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楼主 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看楼主 更多操作
ESDEP European Steel Design Education Programme 以欧规钢结构设计为基础的课程。共分十六卷。 本贴展示第十五卷
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ESDEP (The European Steel Design Education Programme) was published in 1993 and referred to the pre-Standard version of the Eurocodes (the ENV versi*****). The technical content therefore does not necessarily conform to versi***** of the Eurocodes that are being published (as EN versi*****) from 2002 to 2007. The advice given in ESDEP may be used as general guidance but reference should always be made to the published EN Standards and National Annexes for the actual rules and recommendati*****.
This English language version of ESDEP may be freely used by Universities and Colleges as a source of reference for education and training in steel c*****truction, provided this is not for financial gain. In this context it may be freely copied. Other potential uses of the English version of ESDEP should be referred in writing to the SCI for guidance.
There are links from the 18 Working Groups of the ESDEP course contents to 201 lectures which cover 22 broad subject areas. These are identified by group and lecture number, and each lecture corresponds approximately to a presentation of 50 minutes duration. The lectures include a summary page which lists the objectives and scope. Any pre-requisites are also itemised and a brief summary description of the content is given. References, bibliography and line diagrams are included after the main text.
The content of the lectures ranges from applied metallurgy to structural systems, and includes mainstream subjects, such as buckling and composite behaviour, as well as specialised secti*****, for instance those dealing with corrosion protection and seismic design. The material covers not only buildings and bridges but also structures such as offshore platforms, tanks, chimneys and masts. The depth of study ranges from basic introduction to very advanced. Material may be useful to both teachers, as a source for lecture presentati*****, and to students, working individually or in groups. WG 1A : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS WG 1B : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN WG 2 : APPLIED METALLURGY WG 3 : FABRICATION AND ERECTION WG 4A : PROTECTION: CORROSION WG 4B : PROTECTION: FIRE WG 5 : COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE WG 6 : APPLIED STABILITY WG 7 : ELEMENTS WG 8 : PLATES AND SHELLS WG 9 : THIN-WALLED C*****TRUCTION WG 10 : COMPOSITE C*****TRUCTION WG 11 : CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING
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WG 12 : FATIGUE WG 13 : TUBULAR STRUCTURES WG 14 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BUILDINGS WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE WG 15B : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BRIDGES WG 15C : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: MISCELLANEOUS WG 16 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: REFURBISHMENT WG 17 : SEISMIC DESIGN WG 18 : STAINLESS STEEL
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沙发 发表于: 2010-11-22
WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE
Lecture 15A.1 : Offshore Structures: General Introduction
Lecture 15A.2 : Loads (I) : Introduction and Environmental Loads Lecture 15A.3 : Loads (II) - Other Loads Lecture 15A.4 : - Analysis I
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Lecture 15A.5 : - Analysis II Lecture 15A.6 : Foundati***** Lecture 15A.7 : Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures Lecture 15A.8 : Fabrication Lecture 15A.9 : Installation Lecture 15A.10 : Superstructures I Lecture 15A.11 : - Superstructures II Lecture 15A.12 : Connecti***** in Offshore Deck Structures
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板凳 发表于: 2010-11-22
Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE
Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures:
To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structural requirements for design are generated.
The lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the
development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). The major codes are identified. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Special attention is given to some principles of topside design.
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A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.
Offshore platforms are c*****tructed to produce the hydrocarb***** oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy c*****umption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000. The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depicted in the table below.
Condition [/td] [/td] [/td] Conventional [/td] Average [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Offshore [/td] North Sea [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] 35000 [/td] [/td] World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growing contribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity. Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarb*****. It also indicates the *****hore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany. [td=1,1,76] 10 - 15 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Deepwater [td=1,1,131] 15000 10000 - 25000 5 - 10 Non-Opec [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 3000 - 12000 8 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Middle East [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 500 - 3000 1 4000 - 8000 5 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] CAPEX $/B/D OPEX $/B
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(see Slides 1 and 2).
Introduction of Basic Types
The overwhelming majority of platforms are piled-jacket with deck structures, all built in steel
Slide 1 : Jacket based platform - Southern sector North Sea
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Slide 2 : Jacket based platform - Northern sector North Sea A second major type is the gravity concrete structure (see Figure 2), which is employed in the North Sea in the Norwegian and British sectors.
A third type is the floating production unit.
The offshore environment can be characterized by: water depth at location soil, at seabottom and in-depth wind speed, air temperature waves, tide and storm surge, current ice (fixed, floes, icebergs) earthquakes (if necessary) The topside structure also must be kept clear of the wave crest. The clearance (airgap) usually is taken at approximately 1,50 m, but should be increased if reservoir depletion will create significant subsidence.
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if available. 3. for deeper water floating rigs are used. 2. After several initial phases which include seismic field surveying. 3. fixed or floated production facilities. in the rules of Department of Energy (DoE). The results are studied and the economics and risks of different development plans are evaluated. 2. etc. 7. 3. In the UK the Piper alpha diaster has led to a completely new approach to regulation offshore. For the detail design of the topside structure the AISC-code  is frequently used. (In this instance it is engaged in exploratory drilling and is therefore working in isolation.3 months/well providing the off loading system (pipelines. The major certification bodies are: Det norske Veritas (DnV) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) Their requirements are available to the designer [2. The wells are then drilled by a jack-up drilling unit standing close by with a cantilever rig extending over the jacket. Jack-up drilling rigs are used for this purpose for water depths up to 100 . prior to production: engineering and design fabrication and installation of the production facility drilling of production wells.2 Jacket Based Platform for Shallow Water First the jacket is installed. Slide 3 shows a jack-up drilling unit with a cantilever rig.4 Codes Structural design has to comply with specific offshore structural codes.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.52ship. 8]. Norwegian Petroleum Direktorate (NPD). The worldwide leading structural code is the API-RP2A .).g. Factors involved in the evaluation may include number of wells required. and the cost for logistics are also a magnitude higher offshore. e. The drilling and c*****truction interaction is described below for two typical fixed platform concepts. Specific government requirements have to be complied with. tankers. The warranty surveyors apply standards. one or more exploration wells are drilled.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .com/read.5 Certification and Warranty Survey Government authorities require that recognized bodies appraise the aspects of structural integrity and issue a certificate to that purpose. Insurance companies covering transport and installation require the structures to be reviewed by warranty surveyors before acceptance. and the AWS-code  is used for welding. number of such facilities. The recently issued Lloyds rules  and the DnV rules  are also important. there are four main technical activities. 6. on a confidential basis. These factors combined with the size and weight of the items. and pipeline or tanker off-loading. taking 2 . FIELD 3. The overall cost of a man-hour offshore is approximately five times that of an *****hore man-hour.php?tid=126910 2.1 OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL/GAS Introduction The different requirements of an offshore platform and the typical phases of an offshore development are summarized in . The resp*****ibility for regulatory control has been moved to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the operator has to produce a formal safety assessment (TSA) himself instead of complying with detailed regulati*****.) 6 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . The cost of c*****truction equipment required to handle loads.3 C*****truction The environment as well as financial aspects require that a high degree of prefabrication must be performed *****hore. require that a designer must carefully c*****ider all c*****truction activities between shop fabrication and offshore installation. It is necessary to design to limit offshore work to a minimum.120 m. As soon as exploitation is decided and approved.
52ship. thus providing a stiffer structure. all other guides are deleted. Design and c*****truction of the topside are progressed parallel to the drilling. This arrangement results in reduced structural weight and easier pile driving. In contrast inclined piles enlarge the foundation at the bottom. Vertical skirt piles are directly installed in the pile sleeve at the jacket base. As an alternative to this concept the wells are often accommodated in a separate wellhead platform. 7 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . allowing production to start soon after deck installation. keeping it stable above the waves. C*****equently production starts between one and two years after platform installation. They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well conductors and the pipeline riser. where the pile is installed in guides attached to the jacket leg.1 JACKETS AND PILE FOUNDATION Introduction Jackets.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Drilling starts after the platform is built and completely installed.2 Pile Foundation The jacket foundation is provided by open-ended tubular steel piles. the tower-like braced tubular structures.php?tid=126910 Slide 3 : Cantilevered drilling rig: Self-elevating (jack-up) exploration drillingplatform. In recent years pre-drilled wells have been used to allow an earlier start of the production.com/read. For further wells. where the pile is installed in the corner legs of the jacket.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . with diameters up to 2m. 3. There are basically three types of pile/jacket arrangement (see Figure 3): Pile-through-leg concept. 4. generally perform two functi*****: They provide the substructure for the production facility (topside). 4. the jack-up drilling unit will be called once again and will reach over the well area of the production deck. The installation methods for the jacket and the piles have a profound impact on the design. The piles are driven approximately 40 .80 m.3 Jacket and Gravity Based Platform for Deep Water The wells are drilled from a drilling rig on the permanent platform (see Slide 2). Skirt piles can be grouped in clusters around each of the jacket legs. 4. linked by a bridge to the production platform (see Slide 1). and in some cases 120 m deep into the seabed. In this case the platform has to be installed exactly above the pre-drilled wells. Skirt piles through pile sleeves at the jacket-base.
the integrated and modularized topside which are positioned either on a jacket or on a concrete gravity substructure. diameter and penetration of the piles depend on the environmental loads and the soil conditi***** at the location.3 Pile Bearing Resistance Axial load resistance is required for bearing as well as for tension. the support structure c*****ists of trusses or portal frames with deletion of diagonals. parafines/waxes and sand support for pumps/compressors required to transport the product ashore power generation accommodation for operating and maintenance staff. Slide 4 shows an integrated deck (though excluding the living quarters and helideck) being moved from its assembly building.4 Corrosion Protection The most usual form of corrosion protection of the bare underwater part of the jacket as well as the upper part of the piles in soil is by cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes. up to approximately 100 MN weight.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Number. A sacrificial anode (approximate 3 kN each) c*****ists of a zinc/aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and welded on to the structures. Typically approximately 5% of the jacket weight is applied as anodes. down to the top of the piles (situated at approximately +4 m to +6 m L. Slide 4 : Integrated topside during load out 5. 5.A.2.2. 5. The steelwork in the splash zone is usually protected by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12 mm to the members. 5. They result from the lifting capacity of crane vessels and the load-out capacity at the yards: the single integrated deck (up to approx 100 MN) the split deck in two four-leg units the integrated deck with living quarter module the modularized topside c*****isting of module support frame (MSF) carrying a series of modules.2 5. 4. e. Lateral load resistance of the pile is required for restraint of the horizontal forces. The moderate vertical load and shear per column allows the topside to be supported by vertical columns (deck legs) only. The pile accumulates both skin friction as well as end bearing resistance.com/read.52ship. water.T.2 Structural Design for Integrated Topsides For the smaller decks. There are basically two structural types of topside. oil and non-transportable components in the raw product. (Low Astronomic Tide).g.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .1 Jacket-based Topsides Concepts There are four structural concepts in practice.1 TOPSIDES Introduction The major functi***** on the deck of an offshore platform are: well control support for well work-over equipment separation of gas. arrangement.php?tid=126910 4. These forces lead to significant bending of the pile near to the seabed. 8 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .
级别: 论坛版主 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 鲜花 鸡蛋 5. with lateral bracing down to the top of jacket.3 range of 200 MN up to 500 MN.2.php?tid=126910 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 地板 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 5.com/read. Structural Design for Modularized Gravity-based Topsides The topsides to be supported by a gravity-based substructure (see Figure 2) are in a weight The backbone of the structure is a system of heavy box-girders with a height of approximately 10 m and a width of approximately 12 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs.52ship. In this case the MSF is a heavy tubular structure (Figure 4).3 Structural Design for Modularized Jacket-based Topsides A major modularized topside weighs 200 to 400 MN. 9 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .15 m (see Figure 5).
can be distinguished: conventional trusses in the walls. 7.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.2 7. Floors are flat or stiffened plate.52ship. hook-up. A recent development. At the offshore location the barge is 10 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . intermediate floors. Three types of structural concepts. C*****TRUCTION Introduction The design of offshore structures has to c*****ider various requirements of c*****truction relating A documented c*****truction strategy should be available during all phases of the design and the actual design development should be monitored against the c*****truction strategy. C*****truction is illustrated below by four examples. commissioning. In living quarter modules (5-25 MN) all sleeping rooms require windows and several doors must be provided in the outer walls. heavy base frame (with wind bracings in the walls). stiffened plate walls (so called stressed skin or deck house type).2. and grating for intermediate floors. foreseen for the Norwegian Troll platform. 7. all avoiding interior columns. module installation. C*****truction of Jackets and Topsides Lift Installed Jackets The jacket is built in the vertical (smaller jackets) or horizontal position (bigger jackets) on a The jacket is loaded-out and seafastened aboard a barge.1 quay of a fabrication site. is to provide a flexible connection between the deck and concrete column. This requirement can interfere seriously with truss arrangements. load-out. sea transport.1 to: fabrication.com/read. EQUIPMENT AND LIVING QUARTER MODULES Equipment modules (20-75 MN) have the form of rectangular boxes with one or two The floors are steel plate (6. 7. offshore installation. 8 or 10 mm thick) for roof and lower floor. weight. 6. This connection introduces wave-induced fatigue in the deck structure. thus eliminating fatigue in the deck .php?tid=126910 The substructure of the deck is rigidly connected to the concrete column and acts as a beam supporting the deck modules.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .
com/read.2.php?tid=126910 moored alongside an offshore crane vessel.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . the jacket is put on skids sliding on a straight track of steel beams. and pulled onto the barge (Slide 5). After setting down the jacket. 7. Slide 5 : Jacket being loaded onto barge by skidding At the offshore location the jacket is slid off the barge. the piles are installed into the sleeves and. It immerses deeply into the water and assumes a floating position afterwards (see Figure 6).Powered by phpwind http://bbs. upended from the horizontal. 11 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Fixing the piles to the jacket completes the installation. and carefully set down onto the seabed. driven into the seabed.52ship. The jacket is lifted off the barge.2 Launch Installed Jackets The jacket is built in horizontal position. For load-out to the transport barge.
The floating GBS with deck is then towed to the offshore site and set down onto the seabed.4 Jacket Topsides For topsides up to approximately 120 MN.g. The GBS is brought in a deep floating condition in a sheltered site. 7.php?tid=126910 Two parallel heavy vertical trusses in the jacket structure are required. To reduce forces and moments in the jacket.52ship.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Self-upending jackets obtain a vertical position after the launch on their own.com/read. The barge is positioned between the columns and the GBS is then deballasted to mate with and to take over the deck from the barge.3 Topsides for a Gravity-Based Structure (GBS) The topside is assembled above the sea on a temporary support near a yard.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.2. The next phase is to upright the jacket by means of controlled flooding of the buoyancy tanks and then set down onto the seabed.2. e. It is then taken by a barge of such dimensi***** as to fit between the columns of the temporary support and between the columns of the GBS. Slide 6 shows a 60 MN topside being installed by floating cranes. rocker arms are attached to the stern of the barge. capable of taking the support reacti***** during launching. the topside may be installed in one lift. 7. 12 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Piling and pile/jacket fixing completes the installation. a Norwegian fjord.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .3. connecting more than one shackle to the same column is not very attractive. i. periods of suitable weather conditi*****. 7. first the MSF will be installed. Figure 7 provides information on a typical big.e.52ship.2 Sling-arrangement. The heaviest sling available now has a diameter of approximately 350 mm. a breaking load of approximately 48 MN.3 Offshore Lifting Lifting of heavy loads from barges (Slide 6) is one of the very important and spectacular c*****truction activities requiring a focus on the problem when concepts are developed. Due to the space required. 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 13 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .php?tid=126910 Slide 6 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane For the modularized topside.3. 7. Shackles are available up to 10 MN SWL to connect the 级别: 论坛版主 padeyes installed at the module's columns. 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 4楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 7.1 Crane Vessel Lifting of heavy loads offshore requires use of specialized crane vessels.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. So when the sling load exceeds 10 MN. and a safe working load (SWL) of 16 MN. are required for these operati*****. padears become an option. Table 1 (page 16) lists some of the major offshore crane vessels.com/read. immediately followed by the modules. Weather windows. (see Figure 8). Slings and Shackles For lifting. steel wire ropes in a four-sling arrangement are used which directly rest in the four-point hook of the crane vessel. dual crane vessel.
42%] [td]Mode [/td] Thor Monohull Fix 2720 [td]Type [/td] 14 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .php?tid=126910 鲜花 鸡蛋 Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Operator [td]Name [/td] Heerema [td=1.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .14%] [td=1.com/read.18%] [td=1.10%] [td=1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.2.52ship.2.1.1.
14%] [td=1.18%] [td=1.18%] [td=1. The module requires fixing to the barge (see Figure 9) to withstand barge moti***** in rough seas.1.php?tid=126910 McDermott [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [td=1.14%] [td=1.10%] [td=1.1. 3.42%] Micoperi [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] 14000 [/td] ETPM [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Notes: Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes.c. these cranes are situated at the vessels stern or bow at approximately 60 m distance c. on the deck of the crane vessel.t. = Load [td=1.1.14%] [td=1. The sea fastening concept is determined by the positi***** of the framing in the module as well as of the "hard points" in the barge.52ship.1.1.1. Fix capability with crane fixed.42%] 7. 15 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .18%] [td=1. When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes.1.1.10%] [td=1.com/read.42%] [td=1.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .2.1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.2.10%] [td=1. Rev = Load capability with fully revolving crane.4 Transport and Sea Fastening Sea Transportation is performed aboard a flat-top barge or.1. if possible.
16 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . The system c*****ists of a series of steel beams. on which a group of skids with each approximately 6 MN load capacity is arranged.5.5.com/read. 7. Each skid is provided with a hydraulic jack to control the reaction. acting as track.5.1 Introduction Load-ou For load-out three basic methods are applied: skidding platform trailers shearlegs.75 MN.php?tid=126910 7.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.5 t 7.3 Trailers Platform Specialized trailer units (see Figure 10) can be combined to act as one unit for loads up to 60 . 7.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The wheels are individually suspended and integrated jacks allow adjustment up to 300 mm.52ship.2 Skidding Skidding is a method feasible for items of any weight.
8.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .m.52ship. conductors.12 MN) can be loaded out on the decklegs pre-positioned on the barge. The mode of removal depends strongly on the regulati***** of the local authorities. Provision for removal should be c*****idered in the design phase. The units can drive in all directi***** and negotiate curves.g.2 Phase In-place Three types of 17 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .5. Dynamic analysis is performed for the system behaviour under wave-attack if the natural period exceeds 3 seconds. CTURAL ANALYSIS 8.1 tion STRU Introduc The majority of structural analyses are based on the linear theory of elasticity for total system behaviour. 7. flare-stacks. Many elements can exhibit local dynamic behaviour. 7. thus allowing deck and deckleg to be installed in one lift offshore. slender jacket members.6 m Removal Platfor In recent years platform removal has become common.php?tid=126910 The load capacity over the projected ground area varies from approximately 55 to 85 kN/sq. e.com/read. Smaller decks (up to 10 . crane-pedestals.4 s Shearleg Load-out by shearlegs is attractive for small jackets built on the quay.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. compressor foundati*****. 8.
The CAPEX of an installed offshore platform topside amounts to approximately 20 ECU/kg. Assessments at damaged structures. accessibility.php?tid=126910 analysis are performed: Survival state.e. Recently cost-estimating using a probabilistic approach has been developed and adopted in major offshore projects. basic provisi***** for scaffolding. under full operation. selection of material. In a typical offshore field development. Operational state. improved corrosion protection. The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment. e.52ship. one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines.2 Expenditure (CAPEX) Capital The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning. i.com/read. tax. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location. 9. The maximum 18 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . 9. ASPECTS 9. royalties. with one member deleted. 8. avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers. depth. operational expenditure (OPEX). 9. P WATER DEVELOPMENTS DEE Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator. under wave/current/wind attack with 1 or 5 years recurrence period. and assessments of collision situati***** are occasionally performed. maintenance and repair (IMR). the designer and c*****tructor of offshore platforms. Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach.3 onal Expenditure (OPEX) Operati In the North Sea approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection.1 tion COST Introduc The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX). The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN.3 ction Phase C*****tru The major phases of c*****truction when structural integrity may be endangered are: Load-out Sea transport Upending of jackets Lifting. under wave/current/wind attack with 50 or 100 years recurrence period. 10. one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform. Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m. Fatigue assessment. etc. IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design. Accidental.g. All these analyses are performed on the complete and intact structure.
php?tid=126910 depth of water at platform sites in the North Sea is approximately 220 m at present.52ship. CLUDING SUMMARY CON The lecture starts with the presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation. floating). The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the different execution phases are briefly explained: design.com/read. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS). Finally terms are introduced within a glossary. In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California several fixed platforms in water depths of 250 . The major codes are identified. It c*****ists of a semi-submersible pontoon. An option for deeper locati***** is to use subsea wells with flowlines to a nearby (approximately maximum 10 km) fixed platform at a smaller water depth. A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. GBS-based. Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 . the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based. tied to the seabed by vertical prestressed tethers. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production unit (Figure 11). The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditi*****. fabrication and installation. 11. Alternatively subsea wells may be used with flexible risers to a floating production unit. TLP. The development of the Troll field situated in approximately 305 m deep water is planned for 1993. Cognac). 19 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .350 m are in operation (Cerveza. Special attention is given to the principles of topside design. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well.900 m deep water.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Exxon has a guyed tower platform (Lena) in operation in 300 m deep water.
defined on basis of operational limits for the offshore marine operation.S. After drilling it protects the well casing. governs the majority of platforms. for offshore lifting. positioned above the waves. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority. after installation offshore.  offshore platforms. designing and c*****tructing fixed offshore platforms.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . GLOSSARY OF TERMS AIR GAP e SUMPS CONDUCTORS T he tubular protecting and guiding the drill string from the topside down to 40 to 100m under the sea bottom. The structural offshore code. CAISS***** Se 13. UP ENDING WINDOW A period of calm weather. standing in the water and pile founded. TOPSIDE side. PADEYES ck-walled plate with hole. SLINGS s with spliced eyed at both ends. WELLHEAD AREA Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top. LOAD-OUT e operation of bringing the object (module. the compact offshore process plant. SUMPS al pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge. PADEARS (TRUNNI*****) Thick-walled tubular stubs. Lloyds Register of Shipping. SPREADER ubular frame.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. SUBSEA TEMPLATE Structure at seabottom.com/read. 1989. prior to set down on the sea bottom. receiving the pin of the shackle. SEA-FASTENING The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during transport. stable through its weight. with all auxiliaries.52ship. HOOK-UP necting components or systems. REFERENCES  Recommended practice for planning. used in lifting operation. jacket. welded to the main structure. ity based structure.  DnV: Rules LRS Code for API-RP2A: 20 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . sitting flatly on the sea bottom.php?tid=126910 12. JACKET ar sub-structure under a topside. London (UK) 1988. SHACKLES onnecting element (bow + pin) between slings and padeyes. deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. WEATHER Top Vertic T Cable C Thi Th Tubul Con Grav Clearance between the top of maximum wave and underside of the topside.B. Bringing the jacket in vertical position. G. the upper end resting in the crane hook. PIPELINE RISER The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level. American Petroleum Institute 18th ed. to guide conductors prior to jacket installation. directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure.
ADDITIONAL READING BS 6235: Code of practice for fixed offshore structures.II pp. ARSEM: Design guides for offshore structures welded tubular joints. UEG: Design of tubular joints (3 volumes). ASME/OMAEconference The Hague 1989 Vol.  Operati*****: Standard for insurance warranty surveys in marine operati*****. American Institute of Steel C*****truction 1989. DoE Offshore installati*****: Guidance on design and c*****truction. U. Austin U.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. British Standards Institution 1982.1-90: Structural Welding Code . American Welding Society 1990.php?tid=126910 for the classification of fixed offshore installati*****. Important theoretical and practical book.  Specification for the design. Wardenier: Hollow section joints. Delft University Press 1981.  regulati***** for the c*****truction and classification of offshore platforms. Theoretical publication on tubular design including practical design formulae. Important set of rules. J. mainly for the British offshore sector. U. Bureau Veritas.52ship. Governmental regulati***** for British offshore sector only. 753-760. Petex Publ. Det Norske Veritas 1989. Fundamental information about offshore oil and gas operati*****. Edition Technip.  primer of offshore operati*****. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority.33 1985. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority. 1987.  Berkelder et al: Flexible deck joints.A 2nd ed.K.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .  for building and classing offshore installati*****.R. AGJ ANON: A BV: Rules and ABS: Rules DnV/Marine AWS AISC: 14. Important code. Part 1 Structures.S. Important theoretical and practical book. Paris (France). Widely used structural code for topsides. 21 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Regulati***** of a major certifying authority.Steel. Det norske Veritas June 1985. Department of Energy 1990.com/read. American Bureau of Shipping 1983. Paris 1975. 1985.  D1. The structural offshore welding code. Presents interesting new concept in GBS design. fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings. UEG Offshore Research Publ.
G. Environmental loads including earthquakes. Valuable paper on fabrication aspects. especially waves. the British Standards Institution and the British Department of Energy. Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 5楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. the design of offshore structures is dominated by environmental loads. marine growth and tide generated loads. wave. B. and the loads arising in the various stages of c*****truction and installation. Fundamental publication on structural behaviour. but in offshore 22 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . W. INTRODUCTION Permanent (dead) loads. earthquake. Johnston: Field development opti*****. May 5 1986. Gulf Publishing Company.J. Houston 1986. waves and earthquake are discussed in more detail together with their idealizati***** for the various types of analyses.A. earthquakes are normally regarded as accidental loads (see Eurocode 8 ). current. pp 79-93. To present briefly the loads generated by environmental factors.installation loads. 1. This lecture deals with environmental loads.C. Frequent references are made to the codes of practice recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. as well as to the relevant regulati***** of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.Strength and Safety for Structural design. OTC paper 5348. Springer Verlag. D. Accidental loads. Vol 2 .php?tid=126910 D. The loads include: wind. whilst the other loadings are treated in Lecture 15A. Houston 1981.com/read. Good presentation on development opti*****. Up to date presentation of offshore design and c*****truction. Oil & Gas Journal. Graff: Introduction to offshore structures. In civil engineering.2: Loads (I) : Introduction 级别: 论坛版主 and Environmental Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta To introduce the types of loads for which a fixed steel offshore structure must be designed. T. Houston 1986. Good presentation on offshore CAPEX assessment. pp 531-539. John Wiley & S*****. Karsan et al: An economic study on parameters influencing the cost of fixed platforms. Operating (live) loads. pp 132 .3.142. Claum et al: Offshore Structures: Vol 1: Conceptual Design and Hydri-mechanics. The loads for which an offshore structure must be designed can be classified into the following categories: Whilst the design of buildings *****hore is usually influenced mainly by the permanent and operating loads. Doody et al: Important c*****iderati***** for successful fabrication of offshore structures. I. PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. C*****truction . Good general introduction to offshore structures.I. London 1992. OTC paper 5301. Gerwick: C*****truction of offshore structures. sea bed movement. Det Norske Veritas. New York 1986. temperature. ice and snow.52ship. Loads due to wind. SUMMARY The categories of load for which a pile supported steel offshore platform must be designed are introduced and then the 鲜花 鸡蛋 different types of environmental loads are presented.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.
if dynamic analyses for extreme wave loadings are required for deepwater structures. 2. they can be described by a two-dimensional flow field.e. the most probable maximum force during the lifetime of the structure is calculated using linear wave theory. current.1 Wind Loads Wind loads act on the portion of a platform above the water level. the static wind force Fw(N) acting perpendicular to an exposed area A(m2) can be computed as follows: Fw where: r is the wind density (r » 1. With statistical methods.52ship. earthquakes. the mean recurrence interval for the corresponding design event must be 100 years. 3-second gusts. Usually the 100-year wave. Wind loads are generally taken as static. 23 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 2. For the first case it gives guideline values of mean 1-hour average wind speeds to be combined with extreme waves and current. the distance from land and the averaging time interval. Cs = 0. housing. etc.5 for beams and sides of buildings. Their characteristic parameters. temperature. from the fluid motion. ice.php?tid=126910 engineering they are treated as environmental loads. waves. depending on the sea state. they serve to calculate the particle velocities and accelerati***** and the dynamic pressure as functi***** of the surface elevation of the waves. though interrelated problems. Lectures 15A. b. Two different analysis concepts are used: The design wave concept. using appropriate coefficients. wind speeds are classified as gusts. The second is the computation of the wave forces on individual members and on the total structure.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.2 Wave Loads The wave loading of an offshore structure is usually the most important of all environmental loadings for which the structure must be designed. For averaging intervals of one minute or longer they are classified as sustained wind speeds. and are characterized by the parameters: wave height (H).5 for cylindrical secti***** and Cs = 1. in the judgement of the designer. No dynamic behaviour of the structure is c*****idered. From the design wind velocity V(m/s). This is the case of extreme storm waves acting on shallow water structures. the maximum wave with a return period of 100 years. typically 10m above mean water level.. tides. = (1/2) r V2 Cs A (2) API-RP2A  distinguishes between global and local wind load effects. period (T) and water depth (d) as shown in Figure 1. Statistical analysis on the basis of a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure. the ratio of height to the least horizontal dimension of the wind exposed object (or structure) is greater than 5.2 and15A. i. 2. 1-minute sustained wind speeds combined with extreme waves. The statistical approach has to be chosen to analyze the fatigue strength and the dynamic behaviour of the structure. ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS Environmental loads are those caused by environmental phenomena such as wind. An important parameter pertaining to wind data is the time interval over which wind speeds are averaged. while according to the British rules it should be 50 years or greater. Details of design criteria.1 Wave theories Wave theories describe the kinematics of waves of water on the basis of potential theory.e.0 for total projected area of platform).3.2. simplifying assumpti*****.com/read. For the second case it gives values of extreme wind speeds to be used without regard to waves. can be found in the regulati***** and codes of practice listed in  . Shielding and solidity effects can be accounted for. In particular. defining design load values. When. This practice is followed in the two lectures dealing with loads.. The wind velocity profile may be taken from API-RP2A : Vh/VH where: Vh VH = (h/H)1/n (1) is the wind velocity at height h. required data. The waves are assumed to be long-crested. The first is the sea state computed using an idealisation of the wave surface profile and the wave kinematics given by an appropriate wave theory. is the wind velocity at reference height H. i. API-RP2A requires the dynamic effects of the wind to be taken into account in this case and the flow induced cyclic wind loads due to vortex shedding must be investigated.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . however. located on the deck. is chosen. are determined in special studies on the basis of available data. This static analysis is appropriate when the dominant wave periods are well above the period of the structure. For averaging intervals less than one minute. It is approximately equal to 1/13 for gusts and 1/8 for sustained winds in the open ocean. According to US and Norwegian regulati***** (or codes of practice). as well as on any equipment. Determination of these forces requires the solution of two separate. sea bed movement. For combination with wave loads. The forces on the structure are caused by the motion of the water due to the waves which are generated by the action of the wind on the surface of the sea. derrick. Appropriate wave spectra are defined to perform the analysis in the frequency domain and to generate random waves. 1/n is 1/13 to 1/7. 2. and marine growth.225 Kg/m3) Cs is the shape coefficient (Cs = 1. the DNV  and DOE-OG  rules recommend the most unfavourable of the following two loadings: a. then this object (or structure) could be wind sensitive. etc. where a regular wave of given height and period is defined and the forces due to this wave are calculated using a high-order wave theory.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . e. the cnoidal theory. developed on the basis of simplifying assumpti*****.com/read. As an example. For the selection of the most appropriate theory.php?tid=126910 Different wave theories of varying complexity. Table 1 presents results of the linear wave theory for finite depth and deep water conditi*****. 24 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the graph shown in Figure 2 may be c*****ulted. the solitary wave theory. the Stokes fifth-order theory. Results from high-order wave theories can be found in the literature. Among the most common theories are: the linear Airy theory. Corresponding particle paths are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Note the strong influence of the water depth on the wave kinematics. Dean's stream function theory and the numerical theory by Chappelear.52ship.g. see . are appropriate for different ranges of the wave parameters.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .52ship. It is formulated as a function of the wave frequency f using the parameters: significant wave height Hs (i. usually called the wave spectrum for simplicity. The irregular appearance results from the linear superposition of an infinite number of regular waves with varying frequency (Figure 5).php?tid=126910 2.2 Wave Statistics In reality waves do not occur as regular waves.e. the mean of the highest third of all waves present in a wave train) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing period) To. As an additional parameter the spectral width can be taken into account.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com/read. The best means to describe a random sea state is using the wave energy density spectrum S(f). but as irregular sea states. 25 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .2.
Powered by phpwind http://bbs. From the resulting resp*****e spectrum the significant and the maximum expected resp*****e in a given time interval can be easily deduced.com/read.s) can then be defined as: S (f. where s is the angle of the wave approach direction (Figure 6).s).52ship. is calculated by multiplication of the wave energy spectrum with the square of a linear transfer function.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . A directional wave spectrum S(f.D (f. forces.s ) = S(f). 26 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .e. i.php?tid=126910 Wave directionality can be introduced by means of a directional spreading functionD(f. moti*****.s )(3) The resp*****e of the structure.
The fluid velocities and accelerati***** at the integration points are found by direct application of the selected wave theory. can be important for local member design. CD » 0. which expresses the wave force as the sum of an inertia force proportional to the particle acceleration and a non-linear drag force proportional to the square of the particle velocity: where F (4) is the wave force per unit length on a circular cylinder (N) are water particle acceleration normal to the cylinder. This non-linear formulation is used in the design wave concept.3 Wave forces on structural members Structures exposed to waves experience substantial forces much higher than wind loadings. yielding finally the desired resp*****e spectrum. respectively. e.g. Lift forces are perpendicular to the member axis and the fluid velocity v and are related to the vortex shedding frequency. this addition can greatly increase the forces on a platform. the drag force has to be linearized in a suitable way . and the rest of the symbols are as defined in Morison's equation. 2. CS are the lift and slamming coefficients respectively. cyclic loads induced by vortex shedding may also be important and should be examined. CM are drag and inertia coefficients. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis v. The nonlinear formulation and hence time domain soluti***** are required for dynamic analyses of deepwater structures under extreme. these forces can be estimated as follows: FL FS = = (1/2) r CL Dv 2 (1/2) r Cs Dv2 (5) (6) where CL. The forces on these bodies have to be determined by costly numerical calculati***** based on diffraction theory. current velocities may be obtained from various sources.2.3 to 2. typically neglected in global resp*****e computati*****. The steel jackets of offshore structures can usually be regarded as hydrodynamically transparent. Two different cases can be distinguished: Large volume bodies.3 CD. For structures with substantial dynamic resp*****e to the wave excitation. the maximum forces and moti***** have to be calculated by statistical methods or a time-domain analysis. According to Morison's equation the drag force is non-linear. According to API-RP2A.6 to 1. storm waves. a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure is needed. The values of CD and CM depend on the wave theory used. When insufficient field measurements are available. For slender members. Thus. where D is the member diameter and L is the wave length. |v| are water particle velocity normal to the cylinder.php?tid=126910 For long-term statistics. influence the wave field by diffraction and reflection. For a member section of unit length. In platform design. The forces result from the dynamic pressure and the water particle moti*****. hydrodynamically transparent structures have no significant influence on the wave field. The wave forces on the submerged members can therefore be calculated by Morison's equation.2. for which the forces due to the operational level waves are dominated by the linear inertia term. surface roughness and the flow parameters. termed hydrodynamic compact structures. It can be obtained from measurements over a long period or be deduced from weather observati***** in the region (the so-called hindcast method). Morison's equation may be applied when D/L £ 0. 2.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . including marine growth (m) CD. Slender. e. the lift forces FD and the slamming forces FS. PiersonMoskowitz (Figure 6). circulation and storm generated currents. Slamming forces acting on the underside of horizontal members near the mean water level are impulsive and nearly vertical. For every pair of parameters the wave spectrum is calculated by a standard formula. The total wave force on each member is obtained by numerical integration over the length of the member.com/read. frequency domain soluti***** are appropriate for fatigue life calculati*****. The forces can be calculated in a straight-forward manner with Morison's equation. 27 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the effects of current superimposed on waves are taken into account by adding the corresponding fluid velocities vectorially. for the determination of a transfer function needed for frequency domain calculati*****. However. Lift forces can be estimated by taking CL » 1. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s) (m/s 2) r is the water density (kg/m3) D is the member diameter. For the analysis of the motion resp*****e of a structure it has to be modified to account for the motion of the cylinder . Additional information can be found in the DNV rules . The scatter diagram contains the joint probability of occurrence of pairs of significant wave height and mean wave period.3 Current Loads There are tidal.2 and CM » 1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. In addition to the forces given by Morison's equation. For tubular members Cs» p.0.g. As a rule. Appendix A of DNV . For fatigue analysis the total number and amplitude of load cycles during the life-time of the structure can be derived in this way.52ship. Figure 7 shows a wind and tidal current profile typical of the Gulf of Mexico. for which the drag portion of the force is the dominant part . In this form the equation is valid for fixed tubular cylinders. Since the drag force varies with the square of the velocity.
If the design spectral intensity. For the strength level earthquake.php?tid=126910 2.com/read. the structure is designed for inelastic resp*****e and to have adequate reserve strength to avoid collapse. the structure is designed to respond elastically. recommend amax and 0. the seismic loading may be specified either by sets of accelerograms (Figure 8) or by means of design resp*****e spectra (Figure 9). Use of design spectra has a number of advantages over time history soluti***** (base acceleration input). characteristic of the seismic hazard at the site. defined as having a "reasonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the platform's life" (mean recurrence interval ~ 200 . on the other hand. The DNV rules.4 Earthquake Loads Offshore structures in seismic regi***** are typically designed for two levels of earthquake intensity: the strength level and the ductility level earthquake.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .7 amax for the two horizontal directi***** (two different combinati*****) and 0.52ship.5amax for the vertical direction. 28 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . For this reason design resp*****e spectra are the preferable approach for strength level designs. defined as close to the "maximum credible earthquake" at the site.5 a max for the vertical. For strength level design. then API-RP2A recommends using amax for the two principal horizontal directi***** and 0.500 years). is denoted by amax. For the ductility level earthquake. The value of amax and often the spectral shapes are determined by site specific seismological studies.
representative of the extreme ground moti***** that could shake the platform site. it increases the unit mass of the member. human factors can also generate thermal loads. detailed studies based on field measurements. with usual values between 0. rate of load application and other factors. It is accounted for in design through appropriate increases in the diameters and masses of the submerged members.e. the thickness of marine growth can reach 0.8 Tides Tides affect the wave and current loads indirectly.5 to 1. may still be prescribed by means of design spectra. laboratory tests and analytical work are required to develop reliable design ice forces for a given geographical location.0 m/s. Ice formation and expansion can generate large pressures that give rise to horizontal as well as vertical forces. real or artificial. In addition to these forces. through accidental release of cryogenic material. horizontal ice forces may be estimated as follows: Fi = Cifc A (7) where: A is the exposed area of structure.com/read. but also the drag coefficient due to higher surface roughness. resulting in higher gravity loads and in lower member frequencies. More detailed information on snow loads may be found in Eurocode 1 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs.3m or more. fc is the compressive strength of ice. 2. extreme values of sea and air temperatures which are likely to occur during the life of the structure must be estimated.52ship.7 Marine Growth Marine growth is accumulated on submerged members. however. The characteristics of such moti*****.6 Loads due to Temperature Variati***** Offshore structures can be subjected to temperature gradients which produce thermal stresses. the latter by increasing areas exposed to the action of wind. 2.php?tid=126910 Designs for ductility level earthquakes will normally require inelastic analyses for which the seismic input must be specified by sets of 3-component accelerograms. The tides are 29 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . In addition to the environmental sources. More detail of the analysis of earthquakes is given in theLectures 17: Seismic Design. Its main effect is to increase the wave forces on the members by increasing not only exposed areas and volumes.g. Depending upon geographic location. large blocks of ice driven by current.7. which are usually the result of a site specific seismotectonic study. Relevant data for the North Sea are given in BS6235 . As a first approximation. 2. which must be taken into account in design as accidental loads. may hit the structure and produce impact loads. winds and waves with speeds that can approach 0. i.5 Ice and Snow Loads Ice is a primary problem for marine structures in the arctic and sub-arctic zones. through the variation of the level of the sea surface. To take account of such stresses.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . 2. Generally. In addition. ice formation and snow accumulati***** increase gravity and wind loads. In addition. Ci is the coefficient accounting for shape.3 and 0. The temperature of the oil and gas produced must also be c*****idered. e. statically applied.
 NPD. "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources".K. earthquakes. DOE-OG. waves. H. are shown in Figure 10. London. Dept.. The range varies from centimetres to several metres and may be obtained from special maps. The main environmental loads are due to wind. 1981. Gulf Publishing Co. Gulf Publishing Co.. barge fenders.C. the daily variati***** of the astronomical tide are used.com/read. Jr. For major structures. Storm surges depend upon the return period c*****idered and their range is on the order of 1. When designing a platform. Clauss. Deep water d/L ³0. Tide dependent water levels and the associated definiti*****. Det Norske Veritas.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.. Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Acti***** on Structures". The definition of certain environmental loads depends upon the type of analysis used in the design.. 4. marine growth.. S. specification of environmental design loads requires specific studies. London 1985.. 1986. U. as used in platform design. CEN (in preparation). D. listed as  .  OCS.9 Sea Floor Movements Movement of the sea floor can occur as a result of active geologic processes. "C*****truction of Offshore Structures". Structures. of Energy. pressure reduction in the producing reservoir.0m. pp. CEN (in preparation).5 Table 1 Results of Linear Airy Theory  Phase q = kx wt Relative water depth d/L 30 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .    Hsu. British Standards Institution. API-RP2A.T. 1985. but the jacket as well. etc.  Anagnostopoulos. 3.A.J.caused essentially from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and (b) storm surges .caused by the combined action of wind and barometric pressure differentials during a storm. earthquakes.C.. while for design c*****iderati***** such as levels for boat landing places. "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and C*****truction".. Vol 1 . Washington. "Dynamic Resp*****e of Offshore Structures to Extreme Waves including Fluid . "Introduction to Offshore Structures". Houston. occurs at new moon.0 to 3. Engr. Houston.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . London 1992. 2. Some environmental loads can be highly uncertain. Graff. CONCLUDING SUMMARY Environmental loads form a major category of loads which control many aspects of platform design. "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures". tides and seafloor movements.. United States Geologic Survey. 18th ed. "Rules for the Design. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms".. 1977 (with correcti***** 1982). 1981.php?tid=126910 classified as: (a) astronomical tides . Oslo.Structure Interaction". G. the spring tide. not only the design of the piles. temperature variati*****.. B. 4. 1980. et al: "Offshore Structures.     BS6235. 1982. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". Reston. John Wiley. The loads generated by such movements affect. The astronomical tide range depends on the geographic location and the phase of the moon. T. Virginia. Springer. National Centre. provide guideline values for most environmental loads.. 1989. Gerwick. Its maximum. W. New York. C*****truction and Inspection of Offshore Structures".Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics". Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.52ship. 1982. "Recommended Practice for Planning. extreme storm waves are superimposed on the still water level (see Figure 10). storm wave pressures. etc.5 Finite water depth d/L < 0. American Petroleum Institute. The combined effect of the two types of tide is called the storm tide. Vol.   REFERENCES Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regi***** . current. Widely accepted rules of practice.179-185.  DNV.Design". Such forces are determined by special geotechnical studies and investigati*****. ice and snow. upper limits of marine growth. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering".
com /esdep/media/wg15a /esdep/media/wg15a /Image185.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /esdep/media/wg15a /Image186.gif[/img] Wave length L= Wave number k= /Image182.haiyangshiyou.com/read.haiyangshiyou.com/esdep/media/wg15a/Image867.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image188.gif[/img] Previous | Next | Contents [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor-background-horizontal.gif[/img] kd tanh kd = [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image184.haiyangshiyou.haiyangshiyou.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com [img]http://www.gif[/img] Circular frequency w= cgr = w= [img]http://www.php?tid=126910 Velocity potential q za cosq Surface elevation z Dynamic pressure pdyn = Water particle velocities horizontal u = za wekz cos q z awekz sin q rgz a ekz cosq z a cos q vertical w = Water particle accelerati***** horizontal u' = vertical w' = z a w 2 ekz sinq -z a w2 ekz cosq Wave celerity c= Group velocity cgr = co = cgr = c= [img]http://www.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image183.haiyangshiyou.gif[/img] [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.png[/img] background-vertical.gif[/img] ko = [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.com [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.gif[/img] w= Lo = [img]http://www.gif[/img] /Image181.png[/img] [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor- [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor-play-button.haiyangshiyou.png[/img] 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 31 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image189.gif[/img] Elliptical orbits Where z a = [img]http://www.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image190.52ship.gif[/img] Water particle displacements horizontal x vertical z Particle trajectories -za ekz sinq z a ekz cos q Circular orbits [img]http://www.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image187.gif[/img] L= [img]http://www.
87KN/m3. may normally be treated as harmonic forces. life Forces generated during operati*****. c. as required (or suggested) by applicable regulati***** (or codes of practice) are given. According to BS6235. operating loads include the following: a. 1. SUMMARY The various categories of loads. An example of detailed live load specification is given in Table 1 where the values in the first and second columns are for design of the porti***** of the structure directly affected by the loads and the reduced values in the last column are for the structure as a whole. liquids. b. for which a pile-supported steel offshore platform must be designed are presented. These forces include buoyancy and hydrostatic Permanent loads include the following: pressures.52ship. OPERATING (LIVE) LOADS Operating loads arise from the operati***** on the platform and include the weight of all non-permanent equipment or material. In the absence of such data.g. erection lifts of various structural components generate lifting forces. operating (live) loads. b. living quarters. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION LOADS These loads are temporary and arise during fabrication and installation of the platform or its components. loads generated during 鲜花 鸡蛋 fabrication and installation (due to lifts. They are dealt with inLecture 15A.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The necessary data for computation of all operating loads are provided by the operator and the equipment manufacturers. attachments or associated structures which are permanently mounted on the platform. according to the BS6235 rules.com/read. while in the second case this factor becomes 2. while in the installation phase forces are generated during platform loadout. b.3: Loads (II) . In addition. design forces are computed for the largest ship likely to approach at operational speeds. except environmental. etc). Loads from rotating machinery. the minimum impact to be c*****idered is of a vessel of 2500 tonnes at 0.2. c*****umable supplies. e.5 KN/m 2 3. loadout. crew quarters and passageways: working areas: 8. Forces generated during operati***** are often dynamic or impulsive in nature and must be treated as such. support systems. The weight of all non-permanent equipment (e. if necessary. not to be taken less than 6. The categories of loads described herein are the following: Permanent (dead) loads Operating (live) loads Fabrication and installation loads Accidental loads The major categories of environmental loads are not included. etc.g. the different load combinati***** for all types of loads.2 KN/m2 c. These categories include permanent (dead) loads. launching and upending. launching and upending) and accidental loads. including the weight of grout and ballast.5 times the maximum take-off weight. helicopter landing. a horizontal load applied at the points of impact and taken equal to half the maximum take-off weight must be c*****idered. Sealed tubular members must be designed for the worst condition when flooded or non-flooded. as well as during lifts related to 32 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 2. vessel mooring. production).5. heliport. and the load combinati***** for which a fixed offshore structure must be designed. drilling. two types of helicopter landing should be c*****idered.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.php?tid=126910 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 6楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. as well as forces generated during operation of equipment. drilling. facilities (e. a. furniture. 3. In addition. storage areas: gH KN/m2 where g is the specific weight of stored materials. 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. including environmental. PERMANENT (DEAD) LOADS Weight of the structure in air. etc. Hydrostatic forces on the various members below the waterline. etc. The impact load in the first case is to be taken as 1. The data need to be critically evaluated by the designer.g. For vessel mooring. the following values are recommended in BS6235 : a. More specifically. Weights of equipment. For example. except environmental loads. transportation. transportation to the site. crane operati*****. During fabrication.5 m/s. drilling equipment. H is the storage height (m). heavy and emergency landing.Other Loads 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present and briefly describe all loads.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs. All these design forces are applied as static loads if the lifts are performed in the fabrication yard.35. then. marine traffic or change of draft. because lifting in the open sea creates a more severe loading condition which requires higher dynamic load factors. all loading conditi***** can be taken as static. the number and location of lifting eyes used for the lift. Moreover.com/read. then dynamic load factors should be applied to the static lifting forces. lifting forces need not be computed. on the other hand . According to the DNV rules . API-RP2A. Such loading conditi***** arise from the different positi***** of the jacket during the loadout phases. the angle between each sling and the vertical axis and the conditi***** under which the lift is performed (Figure 1).0 and 1. the corresponding minimum load factors for the two groups of structural components become. If loadout is done by skidding the structure onto the barge. while the BS6235 rules  recommend a minimum recurrence interval of 10 years for the design environmental loads associated with transportation of the structure to the offshore site. 3. a number of static loading conditi***** must be c*****idered.1 Lifting Forces Lifting forces are functi***** of the weight of the structural component being lifted. the lifting derrick or the structure to be lifted is on a floating vessel. the return period for computing design environmental conditi***** for installation as well as fabrication should normally be three times the duration of the corresponding phase.2 Loadout Forces These are forces generated when the jacket is loaded from the fabrication yard onto the barge. however. Typical values of friction coefficients for calculation of skidding forces are the following: 33 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . If.php?tid=126910 installation. unless the lifting arrangement is different from that to be used for installation. leaves this design return period up to the owner. lifting eyes and the connecti***** to the supporting structural members should be designed for the combined action of the static sling load and a horizontal force equal to 5% this load. respectively. while the second is for all other members transmitting lifting forces.15. All members and connecti***** of a lifted component must be designed for the forces resulting from static equilibrium of the lifted weight and the sling tensi*****. (as shown in Figure 2). with the jacket supported on its side. 3. For loadout at sheltered locati*****. If the loadout is carried out by direct lift. The first is for designing the padeyes as well as all members and their end connecti***** framing the joint where the padeye is attached. In particular. and from possible support settlements. from movement of the barge due to tidal fluctuati*****. applied perpendicular to the padeye at the centre of the pin hole. according to API-RP2A. API-RP2A recommends that in order to compensate for any side movements.5 and 1.52ship. Since movement of the jacket is slow. for lifts made offshore API-RP2A recommends two minimum values of dynamic load factors: 2. 1.
.......................................Powered by phpwind http://bbs..........................船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 ..............25 steel on steel with lubrication.............15 steel on teflon.......08 3................... 0........com/read........ They depend upon the weight..... 0....... The types of motion that a floating structure may experience are shown schematically in Figure 3.........52ship............................. deck) are transported offshore on barges or self-floating....... winds and currents) that are encountered during transportation....... 0............ geometry and support conditi***** of the structure (by barge or by buoyancy) and also on the environmental conditi***** (waves.....10 teflon on teflon....... 34 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 ....php?tid=126910 steel on steel without lubrication..3 Transportation Forces These forces are generated when platform components (jacket..... 0.....
i. the relative stiffness of jacket and barge may need to be taken into account together with the wave slamming forces that could result during a heavy roll motion of the tow (Figure 4) when structural analyses are carried out for designing the tie-down braces and the jacket members affected by the induced loads.amplitude pitch: Period of roll or pitch: Heave acceleration: 20° 10° 10 second 0. it is important to plan the operation carefully by c*****idering.amplitude roll: Single . the following: Previous experience along the tow route Exposure time and reliability of predicted "weather windows" Accessibility of safe havens Seasonal weather system Appropriate return period for determining design wind. structure. sensitivity and cost. stability against capsizing is a primary design c*****ideration because of the high centre of gravity of the jacket. towing analyses must be based on the results of model basin tests or appropriate analytical methods and must c*****ider wind and wave directi***** parallel. For open sea conditi*****.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . They are determined from the design winds. magnitude of the sea state and experience make such assumpti***** reasonable. Moreover. the loads can be calculated directly. According to API-RP2A . If the structure is self-floating.2 g When transporting a large jacket by barge.52ship. 35 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . waves and currents.e. Inertial loads may be computed from a rigid body analysis of the tow by combining roll and pitch with heave moti*****. wave and current conditi*****.com/read. Transportation forces are generated by the motion of the tow. Special computer programs are available to compute the transportation loads in the structure-barge system and the resulting stresses for any specified environmental condition. perpendicular and at 45° to the tow axis. taking into account characteristics of the tow such as size. according to API-RP2A .php?tid=126910 In order to minimize the associated risks and secure safe transport from the fabrication yard to the platform site.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the structure and supporting barge. when the size of the tow. the following may be c*****idered as typical design values: Single .
Buoyancy calculati***** are required for every stage of the operation to ensure fully controlled.52ship. Jacket rotates on the rocker arms Jacket rotates and slides simultaneously Jacket detaches completely and comes to its floating equilibrium position Jacket is upended by a combination of controlled flooding and simultaneous lifting by a derrick barge. the barge must be ballasted to an appropriate draft and trim angle and subsequently the jacket must be pulled towards the stern by a winch. Jacket slides along the skid beams b. its weight is supported on the two legs that are part of the launch trusses. induced during each of these stages and the force required to set the jacket into motion can be evaluated by appropriate analyses. c. when rotation starts.4 Launching and Upending Forces These forces are generated during the launch of a jacket from the barge into the sea and during the subsequent upending into its proper vertical position to rest on the seabed. ACCIDENTAL LOADS According to the DNV rules . ill-defined with respect to intensity and frequency. variable hydrostatic forces arise which have to be c*****idered at all members affected. Computer programs are available to perform the stress analyses required for launching and upending and also to portray the whole operation graphically. accidental loads are loads. As the jacket slides. A schematic view of these operati***** can be seen in Figure 5. The support length keeps decreasing and reaches a minimum. d. which may 36 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . static as well as dynamic. During stages (d) and (e). which also c*****ider the action of wind. It is generally at this instant that the most severe launching forces develop as reacti***** to the weight of the jacket. waves and currents expected during the operation.php?tid=126910 3. e. To start the launch. Sliding of the jacket starts as soon as the downward force (gravity component and winch pull) exceeds the friction force. stable motion.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com/read. equal to the length of the rocker beams. There are five stages in a launch-upending operation: a.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The loads. 4.
5. are to be imposed as a separate environmental load. are usually followed for specifying such loads.3 L + 1. four limit states must be checked: Ultimate limit state For this limit state the following two loading combinati***** must be used: Ordinary: 1. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus maximum live loads. "Recommended Practice for Planning.0 L + 1. 1977 (with correcti***** 1982). Serviceability limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. The so-called characteristic values of the loads used in the above combinati***** and limit states are summarized in Table 2. API-RP2A is based on allowable stress design and recommends against limit state design.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. L. an offshore structure must be designed for dead and live loads.3 P + 1.. Progressive Collapse limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. The DNV rules  permit allowable stress design but recommend the semi-probabilistic limit state design method. C*****truction and Inspection of Offshore Structures". Dynamic and impact effects are normally taken into account by means of appropriate dynamic load factors. According to the DNV and the NPD rules for limit state design. and Extreme : 1. d.e. fire or explosion.15. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". protection of wellheads or other critical equipment from a dropped object can be provided by specially designed. Special measures are normally taken to reduce the risk from accidental loads. transportation and installation loads depend upon the methods and sequences used for the corresponding phases. b. Operating (live). which the NPD rules also require . appropriate to normal operati***** of the platform. but not in API-RP2A . BSI favours allowable stress design.  API-RP2A. Fatigue limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. American 37 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . if exceeded. appropriate for combining with extreme conditi*****. with the exception of earthquake loads. 7. Moreover. Earthquake loads. while DNV and NPD recommend limit state design. taken from the NPD rules. dropped objects. should be combined in a manner c*****istent with their joint probability of occurrence during the loading condition c*****idered. would require cessation of platform operati*****. appropriate for combining with extreme conditi*****.2. London.0. whether limit state or allowable stress design is employed. API-RP2A is very specific in recommending not to apply limit state methods.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The load combinati***** recommended for use with allowable stress procedures are: a. D and E stand for Permanent (dead). i. BS6235  or the DOE-OG rules .0.com/read. They will typically require special protective measures.0 D + 1. an accidental load can be disregarded if its annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-4. This number is meant as an order of magnitude estimate and is extremely difficult to compute.0 D + 0. Accidental loads are not well defined with respect to intensity and probability of occurrence. the 1. fabrication and installation loads as well as accidental loads. According to the NPD regulati***** .g. wind. Earthquakes are treated as an environmental load in offshore structure design. temperature. The type and magnitude of fabrication. Operating environmental conditi***** are defined as representative of severe but not necessarily limiting conditi***** that.php?tid=126910 occur as a result of accident or exceptional circumstances. CONCLUDING SUMMARY In addition to environmental loads. Oslo. and unintended flooding of bouyancy tanks.52ship. Furthermore. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus maximum live loads.3 E where P. for structures that are unmanned during storm conditi***** and which are not used for storage of oil and gas. Examples of accidental loads are loads due to collision with vessels.0. not to be combined with waves. etc.0 P + 1. if applicable. c. BS6235 permits both methods but the design equati***** it gives are for the allowable stress method . Widely accepted rules of practice. 6.   REFERENCES BS6235. Deformation (e.3 may be reduced to 1. the load factor 1.7 E. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus minimum live loads. i. "Rules for the Design. environmental loads. For example. impact resistant covers. British Standards Institution. listed in the references. 1982.may be reduced to 1. Load combinati***** and load factors depend upon the design method to be used. "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures". Accidental loads are also specified as a separate category in the NPD regulati***** . appropriate to normal operati***** of the platform.except earthquakes . LOAD COMBINATI***** The load combinati***** used for designing fixed offshore structures depend upon the design method used. Det Norske Veritas (DNV).3 load factor for environmental loads .. differential settlement) and Environmental loads respectively.e. For well controlled dead and live loads during fabrication and installation. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus minimum live loads.
. 1989. ADDITIONAL READING OCS.Powered by phpwind http://bbs..船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . H. Department of Energy.php?tid=126910 Petroleum Institute. London 1985. 1986.light 18 9 10 6 12 6 10 4 8 (2) 4 (2) 5 3 2 5 1. Point loads are assumed as being applied to a 0. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms". W. Table 2 Characteristic Loads according to NPD  LOAD TYPE LIMIT STATES FOR TEMPORARY PHASES Serviceability Fatigue Ultimate Progressive Collapse Abnormal effects Damage condition LIMIT STATES FOR NO Serviceability Fatigue DEAD LIVE DEFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL Dependent Expected on load operational history requirements ACCIDENTAL NOT APPLICABLE EXPECTED VALUE SPECIFIED VALUE EXPECTED EXTREME VALUE Value dependent on measures taken Dependent Expected on load operational history requirements NOT APPLICABLE Dependent on operational requirements Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 7楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 38 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Houston. U. "C*****truction of Offshore Structures". 1981. "Introduction to Offshore Structures". National Centre. These values are the input for the computer runs. Virginia.52ship.K. D. Hsu. John Wiley.5 For porti***** of the structure For the structure as a whole (3) Accumulated with a point load equal to the weight of the heaviest part likely to be removed. "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and C*****truction".5 2.T. Jr.. Washington.G.   "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources". Graff. Gulf Publishing Co. New York.. Table 1 Minimum design live load specification Loads to be taken into account (kN/m2) Zone c*****idered Process zone (around wells and large-scale machines) Drilling zone Catwalks and walking platforms (except emergency exits) Stairways (except emergency exits) Module roofing Emergency exits STORAGE Storage floors Storage floors Delivery zone Non-attributed area (1) .3m surface. 8. Houston.C. 1981. Reston.5 1 Flooring and joists 5 (1) Other components 5 (1) 2..C. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD).com/read. (3) This column gives the loads to be taken into account for the structure's overall calculation. Gulf Publishing Co. 1985. (2) Applied on the entirety of the flooring surface (including traffic). with a minimum value of 5 kN.. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering".5 5 1 0 4 3 0 5 (1) 3 5 (1) 2.. United States Geologic Survey. B. 18th ed. 1980. DOE-OG.3m ´ 0. Gerwick.heavy ..
1. 2. at supports in particular. It includes: a strength check. decks). The same model is used throughout the analysis process with only minor adjustments being made to suit the specific conditi*****. 1. geotechnical. 2. 2.2: Lecture 15A. inertia.2 Allowable Stress Method This method is presently specified by American codes (API. The characteristics assumed for the plate elements depend on the principal state of stress which they are subjected to.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. The loads remain unfactored and a unique coefficient is applied to the characteristic resistance to obtain an allowable 39 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .52ship.5: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Loads II: Other Loads Analysis II RELATED LECTURES SUMMARY 鲜花 鸡蛋 Analytical models used in offshore engineering are briefly described. where the characteristic resistance is related to the yield strength of the element. These checks may indicate the need for local reinforcement of the chord using overthickness or internal ring-stiffeners. temperature or durability wherever relevant. during its life. If more accuracy is required. This lecture and Lecture 15A. This verification also includes the effect of water pressure for deepwater structures. metallurgy are involved. to allow wave forces to be automatically generated. 2.5 are purposely limited to presenting an overview of available analysis procedures and providing benchmarks for the reader to appreciate the validity of his assumpti***** and results. 3.1: Lecture 15A. Many disciplines.4 . An element (member or plate) is checked at typical secti***** (at least both ends and midspan) against resistance and buckling. which are more unusual structures compared to decks and modules.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .1. a stability check for elements in compression where the characteristic resistance relates to the buckling limit of the element.com/read.g. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those adopted for other types of steel structures. 3. Elements should also be verified against fatigue.2 Plate Models Integrated decks and hulls of floating platforms involving large bulkheads are described by plate elements. i.2 Members In addition to its geometrical and material properties. flare booms) and lattice trusses (modules. bridges. Tubular joints are checked against punching under various load patterns. 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. embracing c*****ideration of the different stages. each member is characterised by hydrodynamic coefficients.1 Joints Each member is normally rigidly fixed at its ends to other elements in the model. Plate stresses are adopted when bending and lateral pressure are to be taken into account.e. execution. installation. AISC). and marine growth. e. relating to each analysis. They primarily address jackets.1 Stick Models Stick models (beam elements assembled in frames) are used extensively for tubular structures (jackets. 3. local flexibility of the connecti***** may be represented by a joint stiffness matrix. particularly for the assessment of natural vibration modes. and in-service stages. e. corrosion. structural. and which more closely resemble *****hore petro-chemical plants.3: Lecture 15A. Acceptance criteria for the verification of offshore structures are presented.g.1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Code Checks The verification of an element c*****ists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress.Analysis I 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the main analysis procedures for offshore structures. Only the salient features of offshore models are presented here. relating to drag. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analysis of an offshore structure is an extensive task.php?tid=126910 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. naval architecture. e. Simple rules for preliminary member sizing are given and procedures for static in-place and dynamic analysis are described.g. Membrane stresses are taken when the element is subjected merely to axial load and shear. 2.
3 1.0 0. current.0 1. fire). subsidence).0 1.0 0.3. are accidental loads (dropped object.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . D are deformati***** (out-of-level supports.0 D 1.0 Norwegian Authorities (2.66 0.0 0.0 1.3 Material factors Classification of Design Conditi***** Loadings P/L E D A Design Criterion ULS.00 for PLS and SLS design. hydrostatic pressure). dry equipments. 3.0 1.SLS reduced wind support disp ULS The material partial factors for steel is normally taken equal to 1.3. wave & snow actual ULS ULS ULS.3.0 1. ship impact. liquids).0 1.1 Load factors Load Categories P L 1.0 1.00 "Normal" and "Extreme" respectively represent the most severe conditi*****: under which the plant is to operate without shut-down.15 for ULS and 1.52ship.com/read. Partial factors are applied to the loads and to the characteristic resistance of the element.0 E 0.SLS In-Place (extreme) P+L wind & 100 year wave actual ULS SLS In-Place (exceptional) P+L wind & 10000 year wave actual PLS Earthquake Rare Earthquake Explosion Fire P+L P+L P+L P+L 10-2 quake 10-4 quake blast fire ULS PLS PLS PLS 40 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .0 1. L are live loads (storage.88 Weak axis bending 0.0 0.0 0.60 0.0 1.3 1.3 1.80 Strong axis bending 0. Progressive Collapse Limit State (PLS): reflects the ability of the structure to resist collapse under accidental or abnormal conditi*****.0 1. Service Limit State (SLS): corresponds to criteria for normal use or durability (often specified by the plant operator). earthquake). wind.3 Limit State Method This method is enforced by European and Norwegian Authorities and has now been adopted by API as it offers a more uniform reliability. Guidance for classifying typical conditi***** into typical limit states is given in the following table: Condition C*****truction Load-Out P P Transport Tow-out (accidental) P P transport wind and wave flooded compart ULS PLS Launch Lifting In-Place (normal) P P P+L wind. reflecting the amount of confidence placed in the design value of each parameter and the degree of risk accepted under a limit state. personnel.0 0.e: Ultimate Limit State (ULS): corresponds to an ultimate event c*****idering the structural resistance with appropriate reserve.0 1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. i. 3. 4) specify the following sets of load factors: Limit State ULS (normal) ULS (extreme) FLS PLS (accidental) PLS (post-damage) SLS where the respective load categories are: P are permanent loads (structural weight.75 1.php?tid=126910 stress as follows: Condition Normal Extreme Axial 0.0 0.0 1. ballast.0 1.0 1. E A are environmental loads (wave. 3. blast.2 3. Fatigue Limit State (FLS): relates to the possibility of failure under cyclic loading.0 A 0.7 1. the platform is to endure over its lifetime.0 1.
4. They are represented by an equivalent load-dependent secant stiffness matrix.2 Appurtenances The contribution of appurtenances (risers. The simple rules given below provide an easy way of selecting realistic sizes for the main elements of offshore structures in moderate water depth (up to 80m) where dynamic effects are negligible. This matrix may need to be adjusted to the mean reaction corresponding to each loading condition. STATIC IN-PLACE ANALYSIS The static in-place analysis is the basic and generally the simplest of all analyses. Typical models for North Sea jackets may feature over 800 nodes and 4000 members. select a pile diameter in accordance with the expected leg diameter and the capacity of pile driving equipment.) to the overall stiffness of the structure is normally neglected. assuming that the jacket behaves as a rigid body. calculate the maximum moment in the pile and derive its wall thickness. J-tubes.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . assuming an equivalent soil subgrade modulus and full fixity at the base of the jacket. and subjected to pseudo-static loads.2 5. They are therefore analysed separately and their reacti***** applied as loads at the interfaces with the main structure.1.1 Loadings Gravity Loads This Section is a reminder of the main types of loads. 5. foundati***** are often analysed separately from the structural model. coefficients are determined by an iterative process where the forces and displacements at the common boundaries of structural and foundation models are equated. Gravity loads c*****ist of: dead weight of structure and equipments. The structure is modelled as it stands during its operational life.52ship. determine the effective length from the degree of fixity of the leg into the deck (depending upon the height of the cellar deck). live loads. the overall shear and the overturning moment (environmental forces) at the mudline. derive the plate thickness from formulae accounting for local plastification under the wheel footprint of the design forklift truck.php?tid=126910 Dropped Object P+L drill collar PLS Boat Collision P+L boat impact PLS Damaged Structure P + reduced L reduced wave & wind PLS 4. 4. etc.1. 5.2 Deck Leg Sizes adapt the diameter of the leg to that of the pile. derive the thickness such that the diameter/thickness ratio lies between 20 and 70 and eliminate any hydrostatic buckle tendency by imposing D/t<170/3ÖH (H is the depth of member below the free surface).1 5. PRELIMINARY MEMBER SIZING The analysis of a structure is an iterative process which requires progressive adjustment of the member sizes with respect to the forces they transmit. conductors. until a safe and economical design is achieved. It is therefore of the utmost importance to start the main analysis from a model which is close to the final optimized one.3. derive the maximum axial and shear force at the top of the pile. to size the main elements of the structure.2. 5.4 Deck Framing select a spacing between stiffeners (typically 500 to 800mm).3 Foundation Model Since their behaviour is non-linear.1. calculate the axial force in the brace from the overall shear and the local bending caused by the wave assuming partial or total end restraint. 4.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. calculate the moment caused by wind loads on topsides and derive the appropriate thickness. determine by straight beam formulae the sizes of the main girders under "blanket" live loads and/or the respective weight of the heaviest equipments. which are described in more detail in Lectures 15A. 5. often from a simplified model. 5. buoyancy).2 and15A. derive the penetration from the shaft friction and tip bearing diagrams.1 Jacket Pile Sizes calculate the vertical resultant (dead weight. 4.3 Jacket Bracings select the diameter in order to obtain a span/diameter ratio between 30 and 40. This analysis is always carried at the very early stage of the project.com/read. boat-fenders. 41 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . caiss*****.1 Structural Model Main Model The main model should account for eccentricities and local reinforcements at the joints.
the appurtenances. 5. It may have one of the following representati*****: modal damping: a specific damping ratio z expressing the percentage to critical associated with each mode (typically defined as a linear combination of stiffness and mass matrices. 6. relative motion of the structure with respect to the wave velocity in Morison equation). being roughly proportional to the strain energy involved in each. for each the position of the crest relative to the platform must be established such that the maximum overturning moment and/or shear are produced at the mudline. the foundation model may be derived from cyclic soil behaviour. Some simplificati***** may however take place: local joint reinforcements and eccentricities may be disregarded. In general eight wave incidences are selected. 6.e.5% hydrodynamic) proportional damping: All other types of non-viscous damping should preferably be expressed as an equivalent viscous damping matrix. the system can be condensed to a few freedoms while still retaining its basic energy distribution.5% structural.2. but may alternatively be accounted as part of the forcing function when vibrati***** are close to resonance (vortex-shedding in particular). current and wind loads assumed to act simultaneously in the same direction.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .3 Free Vibration Mode Shapes and Frequencies The first step in a dynamic analysis c*****ists of determining the principal natural vibration mode shapes and frequencies of the undamped. 6. multi-degree-of-freedom structure up to a given order (30th to 50th). X'. 6.2. The basic loads relevant to a given condition are multiplied by the appropriate load factors and combined to produce the most severe effect in each individual element of the structure. in the most general case it may depend on the displacements of the structure X.2 Environmental Loads Environmental loads c*****ist of wave. is the time dependent force vector. 6.2.1 Mass The mass matrix represents the distribution of masses over the structure. It increases with the order of the mode. Masses include that of the structure itself. Hydrodynamic Damping Damping provided by the water surrounding the structure is commonly added to the former.com/read. As a further simplification to larger models involving c*****iderable degrees-of-freedom.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. The mass matrix c*****equently becomes diagonal but local modes of vibration of single members are ignored (these modes may be important for certain members subjected to an earthquake). The selection of lumping points may significantly affect the ensuing solution. velocity and acceleration vectors (function P(t) also (i.2 Equati***** of Motion The governing dynamic equati***** of multi-degrees-of-freedom systems can be expressed in the matrix form: MX'' + CX' + KX = P(t) where M C K is the mass matrix is the damping matrix is the stiffness matrix of time). X'' are the displacement. 6. live loads must be positioned to produce the most severe configuration (compression or tension). Representation of Damping Viscous damping represents the most common and simple form of damping. personnel).2. masses are lumped at the member ends. z = 0. Masses are generally lumped at discrete points of the model. Depending on the area of structure under scrutiny. the added mass of water (mass of water displaced by the member and determined from potential flow theory) and the mass of marine growth. The dynamic model of the structure is derived from the main static model. Structural Damping Structural damping is associated with the loss of energy by internal friction in the material. 42 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . fluids. but can be restricted to the main modes in the case of stiff structures. this may occur for instance when positioning the drilling rig. z = 1. liquids trapped in legs or tanks.2 Damping Damping is the most difficult to estimate among all parameters governing the dynamic resp*****e of a structure.52ship.1 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Dynamic Model A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure.3 Stiffness The stiffness matrix is in all aspects similar to the one used in static analyses. 6.php?tid=126910 live loads (equipments. 5.3 Loading Combinati***** The static in-place analysis is performed under different conditi***** where the loads are approximated by their pseudostatic equivalent. It may c*****ist of structural and hydrodynamic damping.
com/read. significant values of pj only occur within a narrow range of frequencies and the analysis can be restricted to it.php?tid=126910 This c*****ists in solving the eigenvalue problem: KX = l MX For rigid structures having a fundamental vibration period well below the range of wave periods (typically less than 3 s).船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . load) are simultaneously dependent on the time and structural resp*****e as well. as the transient part of the resp*****e vanishes rapidly under the effect of damping. Unconditionally stable methods are always to be preferred (for instance Newmark-beta with b = 1/4 or Wilson-theta with q = 1.k = The spectral density of resp*****e in freedom j versus force is then: The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most efficient algorithm associated with this kind of analysis. 6. Static in-plane analysis is always carried out at the early stage of a project to size the main elements of the structure. The dynamic equilibrium at an instant t is governed by the same type of equati*****. Therefore: the simple superposition method (mode-displacement) is applied to a truncated number of lowest modes for predicting earthquake resp*****e. 6. resp*****es involving many vibration modes to be determined over a short time interval. 7. Usually. The loading function is developed in Fourier series up to an order h: p(t) = The plot of the amplitudes pj versus the circular frequencies w j is called the amplitude power spectra of the loading. 6.e. non-linear forces are linearized beforehand (drag). The same model is used throughout the analysis process. such as: H = [-M w 2 + i x C w + K] the elements of which represent: Hj. the tendency for uncontrolled divergence of amplitude to occur with increasing time steps). The verification of an element c*****ists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress. 6.4).52ship. stiffness.1 Frequency Domain Analysis Such analysis is most appropriate for evaluating the steady-state resp*****e of a system subjected to cyclic loadings. CONCLUDING SUMMARY The analysis of offshore structures is an extensive task.4. and can be re-used for as many subsequent resp*****e calculati***** as needed at later stages. This method is only applicable if: each mass. stiffness and damping matrix is time-independent. where all matrices (mass. Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 43 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Several methods are available.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. The relati*****hip between resp*****e and force vectors is expressed by the transfer matrix H. Simple rules are available for preliminary member sizing. It may however prove time-c*****uming when a large number of modes is required to represent the resp*****e accurately. The total resp*****e is obtained by summing the resp*****es of the individual single-degree-of-freedom oscillators associated to each normal mode of the structure.4 Modal Superposition Method A convenient technique c*****ists of uncoupling the equati***** through the normal modes of the system. damping. This method offers the advantage that the eigen modes provide substantial insight into the problem.2 Xj(t) Time Domain Analysis The resp*****e of the i-th mode may alternatively be determined by resorting to Duhamel's integral: = The overall resp*****e is then obtained by summing at each time step the individual resp*****es over all significant modes.5 Direct Integration Methods Direct step-by-step integration of the equati***** of motion is the most general method and is applicable to: non-linear problems involving special forms of damping and resp*****e-dependent loadings. All available integration techniques are characterised by their stability (i.4. The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those used for other types of steel structures. the dynamic behaviour is simply accounted for by multiplying the time-dependent loads by a dynamic amplification factor (DAF): DAF = where b = TN/T is the ratio of the period of the structure to the wave period. it must be corrected by the static contribution of the higher modes (mode-acceleration method) for wave loadings. A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure.
it permits all local stresses to be comprehensively represented.1. different incidences (typically eight). 44 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .4: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Loads II: Other Loads Analysis I RELATED LECTURES 鲜花 鸡蛋 SUMMARY Methods of fatigue analysis are described including the fatigue model (structural. stair towers). Quasi-static analysis is often chosen. 1.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . abnormal and accident conditi*****. each associated with a characteristic wave and zero-upcrossing period. The effect of the c*****tant stresses. it offers computational efficiency.2).1 Fatigue Model Structural Model The in-place model is used for the fatigue analysis.php?tid=126910 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 8楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. particularly near the waterline where direct wave action causes high out-of-plane bending (see Section 5. load-out and transportation.1: Lecture 15A.1 1. The dynamic effects are accounted for by factoring the loads by the relevant DAF. 1. Abnormal and accidental conditi***** are c*****idered relating to earthquake.1. hydrodynamic loading.4 Fatigue Damage Model The fatigue failure of joints in offshore structures primarily depends on the stress ranges and their number of occurrences. 1.2 Hydrodynamic Loading Model A very large number of computer runs may be necessary to evaluate the stress range at the joints. wind (flare booms. Local analysis for specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside of the global analysis are identified. The wave is repeatedly generated for: different blocks of wave heights (typically from 2 to 28m in steps of 2m). different phases to determine the stress range for a given wave at each joint. The ratio should normally not exceed: 1. formulated by S-N curves: log Ni = log a + mlog Dsi The number of cycles to failure Ni corresponds to a stress range.acceleration method may overcome this problem.1 within. Modal analysis may be used instead. structures under rotating equipments.com/read.1. floating structures). 0. 1. The maximum local (hot spot) stress is obtained by multiplying the former by a stress concentration factor (SCF) given by parametric formulae which are functi***** of the joint geometry and the load pattern (balanced/unbalanced). FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis is performed for those structures sensitive to the action of cyclic loadings such as: wave (jackets.2: Lecture 15A.5 .52ship. installation and local design.1. 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A.0 above.3: Lecture 15A.3 Joint Stress Model Nominal joint stresses are calculated for eight points around the circumference of the brace. The mode . Analyses required for load-out and transportation and for installation are outlined. over the operational life of the platform (30 to 50 years) is obtained by the Palmgren-Miner rule: D = The limit of this ratio depends on the position of the joint with respect to the splash zone (typically +/-4m on either side of the mean sea level). is implicitly accounted for in this formulation. The cumulative damage caused by ni cycles of stress Dsi. 1. impact and progressive collapse. and joint stress models) and the methods of fatigue damage assessment.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.Analysis II 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the analysis procedures for offshore structures relating to fatigue. mainly welding residual stresses. but may also overlook important local resp*****e modes.
A minimum of four regular waves described in terms of height and associated period are c*****idered for each heading angle. eddies are shed at a frequency close to the resonant frequency of the member.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Ds is the stress range exceeded once in N cycles. The main feature of such analysis is the introduction of coherence functi***** accounting for the spanwise correlation of forces.1. 1. in which the joint occurrence of wave height and period is quantified. 1. Within a specific range of fluid velocities. but only have a limited risk of occurrence. Transfer functi***** TF are determined from time-domain analyses involving various wave heights.com/read.1 2. which can be determined by models such as those suggested in .2 Deterministic Analysis This analysis c*****ists of time-domain analysis of the structure.php?tid=126910 0.1. ABNORMAL AND ACCIDENTAL CONDITI***** This type of analysis addresses conditi***** which may c*****iderably affect the integrity of the structure.2 Ductility Requirements The seismic forces in a structure are highly dependent on its dynamic characteristics. If this range corresponds to a peak in the structural resp*****e.4. 2.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.1.3 Spectral Analysis Waves of a given height are not characterised by a unique frequency. This phenomenon involves forced displacements. the fatigue life predicted by the deterministic method can be seriously distorted. The main advantage of this representation is that non-linear effects (drag. This problem is overcome by using a scatter diagram. k is a long-term distribution parameter. 2.4 1. the directionality function derived from the mean direction and associated spreading function. Wave directionality may also be accounted for.q) is the directional wave energy spectrum. Design recommendati***** are 45 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the soil mass in the direct vicinity of the structure) shall accurately represent load-deflection behaviour. 2. modal damping (in general taken as 5% and 7% of critical for ULS and PLS analyses respectively). N is the total number of cycles. The significant stress range is readily obtained for each sea state as: ssig = where S(w.1 Earthquake Analysis Model Particular attention shall be paid to: foundati*****: the near field (i.4. The zero-upcrossing frequency of stress cycles is then approximated by: Tz = where mn is the nth order moment of the resp*****e. 1. 1.e. 1. m are coefficients of the selected S-N curve. each with different period and incidence: The resp*****e has normally a narrow-banded spectrum and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution. but rather by a range of frequencies.1 Wind Fatigue Wind Gusts The fatigue damage caused by the fluctuating part of wind (gusts) on slender structures like flare booms and bridges is usually predicted by spectral methods.5 Closed Form Expression The damage may alternatively be expressed in closed form: D where = a. Eventually the most thorough representation of a sea state c*****ists of: the frequency spectrum c*****tructed from the significant wave heights and mean zero-crossing periods.2 Vortex Shedding Vortex induced failure occurs for tubes subjected to a uniform or oscillating flow of fluid. high order wave theories) are handled explicitly. This approach requires that the physical process be approximately linear (or properly linearised) and stationary. Typically all events with a probability level less than the 10-4 threshold are disregarded.3 below the splash zone. As a general rule the lateral foundation behaviour is essentially controlled by horizontal ground moti***** of shallow soil layers.52ship. depending on the position of the joint in the structure.
The barge may be floating and is continuously deballasted as the package progresses onto it. bracings. fender) is crushed by a supply boat.2 3. Since such a configuration is only temporary (mobilisation period prior to repairs) and that operati***** will also be restricted around the damaged area.php?tid=126910 given by API to determine an efficient geometry. 2. or by using trailers underneath it. favouring X-bracings instead of K-bracings. bulkheads) may partially or completely loose their strength as a result of accidental damage.2 Impact The analysis of impact loads on structures is carried out locally using simple plastic models . or grounded on the bottom of the harbour. global deformation along plastic hinges with possible appearance of membrane forces. particular care shall be taken in the representation of overhanging parts (legs. In the aftermath of recent mishaps however. 2.3 Analysis Method Earthquake analyses can be carried out according to the general methods presented in Lecture 15A.2. from the barge just after it has left the quay.1.4.2. Barges are in general characterised by a low length/beam ratio and a high beam/draught ratio. it can be accomplished using time-domain techniques presented in Section 6 of Lecture 15A. avoiding abrupt changes in stiffness.2 Blast and Fire Owing to the current lack of definitive guidance regarding explosi***** and fire. the damaged elements are removed from the model. Modal spectral resp*****e analysis is normally used.com/read. analysis of load-out by trailers only requires a single step to determine the optimal distribution of trailers. For jacket transport.2 Load-Out by Trailers As the reaction on each trailer can be kept c*****tant.1 Transportation Naval Architectural Model The model c*****ists of the rigid-body assembly of the barge and the structure. or a tube (jacket leg. 2.3 Progressive Collapse Some elements of the structure (legs. as well as sharp corners which introduce heavy viscous damping. The whole energy must be absorbed within acceptable deformati*****. 3. 3. Their residual strength may be represented by forces applied at the boundary nodes with the intact structure.1 LOAD OUT & TRANSPORTATION Load-Out The load-out procedure c*****ists in moving the jacket or module from its c*****truction site to the transportation barge by skidding. The analysis should also investigate the possibility of high local reacti***** being the result of settlement of the skidway or errors in the ballasting procedure. 2.1 Skidding The most severe configuration during skidding occurs when the part of the structure is cantilevering out: from the quayside before it touches the barge. improving the post-buckling behaviour of bracings. more accurate analyses may become mandatory.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. This spectrum is the result of time-histories of a SDOF system for different natural periods of vibration and damping. Should a more sophisticated analysis be required. 3. the reduction of material strength and elastic modulus under temperature increase. 2. Direct time integration can be used instead for specific accelerograms adapted to the site. The recommendati***** call for: providing sufficient redundancy and symmetry in the structure.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . In this analysis. 3.1 Dropped Object/Boat Impact When a wellhead protection cover is hit by a drill collar. It c*****ists of a superposition of maximum mode resp*****e and forms a resp*****e spectrum curve characteristic of the input motion.4. 3. The purpose of such analysis is to ensure that the spare resistance of the remaining structure is sufficient to allow the loads to redistribute. two load/deformation mechanisms occur simultaneously: local punch-through (cover) or denting (tube). 46 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . reduced live and environmental loads are generally accepted. However their distinctive feature is that they represent essentially a base motion problem and that the seismic loads are therefore dependent on the dynamic characteristics of the structure. the behaviour of structures in such events has so far been only predicted by simple models based on: equivalent static overpressure and plastic deformation of plates for blast analysis.2.1. buoyancy tanks) which contribute significantly to the righting moment.52ship. based on a better understanding of the pressure-time histories and the effective resistance and resp*****e of structures to explosi***** and fire.1.
4.2 4. with members having the equivalent properties of the longitudinal and transversal bulkheads.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . 4. At each time step. from which eccentricities and local reinforcements may be The barge is modelled as a plane grid. The mathematical instability of the model with respect to horizontal forces is avoided by using soft horizontal springs at the padeyes. For single lifts the slings converge towards the hook joint. The maximum reaction on the rocker arm is normally obtained when the jacket just starts rotating about the rocker hinge.2 Structural Model The structural model is in all aspects identical to the one used for the transportation analysis.6. The stability of the jacket as a whole (overturning tendency) is investigated. As the barge passes over a wave trough or a crest.2. which is the sole vertical support in the model and shall be located exactly on the vertical through the centre of gracity (CoG) of the model. Structural Model The jacket model is a simplified version of the in-place model. 4. inertia. see Section 5. 4. and also the partition and intensity of buoyancy and slamming forces. 3.6 4. the jacket/barge rigid body system is repositioned to equilibrate the internal and external forces produced by: jacket weight. The maximum cantilevered (stick-up) length of pile must be established for the self-weight of the pile and hammer combined. the jacket is analysed at least for each main leg node being at the vertical of the rocker arm pivot. Hydrodynamic acti***** are added for underwater driving. The model therefore represents the jacket and the barge as two structures coupled together by the seafastening members. 4.1 4.2 omitted. 4. otherwise they are inactivated and the analysis restarted for that step. the CoG shall be contained in the vertical plane defined by the two hook joints. buoyancy and drag forces.1 Lifting Model The model used for the lift analysis of a structure c*****ists of the in-place model plus the representation of the rigging arrangement (slings. which is essentially a naval architecture problem.1. spreader frames). with possibly a finer representation of the launch legs.1. Skew factors may either be directly computed by applying to a pair of opposite slings a temperature difference such that their elongation/shortening corresponds to the mismatch. 4. The rocker arm is also represented as a vertical beam hinged approximately at midspan. 4. For heavier dual-crane lifts.com/read.1 INSTALLATION Launching Naval Architectural Model A three dimensional analysis is carried out to evaluate the global forces acting on the jacket at various time steps during the launch sequence. together with the resistance of the mudmats against soil pressure.52ship. sleeves) shall also be checked. accounting for first and second order moments arising from the pile batter.1. barge weight. Interface loads obtained by the rigid body analysis are input at boundary conditi***** on the launch legs. Elements in the vicinity of the piles (guides. This factor represents the effect of fabrication tolerances and lack-of-fit of the slings on the load repartition in a statically undetermined rigging arrangement (4 slings or more). buoyancy and ballast forces. 4. The same requirement applied for bumpers to aid the installation of modules.php?tid=126910 Dry-transported decks and modules may be simply represented by their mass and moments of inertia. A local analysis of the lugs is performed for crane-assisted upendings. a portion only of the barge is supported by buoyancy (long barges may be spanning over a whole trough or be half-cantilevered).2. vertical reacti***** and friction forces between jacket and barge. Once the tilting phase has begun. or 47 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .6.1 Design Factors Skew Load Factor (SKL) Different factors are applied to the basic sling forces to account for specific effects during lifting operati*****.4 Unpiled Stability The condition where the jacket may for a while stand unpiled on the seafloor is analysed for the design installation wave.3 Docking Docking of a jacket onto a pre-installed template requires guides to be analysed for local impact.5 Piling The piles are checked during driving for the dynamic stresses caused by the impact wave of the hammer blow.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. This analysis shall provide the linear and angular accelerati***** and displacements of the structure to be entered in the structural model as inertia forces.6.2 Upending No dedicated structural analysis is required for this phase. All interface members must remain in compression. The force and elongation in these springs should always remain small.
The list of analyses below is not exhaustive and more information can be found in [1-24] which provide a complete design procedure in each particular case. internal pressure and temperature. these being provided by the horizontal framing of the jacket (typically 20 to 25 m span).4.2.2 Members within the Splash Zone Horizontal members (conductor guide frames in particular) located within the splash zone (+/-5m on either side of the mean-sea-level approximately) shall be analysed for fatigue caused by repeated wave slamming. for other elements. 5. A fatigue analysis is also performed to assess the fatigue damage to the clamps and the attachments to the jacket. see . A slamming coefficient Cs=3. Also the portion of compression force in the conductor caused by the hanging casings is regarded as an internal force (similar to prestressing) which therefore does not induce any buckling tendency. 4.2/3 repartition).10 1.2.4 5.30 1.2 Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) This factor accounts for global dynamic effects normally experienced during lifting operati*****.5 Helidecks The helideck is normally designed to resist an impact load equal to 2. They are verified by empirical plastic models against the forces generated during pull-in by the friction of the cable and the deformation of the pull head. DnV  recommends minimum values as follows: Lifted Weight W (tonnes) DAF offshore DAF inshore 4. Pull-In J-tubes are empty ducts continuously guiding a post-installed riser pulled inside.php?tid=126910 determined arbitrarily (typically 1/3 . for all members transferring the load to the lifting points.3 Straightened Nodes Typical straightened nodes (ring-stiffened nodes.6. 5.6 Flare Booms 48 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .com/read.6. 4. 5.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.6. while the main framing is analysed elastically. 4. 5. caiss***** and J-tubes are verified either by structural or piping programs for the action of environmental forces. It shall normally be based on 5° and 3° tilt respectively depending on whether cranes are on different vessels or not.3 Tilt Effect Factor (TEF) up to 100 t 1. 5. 5.05 typically). from which parametric envelope formulae are drawn and applied to all nodes representative of the same class.05 more than 2500 t 1.4.2. Particular attention is paid to the bends not always satisfactorily represented by structural programs and the location of the touch-down point now known a-priori. The main verificati***** address: the shear stresses in the concrete.15 1.6.20 1.1 Pile/Sleeve Connecti***** Underwater pile/sleeve connection is usually achieved by grouting the annulus between the outside of the pile and the inner sleeve.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . bottle legs nodes with diaphragms) are analysed by finite-elements models.30 1. lifting points (padeyes) and their attachment to the structure.2 Conductors Conductors are analysed in-place as beam columns on discrete simple supports. Plastic theories are applicable for designing the plate and stiffeners.52ship.15 100 t to 1000t 1. 5. see .5 times the take-off weight of the heaviest helicopter factored by a DAF of 1.15 1. Caiss***** & J-Tubes Static In-Place and Fatigue Risers. LOCAL ANALYSES AND DESIGN Local analyses address specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside the global analysis.1 Appurtenances Risers.10 1000 t to 2500t 1.5 is often selected. The installation sequence of the different casings must be c*****idered to assess the distribution of stresses in the different tubes forming the overall composite section. 5.3 C*****equence Factors Forces in elements checked under lift conditi***** are multiplied by a factor reflecting the c*****equence a failure of that specific element would have on the integrity of the overall structure: 1.4 Yaw Effect Factor (YEF) This factor accounts for the rotation of the lifted object about a vertical axis (equal to 1.00 for spreader frames.05 This factor accounts for additional sling loading caused by the rotation of the lifted object about a horizontal axis and by the longitudinal deviation of the hooks from their theoretical position in the case of a multi-hook lift. the fatigue damage in the shear plates and the attachment welds to the main jacket accumulated during pile driving and throughout the life of the platform.30.
G. The Resp*****e of Slender Line-Like Structures to a Gusty Wind/ICE Vol..M. of the Structural Div. November 1983. September 1989. Dynamics of Offshore Structures/Wiley Interscience. December1989. Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms/Van Nostrand Reinhold.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Dynamics of Structures/McGraw-Hill. Design Methodology for Offshore Platform Conductors/J. Davenport A.P. 1984. & Rhinne J.. Regulation for Structural Design of Loadbearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources.. New York. London.E. September1989. Node Flexibility and its Effect on Jacket Structures/CIRIA Report UR22. Recommended Practice for Planning. & Baur M.60. A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser Installation/J.3. An Heuristic Model for Determining Flow-Induced Vibrati***** of Offshore Structures/OTC paper 1843. Standard for Insurance Warranty Surveys in Marine Operati*****.E.  Bunce J. & Mangiavacchi A. Dynamics of Marine Structures/ CIRIA Report UR8 (2nd edition). 1962.. verify the validity of the data resulting from a complex analysis against a simplified model. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Barge-Platform Systems in Waves/Royal Inst.. 1975. April 1982. 1978. October1984 and Veiledning om Utforming.G. McClelland B.C. Lewis R. lift upright). reduced material characteristics due to high temperature in the vicinity of the tip during operation... 1984.Rules for the Classification of Steel Ships.  1982.W. Previous | Next | Contents Hambro L.23..    DoE.. & Bentson J. June 1985. October 1978.F. November 1976.52ship. 1984.  De Oliveira J. Wave and Earthquake Resp*****e of Offshore Structures: Evaluation of Modal Chianis J. 7. A Critical Review of Transportation Analysis Procedures/OTC paper 4617. Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering/Wiley Interscience. The Behaviour of Steel Offshore Structures under Accidental Collisi*****/OTC paper 4136..A. 263-270. 6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY With the trend to ever deeper and more slender offshore structures in yet harsher environments.  Kaplan P. April 1984.com/read. 1986.  API-RP2A.A.  Walker A.W. dynamic resp*****e under gusty winds. DnV. January 1989. to assess the influence of a particular parameter. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms/18th edition. pp. May 1973.. Fatigue Analysis of Steel Offshore Structures/ICE Vol. Heaf N. Williams A. September 1983. Jiang C. of Energy Resources Technology. Random Vibrati***** and Spectral Analysis/Longman Scientific (2nd edition).  Hallam M. Beregning og Dimensjonering av Stalk*****truksjoner i Petroleumsvirksomheten. Jacket Launching Simulation by Differentiation of C*****traints/ Applied Ocean Research.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Rules for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Structures. local excitation of diagonals by wind vortex-shedding. Anagnostopoulos S.G..php?tid=126910 Analyses of flare booms particularly c*****ider: variable positi***** during installation (horizontal pick-up from the barge.C. To retain enough control of the process of analysis.G. & Davies P. Zienkiewicz O.  REFERENCES Skop R. Newland D. 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 9楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 Previous | Next | Contents 49 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the following recommendati***** are given: × × × check the interfaces between the different analyses and ensure the c*****istency of the input/output. No ST10..D. 108.W. Clough R. more elaborate theories are necessary to analyse complex situati*****.4 No.  DnV . & Reifel M.   DnV. Offshore Installati*****: Guidance on Design and C*****truction/London.. May 1982. Vol. vol.  Stahl B. May1983.J. & Griffin O. Soluti*****/ASCE J.W.  NPD. of Petroleum Technology. which can also be used make full use of "good engineering judgement" to criticise the unexpected results of an analysis.. & Wootton L..A.. & Stagg K. & Wyatt T.         Wilson J. & Penzien J. Development of Unified Design Criteria for Heavy Lift Operati***** Offshore/OTC paper 4192. UEG. There is a risk for the Engineer having increasingly to rely on the sole results of computer analyses at the expense of sound design practice.K.. May 1981. October 1982. of Naval Architects.R..W.
they are generally over-c*****olidated. The piles have to transfer the loads acting on the jacket into the sea bed. The three main execution phases are briefly discussed: fabrication. The nature and characteristics of the soil surrounding a pile generally vary with the depth.4 Cohesive Soils Multi-Layered Strata Clays are plastic soils with particle sizes less than 0. 50 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 1.002mm which tend to stick together. 1. water content. Checking of the pile itself is described in detail in the Worked Example. The lecture starts with the classification of soil. The number of layers depends on the precision required of the analysis.6: Foundati***** OBJECTIVE\SCOPE 级别: 论坛版主 to classify different types of piles to understand main design methods to cover various methods of installation 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES Lecture 1B. each having c*****tant properties throughout. remoulded and pressed together. transport and installation. 2.12: Lecture 17. DESIGN Steel offshore platforms are usually founded on piles. over c*****olidation ratio. cohesion).船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The main steps in the design of piles are then explained. silts : characterized by particle sizes between 0.php?tid=126910 ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. The different kinds of piles and hammers are described. their permeability is low. undrained shear strength Cu.52ship. 1. driven deep into the soil (Figure 1).com/read.05mm) offering a high permeability.2 Granular Soils Granular soils are non-plastic soils with negligible cohesion between particles.3 1. they may exhibit some cohesion. In this section theoretical aspects of the design of piles are presented. soils can be classified within "ideal" categories: granular soils. The properties of a specific soil depend mainly on the following factors: density. Soil texture c*****ists of small mineral or organic particles basically characterized by their grain size and mutual interaction (friction.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 1.5: Limit State Design Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors Shear Connection Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Connecti***** in Offshore Deck Structures Requirements and Verificati***** of Seismic Resistant Structures 鲜花 鸡蛋 A general knowledge of design in offshore structures and an understanding of offshore installation are also required. For analysis purposes. cohesive soils. SUMMARY In this lecture piled foundati***** for offshore structures are presented. the soil is divided into several layers.6: Lectures 12.2: Lectures 10.4: Lecture 15A. They include: sands : characterized by large to medium particle sizes (1mm to 0. For design purposes the influence of these factors on soil behaviour is expressed in terms of two fundamental parameters: friction angle.05 and 0.2.02mm. Since the least significant of either of these parameters is often neglected.1 INTRODUCTION Classification of Soils The stratigraphy of the sea bed results from a complex geological process during which various materials were deposited.
2. equilibrated by axial tension/ compression in symmetrically disposed piles (upstream/downstream). overturning moment on the jacket. is proportional to the overburden pressure. is calculated by the "alpha" or "lambda" method and is a c*****tant equal to the shear strength Cu at great 51 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . earthquake.com/read. Lateral friction is integrated along the whole penetration of the pile. Their resultant at mudline c*****ists of: shear distributed as horizontal forces on the piles. Gravity loads (platform dead load and live loads) are distributed as axial compression forces on the piles depending upon their respective eccentricity.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .2.php?tid=126910 2. 2. 2. are basically horizontal.1 Design Loads Gravity loads These loads are those transferred from the jacket to the foundation. The unit shaft friction: for sands: for clays: depth. current.1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. resulting in: vertical compression or pullout force.1 Static Axial Pile Resistance Lateral friction along the shaft (shaft friction) The overall resistance of the pile against axial force is the sum of shaft friction and end bearing. and lateral shear force plus bending.2 Environmental loads Environmental loads due to waves. Skin friction is mobilized along the shaft of the tubular pile (and possibly also along the inner wall when the soil plug is not removed). wind.1.3 Load combinati***** The basic gravity and environmental loads multiplied by relevant load factors are combined in order to produce the most severe effect(s) at mudline.52ship. etc.1.2 2.1 2. They are calculated at the mudline.
2.4. The energy is progressively lost by plastic friction on the sides and bearing at the tip of the pile. 2.2 Wave equation This method of analysing the driving process c*****ists of representing the ensemble of pile/soil/hammer as a one-dimensional assembly of masses. The shape of these curves varies with the depth and the type of soil at the c*****idered elevation. with or without the area of plug if relevant.2.2 Lateral pile analysis For analysis purposes. the pile cap is represented by a mass of infinite rigidity. 2. 52 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 2. the cushion is represented by a weightless spring (see Figure 3). the second order contribution of the axial compression to the bending moment (P-Delta effect) shall be taken into account. the soil is idealized as a massless medium characterized by elastic-perfectly-plastic springs and linear dashpots. The fourth order differential equation which expresses the pile deformation is integrated by successive iterati*****.php?tid=126910 2.4. For large deformati*****. No bearing resistance can be mobilized against pull-out: the friction available must be equated to the pull out force multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. which reflects on the pile tip.3.1 P-y curves P-y curves represent the lateral soil resistance versus deflection. springs and dashpots: the pile is modelled as a discrete assembly of masses and elastic springs.4.3.1 Empirical formulae A c*****iderable number of empirical formulae exist to predict pile driveability. The impact is transmitted along the pile in the form of a wave. The general shape of the curves for increasing displacement features: elastic (linear) behaviour for small deflecti*****. This action may generate large deformati***** and high bending moments in the part of the pile directly below the mudline. The bearing pressure: for clays: for sands: is equal to 9 ´ Cu.3 Lateral Pile Resistance The shear at the mudline caused by environmental loads is resisted by lateral bearing of the pile on the soil. c*****tant resistance for large deflecti***** or loss of resistance when the soil skeleton deteriorates (clay under cyclic load in particular).com/read. 2. 2. the soil is modelled as lumped non-linear springs distributed along the pile.52ship.2 End bearing End bearing is the resultant of bearing pressure over the gross end area of the pile.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .2 of API-RP2A .2. is proportional to the overburden pressure as explained in Section 6. the secant stiffness of the soil springs being updated at each step. elastic/plastic behaviour for medium deflecti*****.e. 2. particularly in soft soils.4 Pile Driving Piles installed by driving are forced into the soil by a ram hitting the top. i. the hammer is modelled as a mass falling with an initial velocity. Each formula is generally limited to a particular type of soil and hammer.3 Pile penetration The pile penetration shall be sufficient to generate enough friction and bearing resistance against the maximum design compression multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.
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