CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.

11 - March 2003
52
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
I)INTRODUCTION
Profting the available resources and equipments of
Magnesita Research Centre and Technical Assistance
Department, Magnesita has participated on elimination
of rings and build-ups at some cement kilns. This
technical article does a general revision of this matter
and introduces a methodology to face this problem.
MAGNESITA remains at cement plants disposal for
the conjoint study of this subject.
The rings and build-ups are accumulations of solid
materials in the rotary or static sections of the kiln.
Ring and build-up formation has a detrimental infuence
on cement manufacture, by decreasing or stopping
clinker production and by increasing the production
costs.

SOME DETRIMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF
RINGS AND
BUILD-UPS FORMATION, ARE:
The material and gas fow through the kiln isrestricted,
reducing the kiln output.
Ring formation impairs a proper combustion, and
incomplete combustion may lead to increased specifc
fuel consumption, faster basic brick wear and unsafe
kiln operating conditions.
From time to time the build-ups break loose and choke
the cyclones or the clinker cooler. This can even damage
the clinker cooler.
The uneven fall of deposits from exhaust gas
fan rotor causes high bearing vibration, requiring
shut down before mechanical damage leads to
potential bearing failure. This is very costly as
it reduces over-all kiln availability and increases
maintenance costs.
When a ring breaks loose, a sudden surge of
material moves into the burning zone, leading
the kiln into a serious upset condition, as the
ring acts as a dam obstructing the uniform
advancement of the material through the kiln.
Build-ups in the cyclones increase the production
costs by:
- work force for cleaning it by using compressed
air or high pressure water,
- periodic use of compressed air.
The kiln stoppage and cooling down in order to
reach the ring zone and remove it.
It abridges the refractory lining duration,
especially in the basic zone.

II) RINGS AND BUILD-UPS LOCATION
CLASSIFICATION
The accumulations of solid materials may be
classifed with regard to the type of material
. L . & j i J I z t . ¸ i : : & : u . _ i s , i ¸ i x¸ . . , . . . . I ¸ ¸ . ¸ . . , s a a t i s e n g a M
¦¸ . . ¦ . . ¸ . . . s o l r a C e d o t i r B - a t i s e n g a M S.A . - ¦ ! , ¦ ¸ , ¸
. | z . . . . | . c . ¸ ¦ ! ¸ ¦ ¸ . ¸ ¦ ! ± . ¦ . ¦ ! . ¸ ¦ , . c ! . ¸ . , ì , ¦ . . | . a t i s e n g a M ¸ ¦¸ . ¦ ¸ c ¦ ! . . | . . c ¦ ! . . , a . . . | ¸ ì . a t i s e n g a M _ ¦ ! . . I ± ¸
. . ¸ ¦ J . I . ± . | . ¸ ¦ ! . . . : . . . ` . _ . . ± . . ¸ ¦ . . , ¦ ¸ ¦ z¸ . . . , . . . . . ¸ ± . . ¦ ¦ ! . ± . | ¸ ¦ ! . . . . . _ , . ± . . ¸ ¦ . . . . . ± . , ¦ . . . | . . . | . . ` ! . ¿ . . ¦ ¦ z¸ , . , ¦ . ¸ , . ± . . ¸ . . . . ¿ . , . , . a
! . . | . _ ± . c ¦ ! . . : I a .
¸ . . ± _ a M a t i s e n g · . . ± . , . . ± . | : g ¦ z¸ . . , . . z¸ , , ¦ . . ¸ ¦ . . a . . . ¡ ì a . ¿ . ¦ ¦ ! . . | ¸ .
¸ ¦ J I ± | . ¸ ¦ ! . : . ` . ± _ . . | ¸ c . ¸ . , ¦ ì , | . . ¸ ¦ ! ¸ ¦ . ¦ ! ± . I . a _ ¦ z . . . | ¸ ¦ ! . ¸ ¦ ¸ c ¦ ¸ ¦ ! : | . . a . ¸ ¦ ! . , ¸ .
¸ . . ¸ ¦ ! . ± . , ¸ . ¦ ¸ . . . . . : . ¸ ¦ J . I . ± . | . ¸ ¦ ! . . . : . . . ` . ! . a . . | : . ¸ . . . | ¸ . . I . _ . . , . I . , . a . . ± . . . . , . g ¦ z¸ . . . , . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . ¸ ¦ ¸ , . ¸ . . . . . , . I . , . a ¦¸ : . . . | _
¦ ! : I . : , ¸ , , , . . : | ! , . ¦ z¸ : . | _ .
BY : chem. Eng. Carlos Brito, Brazil
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
53
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
from which they are formed:
UNSINTERED
SINTERED.
UNSITERED
-Material build-ups within the I.D. fan
-Accumulations of solid materials in the cyclones and
grate preheaters
-Slurry rings
-Rings in the calcining zone
SINTERED
-intermediate rings
-Sinter rings
-Coal ahs rings
-Clinker rings
-Snowman formation within the clinker grate cooler
-Clinker balls.
The location of build-ups and rings can be seen in
Table I.

III) BONDING FORCES OF RINGS AND
BUILD-UPS
The formation of accumulations of solid materials,
rings and build-ups, from solid particles suspended in
the gas stream and from solid particles which slide
over the refractory lining, is only known in a qualitative
way. Little quantitative knowledge is available on the
formation of these deposits.
The formation of a deposit of solid particles is always
a dynamic process in which the factors responsible for
formation outweigh the forces of degradation. After
the transport of solid material to the area of deposition,
a defnite force is required to make it adhere to the wall
as:
1. Turbulence within the gas stream,
2. Centrifugal forces whenever the gas stream changes
direction,
3. A mechanical pressure.
The frst two types of foreces are predominant for
preheater build-ups, whereas the mechanical pressure
play a decisive role in ring formation.
According to RUMPF, the forces considered to
cause deposit of solid materials can be grouped
as follows:
1. Melting or freezing, due to addition or removal
of heat,
2. Interlocking of very fne solid particles held
together by surface forces,
3. Interlocking of long, fbrous solid particles,
4. Melting or softening of particles surface by
friction or collision,
5. Electrostatic attraction of solid particles.
The frst three mechanisms are the ones
encountered in cement kiln operation. In general,
the fner the powder, the greater the tendency
towards agglomeration and in many cases the
absence of solid particles smaller than a critical
size, e.g. 5 mm, ensures freedom from deposit.

IV) CHARACTERISTICS OF RINGS AND
BUILD-UPS
Tables II, III, IV, V and VI contain a list of
typical properties of deposits encountered in
many cement kilns.
EXHAUST GAS FAN DEPOSIT

Deposit of solid particles on the blades of
exhaust gas fan, when dust-laden exhaust gas
passes through the fan, causes vibration when the
rotating fan is out of balance. Vibration reduces
the bearing life time.
CHARACTERISTICS
The deposits are composed of the fnest raw meal
particles, they are usually red-brown, hard and
brittle. Their structure is compact, layered, with
a porosity smaller than 8%. Their chemical and
mineralogical composition is that of the raw meal
and the clay particles are deposited parallel to
the blade surfaces. Due to their long stay in the
system, these deposits are enriched in the volatile
components, S0
3
, K
2
0 and Na
2
0. The S0
3
is usually
present as anhydrite, CaS0
4
.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
54
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
TYPICAL VALUES:
LSF 20 - 100%
SR 1,0 - 1,5
S0
3
4,5 - 6,0 %
K
2
0 + Na
2
0 2,0 - 3,0 %

BINDING MECHANISM
The temperature is so low that liquid phase
involvement is insignifcant. However, molten
salts infuence can sometimes be noticed.
The dust particles, because of the high fan rotation,
strike the blade surfaces at high velocity and are
compacted. As the texture of the blade surfaces
possesses undulations in the order of 0,5 to 20
mm, the very fne dust particles, mainly clay
particles, can be mechanically “locked-on”. The
development of the deposit follows an identical
mechanism.
CYCLONE PREHEATER DEPOSITS
CHARACTERISTICS
These deposits form on the roofs, walls, outlet, riser
pipes and transition chamber of cyclone preheaters,
and vary in appearance and homogeneity. In
general, they have a light colour, brown, indicating
that the particles had not been heated higher than
1200?C. In some cases, darker colours of harder
burnt material can be observed. The deposits
range from a dense, compact structure, to a porous
one, depending on their place of deposition and
composition.
Their chemical composition is usually characterized
by a concentration of the volatile elements, in the
following range:
S0
3
: 1 - 35% K
2
0: 1 - 30%
Cl: 1 - 25% Na
2
0: 0 - 2%
It is very scarce to fnd deposits in the cyclone
preheater with no appreciable increase in
concentration of the volatile elements.
Their mineralogical composition differs from that
of the raw meal in that the clays are decomposed
and intermediate minerals are formed. Minerals
only containing the volatile elements can also be
found.

The most frequent found minerals are the
following:
- FROM RAW MEAL:
CALCITE, CaC0
3
QUARTZ, Si0
2
- INTERMEDIATE MINERALS:
FREE LIME, Ca0 free
PERICLASE, Mg0
BELITE, C
2
S
MAYENITE, C
12
A
7
- MINERALS WITH LOW MELTING POINT:
SYLVITE, KCl
ARCANITE, K
2
S0
4
LANGBEINITE,
2
CaS0
4
.K
2
S0
4
HALITE, NaCl
-MINERALS FORMED WITHOUT MELT
INVOLVEMENT:
CARBONATESPURRITE ,
2
C
2
S.CaC0
3
SULFATE SPURRITE,
2
C
2
S.CaS0
4
ANHYDRITE, CaS0
4
FORMATION MECHANISM
The low melting point K
2
0, Na
2
0, S0
3
and Cl based
compounds and the low melting point eutetics formed
by these volatiles are the binding of these deposits.
These compounds are molten in the kiln gas stream
and are deposited on the walls of the cyclone preheater,
or frst on dust particles which then themselves are
deposited out of the gas stream in the accumulation
area. Their cooling, on contact with the wall or
with increasing thickness of the deposit results in an
appreciable strengthning of the deposit texture.
A chemical reaction with gaseous S03 can take place,
resulting in the formation of lath shaped sulfate
spurrite and carbonate spurrite which strengthen the
deposit texture.

CALCINING RINGS IN LONG KILNS
CHARACTERISTICS AND FORMATION
These rings are, in their properties and mechanism of
formation, very similar to those of cyclone preheater
deposits, the reason been that both deposits occur in
the same temperature zone.
Calcining rings are less troublesome than cyclone
preheater build-ups because, due to their weight, kiln
rotation, thermal fuctuations and the mechanical
action of the material stream, they fall off periodically.
Because of the short duration of stay in the rotary kiln
the texture of the deposits remains weak.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
55
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
INTERMEDIATE RINGS IN PREHEATER KILNS
CHARACTERISTICS
The intermediate rings are dense, hard and seldom fall off during
kiln operation. They are elongated, being some 10 - 15 metres
long and extending from 7 to 11 kiln diameters from the outlet.
This ring is clinker-like in colour indicating it being composed
of well burnt material. They have a layered structure, according
the curvature of the kiln shell. Their chemical composition is
very similar to that of clinker. No increase in concentration
of S03 or alkalis takes place, and often the ring shows lower
volatile element values than for clinker. The minerals found in
intermediate rings are the clinker minerals, alite, belite, aluminate,
ferrite and free Ca0. The alite of the inner layers may decompose
into belite and secondary free Ca0, resulting from cooling down
of the inner layers to a temperature lower than the stability
temperature of the alite - 1260
o
C

FORMATION MECHANISM
The mechanism of bonding is the freezing of the alumino-ferrite
melt. The smallest clinker particles of 150-450 mm are carried
back by the gas stream, fall down and are deposited on the
rotary kiln refractory lining, in a zone where temperatures of
below 1250
o
C exist. The clinker dust particles freeze in place, and
because the kiln charge is still fne, it does not possess suffcient
abrasive action to remove the growing ring.
SINTER RINGS
CHARACTERISTICS
These rings occur in the burning zone inlet, some 4 - 5 diameters
from the kiln outlet. They are greyish-black in colour, hard and
formed by small clinker nodules and clinker dust. Because of
the presence of large pores and voids, no layered structure is
formed. Their chemical composition is that of the clinker with
no concentration of volatile elements. The minerals found in
sinter rings are the clinker minerals, alite, belite, aluminate, ferrite
and free lime. The alite of the inner layers may decompose into
belite and secondary free Ca0, similar to the case of intermediate
rings.
BONDING MECHANISM
The bonding is created by the freezing of the clinker liquid phase.
This phenomenon occurs especially in the burning zone inlet,
where the liquid phase is just starting
to form, at approximately 1250
o
C. Due
to the rotation of the kiln, the material
freezes with each kiln rotation and
deposit of clinker particles having less
than 1 mm diameter may reach a large
thickness.

COAL ASH RINGS
CHARACTERISTICS
In kilns fred with a high ash content
coal, rings can form at 7 - 8,5 diameters
from the kiln outlet. They are dense,
with a layered structure and sometimes
glassy in appearance and built up
from particles some 150 - 250 mm
in size. They are rather less dense
and have larger pores and voids than
intermediate rings. Their chemical
and mineralogical composition is
very similar to that of clinker.
The minerals are the clinker minerals,
alite, belite, aluminate, ferrite and free
lime. As the ring grows up and the
temperature of the inner layers falls
down the alite may decompose into
belite and secondary free lime and
the B - belite may convert into -
belite. No enrichment of the volatile
phases is observed. The belite content
is higher than that of the clinker,
because of the enrichment in coal ash,
a silica rich material.
FORMATION MECHANISM
The bonding mechanism is the freezing
of molten coal ahs particles and
perhaps to a slight extent, the frezzing
of the clinker liquid phase. The molten
coal ahs droplets adhere to the kiln
refractory lining in a zone where the
temperature is high enough so that
they are still partially sticky. When this
layer passes under the kiln charge, on
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
56
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
each kiln rotation, a portion of the still very fne kiln charge
adheres to it.
The ring is not formed from clinker dust carried back by the gas
stream as the alite crystals are very small, smaller than those found
on clinker particles.

CLINKER RINGS AND SNOWMAN FORMATION
These deposits are formed from small clinker nodules and clinker
dust particles, and have a high porosity containing many voids.
Their chemical and mineralogical composition is identical to clinker,
but in some cases an enrichment up to 3,5% K20 and 3,0% S03 has
been noticed.
The mechanism of bonding is the freezing of the clinker liquid
phase, as the clinker passes through the frst cooling zone in the
rotary kiln or on folling down the chute into the grate cooler. The
clinker dust particules carried back by the secondary air stream
from the clinker bed grate into the interior of the rotary kiln also
play an important role on formation of these deposits. The clinker
dust particles, having a superfcial liquid phase layer, strike against
the chute wall and the refractory lining at discharge side of the
rotary kiln, lose their kinetic energy and the superfcal liquid phase
freezes immediately.

V) FEED MOVEMENT THROUGH THE KILN
Regarding the protection of the refractory lining, the movement of
the material through the kiln can has the following consequences:
CIRCULATION
WEAR BY CORROSION, ABRASION AND EROSION
ACCUMULATION
The circulation would be completely free in case the refractory
lining is absolutely inert for the material. However, there is always
a certain degree of afnity of the refractory lining to the material,
resulting in corrosion or accumulation. Whenever in a certain lining
zone, the corrosion is faster than the accumulation process, the
lining is weared and the metallic casing loses its protection. A red
spot is a sign of worn-out refractory lining.
The feed movement in the kiln wears-out the working face of the
lining by abrasion or/and erosion.
Whenever the wear is compensated by accumulation of solid
materials, the circulation of the
material remains easy. Oppositely,
whenever the accumulations grow up
the material circulation becomes hard.
The accumulation of solid materials
thicker than 500 mm in the rotary kiln
is named a “ring”.

VI) IRREGULARITIES AT
KILN RUNNING BY DEPOSIT
FORMATION
Rings and build-ups can lead to the
following detrimental consequences:
- The material circulation decreases
, decreasing the kiln output.
- The clinker quality suffers by unstable
kiln running.
- The kiln thermal effciency diminishes
by modifcation of the thermal profle
within the kiln; the combustion rate
slows down, the fame lengthens and
its temperature decreases.
- The material dust content of the
exhaust gas stream increases, lowering
the I. D. fan capacity and the effciency
of the dedusting system.
- A faster refractory lining wear occurs
by intense thermal variations and
by abrasion of the material retained
upwards the ring.
VII) MAIN PROBABLE
REASONS FOR DEPOSIT
FORMATION
There are many reasons for rings and
build-ups development, which renders
their identifcation a diffcult and time-
consuming process. This phenomenon
is yet more complex by the following
points:
more than one factor can participate
on ring or build-up formation,
sometimes, the consequences and the
causes mix.
For a question of simplicity of
exposure, the probable reasons for
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
57
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
rings and build-ups formation are sorted by their report with:
*the kiln
*the combustion
*the raw meal
*other infuencing factors.

CAUSES RELATED TO THE KILN
KILN DIAMETER
A small kiln diametre is more prone to ring formation than a big
one.
KILN ROTATING SPEED
The tendency to ring formation decreases as the kiln runs at a
faster speed: the faster material circulation decreases the chance
of its deposit in a certain area. The kiln rotating speed should
also remain as constant as possible. Whenever decreasing the
kiln speed, the raw meal feeding rate should also be diminished
accordingly, in order to have a constant kiln flling degree,
avoiding the accumulation of material in a area favorable to ring
development.
KILN ACCESSORY EQUIPMENTS
The inward or outward equipments of the kiln - raw meal drying
and preheating systems and clinker cooling systems - developed to
increase its thermal effciency, can make easy the rings and build-
ups formation by disturbing the material and the gas streams and
by formation of a favorable thermal profle.
Dedusting and preheating systems can also make easy the buil-
ups formation by exhaust gas enrichment in volatile elements.
To oppose this infuence, the dust recovered by the electrostatic
precipitator can be partially removed from the material stream, by
its volatile enrichment.
Sometimes even a by-pass is requested to deviate a portion of the
exhaust gas stream.
KILN DEFORMATIONS
The most favorable kiln deformations to build-ups and rings
formation are the ones that favour false air entrance - “cold
air”- into the system. These deformations, located at cleanning
oppenings of the cyclone preheater and at inlet and outlet joints
of the rotary kiln, should be eliminated as soon as possible.

CAUSES RELATED TO THE COMBUSTION
FUEL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Coal ash can cause ring formation. The ash particles fall-down
at the beginning of the burning zone,
increasing the amount of melt which
makes easy the ring formation.
The fuel S0
3
content can also make
easier the formation of build-ups in
the cyclone preheater, by unbalancing
the ratio alcalis/sulfates + chlorides of
the system [raw meal + fuel].
FUEL HEATING VALUE
A fuel of high heating value decreases
the tendency to ring formation
especially whenever fring coal, as a
high heating value coal has a low ash
content.
COAL FINENESS AND LIQUID
FUEL ATOMIZATION
The fring time for pulverized coal is
infuenced by its fneness: the fner the
coal the faster its fring. A coarse coal
fres slowly and irregularly.
The ash is the skeleton of the coal
particles and preserves its original
shape after fring. The biggest and
heaviest ash particles carried back
by the exhaust gas stream fall-down
at a high temperature zone of the
rotary kiln, while the smallest fall-
down upwards, at a lower temperature
kiln zone.
Insuffcient fuel oil atomization can
lead to ring formation, as small fuel
oil droplets are necessary to promote
easy combination with the oxygen.
The fuel oil water content and the
humidity of pulverized coals, beyond
an upper limit, act on combustion rate
and can infuence ring formation.

EXCESS OF COMBUSTION AIR
The thermal profle within the kiln
is infuenced by the amount of
combustion air. This profle can be
irregular with zones of lower
temperatures than expected. The
material which has already started
its melting, freezes and develops the
ring. Excess of combustion air is
an important factor to avoid ring
formation.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
58
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
-AIR/FUEL MIXING
The mixing of air and fuel within the rotary kiln is irregular,
incomplete and slow. There is a lack of air in the vicinity of the
burner tip. The central hot gas stream has an initial rate faster than
the peripheral secondary air stream. This difference diminishes as
the two gas streams get forward, in direction of the transition
chamber. The external stream supplies oxygen for combustion
in the central stream. The simultaneous presence of oxygen and
carbon monoxide in transition chamber exhaust gas was already
noticed in some kilns.
The type of atomizer nozzle is very important in order to ensure a
turbulent motion, necessary for an adequate mixing air/fuel.
Mechanical condition of the atomizer nozzle and of the primary air
pipe nozzle is also very important to ensure an even mixing.
The outlet joint of the rotary kiln should avoid false air entrance -
“cold air” - into the kiln, for a faster combustion.

CAUSES RELATED TO THE RAW MEAL
RAW MEAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
The raw meal favours the ring formation whenever melt formation
starts at low temperature. In the following table we can remark the
initial temperature for formation of melt of some systems.
SYSTEM MELT FORMATION TEMPERATURE
Si0
2
+ Ca0 2.065
o
C
Si0
2
+ Ca0 + Al
2
0
3
1.455
o
C
Si0
2
+ Ca0 + Al
2
0
3
+ Fe
2
0 1.338
o
C
Si0
2
+ Ca0 + Al
2
0
3
+ Fe
2
0 + Mg0 1.300
o
C
Si0
2
+ Ca0 + Al
2
0
3
+ Fe
2
0 + Mg0 + Na
2
0 1.280
o
C
The liquid phase of raw meal starts at about 1250
o
C. The above
table renders clear the action of Al
2
0
3
, Fe
2
0
3
, Mg0 and alkalies. The
amount of liquid phase is infuenced by the relative proportion
of the different compounds. Whenever the potential proportion
of C4AF is small, the amount of melt formed at low temperature
increases with Fe
2
0
3
addition.
The lime saturation factor should be aware of Ca0 losses through
the exhaust gas draft and of coal ash absorption by the clinker,
whenever using coal as a fuel.
According to practice, raw meals of low lime saturation factor
favours the formation of rings. Concerning the formation of build-
ups in the cyclone preheater, it is very important to have a balanced
ratio alkakis / sulfates + chlorides for
the system [raw meal + fuel].

RAW MEAL HOMOGENEITY
Raw meals are not homogeneous
mixtures, as we can notice by chemical
analysis of every granulometric fraction
of the raw meal. In this manner, the
raw meal grinding should be made
in such a way as to decrease the
chemical composition differences of
the granulometric fractions.
The kiln raw feed should also have
a chemical composition as constant
as possible. The standard deviation of
chemical analysis, during 24 hours of
kiln running, shoul be smaller than:
SLSF < 1% or SCaC0
3
< 0,2%
SMS < 0,1
The chemical or physical raw melt
heterogeneity causes variations on frst
melt formation temperature, which
makes easy ring formation.
SEGREGATION WITHIN THE
KILN
The smallest and lightest material
particles, e.g., the Ca0 particles, are
preferably carried back by exhaust
gas draft. The dust draft is especially
intense in the calcining zone. The
lime content of the kiln charge
decreases and it becomes easier to
melt, increasing the tendency to ring
formation. To counterbalance this
segregation the raw feed lime
saturation factor should be bigger
than the theoretical value. The exhaust
gas draft should also be adjusted in
such a way as to ensure a complete
combustion, but avoiding excessive
draft.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
59
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A

OTHER CAUSES
CLASS OF REFRACTORY LINING
For decreasing tendency to build-up formation in cyclone
preheaters, their lining is made of silicon carbide based low
cement castables. For decreasing tendency to ring formation, the
corresponding zone can be lining of low coating ability refractory
bricks, e. g., magnesia-spinel bricks or direct bonded magnesia-
chrome bricks.
MAGNESITA technical staff is available to assist the user on
selection of the most suitable refractory to line every kiln zone.
MAN INFLUENCE
The kiln operator can favour the formation of rings and buld-
ups by faulty kiln operating procedures, which increase thermal
variations in the kiln system.
STABLE KILN RUNNING
A stable kiln running and a small number of stoppages helps to
prevent build-ups and rings formation.
FLAME TEMPERATURE
A too high fame temperature has, besides the well known hurtful
consequences on refractory lining duration, a strong infuence
on sulfates and alkalies volatility. In this manner, a very high
fame temperature favours the build-ups formation in cyclone
preheaters.
HIGH WATER
High water can infuence the ring formation especially in wet
kilns, by increasing the salt content of the water used for slurry
grinding.
RAINNING INFLUENCE
Rainning can increase the heterogeneity of the raw meal by
diffculties on raw materials transport and grinding especially
for clay, by its bigger hygroscopy than limestone. This clay
hygroscopy can increase the segregation within the rotary kiln.

VIII) METHODS OF DEPOSIT ELIMINATION
MECHANICAL METHODS
* PERCUSSION
Long metallic bars are used to cut the thick coating in a defnite
site. Usually the ring falls down during turning of the kiln by
the barring motor. This method is unsafe for the workers and
abridges the service life of the lining.
* IMPACT
This method uses industrial cannons and has the following steps:
The industrial cannon is assembled at kiln platform
The kiln is stopped
· The fuel fow is interrupted to suppress
the fame
· The ring is cut at a defnite site by
shells impact
· The kiln is turned by using the barring
motor.
· Usually the ring falls down, exception
for very long rings.
· The number of shells used to cut
the ring is infuenced by the ring
characteristics.
· For build-ups removal, compressed
air or high pression water pipes
are used, with a simultaneous action
of percussion, impact and thermal
shock.
* EXPLOSION
This method is scarcely used for danger
of explosive handling for workers and
equipment.

CHEMICAL METHODS
RAW MEAL CHEMICAL
MODIFICATION
This is an effcient method during the
frst stages of ring formation.
Increasing the raw meal lime saturation
factor can prevent the growth of the
ring which can breaks loose during
kiln rotation or during a kiln stoppage.
THERMAL METHODS
COOLING METHOD
This method acts by:
î formation of cracks which decrease
the ring stability or/and by î formation
of - C
2
S, from b-C
2
S, with volume
increase of about 10%.
Whenever the ring is just starting its
process formation, we can envisage
its cooling without stopping the kiln.
Proper procedures are to push back
the burner and to shorten the fame
by changing the adjustments of the
primary air fow, the waste gas draft
and the burner nozzle. Whether the
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
60
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
ring doesn’t fall down, the kiln is stopped and the ring is cooled down using compressed air. This procedure
diminishes the refractory lining duration.

A WORD OF CAUTIONUSE OF WATER IS NOT RECOMMENDED BY DANGEROF
STEAM EXPLOSIONS.
HEATING-UP TO MELTING
Procedures for ring heating-up are infuenced by its location: burning zone inlet or outlet.
-RING LOCATED AT BURNING ZONE INLET
The burner pipe penetration into the rotary kiln is increased and the fame is lengthened. The burner pipe
position to the rotary kiln axis is also modifed in order to have a direct impingement of the fame against
the ring. To counter act the ring development, the following procedures are also recommended: to decrease
the kiln feed, to increase the kiln rotation speed, to ensure oxidizing fame conditions, and to increase the
raw meal lime saturation factor.
-RING LOCATED AT BURNING ZONE OUTLET
In this case, the proper procedures are to shorten the fame and to push back the burner pipe.
THERMAL SHOCK
The kiln is stopped during a short period, smaller than thirty minutes.
During this period the fame is moved toward the upper portion of the ring. The uneven ring heating-up
causes cracks formation which can break it.

IX) CONCLUSION
Many factors can infuence the build-ups and the rings formation. In order to avoid their repeated formation,
the following methodology is recommended:
-Compile the kiln operating conditions during the deposit formation period.
-Compare these conditions with the ones corresponding to a normal kiln running.
-Have some samples of the accumulation material and provide for their chemical, mineralogical and texture
analysis.
-Compare these analysis with raw meal and clinker analysis.
-According to this comparison change a raw meal or a clinker production variable.
-Check the infuence of this modifcation on deposit formation tendency.
X) REFERENCES
1) BLODA, Alberto Virella. Formacion y destruccion de anillos en los hornos rotativos para cemento
portland. Instituto técnico de la construccion y del cemento. Tipografa artistica, Alamed 12, Madrid.
2) HOLDERBANK. Second Cement Seminar on Process Technology. 1989, Ch. 11, pp 103-123.
3) MAGNESITA S. A. Internal Reports of the Research Centre and Technical Assistance Department.
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
61
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
62
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
63
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
Cement Technology
CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 - March 2003
64
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
t
a

S
.
A
Cement Technology

a definite force is required to make it adhere to the wall The deposits are composed of the finest raw meal as: particles. 2. a dynamic process in which the factors responsible for formation outweigh the forces of degradation. EXHAUST GAS FAN DEPOSIT The formation of accumulations of solid materials. 3. whereas the mechanical pressure present as anhydrite. V and VI contain a list of typical properties of deposits encountered in many cement kilns. IV.Cement Technology from which they are formed: UNSINTERED SINTERED. In general. Electrostatic attraction of solid particles. S03. Their structure is compact.g. ensures freedom from deposit. Turbulence within the gas stream. fibrous solid particles. rotating fan is out of balance. IV) CHARACTERISTICS OF RINGS AND BUILD-UPS Tables II. Vibration reduces The formation of a deposit of solid particles is always the bearing life time. Their chemical and 2. A mechanical pressure. when dust-laden exhaust gas way. Centrifugal forces whenever the gas stream changes mineralogical composition is that of the raw meal direction.A According to RUMPF. with 1. K20 and Na20. The S03 is usually preheater build-ups. the forces considered to cause deposit of solid materials can be grouped as follows: 1. III) BONDING FORCES OF RINGS AND BUILD-UPS Magnesita S. they are usually red-brown.D.March 2003 53 . The first three mechanisms are the ones encountered in cement kiln operation. causes vibration when the formation of these deposits. Due to their long stay in the system. and the clay particles are deposited parallel to 3. rings and build-ups. Little quantitative knowledge is available on the passes through the fan. these deposits are enriched in the volatile The first two types of foreces are predominant for components. Melting or freezing. The location of build-ups and rings can be seen in Table I. the greater the tendency towards agglomeration and in many cases the absence of solid particles smaller than a critical size. 4. CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. e. UNSITERED -Material build-ups within the I. Interlocking of very fine solid particles held together by surface forces. After CHARACTERISTICS the transport of solid material to the area of deposition. Interlocking of long. the finer the powder. a porosity smaller than 8%. the blade surfaces. III. fan -Accumulations of solid materials in the cyclones and grate preheaters -Slurry rings -Rings in the calcining zone SINTERED -intermediate rings -Sinter rings -Coal ahs rings -Clinker rings -Snowman formation within the clinker grate cooler -Clinker balls. is only known in a qualitative exhaust gas fan. due to addition or removal of heat. layered. 5 mm. from solid particles suspended in the gas stream and from solid particles which slide Deposit of solid particles on the blades of over the refractory lining. Melting or softening of particles surface by friction or collision. 5. play a decisive role in ring formation. hard and brittle. 11 . CaS04.

darker colours of harder burnt material can be observed. Their cooling. to a porous one. outlet. CaS04 mechanism. kiln rotation. However. compact structure. A chemical reaction with gaseous S03 can take place.5 4.CaC03 particles. The deposits range from a dense.3.5 . 2C2S. molten SYLVITE. they have a light colour. Na20. These compounds are molten in the kiln gas stream and are deposited on the walls of the cyclone preheater.1. ARCANITE. CHARACTERISTICS These deposits form on the roofs. Because of the short duration of stay in the rotary kiln the texture of the deposits remains weak. resulting in the formation of lath shaped sulfate spurrite and carbonate spurrite which strengthen the deposit texture. 2C2S.March 2003 54 . The most frequent found minerals are the following: . very similar to those of cyclone preheater deposits.25% Na20: 0 .Cement Technology TYPICAL VALUES: LSF SR S03 K20 + Na20 Magnesita S.35% Cl: 1 . can be mechanically “locked-on”. brown.K2S04 strike the blade surfaces at high velocity and are HALITE.0 . K2S04 The dust particles. depending on their place of deposition and composition. 2CaS04. LANGBEINITE. thermal fluctuations and the mechanical action of the material stream.CaS04 development of the deposit follows an identical ANHYDRITE. because of the high fan rotation. riser pipes and transition chamber of cyclone preheaters. S03 and Cl based compounds and the low melting point eutetics formed by these volatiles are the binding of these deposits. Mg0 BELITE. CaC03 QUARTZ. Si02 .6. Calcining rings are less troublesome than cyclone preheater build-ups because. NaCl compacted. Their mineralogical composition differs from that of the raw meal in that the clays are decomposed and intermediate minerals are formed. CALCINING RINGS IN LONG KILNS CHARACTERISTICS AND FORMATION These rings are.0 % CYCLONE PREHEATER DEPOSITS FORMATION MECHANISM The low melting point K20. mainly clay CARBONATESPURRITE . they fall off periodically. Their chemical composition is usually characterized by a concentration of the volatile elements. The SULFATE SPURRITE. 20 . or first on dust particles which then themselves are deposited out of the gas stream in the accumulation area. In some cases.0 . the reason been that both deposits occur in the same temperature zone.100% 1.5 to 20 INVOLVEMENT: mm. due to their weight. KCl salts influence can sometimes be noticed.FROM RAW MEAL: CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.A CALCITE. 11 . on contact with the wall or with increasing thickness of the deposit results in an appreciable strengthning of the deposit texture.30% S03: 1 . As the texture of the blade surfaces -MINERALS FORMED WITHOUT MELT possesses undulations in the order of 0. walls.0 % 2. Minerals only containing the volatile elements can also be found.2% It is very scarce to find deposits in the cyclone preheater with no appreciable increase in concentration of the volatile elements. In general. C2S BINDING MECHANISM MAYENITE. C12A7 The temperature is so low that liquid phase .MINERALS WITH LOW MELTING POINT: involvement is insignificant. Ca0 free PERICLASE. in the following range: K20: 1 . indicating that the particles had not been heated higher than 1200?C. and vary in appearance and homogeneity.INTERMEDIATE MINERALS: FREE LIME. in their properties and mechanism of formation. the very fine dust particles.

alite. Their chemical composition is that of the clinker with FORMATION MECHANISM no concentration of volatile elements. and often the ring shows lower volatile element values than for clinker. it does not possess sufficient alite. lime. resulting from cooling down coal. They are rather less dense The mechanism of bonding is the freezing of the alumino-ferrite and have larger pores and voids than melt.5 diameters of the inner layers to a temperature lower than the stability from the kiln outlet. They are elongated. rings can form at 7 . thickness. Due to the rotation of the kiln. When this This phenomenon occurs especially in the burning zone inlet. ferrite The bonding mechanism is the freezing and free lime. they are still partially sticky.belite may convert into belite. No enrichment of the volatile CHARACTERISTICS phases is observed. alite.Cement Technology where the liquid phase is just starting to form. aluminate. belite. at approximately 1250oC. The minerals found in sinter rings are the clinker minerals. No increase in concentration of S03 or alkalis takes place.5 diameters because of the enrichment in coal ash. similar to the case of intermediate perhaps to a slight extent. They are dense. the frezzing rings. The minerals found in CHARACTERISTICS intermediate rings are the clinker minerals.250 mm in size. The alite of the inner layers may decompose into of molten coal ahs particles and belite and secondary free Ca0. hard and a silica rich material. aluminate. formed by small clinker nodules and clinker dust. These rings occur in the burning zone inlet. aluminate.1260o C with a layered structure and sometimes glassy in appearance and built up FORMATION MECHANISM from particles some 150 . because the kiln charge is still fine. below 1250oC exist. ferrite and free abrasive action to remove the growing ring. hard and seldom fall off during deposit of clinker particles having less kiln operation. This ring is clinker-like in colour indicating it being composed of well burnt material. 11 . no layered structure is formed. belite. Because of the presence of large pores and voids. Their chemical back by the gas stream.A 55 . They have a layered structure. As the ring grows up and the temperature of the inner layers falls down the alite may decompose into SINTER RINGS belite and secondary free lime and the B . and The minerals are the clinker minerals. The clinker dust particles freeze in place. of the clinker liquid phase. The molten coal ahs droplets adhere to the kiln BONDING MECHANISM refractory lining in a zone where the temperature is high enough so that The bonding is created by the freezing of the clinker liquid phase. The alite of the inner layers may decompose In kilns fired with a high ash content into belite and secondary free Ca0. the material CHARACTERISTICS freezes with each kiln rotation and The intermediate rings are dense.March 2003 INTERMEDIATE RINGS IN PREHEATER KILNS Magnesita S. being some 10 . The belite content is higher than that of the clinker.15 metres than 1 mm diameter may reach a large long and extending from 7 to 11 kiln diameters from the outlet. from the kiln outlet. Their chemical composition is COAL ASH RINGS very similar to that of clinker. ferrite and free Ca0. according the curvature of the kiln shell.8. on CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. temperature of the alite . some 4 . fall down and are deposited on the and mineralogical composition is rotary kiln refractory lining. layer passes under the kiln charge. in a zone where temperatures of very similar to that of clinker. belite. They are greyish-black in colour. The smallest clinker particles of 150-450 mm are carried intermediate rings.

lining by abrasion or/and erosion. the probable reasons for CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. V) FEED MOVEMENT THROUGH THE KILN Regarding the protection of the refractory lining. fan capacity and the efficiency of the dedusting system. Magnesita S. Whenever in a certain lining points: zone. the movement of the material through the kiln can has the following consequences: CIRCULATION WEAR BY CORROSION. . Oppositely. and have a high porosity containing many voids. . having a superficial liquid phase layer. The clinker dust particules carried back by the secondary air stream from the clinker bed grate into the interior of the rotary kiln also play an important role on formation of these deposits. . whenever the accumulations grow up the material circulation becomes hard. .Cement Technology each kiln rotation. D. Their chemical and mineralogical composition is identical to clinker.5% K20 and 3. However. smaller than those found on clinker particles. is yet more complex by the following resulting in corrosion or accumulation. which renders The circulation would be completely free in case the refractory their identification a difficult and timelining is absolutely inert for the material. The mechanism of bonding is the freezing of the clinker liquid phase. VII) MAIN PROBABLE REASONS FOR DEPOSIT FORMATION CLINKER RINGS AND SNOWMAN FORMATION These deposits are formed from small clinker nodules and clinker dust particles. sometimes. the combustion rate slows down.The material circulation decreases . strike against the chute wall and the refractory lining at discharge side of the rotary kiln. lose their kinetic energy and the superfical liquid phase freezes immediately. lowering the I. as the clinker passes through the first cooling zone in the rotary kiln or on folling down the chute into the grate cooler. on ring or build-up formation. VI) IRREGULARITIES AT KILN RUNNING BY DEPOSIT FORMATION Rings and build-ups can lead to the following detrimental consequences: .The kiln thermal efficiency diminishes by modification of the thermal profile within the kiln. the circulation of the material remains easy. but in some cases an enrichment up to 3.The material dust content of the exhaust gas stream increases.A faster refractory lining wear occurs by intense thermal variations and by abrasion of the material retained upwards the ring.0% S03 has been noticed. the consequences and the The feed movement in the kiln wears-out the working face of the causes mix. ABRASION AND EROSION ACCUMULATION There are many reasons for rings and build-ups development. there is always consuming process. the lining is weared and the metallic casing loses its protection. The accumulation of solid materials thicker than 500 mm in the rotary kiln is named a “ring”.March 2003 56 . decreasing the kiln output. 11 . a portion of the still very fine kiln charge adheres to it. This phenomenon a certain degree of afinity of the refractory lining to the material. The clinker dust particles. the flame lengthens and its temperature decreases. the corrosion is faster than the accumulation process. The ring is not formed from clinker dust carried back by the gas stream as the alite crystals are very small.The clinker quality suffers by unstable kiln running. A red more than one factor can participate spot is a sign of worn-out refractory lining. For a question of simplicity of Whenever the wear is compensated by accumulation of solid exposure.A materials.

increasing the amount of melt which makes easy the ring formation. These deformations. The fuel S03 content can also make easier the formation of build-ups in the cyclone preheater. Excess of combustion air is an important factor to avoid ring formation. CAUSES RELATED TO THE KILN KILN DIAMETER A small kiln diametre is more prone to ring formation than a big one. KILN DEFORMATIONS The most favorable kiln deformations to build-ups and rings formation are the ones that favour false air entrance . Dedusting and preheating systems can also make easy the buil. CAUSES RELATED TO THE COMBUSTION FUEL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Coal ash can cause ring formation. an upper limit. beyond exhaust gas stream. KILN ROTATING SPEED The tendency to ring formation decreases as the kiln runs at a faster speed: the faster material circulation decreases the chance of its deposit in a certain area. freezes and develops the ring.at a high temperature zone of the ups formation by disturbing the material and the gas streams and rotary kiln. at a lower temperature by formation of a favorable thermal profile. as a high heating value coal has a low ash content.developed to by the exhaust gas stream fall-down increase its thermal efficiency. The ash particles fall-down EXCESS OF COMBUSTION AIR The thermal profile within the kiln is influenced by the amount of combustion air.March 2003 57 . should be eliminated as soon as possible. while the smallest falldown upwards. Whenever decreasing the kiln speed. the dust recovered by the electrostatic lead to ring formation. CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. avoiding the accumulation of material in a area favorable to ring development.“cold air”. Magnesita S. can make easy the rings and build. COAL FINENESS AND LIQUID FUEL ATOMIZATION The firing time for pulverized coal is influenced by its fineness: the finer the coal the faster its firing. This profile can be irregular with zones of lower temperatures than expected. act on combustion rate and can influence ring formation. The material which has already started its melting. in order to have a constant kiln filling degree.A at the beginning of the burning zone. The kiln rotating speed should also remain as constant as possible. A coarse coal fires slowly and irregularly. 11 . the raw meal feeding rate should also be diminished accordingly.into the system. The fuel oil water content and the Sometimes even a by-pass is requested to deviate a portion of the humidity of pulverized coals. The biggest and KILN ACCESSORY EQUIPMENTS heaviest ash particles carried back The inward or outward equipments of the kiln . as small fuel precipitator can be partially removed from the material stream. The ash is the skeleton of the coal particles and preserves its original shape after firing.Cement Technology rings and build-ups formation are sorted by their report with: *the kiln *the combustion *the raw meal *other influencing factors. FUEL HEATING VALUE A fuel of high heating value decreases the tendency to ring formation especially whenever firing coal. by oil droplets are necessary to promote easy combination with the oxygen. Insufficient fuel oil atomization can To oppose this influence.raw meal drying and preheating systems and clinker cooling systems . located at cleanning oppenings of the cyclone preheater and at inlet and outlet joints of the rotary kiln.kiln zone. ups formation by exhaust gas enrichment in volatile elements. its volatile enrichment. by unbalancing the ratio alcalis/sulfates + chlorides of the system [raw meal + fuel].

The dust draft is especially amount of liquid phase is influenced by the relative proportion intense in the calcining zone. The above preferably carried back by exhaust table renders clear the action of Al203. saturation factor should be bigger than the theoretical value. it is very important to have a balanced draft. the Ca0 particles. chemical composition differences of Mechanical condition of the atomizer nozzle and of the primary air the granulometric fractions. In the following table we can remark the initial temperature for formation of melt of some systems.280oC -AIR/FUEL MIXING The mixing of air and fuel within the rotary kiln is irregular.A Raw meals are not homogeneous mixtures. for a faster combustion. as possible.Cement Technology Magnesita S. necessary for an adequate mixing air/fuel.March 2003 58 . during 24 hours of kiln running. gas draft should also be adjusted in According to practice. the raw meal grinding should be made The type of atomizer nozzle is very important in order to ensure a in such a way as to decrease the turbulent motion. The exhaust whenever using coal as a fuel.2% The chemical or physical raw melt heterogeneity causes variations on first melt formation temperature. Mg0 and alkalies. Fe203. SYSTEM MELT FORMATION TEMPERATURE 2. which makes easy ring formation. raw meals of low lime saturation factor such a way as to ensure a complete favours the formation of rings.455oC 1. The external stream supplies oxygen for combustion in the central stream. The simultaneous presence of oxygen and carbon monoxide in transition chamber exhaust gas was already noticed in some kilns. The central hot gas stream has an initial rate faster than the peripheral secondary air stream. The standard deviation of chemical analysis. Whenever the potential proportion lime content of the kiln charge of C4AF is small.065oC Si02 + Ca0 Si02 + Ca0 + Al203 1.g. 11 . The of the different compounds. CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.300oC Si02 + Ca0 + Al203 + Fe20 + Mg0 + Na20 1. RAW MEAL HOMOGENEITY SLSF < 1% or SCaC03 SMS < 0. The kiln raw feed should also have The outlet joint of the rotary kiln should avoid false air entrance a chemical composition as constant “cold air” . The gas draft.1 < 0. In this manner. as we can notice by chemical analysis of every granulometric fraction of the raw meal. pipe nozzle is also very important to ensure an even mixing. incomplete and slow. SEGREGATION WITHIN THE KILN The smallest and lightest material particles. Concerning the formation of build.combustion. To counterbalance this The lime saturation factor should be aware of Ca0 losses through segregation the raw feed lime the exhaust gas draft and of coal ash absorption by the clinker. ratio alkakis / sulfates + chlorides for the system [raw meal + fuel]. but avoiding excessive ups in the cyclone preheater. formation.338oC Si02 + Ca0 + Al203 + Fe20 Si02 + Ca0 + Al203 + Fe20 + Mg0 1. shoul be smaller than: CAUSES RELATED TO THE RAW MEAL RAW MEAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The raw meal favours the ring formation whenever melt formation starts at low temperature.. There is a lack of air in the vicinity of the burner tip. increasing the tendency to ring increases with Fe203 addition. are The liquid phase of raw meal starts at about 1250oC. This difference diminishes as the two gas streams get forward. in direction of the transition chamber. the amount of melt formed at low temperature decreases and it becomes easier to melt. e.into the kiln.

A ·The fuel flow is interrupted to suppress the flame ·The ring is cut at a definite site by shells impact ·The kiln is turned by using the barring motor. we can envisage its cooling without stopping the kiln. This clay hygroscopy can increase the segregation within the rotary kiln. STABLE KILN RUNNING A stable kiln running and a small number of stoppages helps to prevent build-ups and rings formation. which increase thermal variations in the kiln system.C2S. compressed air or high pression water pipes are used. · Usually the ring falls down. For decreasing tendency to ring formation. *IMPACT This method uses industrial cannons and has the following steps: The industrial cannon is assembled at kiln platform The kiln is stopped THERMAL METHODS COOLING METHOD This method acts by: î formation of cracks which decrease the ring stability or/and by î formation of . ·The number of shells used to cut the ring is influenced by the ring characteristics. from b-C2S. Proper procedures are to push back the burner and to shorten the flame by changing the adjustments of the primary air flow. · For build-ups removal. a very high flame temperature favours the build-ups formation in cyclone preheaters. besides the well known hurtful consequences on refractory lining duration.Cement Technology OTHER CAUSES CLASS OF REFRACTORY LINING For decreasing tendency to build-up formation in cyclone preheaters. HIGH WATER High water can influence the ring formation especially in wet kilns. the waste gas draft and the burner nozzle. VIII) METHODS OF DEPOSIT ELIMINATION Magnesita S. MECHANICAL METHODS *PERCUSSION Long metallic bars are used to cut the thick coating in a definite site. impact and thermal shock. by its bigger hygroscopy than limestone. with volume increase of about 10%. magnesia-spinel bricks or direct bonded magnesiachrome bricks. MAGNESITA technical staff is available to assist the user on selection of the most suitable refractory to line every kiln zone. Usually the ring falls down during turning of the kiln by the barring motor. FLAME TEMPERATURE A too high flame temperature has. Whether the CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. Increasing the raw meal lime saturation factor can prevent the growth of the ring which can breaks loose during kiln rotation or during a kiln stoppage. by increasing the salt content of the water used for slurry grinding. 11 .. MAN INFLUENCE The kiln operator can favour the formation of rings and buldups by faulty kiln operating procedures. with a simultaneous action of percussion. the corresponding zone can be lining of low coating ability refractory bricks. CHEMICAL METHODS MEAL CHEMICAL RAW MODIFICATION This is an efficient method during the first stages of ring formation. Whenever the ring is just starting its process formation. their lining is made of silicon carbide based low cement castables. exception for very long rings. *EXPLOSION This method is scarcely used for danger of explosive handling for workers and equipment. RAINNING INFLUENCE Rainning can increase the heterogeneity of the raw meal by difficulties on raw materials transport and grinding especially for clay. This method is unsafe for the workers and abridges the service life of the lining. g. a strong influence on sulfates and alkalies volatility. In this manner.March 2003 59 . e.

pp 103-123. During this period the flame is moved toward the upper portion of the ring. The burner pipe position to the rotary kiln axis is also modified in order to have a direct impingement of the flame against the ring. -RING LOCATED AT BURNING ZONE OUTLET In this case. Internal Reports of the Research Centre and Technical Assistance Department. -RING LOCATED AT BURNING ZONE INLET The burner pipe penetration into the rotary kiln is increased and the flame is lengthened. A WORD OF CAUTIONUSE OF WATER IS NOT RECOMMENDED BY DANGEROF STEAM EXPLOSIONS. and to increase the raw meal lime saturation factor. to ensure oxidizing flame conditions. the proper procedures are to shorten the flame and to push back the burner pipe. Instituto técnico de la construccion y del cemento. -Check the influence of this modification on deposit formation tendency. In order to avoid their repeated formation. HEATING-UP TO MELTING Procedures for ring heating-up are influenced by its location: burning zone inlet or outlet. -Have some samples of the accumulation material and provide for their chemical. THERMAL SHOCK The kiln is stopped during a short period. -According to this comparison change a raw meal or a clinker production variable.Cement Technology ring doesn’t fall down. 2) HOLDERBANK. the following methodology is recommended: -Compile the kiln operating conditions during the deposit formation period. 3) MAGNESITA S. 11 . X) REFERENCES 1) BLODA. -Compare these conditions with the ones corresponding to a normal kiln running. Alamed 12. Alberto Virella. smaller than thirty minutes. to increase the kiln rotation speed. To counter act the ring development. mineralogical and texture analysis. The uneven ring heating-up causes cracks formation which can break it.A Many factors can influence the build-ups and the rings formation.March 2003 60 . 1989. the kiln is stopped and the ring is cooled down using compressed air. the following procedures are also recommended: to decrease the kiln feed. Tipografia artistica. Ch. Madrid. CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. This procedure diminishes the refractory lining duration. 11. Formacion y destruccion de anillos en los hornos rotativos para cemento portland. Second Cement Seminar on Process Technology. -Compare these analysis with raw meal and clinker analysis. A. IX) CONCLUSION Magnesita S.

March 2003 61 .A CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO. 11 .Cement Technology Magnesita S.

11 .Cement Technology Magnesita S.A CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.March 2003 62 .

Cement Technology Magnesita S.March 2003 63 . 11 .A CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.

A CEMENT & BUILDING MATERIALS NO.March 2003 64 . 11 .Cement Technology Magnesita S.