long smooth pipe whose velocity profile is projection
known.
pitot tube 04 mm. diameter is calibrated in a of 024 in. bore delivering 033 cu. ft. of air per min. straight pipe When the mouth of the tube touches the pipe wall, the pressure
Example.
A
observed within it is 0143 in. water head below the static pressure at a section 18 in. upstream. Show that the velocity indicated to a position midway between the centre of the pitot tube applies
and
its
outer
lip. is
Since the internal radius of the pipe 0'33
001
ft.,
the
mean
velocity
15
C.,
w==
60
R =
X
TC
175
X x
*
001
X
=175
ft.
001
per ^
sec.
Assuming 6
is
002/0000159
=
2200 and the flow
2
.
laminar.
centre
So from Article 195, u]u
=2
8r*/D
Midway between the
&
M., 1224, 1928.
Piercy and Richardson, A.R.C.R.
t loc. cit., p. 211.
380
AERODYNAMICS
i.e.
[CH.
ft.
per the pressure in the tube corresponds to this position, a that pressure 00101 in. pw \ x 0105 Ib. per sq. ft. water head above the static pressure across that section of the pipe.
sec.
If
of the pitot tube and its outer lip, at 0*3 mm. = 0001 the wall, r = 0009 and u/u comes to 038, whence u = 665
ft.
from
ft.
=
=
=
Now
from
= 053 Ib.
sq. ft.
(272) T per cu. ft.
in.
=
8pw'//? Hence at
=
PD/4. Thus
15 ft.
is
P =32pw /&
a
a distance
upstream from the
pitot tube section the static pressure
= 0153
is
increased
by 0795
Ib.
per
water.
The
static pressure is
determined
in this
position,
and the pressure
0153
stream,
difficult
00101
= 0143 in. water head less, as
in the pitot tube, situated 15 ft. downstated.
of skin friction remains a experiment in which to achieve accuracy. The following theorem has a particular significance as suggesting a method by which errors can be minimised, although it also has a wider interest.
With every precaution measurement
216.
Karman's Theorem
let
Without making any assumption as to constancy of the pressure, us write down Prandtl's equation (289) in the form
3aw
p
9y
2
dp dx
du
pw
dx
f pv
du
.
(i)
dy
for
and integrate with respect to y through the boundary layer any fixed position x. First assuming A const., we have
the last term of (i) being integrated by parts. expression, on the righthand side the last term first since by the equation of continuity dv/dy
is
Considering this the same as the
regarding the middle term, u
v
=v=
= VA> say, when y = A. term = when y A and
when y
= =
du/dx while u
side,
;
= U,
first
also,
Turning to the lefthand
is
the
equal to the skin friction T
when y
= 0.
Putting in these limiting values,
we have
(ii)
It is readily
velocity across the edge of the
shown from the equation of continuity that the boundary layer is evaluated by
= ^z\
udy
(
iu ')
Thus by exploring round a transverse slice Now of the boundary layer perpendicular to the plate we can estimate closely the mean skin friction on the plate in this region. such as would lead to large deviations in the boundary values of the velocity gradient. Similar remarks may be made from an analytical point of view.IX] VISCOUS finally FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 381 Hence T if = I (Uu  ) dy A^ 3* (307) also [7 may be regarded as const. figure) Sx A and dx equal the rate of 7 . The force acting on this section in the direction Ox is t8x must within. increase of ^momentum is This rate D (see c f p J A u*dy + r p u*dy J B + r c pi/ J VA D Hence * ~"~^ *~" A f A " ~ ~~~ fH ^ (308) which comes to the same thing as (307) on use of (iii). . the foregoing . o . we have 8 say) just outside the boundary layer in place of the integral in (307) : A f Pv ^" This CXjv udy ~~ 3 p *r f \ A OX J u*dy. the integrals in (308) are very suitable for experimental determination. (307) is correct for with x additional terms arising on this score finally t A varying cancelling out. and are but little affected by errors in u close to the plate. 158). if 8* be small. when it is desired to Like Prandtl's equation from which it is derived. (307) is simpler than (289) and allows of plausible assumptions being safely introduced regarding the velocity profile calculate approximate results. But when the velocity (Q itself varies t with x. (3070) result important be established in may another way by considering ^ t the conditions for equilibrium of a short length $x of the boundary layer (Fig.
mean A f velocity just outside the boundary (307a) leads to * _ . although what form this takes makes little difference in the end. and Q' for the layer. there being 00006 ft. a short distance behind the nose.J_ 0049 r2 tU* ). measured round the contour farther downstream. per ft. Examples. and. applying Bernoulli's equation. and B.382 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 0049 ft. approximately. Then integrating graphically. For simplicity.. evidently a boundary layer of thickness (A) 0006 in. etc. give (n being distance from the surface in thousandths inch and U the undisturbed : velocity) : Estimate* the mean coefficient of friction between A and B. T * = 10* [020 032 f (0493 X is ^5)] = 00026. 217.lu u U 000032. It should be noted that the estimate obtained approximate only. . for increases ot quantities between A and B at = constant n. Plotting shows the data to be inadequate for the method of Article 215 and Krm4n's theorem will therefore be employed. Measurements of velocity (q) across normals drawn from two points on the upper surface of an aerofoil in its median plane A. assume q oc n from n to 0001 in. taking Q = 123 U. the first two integrals come to 000020 =0 and 9 where p is the undisturbed pressure. method may also be applied to the boundary layers of cylinders provided the curvature is not great. just outside it Some assumption must be made regarding velocities very close to the surface. Now p is independent of n through the boundary layer. Write 8(q/U). whence Hence the value Finally of the last integral is 0493 X 00005 Ib.
since Blasius's solution is for a semiinfinite flat plate. and A pt77'~A Since the pressure is . * r7o oU === J\ )J * \) The correct immediately from value for the intensity of skin friction follows (294). Assume that the velocity profile can be represented with sufficient accuracy by When y whenjy = 0. (iv) Combining this second expression for the intensity of skin with (ii) gives the following equation for A v 4 MA x 7iA\'u V J\/i) friction dx 3 ' Integrating A Finally.. A . one possessing a nose but no tail.. substituting in ' = (ii) and writing L* Rx x for 7#/v. which can be written Cn = ? [ ^U dx = 2656 and ( ^ i. . constant for a reduces to . giving B in terms of so that.. (307) W .e. . dufdy = T A. u/U 1 =A v 4C7/A __ B.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 383 The second example given below illustrates the calculation of approximate values for the skin friction and boundary layer thickness along a flat plate from assumed velocity profiles. (vii) ... flat plate.. in terms of A and A.1P t/ = d dx w \u Substituting from (i) and integrating gives where f(A) = 01071 + 013574 007624*.. differentiating /2 .
 1' 2 . conditions at large . the mean observations these fail to agree closely with one another . 1508.. = But evidently the boundary layer for too thin. Some different sets of observations.R. 1/a The result can only 464J?7 with (295). and a somewhat larger value secures better agreement in this respect. roughly averaged. 159. of a single experienced investigator may vary by as much as 7 per cent. though the corresponding skin friction is A = 1^ in greater error. and there compared with the foregoing theoretical solutions. (309) mean experiment under steady Page. 218.384 AERODYNAMICS [CH. .. y is written for jy/A . are given as three experimental curves in Fig.. The nature of the approximation further illustrated by cal culating the thickness A of the boundary layer either directly from (v) or by combining (v) and (vi). It is not possible to find with able . since u/U tends to 1 asymptotically . an error of 2\ per cent. A. not unexpectedly. but. Curve (2) is excessive for 6 Evidence so far avail30 (1) underestimates for R < 10 * to the able points formula empirical R> . Transition Reynolds Number A number of experimental investigations has been carried out on the skin friction of flat plates in steady flow.R. * = 280 #~ & M.C. The foregoing method may easily be formulated in general terms. The table below gives the results of evaluating by the above method some suggested alternatives to (i). (vii). f 1/2 . giving B =  and T/pt/* is = 0324/f. CD as representing scales. 1933. it is a value for A which will make (vi) agree but the value involving least error is readily ascertain A = 1J. which yields With A = is 1J this gives A/* roughly be compared with the accurate profile.
DC/C PASSAGE TO TURBULENCE IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER OF A FLAT PLATE. perimental : (3) Fage. at which turbulence just sets in.. ... (1) THE FLAT PLATE WITH STEADY FLOW.D.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 385 log R OK> FIG. If Ex plate be held tangentially in a wind tunnel and the speed increased. the flow within the boundary layer becomes unsteady near the The Reynolds number. depending on initial turbulence (large for a thin flat a smooth stream) and shape of nose (large for a sharp leading edge) SL . Prandtl (Blasius's solution) (2) Oseen (Piercy and Winny's solution). Miss Marshall. if atmospheric steadiness be included. based on the length c of trailing edge. the flow within the boundary layer is at first steady. . 159. Hansen. varies from 10* to 5 x 10 8 A. 160. As speed is further 13 . the plate. vV o FIG. but at some scale.
Error in this position is corrected for by adjusting the tunnel speed or other means. Detection of Transition of the plate. Report Ae. In the form developed at the N. A boundary fine pitot tube boundary layer and moved from the friction surface. The same phenomenon occurs in the curved boundary layer of a thick body and the same definitions apply. thesis. since criticisms can Dissertation. 2608. It is The above method of measuring transition Reynolds numbers is laborious and others are in use as follows.E. large increase in friction occurs there. f and consists of burying a very small microphone beneath the friction surface.C. 2i8A. for use in tunnels.386 AERODYNAMICS [Cfi. Thus at higher Reynolds numbers a front part of the boundary layer is steady (or laminar in the accepted sense of the word) and the remaining back part turbulent. . 1924 be directed against the numerical accuracy of these early results. Delft. The passage from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer is called transition and the position at which it occurs the transition point. located in the turbulent part of the gradually upstream at a constant distance is (2) Another method. If a suitable clearance has been chosen. effect is well shown by measurements of Burgers and Zijnen * from A which Fig. (3) The foregoing have recently been superseded by a visual method devised by Gray J at the R. 1944. London. 160 has been prepared. communicating with the boundary layer through a small hole drilled in the position where transition is likely to occur. J A. for flight tests. . 1031. But it may be assumed that under constant conditions the transition Reynolds number would be constant for wide variation of x/c.P. aerofoils are coated with an emulsion containing china clay and sprayed before a test * scales are not given in the figure. If this point is distant x from the nose measurements that are quantitatively consistent or to explain completely such variations as occur. depends upon the great increase which transition causes in the thickness of the layer. causing rapid pressure changes which become audible on suitably connecting the microphone to an amplifying set. Uxjv not easy to obtain is called the transition Reynolds number. increased in a given case. the position at which streamline flow fails This creeps forward.R.L. has been developed at Queen Mary College.A. x being measured round the profile. showing a rise of pressure. (1) One method. developed at Cambridge. f Winny. The transition point fluctuates slightly. Ph. the tube emerges from the boundary layer at the transition point into potential flow. avoiding all disturbance of the flow.D.
and thus the white coloration boundary layer. n = 1/7. it is not. which has much the same refractive index and makes the white coating temporarily invisible. TURBULENT FLOW 219. FLAT PLATE FRICTION. Thickness of Turbulent Boundary Layer Although turbulent boundary layer flow is familiar in Aeronautics. Krmdn established semiempirical laws. Independently of one another. as before. with turbulent as with streamline flow to the pressure p is constant a high approximation. The nitrobenzine evaporates more quickly in turbulent than in laminar flow. Thus in (307) the last term can be dropped and substitution from (310) gives Now on substitution from 274). As before. Article 197 (iii) gives T =:<. first reappears under turbulent parts of the Other expressions of the device are also employed. through a We adopt this index with the undercertain range of R. and examination depends ultimately upon experiment. amenable to analytical treatment. we choose the origin at the nose of the plate. unfortunately. The velocity u within the boundary layer will mean The underlying assumption the timeaverage value at any point. Prandtl and v. On analogy with Article 197 it is further assumed that. is that u is expressible in the form . which are easily carried out with great accuracy. the radius of the pipe (as originally assumed) and substituting from (310) reduces it to . expressing the application to plates of experiments in pipes. Oy perpendicular to the plate and Ox in the direction of the undisturbed velocity [7. that it can be varied afterwards. (310) where A is the thickness of the boundary layer and n a constant. the local skin friction on one side only of the At large Reynolds numbers plate at distance % from the nose by T.1/4 for the pipe friction in turbulent flow at Reynolds numbers such that This is independent of the seventhroot velocity formula holds.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 387 with nitrobenzine. standing Denote. known as the power formulae.0228 P v 1/4 w 7/4y.
. and integrate from nose to trailing edge. in order to take both sides of the plate into account. ' ' = = = = remaining back part is exposed to turbulence giving a high drag. . This result should be compared with (295). In the general case. (312) becomes Now integrating l 'xf 0144 where R= Uc/v. This drag coefficient is much greater than that for streamline flow at the same Reynolds number.0*86 Integrating /4 A J A =0235 /* 8 or A for constant fluid = 0375 /VY'B = kx\ x' 1 f * . 49 x 10 6 Taking for example R when different conditions would make the boundary layer laminar l! * or turbulent. we double T. which may similarly be written A = k'x*.388 AERODYNAMICS [CH. j (313) and speed. while the = . as we have seen. and C D former case and 00104 in the latter. the front part of the plate has a streamline boundary layer with a low mean drag. 220. Total We first Drag Coefficient assume the boundary layer to be turbulent throughout. ^/R 00038 in the 700. coefficient of the total skin friction. Equating the two expressions for A'^. R 1374. To obtain the Using (313). The turbulent part of the boundary layer increases in thickness much more rapidly along the plate than the streamline part.
161. Regarding experimental determinations of skin friction in turbuit may be noted first that v. Check from Direct Experiment lent flow. as is usual. 221. THE FRAMEWORK OF FLAT PLATE DRAG AT AERODYNAMIC REYNOLDS NUMBERS. The value 3400 is appropriate to transition at 6 5 X 10 5 it becomes 28. Kdrman's theorem will apply when u is the timeaverage velocity (we have also to include an integral for the time change of momentum within the slice of boundary layer. at which (315) must i7c/v. but this evidently vanishes). Measurements will 1 usually be made with a pitot tube. but examples show that the increase is velocity are of the order of 0016 small when. The other coefficient is determined by the transition Reynolds number. = agree with (294).IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG ' ' 389 To apply through this transition range the drag coefficient of the whole plate Prandtl has suggested for 0148 3400 R where again R 1/5 R (315) of the calculated coefficient in (314) This formula contains an empirical increase from 0144 to 0148 to secure better agreement with experiment.000 for 5 X 10 . of 0012 (314 0008 0004 FIG. . the fluctuations 5 per cent. . Since this is a pw instrument it is quite clear that the pressure within the tube will be greater than that appropriate to the timeaverage velocity.
It is desirable to assumed. These checks are successful to at compared. A second term may be added for the transiReynolds obtaining under favourable conditions with smoothly constructed and finished wings in flight. 6. Beyond the above range. 1943. Phys. Baker. Much larger transition numbers could be secured in the absence of initial turbuReynolds lence by means of a decreasing pressure along the plate. (309). as described. least 10 6 provided the coefficient in (314) is slightly increased as described. Ziets. finished nose or a very turbulent tunnel . *Blasius. The (315) are plotted other curves will careful investigations. v. Gdtt. Math. 1916 (entire transitional range) . v. for example. Kempf. March. f Aircraft Engineering. turbulent) . (316 A ) Of these. 9. Res.. the accurate application of which therefore tends to be restricted to wind tunnels and crudely designed or manufactured wings and other aircraft surfaces. smooth . Schiffbau. have been carried out with which the foregoing results be Numerous may Variations in the conditions of the experiments. Gebers. I. especially in the shape of the nose of the plate and the degree of turbulence in the oncoming stream. enable comparisons to be made with the several formulae. 1925 (high Reynolds numbers). The four formulae through be described shortly. The dotted line to the right in the figure is appropriate to the exceptionally high transition numbers exposed to the turbulent slipstreams of airscrews. flow) . a practical range of : [CH. v. N. viz. an unsuitably shaped or it is obtained simply by adjusting the second coefficient in (315). 1908 (laminar and early transitional range. /. This starts at about the extremity of the range for the simple formula (314)..P. Werft Reederei v. the formula (314) would require still further adjustment to accord approximately with experiment for completely turbulent boundary layers. n? 11 X4... Karm&a's formula is most frequently adopted in elementary calculations as it is also successful at lower Reynolds numbers if the flow is turbulent. especially those recall that constant pressure is tional range.. some of which are listed * below. 13.390 AERODYNAMICS (294). blunt nose. (Falkner)t ^ CD  00612 ^ . 66. Wieselsberger. Coll. 161. and R in Fig.L. Hafen. u. and others have therefore been suggested for high Reynolds numbers. 1921 (plates covered with fabric. 1908 (late transitional range) . The dotted curve to the left illustrates the 5 R = up x change of (315) caused by. v. (314). Ergebnisse.
 o is to extend from the surface sufficiently deeply into the fluid as to make the remainder negligible. to distance say. though the edge of the boundary layer is readily located in experiment by the method of Article 42. easily estimated closely from a plausible assumption for the velocity profile thus the profile (i) of Article 217 changes the constant coefficient of (ii) only to 174 with A 1J. One effect of retardation near the u be the surface is 8. 8 may be evaluated from the curve of Fig. In this case it comes to where the integration 8 / v \ 1/2 where x 8 the distance from the nose. 8 and 6. Let velocity (or its timeaverage) at a distance y measured normally from the surface. it is often convenient to introduce two thicknesses. Then by Article 216 y. i.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 391 221 A. particularly with turbulent flow. Displacement and Momentum Thicknesses In approximate investigations of skin friction. and let U be the velocity at the same point with potential flow. push out the streamlines of the potential flow by a and we have E78  \Udy  JWy. .e. (iii) is called the momentum thickness. due to frictional effects. of momentum crossing the normal at x can be measured in terms of another length 8 by The equating it to pt/ 8 0. Need for the step arises in the first place from the fact that. is is . 157. 8 is called the displacement thickness. Consider a particular position x along the boundary layer. For a flat plate with a laminar boundary layer. and it is thus of the order A/3. which are measures of particular properties of the velocity profile through the boundary layer. = loss. the corresponding analytical definition is rather uncertain since the loss of velocity caused by friction vanishes only asymptotically.
(vi) The numerical factor. Aerodynamic Theory. approximately. is written for U. Analysis of these results shows that. as would be anticipated from the change in shape of the velocity profile. though Now Nikuradse the profiles vary greatly little among paratively noticed that this value for turbulent flow is much smaller. which will be a function of x. The momentum thickness may also be illustrated. is readily made Form of Karman's Equation In the case of a flat plate with turbulent or laminar boundary layers along which there exists a pressure gradient. of Article 216 can then be arranged in the Kdrman's equation form* 9 U* ' ' dx Qdx* " ' w where H= 8/0. . with reference to laminar flow along the flat plate with constant pressure. 1929. V. there occurs comIt will be 14. 108. f and others have explored experimentally the for turbulent flow through slightly convergent and velocity profiles divergent channels.392 AERODYNAMICS [CH. The definitions of 8 and given by (i) and (iii) of the preceding article apply in these changed circumstances provided Q. approximated more accurate if desired. Ill.. than * f variation of H from the value themselves. Alternative for clearness. 22iB.I. .D. p. as follows. Heft 289. (307) gives T dQ W^'d* and (vii) H of Article 217 gives. vol. . Prandtl. the asymptotic but may be calculated from the velocity Q at x will differ from U normal pressures by Bernoulli's equation. a pC/ 3 \Ux/' 2 Combining with (iv) and integrating e = 2 / v x v/ (~r 3\Ux) 2> ' ' ' (v) () and eliminating x gives finally .
C D We have 00612//? H = .D. however. and only a few brief remarks will be made in this book. by the methods of Chapter VI. must. 7. friction will be most reliably estimated from pressures that have been determined experimentally.C. 222. for bluff shapes (cf. as an alternative to the experimental pressures. and other Adoption of an appropriate constant value for assumptions enable (i) to be employed in an approximate manner to to obtain estimations of practical utility. . A. the literature is compendious and specialised.R. viz. and M. Fig. No. vol. Differences become large. 1938. on integration  l/ 00131 L x = 00153 / v \ 1/7 ( \Ux/) and of Article 219 8 follows immediately.R. these differ little from those of potential flow in the case of thin streamline cylinders. an assumption must be made as to the Skin distribution of pressure. as wiU be described later. be left to further reading. which is found to be 2*59 from the preceding article. No.R. 72) It has been suggested! that. = whence. Piercy. A. We may conclude with an illustrative calculation based on Falkner's drag coefficient for turbulent flow along a flat plate with l/7 constant pressure. owing * to the thick wake. 1934 Whitehead and Tyler (being published).R. APPLICATION TO CYLINDRICAL SURFACES We could now proceed to calculate from Prandtl's equations the skin friction with laminar flow round cylinders of aerodynamicSuch calculations stop at breakaway ally interesting sections. or at transition should the latter occur before condi(Article 159). xxvi.C. and Whitehead. and M. or approximated to as closely as is possible in experiment. It will be observed that the procedure is here inverted. those of potential flow 1884. Preston Falkner. 1937. and three alternatives are available. however. which can always be obtained. In the solution of the boundary layer equations for laminar flow over curved surfaces. As already illustrated. Mag. This development of boundary tions for breakaway are reached.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 393 that for laminar flow. 1632. A. Ser. Howarth. Phil. f Piercy. which may layer theory begin with the references given below *.. assuming constant pressure.13* .
boundary layer equations becomes increasingly until soon it extends only a short distance from the nose. The chainline curve indicates. Circular experimental (d) cylinder. an already tedious calculation becomes still more involved. see also Falkner. 1896. and it cannot be used to .. the circular cylinder. Elliptic cylinder Circular cylinder. the modification consisting of an extension of the cylindrical profile backwards from the points of breakaway in order to represent the presence of the wake.394 for AERODYNAMICS [CH.f The boundary layer equations become the other hand. to take some account of the wake.* and the elliptic cylinder of fineness ratio 3. the range of an exact solution of the curtailed. as described.R. p. Flat plate. On * t Loc From experiment by Fage and cit. this has been superseded for some time where accuracy is required. The dotted curve represents the wellknown BlasiusHeimenz solution and is exact (in accordance with the pressure assumption) through the range where the dotting is close farther away from the nose it becomes increasingly unreliable. TAIL INTENSITY OF SKIN (6) tential flow pressures assumed. One of the more modern approximate solutions is is due to Falkner. 1930. . (a) BREAKAWAY FRICTION. approximately. 162 give the distribution of skin laminar boundary layers of the flat plate. (e) Piercy. though still in use. an artifically modified boundary might be used in such cases. BlasuisHeimenz solution with potential flow pressures . As the fineness ratio of the cylindrical section increases. only approximate solutions of the equations can be found. The dotted curve refers to the circular cylinder with the poNOSE FIG. and M. but. Over almost the whole profile of an aerofoil. 1941.R. Preston and Whitehead solution . 1369.C. On the other hand. 162. determination of the separation point but in its immediate vicinity the of technical importance. No. 393 . No.C. with allowance for wake. and M. Falkner. therefore. curves of Fig. Circular cylinder. determine the point of breakaway. A. (c) solution for potential flow pressures appropriate to a boundary modified.R.R. Fairly close agreement with experiment is then secured. The fullline friction along the dicated Breakaway or separation is inby the position at which the skin friction becomes zero. Of these the oldest and best known is that due to Pohlhausen. in themselves unsuitable. the theoretical of fineness ratio 3 . A. the rapid decrease of skin friction in front of this point can be estimated fairly reliably.
ties little doubt as to the approximate location In illustration of the physical nature of the difficulconfronting calculation in this region. in the shaded wedge of large velocity amplitude made easily audible the passage of vortices into the Kdrman trail (Article 160). p. and M. 162 A. Q and 6 will approximate to that for a flat plate with Piercy and Richardson.. 1938. 162 A reproduces the results of an experiment* to investigate the fluctuation of The cylinder was velocity in the neighbourhood of separation. TURBULENCE IN FLOW PAST A CIRCULAR CYLINDER. completely turbulent flow and a constant pressure. Ill. For further remarks on the assumptions involved in such applications of this equation. 222 A. loc cit. connected to an amplifier. It has been so used by Squire and Young f to estimate the skin friction of aerofoils with turbulent boundary layers. reference may be made to an article by Prandtl. p. The numbers are proportional to the amplitude of the velocity fluctuation are roughly proportional to the velocity amplitude. A.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 395 and extrapolation leaves of breakaway. % Aerodynamic Theory. 1838. the rearranged Kdrmdn equation there given is suitable for wide employment in an approximate manner.R.J The method will be explained in application to laminar flow. As mentioned in Article 22 IB. 156 et seq. .C. so that the relationship between local values of T. * t assuming that the small pressure gradients along their boundary layers at small incidences will not affect appreciably the shape of the velocity profile. 369. Fig.R. Exposing a fine hot wire. circular and the numbers attached to the contour lines in the figure AUDIBLE LIMIT> ( OVER 60 . vol._ AUDIBLE MAX WIND FIG.
* . which the above first approximation fails to predict. the rearranged equation becomes for laminar flow dQ 6 d 2 v where point. 162B. This phenomenon occurs in a region of rising pressure and retarded flow. duly yield a position of laminar separation. r= v) H= 259 at a distance and Q is the velocity appropriate to potential flow x measured round the profile from the front stagnation This equation can be integrated by means of the substitution H 2 which leads 60 ' . in view of the large variation of dpjdx in the example chosen. Kdrmdn Substituting for T from (vi) of Article 221 A. where More elaborate approximate H An equation of this form with different indices is quoted by Holt. curve (a) in Fig. Aircraft Engineering.  Piercy. Although a known constant and Q/U an applicability is restricted to small pressure gradients. f* / 0\ 2[i f 8 T 2) dX ' ' Jo \u) (il) H being 221 A x. 6 is readily ascertainable function of evaluated. as given by Young and Winterbottom in an unpublished paper. 1943. into solutions. The curve (a) deduced by (ii) from the very dissimilar one for the flat plate is seen to have the correct form over the front part of the Greater accuracy cannot be expected without elaboration cylinder.f BlasiusHeimenz solution is reproduced as a dotted curve. The curve The (b) represents the most recent solution for these pressures. it is nevertheless of interest to employ the method to estimate the distribution of skin friction round the circular The result is shown as cylinder.396 AERODYNAMICS [CH. whence T/pC/ 2 follows from (vi) of Article in accordance with what assumptions are made. the pressures for potential flow being implied in the simple formula for Q/U taken from Article 108. Whitehead and Tyler (in the Press). taking variation of account. to whence or * 2 = 4 v U W^ 1 .
Ergebn.. 162s.C. (b) Correct solution. Lfg. Falkner. 163 has been prepared..A. surface. & M.R. particularly as the conditions for breakaway are approached. .R. 223. & M. of the . * Gdtt.R.* from which Fig. (a) First approximation deduced from flat plate . Many investigations have been carried out by this means to compare the frictional drag of aerofoils and streamline bodies of revolution with that of the To take into account variation of surface area for a flat plate.C. defined by CF ' = ' 1 Frictional drag/lpt/'E . 1937. APPLICATION OF APPROXIMATE METHOD TO CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH POTENTIAL PRESSURES. 3.C. approximate methods tend to lose accuracy.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 397 4 2Vft (bl 2 90 30 120 60 ANGLE FROM FRONT STAGNATION POINT FIG. Relf and Lavender. results are expressed in terms of a coefficient given CF . Primary reference may be to the papers cited.. & M. .A. and Walker. no difficulty arises in determining the frictional drag of a body since it is only required to subtract from the weighed drag the drag due to the normal pressures. Tech. 1 199. N. 1929. chord or length. A. Jones and Williams. 394. A. & M. 597. 1928 Page. 1241. 1931.R. A. 1804. where E is the wetted be based on the length made Reynolds number continues to body. 1926 Jones (Sir Melvill). A.R.R.R..C. Although the local intensity of skin friction is not easy to measure accurately.C. Kept.R...
163. experiments allow of the prediction of flat plate by extrapolation on the assumption that it will be the same as for a symmetrical aerofoil of zero thickness the curve 3 .398 0008 AERODYNAMICS [CH.P.P. IN RELATION TO THE FLAT PLATE FRAMEWORK. and curve 5 to the airship These suggest remarkably little change of C F but a greater 101. friction and the N. thick sections R . tendency under threedimensional conditions to maintain steady flow. to streamline bodies of revolution. Still thinner aerofoils show a smaller friction. . thickness (N. The hatched area 2 includes strut sections of 2740 per cent. (4) and airships (6) thick wings and struts (3) flat plate by extrapolation airship with wholly turbulent boundary layer. These wellknown investigations were carried out before the advent of low turbulence wind tunnels or laminar flow wings. representing ordinary symmetrical aerofoils of 56 per cent. of Curves 1 (N. thickness ratio. obtained in this way. . but remain worthy of consideration both for their various aspects of permanent interest and also because (a) most wind tunnels are still fairly turbulent. It is seen that the frictional of aerofoils is greater than that of the flat plate. (1) EXPERIMENTAL FRICTION .P. (b) average wing construction falls rather short theoretical requirements for maximum delay of transition.L. 0006 0004 0002 FIG. but not drag greatly so if allowance is made for earlier transition with thick The extension of laminar flow in the boundary layers of sections. Thin wings (5) (2) .L. follow fairly well the transitional drag curve for the flat plate realised experimentally by Gebers. the hatched area 4 Turning refers to a model of fineness ratio 5.L.). is is discussed in the next chapter. and Gottingen).
which at much larger scales is less marked. if similar effect is caused by sharp longitudinal edges or ridges . with large Reynolds secured. towards exceptionally This matter is returned if necessary. The following articles merely introduce what is a wide and difficult subject whose threshold has scarcely yet been * These and similar effects can now be demonstrated visually by method (3) of Article 2 ISA. but can be applied to design only when the effective turbulence is known. smooth streams.) with turbulent boundary layer. The turbulence is then said to be more fully developed and may be expected to be a little easier to analyse. DEVELOPED TURBULENCE AND ROUGHNESS 224. the entire boundary layer becoming turbulent. this stage is approached with modern aircraft. by twodimensional testing. Since a curve of type 6 is easier to extrapolate to full scale than a transitional curve. whilst the latter depends acutely on initial turbulence. The semiempirical formulae and 220 have been noted to be subject to rather rapid change with increase of Reynolds number. 219. The same change can be effected for any streamline body by means of a turbulenceproducing screen located upstream. C F changed to curve 6. though We insufficient to accord with a wholly turbulent boundary layer.A. a notable increase of friction occurs. Another matter of importance emerges from the many experiments of the above kind that have been carried out in various If a model is suspended by a wire attached in a laboratories. Moreover.* It will be appreciated that through a very wide range of R tests on the same model in different wind tunnels with different degrees t of initial turbulence will disagree. though the increase of total friction may be considerable.A.C. Reynolds Equations of Mean Motion of Articles 197. and cannot be avoided with an airscrew in front of the surface. the edges are widely spaced. while A at laterally displaced positions the flow remains streamline. to later on. conclude that a wedge of turbulence exists behind the wire. Tests in a given tunnel usefully compare one model with another. some designers having access to only small wind tunnels have in the past But the modern trend is deliberately increased their turbulence. laminar flow region. the strips of turbulence will have limited lateral spread.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 399 On looping a thin string round the nose of the model giving curves 4. . Curve 6 agrees in an average way with tests on another model (N.
400 AERODYNAMICS [CH. uv Substituting in (317) = uv 4 **'*>' we find equations of mean motion. = v + v' f . values of u v at any point and #'. viscous stresses coexist with the turbulent stresses just assumed from experiments with pipes (cf.u'u'. Soc. 225. u' = =v = w* For rapid fluctua uu Similarly. we must add for unsteady flow to the righthand side of the first of equations (i) the term du/dt and to that of the second dv/dt. This has the disadvantage that we cannot approach the boundary. . then necessary that. the first of equations (ii) can then be written as p = (pxx pUu) 4" ^~ (Pyx P uv ) (317) and the second similarly. t. t 1894 (see Lamb's Hydrodynamics). We begin with an extract from a notable pioneering paper by Reynolds. it is that through the bulk of the flow the former are comparatively unimportant and may be neglected. so that at u It is = u 4" if '. which has proved a difficult task. f be the mean v' the fluctuations.* Referring to Article 203. the first being 3w p Ji = 3 ai $" ~ p" f ~ ' ptt w/) + 9 8>i ~P m ~ P M/U  ') ( 318 ) Comparing these approximate equations it is for turbulent flow with seen that additions to the stresses. These equations are exact. Article 197) but further development is hardly concerned with establishing a mathematical theory. Eddy Viscosity and PrandtPs Mixing Length Although found. term in each of the brackets. represented by the last (317). passed by research. Using the equation of continuity. It is also assumed that the turbulent additions to the normal stresses * Phil. Trans. where viscosity predominates. Roy. any instant there t Now let added u. are caused by the turbulence. the mean fluctuations be reckoned in the same way and indicated by a tions bar. = u* 4" 2S' f u'u' 4. but rather with inferring from observation approximate laws of sufficient generality for use beyond the realm of the original experiments.
with u a function of y only the turbulent analogue of twodimensional laminar flow. . After Boussinesq.IX] Px*> Pyy> VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 401 are of small account in determining the character of the stresses. and not a physical constant. of momentum while viscosity the molecules clearly suffer no change describing their paths. the following formula may be framed on analogy with the definition of the physically constant viscosity pi : du . Suffix Then a particle penetrating a transverse distance / causes a change of velocity u' at the new position and this is equal to l(du/dy) if / be small. / . (cf. though actually an originally twodimensional steady flow becomes threedimensional on developing turbulence. This point will be returned to. assumed that ^momentum is conserved during the time of transference and I is regarded as a mean path consistent with this is indicates mean absolute values. or sometimes the mechanical. but that a corresponding immunity cannot be Meanwhile. V=^e is called  . choosing mean motion parallel to Ox. and does not . The fluctuations are treated as if they were twodimensional. pro whence the mixing length being adjusted. 1 . assumption. its is necessary. Prandtl has drawn a parallel between the interchanges from one flow layer to another of the molar masses (or particles) in turbulent and those of molecules in laminar flow. . efficients arising . (iii) Now Prandtl assumes that i/ is induced by opposite values of u portionately great. Hence ryx = pvV = du pi/. viscosity. say. supposed it for particles. Calculation from experimental data shows e to be much greater than jx. (u) the eddy. to absorb any conot determined. as expected. if magnitude remain constant under given physical conditions. substituting a mixing length I free path of the molecules (in the jydirection) in place of the mean It must be observed that in the kinetic theory of Article 23). motion compared with those to the shearing write approximately ryx Thus we (i) = pV and investigate in the simplest possible circumstances.
Con. 135. Roy. It is not yet but v. viz. v (320) ' dy* in favour of the one easy to decide from experimental evidence completely scheme or the other. 1934. Taylor suggested that.. v. f.. < M2 v > A bar) more convenient form of this result is (dropping the suffix and r *i* =  (duldyY **$> < 828 > The quantity on the lefthand side has the dimensions of a velocity. . Kdrman's Theory In order to carry (319) further v. scales of time and length only varying. if in fact viscous effects are negligible as assumed. is often referred to as the friction velocity. VWp). . pu'. publication was in 1930. Substituting in (319) . Internat. (Cambridge). App. . Kdrmin has introduced the hypothesis that in every region of the turbulent motion the local flow patterns are statistically similar. A. . while the ^momentum of the particles may change during transference. (324) * Proc.. known how far the similarity assumption can be K&rm&n f has applied it to the case of turbulent to radius. Mech. In this case T is proportional and replacing it by the skin friction enables (323) to be integrated. 1932. I. / .. . =  . 226. ' v 321) ' a number. Its boundary value. Exchange between the layers of the mean flow of vorticity rather than of momentum leads to a different scheme for determining a mixing length from experimental data. Then a first approximation to / is obtained as r=7i where x is *u/dy* . Similarity 227. giving approximately tt = ^llog  . their vorticity will remain constant. y dz u ji. He obtains the equation do dx It is not yet .402 AERODYNAMICS [CH. f These results are taken for the most part from a paper in the Proc. Returning now to the question raised in the preceding * has article. flow through pipes of circular section. to which reference should be made original . G. Sac. justified.
whence u /(Wp) X /. or. . . . The above as VELOCITY PROFILES (EXAGGERATED) FOR SMOOTH AND ROUGH WALLS OF EQUAL RESISTANCE. The value of x deduced from observation appears MAXIMUM FOR to vary between 036 and 041 the value used in (327) is 039. Skin Drag An assumption involved in the : preceding article is that for turbulent flow through pipes the quantity um ~ u t where um is the maximum . Some other results that can be deduced are in good agreement with recent experiment at great Reynolds numbers. 1 .IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 403 where 8 is a constant of dimensions L. v. const. With a smooth wall 8 depends on T O p and v. Experiments with rough pipes give greater resistance for a given flux than with smooth pipes. and may be replaced by the quantity . a denoting the radius of the pipe. mean velocity (at the mean velocity the axis) and u at radius r. is a function of v\a only. put another way. (326) This logarithmic formula is suggested in place of the corresponding power formula already considered when very high Reynolds numbers are concerned. KclrmAn finds the approximate V(2/C F ) Making use where C F of experiment =x log (7?C F ) + const. x V/>V/(T O /P). 228. 164. : const. 05 mean velocities at the same radii are much smaller. (326) 1/VC F is = 415 log lo (RC ) (327) defined in Article 223. Carrying over to flat plates with the help of a further assumption explained in the next formula : article. ( \ 10 g  + . a rough pipe exerts the same resistance T O as a smooth one of the same diameter when the O FIG.
85. resistance asymptotic conditions when almost wholly comprised of form drag. clear. Blasius's and similar approximate laws for smooth surA pipe that is faces may now be distinguished as smoothturbulent. A number of experiments with pipes and channels of different roughness.. though near the walls it be greatly may different (Fig. v. whose surface is. sumption requires the profile across the section of the mean velocity to be exactly the same even in two such dissimilar cases. Soc. finally approximating closely to a velocitysquared law. or may be regarded as. used TO to denote this resistance however it arises. the grains lying wholly within the viscous film. A quite different variation of TO with R is found for rough pipes.404 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Increasing the grain size causes earlier departure and a higher final C F . for geometrically similar roughness the formula Formula (325) is inappropriate for is .* show this to be approximately true except near the walls . beginning with those of Stanton. Reynolds number it begins to depart from this law. . this state appears Roy. and is evidently determined by some parameter k Karm&n suggests. specifying the degree of roughness. therefore. i. 164). for equal resistance the u is the same through the bulk of the stream velocity defect um for equal values of r/a. This sum is termed skin drag. With perfect smoothness TO is determined by the boundary value of the velocity gradient through the viscous film lining the walls. Yet the mechanism of the transverse transport of momentum appears to remain approximately the same through the bulk of the flow and independent of the mechanism We have by which resistance is communicated to the surface. T O will depend on both v and k * Proc.e. . . 1911. But at some considerable . has a drag coefficient which at first follows the smoothturbulent variation. as expected. (328) But what precisely is meant by k is not yet quite More generally. A. The gradient in the vicinity of a sufficiently rough wall is much less for the same value of T O the remaining part of the resistance being due to form drag arising on the protuberances that project beyond the viscous film. more or slightly rough. less uniformly covered with very fine grains. being nearly independent of v. but with sufficient roughness it is no longer a pure skin friction but the sum of frictional and form drag components.
increases drag by onehalf for R = * f Werft. at low speeds. Relf. 15. Although TO may then be much flow. according to the explanation given. but a thin boundary layer makes it Aerodynamically coarsely rough. roughness might be expected to have greater significance towards the front than towards the back of the upper surface of a wing.D. 1929.  . experiment in compressedair wind tunnels on aerofoils f and airship models.  165 gives of view qualitative general results of a the experi ments so surface far published.A. Hafen. Application to Aircraft Surfaces Prandtl and Schlichting * have applied tests on rough pipes to flat Similar effects have also been found in direct plates. FIG. t 1936. A is smooth. 394.. or. 1934. r turbulent friction law) (2) ugh.A. Tech. 165. Inst. Schrenk. Hocker. Tech. and the increases of drag at stake are important. N. to such sparsely distributed roughness as the remaining projections of countersunk rivet heads. (1) meaning divorced from the thickness Of the boundary layer. 1933 J Abbot.} and on aeroplane surf aces flight.. V. if skin friction aerodynamically it exerts a pure . Aerodynamic smoothness is not easy to secure at the Reynolds numbers of highspeed aircraft or compressedair tunnels. Reed.A. likely to affect the practical case.e. Jahrb.A. the velocitysquared range so far explored. (3) completely rough wavy . highspeed aircraft this entails a lacquer finish. R. N. Investigations are not sufficiently advanced to take account of several factors For instance. 467. James Forrest Lec. that of the viscous sublayer. doped fabric be regarded as smooth.C. may Thus. or partly (4) very rough. on highspeed craft.E. more explicitly. if its resistance coefficient follows a smoothturbulent law. 1931.L.IX1 VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 405 to be realised with wellseparated grains or a waviness of surface. Thus a grain size amounting to no more than 0005 in. i.. Aerodynamically smooth surface (smooth. Waviness effects may be due. but roughness has little With QUALITATIVE ILLUSTRATION OF ROUGHNESS EFFECTS. greater than for smoothturbulent law need not be approached within the 229.C. in Fig. N.C..
essential experiments. Application to Model Experiment A per ally model sec. and it is frequently necessary to add conwings siderably to extrapolated tunnel measurements of the drag coefficient easily ensured culties now on the aircraft. According to the above. the permissible roughness the drag to be a pure skin friction is so small a grain size as ' 00005 in. in order to take account of greater effective roughness at full scale. is on the model. the permissible roughness at full scale would be O'OOl in. More frequently tunnel tests on model wings are carried out at and applied at full scale with R 10 The question of geometrical similarity is not so urgent. The requirement of smoothness of this high order is faced regarding models for compressedair tunnels. approximately. but calls. ~ still in progress. since dynamical similarity is not attained. the following provisional empirical formula has been suggested as fitting some experiments within the range of Aerodynamic interest : = logio iC F = 0188 / Iog ( k 10 f \ \ c 10). [CH. 230. are .p. or. for special care in manufacture. R would be 63 x 10 8 . provided Rk > 100.h.. since Rk These results are given as indicating in a roughly approximate way the great importance of the effects concerned in connection with Aerodynamic calculations and must be regarded as of temporary value . ' x in the for 10 At about these Reynolds numbers with speeds neighbourhood of 200 m. the necessity for geometrical similarity would entail reduction on the model to about 000013 in.406 5 AERODYNAMICS 1C 6 7 . for a craft capable of 200 ft. . If k is the size of each of the granules which may be regarded as constituting a completely rough surface. Since pure skin friction at R k C F depends little on /?. of course. / . could be tested in a compressedair tunnel under dynamic similar conditions. but is beginning to present diffiAt small lift coefficients the induced drag of tends to vanish. kfc is the ' relative roughness number/ thereafter and Rk = t/Jb/v is the roughness Reynolds According to some experiments the drag ceases to be a ' ' 100 to a first approximation. Assuming this quite practical limit to be realised. on which proper analysis depends. . (329) R Jc/c provided k/c > 100/R. of a small aeroplane wing. but it may be noted that Aerodynamic smoothness 5 R< x 10 6 > 7 . of chord c.
The investigation outlined is. will show whether the boundary layer is in a streamline. laborious. allowance must be made for It is seen to be a question of circumstances fullscale roughness. along the smoothturbulent curve in the second. Inspection of the C F variation with R. until roughness supervened. check this prediction by direct experimental evidence from largescale tests at zero incidence. The investigations of the present chapter suggest the following method of estimating the fullscale C D of a wing at zero C L from smallscale measurements. but when a few examples have been worked out in a given tunnel. Collection of such data constitutes what is meant by quent intimate acquaintance with a particular tunnel. Subtracting the proper integration of these enables C F to be determined. Model experiments are frequently corrected. the assumption being that increase of the * The turbulence on especially apt in the oncoming streams of wind tunnels is finely grained and this score to hasten transition in boundary layers. being characterised by a much larger scale. inspection of the CD R curve alone will often give sufficient information in subsecases.IX] VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG 407 Before smallscale measurements can be extrapolated. in comparison with the various laws described above. But it is advisable to 161. With this information it is possible to construct a special extrapolation curve on the framework provided . gaining Comparisons of observations in a given tunnel with experiments in fullscale flight suggest the possibility of a socalled turbulence factor for that tunnel. evidence regarding the implied decrease may be sought by again experimenting under twodimensional conditions with a slice of the wing of 5ft. or turbulent state in the given tunnel. in anticipation of a larger transition Reynolds number being realised in free flight. but the scale effect estimated for the friction may be applied to the original measurements of C D .by Fig. of course. it is necessary to know. Determine the normal pressures through a similar range of scale. Natural turbulence in the atmosphere. . assuming Aerodynamic smoothness. 163 shows that at R = be wholly streamline or almost wholly turbulent extrapolation of the friction would be along the transition curve in the first case and . Finally. or more chord in the tunnel. therefore. the effective initial turbulence of the tunnel stream. Measure C D through a range of R including the highest value obtainable. together with the actual values obtained for this coefficient. permits of delay. 5 x 10 5 the model boundary layer might Fig. the estimate of scale effect may be regarded as conservative . whether C F is greater or less for the model or the fullscale wing.* If the form drag is left unchanged. taking two extreme cases. in addition to fullscale roughness. Thus. transitional.
AERODYNAMICS give an flight ' [CH. of which the most important is whether a single factor could apply to phenomena of different kinds. . IX ' number by this factor will number at which agreement with Reynolds It is also effective tests can be critical hoped to determine the factor by some such as that on a sphere described in Article 65. and the conception remains tentative. Many questions arise.408 tunnel Reynolds expected. test.
Breakaway may still occur but at least is delayed. based on the results of experiments at the N. Normal Profile Drag Profile drag is defined as the The term is reserved to aerofoils sum of skin friction and form drag. Such sections are likely to be superseded in the near future but are meanwhile distinguished by the term normal/ Thus each normal aerofoil can be regarded without much error as having.L. but breakaway occurs at certain positions round the section. 409 . indicates the relative magnitudes of skin friction and form drag at Reynolds numbers in the neighbour hood * of 1 million. a particular value of C DO appropriate to the Reynolds number. and determinable directly under twodimenthis is not ' The result is sional conditions. 165A. depending upon shape and incidence. The corresponding coefficient CDO is expressed on wing area and may be estimated for a threedimensional aerofoil by subtracting a calculated coefficient of induced drag from the total drag coefficient.Chapter IX A REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 230 A. No.* and is commonly prevented altogether at small incidences by turbulent mixing.R. with a series of KirmdnTrefftz sections. At low Reynolds numbers the boundary layer of an aerofoil is entirely laminar. it is approximately independent of the lift coefficient provided this is not large. 1937. and results in a At higher Reynolds numbers transition to turbularge form drag. 1766. and wings. approximately independent of aspect ratio provided very small.R. through a fairly wide range of flying incidences. and M. is much increased by transition. for aerofoil sections of the type universally employed until recently. though the considerations of this chapter apply in principle to all streamlined bodies. Skin friction.P. on the other hand. There was apparently no breakaway but only a for a sphere are given Experimental details by Page.C. A. In any case form drag is reduced. of laminar lence usually takes place in the boundary layer before the positions breakaway can be reached. Again. Fig.
R. They agree fairly well with Fig. R. thickened diffusion of vorticity towards the tail. Jones and Williams. 04 FORM DRAG FRICTION 0004 C D (FORM) 0002 02 10 15 5 THICKNESS (PER CENT CHORD) 20 25 FIG. 1938. 1804. 1938 see also Page. are averaged results for various aerofoils. & M.410 AERODYNAMICS [CH. respectively. No.C. 1838. The curves of Fig.f Considering normal sections at a lift coefficient. 165B for CDO at Reynolds numbers of 1. A. these authors assumed transition to occur at various distances up to 038 chord behind the nose and estimated by small approximate calculation the consequent variation of * t profile drag. The reduction of C DO to be expected on this score has been investi in the FlG. gated by Squire and Young. in 2xl07 PIERCY AEROFOIL The enclosed points figure will the be referred to later.R. but not very rapidly.P.C. tested * by the pitot traverse method at zero lift incidence in the com0012 tunnel at the pressedair aoio N. . The curves would be modified by increase of scale.R.C. 165B. No.L. and are fairly typical of normal aerofoils in wind tunnels except at small scales. 0004 LAMINAR FIAT PLATt OtK)2 Flight experiments on normal wings show that turbulence 005 010 015 0*20 "025 THICKNESS RATIO boundary layer sets in more sharply and at a rather transition larger Reynolds number than in the case of a model in a wind tunnel. A. . 1852.R. 165A and may be regarded as representative of good normal aerofoils in tunnels of R10 Ot)06 7 moderate turbulence. & M No.R.R. FORM DRAG OF JOUKOWSKI SYMMETRICAL AEROFOILS 6 AT R= 10 . A. 166A. British and American. 1937. 10 and 20 million. & M.
(a) mathematical studies aimed at determining the optimum shape for a wing section of given thickness. We have seen in the last article . in the frictional drag. mechanically or otherwise. These two methods are outlined separately below. At 0012 (b) the change in the figure is shown in the distribution of skin friction following an extreme displacement of the transition point for the upper surface of a normal the aerofoil. The Problem of Reduction Until recently there appeared little promise of substantially less values of C DO than those recorded in the preceding article. 2308. Curve (1) refers to a thickness ratio of 014. with the fixed profiles investigated. increasing the OO04 0002 02c DISTANCE 04c O6c 03 c FROM MOSE above FIG. The authors also found. and then the curves at (a) suggest a decrease of about 20 per cent. In addition to testing numbers of different aerofoil sections in the hope of discovering an abnormally good one. curve to a thickness ratio of 025. minimising profile drag into the problem has never been interrupted. 165c. viz. later. Neveris of such importance that research theless. (b) improvement of the boundary layer flow by operating directly large upon it. from close behind O O2c nose in a very turbulent wind tunnel or airscrew slipstream (dotted line) to 04 chord behind the nose in free flight under favourable conditions (full <Mc O6c DISTANCE OF TRANSITION POINT FROM NOSE 0008 line). and the Reynolds number is The extension of these curves for transition points at greater distances than 038 chord behind the nose is referred to (2) 10 million. A change of about half this 0006 amount can often be anticipated. but the principle primarily involved is the same. more scientific methods have also been employed for some years.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 411 The front parts of the two curves in Fig. improvement. 165c (a) give the coefficient of (single surface) frictional drag for the surface only. a diminution of form drag with backward displacement of transition. according upper to these calculations.
the practical standard in feasibility of the method calls for an exceptionally high the construction and surface finish of wings. 165c (a) have been extended to illustrate this. Transition. in applying the principle. though the process rather beyond the scope of this book and the conformal methods introduced in Chapter VI. Laminar separation can be calculated from . may be expected to halve the skin friction. as already described. stood. at the end of the chapter. methods will eventually be used in conjunction with one another. or other means. Moreover. A flat . first principles is approximately. The most promising form of method (b) incurs pump and duct losses which have to be minimised. the saving in profile drag is likely to be large. that a restricted displacement of the transition point effects a If the restriction can be considerable saving in frictional drag. The curves of Fig. however. has already been mentioned (Article 159). and an important instance is the maintenance Its effect on laminar separation of a negative pressure gradient. while the following experiment by Dryden illustrates its effect on transition. the profile for minimum drag cannot be carried to excess Reshaping without introducing other disadvantages. Early Example (a) In applying method to delay both laminar separation to the present problem the primary aim is and transition so that the latter only just anticipates the former and occurs as far back from the nose as is possible without incurring penalties in matters other than drag. subsonic speeds. arise. is less perfectly under Some factors tending to delay both phenomena are easily seen to be of the same nature. removed without undue increase of form drag. on the other hand.412 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Compressibility is neglected in the following articles. Displacing the transition point from 02 to 06 chord behind the nose. Method (a) finds further application. however. and depends in the end upon the mechanical reliability Various difficulties In all probability the two of plant installed in the aeroplane. can be employed to shape wing profiles in such a way as to yield farback positions of this breakaway. for instance. in minimising profile drag at high This rather different problem is briefly discussed LAMINAR FLOW WINGS 2300.
or may be expected in prevent them developing. small irregularities of the wing surface taking the place of the initial turbulence of the windtunnel stream in producing disturbances.. . either this value of C DO should be increased slightly or the values for the three curves in the figure reduced As the point stands slightly. the result shown in Fig. Wilbur Wright Lecture. 92c). and gave. The magnitude of the negative pressure gradient necessary to damp out such disturbances. normal is This the type thus introduced are called laminar flow their values of C DO may require an exceptionaerofoils. stream or flight experiments. therefore. see Fig.L. was tested at zero incidence in the compressedair tunnel at the N. The advantage disappeared at large scales but this is known to have been due to initial turbulence square. the improvement was too great to be accounted for even the total elimination of form drag. In 1939 a Piercy aerofoil of the simple family described in Article 128.P. R. will depend upon their magnitude and nature and probably upon whether laminar separation or transition would otherwise result. and the transition Reynolds number much greater. the lowest recorded value of C for a normal aerofoil DO with which it can be compared is shown as the point enclosed in a number The improvement achieved by the Piercy aerofoil is thus than some 35 per cent. and eliminating this pressure gradient decreased the transiReynolds number of plate tested in a moderately turbulent x tion Reynolds effect number by 40 per cent.Ae. not less in the stream. 165B as an encircled to differences arising from the method of point. 92c. Owing testing. Aerofoils of To measure *Relf. at a Reynolds of 1 million. whilst by actually the form drag could not have been less than about onethird normal. than for aerofoils or the flat plate under the given conditions. Wind tunnels specialised ally steady to the purpose are often called laminar flow tunnels and were introduced in America.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 18 413 wind tunnel gave a transition 10 8 in the presence of the small negative pressure gradient caused by the thickening boundary layers of the tunnel. with the maximum thickness of its section located at 04 chord behind the nose (see Fig.* The measured value of C DO being less than that for a flat (thickness ratio zero in the figure) at the same Reynolds number plate in the same tunnel. in the figure. A qualitatively similar flight. It immediately became apparent. explained by the exposure of a greater length of profile to a sufficiently falling pressure.S. 1946. that the skin friction was much less.
e. 2300. to be determined with accuracy except towards the tail. and potential flow theory finds an important application in enabling the effects of shape variations. preservation of maximum lift and of control. which may require its maximum thickness to be located nearer to the tail than the nose. facilitates these calculations whilst protecting the profile from sudden changes of curvature. Modi shape for examination by potential flow calculations be suggested by experiment. whilst the original Piercy is profiles become sharp at the nose when the maximum thickness located midway along the chord. .g. which in its highly developed modern form can encompass even such cases as the flapped wing. if suitable tunnels are availmay able. or as a result of collateral boundary layer investigations. . yielding an exact method for extending potential flow calculations to extreme variations of profile shape. if necessary. . The laminar flow wing is not a particular design but a concept exerting a directive influence on the problem of shaping the The conditions profile for minimum drag under given conditions. Conformal transformation. Additional parameters are necessary to remove this and other A generalisation to provide nine restrictions to shape variation. The process of design is intimate. the problem of finding the optimum shape for given conditions is widened. With the profile thus made indefinitely variable. upon the maximum lift coefficient and form drag.414 AERODYNAMICS [CH. are specified by practical needs or exigencies. has been effected by the author and Whitehead. But the family is insufficient for the full development of the laminar flow wing. or more parameters. the advantage of reproducing at once a generally satisfactory section provided the position of maximum thickness is not set back farther than 042 chord from the nose Adjustment of the position within this practical limit is rendered possible by the fact that the family has two shape parameters in place of the single parameter of the Joukowski family. which include : restriction coefficient of pitching moment. however small or large. structural requirements and constructional Waviness or roughness of surface must not be very laminar flow sections serve no useful purpose for unfavourable made wings or in the slipstreams of airscrews and the roughly surface must be kept clean. The simple family of aerofoils inverted from the hyperbola has deficiencies. fications of Experiment to determine is in effects any case necessary in some connections.
In the symmetrical case it is restricted to small lift coefficients. : .C.R. Ae. Incidence Effect Casual inspection of pressure diagrams shows an acute dependence upon lift coefficient and the new aerofoils are not exceptional in this Yet to be of practical interest laminar flow wings must respect. Again. of calculating profiles which would reproduce pressure distributions specified beforehand from experimental or analogous considerations for the reverse process. Fig. The paper by Relf (loc. Preliminary Piercy. It is too early to compare the advantages and disadvantages. reference may be made to Theodorsen and It is understood that (ii) relied to a Garrick. so that all the wing and suggestions for profiles belonged to a single. (ii) in America.* the above generalisation be assumed.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 416 will In the following brief introduction. : : . positive and negative. 413) may be consulted for a description of (i). as shown at camber. Whitehead and descriptions of (iii) are contained in the A. as shown dotted. and only the barest introduction can be given in this book to a development which is prominent amongst those likely to improve aviation appreciably. the development of laminar flow aerofoils during the war was pursued (i) at the National Physical Laboratory. Reports and Piercy and Whitehead.A. where it appears that Goldstein evolved an approximate method. though very extensive. and (iii) in the author's temporary research school at Cambridge. and at (b) the modification produced by a laminar flow The interval of CL through which C DO is symmetrical section. 1933. Report No. 2266. maintain a long negative pressure gradient through a sufficient range of lift coefficient to cover ordinary variations of speed. by the addition of suitable * So far as is yet generally known. or simply the favourable range. of these various methods. 1942 Ae. The procedure in (iii) was to employ the exact method 1943 mentioned in the text above for the potential flow calculations. family shape variation were derived largely from mathematical investigations of the . Ae. . Ae. the achievements and shortcomings. the potential theory of the arbitrary profile.A. but can be sufficiently widened. N. 1941 Garrard.C. the mean value of CL in the favourable range can be displaced from zero. p. cit. considerable extent upon experiment in laminar flow wind tunnels. (c) in the figure. 2246. based on Thin Aerofoil Theory. 1890. 1943. reduced is often called the favourable range of lift coefficient. 1889. 452. boundary layer flow. altitude and wingloading. for application to fin and rudder design. 165D applies to ordinary flying (a) lift coefficients and shows at the approximately constant profile drag coefficient of normal wings. 23 oE.
the velocity at the edge of the boundary layer expressed in terms of the undisturbed velocity. Laminar flow can survive a small localised reversal of a strongly negative gradient. For skin friction to be a minimum. both at favourable q I // U ro /f"\^ ' lift coefficients. 165E refer to the upper surfaces of cambered a is aerofoils. 165E. . forwardly peaked form. NOSE increased further. The The differ A// ^/<^\ ence bet ween these two curves is characteristic. the velocity curves on both surfaces should be of the type b and d. This system is adopted in the following figures. new aerofoils are often exhibited by means diagrams of the velocity ratio q/U. But the lift coefficient for the unsatisfactory curve e is now less than that for the satisfactory curve d. Curve d in the lower part of the figure refers to the undersurface of a laminar flow section and again differs essentially from the corresponding curve / for a normal section. Curve 12 ' ^ typical of normal sections and curve b of laminar flow sections. Outside this range the profile drag reverts rapidly to normal.e. The three curves a. as indicated at c. Thus the favourable range is determined by the interval between the values of the lift coefficient at which the reversals shown near c and e first become appreciable. b. the boundary layer reattaching itself to the aerofoil surf ace after brief separation. c. Curve e applies to the laminar flow section at an unfavourable lift coefficient. and in practice there would be little to choose between the two sections at the higher lift coefficient.416 Characteristics of the of AERODYNAMICS [CH. posi tions of the marking letters throughout the figure indicate where transition is to be expected. As the 08 1 lift coefficient is TAIL FIG. in the upper part of Fig. the negative pressure gradient implied by curve b is progressively reduced and ultimately suffers a reversal near the nose. but in such circumstances as are depicted by curve c laminar flow is impossible over the major Curve a would also become modified to a part of the profile. i. the former as incidence is increased and the latter as it is decreased.
but we may suppose that excellence of construction demands a further reduction of CD0 The position of maximum velocity could be set considerably farther back by thickening the section a little in the regions of its We assume. resulting in the section and velocity curve shown by thick fulllines. a matter which . It is therefore decided to locate the . It follows that to be effective in flight the Examples of Shape Effects illustrate preliminary steps in the design of a successful laminar flow profile.IX A] REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 417 magnitude of the negative pressure gradient must be sufficient not only to overcome disturbances caused by slight roughness or inequalities of the wing surface but also to provide for change of incidence. we consider in the first place the typical problem To may of improving the symmetrical section distinguished by the thin fullline in Fig. Three instances will be given of Is the new section satisfactory ? further modifications worth consideration. becomes too weak. diagram. position of maximum thickness considerably farther back. this is already a laminar flow section. The negative pressure gradient is extended without unduly decreasing its magnitude. (1) The sharp knee probably signifies can be investigated by calculating parts of the velocity curves in the velocity curve close behind the nose an unduly small favourable range. As will be seen from the corresponding velocity FIG. that on front and rear thirdchord points. 23oF. however. 165F. though trying extended. this expedient the favourable pressure gradient. 165F.
the section must be slightly thinned between the trailing edge and the position of maximum thickness. Assuming that the knee develops rapidly. Proper parts investigation other than by experiment is complicated. and part of the stabilisation must be effected by reflexure of the camberline towards the tail. as illustrated by the improved upon dotted lines towards the tail. break away and increase form drag the ailerons decrease ? Assuming that special tests or calculations . . it must be rounded at zero incidence. if a fairly thin section requires appreciable camber whilst its maximum thickness is located nearer to the tail than the nose. however. the crest of the camberline cannot be advanced as far towards the nose as considerations of pitching moment would suggest without introducing a concavity. (2) The tail of the new section is blunt. There is a consequent loss of maximum lift coefficient. and this may be achieved by sharpening the nose a little. would it be suitable to carry the modification further by making the back part of the profile strongly concave ? This question may be concave back considered apart from awkwardness of manufacture have often been suggested for laminar flow aerofoils. Interest there is usually little choice as to the camber to employ. The new velocity curve is likely to be the whole by this change. as in Fig. Will the back part of the boundary layer. which must be verified to be negligible or of acceptable amount. (3) Assuming that the improvement expected under (2) is realised. but there is easily seen to be a risk of unstable flow arising. The loss of maximum lift coefficient associated with this reflexure may lead to designs in which the crest of the camberline is edged so far forward as to cause a flat on the front part of the undersurface. raising two associated questions. The mean lift coefficient for the favourable range and other common requirements being specified in advance. Geometrically. . Camber and Pitching Moment The amount of camber has a special significance in the case of laminar flow aerofoils. as shown by the dotted lines near the nose. in this region for a few small angles of incidence.418 AERODYNAMICS [CH. from the streamlines becoming convex towards layers in which energy has been dissipated through friction. as described in Article 207. centres rather in adjusting the shape of the camberline to reduce the moment coefficient whilst preserving a sufficient favourable range. though will the power of turbulent. return rather unfavourable replies to these questions.
It would appear feasible to reenergise such air by means of backwardly directed jets under pressure. ailerons. if sufficiently strong brings air unaffected by viscosity towards the surface to begin <* new boundary The action can be repeated farther downstream. both the aerofoil surfaces would be given surface is increased. having The argument may be put another way. if necessary. Fig. lift is added forward of the quarterchord point and subtracted aft of that point. air in the boundary layer being unable to proceed very far against a rising pressure. 165E illustrates the effect conservatively. Apart from considerations of pitching moment. If local suction is used to prevent transition. In order to minimise the moment. a less slope than curve d. but the gradient along the underof the uppersurface reduces the The consequent FIG. concerned with improving the operation of existing Laminar flow aerofoils without necessarily modifying their shape. sections are included since their development is otherwise limited by bluntness of tail boundary layer control can prevent consequent breakaway. The same process serves to prevent transition to turbulence. is .IX A] 165o. The method control. as shown m . layer. REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG 419 increase of curvature along the front half magnitude of the negative pressure gradient along that surface. curve b the same pressure gradient. a new boundary layer being started when transition becomes imminent. More usually. therefore. restricting form drag and conserving the efficiency of 2300. and the lift would be more or less evenly distributed over a large part of the chord. 165G. a change that clearly requires much the velocity curves to be adjusted in the manner described. thorough scavenging appears to be necessary order that the following boundary layer shall be laminar. and their exhausting action. the deenergised air is removed by sucking it into ducts within the wing. Breakaway results from ' ' tired The strong suction required to remove an entire boundary layer implies large pumping and duct losses. Long narrow apertures or slits may be located for the purpose close behind regions of expected breakaway. but such jets tend to break up. BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL known as boundary layer (b) of Article 230B.
and reliability of the methods by which 230!!. vol. Alternatively to the use of isolated slits. 165H. the difficulty lies in markable results are easy to produce . But if most of the wing profile is already under laminar flow and only breakaway is to be prevented. Many practical applications of boundary layer control have been concerned with the delay of stalling. as we have already seen. provided the general flow closes in fairly satisfactorily. p. . particularly before starting a research. it has often been proposed to maintain an exhausting action upon the whole of the boundary Prandtl * considers the case layer through a porous wingcovering. 117 arbitrary potential flow can be generated . establishing the economy they are obtained. 165H. Fig. 165i.420 AERODYNAMICS [CH. schematically for the upper surface of the aerofoil in Fig. the condition of the boundary layer behind the slits may be of small importance. and this may be achieved without dealing with so large a flux (lower surface in the Slits have also been tried in the neighbourhood of the nose. This aspect comes within the purview of the present chapter since stalling usually results from a rapid forward movement of breakaway. and the profile drag is the sum of the skin frictions and form drags of the component members In a modern form each resolved parallel to the direction of motion. It has often been proposed to apply slots to small incidences in the case of large wings. The result may be achieved by suction methods or. The conception leads to a succession of small wings forming a kind of cascade. by slots. figure). as well to realise. 'In all by the use cases it can be proved that an of suitable suction methods/ . preventing which not only maintains lift but also avoids large increase of profile drag. in which the distributed action is sufficiently powerful over regions of increasing pressure as to keep the boundary layer to a constant thickness and indicates how design calculations may proceed on this basis. that publications on boundary layer control cover only a very small it is But fraction of the work that has been carried out on this subject in many Reaeronautical laboratories during the past twentyfive years. Subsequent reading must be relied upon for further information. FIG. Ill. * Aerodynamic Theory.
IX A]
REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG
421
member would be
first
designed for laminar flow with due regard, in the to the resultant velocity and pressure fields caused by the place, other members. The schematic figure indicates that the wake of
each component aerofoil is carried clear above following aerofoils. Air of undiminished energy is brought to each aerofoil by a process reverse to that described in the preceding article, avoiding the need
FIG. I65i.
for
pumps and ducts. For small profile drag, the complete wing should comprise a sequence of long laminar boundary layers interrupted by short lengths of turbulent boundary layers, and a series of small form drags. The external flow is not entirely irrotational but contains turbulent layers of vorticity, one of the effects of which may be to produce fluctuations in the boundary layers, calling for
stronger negative pressure gradients.
230!.
Prediction of Lift
of
The advent
circulation.
wing sections with blunt
tails
renews interest in
of predicting the
alternatives to Joukowski's hypothesis as a
means
Eventual breakaway may be permitted with some laminar flow wings, and cannot be prevented if the pumping installation should fail with wings depending upon some types of boundary In such circumstances Joukowski's hypothesis canlayer control. not be applied to a thick section with confidence. The problem is in general difficult but progress becomes possible if laminar separation can be assumed, a condition formerly realised only at small Reynolds numbers but which may now be approached in some fullscale cases. Betz showed that the flux of vorticity across any normal section of the boundary layer is proportional to the square of the velocity From this theorem and the reflection that in a steady at its edge. state vorticity must be transported into the wake equally from the
two
be
sides of the aerofoil, Howarth * proposed that the circulation so determined as to make the velocities just outside the boundary
K
layer equal at the two points of breakaway. So far, this criterion has not proved very successful, owing possibly to the necessary
*
Proc, Roy. Soc., A, vol. 149, 1935.
422
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
breakaway and unequally on the two sides of the aerofoil. Another method has accordingly been proposed * which is founded upon considerations affecting the wake only, so that all the vorticity from the aerofoil is included, and is related to the requirement f that the circulation round any circuit enclosing part of the wake only and cutting through it at rightangles must be zero. The application of this method to an elliptic cylinder of fineness ratio
neglect of production of vorticity behind the points of
c:
64 will be briefly indicated, leaving the original paper to be consulted for further details.
Fig. 165j shows at (a) the approximate positions of laminar separation at various incidences a. The wake behind these points varies in thickness, finally gradually expanding by the diffusion of Small variations in the vorticity .so that streamlines cross into it.
shape and thickness of the wake are found to affect the problem only negligibly and, as an approximation, the thickness is assumed to be
approximately equal to the projected distance between the points of
*
t
Piercy, Preston and Whitehead, loc. cit., p. 219. Taylor*(Sir Geoffrey) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A, vol. 225, 1&25.
IX A]
separation,
lines.
REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG
423
and the edges of the wake to be parallel to the streamThis involves that, along the wake, the velocities at its edges
are equal at opposite points, leading to an unique value for K. The method is essentially one of successive approximation since the
positions of laminar separation themselves
depend upon K.
the figure the fullline reproduces the lift curve so calculated and comparison is made with a windtunnel experiment on the cylinder by Page * at a Reynolds number of 017 million. It will be seen that the stalling angle is predicted with some accuracy. Again, the difference at smaller incidences is partly due to initial
(b) in
At
turbulence in the tunnel and the approximate nature of the calculations. Whiteheadf has reexamined the method in relation to a cambered aerofoil of the family described in Article 133A and found
good agreement with experiment until past the stall at a sufficiently low Reynolds number as to ensure laminar flow in the tunnel used.
HIGH SPEEDS
230}. Compressibility effects at subsonic speeds have already been discussed. Experimental evidence suggests a progressive increase of C DO but also that the increment is small until the critical Mach
,
is approached. Minimising the increment is of little importance compared with that of delaying the occurrence of shock. The shock wave forms near the position of maximum velocity, before moving backwards with an accompanying change of the pressure distribution over the profile.
number
principal consideration in profile design for high speeds is to maximum velocity ratio, which compressibility itself If the assumption is made that the shock wave forms increases.
The
reduce the
velocity attains to the local velocity of sound, the maximum permissible velocity ratio appropriate to incompressible flow for shock to be avoided at a given Mach number is caleasily
when the maximum
thus an incompressible flow velocity ratio of 120 involves on this basis a critical Mach number of only 073. The following maximum velocity ratios are typical of laminar flow sections having a thickness ratio of 015 chord
result is rather
;
:
culated.
The
low
Camber
Maximum
position of
*
(per cent, of chord) velocity ratio ..
.
.
1
2
128
3
..
118
123
133
These figures can be improved upon with a less backwardly displaced maximum thickness or a less pressure gradient, and
A.R.C.R.
&
M. 1097, 1927.
f
Ph.D.
thesis,
London, 1939.
424
AERODYNAMICS
But
[CH. IX
A
laminar flow sections restricted in this
speeds than are normal sections.
way are more suitable for high
for the
is
above thickness the
maximum
theoretical
velocity ratio even for an ellipse
115,
and the absolute
urgent need for
minimum
is
about 114.*
a drastic reduction of
Thus there thickness and camber.
is
The thin wing
sections required entail the use of small aspect ratios. 23oK. An aeroplane fitted with wings of a given section having a sweepback 6, Fig, 165K (a), can attain without shock a larger Mach
number V/a than the critical Mach number Uja without sweepback.
The
effect
is
explained
qualitatively as follows.
long straight wing in flight at velocity and angle of yaw
A
V
Fig.l65K (&), may be compared with the same wing flying without
<];,
yaw
(6)
at a velocity velocity of sideslip
ty
U
v.
and with a We have
cos
<I*
FIG. 165K.

sin* (v/7),
U=V
and, away from the wingtips, distribution will be that appropriate to the velocity U. the pressure In so far as 6 can be identified with fy, we should expect the critical
Mach number
in the ratio
of the wings as fitted to the aeroplane to
be increased
is
V/U
=
I/cos
0.
However, the correspondence
very
side
rough.
In applying this method to estimate the rolling
moment on a
slipping aeroplane equipped with a lateral dihedral, we noted that the calculated moment might be expected to prove excessive by
about onethird, owing to wingtip and body effects. Additional cause of error arises with the sweptback aeroplane since the substitution of sideslip for yaw becomes progressively untenable as the centreline is approached ; near the body the streamlines, though
convergent, cannot be deflected appreciably by sweepback. When also the restricted aspect ratio imposed by the use of thin wingsections is taken into account, little of the above advantage, perhaps only onethird, may remain. This can still be made considerable,
however,
6
=
by the use
*
of
exaggerated sweepback.
Thus with
45, VjU would be
114
on
this basis.
Whitehead, A.R.C. Report Ae. 2073, 1942.
Chapter
X
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
231.
The
Ideal Propeller
Airscrew principles find many useful applications, but for brevity for the most part on propulsion, recognising a need for modification of treatment in widely different circumstances. First, following Rankine and the Froudes, we investigate the characteristics of an ideal propeller of the kind which, like an airscrew, produces axial thrust by acting on the air passing through its disc. By what means this action is effected is for the moment of machines that may be employed for the different no concern purpose will have different efficiencies and to eliminate such variaThus the tion the mechanical process is assumed to be perfect. propeller is represented vaguely as an actuator disc of diameter D, over which a thrust T is distributed. The disc will have a velocity V relative to the undisturbed air (of pressure p) consistent with the We also rate at which work is being done in propelling the craft. the entire flow to be steady and irrotational (though these assume conditions would not be satisfied with an actual airscrew).
we concentrate
'
'
;
;
The actuator imparts motion impulsively to the air passing through its disc, and increases its kinetic energy at a certain rate, which measures the work done  by the impulse, and which for efficiency should be a minimum.
We then argue, from Article 173, that the final velocity through the stream affected should be the same at all points. The flow takes the form of a jet (Fig. 166), the part behind the disc, called the
,
y
h
h h2
;
_
FlG
160
slipstream, attaining a minimum Consider any small section, where the velocity is Vs a maximum. area SS, of this minimum section. corresponding element of from the rate of change caused by the thrust ST can be calculated or propeller of the momentum of the air crossing it,
A
8T
A.D.
=
P 8S,K,(F,

V).
H*
425
426
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
The condition for minimum kinetic energy then leads to ST oc SS, independently of the position of the element. Consequently, for maximum efficiency the thrust must be uniformly distributed, which we assume to be the case. Let F be the velocity at the actuator disc, and write S for its
area.
Then, on
momentum
considerations, since
pSF
.
is
the mass
flow per second
T = pSF
(F5

V).
.
(i)
back.
Let p l be the pressure on the face of the disc, and p z that on Then an alternative expression for the thrust is
its
T^Sfapi).
.
.
(ii)
Now Bernoulli's equation applies with one constant outside the slipstream and with another within it. Also the velocity V must be continuous through the disc, so that energy put into the stream immediately at the actuator is in the form of pressure. Therefore,
applying Bernoulli's equation outside and inside the slipstream,
we
have
P
+
IfV*
=*
p
l
being regarded as the equal velocity at two adjacent points on opposite faces of the disc and suffix s denoting the vena contracta of the slipstream as before. Here, the streamlines being parallel, the
pressure has again
F
Remembering
this
become equal to that and subtracting
in the undisturbed stream.
Substituting in
(ii)
T
Comparing
result
this expression
i P S(7f
(i),
F').
.
.
(iii)
with
we obtain the important
F
i.e.,
==
\(V9
+ +
V)
...
. .
.
(330)
of the total velocity added, onehalf appears at the actuator.
It is usual to write
7(1 a) (331) a being called the inflow factor. The addition to velocity at the disc is aV and that at the vena contracta 2aV.
.
Fo
=
232. Ideal Efficiency of Propulsion
Useful work
craft, together
is
done by the actuator at the rate TV, the drag of the
its
with any parallel component of
weight, being equal
X]
to
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
427
r for steady motion. But
which kinetic energy is increased steady speeds, and this is
the rate
E at
the actual rate of doing work equals in the fluid, assuming
E
by
(i).
= ipSFo (Vf efficiency
y)
F')
= \T (V +
s
V)
Hence the
is
given by
_
~V)
^ ~lTa'
'
'
(332)
The result shows that, other things being equal, efficiency decreases becomes concentrated. To express this conveniently, define a thrust coefficient Tc by T/pF 2D 2 when (iii) becomes
as thrust
,
and
(332) gives
1
Y]
2
^T=It is
T
c
....
(333)
important to bear in mind that the ideal propeller should be not only uniformly loaded but as large as possible for a given thrust. Examples. A slow aeroplane weighing 2 tons has an overall
What is the ideal efficiency of its lift/drag ratio of 8 at 100 m.p.h. airscrew, of 10 ft. diameter, at this speed ?
The drag
0109, whence a (1 939 per cent. 7]
This efficiency could not be surpassed undei the conditions an airscrew for this duty might have an efficiency given of 82 per cent., but the further loss would be due to its own character;
=
= T = 4480/8 = 560 Ib. + a) = 00695 or
and pF2
a
= 512, giving T = = 0065. Then (332) gives
c
istics.
It may further be noticed that since F /F, 1065/113, the jet contracts to a diameter 097 and again that, since (F,/F) a 1277, an aircraft part exposed in the slipstream may have its drag increased thereby in this ratio.
=
=
D
;
=
233.
The Airscrew
familiar airscrew imitates the action of the foregoing hypo
The
thetical propeller by means of blades whirled round by an engine. Considerations of efficiency and weight economy limit their number to two, three, or at most four. The ratio of the total area of the
blades, counting one side only, to that of the disc of revolution swept out is known as the solidity of the airscrew, and is usually a small fraction. The blades support, of course, the whole thrust, in
428
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
producing which outer parts are more effective than inner, owing to their greater speeds over an appreciable area surrouiiding the boss the thrust will, in fact, be zero. Thus we now have to take into account variation of the intensity of thrust with radius, called thrust grading. Considering any concentric annulus of the disc, of small solidity, the distribution of thrust round it is periodic, being concentrated only over the blade dements, and the flow through any part
;
it pulsates. For the purpose of calculating the flow, we assume, however, that the thrusts of the several blade elements included in the annulus may be regarded as distributed uniformly round it, and deal with a mean flow at the given radius. This is equivalent to assuming a large number of very narrow blades. Let the airscrew make n revolutions per second, or its angular Each element at radius r (Fig. 167), traces a helical velocity be fi.
of
path of pitch V/n relative to the undisturbed air.
But the
subject
air at
the disc
is
to
inflow,
and
pIG
1(i7
also has a slight spin in the same sense as the
airscrew,
certain rotational factor
just behind
is 26fi.
6,
defined
by a
air
such that the angular velocity of the
due to vortices from the blades, so that the element has a forward velocity V(l + a) and which the helix makes The angle an angular velocity Q (1 b). with the plane of revolution is then given by
Of
this onehalf is
<f>
The
thrust of a blade element
is
derived from
its lift,
exerted
perpendicularly to its path, while torque arises partly from lift and partly from drag, which acts parallel to its path. High lift/drag ratio makes for efficiency, and blade sections are shaped like those of wings and set at suitable incidences a to their helical paths. increases rapidly towards the boss, and the whole blade forms a
<
twisted aerofoil. The angle 6 between the plane of revolution and the chord of the blade at any radius, viz.
6
is
= +a
<f>
.
.
.
.
(336)
called the blade angle. The axial advance per revolution
r,
on
for so
do a and
in (334).
when a = 0, i.e. = 6, depends But we define the geometric pitch P
<f>
AIRSCREWS AND .THE AUTOGYRO
of
429
an airscrew as
this
advance at a radius of 035
D
t
where
D is its
diameter.
By varying the throttle opening of the central unit of a threeengined craft, we could clearly vary the effective pitch of the central airscrew through a wide range, and in fact geometric pitch has no Aerodynamic significance. Such variation is readily carried out on a model airscrew in a wind tunnel, and thrust measured for all values of V/n. It is then found that thrust vanishes for one particular value of V/n for a given airscrew, no matter what V or n may be. This unique advance per revolution is called the experimental mean It is greater than P, because a will be pitch. negative, assuming cambered blade sections. The airscrew must advance a less distance
per revolution, and the difference is called slip, although sometimes slip is reckoned from P. It is convenient to define The nonpitch, etc., in terms of D. dimensional parameter V/nD is denoted by /.
The thrust of the whole airscrew will be denoted by T, and the torque required to maintain its rotation by Q. Then the efficiency, expressing the ratio of the rate of useful work done to power supplied,
is
TV
.
(336)
and takes into account
peculiar airscrew.
to
all losses,
whether inherent
in
propulsion or
the
234. Modified
Blade Element
Theory
Fig. 168 shows the circumstances
of a blade element
of
chord c and span 8r at radius
r.
Its
resultant
velocity
W
is
ex
pressible in alter
ttr(lb)
FIG. 168.
native
e.g.
ways,
W = V(l + a]
Let
cosec
it
<
= rii
(1
b)
sec
<f>.
.
(337)
$R be the
resultant force
exerts, inclined
backwards from the
430
direction of its
AERODYNAMICS
[CH.
1
lift 8L (SD/SL), 8Z> being the Writing 8T', 8Q' for the thrust and torque of the single element, from the figure
by the angle y = tan""
drag.
XT'
= Sfi cos
r
j
(<
+ y),
W=
'
's
#
sin
(<
+ Y)>
"
(i)
whence at radius
V*T
QS<?'
* for
lb 1 + a
tan
(<
+Y
)'
Now Lanchester and Drzewiecki introduced the
justified by experiment effects of one element on
assumption, since
important parts of the blade, that another at different radius (and having in
This enables us to write for etc., where the coany element SL in the wind tunnel on aerofoils of the efficients are obtained by tests same section as that of the blade considered and at the same incidence. All induced velocities are included in a and 6, so that tests
general a different
= CLipPF (c8r),
lift)
can be ignored. 2 tan y
= C D /C L
,
should be
made under twodimensional
conditions
;
it
is
in this
respect that original blade element theories have been modified. Since tests are usually made at aspect ratio 6, conversion to infinite
required before application to airscrews, and accurate scale and formulae should be used for the purpose (cf. Article 179) roughness corrections should be applied to the profile drag coefficients so obtained in accordance with the concluding articles of
span
is
;
Chapter IX.
With
screw
this understanding we proceed as follows. elements at any radius and, if 8T, has
A .Bbladed air&Q denote
their
B
combined thrust and torque, from equations
(i)
or Fig. 168
ST
$Q
= B (8L cos SD sin <), = rB (8L sin + 8D cos
<
</>
<ji).
Substituting coefficients and
*jdr
diminishing 8r indefinitely
=B
(C L cos
<j> <f>
CD
sin <pftpW*c
.
.
(339)
d
^ = rB (C L sin + CD cos
<f>)
\$W*c.
.
(340)
is given by (337), but it will be observed that knowledge of a and With this knowledge, thrust and b is necessary to determine <. torque grading can be calculated at a series of radii having known
W
sections set at definite incidences.
Fig.
169 illustrates practical
rt
thrust
and torque grading curves, showing values increasing with * Lock, A.R.C.R. & M., 953, 1924.
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
431
01
FIG. 169.
02
O3
05
r/D
TYPICAL THRUST, TORQUE AND EFFICIENCY GRADING CURVES FOR AN AIRSCREW.
narrowed to form a tip. Such curves can be integrated graphically from boss to tip to give T and Q. Subject to two corrections for tip losses and the drag of the boss, depending on the type of spinner used the efficiency of the whole airscrew then follows from (336). Variation of efficiency along the blade is also shown. Before proceeding to the calculation of a and b, some points of interest in (338) may be noted. Ignoring a and 6, it is found by
i.e.
with
W,
until c
is
is a maximum when 45, approximately, YJ then being negligible in comparison with whence maximum y the blade occurs at r/D In fixedpitch efficiency along J/2n. r is small for this condition, e.g. taking V 250 ft. per practice 25 r.p.s. and D and little of the n 10 ft., r/D 016, sec., thrust occurs there. The efficiency of the complete airscrew is increased by decrease of n, or increase of V, keeping n constant, i.e. by increase of pitch well towards TC. Practical disadvantages exist
differentiation that
<f>
=
=
</>,
=
=
=
=
e. slipstream from the distribution of vorticity within it and the circulation round the blades. of form drag and skin friction. slipstream. Thus the flow approaching the airscrew ceases to be wholly It must be possible to calculate the irrotational on crossing its disc. where thickening is required for strength and stiffness. it is clear that the flow far downstream cannot be affected appreciably by the circulation round the blades. (338). while interference at the disc is due wholly to the trailing vorticity. if known. That the lift/drag ratio of sections should be high is asserted directly by Provided tip speeds do not approach the velocity of sound. 170* . mental to the existence of y. but meanwhile extends downstream as a screw surface which is at first not quite regular owing to contraction of the slipstream. and this calculation would yield a and b. Simplified Vortex Theory is due to circulation round its sections whose variation with radius casts a vortex sheet from the trailing This tends to roll up towards the axis and periphery of the edge. however.432 AERODYNAMICS [CH. but the principle still decrease of efficiency with large values of lr/V is fundaapplies . \ FIG. it in the weight of the airscrew and the gearing interposed between engine. is 235. These quantities are now appropriately called interference lift The force on each blade factors. but these tend to become less important with large These results are modified by a and b (which make fast craft. Irrespective of this assumption. a large number of blades with suitably weakened circulation is again assumed. and the general investigation of the maximum possible efficiency of a practical airscrew more complicated). this only difficult to secure near the root of the blade. i. To simplify consideration.
we remember from twodimensional conditions is due solely to the trailing vorticity. the airscrew. Just behind the disc. formed always of the same particles of air. Now for a lightly loaded airscrew disc we may neglect the contraction of the slipstream. the blades induce rotation about the axis in the circulations round the opposite sense. ' ' resolved into vortex rings and longitudinal vortex lines.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 433 For clearness. showing that rotation is confined to the slipstream. Summing up. let us first follow a wide loop A Upstream of (Fig. the tendency must be exactly balanced by an equal and opposite induction there by the trailing system. as the influence of the blades decreases. so that circulation is constant along them. it is This system can be illustrated for two blades only in Fig 170. the whole slipstream will be a pack of such systems. however. its circulation is zero to accord with the irrotational flow. Thus. first imagine that rolling up is complete at the The simple blades. and this is therefore added to the equal rotation induced by the trailing system. round this loop of particles cannot change as it passes along the slipstream. it is set spinning at the disc. it is from the theory of Chapter VII. amounts to onehalf downstream. by Article 140K. Again. so must that Hence the spin caused in the loop of the trailing vortices increase. and the second rotation in the slipstream. the first producing axial velocity. Finally. 231. for this to be zero. that the velocity at any point in the disc will downstream. if we follow a narrow loop B this spin is (Fig. 170). by Article 14QK. With nonuniform circulation along the blades. clear. when at the disc. by the trailing vortices only. and exactly half the circulation due to the trailing system. and this remains true. as it threads over the slipstream. trailing system is then a shell of spiral vortices marking the boundary of the slipstream together with an axial shaft of vorticity . Radial velocities are dealt with later on. + the velocities of the blades relative to the air they V then the velocities finally added a) and &(1 . if engage are V(l are 2aV and 2&Q. Now the circulations of the whirling blades are obviously trying to cause circulation in front of the disc and. so that. Then regarding the axial disturbance. 170). amount to onehalf of that at the same radius far This agrees with and extends the result of Article Considering next the rotation. and deduce that the rotation interfering with the blade incidence is onehalf of that at the of that induced by them far from aerofoil theory that modification vena contracta.
Then it is at once found that 1  = Gq cosec 2<b. these assumptions appear to involve little error. Approximate AERODYNAMICS [CH. convenient to introduce symbols for the resolved force coefficients and the solidity of the annulus at radius r of Article 234. 8Q . considering the rate of 26fl r2 . and graphical or trial and methods . . at least. = CL cos C D sin = C L sin< + C D cos<V < <f>\ . and that averaging round annuli is permissible.(ii) Expressions for the Interference Factors We must be able to equate the foregoing to the alternative formulae whence a and b can be evaluated in a given case. (343) These formulae are somewhat awkward to use factors appear in /. = fat cosec f 2 . It is : 2t 2q a == Bc/27ir. Equating thrust to rate of change of dr a)a. . whence =m angular velocity finally given to change of angular m is 26fi. The rate at which fluid mass crosses the airscrew disc at radius r The velocity finally added in reaction is 2nr8r V(l a). . Momentum Equations The following treatment proceeds on the assumptions that the slipstream is sensibly parallel. W from (337) ^ In similarly equating 2 (ii) (342) to (340) note that PP 2 can be written a) W =V + (I cosec <f> . momentum . the interference error q and <. so momentum. . Or (1 b) sec <. . . (341) j Then equating Substituting for (i) to (339) gives 4rcrF 2 (l + a)a = BtcW*.434 236. that rotation is insufficient (as is known) to cause appreciable variation of pressure. . . . For ordinary airscrews. (i) Again. p m= . . . + to thrust is 2aV. a)b. the that.
CL sin (^ + y). (346) Alternative formulae are obtainable in terms of a. be written may = 2t cos y = CL y 2t (cos <f> cos y sin < sin y). Hence for small values of = CL cos . . Similarly . J for the airscrew is connected with and the interference factors <f> for the element by the relationship : from Fig. but may be exmaking use of the last formula is 1 =. Substitute (339) and (340) after using (337) to express W in terms of Q. (349) 2q (<f> + y). Practical Formulae article. efficiency of the element as follows. pressed in terms of The / given by (338). . A suitable method described immediately after the next 237.. . 168. Defining thrust and torque coefficients for the complete airscrew in the usual form : thrust grading is expressed nondimensionally as dkT d(r/D) __dT = ~dr I ' _dT ~" ~dr 47r ' a pnf& plSD 8 ' and torque grading similarly. (348) Simpler expressions for t and q than those so far given are suffiC D /C L the first Since tan y ciently accurate for most purposes. cot (# + TC r Y). These approximations fail when a for the blade section is near the .X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 435 is are needed to determine them.  for dT/dr. dQ/dr from Then (345) and die / r\ 4 =87*1 jl (^J? (16)' sec* #.
These aerofoil figures have already been duly corrected = = = ~ .p. y Up to C L subject to a minimum C D =0*010. subtract from the blade angle a series of values of a for the blade section. TABLE VIII It has been chosen here to illustrate the efficiency of the element. is 0754 ft. taking 10 less The third row of the table is added for comparison. for root sections or the stall. The particular case relates to twothirds radius of a 2bladed airscrew of 9 ft. variation against r/D is read from the curves at the constant values of J that are of interest and integration is effected by a planimeter or other means. diameter used on an aeroplane whose top speed is 160 The pitch/diam. 238.436 incidence for either zero AERODYNAMICS lift [CH. nothing else being changed.e. Representative columns and rows are illustrated in Table VIII (an additional significant figure is usually attempted). t Then a> b. through a range of J.. The force coefficients will be known for each incidence and t q follow. Finally. and which are too thick for high lift/drag ratios. and other quantities are at once calculated and the results give curves of variation against /. m.h. i.TU. Method and Example required in practice to analyse an airscrew for several The following procedure flight conditions. blade angle. collects the necessary data while meeting the inconvenience of (342) It is usually and (343). 1 1*2. or (2n JZ)) D(P/D) 356. giving a number of <'s. A fair degree of accuracy and provision for checking is required.m. so that a 008. so that tan 15 f. the airscrew then turning at 1200 r. Having selected a radius. The process is repeated with a number of other radii. ratio is 15. Zero lift for the section occurs at 2. = = = = to infinite span. The chord at r 3 ft.. and it will be found convenient to work out tables of 25 or 30 columns for each radius. while its lift coefficient slope is 010 per degree. .p.
171. in brackets give pitch/ diameter ratios. The numbers 25'6 and shows the loss in maximum (B) relates to due to the correspondingly smaller value of /. Increase of = efficiency efficiency . = O03 04 16 O FIG. TYPICAL EXPERIMENTAL CURVES FOR AIRSCREWS. so that efficiency falls steeply. 171. Curve 16.x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 437 The at / Zero thrust occurs larger value of 8 gives curve (A) of Fig. approximately.
and enable full power to be used with increase of efficiency at heights where decrease of density would variable pitch . to 0008. When the requisite adjustment is made. above example from 080 to 0877 at J = 08. the column of Table VIII shows that the torque coefficient would not full blades. nonwavy surface. However. with pitch is further illustrated by the group of experimental curves obtained with a family of airscrews. airscrew the blades are socketed into the boss. Referring to curve (A). the element practically attains maximum efficiency at top speed flight (/ 08. = . and is increased or decreased uniformly along in the last all or under control. In a V. which 13). But with highduty commercial craft. though with a light aeroplane of small power it usually requires to be verified that the rate of climb is appreciably improved after taking into account the additional weight of the apparatus.438 AERODYNAMICS [CH. just as with the original pitch it would be too great to allow the engine to attain its revolutions and develop full power. there still remains an important increase in the power available for climb. That arrest of thrust and fall in efficiency are imminent are confirmed by the experimental curves for a complete airscrew of the same P/D ratio The table also shows that a is more important than 6. 165s is feasible for normal sections with a smooth.P. efficiency is much reduced .P. which are usually fitted with supercharged engines for flying at considerable altitudes. which by Fig. but with J might correspond to maximum climb. bearing in mind the Reynolds number. is critically important. may sometimes be neglected. the lift coefficient for the section is then about 128 and it is approach = = ing stall. either automatically Decreasing 6 by 10 increases the local efficiency be sufficient to absorb the power of the engine at its maximum permissible revolutions. which (15). Apart from climb and maintenance of altitude with substantially improving partial engine failure. it may approximately double thrust during the early stages of takeoff. at the Reynolds number for the flight condition (R 21 x 10 e ) three times this reduction is achieved by using laminar flow sections. The dotted increase to curves (A) and (B) indicates the greater efficiency that would follow a reduction of C D by 20 per cent. 239. Principle of Variable Pitch (V.) In the preceding article it has been seen that the representative blade element (and we may infer the whole airscrew) designed for top speed is in a poor position to produce climb. and of course military aeroplanes. thus adjusting pitch.
= altitude. It is verified from the torque curves of Fig./27m with an 11ft. Again taking account of the density.h.p.ft. climb and 00166 at altitude. but probably more than sufficient to maintain the A.p. however. These do not quite accord with constant variations of blade angle. x b. Static Thrust illustrate numerically the advantage of variable pitch at the of takeoff requires knowledge of the variation of beginning To engine power with rotational speed information supplied by the makers from bench tests for each engine. shall illustrate the use of variable pitch by reference to the efficient We experimental curves of Fig. The two values of J are 073 and 130. but the torque efficiency coefficient required would be more than the engine can manage.s.ft. diameter with a twoposition hub is assumed.p. this gives possible torque coefficients for the airscrew of 00117 at G.) up to 11.p. so : that still Q = 550 . altitude. 171.p. 2800 density = 071.p. are 300 and 200 ft. = 348 and pD = 383. 580 thrust the larger h.s. For simplicity. Assuming 1/4 8 . 10 or 15.000 ft.P. it may be mentioned that the convenient and twinengined aircraft design can be carried to considerably greater allup weights with V. 640 thrust h.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 439 otherwise require the engines to be throttled to prevent racing. 171 that the two pitches comply with these conditions.S. At J with the larger pitch is only 67 per cent.h. An airscrew of 11 ft. We shall assume the possible variation b. The most important = considerations are taken to be speed at this altitude and climb at ground level. is assumed to maintain its power at constant revolutions (25 r. The efficiency at high altitude is 86 per cent.. where. From the engine data we find that the constant torque exerted by it and. =715 w3/4 which accords with 800 b. As an example.I. airscrew.p.h. Now at ground level.h. 073 the during climb at the smaller pitch it is 80 per cent. respectively. for which first estimates of A.p.L. taking account of the variation of p (the relative approximately. per is sec. the estimated velocity is 356 ft.000 ft. and Ib.L Provision of a third pitch would improve maximum speed at low ..I.S. pZ) 4 = 6260/w Ib. but the difference is ignored. would produce the same level A. per sec. at 25 r.000 ft. is available during lowlevel climbing and 688 at high speed at 11. the supercharged engine giving P/D of 800 b. than with fixedpitch airscrews.). at low altitude would be used and the engine would slow down a little and give pitch less power. at 11.S.
since P f y equations (i) of Article 234. or 8 and. of blades increases. approximately at rightangles to the chord. or y 2nr tan 6. Application to the foregoing example gives P(ft. . v. expressing that the annulus does not take up momentum the number The effect decreases as quite so efficiently as supposed. T = 0120 at J = 0). [CH.) 3070 1169 showing an improvement of the original airscrews nearer to that state. siderable values towards boundary owing to the small whose circulation diminishes towards the tips. but part is due to the blades not being so badly stalled. depending on radius. we assume constant pitch we can sum for all elements. 166 11 (350) for a completely stalled airscrew.. slightly differently. IV. : completely stalled the Aerodynamic force acts Thus in a. the number Looked a of at momentum equations require factor. Neither but the first is the 240.. greater static thrust in this Most of the improvement is inherent in the smaller pitch. of 41 per cent.440 first AERODYNAMICS the larger pitch (P/D Fig.) T(lb. Then = 0133 from the 1388 fc Ib. This may be shown in an approximate manner as follows instance. 171.. 8r'= SR = . T = =00151. second case. Theoretical investigation must be left to further reading approxi mate treatment has been given by Prandtl * See * and a closer solution by Glauert in Aerodynamic Theory. 261. blades. Ordinary Tip Losses and Solidity No mention has yet been made of radial components of velocity these attain con in the slipstream. T = 27U0/P . Thus the finer pitch gives nearly 50 per cent.ft. 1935. cos 2nr sin 0/P. P/D (fc figure. obtaining . Though its small in its interior. we find n Repeating the calculation for = 10 Q = 223 and T = 2077 Ib. in the is completely stalled. = 15) we have kQ = = 00269 at J = from whence n giving n = 00269 since A^ = 173. p.) approximately 2880 1644 Q (Ib. appreciable advantage in this respect over one of two blades. and a 4bladed airscrew has an . we have for the representative element is When a blade = <f> = = = If 2nr sin 0/P 80' 27C/P.
however. although efficiency ratios. Roy. may which through greater skin efficiency. or four blades. tip losses make at least three blades desirable with high It then be necessary. 172.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 441 Goldstein. 123. at O4 1O1 08 12 16 D 08 07 FIG. so that coefficients. (351) This gives the curves in Fig. 1929. to increase solidity. EFFECT OF TIP LOSSES. J = 13 the loss in ideal efficiency of is a 2bladed airscrew on this score 4 per cent.or 4bladed airscrews. . Soc. v. Thus pitch. the correction diminishes at It may well result in a given highspeed example that ratios. P/D ratios . three. The numbers refer to 2. friction This question it is easily and form drag again decreases investigated by the methods is already established. much reduced at low P/D * Proc. large loss from greater solidity following change from two to three blades is less than onehalf the gain in respect of effective diameter. A. by Article 231 efficiency is decreased at given thrust The fallowing approximate formula results from the theory to determine D et the effective diameter J D showing that the effect B becomes important for large . and will be found that. 3.* The simplest way of viewing the results is to conceive that the diameter of the airscrew is effectively diminished by tip losses.. 172 for two.
at fast rates in standard wind tunnels. T. 072 and. without specially suitable blade sections from this radius to the tip.A.R. Douglas and Perring. 375.. 1931.442 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 1928. per sec. given in Article 239. & M.000 ft. 1927. efficiency forecast from experiments at lower tip speeds .R. the resultant velocity at r 04D is 777 ft. The theory of compressible flow introduced in earlier chapters is supplemented by tests on aerofoils in highspeed tunnels.T. Compressibility and High Speed Tip Losses Losses of a different kind are caused on the outer parts of blades by the compressibility of air when tip speeds approach the velocity In the example of flight at 11. 06 FIG. & M..R.A. but with * f little change of stall compressibility When efficiency. N. Wood. 1086. As M increases. and this variation is . thick symmetrical Joukowski . & M.R.C. 302. screws in special tunnels J and in flight.A. thickness and 10 per cent.R.* tests on model airscrews rotated realised.R.. 1929.C. A. sets in. N. neglecting inflow the ratio of this to the velocity of sound at the altitude is of sound.R. Hartshorn and Douglas. The is following data. Study is more usefully concerned with avoiding such effects when tip speeds must be high. A. Incompressible flow lift coefficient (1) 10 per cent. 173. C.. Jones. 1256. f on air. Jennings. A. E. . Glauert's theory suggests that for moderately high THE COMPRESSIBILITY speeds C L should increase in the ratio I/ <\/(l Af 1 ). 173. ... Weick. than with their computation.C. 1173. realised by some aerofoils aerofoil section . it is difficult and equally doubtful how they may be applied to airscrew design as radial flow occurs.R. 241.C. (3) Glauert's formula : C\ Drag also gradually rises.R. would not be to estimate force coefficients At the compressibility stall.C. 1438. description based on these published The symbol M will denote the ratio of the speed of a blade section at large radius to that of sound. (0) M 07 STALL. A.A. several J See Chapters III and VI B.R. & M. 1928 . and there is an increase of thrust and torque. as illustrated M = 07 to 08 the in Fig.T. W = . 1931. camber (2) 10 per cent.C.
in the case of fast aeroplanes at high altitudes when clearly rotational speeds should be low 05 M at FlG . is a for outer sections desirable limit. of course. and pitch large. 173A.. gives a great improvement. while decrease to 7 per cent. . March 1936. In spite of these alarming figures airscrews can be designed to attain 09 at the maximum radius without loss of thrust and The first possibly also with little loss in efficiency. Joukowski section has been found * to give as good results as an 8 per cent. Aircraft Engineering. CD approaching 02 y passing through perhaps by onethird thrust diminished by 10 per cent. The problem becomes most urgent. The education of an Aeronautical Engineer commonly includes the working out of * Douglas. section having a flat undersurface. see Fig. Then in any case.x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 443 reasonable sections falling within the hatched areas. such thin blades tend to flutter. of very small camber and profiles minimum ' maximum ' velocity ratio . At M = 0*8. thus (Chapter VI) should be employed a 10 per cent. and efficiency by more 20 than 20 per cent. Note on Preliminary Design Systematic test results exist for families of airscrews of different P/D ratios from which may be obtained by interpolation approximate figures for a projected design. . and before the velocity of sound is reached by the tips the following results are not impossible in a C L down well below the incompressible flow value. 242. bad case . solidity may be than for an airscrew working at greater lower speeds. but these may be so exceptional as to demand complete departure. tip 17 3A. but especially to permit increase of mathematical thickness. With greater speeds these effects are accelerated. Finally. kf may be falling and Y) still more quickly. but . : . M= precaution is to restrict thickness ratios 8 per cent. Investigation on the lines described above then determines whether the family shape can be varied advantageously in view of special conditions.
( ~ 10 per cent. for four blades. as likely to lead to good performance in the . various duties required of a fixedpitch 2bladed airscrew. Shape. Fig. and the disc area) and then to is assumed to be constant from the linearly to zero at r fall = tip \D. but this usually makes for safety. first principles. and diameter must be restricted to avoid the velocity of sound (low temperature cuts down this velocity. for three by and by 15 Approximate Allowance for Inflow. Rotational interference is ignored. and. . .p.h. and : though gearing is used. approximate analysis should precede detailed work on a proposed design. an airscrew from Diameter. .444 AERODYNAMICS [CH. the plan form of the blade is often made symmetrical about a radial line joining the axis of rotation to the tip (cf. Article 231 suggests a large diameter for efficiency. T is determined from the b. The exercise loses part of its engineering value unless an attempt is made to fulfil a prescribed specification. 167). An inflow factor a is calculated from the formula : 2a) =  12 a pF S (where S is circle to r = JZ). the blade being set parallel to the disc. tilt This leaves open the question of forward or backward revolution. so that restriction is more severe on highflying craft) (b) long narrow blades of sufficient strength and stiffness have a disadvantage in weight (c) with small lowwing monoplanes having in seaoutrigged engines. to avoid disappointment. of the engine by interpolating from systematic tests an efficiency appropriate to the chosen values of J and P/D ratio. strains and oscillations. is D = 43 This diameter may be decreased per cent. but limitation arises as follows (a) Aero engines turn at a fast rate. D may be limited by ground clearance going craft large clearance is necessary on account of waves. Forward tilt relieves from the plane of radial stress. An empirical method often employed to allow roughly for inflow is as follows. To minimise torsional stresses. its ratio is limited by weight economy thus airscrews have a fairly high angular velocity. but as a rule is resorted to only as a palliative. . Highly loaded blades deflect forward appreciably. A formula in general use.
transverse sections should be designed from a suitable mathematical formula to keep y and compressibility effects small. Radial stresses in a blade result from (a) bending due to centrifugal force. ing). is of the section is used to determine the fibre stresses. Eventual contours so disappointing as to necessitate reare insured against by relating sections and incidences design along the blade in some systematic manner. for obtain thrust there are worth while. force. Sections should be as thin . from the radius r considered to the tip. incidences for zero lift will be known. (c) bending due to centrifugal These are calculated separately for a number of radii and (b) the Aerodynamic force. 174. especially the tips. It is essential from practical and Aerodynamic points of view that the blade be smooth and nonwavy as a whole as well as locally. as is consistent with stiff ness. . from the bendapproximation to (a) is found by neglecting twist and integrating. If they are transformed shapes (Chapter VI). at rQ only if the centroids of sections (c) arises nearer the tip are displaced from a radial line parallel to the The moment is resolved into components disc of revolution. towards but unavoidable close it 0032 1 thickness to the 0024 boss makes doubtful to whether attempts Fig. In a particular design this is verified by plotting geometric contours over the blade these should be smooth curves and show absence of flats and concavities. maxi mum thickness occurring at onethird of the chord 01 02 03 04 Thickness Ratio FIG. and only the first is considered. gives the at 174 0016 R= minimum C D mathe0008 10* matically designed symmetrical sections at zero incidence through a range of thickness ratio. fibre stresses. about the major and minor axes of the section. Stresses. from leading edge (a considerably farther back position is preferable). the element moment C L %pW*c$r(r The least second moment of area r ). (b) added together (taking the A first selfevident.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO Although flatbacked airscrews still 445 occur. of course.
C.C. A M. which propels the craft way. Singlerotor helicopters may have a small antispin airscrew at the tail of the fuselage or an exhaustgas jet. 1127. the late J.R. that is slightly Aerodynamically but much simpler mechanically. is to allow the blades to flap up and down about axes near their roots as they go round then the blade of greater lift reduces its incidence . 1111. A.R. To produce forward motion the airscrew axis may be tilted slightly from the vertical. The autogyro has reached a hands of its mance rotor practical stage of development in the Remarks on perforinventor. and they flap as above described. APPLICATION TO THE AUTOGYRO a craft whose lift is derived from one or more enginedriven airscrews with axes approximately vertical. on suddenly increasing pitch and returning the engine to its normal duty. like that of flapping wings. in the usual ' ' . inferior A method of achieving the and decreasing that of advancing same end. but automatically rotates by virtue of the relative wind caused by forward or downward motion. analysis lift instance. in the next chapter.. In the rotor is not driven by the engine. The idea. <& M. Fixedblade Inclined Windmill are to be In the theory * of the autogyro the lift Z and drag obtained from the axial thrust T and a component of Aerodynamic * X Glauert. since the craft can rise vertically. has always attracted considerable notice. roll could be avoided by increasing 243. In the jumping autogyro. Lock.. 1926. The lift of an autogyro is derived from a windmill whose axis inclined flight.R. the craft leaps off. by a vertically upward velocity component until its rise is checked by a centrifugal moment about the flapping axis adjustable by stops and springs.446 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Tilt of the axis may be controlled from the cockpit. The blades of the windmill have very small pitch. we investigate its appear first and drag. at first nearly vertically. is backward from the normal to the direction of motion. helicopter is A incidence along retreating blades blades.R. rolling the craft unless combated. Helicopters may have two concentric airscrews revolving in opposite directions. 1927. neglecting flapping in the somewhat complicated. Evidently an advancing blade will then have greater lift than a retreating one. A. de la Cierva. Alternatively. pitch can be reduced and the engine connected to the rotor high rotational speed is obtained on the ground in this way and. since the is 244. . Lift is said to be direct. Meanwhile.
the broken line represents the inclined windmill in side view. 175 (a). It should be noted that u is in the direction of T as the wind is driving the rotor. <= blade fy constant) . on analogy with airscrews and aerofoils. . = angle angles as before B. . These are determined by the necessary condition for autorotation The following usual nomenclature is adopted the torque Q 0. : H = : R = radius i of tip circle and 5 = nR* = incidence of disc to relative wind (of velocity V) Q = angular velocity of blades X = 7/Q/e = U/Q. this is the the in the opposite direction. C. it seems plausible to determine v by Difficulty arises T = 2pSvV = This gives 2pS(7 sin i u)\f(u* + i V* cos 1 i). k. FlG  m  on account of the deflection of the slipstream. but. where u = axial velocity through disc (assumed . and is the resultant of u and Fcos i as shown. and (W * v = V sin u. X sin i = T + X cos1 (i) t) .x] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO 447 force which acts in the plane of the rotor away from the wind. . or kx = Z or Cx X/pF'S = . [A 6. or Z or In Fig. If v is axial velocity induced by thrust. u being V assumed constant over the disc. and helical . between blade and direction of motion viewed in T or H = T or c plan .R.
of + V cos i sin (ii) chord ^= ' rpW'cq .448 AERODYNAMICS [CH. is given approxiwhich is a plan view in the direction of the axis. W mately. is a small angle over important parts of the blade. requiring knowledge of Tc and JJL. 2 . (a being its incidence) as 6 (cf. Now as the blade swings round and 4 varies through TC. Hence the second of equations (iii) can be eliminated by the relation w/W which follows and the definitions of X from <^ being small.CL + <f> CD . since a =6 t = 3(0  $. W= For a single element. at radius r (a radial component is neglected). on neglecting u* in comparison with lr W fy. 2q . Now an autogyro rotor is of very fine pitch and. As a further simplification we define 6 as for zero lift of the element and take dCJdv. which is conveniently regarded as an equation for i.$ + reduces to JC D . clearly the terms with sin ^ as factor will give zero mean torque. Then integrating with respect to r gives for one whole blade in a particular rotational position ^ : Q' = pcn 2 7? 4 [ (i0(l + X cos sin ^) + iC D (i + f X cos t f i (JL sin <j + 8 iX cos i sin' <!/)]. (iii) have the meanings defined by (341). let From Fig. the torque grading along one blade becomes < Now <t> = dO' JL = ypcQ 2 [3jLl?e(r + R\ cos i sin ^) 2 3[x ^ a COS ^* Sil1 ^ + ^'^ COS * No great error is introduced by assuming c and 6 constant along the blade. 175 (i). by . but the . q = 3<(0 . Treating it as small throughout gives the approximations where / and q </> : 2t = CL . Chapter VI). though untrue at small radii. W . be the velocity normal to the blade of the element As before. remembering (ii) and [A. and. Then.
The modification due to flapping is O ' 1 40 AUTOGYRO CURVES. equals the lift at 45. helicopter). i*(CD (354) The dition essential con Q c = : gives the following equation for a (355) Thus the problem determinate by the tabular method is of stepbystep calculation familiar in airscrew Fig. kz and kx follow from (a). at low. 176 indicating that A. Glauert shows first that a trimming of suffi H an autogyro (though this is not true of a and that the alternative flapping must be rather worse. These are typical only and do not refer to a parThe broken line represents a complete ticular rotor. Experi .) maximum CL first occurs at a little short of 40 incidence while the drag.D 15 cient to avoid rolling means increase in c for (NOTE : A. The analysis indicates on this account rather better performance than is to be expected in practice. 245. 175 work. FIG. Typical curves are shown in Fig. 176. craft.  JC. left to further reading.X] AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO sin* <* 449 term with factor .^6 . Thus for the as factor will give a mean torque represented whole rotor of B blades in rotation (* by = B 9 c&R*[. k t f = JCf .f + and for a solidity = BcR/S Q or JC D (1 + X* cos* i)] cos* (352) (353) T = Similarly cr(8 + f (i + 6X* cos* as approximations.
C. Wheatley and Bioletti. modern trend seeks which is to augment its value by reduction of already considerably smaller than for an airscrew. N. Limitations arise through centrifugal stresses becoming great with the former variation while. Some tests in America * on 10ft.R. wind tunnel indicated a maximum L/D of about 6. pitch must remain comparatively small to secure autorotation * at all. diameter rotors in a 20ft.A. solidity. Decrease of solidity is compensated for by greater rotational speeds and pitch. 552. Maximum LjD occurs at a very small incidence corresponding practically to top speed of the craft. in regard to the latter.450 AERODYNAMICS [CH. . in contrast to an aeroplane . X mental results of reliability are scarce because scale effect is great under windtunnel conditions. 1936..A T.
is known as to assess this correctly. over and above that which can be allowed for by taking velocity fields into account. of which a brief outline is given in following articles. may readily absorb 26 per cent. so that resulting errors may be appreciable. dealing with steady The subject motion character istics of particular aircraft. mean pitch. and skin may friction theory. unless a compressedair or giant tunnel is available for tests. one of summation. 451 and the first step is from model tests and proceed giving zero thrust. But with a more normal aircraft we can make much greater use of experience.Chapter XI PERFQRMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 246. so that The resistance of a complete craft when its airscrews are working at their experimental its glider drag. however. Much organised experimental work has been carried out in aid of the first method. The General Problem of performance. directing theory and experiment to assessing differences from a nearly similar craft of known performance. In the present chapter aircraft are regarded essentially as competitive engineering products. and to criticise results. i. calculating such scale effects as we can. and to detect and locate by fullscale trials minor deficiencies in the craft built. apart from airscrew effects. improvement by 1 per cent. We . has been introduced already at some in Chapter IV. aerofoil. whence engineering development follows. to length estimate data there assumed. and estimatThis method is ing others from experiment and experience. approximate allowance being made essentially by calculation or in experiment for the velocity field in which each In the case of a new type no other course is open part works. is worth considerable endeavour. Form drag and interference. Critical appreciation of values helps the designer to frame a suitable craft for a specific duty. Uncertainty arises chiefly from scale effects on the form of separate component parts and the interference between one drags part and another. to verify that it will be successful. of the power at top speed. We are now in a position.e. airscrew.
(356) The advantage and purpose the skin friction of (356) is to isolate the part of the drag scale effect is easily predicted. The experimental drag is coefficient of wings.T. a paper by f and several others { on fullscale tests). The Hague. which is often based on the frontally proflat plate/ area. etc. The advent of jet propulsion promises some simplification of the jected. Roy. efficiency from a comparatively unhampered point To be representatively intelligible. made at flight Reynolds numbers. particular flight tests must be reduced to standard atmospheric conditions and the chapter concludes with a note on a suitable procedure to adopt. Exceptions include the Handley Page wing slot at large incidences and the Townend * ring for radial engines (cf. or socalled ' present calculations and also justifies consideration of performance and operational of view. Particular idiosyncrasies are met by adjusting the coefficient. t Cf. This term can be obtained by subtracting from the gross drag an experi* A.C.A.452 AERODYNAMICS [CH.. Con. Soc. or engine nacelles..g.. 1267. being founded upon experience with different types. e.R. however. Except in such circumstances. COMPUTATION OF GLIDER DRAG 247. Assuming reciprocating engines. t Jour. 6th Int. The second method of assessing glider drag is largely individual to the designer. 1929 . . and other aerofoil surfaces usually written CD = the first Cpf f CDO> term on the right being the induced and the second the This form is suitable when tests have been coefficient. a matter that is studied in a specialsection. With glider drag known. Van der Maas.R. 1930. this is not always the case. April 1930. the performance of an aeroplane in a standard atmosphere is readily forecast by taking due account of its airscrews and engines. when C. Important interference occurs between airscrews and fuselages. . measurements are available and the craft is small and slow. & M. November 1934. tail planes. a more useful subdivision is profile drag CD = C m + CD whose (friction) + CD (form) . their rotational speed becomes a significant variable. Fairly similar aeroplanes may be grouped and each category assigned Otten a gross drag coefficient. Aero. Aircraft Engineering. Although interference usually increases drag.
but the area finally chosen will be the wing area. and finrudder unit. = + 2orX X = xLH Then. although for others the first term will probably be negligible.2a[x + \L 1) + 2#(<ifjL  1) + 1} . the last term swamps the others. and L/2s by X to distinguish the equivalent monoplane. For the purpose of comparing with other aircraft or checking against experience the flat plate area of the preceding article may be used.<S{3P(\* . ing It is convenient. a being Prandtl's factor. JJL X =V+ X. M L t jL l Dividing (1 x)/x. the equivalent monoplane being defined same lift and induced drag as the biplane. to determine the equivalratio. . but when. It will be assumed that only the friction is subject to increase by roughness. 2Ks l = 2sM is the span required. Induced Drag Induced drag can be neglected except on the wings. but the followjustified. . the data do not exist. as is usual. and 1 the longer and 2 for s t /Si. an estimate can be made of one or other of the two components of profile drag. although with a very large body this may not be Its calculation is treated in Chapter VIII. in the case of a biplane. span by 2s. but in the summation a common area is more convenient. Now and write the shorter of the biplane wings Dm = DiEt the induced drag of the whole biplane. tail plane. Airscrew effects are reserved for the next section. With bluff components such as wheels.H. as l[K. .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 453 mental form drag (Article 230). Hence from (251) and (252) ent monoplane aspect as having the . (i) (i) through by since L^ 1 X^ and substitut + = ing or i* % = .S. Let L^ Z. (357) Writing the R. additional remarks are made. Denote use suffix M lift and drag by L and D. Each exposed component of the craft will first be assigned a drag coefficient based on an area peculiar to itself. 248. Usually this area is taken to include parts of the body and engine nacelles intercepted between the leading and trailing edges. . and an The formula is experimental CD is used and scale effect is neglected except in cases where it has been especially determined. not confined to aerofoil surfaces. . 1 1 t .
185). Form Drag Chapter IX A provides data for directly estimating the profile drag of smooth normal wings at small incidences and of laminar flow wings except through the favourable range. that the biplane efficient is most s 2 /s 1 when = .A. 177 which exhibits. This remark applies equally to monoplanes. 468 and 501 . N. The induced drag of a tail plane is assessed from the lift it must Induced drag arises particularly on exert to preserve equilibrium. This result can be plotted in several useful ways with the help of One of these is shown in Fig.454 AERODYNAMICS [Cn. EQUIVALENT MONOPLANE ASPECT RATIO./!.C. added. Once the tion of distribu between the wings has been estimated by direct experiment or otherwise. to the fin being set slightly all to the askew to balance the torque of the airscrews. the fin and rudder when the craft is flying yawed owing to partial engine failure. partly to allow for irregularities distribution arising from practical causes. of the asymmetrical thrust. Fig. Within this range the skin friction may be calculated approximately for laminar flow wings but the question arises as to what form drag to add. amongst other matters.* cal the theoreti follows drag immediately from Chapter VIII. Of course. 177. unless contrapropellers are used.! = lift 1 (Arti cles 183.A. A small increment is due. which revolve same hand.T. the drag so calculated is regarded as a lower estimate and up to 8 percent. induced however. 249. a first approximation to the crosswind force being that required to balance the moment about the C. however. should the theory be used only to assess differences between two rather similar wing arrangements.R/s. of and lift FIG.G. a matter on * Diehl. the correction would not be needed. 135. Partly for reasons discussed in Article 180.
which the experimental data generally available are not yet sufficient. but few of these tunnels exist. the tail restrictions. Failing may be based on measurements with two models.* If the shape is a very good one and free of exdifficult to infer. by yaw (postponing discussion of C. excrescences and roughness are commonly considerable and should be determined by test. The first is tested principally for pitch and yaw inlarge one. a repeat test may be carried out after fairing in the wind screen. What has been said of aerofoil surfaces applies in principle to With these a tunnel test is usual. and a model tail wheel may be offered up in the second case to give some idea of the interference drag on the body. or giant tunnel tests. : . tail creases surfaces. which commonly has a large form drag. elevator and rudder angles. 5 X 10 7 . and 014 with turbulent oncoming flow. the twodimensional conditions required enabling good Reynolds numbers to be reached. (b) 025. estimates slipstream effects). Form drag is otherwise caused by wing roots.A. but form drag is fuselages. 178 summarises results of Squire and Young's calculations of the form drag of normal wings. a small and a very unit. tail unit. the downwash field. and. Wing roots. Special tests can easily be made in a laminar flow tunnel.T. Fig. THICKNESS: (a) 014. which may be used for laminar flow wings provided maximum thicknesses are only moderately displaced backward evidently the . R: 10 7 .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 455 Q2c 04C 02c 04c DISTANCE OF TRANSITION POINT FROM NOSE FIG. the second only at zero incidence. . 178. It will be realised that wings. and fuselage all have * Some recent tests of streamline bodies of revolution at Reynolds numbers 6 (reckoned on length) between 2 and 3 X 10 gave for the ratio of form drag to skin friction 008 with streamline. These data can also be applied to tailunit sections with the same but allowances necessary for aileron. and the whole drag then measured will be an upper limit to the skin friction. curves cannot be extrapolated indefinitely owing to increasing bluntness of tail. in case of engine failure. crescences.
. ft.. Parasite Drag is The term parasitic usually applied to the drag of all parts of an aircraft except its lifting surfaces.. though part TABLE IX Component Drag at optimum incidence referred to 100 m. Ditto 02 P. . Ib... good shapes Biplane bracing Single bay.... per sq.. etc. lifting rotors. Equivalent to 7 per cent.. ... without cabane panels Two bay. Such losses are greatly reduced with ducted cooling.) 14 Ib..p h. Add 12 per cent. . tail planes... (small craft.. including interferences. which often contribute 013 P. Soc. : .. Mediumpressure wheels. . 10 Ib. : *2J~4 46 Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 01 P.. .. per sq... and gas envelopes do not. drag of wing span affected. . aileron control horns.. . 16 per cent.. . high speed : Exceptionally good Average Square section with protuberances . 250. Fuselages Best. fin... It is profitable and entails complication to take this into account.. to min. . tripod inferior mediumsize engine Exhaust pipes.. of the engine. .. Ditto 40 Ib. small craft Lowpressure tail wheel and scantlings for mediumsize craft. with engines between wings Tail plane. 016 P. Thus the interplane bracing of biplanes. . cantilever .. . best Seaplane floats. of projected 018 P. faired rim to hub . of the b.. Ditto Ditto 00701 P. .. ... 4 7 Flyingboat hull. Aero. Twinengined biplane Small craft.. 15 Ib. to min. 20 Ib...) * Remarkably low drag of this order appears to be realised in some recent flying boats by (a) very careful shaping.. but wings. maximum sectional area across stream. Reynolds numbers on the craft. December 1936). Ditto Add 15 per cent. inefficient craft Highspeed craft Tailunit hinge breaks . 6 1114 Non retractable undercarriage Singleengined craft. lecture before the Roy. Shrouded aileron slot Tail skids. .. 30 Ib..... drag... and rudder Slow. area of tyre. (Note. contribute to parasite drag.. including interference. ditto engine Radial engine cooling drag with ordinary External oilcooler.p.. of whole. 007 P. ... Ib. cowling... . ft..456 different little AERODYNAMICS [CH. : 2J 3 Ib. . (6) reducing the beam of the hull while lengthening the forebody to maintain planing surface (Gouge. engines in body or wings Ditto.h..
h. Reference must be made to Handbooks and Laboratory Reports for design data. Table IX is intended to indicate merely the of an adequate list of notes that should be beginnings prepared and constantly revised to facilitate and check estimations. In this table 100 m. 179. larger Reynolds numbers permil a slightly greater thickness. 4 6 Angle of Yaw FIG. Drags are sometimes expressed as fractions of the sum of parasite drags. and it is not implied that scale effect is to be allowed on either side of this speed. = Reynolds numbers require it to be 15* . Interference reckoned parasitic if due to struts. even though it appear as an increase in the form drag of lifting members.g. where T denotes the maximum thickness of the 010 O05 44 46 48* 50 52 54 2 4 6 log* (VT/V) 2 Fineness r . drag the mutual interference of the wings of a biplane. Struts and Streamline Wires Curve length f (1) (Fig.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY is 457 of the resistance be form drag and perhaps reducible. etc. 179) shows the variation of C D (= drag per unit p^*r. smaller A. but it is excluded if arising between lifting surfaces. which is denoted by P. engine nacelles. is used only as a convenient reference. (The term total parasitic drag is reserved to include the profile drag of wings.p. Optimum fineness is 4 . fuselages. section) for struts of approximately minimum drag at Iog 10 (FT/v) 5*4. e.) 251.. DRAG OF STRUTS AND WIRES.D.
. . to the drag calculated for the interplane A struts and wires. one directly behind the other. it may act in the direction of the sideslip. i. but whose section is Variation of the drag of this strut with slightly thicker at the back.e. Such calculations sometimes indicate. With double wires a short distance apart. 42 43 CD X 10 . r would then be the overall L/D ratio. yaw at Iog 10 R approximately 47 is shown by curve (4). the craft having to fly slightly faster to carry additional weight at the same incidence. shielding to the extent of 15 per cent. To secure such small values the contour must be Aerodynamically smooth and mathematically designed. Considerable saving results inertia . Curve (3) relates to the strut illustrated. wasteful. may be allowed. Wires of the lenticular section curve (5). rather a small fineness ratio. it is a very good one carelessly designed sections are often 20 per cent. for a large. w must be supported by the wings. but the advantage is limited with r large. Lenticular wires show little increase of drag for yaw of their sections up to 10. AERODYNAMICS [CH. the crosswhich.458 less. of changing the struts on an existing craft would be differquestion ently decided. the criterion for is that be a minimum. This minimum drag is plotted against R in curve (2). but interference increases the drag of each with yaw > 8. however. interest is also illustrated in the figure give Their drag at the smaller Reynolds numbers of usual given by : log w l? . because. The Its strut of weight causes an additional drag w/r. Although the section figured does not accord with minimum drag. say of L\D ratio r and D D+ weight is saved quickly by increasing thickness for given Note that any strength. 300 258 214 44 172 45 134 46 102 R and C D being defined as for struts. is to be avoided. although slight rounding may be introduced at the trailing edge. : from tapering struts. . and the uncertainty slightly affects lateral stability. . If is its drag. The central crosssection efficiency w/r of the strut will be required to have a given minimum moment of t minimum drag may not be quite the most efficient. slow biplane. for a curious reason wind force arising on the struts in yaw becomes uncertain in direction. wing area being fixed. which has a fineness ratio of 4. .41 . rough rule to allow for interference drag in the bracing of a biplane is to add 50 per cent.
p. depends on the valuable conception of the streamline aeroplane* and friction . Soc. Aero. Jour. and a applies of 123 Ib. power loading Drags are expressed in roundnumber percentages of total drag. TABLE x Points to notice in these small and lightly loaded craft are .p. Usually the convention is to calculate the skin friction from flat plate theory. Single and twin engines are . again. The large allowance under the last item includes a nonretracted tail wheel or skid. the Table to 220 m.h.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY The Jones Efficiency 459 252. whilst. of course. Sir Melvill). is expended on the wings. per b. Analysis of a fine lines number of firstclass monoplanes of exceptionally and smooth tons. efficiency. i Y] be seen that lack of an allowance for form drag tends to low values. at cruising speed or with a heavier wingloading). per sq. = efficiency of the airscrews. : that onehalf of the thrust h. nonducted cooling of reciprocating engines. from 200 to 250 m. May 1929.. Roy. . with a wing loading of 21 Ib. varying in allup weight from 2 to 8 results of Table X.p.h. Top speeds vary ' ' surface. Various different meanings are commonly attached to the term One. gives the mean included. in spite of the fair speed that good shaping and smoothness make pure skin account for more than onehalf power and that induced drag is very small at top speed (it would be substantially increased. the induced drag is It will * Jones (Prof. is defined as follows : ' where H = horsepower absorbed by induced drag. and airscrew interference. HF = horsepower absorbed by pure skin friction.p. ft. which will be distinguished as the Jones efficiency.h. the present idealisation leaving only induced drag and pure skin friction.
nose dive or fast glide. in the case of craft of small . labour is saved by assembling the drags in two groups those dependent on incidence and those which are not. Subdivision of Parasite Drag of flight conditions at which drag must be estimated are few. 253. From Table X we at once find. designing wings to approximate more closely to elliptic span distribution of lift. mum not in use (d) mathe(c) reducing engine losses by ducted cooling matical design of every contour to reduce form drag to a minimum of the manner of joining one part to another to decrease (e) study interference increments and finally (/). of course. Aeroplanes having an efficiency > 60 per cent. on this basis are ness are considered satisfactory at the present time the slow. . and penalties incurred by excessive form drag. . ceiling. and does succeed in segregating good classes of aircraft from bad. comprising a host of parasitic resistances whose scale variations are quite unknown. as by retracting the tail wheel and closing all slots when : . Analysis shows that variation of the first : group. However. and the present best efficiency of 65 per cent. we note that the following steps promise immediate profit (a) minielimination of roughness drag (b) reduction to a very small of eradicable parasite drags (expressively called Christmastree drags). . Considering the possibility of substantial improvement of efficiency. speed range. climb at low altitude. but. at so low a speed that comparison with aeroplanes is not justifiable.460 AERODYNAMICS [CH. ceiling with engine failure. comingin incidence. Normally they are : top speed. is reduced on both these scores through lack of sufficient knowledge. With an efficient aircraft it is best to estimate The number Reynolds numbers and various small corrections are then usefully taken into account. slipstream effects. multistrutted biplanes of prior to 1930 often had an efficiency of only 30 per cent. however. need by no means be considered the maximum that can be attained. may usually be . cruising. this figure is easily calculated. since variation of or when the type is inefficient. that the monoplanes investigated have the mean efficiency of 64 per cent. which includes the fuselage and tail plane. . All these steps are in progress. and best examples show a slightly higher efficiency. for these conditions separately. The above method can be applied to airships. and rough made plainly evident. When a large number of rather similar craft are dealt with. since (358) is the same as the ratio of the sum of induced drag and pure skin friction to total drag. merit The resulting figure of assessed from the theory of Chapter VIII.
Experiment shows that the form of the results obtained in these simplified circumstances is retained with the complete craft. We first neglect all aircraft parts other than the nacelle or body. unless the airscrew is designed to conform with the actual velocity field in which it works. Whether the body is behind or in front. however. and consideration performance calculations. Theory and experiment show that the pitch of the airscrew and therefore its efficiency are apparently increased owing to the slowing up of the stream by the body. which. by the boss and blade roots in the former case or vice versa in the latter. experimental available. while the drag of the body is increased by the acceleration of air through the disc. If. V. tance. Thus. the effective efficiency is found to be less than for the isolated airscrew. the increase of drag of the body be subtracted from the apparent thrust.. the difference in lift cobeing reckoned from that for top speed. In Chapter engine nacelle or body in front of or behind the airscrew modifies its torque and thrust. unless directly calculated for a given type. usually drag is decreased on this score by a small fraction.* AIRSCREW INTERFERENCE the airscrew was regarded as isolated. it may be convenient to deal with an overall correc X But more frequently we have to determine with some care increments of wing and parasite drag additional to effects on the engine housing. we shall be able to supplement the results by additional calculations. if determination of coefficients is not Alternatively. of these alone is usually sufficient for However. is very intricate. we shall denote by kb The special either of the nacelle . to give a useful thrust. and. but certain simple factors have outstanding importion. 1935. with engines carried high in separate eggs. some shielding takes place. The form of this function depends on the type of craft. of whose shape the spinner integral part. . modification of blade angles will be necessary to allow the engine to develop full power. Examples are given by Kerber. v. case where the boss forms an flush with the body. unless the spinner appreciably improves a bad body shape. will be referred to later.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 461 expressed as a function of efficient ACJA^Ci. is * Aerodynamic Theory. and in some flyingboat arrangements particularly. A large 254. must be suggested from experience. It will be seen that the mutual interferences are to some extent compensating. though possible. Detailed investigation in practical circumstances.
. and the increase of hydrostatic pressure integrated over the base of the beaker to the increase in drag of the streamline body. originally high owing to interference. f). and the residual slipstream would be unchanged by it. We infer that the thrust of the airscrew must introduced. so that effective or net thrust remains unchanged. Again.462 AERODYNAMICS [CH. to a V in the second. the body is situated in a field of augmented velocity. by virtue of which thrust arises. It is assumed a sufficient approximation for present purposes to regard Ta as uniformly distributed over Set so that pressure is proportional to Ta/Se Considering a proportion of S. in the case of a tractor airscrew. and S its maximum crosssectional area. depending on the shape of the nose of the body and the position of the airscrew. as if it were driven through an extension shaft.* conclusion. a being the axial with a shall associate the resulting increase of drag certain coefficient kv This acceleration is accompanied by We pressure variations which again increase drag. The argument may be illustrated by an analogy. It is If for no energy loss could be caused by the body. and on this score only . connected with a coefficient kp . the flow were inviscid. . yet clearly the efficiency of the combination would be the same as that of the isolated airscrew. but also decreases the drag of the body equally. produces important mutual effects. the airscrew. The upthrust on the plumbbob is analogous to the increase of propeller thrust in the original case. decreases apparent thrust. . Finally. the sudden increase of pressure at the back of the disc. a small streamline body close behind the airscrew would experience this drag in full. the interference thrust and drag increments can be expressed as equal to Ta kp (S/Se). increase to compensate exactly for the pressure drag Experiment bears out the practical value of this Displacing an airscrew upstream from a body. with both tractor and pusher type airscrews. increased by from aV to 2aV in the first inflow factor. the decrease produced in its indicated weight on immersing it in a beaker of water is equal to the apparent increase in weight of the beaker of water due to the rise of water level. T* * Da D=Ta . Let Ta be the apparent thrust of the airscrew and Se its effective disc area (Article 240) Da D the drag of the body with and without . Tractor Arrangement convenient to begin with the pressure drag last mentioned. . Supposing a plumbbob to hang from a spring balance. to be affected by this pressure. Pressure drag increases will be 255. case and from .kp (S/S = _ T I kp (S/S * ' (359) (i) e) .
.. and remembering that we have = D(lk + b) 2v ^e (kt + #. 256. Alternatively  . 2aV 2a + 2a* =T V*Se 2a) . which is con fined to its back part..h. (36.) . . but to a On fully effective pressure gradient. drag. form to ensure from experiment appears . (iii) and (iii). Finally. by the appreciable we write this : >.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY if 463 Next. of of airscrew It the engine. (360) where C D for the body is specified on S.+ 2TJ 9 V*S 1 e . (ii) into account throttling of the slipstream body and other neglected factors. but this tends to be lost in practice by poor streamline shape for the body and by necessary adjustment realising the full b. S. . collecting from (i) shielding reduces drag by kb D.) say. the other hand. Hence : Da/D = To take section of the (1 + . slipstream velocity we the body were effectively wholly exposed to the ultimate Vs and S were sufficiently small compared with should have on this particular score Da But _ Ta or P F (1 + a/9 a) 5. The case of an airscrew working behind a body differs only in The body is subject to less increase of speed.. Pusher Airscrew detail.. absence of a propelled behind means that inbody crease of thrust is no longer compensated for by increased pressure These changes promise advantage to the pusher arrangement.p.
= = Whilst this A is found to be < 1 for bluntnosed nacelles as predicted. no longer holds when the boss and spinner complete the lines of . so that with C D 02. B 18 for a somewhat better one. if nonretracted. as expected. possibly onethird of the tail plane area. and rudder and. Article 255) and kp J. for example. 180. the streamline housing of. kb may then say. Definition of the coefficients is slightly modified in experimental work. With a singleengined aeroplane. that (362) still applies. its With this un derstanding. and considerable positive drag then result. tail plane. so that special investigation is unnecessary except to note that B will be smaller owing to the relative unimportance of kv . Considering one of the inner engines. without the wings position. Comparison with Experiment The simple linear relationship (362) (see Fig. tests on a biplane of in very poor Aerodynamic shape gave. shape. 105. B = 093. Ta //>V 2 Se FIG. with suitable adjustment of the coefficients. and it has been found to hold 2 Da for complete aeroplanes as well as in the simplified circumstances assumed for its derivation. as in (ii). the slipstream affects.464 AERODYNAMICS [CH. part of . owing to deterioration of flow. pusher naceUes have given A 083 for a poor 097. and A 258. wing roots. so that the actual airscrew disc area can be used in place of effective area. and with the wings. vanish or it may change sign. 180) has been realised experimentally on many occasions during the past thirty years. A 104. Values are not yet systematised. a liquidcooled engine. than 2. we have behind its airscrew a long nacelle followed by Some = B= = = a strip of wing of approximately maximum chord and. B = A = In a more recent analysis kv was found to be 24 (rather greater. 083. With highspeed monoplanes having two or four radial engines. 257. B would be 49. fin. besides the the fuselage. the nacelles project for efficiency about onequarter chord in front of the leading edge of the wings. = 086. with fine bodies. at a little distance.
. together with certain struts and wires in the case of a biplane. airscrew giving 240 effective thrust h. we applied the approximate method a(l of Article 242. 90 lb.. (362) gives for the fuselage on assuming A = 086 : or the drag of the body alone increases by 51 lb. so that in the present instance little difference would result. We take an ordinary small biplane with a single engine of 300 b. (pF a = 115).p. and its drag without airscrew 166 lb.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 466 the undercarriage. ft. parison is made in the following example Example. + 24)/(166 . caused by the blanketing of the central part by a large bluff nacelle. alternatively. Alternathe method indicated in Article 242 may be applied. Actually. are washed by the slipstream. when slipstream effects are most important on the other. Associated with this question is what diameter to ascribe to a slipstream . and a 9ft. and the body drag by an equal amount through pressure interference. contracts appreciably. and the to be 41 sq. for slipstreams are found to wander.h. we should find and since T= 240 + 2) = r/1'2 x 115 X 64 x 550/220 = 600 this would give D (1 + 20) = 1273. which provides a top speed of 150 m. In order to use J for kpt we substitute Sa for S. taking Sa 64 sq. so that C D 0*18. in (359) and. For the complete aircraft at top speed =217 (body) 270 (parts + out of slipstream) 114 (other parts within slipstream) and the total increase due to airscrew interference is (51 + = 601 lb. ft. drag concerned becomes 114 lb.. The glider drag of the remainder of the craft at top speed is estimated to be 360 lb..h. the effective disc area is found From Article 255 (ii). ft. some distension is that of it . of which parts contributing 90 lb. especially at maximum climb. If. Comtively. on the one hand. obtain = = Thus thrust is increased by 40 lb. The maxi velocity : mum crosssectional area of the body is 16 sq. It is usually sufficient to jection downstream of the effective disc area. assume that parts affected lie in the proand that the additional is 2aV spread uniformly across the slipstream.p... the question of precisely what components of the afterpart of a craft are affected is somewhat doubtful. By (351) and particulars of the airscrew. (1 + 2a) = 1272.p.
often called the standard b. T for thrust.p. Fig.g..s. 181. 360) angles can be adjusted. to absorb 300 b. the designed engine speed. Much greater airscrew interference would occur.h. provided the blade 14 per cent. Other for total symbols are L. and must not be taken as representative. The airscrew efficiency. SOME PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 259.p. of the engine against n at sealevel.h. and v for rate of climb in feet refers per second. Article VARIATION OF ENGINE POWER WITH ALTITUDE.p. The curve (a) is an example only of variation of power with engine speed. the additional thrust being to 640 x 220/550 X 300 = = = balanced by extra pressure drag. The following ' ' are polar of CL ~ CD assumed : a for the 10 complete aeroplane whose performance is required. 181 (a) ) of b. To prepare for change of altitude we sub5 10 IN 15 20 FT 25 stitute ALTITUDE FIG. 81) for n^a (cf. = . of course.466 AERODYNAMICS [CH. against = = V/nD J of for the propeller diameter D cor working rected craft . V and w. : H W lift and weight.h. on the and a maker's curve to position the (e. without further loss. at maximum climb. a for relative air density. THOUSANDS OF F\/o. all lifts and drags being referred to the wing area S curves of variation of &T thrust/ 4 B a 2 pn D and kQ torque/ pw jD . Suffix to sealevel. r\ (i) when r C = .p.. is increased from 240/300 85 per cent. Prediction of Speed and Climb in the account taken of engine is The only development now introduced compared with Chapter IV and airscrew characteristics. at 80 per cent. at n r. 4.
One formula __ supercharged engines is < 364 ) shown dotted together with another mean curve for normally aspirated engines in Fig. which will represent the best that the engine and airscrew can do. . Now. and hence corresponding values of n and V are known. unless the angle of climb is steep . . with in level T (ii) similarly for other coefficients. 181. one curve for each altitude. Choose a value of K\/cr and obtain CL from (i) and C D from the polar. turning to the aircraft. we can construct for a given airscrew a family of curves of V against n or /. W written for L. as a sufficient approximation Equation (i) is assumed as and climbing flight. which follows immediately from the airscrew data. whatever C L or C D may be knowing /(A) for a particular engine...XIJ PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 467 = and indicated to hold. In the formula. The formulae may be used as follows.p.. .h.f(h) . (367) CL (368) Thus the next step is to plot a curve of k^/}* against /. This curve is (363) : ner 275 (365) (366 ) These last formulae depend only on the engine and airscrew. For any altitude h we write H=H for the b. p of course denotes the pressure and T the absolute temperature of the atmoThe torque coefficient is readily expressed in terms of sphere. Jfc * Modification for more than one airscrew will be apparent. available . W or in terms of coefficients * : . in use for (363) Different forms occur for f(ti). Level Flight.. Find a Read T // from (368) and then / from the data curve mentioned.
S/2D 50 40 DHIFT.16 12 08 CL 04 CHM O08 CD 012 (M6 O2 05 (W 07 J 08 09 POLAR FOR COMPLETE CRAFT AIRSCREW CURVES (P/D10) 64 ENGINE CURVES: SEA LEVEL OTHER DATA>56 TOTAL WEIGHT.m. / H MAX~ "/"MAX 48 AS IN 2 FIG. ENGINES: 2800 BHP. 1700 r. (NORMALLY ASPIRATED).10 TONS. fiT.L. 182. AT G.000 FT' 24 14 18 22 26 30 FIG. power of the gives the total two engines.p. 468 .. 181 (a). 32 20. EXAMPLE OF PERFORMANCE PREDICTION.
183. CL and thence k^.p. Repeat the process. CEILING 20. Examples are (r. 183. . PLOTTED FROM FIG.p. H ~ .m. appropriate to a particular altitude. enables maximum climb at that of other values of V . and represent top speeds at various altitudes. we can IVcr ct for a find. 182. 182. each point on it representing a particular altitude an example ~ E 100 . and finally plot the last quantity against n VCT the curve obtained is unique for the aircraft in level flight at all altitudes an example is given in Fig. and airscrew. 10. where also the It marked. approximately. .p. 469 Thence obtain H f(h)]n from (366). 18 22 30 Climbing. as already traced.000 FT. But the value of V gives definite values of C D and Hence v is calculated from (367) rewritten in the form : _ ~ This calculation 2kT (369) and assumption is. from the family of curves mentioned under (366) we can plot a family of curves of the same quantities n^/a. .500 FT 50 is given in Fig. On assuming a value of V the 9 FIG. xi] off PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY .h. unique curve of n^a F\/cr.000 FT. for the f(h)/n : H & i engine. These intersections = 200 5. required. Also. instance.)A/cr marked in Fig. corresponding value of / follows from ^365) or (366). of course. Since are flight values of corresponding V and n now known. Intersections satisfy : 900 300 1 100 1300 i 1500 1700 fry : the requirement Hf\ thrust h. noticed that n as ceiling is will be falls away 14 h increases. kQ from the curve kQ ~ /.CH. These details relate to flaps in The minimum flying speed with flaps out at low altitude is 60 m. Thus we have a single curve of n/a for the aircraft f(h)/n . 150 may be 200 plotted in several ways. 182..
Another arrangement * of the foregoing process will be 2 described briefly. n for finally obtaining V. Different curves are required for other altitudes of ~ ~ interest. 302. (370) ~ ship n^/a^V^/G/DJ. knowing /(A). 260.T. Jc = T = &T // 2 . which holds for Intersections of the engineairscrew curves with this aircraft curve give values of V<\/G for various altitudes.N.h. 1929. as Now for any assumed value of n we can find &HO with the help of the maker's engine test sheet. Instead of k^ and &Q we employ Tc T/pF /)* = Article 232 and note that and a b. = drag as a . coefficient c ) 550 #/pw8D 6 Both these must be plotted against J for the H airscrew concerned. 2 (cf.A. ~ V . N. The new thrust coefficient can be written. so that repetition gives a curve of V sealevel. There having may sometimes be m. .m. and thence J from the curve of &HO J.470 AERODYNAMICS [CH.. whence time of climb is estimated as in Chapter IV. aircraft in level flight. which gives immediately C L and thence from the polar for the complete craft C D and Tc from (370).. Repetition with other densities gives the maximum rate of climb as a function of altitude. then reading off / from the curve Tc / and calculating n<\/a from the obvious relation. clearly T t A unique curve of n^/a V CT is determined by assuming first some value of V \/G. altitudes.. . (371) all Repeating this process gives the curve required. since TF/550 = TJ# or T c pF 8 D = 7jfc H pw*D 5 . in place of (369) (T>drag)  (372) The method of the preceding article is known as Bairstow's (cf. : Turning to the sufficient and putting T . V in n slight advantage in this analysis in in r. From (367) we obtain. Climbing.p.C. Applied Aerodynamics) and the present as the LesleyReid.h. or in using the geometrical pitch in place of J. These curves define the revolutions available for the given engine ~ and airscrew. To find these we write for altitude h : and. . .p. * . altitude to be found by plotting. =tC^ . approximation.A. find for each altitude a curve of n\Sc V\/a.p.
and possibly a polar curve of CL plotted against C D extratowing drag an estimate of the and glider drag apart from the wings at some intermediate speed lastly. . of which the first two rows comprise the given values of / and k Q so that each column of the table relates to a particular value of J. It is now to calculate D = is necessary to arrive at Z> P and the first step (row 8) is a k X 2 /(?r i pF ). diameter (Z>).P.p. In the absence of a constantspeed airscrew. because we are taking as a sufficient approximation that lift weight during climbing flight. ff . is a known constant coefficient for the chosen altitude. : . The usual procedure is to work out a long table of calculations.H. Tc will follow. drag (Dp) that is affected by slipstreams. = .). = . we must estimate the . probably in the neighbourhood of 11. and row 5 the full b. the airscrew revolutions per second the planform wings together with the area (5).p.. if the airscrew efficiency yj is not supplied. To obtain these it is often possible to express the engine data in the form b. . flight which is estimated from Chapters VII and VIII in consideration of the planform of the wings and what allowance should be made for k" and wingtip vortices. row 3 lists the corresponding values of n. 26oA. and &r k Q at various values of / such particulars as enable AQ to be related engines to n.h. and kn*to 2nn &Q pw 2D 5 /550 gives n k' (k )~ lK *~*\ where k' equating Q . row 8 12 Z) CDO pF 2 S. that kT /kQ To conclude this part of the table. row note.h. kn* for constant altitude.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY t 471 So if we assume a value of V\/a and find the engineairscrew \/ a and thence / from (371). row 11 to their total glider drags (W L/DW ). = may give . last For the we = . More elastic methods suffice to solve isolated questions relating to the performance of an aeroplane driven by airscrews. following discussion and the effect of the slipstream on the induced drag (/). = a coefficient. 4 of the table gives each speed. If test figures are not quoted for the wings. The refers for clearness to a singleengined aeroplane. besides the allup weight airscrews the number. D = Z)w D C DO and row it Alternatively. information as to the fraction of the total glider parasitic = W : . A series of values of v/V so obtained enables maximum v to be determined at the chosen altitude. and row 12 to their profile drags Q Cp. row 9 will be devoted to the CL 's. whilst C L and C D are known. the span (2s).) is ignored. : . row 10 to the lift/drag ratios of the ~wings. where X W/2s for straight level . If test figures are available for the wings. . available at 6 the corresponding thrust horsepower (T. V= Then row JnD. The data provided commonly comprise. : . row 10 CD row 11 . row 7 may Y] (//27c) record for future use the values of pF*.
and profile drags by direct calculation. H' is not the power required for straight level flight except at top .P. Row 17 then gives D P2 tD P2 = = + + . the values ' of which may be entered in row 16.) for the thickness effect on skin friction with a like increment for the form drag of normal wings.H. suffice to employ a constant profile then adding a judicious increment (of the order of 25 per cent.472 AERODYNAMICS For [Cfl. If is required for cruising conditions.H. An isolated enquiry calls at this stage for choice to be exercised as to further procedure. or the like. The error resulting from neglecting the difference % = D . Further description assumes the latter alternative. the only a should be calculated for a thrust H T = D = D + D P1 + i change is that Z) P2 [1 + 4(a + ')]. + = = row 18 gives Dc = Di + D Pl + D P2 '. perhaps./F I a 2 ). A first estimate results from calculating the coefficient of flat plate skin friction by Article 220. for which the engine will be at full throttle. The factor by which > P2 must be increased T. in top speed and climb. for tractor airscrews. the actual slipstream drag in level flight with the engine throttled back must be obtained. and some experience is necessary to forecast its effects (Article 229).P. and row 19 gives H' = D C F/550. available and H' plotted against V. range. the question of surface roughness must be faced. Row 15 accordingly tabulates the maximum thrust T 550 x for each speed. necessary to overcome the drag c when climbing.P. and row 14 the remaining part D pa which is to be increased on this account. D The angle of climb D 6 is given approximately by sin 6 C )/W (T the approximation is involved in row 8 of the table. speed at lower speeds it is the thrust H. between cos 1 6 and unity will usually be small but entails correction for large angles of climb. this purpose it will often drag coefficient obtained for some Reynolds number intermediate between those for climb and maximum speed. . where a is an average is. But interest in preliminary calculations centres more frequently. The top speed is determined accurately by the intersection of curves of maximum T. Whether windtunnel results or calculations are resorted to. since accurately oc L* oc cos 2 6. endurance. which may be solved by successive approximation. If the enquiry relates to cruising. t 4(a inflow factor appropriate to T uniformly distributed over an effective airscrew disc area Se a8 ) 4(a r/pF2S. after deciding upon the probable transition Reynolds number from the wing profile and surface in order to fix the second coefficient in (315).. Row 13 records the part D P1 of the total glider parasitic drag which is not affected by the slipstream. .
the same indicated air speeds Vit D (but not Dc ) will remain constant if further scale effects be neglected. Flight. . and that described will not always be the shortest. But it is typical and generally useful.e. we notice that for the same values of i. L its and D its drag T = airscrew thrust and T that at top speed V = velocity at any instant and F top speed x = distance along the ground = coefficient of friction with ground lift. . IJL . this is also true of airscrews driven by gas turbines To some extent and jet. so that arithmetical errors are easily detected.IW) For flying boats see Gouge. Jet propulsion involves so great a change that methods described in a later section of this chapter are preferable. but we shall find that they are too great). during the run prior to takeoff L). On D % . and has the advantage of tabulating familiar quantities. A unique curve against V can therefore be plotted and values of D read off to suit new calculations of V from / and kQ which take account of ipF*. the supercharging of the engine and change of airscrew pitch. . 261. we have. Handbook of .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 473 changing the altitude. W dV (i) Write as an approximation. Aeronautics. . November 1927. The procedure can evidently be varied.airscrew combinations. Takeoff and Landing Runs * With the notation : W = weight of aeroplane. or Liptrot. * VL. . a and b being constants Now assume as a sufficient approximation that the tail is up during the whole run to give topspeed incidence (error here would make our estimates too small. and (i) becomes : ldF_FW_2 ~~ g dt g dx ~~V Introducing the constants A and B defined as \L A = a(T /W) B = (1 + b) (T.
up have been recorded that exceed normal rates by onethird. The following values for coefficients are in general use a 15. and Takenouti. incidence near the ground than in free air. being of course to base e. the time from a standing start to take. cit. due allowance being made for wind gradient (Article 85). over rough ground to avoid risk of overturning. and to this uncertainty must be added The specification of an aeroplane includes skill.. speed V . . that an aircraft be well clear before reaching its normal stalling speed. . p. 122. The takeoff speed would appear to be the speed for maximum climb. of the wing chord may increase takeoff run by 25 per cent. t Mathematical investigations relating to this important problem have been carried Rolinson. 97.G. though a considerable part of this increase is due to wind gradient and other retardation. of the craft behind its front wheels adding to this distance by only 2 per cent. such as the deck of an aircraft carrier (a : = = greater value is allowed over bumpy ground. hard surfaces. loc. 0. Nagamiya. for the energy then dissipated in the shock absorbers is supplied from the engine) . This is probably due to excessive a similar disadvantage resulting from keeping the tail low incidence.474 (ii) AERODYNAMICS simplifies to [CH. A ' ' (373) the integral being a standard form. 1935. These simple formulae are very difficult to apply reliably. and the initial rate of climb to be calculable by the methods of the preceding articles. Unfortunately. [i smooth. say. Another factor of remarkable importance is the distance of the C. Integrating off at first to find t'. effects in different different aircraft evince these noncalculable variation in pilots' * measure. Tests f But * of a number of aeroplanes have shown takingoff airspeeds to be less than threequarters that for maximum climb rates of climb at 30 ft. 1933 and 120. when Integrating alternatively from x takeoff velocity F. . out by Tomotika. b 005 for average aerodrome surfaces and 003 for very 08. 15 may lift coefficients and liftdrag ratios are so much larger at. Tokyo Repts. to find the length of run = V= to oc = x' ' < at ' ' 374 > the logs.
(H) per hour. from base e W . are high when force being taken into account. Many efficients of the above remarks apply to landing runs.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY it 475 that shall clear Where there is little an obstacle height at a given distance from rest. Thus We reckon V = WV CW Integrating on the assumption that the coefficient of constant. of Aerodynamic craft require 262. margin to spare.h. of fuel per b. which halve the landing run necessary when a wheel replaces a skid at the tail. interesting discussion of extreme range has been given March 1930. is Consequently. it oil an aircraft of the is of nonstop flight beset with uncertain factors. while the C is defined as the efficiency vj of the airscrews is also concerned.p. or drag a minimum. The rate of variation of the gross weight in regard to distance % flown through the air is dW/dx CH/V. so that x will be in miles. (in this article only) and then v)H 4. and with normal craft about half speed but the engines will be throttled well back. is kept * * = 8635 log loF . approximate analysis being understood that important factors will be introduced subsequently. Soc. retardation is undercarriages permit greater on slightly rough ground. (375) (Sir An Richard). and changing the log. provided the wheels hold the surface. smooth ground being assumed but variations .376(1/0). All highspeed wheel brakes. Roy. designing for this requirement Force co calls for experience. Range* and Endurance The practical problem of how much fuel and aeroplane class must carry for a given length usually sufficient. the specific fuel consumption. Their maximum retardation is usually of the order of 4 ft. and is assumed for present purposes to include lubricant.all coefficient of friction is about 0*1. Jour. We first investigate minimum fuel for a given range. depends acutely. In a difficult highspeed case the angular and vertical motions of the craft after first touching must be worked out from instant to instant in connection with the proper design of the shock absorbers. leading to less run. and on this C. This seems to imply least work done. by Fairey ..p. Ib. W = in m. .h. Aero. 8 With a skid and no brakes the over. LjD being the liftdrag ratio for the complete craft. per sec.
where Wi the initial gross weight and is w the weight of fuel required 7](L/D)/C is a maxicannot be regarded as constant as assumed.476 AERODYNAMICS is [CH. dWjdt ~*~CH leads to dt we may proceed : as follows. Again we note When this is endurance the condition y(LID)<\/^C L jC a that average values must be taken.) 10 08 06 0*4 02 ALTITUDE (THOUSANDS OF FIG. * 5 10 15 20 25 FT.pJh. to be taken quite apart from risk of head winds.H. and that w requires to be increased very considerably for safety. this quantity that under practical conditions of operation (376) is far too optimistic. it must be understood for a flight of x* miles. 184. (hours) in the air. and the mean used. Hence : = *<# 550 Integrating on a similar assumption to that used above giving for maximum maximum. Unfortunately.R/NQRMAL THE AVERAGE ALTITUDE VARIATION is FOR NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINES AT CONSTANT R. done and allowance made for operational difficulties.M. although it can be evaluated at the beginning and end of the flight. The equation CW ' 60 W V being where S is 376Y}(L/D) the wing area. w a minimum when mum. However. which is supposed into account in # To calculate roughly the minimum fuel required for a time < . THROTTLED B. . the factor 60/88 taking account of 88 in m.P.
Introducing x as an altitude factor for the H consumption. first Altitude comes into both the above questions through C in the and \/P/C in the second. and they separate Aerodynamical from structural and mechanical considerations. other propulsion b.WV ~~ ~ D TT/ij 6 W (tons) x V (m. including its load. it is required that f(h)/xC be a maximum.. and true air speed for ground speed.p. = L the lift. and % the distance traversed horizontally through a still atmosphere at and % as of equal value. comparison between aerial and surface transport. since for straight and level flight of propulsion by engines and airscrews.) ' b.h. defining the Aerodynamic efficiency very closely.h. W 71 L . To include this. Now clearly in the case Z)#/Y]. and with jet or of an aircraft by L n*ii. Fig. to Y)L/Z). the total work done is separate W W t = and the Aerodynamic efficiency is proportional to yjJF/Z). e. . the useful a true air speed V. Let be the total weight of an aircraft. provided aircraft of abnormal tare weights and exceptionally low speeds are excluded (cf.p. due regard to the speed achieved.f(h) must be substituted for H. The a universal basis on which the economy of transportation may be The load carried is compared with the work done. having assessed.g. For general purposes. only the useful or disposable load would be considered and the speed would be reckoned But the term Aerodynamic implies that relative to the ground.e. These steps can be justified from a general point of view. If the propulsive efficiency YJ takes providing a thrust T account of these additional losses. i. gross weight or total lift is substituted for useful or disposable load. specific AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY efficiency now to be discussed differs in nature from that described in Article 262. 1  W .. the drag D is Dx but Aerodynamical losses are incurred in against D. Regarding The work done result achieved is expressed by the product Wx. being the aeronautical adaptation of 262A.h. Article 69). .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 477 may amount to little more than onehalf what it would be if optimum values could be maintained. 184 gives some average values for normally aspirated engines. Hence.p/ may stand for the power of the propelling device apart from specifically Aerodynamical application.
) . It follows immediately from that article that for geometrically similar airships of size / and using the same gas. considering a series of geometrically similar aeroplanes of span I in straight and level flight. to the theoretical minimum for the induced drag leads to the following (AB)W= where 1/36. 1/2 (m. between In the and V) A has become a 1 and 4. It has also been seen that. density The straight line (a) of Fig.478 AERODYNAMICS ' ' [CH.h. and then adding 8 per cent. Thus plotting This basis is V? gives an hyperbola for each size. 8. * (ft. per sq. which was difficult for aeroplanes to surpass. and tonmiles per b. A = 216/w F. TJ A /Y) against in Fig.h.hour is seen to be closely equal to y) A proportional to 'tonmiles per gallon/ In early days of heavierthanair flying. which occurs at an indicated speed given approximately '. and cr the relative of the air. the wingloading in Ib." Thus the maximum L/D is 1 l/2^/AB and f at L ___ __ any other speed 2(L/D) max.p. These data are used for illustration below. TQ A provided a target of 100 per cent. But this position has long ceased to hold.) 2 . L/D oc Z. 184A represents the constant is w . 184A in order to penalise low speeds adopted and give weight to high speeds. Article 69 will be further developed in terms of efficiency and with the detail now possible. = 246^ F = 1300 w/a per sec.p. their drag through the major part of the speed range can be expressed approxi mately as and is a minimum when each of the terms on the right air is equal to L \^AB. first figure of merit. 1/3 /Ft 2 . ft. . having values usually instance. The family of curves for various sizes has been prepared by scaling down known data for large airships. For cantilever monoplanes having normal wings of aspect ratio a maximum L/D of at least 18 can be expected with airscrews : * * feathered to give zero thrust.
losing efficiency but putting to use engine power provided for climbing. assuming a maximum C L of 2J). The optimum true air speeds are unduly small at low altitudes even with heavy wingloadings and. Other conclusions arrived at in Article 69 may be verified from the figure. in straight and level flight at full having specified initial rates of climb at power.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 479 maximum efficiency for aeroplanes of the given shape loaded between 20 and 50 Ib. 1500. These curves are not operational but indicate the advantage of designing for high wingloadings. The curves so far described apply to all altitudes if abscissae are taken as indicated air speeds. == 1. and 2000 ft. 30. at values of F appropriate to the wingloading. 1000. Then approximately W if f V_ __ ~~ by (ii) VQ 1 ~~ Wv 33000* 550 LZ/D (LfD) max. showing the drop in efficiency at higher with these wingloadings. The advantage achieved by decreasing the size of an aeroplane for a given total weight may be compared with that secured by increasing the size of an airship. the efficiency Considering the example of Fig. of aeroplanes F .. Improvement of airships by natural saving of surface area with increase of size is seen to become slow at the 200ton stage. as previously noted. h. The expression the above numbers lead to the curves given for w 20. these rates will differ little from maximum rates of climb. 184A with cr curves (b)(e) are obtained for full speeds at low altitudes corresponding to initial rates of climb of 500. per sq.J V is the top speed. (ii) and = Ib. The above are restricted to true air speeds and cannot be interpreted as indicated air speeds. It is of interest to trace the effect of wingloading on the efficiency. p. Let v be the rate in feet per minute. per min. 2628. ft. Thus doubling the wingloading from 20 . 40. and 50 speeds Improvement of aeroplanes by this means is restricted by takeoff and forced landing conditions (minimum flying speeds for full load vary from 56 to 88 m. With airscrew effects excluded. or of the preceding article Writing k for V */w results in the following equation for V which is in suitable form for solution by successive approximation. through the above range of wingloading. per sq. aeroplanes fly faster. ft.
in spite of the top speed being increased by some 30 per cent. 184 A. AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF AIRSHIPS AND AEROPLANES. per sq.) ~ == ~" '^ r J. The few for curves for constant wingloading in Fig. increases the tonmiles per gallon by about 16 per cent. Initial rate of climb. and wingloading of 21 lb. ft. Allowances have not been made. but may equally CL be plotted from an experimental curve of L/D against geometrical shape. They follow directly from these by ignoring Aerodynamical scale effects. 50 100 150 200 250 300 AIR SPEED 1NM. From the known powerloading (123 lb. 184A include allowances form drag and wingtip vortices in the values assumed for the glider maximum values L/D and A. Gross weight of airship. tonmiles per hour TQ A __ per b.h. for the given however. per sq. Airscrew Effects A close network of curves of Y)A/Y) against F a for constant wingloadings and initial rates of climb provides a chart which may be used to criticise a given design or aid in a proposed one."4fe/j of YJ ' TJ 73 x b. v (INDICATED EXCEPT FOR CURVES (bjie)j FIG. .p.p. w Wing loading.480 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 262C.p.PH. which reduce Aerodynamic efficiencies and rates of climb. the average lightly loaded aeroplane of merit described in Article 252.h. the known speed of 220 m.h. for slipstream effects or airscrew efficiencies. for example. Thus taking. = W= to 40 lb. for the same initial rate of climb. indicate on the chart a value A /Y] of about 148. ft.
to 80 sq.D.. Neglecting change of induced drag. by the factor 1 + 2fT/ L Z>! ^ __ 2(LfD) max. per min. per sq. = . (i) discontinuous and complicated. Doubling the weight without changing the size would have no effect unless a second engine were added. ft. We first determine the decreased lift /drag ratio. giving LjD t = 0946(Z. 4(a + # 2 ) screw disc area Se 2T/pV*S + .XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 481 on giving the reasonable value 0*82. / might be equal with to i and S. The large deficit will now be investigated. . less. this typical meritorious aeroplane satisfies the chart in But respect of efficiency at top speed in spite of slipstream drag. a oc w and the second term in the brackets of metrical shape. a fraction / of the total 4 (a + a 2 ). ft. by Article 262 A. when /might become and Sf 160 sq. and. rate of climb is seen to be more than 1600 ft. W Halving the wing area with the single engine might increase / to f but reduce original 25 per cent. and w = 20 Ib. the idealised whilst the actual rate would be 300400 ft. Such examples verify that the effect on fS/Sg by small in straight efficiency of slipstream variations is comparatively level flight. pF The variation is obviously oc fS/Set where 5 is the wing area. So far as may be deterYJ mined. Slipstream Drag... For the singleengined aeroplane = 10. where a is parasitic drag is increased by the factor 1 the inflow factor determined from the thrust T on an effective airFrom airscrew theory. lift/drag ratio. to > a + Wv/QOVQt where 16 Z) a the large thrust is approximately equal W7(L/Z) a) and is obtained from the = A../Z>). Turning to climb at V . denoted by LJD V for straight and level flight at the general speed V. For a given aeroplane and load. ll Hence the total parasitic drag is increased pF'S. per min.000 Ib. ft. y+ ~~7~7y + \v) \yj Lf /F 2} w plv fW where L/D is the glider lift/drag ratio given by (ii) of Article 2 62 A. the percentage reduction of the For a constant geoglider lift/drag is the same for all speeds. weight and a . but it is worth remarking again that the absence of tractor airscrews altogether might improve efficiency considerably such improvement by increasing transition Reynolds numbers would appear in the present calculations as a greater maximum giving L/D! = 0972(L/Z)).
per F= per sq. drag by "*" J!_\ 60 F / Thus. 10. writing F for the factor outside the brackets. whilst the entire slipstream drag accounts for a loss of about 120 ft. 184B and..p. by (ii) of Article 262 A and (i) of Article 262C. Then the value of C required angle by the and speed specified by A is equal to (tan 6) xfy. the wingloading . for straight level flight are satisfied if w ( tons > x v Yj\/a X i b. The remaining part of the decrease in rate of climb from the ideal value is to be traced to the loss of thrust h. . = maximum to 0944 X 17. to which Fig. we from Article 2 62 A that readily find 2LD max  60 F For a applies.) for a given aeroplane in straight and level flight is plotted by reducing the corresponding glider curve by a factor to allow for slipstream drag.482 glider drag the factor AERODYNAMICS [CH.p. and/ = min. PV Let any point A on the efficiency curve subtend at the origin the with the Fr axis.h. per min. D at that speed by increasing the total parasitic . 2 lift/drag in level flight is reduced by slipstream drag easily found that the increase of slipstream drag from top speed to F reduces the rate of climb in this case by about 90 ft. whence it is as already described. aeroplane of the series and with w = 20 Putting v 18 = 1500 ft. it is independent of altitude.p. ft.h. per min. Such a corrected curve for an aeroplane is shown in Fig. Application to Prediction A curve of Y) A /TQ ^LjD l against the indicated air speed Vi 1/2 (= a F m. gives L/D = 147. by airscrews and is minimised by use of variable pitch. The Ib.000lb. T * =D l b. closely.p.h. 184A 2. Let P be the actual powerloading in Ib. 2620. per operative = By Article 262A the conditions L == W.
and the absolute ceiling occurs. A v A& give the efficiencies and speeds of flight for those altitudes. Increase of P (reduction of b.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 483 FIG. Thus the indicated found by drawing tan" 1 Cy/x to intersect the efficiency curve. 184B as a sequence of curves. the slipstream can be effected as already discussed.) and decrease of <r both increase 6. . .p. scale of 7) A /Y) being % units of length and that of Vy t units of length. 184s. Writing k4 for air speed in feet per second gives the i for the indicated vVffjw and in place of (iii) of Article 262B following equation V so whence the rate of climb at ViQ can be calculated at which the top speed in level flight is known. . as illustrated. tangential to the efficiency curve. information regarding the power units enables CV to be plotted against Vi in Fig. 7) and a can be == from the origin at the angle known and the intersections A. when the radial line is altitude. for any altitude A correction for .h. More generally. one for each 4 speed for a radial line air values of P.
only up to the supercharged height.. 184c. Then if Vl is the true air speed in m. even representative approximately. In Fig. WThe 7) Hence as Bv the point on OA produced which has the same value of ^i gi yes the true air speed V l on the scale of F. jet. rocket. 262E. In this form it will be reciprocating engine and airscrew. 400 500 . Turbine. marked KK) 200 300 MILES PER HOUR FIG. or composite power units may make the assumption more widely representative. but super the charging to a high altitude will also be assumed.484 AERODYNAMICS [CH.h. if P and YJ can be regarded as constant up to a certain altitude. and use suffix 1 to distinguish flight at a higher altitude. assumption will now be extended to a large increase of altitude and a considerable range of of speed. Let the point A in the figure represent lowaltitude flight. C oc I/ \Ai through the range. Wingloading and Highaltitude Flying Referring again to Fig. the pencil of lines radiating from the origin. /~ l~\ 17 4^o^ ft L = tan 6. 184c. 184B.p. and a convenient construction gives the true air speed.
altitude the same efficiency and speed as a wingloading of 50 Ib. to fly within 15 per cent. as suggested in Article 200A. The . is appropriate to a powerloading of 10 Ib. gives at 28. and this altitude is often regarded as suitable for longdistance flying with pressure cabins. per sq.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 486 sealevel to 40.000 ft. and the serious loss of speed ensuing at 40.000 ft. are shown dotted. per sq. ft. The dotted radial beyond the pencil of related lines applies to 40.000 ft. per b.000 ft. ft. the relative density of the air is . of a general kind we may consider briefly the of the prewar type of monoplane used above for Technical accuracy will not be attempted. permits an aeroplane with a wingloading of 50 Ib. ft. of the maximum possible efficiency and at twice the true air speed for the same efficiency at low altitude.000 ft.000 and 40. Thus the speeds marked on the scale are to be interpreted. with an allowance of 25 per cent. a wingloading of 20 Ib.p. by the construction just = described. ft. in respect of the upper and lefthand part of the and as true air speeds in respect of the lower and righthand part. at the same time.000 ft. with the assumption that power is provided by reciprocating engines supercharged to rather below 30. Corrections have not been made for slipstream drag. 262F. figure.h. illustrates the advantage of jet or other propulsions in which the difficulty of maintaining power at high It altitudes largely disappears. Laminar Flow Effect As an example improvement illustration. Associated changes in the altitudespeed curves between 30. The main feature evinced is the large increase of efficiency achieved at high altitudes with. as indicated air speeds. per sq. Skin friction will be estimated by (315).000 ft. At 40. at sealevel. per sq. the aim being to assess by simple means only the order of gains in efficiency up to the laminar flow stage. for thickness and a like addition for form drag in the case of normal wings. to the true air speeds inset as fullline curves at the bottom of the figure. A Reynolds number of 15 million will be assumed for calculations and scale effects through the upper speed range neglected. but previous discussion has shown that they would affect the results only in degree. The loss of power brings the aeroplane with the heavier wingloading close to its ceiling. lead.. a large increase of true air speed. Intersections with the ideal efficiency curves given for w 20 and 50 Ib. To the present approximation.
for (1). i. p. and an suggests a reduction of exposed tail wheel. ~~~A w (ii) denoting the aspect ratio (taken as 8) and C DP the coefficient of The method being suitable for no more than a first approximation. The transition Reynolds number is low gives (i) on account of roughness and slipstreams. cent. (L/D)max. gives (L/D)max. are adopted from Elementary Aerodynamics 35' F. 3 million. say. neglecting scale effects. = 00032 and CDP = (i) 00104. = Assuming further a wingloading of 36 Ib.. following approximate formulae. nonducted reciprocating engine cooling. (3) Hence Let the second improvebe the substitution of laminar flow wings with transition at f chord behind the nose. Table X. including roughness wherever occurring. : . This leaves the value 00096 for C DB the coefficient of extratowing drag. by (i). 184D. Whether the form drag is greatly less on increasing the transition ment Reynolds number from 3 to 10 million cannot be decided without 300 Vv mph special data. becomes 00136 and. whence 234. = 205. and the assumption above will still be made.p. per sq. Then C DO FIG.486 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (2) Let the first improvement tractor airscrews. without increase for roughness drag. ft. (2) and (3). Contributions to C DB are assumed to be distributed as indicated in A total parasitic drag. Inspection of Table X CDB by about 25 per to. (1) For the aeroplane CDP 00176. which can easily be verified. 158 and approximately for the most efficient speeds 169 m. consist of eliminating roughness.. = = . = 165 (L/D) max.e. and the assumption of 1 million leads to the estimate Cpo^ 0008. to 00072. (L/D)max.h. only an outline of the calculations will be given and round numbers used wherever possible. to increase the transition Reynolds number Another consequence is for the normal wings ' ' C DP The revised estimate of CDO is 00064.. 18 and in its original state. (ii) gives Fi0 = 148. 459.
p. Normal wings are retained for the dotted curve. with 110 horizontal speed 40 m.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 487 Efficiency curves for the three cases can be constructed from these data very rapidly. The Autogyro and Helicopter is earlier a sketch of a recent autogyro (Articles 2434). In Fig. Further development is still in progress. . as is otherwise evident. .. 263. 185 this kind.m.p. the one to the left in the figure being suitable for high altitude flying. . downward component of speed 10 m. minimum .p. more effective To derive corresponding curves of Y) A we should require to take account of the variation of propulsive efficiency. The extent of the alternative favourable ranges is conjectural and remains matter for design.. at a gliding angle of 16 normal rotor speed 180 r. WINGLESS DIRECTCONTROL AUTOGYRO. 900 sq. 185. not only in regard to change of speed and altitude but also as involved in the sweeping alteration introduced between cases (1) and (2). The figure illustrates that laminar flow wings are the at small lift coefficients. minimum vertically b. 184D the percentage increase of TQ A /TQ for the two improvements is plotted against the indicated air speed.h.p.h. and these figures cannot be taken as indicating either best ft.p. diminutive wings type with ailerons totalling some 5 per cent. of 07 ton allup weight example of with a disc area of FIG. as described. gave approximately: top speed 97 m. of the rotor disc area. additionally. and two alternative locations are shown for the local increase of efficiency due to laminar flow wings. An of these small craft has. One Fig. .h.h.
as mentioned above. it can land safely in an extremely confined minimum Together with use of impulsive helicopter lift as already described. It is only necessary to discuss in general terms the main differences to be expected. Turning to rate of climb.p. which would require an effective thrust h. But speed of descent. giving drag of 45. We can verify this roughly for the above example by neglecting all parasite drag and auxiliary lift. One condition could be a vertical path.488 AERODYNAMICS [CH. It is seen that the autogyro can use increase of power to increase its speed range by decreasing minimum sgeed. Success with direct control tends to eliminate the auxiliary wing. Also. performance follows lines already established for the aeroplane. Rotor solidity used to be as high as 0.. That available would be about 50. C. and is still decreasing. approaching 10 could be expected. leaving little margin. Maximum climb will be found to occur at about twothirds speed. attaining a maximum (say 8) just before top speed is reached. to give direct takeoff. 420 lb. corresponding to 13 incidence Ct /Cx would then be about 37. as with aeroplanes. and minimum horizontal speed is determined by engine power. The stalling disc incidence of a rotor is large. results or ultimate scope. then 007. these features form the distinguishing advantages of the type. with a quite feasible undercarriage. The craft could realise such low speeds stalling speed = . owing to very poor efficiency at the forward speed giving maximum reserve power for climbing.. The L/D of a complete autogyro is then little more than 5. At greater speeds the L/D of the rotor rises. space. and consequently even an inefficient aeroplane of the same weight and power climbs twice as fast. would correspond to a higher forward speed and a moderately flat gliding angle. At present. But a maximum C. gravity supplying the power required. about 12. worked out as described in Chapter IV. their wings are then about to stall. the type is greatly inferior to the aeroplane class. the resulting decrease of rotor drag approximately offsets increase of parasite drag. while the autogyro has a large reserve. X from model experiment freed from scale effect. about 40.h. is found to be 042 at 40 m. so that overall L/D is ultimately little less than at maximum . though the combination has modern Preliminary prediction of autogyro once rotor characteristics are available from the theory of or Chapter points of Aerodynamic interest.14. but its lift/drag ratio. C t /C xt is then very small. so that 26 m.h.p. Though this condition occasionally applies to aeroplanes (Article 77). = in descent.p. as the stall is not catastrophic.
more efficient than the autogyro. Top speed L/D can doubtless be increased. The highspeed aeroplane demands large. 17. and some standard atmosphere is chosen. The performance of a given aeroplane depends acutely upon the state of the atmosphere at the time of the test. efficiency Eventually. CORRECTION OF FLIGHT OBSERVATIONS 263A. le* . In this duty we have seen that the airship cannot compete. but the low LjD of about 5 still remains as an important disadvantage. whose efficiency maximum climb onward. the penalty of deriving sustentation from a screw motion of the lifting surface must remain fundamental. prepared aerodromes. but aeroplanes also have greater declines from in prospect. A sketch of a helicopter is included in Fig. but a subsidiary rotor. it is further developed and performance data become can not be concluded whether this small advantage will be realised.XI] PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY 489 climb. the former so successfully as alone to justify this remarkable invention.D. a peculiar disadvantage which the autogyro and airship both avoid. These comparisons between the autogyro and aeroplane are in evitable. leading to less efficiency and high minimum vertical velocity. In another type this control is obtained from a small jet utilising the exhaust gases of the engine. such as that defined by Table III. although safety in manoeuvres remains a matter for investigation. the autogyro. vide the most efficient and the safest means of highspeed transport that at present it is possible to conceive. Theoretically. A similar already disability arises with the autogyro from the fact that disc loading must increase than between the airship and Multiple powerunit aeroplanes unquestionably projustifiable no more rapidly with increase of speed. Methods of reducA. observations have therefore to be reduced to a common basis. but aeroplane. but until the type available. This essential difference from the aeroplane. circa A. p. In order to assess the capabilities of the aircraft. enables the autogyro to bear comparison somewhat better at full speed. a step partly due to the success of the autogyro. 43. The example illustrated has only one lifting rotor. working in a vertical plane at the tail. but not with the same consequences. controls orientation of the body. is easy to fly in a straightforward way. The same need to increase loading exists with aeroplanes.D. 1500) and has been the last to receive practical form. owing chiefly to nonstalling properties. the helicopter is slightly Additionally. It is of interest that this type of aircraft was the first to be invented (Leonardo da Vinci.
490 AERODYNAMICS [CH. and the following indicates will often be found suitable. and the variable ^/(^p/p Q ) at constant r. On multiplying the b. tion are easily devised. and by y'a in accordance with Article 259. identifying Po written down from Table 273 + ' p which the suffix refers to conditions at the foot of the standard atmosphere.m. and the actual b. and level flight. and the other columns record averaged data for flight at each of these reputed altitudes. pilot. density. and temperature during flight. reciprocating engines often give. For instance.p. . but airscrews will correctly The altimeter is a pressure gauge.p. can be read by interpolation from charts prepared on this basis. But the corresponding densities would be incorrect unless the second column of Table A happened to accord with the standard atmosphere. It is necessary to determine the brake horsepowers actually expended at the various aneroid heights. These can always be found from records of bench tests carried out on the power units at various air pressures.h. a new table with headings as follows results from Table A in ' ' N : TABLE B PlPo ff Vt N\/G b.p. a linear relationship between the b. y/a. The true values of the relative density are obtained from 288 p III. one procedure that Maximum Speed in Level Flight. Data from speed tests in straight whether automatically recorded or observed by the can be tabulated under the following headings : first column of the table consists of a number of selected altitudes as given by the altimeter. where 6 = 15 C.p. The last The column will be omitted in case of be assumed for greater generality.h.h. and the pressures are hA with the true altitude for that purpose. for normal aspiration or above the rated altitude..h. jet propulsion. knowing the pressure.p.
t have now been expressed and temperature during in terms of the actual diately follows. The calculations are repeated for other true altitudes. 13.p.h.h. density. AA = A^>/pg. i. satisfy Table B The values of b.e. and the b. It is readily found. or required to traverse a given change of altitude. Maximum Climb. Through a restricted change of height. and we have.XlJ PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY original data 491 The pressure. with the actual horsepowers added. the pressure and density the altimeter. Let any true altitude h be chosen. if or' is the standard relative density used in calibrating from the reflection that an aneroid rate of climb would be registered for level flight if the density decreased at the altitude concerned. The nature of the correction required may be visualised are related by the hydrostatic equation (2). . \/a and N\/G required to with the new values of a and are then found by plotting. p. true rates of climb at true altitudes.m. Flight records regarding climb are presented in the foim : TABLE C hA V. po = A/*A <r'. otherwise the records may be plotted and small changes read from the curves. by use of the equation of state (9).) The aneroid rate of climb is p. available at any r. The mean value of p during a short interval of time is readily deduced from changes in the altimeter and thermometer readings. whence the true rate of climb is given by dh dt a' dhA dt a This equation may be used to correct the recorded time intervals to standard atmospheric conditions. and then the true time to a given altitude. and 6 appropriate to the standard atmosphere are written down from Table III. Corresponding values of p p. and the solution gives the corresponding indicated air speeds without further work. with the help of (99) It is required to deduce that the rows of Table C differ by assumed in the following short intervals of hA and t only .p. for heights above the rated altitude. Hence the actual climb AA follows. 145.p. p. 5. N Time t to hA (min. immeflight.
required for straight and level flight at maximum speed under standard conditions. (6) in the figure. also The remaining data of Table C can now be used to reduce the corrected rates of climb to standard atmospheric conditions by obtaining the horsepowers available at various true altitudes under those conditions. whence Table C may be standardised. A graphical solution for the new values of a gives corresponding values of V. The intersection determines the b. 186A. extends the method to climb. standardises maximum Simple development . The graphical representation of altitude often called the climb diagram (cf. for other altitudes Repetition speed performance. XI plotted against time Article 81). In Fig. columns of Table B.492 follows AERODYNAMICS by summation. curve 1 is plotted from the last two Plotting.h.. whilst curve 2 is obtained from the engine data for any chosen altitude in the standard atmosphere by assuming some likely values of N. (a) Fig. is [CH. N*\/a and the rate of climb x\/<J. The speed is read from which is also plotted from Table B.p. the calculations being the same as for maximum speed in level flight. 185A (a).
the theory one of the oldest of Aerodynamics. structural design. though not difficult mathematically. A craft should be capable of flying itself. as will be described. in the sense of maintaining a particular mode of flight. 1927. 493 . 1911. This faculty might be secured by a mechanical or robot pilot. 1935. After introductory articles. life of materials. Beyond this range. to rigorous study of inherent stability in straight flight. Stability in Aviation. and depends upon the provision of controls which The third will remain adequate in rather extreme circumstances. Com. & M. Aerodynamic Theory.P.C. Aeroplanes are examined theoretically for response to very small * f also Applied Aerodynamics. in the first place. we shall proceed. consideration is concerned with specifying what Aerodynamic accelerations are to be expected from the response of a craft to disturbances (such as gusts) or the reasonable exercise of its controls. Adv. to Bryan. 1920. and during manoeuvres. for which its controls have been arranged.Chapter XII SAFETY IN FLIGHT 264. so that the structure may be designed to have sufficient strength. hands of the pilot. M.. safety against disturbance lies in the an inherent stability mass.R. the subject is very complicated.  A. for Aeronautics. v. But. Complete discussion of aerial safety would involve such matters as engine reliability. without further assistance from the pilot. the craft possessing where no by virtue of judicious shaping and distribution Inherent stability in aeroplanes must be limited by of its both flight variation and violence of disturbance. 191213 For the most recent general account see B. following pioneering work by Lanchester and others. J designer. and the direction of flying routes.L. Aerodynamics is concerned mainly with three other factors. As shown by the dates given. The theory and application of the method are due. substitution for the pilot is necessary. Jones.* and to Bairstow f and his is collaborators at the N. 1093.R. . when the craft is But we shall study only the case said to be automatically stable. and only recently has it been recast into a form suitable for discussion and use by the This step is due to Glauert. vol.
it is essential for a pilot to be able to supersede stability by control. This assumption is sanctioned by fullit fails in some cases. but usually for specific scale experience reasons that are apparent on inspection. a tedious response by a stable aeroplane will usually be corrected by control at an early Thus.G. if A be omitted from the approximate solutions that often suffice in practice. But this requirement follows also from the fact that too ridden. but calls for Evidence of static careful compromise between conflicting factors. as on landing. Even with no restriction on freedom of movement. Thus.G. variable linear and angular velocities being superposed. and all must be retained in the examination But several are of little importance. will AERODYNAMICS [CH. with the Oz lies in the plane of symmetry and is directed in approximately downwards normal flight . Damping out the effects of disturbance may occupy a fraction of a second or more than a minute. Space is required and. itself to the . a response to one kind of disturbance may involve instability strong . such as of pitch or air speed movements. We origin at the C. is often a poor guide to the possession of the dynamic stability stability with which we are now concerned. flight and may be discussed separately. 186). a stable craft requiring time to recover from disturbance. factors affect stability. Axes and Notation of the C. Longitudinal stability deals with changes in the plane of symlateral stability includes all metry. : : large number of any. We do not attempt to follow the complicated motion that would develop in an unstable craft without we are concerned only with the way in which instability.G. control in regard to another. Great simplificaasymmetric tion follows mathematically from the assumption of initially straight longitudinal and lateral stability do not affect one another.494 disturbances. and may of a borderline case. Maintenance of flight is not continuous. 265. such as roll or sideslip. when this is lacking.G. is displaced from the course of mean motion. use a righthanded system of axes (Fig. in which the C. of The motion resultant force an aeroplane is determined by the and the rotation by the resultant couple about the : C. first occurs and from what causes. stability moments should be light and easily overstage. Recovery is achieved by a natural manoeuvre. designing for stability does not lend employment of large margins to cover error. Ox points forward and . and practical utility depends on the assumption that behave similarly in face of the disturbances encountered in they normally bumpy weather.
the time to double disturbance follows in a similar way. positive as wind axes. M about displacements. JV Oz (yawing). w/V.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 495 FIG. parallel to the wing chord The or the airscrew axis). q. these angular L about Ox (rolling). These axes are fixed relative to the craft and move with it. let \ii. log == M. and r The components of Aerodynamic force in the directions of the axes are X Y. and positive Moments are about Oy (pitching). approximately about Ox. X (or its Writing w Let w l be the initial which varies exponentially with time. and the axes are then known Positive pitch increases angle of incidence. 186. called the factor. a small positive angle value of a disturbance w. last choice is usually most convenient. is denoted by A. = real part) Assuming the motion to be damping us calculate the time at which w will have decayed to damped. or arbitrarily (e. small. also used for the weight of the aeroplane. The transverse moment of inertia. is but 8(7. and the directional by C. and the corresponding angular velocities by p. or 069 For the disturbance to be damped. or parallel to the undisturbed motion. the real part of X must be negative. but no confusion will t . and then the time to halfdisturbance varies inversely as the damping factor. If the motion is unstable. of yaw = Damping is A small increase of incidence v/V. (<\>) are those for a righthand turn. the longitudinal by B. v. W t t W arise.g. Oy to starboard. 8w may be used for infinitesimal increments. and Z per unit mass of the craft. w^*. V represents the resultant velocity of the aeroplane and U or u v. Taking logarithms. bank (<) and yaw moments increase denoted by . Ox may be chosen (whence the others follow) as a principal axis of inertia. a. Factor. . w are always or w velocity components along the axes.
A though insufficient. = Area of tail plane. a' = Slope of curve (dk'Jda?) for tail. but Aerodynarnically it is more M M = complicated. : W = Weight of aeroplane. between wings and tail. It is possible for A to be zero. The disturbance is then damped.e. and considering only normal incidences for which a.G. concerns the upward vee. = Tail setting angle (angle between wing and tail chords). the disturbance decays or grows continuously. the argument may be arranged in convenient terms. the time required to halve the increases. Neglecting all forces other than the lifts of wings and tail. . Immediate Notation. and the motion If X be wholly real. X be complex. but the following are required for immediate use . The Longitudinal Dihedral necessary. Oj e = Angle of downwash. 5' T = S'l/Sc called the tail volume ratio. as t = e (* + iB = e"(cos Bt + i sin Bt) seen to oscillate in value with a period and an amplitude e**. a = Slope of lift curve (dkjda) for wings. let X =A is + iB. Thus if A i. a'. Numerous symbols will be defined later as they arise. Then p and. body.G. its real part is the damping factor. 4* A positive value of A indicates increas069/^4. is called a subsidence or a divergence. respectively. amplitude being ing amplitude and an unstable motion. the amplitude of successive oscillations decreases. and de/doL remain It constant. the real part of X 2n/B be negative. S jx = Area of wings (of chord = Effective leverarm of tail plane about C. or longitudinal dihedral. called the relative density of the aeroplane. when the oscillation maintains constant amplitude in accordance with the preceding article. I t lift Jc : INTRODUCTION TO LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 266. Thus if X be complex. m = Pitching moment coefficient M/pF*Sc. condition : for longitudinal the rate of increase of stability has been described in Article 87 due to the tail must exceed that of due to wings.. c). Geometrically this a.496 If AERODYNAMICS [CH. etc. we regard this case also as indicating instability in connection with flight. = W jgpSl. k = Radius of gyration about transverse axis through C.
+ a. of (i) to increase more rapidly with a than the R. so that its lift vanishes at zero local incidence. differentiating with respect to a '(^ l \ or from (i) ~Tj >ba ds \ * ' ' t^ (11) again i. .e. ' negative) and then by to <*t THE LONGITUDINAL AERODYNAMIC the effective give for only when dihedral.S. On assuming (cf. the wings are at incidence a e will their moment vanish. e) = + km0 + ba(a a a ). > oc + e. 187.S.S. ) (i) Existence of a righting moment requires the L. O 4. is QC O apparent dihedral first geometric increased (<x by being e. ..G. . e FIG. so that intersection with the wing curve represents zero resultant moment and on this equilibrium account.H. c *) = ba(<x. The or a. is 497 distant be behind the quarterchord point (the of the wings and km0 is the wing moment ') coefficient at the incidence <x of zero lift. transference to the L. we can write for the wings ' Aerodynamic centre only For equilibrium at Tail V and lift a X ^=pF*5c = AL. a.H.e.bk*. i. Equilibrium^ (iii) In Fig. km0 can additional angle e of the tail plane..H. a symmetrical section for the tail plane. 187 the tail moment curve is plotted with its sign changed. this expression leads at once to Article 87) ra' (a + a. giving T#' (a On be represented by an .XII] If the SAFETY IN FLIGHT C.
an old type recently revived and improved. Shortly after the impulse. are assumed added algebraically to It give a resultant static moment M. but their ' forward stabilisers work in an upwash which. axes changing from Ox. 1936. We now remove these restrictions.* It is to be noted that the simple idea developed in this article. into the relative wind.G. being constrained and angular velocity zero. The same principle holds for tailfirst aeroplanes. assuming (ii) de/dv. l of pitch and pitching.). J Bryant.498 It will AERODYNAMICS be seen that (iii) [CH. . Oz. of which the coefficient is km is clear that the craft will nose The C. and examine in a preliminary manner J the initial response of a stable aeroplane in straight horizontal flight to a transient vertical gust. Lachmann. the directions of the t Oz' . R. S. The Short Oscillation The foregoing considerations are static. so that S' must be ' increased on this score. The approximate treatment in this article is based on a paper by Munk. together with any other pitching moments arising on the craft. the C. while the velocity z' FIG. However. cannot be applied directly to modern highspeed monoplanes. in contrast with downwash. 188). Ae. increases efficiency (usually by some 7 per cent. Resolving f U+ in the t Cf. from the righting moment is propor tional to and the factor within the brackets is about 065 for normal monoplanes and 05 for biplanes (Articles 189. 188. while there also occur changes both . The two moments of the last article. Aircraft Engineering. * components increase to and w + 8w. (Fig. is independent of downwash. July 1933. when U w are the velocity components along Ox. constant. though useful in connection with certain compact types of craft. receives a vertical acceleration. 192). let the craft pitch through the small angle Soc in the short time 82. in which the unstable moment of body and engine nacelles alone may easily exceed that of the wings.G. f 267. Oz to Ox'.
when the acceleration becomes dw The increase Therefore . but the most important of these is due to the increase of incidence of the tail . the increase of velocity in 8* is Sw cos 8oc $w 78a to the first order of small quantities.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 499 original direction Oz. V and q can be written without serious error for U and du/dt. + = U . " g dt (i) The two equations and (ii) are conveniently written iik 2 da vci From these follow = w dkm for q : T"" yjtf w 9 two expressions q ~~Vdt + (iii) _ 1 dw a ~yl W __ ~~' 1 /w dkm \l T* dq\ (V) Vc from dt) (v). w The angular is 2 acceleration is rf?/^. (U 8C7) sin 8oc Hence the acceleration in the direction Oz comes to dw/dt dafdt. 2 plane by IqfV. Differentiate and substitute * for dq/dt obtaining (378) dP where __ ' A #\ // (vi) a 1 (x /T0'c \ C Au v\ I /T<W' .^^_ ^^m\ ! A similar differential equation may be obtained for q. # Aa. of downward force is 2 pF S . Others arise in a complicated way. . One moment in this direction pF Sc(rf&m/da)Aoc. and amounts to pF S'/ a'(lq/V) in the sense of a Hence to the present approximation increasing. while Aa = w/V. .
is JF 268. both wings and tail arrived at a flat stall.p. increase of wing loading . The time 264 sees. will be kept the same. The following c SIS' klc He T a a' dk m !da 6 5ft. a' are then reduced by 80 per cent.p.h. so that before 50 per cent. one root is zero and the other The form = = The motion is then not an oscillation. Writing these roots > . a damping factor would cease to exist. YJ 0. for simplidkm /d(x. in short. decrease in damping are : increase of (JL.. at a still lower speed. = 000062. enabling stability in the present connection to be examined. Examples : particulars relate to a small.500 AERODYNAMICS [CH. 10 10 28 028 2 16 012 73 From Hence (vi) of the preceding article we find = 00378. shows. Usually. The damping factor = 00189 = sec. = 27c/(00162 x 1467) 277. but a stable subsidence or an . slow. We find that t is doubled.h. the aeroplane is approaching and that a.e. Substituting from w = w^in for the (378) gives the following equation damping factor : whence of the roots follows for a given craft at a particular speed.tf if. The formula for J. or < 01 t. nearly half a complete oscillation is If. i. X/F = . is the damping factor and 2n/(}V the periodic time. or the craft travels 183 ft. while city X is reduced by 90 per cent. biplane M. that causes of . unstable divergence according to the sign of 2 when a pair of complex roots results. for instance. described. its stall. X 1467 X/F = 00189 00162*. t of a complete oscillation = The time to halfdisturbance = 069/277 = 026 Thus the oscillation is very heavily damped. If. however. 4v) which indicates an oscillation. Let us next suppose that at 50 m.. of the initial disturbance is damped out. lightly loaded at 100 m.
Unless damped out or corrected by the pilot. For the present we shall be content to examine a greatly simplified. small size of craft compared with the minimum radius of curvature of the flight path.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT . 501 or altitude. : Then the Aerodynamic force is negligible moment of inertia. so that the aeroplane must dive again to recover speed. moment of inertia. proceeded to introduce corrections for will be approached in another way. perpendicular to the path. of period usually less than 5 sees. The airscrew which at first dipped. and an oscillation may develop. or idealised form of the phugoid oscillation. The simplifying assumptions are constant incidence to instantaneous flight path. a propeller thrust that always exactly balances drag. slow. But the following conclusions which . v. 2 Aerodonetics. proceeds to fall and gather speed. or too short a fuselage increase of moment of inertia . This is called the long. becomes low. so that the vertical component of the and Aerodynamic force is sensibly equal to the lift. decrease of tail volume decrease of liftangle slopes. but such development . We must not strain this approximate analysis too far in seeking to apply it to practical flight. following closely Lanchester's * original demonstration. fall again. Lanchester's Phugoid Oscillation In this article we assume the short oscillation to be damped. recovers and sloping the path upwards and passes through its original inclination to the horizon. turning almost instantly into the relative as described in the preceding article. the craft. the cycle of changes repeats itself with a period seldom less than 15 sees. as the craft completes its small climb. it demonstrates are well established. Speed decreases and. and varies with the square of the speed. and it follows that squares of velocity increments are negligible. In this historic work Lanchester etc. It is implied that the oscillation is of small amplitude. eventually wind stopping the axis. damping becomes light at low speed near the stall. Considering the effect of a transient upgust on initially steady horizontal flight.. or (after Lanchester) the phugoid oscillation. The resulting increase of lift provides an upward acceleration." 1908. The motion is governed by an alternating exchange of potential " : * Aerial Flight. 269. But the angle between the vertical and the normal to the flight path is assumed to be sufficiently small for the difference between cos 6 and unity to be neglected. The immediate response of a stable aeroplane at high speed to a vertical gust or like disturbance is an exceedingly rapid dead beat adjustment into the wind .
for example. 189. . the oscillation is simpleharmonic with period F*\ on substituting for u from . 2gh/V* . Wh + WVu/g = Owing to constancy Lift (L) (i) or = W(V + w)VF = W + W 8L = L~W=W.e. But (380) would normally give much too small values at. the vertical the horizontal amplitude. (ii) Hence the vertical force increment (i). 121 sees. and which is conservative. since n x gh^V and from (380) whence the velocity variation also simpleharmonic. V. of low minimum flying speed. is elliptical. From is u/h = g/V = constant. . varies (sensibly) as the vertical displacement of the craft from a mean level . (380) indicates at 60 m. This result FIG. EXAMPLE OF PHUGOID OSCILLATION.__) 2g/ V = 7^2 . out of phase with the vertical displacement. [CH. damping of speed . (380) ' v Form of the Oscillation.h. and 0. propeller thrust oc IjV and drag oc Fa at constant incidence. increases Let the altitude of the increases craft increase by h while speed from WV'ftg to W(V + of kL u)*/2g.G. by WVu/g. twice the above speed. of the craft relative to axes moving uniformly with velocity V and periodically coinciding with axes fixed in the craft.= 0138 g (i)..p. enables a phugoid oscillation of chosen length and vertical amplitude to be traced an example is shown in Fig. Since. We have xl 1*^/27* or. say.502 AERODYNAMICS kinetic energy. i. 2u/V . by u. for the time of a complete oscillation and 02 mile for its The simple formula This estimate would not be widely wrong for an aeroplane length.E. 90 ^ = = Thus the superimposed motion amplitude being V2 times of the C. in a real aeroplane. The K. Let u t be the maximum the semiamplitudes of the motion of the velocity variation and x lt C. 189.G. . .. . when the oscillation may exceed a mile in length.
(i) are no longer about Oy. velocity components U. with Ox in the direction of motion. . The latter are different functions of U 0f the steady values of the 0. . W. for example. vestigation to straight flight. . It is not necessary for the phugoid oscillation to exist . . Thus we are able to consider longitudinal stability without reference to lateral stability. here excluded. Equations appearing along Ox. and q t unless shown otherwise . and These are found. and let q appear as variable.g sin + X. = 0. as in Article 267. dW/dt  Uq. THEORY OF LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 270. We write In this notation the force u for dX/dU. w for dM/dW. . W = W . to the Considering an aeroplane climbing steadily at angle horizon.g cos 6 + uXu + wXw + qX q . accelerations dU/dt + Wq = duldt + Wq. Obviously.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 503 changes would evidently occur. The Classical Equations As already mentioned. and in this case it was first remarked by Bryan and can readily be verified that a generalised disturbance may be resolved into components which affect the symmetric and We asym metric stability of the craft quite separately. becomes 6.g sin g cos 0. dq/dt. as well as the pitching moment. and so on. the theory of stability is founded on the assumption that it is sufficient to examine the response of the craft to small disturbances only from restrict insteady flight. to be satisfied. + X. the conditions for equilibrium are . Each by u first f of the air forces. and 9. two subsidences may take its place at high speed. = +Z = M. M along Ox. (i) the components of Aerodynamic force being reckoned per unit mass. . w. is affected w. Other damping arises from incidence changes. for the increase of to the X order we have X Also the gravity components receive small increments. q increase by the Resulting from disturbance let U 0t and small quantities u. Oz.
.504 AERODYNAMICS first [CH. gcosd a l(Xq g sin 8  W a) = (382) u Ma Q X5 may CX +D 2 X(Z. w. +U 9) XM. whence . Hence we have the following equations + Wq+gcos8 . On X M u \Za this X. w. where w=dw/dt.B^ uXH + wXw + qX . B. all of which can be ascertained for a u.. and the addition of the term wM^ to be necessary. q as functions of /. called the stability coefficients. This will be discussed correction introduced. form u = f + + w4 v u^ u^ u^ 1 .. Equations (381) determine u. M given aeroplane under particular conditions. and the two terms vanish by Q (i). 1918. where f(D) contains powers up to the fourth of the differential The solution of this equation is known to be of the operator. where u lt etc. from (381) we find * for/(X) the equation D*e^* etc. viz. and X lf etc. w. Any two variables may be eliminated in turn in the usual manner. this assumption has been found to be insufficient for a peculiar reason in regard to the last equation. q It is to be noticed that we can substitute \qdi for 9 in these linear differential equations. Since D^'ke*. : expansion equation be arranged as Q A^ + B K + where the tions of \ +E = . or q} = 0. (u. Aeronautics in Theory and Experiment. etc. We also and an appropriate add to the last equation a f(D) . The response of the aeroplane to small disturbance is investigated from the nature of the * For a more detailed demonstration see Cowley and Levy.Z. are constant coefficients derived from initial values. q (381) . or q. "ku = X2 ^'. Recently. q are so small after the impulsive disturbance that second order terms may be neglected.. . and a differential equation of the same form results for u. may = etc. . q . are func. (383) X coefficients of X.. . are the roots of the equation /(X) 0. are founded on the assumption that They u. = be substituted for du/dt. .Uq + g sin . w. in detail later might term representing an instantaneous movement of the elevator a fourth equation might be framed for the propeller thrust.6 = uZu + wZw + qZ dwjdt B dq/dt = uMu + wMw + qM du/dt q Q .
is It is convenient. Consider.. . mX = 2fcD p[7 Jc D pU 2 S provided f Hence S. But. and to change their signs.* are called resistance derivatives the u quantities q etc. The X M . S being taken for convenience as the wing area. Their discussion is greatly facilitated by adoption at once of the dimensionless system of units due to Glauert.. . X is called a forcerotary derivative. 271. it is inconsistent to reckon forces per unit mass of the craft. . for example. Stability The algebraic if.. . Finally. the second as a momentrotary derivative to take another example. to replace u by the nondirnenis the weight) by sional coefficient xu defined (if X W CD). and yet to leave moments as actual moments. mXu . condition for this result is that all the stability coefficients together with Routh's discriminant Z~> : ___ 75 /"* T"\ _ A T~\ J _ T^ 271^ /QQ*A\ are required to be positive. q . is further distinguished as a forcevelocity derivative. (386) * Loc.. as before. The demonstration coefficients. completed with expressions for the stability however. 381 .. which may be real or complex. Inspection at once shows that the derivatives depend on pFS (not on pF 2 S). p. therefore. When U Q changes X=A m t is the mass of the aeroplane. and we accordingly divide by this quantity. Glauert's Nondimensional System It will be seen that the stability equations are rather complicated.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 605 occurs roots of this equation.w %X ? UQ  It is evidently suitable. cit. first named . (385) Now time / Xu has the dimensions l/7\ Hence an appropriate unit is of in the nondimensional tg system =. the force derivative u ^Q changes to to f/ as given by it makes for clearness X + > X u . their real parts are negative. to delay these until the equations are expressed in more convenient units. most of the old derivatives are negative. W/gpVS. if iD is calculated to include parasitic drag. Again.
= _ mXJpVSl.H.S.. per . e. parameter gravity. . R pF S = W cos : . But the following is of interest. (cf. Let us define & R the coefficient 2 jfc of resultant air reaction. the coefficient being called an inertia and the moment and momentrotary derivatives of longitudinal stability 272.G. effective leverarm / of the tail plane from the C. will already have partly appeared it collects the effects and altitude. and the sec. the relative density of the aeroplane. . . . by ..506 AERODYNAMICS [CH. coefficient.. = p^W/gpSl as in Article 267. and changing sign. It follows that the unit of velocity is l/t and this F/fi ft. will be recognised as the appropriate Article 66) for similar motions that are affected by A nondimensional forcerotary derivative is obtained by dividing that of the old system by pFS/.g. if Lengths must be expressed in terms of some representative length. and. (387) The significance of (z. form Finally. wing loading. *. Recast Stability Equation In terms of the nondimensional system the equation (382) becomes ~~ JI W = ^' (391) . moments of inertia are expressed in the B= velocity are kBml*. is chosen. (388) For small values of cos OQ = Qt kR closely equals the lift coefficient. of size. if 1 F*S W F ' ' ' ( } The quantity on the R. multiplying by m.
are still It is C lt But the following may be noted at once. .] = *.(*A . D (XB + lX + CJ X" + .mu (xw + kR D )} E = H'M^fo ^u tan mu (zw . 273. (392) + Expansion gives K + Bjt + Cjf + D^ + Ei^O in .xw tan )} = V>kL (zumw zwmu approx. . (395) The first 267). . altitude..] (394) q ) [ . always associated with w or u in which it This usefully localises effects of wing loading and . . Routh's discriminant has to do with place.. . ** >u X + ** mw fife tan X *mq = X) . (b) neglecting the derivatives xg zq which are always small. . the new damping factor and the (if the accent refers to the old) t X=X'* pf = f/t.* ^) + ^{^K ~ ^R tan 6 . ~ ll X For stability.ll + ~ . Article 266. (396) The first of these conditions means and so refers to the investigation of It is w positive. m m Since the scale of time is new period of oscillation are changed. the second the factor equated to zero gives the short oscillation (cf. l and E l are small compared with J5 X and generally true that enabling (393) to be factorised approximately as rather involved. The result is . the approximation in (395) the conditions for stability are Now. all the coefficients and Routh's discriminant must be positive. These criteria for stability.. . Unless an oscillation increases in amplitude through the discriminant becoming negative. in horizontal flight. (397) . instability must first appear (in a nearly stable aeroplane) through E l becoming To oscillations.. . take E l and (C 1D 1 B^E^) both positive. though greatly simplified. Article phugoid oscillation or the subsidences which its may negative. m seen that [JL is might be included. .XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 507 This is simplified further by (a) introducing wind axes. I ) I ff ) [ ). (393) which m (xu + zw + \unw == V^ + pmw approx.
called the  IS) D.mZ . . a denoting dkjda as before. 247) 2kJc L a.L + Z and X. Force Derivatives Certain practically useful formulae will now be obtained that are restricted to normal flight incidences with engines off (often known mX = D. respectively. appropriate to moder* kJcL t &<> D (cf. But we can calculate approximately as follows. Articles 176. the But angle disturbance causes the directions If incidence of X and Z to cease to coincide with those of D and L. By differentiation ~~ of (i) ~~" 8w\ whence V ) V\da / simplified ately small incidences This result is giving dkD /d<z include parasite drag. as glider stability). and slopes at the unevidently disturbed incidence measured.508 AERODYNAMICS if or [CH. . = substitution. k will by the : = + Proceeding in this way we 2k D find *) ) #u = . approximately.2(fc + kJcL (=CL (398) while it = a + & + &1&L = a approx. . can be plotted from lift and drag data. the total drag.. and In steady flight with wind axes _ mZ = L. is the relative density of the air = 0637 ENGINEOFF STABILITY 274. ze> . increase by the small angle w\V we have '. .. (ii) normal and longitudinal forces. zw 1 > q t . will be remembered that x = z = 0. and we have. lift..
in favourable circumstances. as anticipated in Article 270. Another. m ut vanishes in gliding flight. These are discussed in the next article. and presents a difficulty which leads to the introduction of another derivative. m^. forced oscillation method. we have by experiment. the model is oscillated through a spring and wire by a crank (Fig. basic data for less The m q are obtained a more or transverse its complete model by oscillating in a wind tunnel of the aeroplane concerned about the axis through C. but is allowed for by repeating the experiment in still air. are The model be oscillated freely means of a spring and by the logarithmic decrement may of the damping estimated by measuring the amplitudes of successive swings. . unless correction factors are available from experience. mgt must be obtained from experiment. in Two methods use. on lines indicated by Article 266. 190) the frequency of the applied oscillation is . In the alternative FIG. is easily determined calculated roughly. this formula suffers from the restriction mentioned at the end of Article 266. If Tcm is the coefficient of resultant moment.G. from Article 266 m = Fz T I 1 x ~~ d~) ~~ ba \ ' ' * ( 40 ) But in regard to modern highspeed monoplanes. or can be __ and now if Mw kB pVSl __ 1 9M 3oc __ c dkm ' AB pF2 5/ kB l do. Mechanical friction accounts for some of the observed damping. only wings and tail contribute. 276.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 509 275. AN ARRANGEMENT FOR MEASURING AIR DAMPING. mq and m^. we have clearly. mw . 190. Moment Derivatives One moment. The remaining derivative.
and includes damping from parts other than the tail represented in the model. M M &= decreases tail incidence. M . . factor within the brackets. must be evaluated q. Either of these methods determines v satisfactorily. gradually increased until the model attains a maximum synchronous vibration. and can introduce a We have factor / for interference. During $t let incidence increase by Soc. like other derivatives.e. = * ^ i Aerodynamic Theory. therefore. But it does not follow that the airdamping is the same as in fact. . two quantities reason is with other variables kept constant. Vj that due to friction. are essentially different from one another. the amplitude (0J and period (t) of which are observed. 51. v. ' onethird. v it is nearly true that . the measured airdamping is to be decreased by about Finally. and 0! the amplitude of the forcing oscillation. the time 8t taken by a change of downwash 8s due to change of wing incidence to travel from wings to tail is so considerable that the tail meanwhile changes its incidence appreciNow q results almost entirely from the tail. I I Thus the efficiency of the tail is increased since q da/dl. Moreover. vol. p.510 AERODYNAMICS [CH. Experiment aifords support of this conclusion. as before. by the lag. which is increased. The as follows. and approximately = by the i. But in the experiment a varies as well as q. If v denote the damping due to the wind. we calculate as follows. these q v x is extracted. If we neglect small contributions. With the approximation ljV t we Iq find Sa = a (l/V) and dz tail incidence is increased from Iq/V to ds Iq . + vt = A. and downwash ably. (401) by repeating without the wind. ..* (403) Experimental determination takes account of interference from the wings (due to wake velocity reduction) and from the body.
XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 511 whence <m q =/ rrTfl 1 . i.e. at 150 ft. = 02 m = &R tan .. de Hence =m The effect is . X 065 015) also have to a &D while mu = t Neglecting of (394) : m^ kL kD /kL == approximation in gliding flight.klmw = 032. Example of Further discussion will be illustrated by reference to a monoplane wing loading 138 Ib. Since q 1 = d and a (when q 1 = 0) = w/V. v the last term of = M + M (de/d) q which follows from a = w/V and (402). q (rfe/rfa) ... to which the following particulars apply : H 12 dkj 3 r a a" 1 b k^ *D *t J 2 0075 0258 0025 01 035 It is assumed for simplicity in this example that formulae (400) and is (404) without an interference factor are suitable. ft. (405) derivative to on the stability equation of including add the term 'hm^ to mw in (392). l . q =l. C D = m {2ka . Hence 3(0333 close mw = We .2^(2^ E = 2i>.. q q l q 1)} + 3jxfcD ww == 036. per sec. v.. q (404) No downwash factor appears. = am + \wiw = 44. provided a" substituted for a' .. B = l 1 2kD + a + m = 305. It because incidence is assumed constant... we find for the approximate stability coefficients . per sq. remains to deal with the remainder of the airdamping. this additional 277.
. is (set. The time to % sec. A rough formula for the second term of this factor in the case of a monoplane having unimportant pitching moments from the body and engine nacelles is easily obtained from (400) and . however.) v ' = 144 tQ = 52. . (406) nearly. 2CV 036 2 evaluating to . From (395) this is given X* by + 305X + 44=0 176 or X = is 1525 \ A/930 1525 144*. Substituting in (406) Luw ^Y g .612 AERODYNAMICS Routh's discriminant 013 298 [Cfi. It is of interest. common units is Similarly. . Short Oscillation.J_ 12 X 4X ~ 305 XOJ2 = X is 1936 069/00131 and the time to halfdisturbance = 53 sees.) = 27tf VC 1/ 1 . 278. The Long Oscillation. . . B^CiPi is ZV BI*EI = 483 also positive. The period t (sec. To the approximation of t (395) the period of the phugoid . halfdisturbance is because tQ = 138/^pF = 12. and the craft is stable. (408) that simple and preThis result should be compared with (380) estimate of the period is to be increased by the factor under liminary the radical. All the coefficients are positive. For the example t this gives (sec.) = 247tV'44/032 = 28. the damping factor in Li~ii to'  ^407) . to develop approximate formulae in terms of the derivatives for gliding flight.
a large occur. Nothing serious happens to the phugoid. moving the C. is far forward and ntw If. Now wings which approach a rectangle in planform stall first near the centre of span. where /3 will be of the order 6. SOME STALLING AND ENGINEON EFFECTS The foregoing analysis may be employed for gliding 8 flight up to able. but the short oscillation of speed. fib). the C. The second may involve a factor so low as 075 through decreased air speed if the tail plane is directly in the wake. 191. and the motion is a weak on the other hand. but can be avoided at small incidences by carrying the tail plane either high or low. divergence. If w vanish. Down wash then decreases at the tail plane. back considering may soon produce a long period. no oscillation will m positive.G. effects are illustrated in Fig. 17 . 191. but errors then begin to become apprecimethod ceases to be useful near the stall. These . on reaching the stall. EFFECTS OF TAIL LEVEL ON ix$ EFFICIENCY.G. will easily be followed out. (404) as (0/(ji)/(065 a craft of given weight and shape. A. decrease of downwash failing situated at to compensate for loss of speed the tail plane which is normally level with the wings may run through the wake and become more efficient. large while (owing to small tail volume) mq becomes small. 279. and from reversal of sign of the former. It is not feasible to ' ' layout. becomes poorly plane suddenly large incidences through passing into the wake. on account obviate the The efficiency of a tail plane is reduced by the wings of their downwash and wake.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 613 Thus. 10 20 Incidence FIG. may become unstable through a narrow range Effects primarily resulting from large decreases in a and a'.D. Some notes are given below on other effects. Then E is no longer moment of inertia is likely to make the oscillation increase in amplitude. Tail Level. first loss except by tailfirst several degrees earlier than the incidence for maximum lift. while the wake thickens and lifts two changes which are tail conflicting in regard to The high tail efficiency. as a rule. or 10 The incidence.
. The question is intimately concerned with the shape of the lift curve at the critical angle. stall may set in from the * and the above transition be delayed. Instability may Incidence FIG. most aeroplanes have such strong static stability at large incidences that elevators of normal size soon fail to be able to depress the tail further. i. tips With wings having very sharp taper. result First approximations factors of damping and long oscillations are. 38 1. this frequently tends to increase parasite drag and to introduce landing difficulties. form illusNear the damping passes through a sharply defined minimum. on the violence of the stall. respectively. m + m^. which has but little is to do with the tail. the 192. VARIATION OF m q WITH INCIDENCE (TYPICAL). from the it trailing edge This is less severe if burbling creeps forward than if. .S.614 AERODYNAMICS [CH. normally so strongly damped. sets in near the nose. It will be deduced that a rather low position for the tail plane is usually preferable from the present point of view. R. 192. Sharp taper is also associated with a concentration of downwash behind the central part of the span.Ac. August 1935. from this cause through a narrow range of low speeds. Jour. Variation of or qt q m m normally takes trated in Fig. to the the short m K+ q and a becoming small 3 *W 2  a) and The large increase of drag at stall tends to keep the phugoid stable. as happens with some aerofoil shapes. and the trouble is seen to be concerned with the short oscillation. However. Effects of Stalling on Moment Derivatives In regard to m iv . stall. Tail location for biplanes is governed by the fact that the lower wing usually stalls late.e. due essentially to rapid changes in the pitching 10 moment 20 of the wings. Level Flight It is by no means certain that an aeroplane which is satisfactory when gliding will maintain stability when the engines are opened out * Nasir. 280.
two 282. D difficult to calculate as local changes of trailing vorticity are inat present this is best estimated from special experiments . the tail plane is subjected to an increase of speed. cases. m to estimate dT/dV from Chapter X. dT/dV directly modifies the jp ' ' gliding formula for xu to (410) It should be observed that & D is not the same in this formula as in that for gliding. It is not difficult . if kL become very small. a formula for mu is the speed at the tail plane increase *72P* Besides its ' ' ' (4 8) effect on mu . end of Article 269. because of the elimination of the idle airscrew drag For this reason. the approximate expression for E l is . thereby reducing the stability coefficient Several important changes affect the tail plane. and has the effect of increasing Thirdly. The chief differences that occur are summarised below may conveniently proceed by a method of which will be described later. corresponding to high simplifies. High Speeds (407) in terms of derivatives. constant engine torque being if asstimed for this purpose. Damping is then found efficient. may be calculated by the methods of Chapter XI. vary and that u will take up values in consequence. we note that the slipstream will q with small changes of V due to variation of propeller thrust T. from the present point of view. assumed to lie in the slipstream. It is somewhat unfortunate that stability. (the cautionary note may be made that increases are often surprisThe ingly larger than would be indicated by simplified theories). But from V to V\/r. m . decreases as the craft becomes more speeds. which is . a long expression results factor of the phugoid oscillation. xu is often much the same in the of the latter case. for the On resolving to be proportional to kD as a first a result that may be compared with a remark at the approximation. further study = t gliding. vanishes. graphical analysis ~ tan l (&D/&L) during The first change to note is that 0t . This at once damping however. Putting a = 2. The first is an increase of downwash.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 516 for level flight. chief result is a decrease of static stability through modification of volved mw which Secondly.
c//i . Following disturbance.&M. a principal consideration in favour of minimising the chord of elevators. The loss in tail efficiency may be as great as onethird. as more determined speed attains high values and so produce instability. and stability.R. However.R. moving relative to the fixed part of the tail plane until the moment about their hinges again vanishes. we assume (400) and (404) to hold without an X X .616 AERODYNAMICS [CH. so that but the centre. free elevators will normally change their incidence by a than if they were fixed. Climbing Referring to (394). for example. (412) is the Aerodynamic where k is the radius of gyration. 284. The composite curve jR t o and E 1 0. The is to decrease the the decrease usually negligible. 1921 . Possession of static stability does not guard against this eventuality. 1118. we find that mw and mq will depend on Q and Y The question of stability can be exhibited other derivatives on kL by plotting curves against Qt Y as coordinates. Graphical Analysis An ingenious and rapid means of examining stability by graphical If o means has been devised by Gates. The foregoing methods allowance less angle suffice to investigate this question in a given case. climbing positive is seen to diminish DI and result is E t . 1 * y = . for craft to be stable when elevators are released. chiefly in order to reduce fatigue during long flights. decreasing. Free Elevators It is desirable. and hence the damping of the phugoid. will represent a dividing line or boundary between stability and instability. kL and being Routh's discriminant supposed constant. 283. depending upon the sign of l9 becomes more and On kL E by that of mu mu may change sign as . X (JL : = = * A. If. Xo^W /* 1 . or even to increase stability with free elevators by causing them to move through a This is greater angle than the craft on disturbance..* we / define . The amount of approximately [Mnw kL tan 00/CV latter effect is 285. the first term loses importance.C. provided is made for loss of efficiency by the tail plane. suitable balancing or springs can obviously be arranged to prevent the loss.
El ditions for stability. Rt g . we have. 194. especially approximates to the complete conThese illustrations are based on diagrams = . as varying with form of the boundary curve for gliding kL The broken line indicates the approxima.* who also obtains typical boundary curves for level flight. figure. lies far below the 0. 194 shows the effects of increasing ^ l D F= E = B = X = FIG. 193 illustrates the flight. instead of k as in the above. kL and JA. constant and fairly large) at great altitude. 17* . m =Y = 065 Y independent of and #! = gives X = o clearly depends on &L and p. parallel downwards Crossing R l negative need not be considered. with a high wing loading. . that an oscillation increases in amplitude.. Fig. p. tion to R! = given in \ Crossing (396). = TYPICAL STABILITY CHART. and and both C 1 X FIG. 493. vergence = shaded curves being towards the stable region.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT monoplane : 517 in interference factor for a particular lie which a = 25 = But and de/d* = 035. he. has been adopted in this chapter for ease of reference to Jones's account of the subject. Fig. tit.D. showing in particular a restriction of the stable region for highpowered craft. * This and some other writers on stability employ k to denote the radius of gyration about the transverse axis. Reservation of this symbol for the inertia coefficient jfca//2.X. 193. towards the right in the figure means that a dithe occurs. given by Gates. l l lying to the right of and the possibility of #! becoming to the axis. during gliding mw = 065 Y . : A. It will be seen signifies that this eventuality is much less probable at high speeds than at at a low speed (kL low.
from which be apparent that fins in general lead to both roll and yaw. (a) and (b) alone. LATERAL STABILITY 286. and the tail plane. Secondary fins include the body. with a stable craft. If a vertical gust strike a wingtip a rolling about Ox will first occur. the rolling subsides extremely rapidly. A craft left with positive roll sideslips to the right. are at the designer's in regard to stability . The moment damping past the stall. formally the same as those for longitudinal stability. The quite different relationships between corresponding derivatives. this Article 93. with little error in normal flight. they are adjusted to take secondary disposal fin effects into account and the latter will be omitted from discussion for clearness. however. especially in the case of highspeed monoplanes of types. associated with sideslip and yawing. leaving the craft with slight roll (list) and yaw. it may diminish to halfamplitude in about double this time. The sideslip that ensues generates a rather complicated lateral oscillation the only oscillation that arises from asymmetric disturbance its period may be 5 or 6 sees. It is modern important to realise that foreandaft balancing of fins.. Since the rolling subsidence is inherent in all aeroplanes at normal asymmetric stability is concerned with the oscillation spiral motion. The aeroplane is conceived to be flying straight in its plane of geometric symmetry when lateral balance is disturbed. Thus arise the derivatives Lv and N v. the conditions for asymmetric stability are. normally.518 AERODYNAMICS [CH. (b) significance of the latter as a fin (or otherwise) will the transverse dihedral angle of the wings. fin surface is critical. These are by np means negligible. The craft is then left with a sluggish spiral . The was seen in Article 95. and. which develop at such very different rates that we can follow them in turn. and these depend largely on the disposition of the vertical fins. motion. engine nacelles and airscrews. and the yaw produces lateral forces on the That on the rear equivalent . which is slow to develop or to decay. . being found to It is formed the subject of investigation in have a large magnitude except near or associated with the derivative Lp Thus. Introduction From a mathematical point of view. The effective fins of primary importance are (a) the actual fin together with the rudder. change the physical aspect completely. The asymmetric motion that results comprises three responses. usually situated above the incidences. however.
though terms containing may be neglected in normal flight.XII] fin SAFETY IN FLIGHT 519 (comprising the actual fin and the rudder) turns the craft into a righthand turn suitable for the existing bank. considerations No . cos 0.r W pg . the oscillation is usually present. The above illustrations tacitly assume a weak or absent transverse As we have seen. become noticeable. A (414) Treating these equations in the same damping factor X the equation way as (381) gives for the . The resulting spiral flight is seen to follow too strong a directional stability in the static sense. together with an exaggerated dihedral. $ C . For precision we have also to 287. though its greater speed soon raises it again. the transverse and directional moments of inertia. and asymmetric lift may increase both bank and sideslip. v cos . The gravity force . and may. Reversal of the sideslip leads to the lateral oscillation. a dihedral rolls a craft away from the The outer wingtip of the turn thus comes to be sideslip and turn. slight directional instability of the static kind often proving an advantage dynamically. . dp/dt in which. dr/dt E dr/dt . and the reader will have no difficulty in verifying the following (f> group in place of (381) dv/dt : A ' . The Asymmetric Equations Mass distribution is now defined by A and C. The lefthand wingtip now moves with excess speed. when sufficient (though not too great) static instability exists. at thq lower level. the product of inertia along Oy. < = <h cos A + y r sin . this as factor is include E. dihedral. E dp/dt + U. much too far forward a position for the C. dfy/dt and r = cos dfy/dt while v 9 f . however. can be drawn from these simple it is not clear that any static directional righting couple is desirable. . The latter defect being. definite result leads rapidly to a fast. in the direction Oy and amounts to g cos per unit mass. on occasion. = vL + pLp + rL (413) = vN + pNp + rN. since d<f>/dt = X<. . On the other hand. Construction of the classical equations for small oscillations follows precisely the lines explained in Article 270 for longitudinal disturbances. sin p = d<f>/dt we can substitute for $ from = vY + pYp + rY. This would not occur in a craft that was prone to spin. of the lateral forces strong directional instability spinning dive. uncommon.P.
np + y p + n . X*C>JV. 288. cit. yv of zw9 meant that nr takes the place yp that of xqt etc. >t = p + n +y (= approx.520 AERODYNAMICS [CH. this equation can be * arranged in the form E z. (415) N. Glauert. ) xy.C7 XM KE XL.. XnA which expands to X4 + 2 X3 + l C t X' + where.\ x'K Away from the nf AR tan X (^f ^ (416) stall.l.tan (/^ . terms containing E as factor may be neglected. Expressed in the nondimensional system.. p. r **v sin0 X(Y. loc. . = P*L{ft*r l r v pt (/^fir ) v (l r) (419) W w These expressions should be compared with * (394).) .jin (^ . f =V (416) reduces to I. Solution with Wind Axes case. and taking approximately E and W yp = y = 0./ X _ f ^ + W x (i .iL tan . X2V XlE XL.tin. Comparison with (391) then shows formal agreement to exist according to the scheme : W n z m by which is y.4^) . = = %(/A .^. *V (Jt* R / .)}. writing kL as an approximation to k R Bt C. so that C7 Introducing wind axes as in the longitudinal = 0. 493.
>l. the above condition lv is (nr . the third considerably larger and negative.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT aircraft is stable if 521 The the stability coefficients and /? = Bf D t t ZV BfE* are all positive. enabling the factor (X lp) Associated with the spiral disturbance a small root occurs. . There is left a quadratic. If the quadratic has real roots. is (421) and instability is usually traced to a failure here. static directional stability may not be necessary. More generally. 290.np tan ) >n is 9 (l. closely of value EifDi. though it is to be remarked that increase of nv is accompanied by increase of nf . That it should have a pair of complex roots will be found to depend on nvt if positive..e. The first two derivatives are usually positive. which can also be extracted. This value must be reduced considerably if the oscillation is to decay quickly. to be divided out... This means that static directional stability must be limited.nv . *l p near the stall has consequences traced in . not exceeding a small fraction of /.  l p tan f) . 289. The quadratic (420) is easily investigated once the stability coefficients have been evaluated in a given case. so that av if negative. (422) which intimates that stability a little more difficult to secure during climbing. Approximate Factorisation normal Arising from the overwhelming rolling subsidence there B2 flight always one large root of (418). Discussion in Terms of the Derivatives The condition for E t to be positive in level flight lv n. approximately. it represents the spinning divergence. must be small. i. is in l = p. . viz. Change of sign of Article 93. though it need not become negative. representing in usual circumstances the To a first and rather rough approximation this lateral oscillation. is + Xi + 7? #2 x + 7r #2 i=s0  (420) The magnitude of the damping factor calculated from this approximation errs on the wrong side for safety.
Owing to change of . so that the oscillation damped. ** nr Vv I 1 Va i These give for level J5. consider two wing strips of chord c distant y from the longitudinal axis. Inserting values in (420) 24 we have approximately Xa or + 09X + = 145*. Evaluation of Derivatives less than as here estimated. there arises an element rolling 1 moment : 8L If c (f) = p<%fcLy {(V + ryY may the semispan and . AERODYNAMICS Example plausible numerical values are *L 1' [CH. Otherwise. and & L s is be assumed constant. X = 045 The true damping would be appreciably 292.522 291. The only effective force derivative.. The strip method. this integrates at once to =f where S the total area. consider ing the integral we note that = 2 ^Jo c P M . to correct which a larger dihedral would be required.fy) (F } = 4 9 VrkL cy*ty. Some ^ 8 lp lr v t 6 2 C. Routh's discriminant is 646 X 579 X is 1538 2 (1538) + (646)' X 067. introduced in Article 93 and employed in the Theory of Airscrews. Let lr be required at a mean lift coefficient kLQ Neglecting contribution from a possibly high fin. 646 579 1538 067 The craft is spirally unstable. is easily deduced from a tunnel experiment in which a complete model is yawed at a succession of small angles to the wind. is available for the approximate calculation of moment derivatives which depend largely on the wings. flight *. local speed only. This is best seen from an example. It is readily arranged to take account of nonuniform grading of air load along the span in steady flight. /. %.
Use of ordinary ailerons induces an adverse yawing moment. for s. 1921. for example. The functions of Aerodynamic controls in steady flight under various conditions have already been described. nf depends principally on the fin and rudder and is . must be many times as powerful as the rudder. These might be so dimin ished as to render impossible the deliberate stalling of the craft. analogous to m q . Such a policy has adherents on the Continent. but synchronous rudder movement appears * to have become instinctive with pilots. The yawing is corrected by use of the rudder. we note first maximum that the size of elevators. Several preliminary considerations are first grouped together in this article. determines the angle of incidence of flight. caused. Lavender. since the wing with the . given the leverage. greater lift exerts the greater drag. for little resistance opposes yawing. which y = elliptic loading may be assumed. In deciding the power for an Aerodynamic control.. Relf. but opposed to it is the consideration that small elevators deprive the pilot of the means of quick recovery from accidental stall. having a strong adverse rolling moment to overcome at normal speeds. examining the principles of their design in connection with the dynamic features of the craft. i. & M. and Ower. Rotary derivatives can be determined experimentally by the oscillation method (Article 276)* or.R. if yQ be the radius of gyration of the liftgrading diagram appropriate to the plan form and sections in steady flight.R. . We now discuss the requirements and limitations of controls during disturbed flight. The subject of aerobatics is beyond our scope. in the case of lp and np by measurements during continuous rotation of the model about the wind direction. by the sudden failure of an engine with a high thrust line. A.C.e. Power. ~ ~~ ~~ ~~"W Wfe^ In the absence of precise data. 809. The necessity for this correction may be overcome by a spoiler operating on the depressed wing. The ailerons. L Finally (r) = 2pFri LO Sy.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 523 whence. CONTROLS 293. one which turns the craft to the wrong hand for the imposed bank this is natural.
slot and also its shaping need care but experience is necessary to allow for scale effect on both BALANCED AILERON. from the point of view of usually able. Consider.is proportional to that applied. line well aft of the effective It is achieved by locating the nose of the control surface. as one of many I (c) FIG. Aerodynamic moment to operate There are two general 1 points to notice.524 AERODYNAMICS [CH. determined by the force a pilot can balancing exert on the control column without fatigue. . (a) FRISE TYPE momentarily at still greater incidence and yet must be lifted by its The remarkable efficiency of aileron. balancing commonly fails at some control angle. Handley Page slots both in delaying aileron stall and in curing adverse yawing moment at high incidences has been described in Article 94. the case of an aeroplane which is approaching a confined landing space steeply with its wings at large incidence a wingtip that suddenly rotates downwards through a . in the wrong direction. THE NOSE ACTS AS A SPOILER ON THE DEPRESSED WING C. the moderately large . Aeroplane controls are reversible/ the pilot feeling a moment He. and the tab generates sufficient (b) the real control. or diminutive surface attached to a control. of a control surface should be reduced by to small magnitude. For these and other reasons. This balancing is Aerodynamic and will not be confused with mass balancing. (c) OUTRIGGED SERVO (S) OPERATING THE PARTLY BALANCED RUDDER OF A LARGE CRAFT. CURTAIN OR SHROUD. . gust is ' . Slots should be closed when not in use. Stalling of a control is also delayed by the socalled cut slot/ which may be arranged to open between a deflected control and the fixed member to which it is attached. control surfaces of heavy aeroplanes are often servo operated. Foreandaft location of a cut this is work for the wind tunnel. 195. which usually means that the control column moves a tab. of clearly for controls to stall later than important the wing. examples that might be chosen. It is Controls. intro The hinge moment duced to prevent hinge is elastic flutter. variables. There some danger of overbalancing when fine limits are attempted for a very large craft moreover. Stalling to operate controls quickly through wide angles. ' strength. (b) HORN AILERON .
there results a lag in the response of the craft to the elevators.R.. aeroplane can be flown satisfactorily with skill and good controls. develops only very slowly. . it were turned into horizontal circling flight. response of a stable its stability if this be restricted. if especially as the cause is likely sufficiently rapidly to prevent failure this supersedes the lateral oscillation.* The sluggish phugoid can be corrected at an early stage. though safe. when the damping is redistributed between the short * Garner and Wright. excess creating a discomfort in bumpy weather which is beyond the oscillation If the oscillation becomes unstable near pilot to ease. Special modifications to controls have been suggested. a stable aeroplane will fly itself just as steadily as a pilot can contrive it is equally true that an unstable . fairweather flying greatly increases. making steady flight difficult or impossible. provided it is not wilfully unstable. But it is doubtful whether a pilot can act the spinning divergence. yet nearly all to be too small a rudder. for example. there is power of the ample correct by control slow spiral movements both the lateral oscillation and the motion. A. 1028. An important aspect of stability is to provide relief for the pilot. and an aeroplane designed in accordance with the theory given might become unstable if. Relation to Stability In normal disturbed flight. The investigation of this chapter is restricted to symmetric flight. 294. due to too great static righting moments. Shadowing by the wings may be so marked during a spin that the is rudder commonly set as high as structural considerations allow. In favourable circumstances. but left to control during climb. & M.C. whilst spiral instability. damped a chief reason for limiting longitudinal static stability. the stall (Article 280). controls are used to correct a tedious. Thus a craft may be stabilised for level and gliding flight.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT ' 625 ' Rudder and elevators lose efficiency when the wings stall. divergence may aeroplanes are so characterised. there exists a mathematical explanation of the pilot's wellknown distrust of a weak rudder. 1193. time to Turning to asymmetric disturbances. and stability will it is probable that spiral in remain a general feature until amateur.R. by It is noteworthy that since the spinning double disturbance every two seconds. Possession of too powerful a rudder prevents flying with all controls released. and this will not be necessary during manoeuvring. aeroplane and also to supplement Elevator control cannot vie with the speed of the short.
Aeroplanes are controllably safe in this wider view except as regards recovery from a possible type of motion . to 60 r. but has not yet proceeded very far. THE LOAD FACTOR is no part of our subject. When this ordinary spin speeds up and narrows. as a rule. the elevators may not be able to check this tendency. behave in when subjected to common much the theory of small oscillations. large centrifugal couples tend to lift the nose of the craft. The rate of descent then decreases.p. same way as calculated by the But guidance through very large . Whilst structural design dynamics and. but the rate of spin increases from perhaps 20 r.. disturbances must be left to the pilot it is just in these circumstances that he stands most in need of unfailing controls and the obvious deduction is that their efficiency should be ensured under extreme conditions. it should also be realised that knowledge of a craft's symmetric stability will often suggest a modification to correct faulty behaviour in a manoeuvre. the maximum load that each part of a craft is likely . The possibility of large transient accelerations makes a wide margin of strength especially desirable in aircraft.528 AERODYNAMICS oscillations. 295.m. in the neighbourhood of 45. Extension of the theory is possible. but simplicity is lost through coupling of longitudinal and lateral effects. Detailed analysis must be left to further reading. such as is commonly used in engineering design. but the imperative need to save weight must narrow this down to the safe minimum. and in some cases to increase the rate of spin rapidly. Large Disturbances and long Experience has shown that most craft. An overall factor of safety.m. flat spin may arise as a development of the slower spin described in Articles 9294. although the usual difficulties exist in carrying over such smallscale experiments to full scale. Aerowhat load each member of the craft specifies largely should be able to withstand. and the only chance of control lies in the rudder. The distribution of mass in the craft appears to be of great importance.p. disturbances. [CH. 296. At a large incidence. known The as the flat spin. Article 66). An excellent experimental method of investigation is provided by the free spinning of light models in a vertical tunnel (cf. would obviously be wasteful. If it be thought that so restricted a study of the subject loses practical utility.
. material. 196. i. intervals A. when kL is initially very small. It is unnecessary to consider the matter in detail. Instances have appeared in Chapter IV and elsewhere. The critical condition arises in pulling out from a steep dive.XII] SAFETY IN FLIGHT 527 to be called upon to withstand is carefully assessed before applying an overriding factor to allow for defects in design.e. C. . who therefore straightens out much more gradually. But a personal load factor of 5 would cause acute physical discomfort to a pilot. since rules are laid down by the competent Government authority. and simple calculations show that the load factor might then exceed 50 if the elevators were suddenly operated by radio from a distance.G.g. and that its maximum value is the ratio of the maximum lift coefficient to the normal. during steady or unsteady turning. with the added zest of mock fighting unit spacing in the vertical scale represents the maximum deflection of the wire under its own weight. supported in straight level flight is called the load Considering all cases that may be specified by the acceleration of the C. and workmanship. which take account of the duties which a given craft will normally discharge. The accelerometer records the variation of load factor during flight. . bad atmospheric bumps D. I E I F Each of the loop . . change of speed being neglected.G. e. where clearly the wings support a load equal to several times the dead weight of the craft... . Thus the pilot acts as a safety valve against excessive load factors. spin VARIATION OF LOAD FACTOR DURING FLIGHT. mock fighting. the pilot kept C. A. This instrument consist of a short fine wire clamped at the ends may like a to a frame secured to the aeroplane and with its length perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration to be measured. dive and flatten out E and F. 196 is photographed on a moving film. we easily find that the load factor is the ratio of the abnormal to the normal lift coefficients. and we shall consider only some principles. Even in this fairly severe test. record for acrobatic flight. and the a typical A'B'C'D Time FIG. . is 30 sec. accelerations . Fig. B. its beam The wire bends under deflection is own weight and centrifugal force. due to the acceleration g. B. The ratio of this load to that factor.
be unstable. The acceleraIt tions of parts far from the C. Jour. will generate excess and this will be all the more marked relative wind. over a comparatively brief interval of time. t Operational J M. May 1936. t Applications of operational methods to aircraft have been described by Bryant and Williams.. by firing a gun of considerable calibre. arising are concerned with the effects.528 AERODYNAMICS [CH. A. Roy. upgust.G. involve longer periods Such studies call for wider reading than the foregoing treatment. we require Problems frequently to follow the disturbed motion of the craft. A specially trained pilot may nerve himself to 7g in cornering during a race. e. as the analysis of spinning. lift if A growing * * as indicated in Article 177. the craft noses away from the * * * trace reliably the load factors arising from a gust of given structure. 1927.* greatly reduced by the theory of which has been given by Jeffreys.g. . The response of a stable aeroplane to disturbance creates stresses. XII and 4g.R. as between due to control. A. vary through a wider range.. * Proc. in military aeronautics.. J Klemin. but the uncontrollable load factors may be more severe if the craft these. is much less than might be expected. Others. Aeronautical Sciences. for example. and it appears that in ordinary flight the variation of load factor. 1346. but such occasions are very exceptional. of forces and moments suddenly applied.R.C. Soc. 1930. as also to investigate many problems of control. The labour of solution is use of the method of operators introduced by Heaviside. and others. 18934. by or. & Methods in Mathematical Physics. though in some instances a smaller To dropping a load by parachute. should be noticed that the accelerometer can be arranged to measure and also the component acceleration in any desired direction. Representation of the general motion of an aeroplane following small disturbances leads to eight simultaneous linear differential equations. number will suffice.
390 Glauert. 106 Bell. 35. L. 493 Jones. W. 354 . S.. 270. 459. 504 Houghton. D Diehl. 454 443 Douglas.. 422 Jones. Gray. 341. 473 Beavan. H. 221... S. G. 65.. 425 Kaplan. 384. 385 F.. W. C. 493 G