Activity diagrams

An Activity diagram is a variation of a special case of a state machine, in which the states are activities representing the performance of operations and the transitions are triggered by the completion of the operations. The purpose of Activity diagram is to provide a view of flows and what is going on inside a use case or among several classes. You can also use activity diagrams to model code-specific information such as a class operation. Activity diagrams are very similar to a flowchart because you can model a workflow from activity to activity. An activity diagram is basically a special case of a state machine in which most of the states are activities and most of the transitions are implicitly triggered by completion of the actions in the source activities.

Activity diagrams : •ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS represent the dynamics of the system. • They are flow charts that are used to show the workflow of a system; that is, they show the flow of control from activity to activity in the system, what activities can be done in parallel, and any alternate paths through the flow. •At this point in the life cycle, activity diagrams may be created to represent the flow across use cases or they may be created to represent the flow within a particular use case. •Later in the life cycle, activity diagrams may be created to show the workflow for an operation.

Activity diagrams contain activities, transitions between the activities, decision points, and synchronization bars. In the UML, activities are represented as rectangles with rounded edges, transitions are drawn as directed arrows, decision points are shown as diamonds, and synchronization bars are drawn as thick horizontal or vertical bars as shown in the following.

NewActivity

Start state Transition Decision Point
Vertical synchronization

Activity

End State

Horizontal synchronization

CREATING ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS IN RATIONAL ROSE :
1.Right-click on the Use Case View in the browser to make the shortcut menu visible. 2.Select the New: Activity Diagram menu choice. This will add an activity diagram called New Diagram to the browser. 3.While the new diagram is still selected, enter the name of the diagram. 4. Double-click on the activity diagram in the browser to open the diagram window.

Activities : An activity represents the performance of some behavior in the workflow. Transitions : Transitions are used to show the passing of the flow of control from activity to activity. They are typically triggered by the completion of the behavior in the originating activity. Decision Points : When modeling the workflow of a system it is often necessary to show where the flow of control branches based on a decision point. The transitions from a decision point contain a guard condition, which is used to determine which path from the decision point is taken. Decisions along with their guard conditions allow you to show alternate paths through a work flow.

CREATING GUARDED TRANSITIONS IN RATIONAL ROSE 1.Click to select the State Transition icon from the toolbar. 2.Click on the decision and drag the transition to the succes-sor activity. 3.Double-click on the transition arrow to make the Specifica-tion visible. 4.Select the Detail tab. 5.Enter the guard condition in the Guard Condition field. 6.Click the OK button to close the Specification.

Activities along with guarded transition :

Create curriculam

select course to teach

Assign professors to course

If No

all professors assigned

Synchronization Bars In a workflow there are typically some activities that may be done in parallel. A synchronization bar allows you to specify what activities may be done concurrently. Synchronization bars are also used to show joins in the workflow; that is, what activities must complete before processing may continue. Means, a synchronization bar may have many incoming transitions and one outgoing transition, or one incoming transition and many outgoing transitions.

Swimlanes Swim lanes may be used to partition an activity diagram. This typically is done to show what person or organization is responsible for the activities contained in the swimlane. Initial and Final Activities There are special symbols that are used to show the starting and final activities in a workflow. The starting activity is shown using a solid filled circle and the final activities are shown using a bull's eye. Typically, there is one starting activity for the workflow and there may be more than one ending activity (one for each alternate flow in the workflow).

Modeling a workflow in an activity diagram can be done several ways; however, the following steps present just one logical process: 1.Identify a workflow objective. Ask, "What needs to take place or happen by the end of the workflow? What needs to be accomplished?" For example, if your activity diagram models the workflow of ordering a book from an online bookstore, the goal of the entire workflow could be getting the book to the customer. 2.Decide the pre and post-conditions of the workflow through a start state and an end state. In most cases, activity diagrams have a flowchart structure so start and end states are used to designate the beginning and ending of the workflow. State and end states clarify the perimeter of the workflow. 3.Define and recognize all activities and states that must take place to meet your objective. Place and name them on the activity diagram in a logical order. 4.Define and diagram any objects that are created or modified within your activity diagram. Connect the objects and activities with object flows.

5.Decide who or what is responsible for performing the activities and states through swim lanes. Name each swim lane and place the appropriate activities and states within each swim lane. 6.Connect all elements on the diagram with transitions. Begin with the "main" workflow. 7.Place decisions on the diagram where the workflow may split into an alternate flow. For example, based on a Boolean expression, the workflow could branch to a different workflow. 8.Evaluate your diagram and see if you have any concurrent workflows. If so, use synchronizations to represent forking and joining. 9.Set all actions, triggers and guard conditions in the specifications of each model element.

An Activity diagram for Mortgage Requests :

Prepare incoming documents

Index documnets

Make electronic file

complete request

check data for Life insurance

Draw up contract Mortgage-deed

Calculate data for construction Mortgage

Pay provisions to Insurance Agent

Draw up Insurance Policy

Activity diagram for Create course catalog :
Registrar Profes sor

Create curriculam

select course to teach

Assign professors To courses

No

all professors assigned create catalog

Place catalog in book store

mail catalog to students

Open registration

Next Figure shows Activity diagram for ATM Transaction

opera tor

c ustomer

ba nk

verify card system start up insert card [ Yes ]

Enter pin value

request for pin

start session

[ Yes ]

verify pin value

select a transaction

perform transaction update database

take the output

take receipt

receive ejected card

sytem shut down

end session

1.IN the above ESU ACTIVITY DIAGRAM, Consider the student also who registers for course after registration is open along with alternative course ,Once the registration is completed forward the information to the billing system. Modify the entire ACTIVITY DIAGRAM. 2. Represent Activity Diagram for Mortgage Loan Request using swim lanes ( Office clerk , Insurance Officer, Loan Officer )

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