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Comprehensive Datak Instructions for Printed Circuit Prototyping


Processes & Instructions
Why make a PC Board??
This may sound like a strange
Contents: question, considering that we are pro-
moting PC board making products
Comprehensive Instructions for Datak's here. However, there are times when
a PC board is not necessary and may
different processes for making PC boards. require a lot more time than you want
to spend.
I ncluding a beginners introduction to PC A PC board will provide re-
peated accuracy for any quantity of
the same board, but if you are making
board making. just one, why not use a Protoboard in-

I ntroduction: (Positive Continued from column 1)

Datak printed circuit board
making processes are intended for two The method is fast and the most
uses: Making a prototype and for small trouble free; getting excellent quality
production runs. Users include design i s easy. It is somewhat higher in cost
engineers, experimenters, as well as than other methods.
students and hobbyists. Instructors are The positive method requires
i nvited to copy these materials freely. the purchase of boards that are pre-
There are a number of meth- coated with sensitizer. Consequently, Datak
ods for producing a printed circuit you will not have the freedom of Protoboards are pre-etched with cop-
board described herein. Read the fol- using your own PC board stock. per pads and holes spaced to accom-
lowing synopsis to determine which I f you have an odd size or shaped modated standard component leads. All,
method best suites your projects. Most board , the negative method may be you need to do is place your compo-
li kely, you will eventually use more than a better choice. nents, solder jumper wires i n place and'
one of the following methods. the circuit is done.
The Negative Method Datak offers several types of
This method requires that Protoboard. The one above is specifi-
The METHODS: you spray a negative acting photo cally designed for use with DIP IC's
resist onto a blank PC board. It does (catalog no. 12-607). The Protoboard'
The DIRECT ETCH method is require several added steps (when below is a general` purpose pattern with
usually the quickest way to produce compared to the positive method). simple copper donuts for lead wires.
one small circuit board. All beginners But, you have the freedom of coating
should try this method as it is a good any type of PC board material and
teacher. Not recommended when you also cutting and shaping the board
need to make many boards or for cir- before spraying. AND, it is low in ................
cuits with numerous components. cost.
i -a€€ .. ..I
Making Positive "artwork" Creating the Negative °o ........... o .. ......°a:;,
"Positive artwork" is needed for To make a board using the
any of these processes except Direct Negative Method, you will need to This is universal board (catalog num-
Etch. We suggest that you read this make a negative copy of your PC ber 12-602) with holes and donuts set
section even if you will be using a com- positive board art. NegFast film up on 0.10" centers (as are numerous
puter to produce your positive. makes it easy .... or use your com- i ndustry standard components).
Positive Presensitized PC These and larger Protoboards are listed'
Using Magazine Circuits i n the latest Philmore catalog;
Board Method Lifting a circuit from a maga- they are not yet in the Datak
This is an ideal method for making sev- zine or book is described in this sec- catalogs.
eral PC boards (or more) and it is quick tion.
and accurate as well.

"Think Datak for your Printed Circuit Prototypes"

Comprehensive Datak Instructions for Printed Circuit Prototyping

Before you use the solder- Methods continued from page one.)
i ng iron....
One way to protect the cop-
"Breadboarding" a circuit is a Etching the Board. per would be to simply paint the
term from our grandfather's days... Whichever method you use, pads for IC's and resistors etc. with
.. when parts were fastened to a you will ultimately have to etch the a fine brush and some lacquer or
wooden board to see how well a circuit board as the last step before drilling, varnish. Actually this is not a bad
would perform. To provide a quick l oading parts and soldering. Etching, of i dea for covering large areas to
check to see if a given circuit would course, is the chemical removal of cop- make a ground plane; the varnish
work, parts were screwed or nailed to per except where your circuit is to be. would provide good protection
a board. Wires were twisted onto ter- Datak provides an excellent and eco- against the etchant. But what an im-
minals, often never soldered. nomical product for this purpose. The possible chore for component pads,
Today we have Solderless process is described near the end of traces etc.!
Prototype boards for testing circuit this booklet. ** This is where Datak prod-
i deas. Parts are simply plugged into ucts for Direct Etch are a terrific
one of these boards with no perma- help. Patterns are
nent connections, such as soldering. available for just s 0 0
The circuit is powered up for testing Direct Etch, the quickest, about any compo- a a O
and circuit changes are quick and cheapest method in detail. nent's footprint. And O
' easy. universal donuts will 0 0 0
Solderless Prototype boards work if there is not o
have groups of holes spaced to accept a standard pattern. o
component leads from IC's, resistors DIRECT ETCH
You will not need to 0
and so on. measure; spacing
between component 00 0
Below is a photo of a 7" wide proto- l eads (or contacts)
will be matched by 1111 1111
i ll

What is a Dry-transfer? It is a sheet of the appropriate

decal patterns, in this case donut pads, Datak Dry-Transfer till
on a carrier sheet. The backing sheet pattern. And, pre- Sudace Mount pattern
protects the patterns during storage. To spaced donut pat-
place a donut from this sheet, you simply terns (there are
remove the backing, place the carrier many sizes) can be

sheet where you want a donut and bur- used widely for
nish with a blunt stick or pencil. "odd", or non-
board. standard compo-
This section describes the use an example:
And here is a blown „ of Dry-transfers in the direct etch proc- DIP ("dual
up photo of the left ess. The Direct Etch method could be i nline package") U
end of the board. used for massive PC boards but we I ntegrated Circuits
Note the 8 pin DIP don't recommend it. As a rule of thumb, have two rows of
I C and resistor. anything larger than one or two IC's pins that are 0.30"
Each pin of the IC is and a transistor (with the usual list of apart; and the pins on each side are
i n a hole with a buss resistors, capacitors etc.) is probably on 0.10" centers. You can easily
strip that has four too big. But you decide, after reading match this footprint by using any
other holes. You can the following and maybe trying a small Datak Dry Transfer donut pads on
i nsert components circuit. 0.10" centers. Simply burnish onto
i nto these holes or a The Direct Etch method is the copper the requisite number of
22 gauge solid cop- simple: Directly on the board's cop- donuts:
per wire "jumper". per surface, you mask the areas that
will become your circuit; copper not
There are several sizes of protected by masking will be re-
Protoboards, ranging from small and moved during the etching process. Like this>>
simple to large with binding posts for
power and output (or whatever you The making of a PC board could be de-
want to use them for). A serious ex- scribed as removing copper from a PC Rather than
perimenter will need at least one board' board "blank"; and leaving behind the searching through
as it can help you decide if a circuit copper you will want. Before etching the Datak catalog
needs changes; or may not be worth the board, you must protect the areas to find the pat-
building at all. Check the Philmore that will become your circuit. Direct terns that you will
( Datak s sister company) catalog for Etch is really just a simple, accurate need, consider
details. ** masking process.

"Think Datak for your Printed Circuit Prototypes"

Comprehensive Datak Instructions for Printed Circuit Prototyping

( Direct Etch continued.) MAKING POSITIVE ARTWORK

" What is a positive?". The term positive does confuse people, but
buying the Direct Etch Master Assortment it is simple. A positive of a circuit is the artwork
(no. DE-973). Included are about any pat- for the circuit done in black on a clear film. The
tern you can imagine including positive (or, positive art) will look like the pic-
surface mount styles. ture to your right. What you see in black will
Resistors, capacitors, di- eventually be copper on the board.
odes and other two-leaded i mmediately below the positive is a negative of
devices are easy; just bur- the same circuit.
nish two donuts onto the cop- When you use Datak Dry Transfers on
per. clear film, you are creating a positive. OR, when
About the only time that things get you print a circuit from your computer's soft-
a little tricky is when you have a part with ware (In most cases; some programs do have
no pattern. Then, measure the distance the ability to print a negative if you specify it).
between pins and apply a donut for each
l ead, spaced appropriately. I n order to make a PC board, whether you
plan to use a positive or negative acting
Once you have burnished the etch resist, you will need a positive to begin negative of a circuit
A negative
component patterns with. The positive gives you the ability to make i s flack
- - background
onto the bare cop- many boards from the positive "master' and all on a transparent film;
per, connect the Resist will be identical. that is: the circuit i s
pads either with dry_ tape > transparent, clear film.
transfer lines in- Computer software vs. drafting aids.
cluded in the assort- There can be no question that the computer is the
ment, or use the Etch best way to produce artwork in most cases. If you will be making a multi-
Resist tape which comes in tiny rolls just l ayer board, a complex double sided board or simply a very large single
li ke miniature, black masking tape. sided board, a computer i s the answer. If you also require a component
Etch Resist tape can be purchase side silk screen plus a solder mask, the computer is the answer.
i n various sizes. For starters, we suggest HOWEVER, there is definitely a cost in getting started on a computer,
two widths, the .031 "wide and .015"width. which includes a l earning curve that may require many extra hours. If you
Always use the widest that will fit, it will be only want to do an occasional board, you may find the "old-fashion"
easier to handle and a better conductor. paste-up method much easier. If you are adept at producing a PC
With a finger, PRESS tape down firmly; layout on a computer, skip the remainder of this section.
etchant could etch under it when it i s a -
p ie oose y. The circuit layout:
If you are creating your positive "from
Here is a small circuit scratch", you will first have to determine the
with pads connected layout for the PC board. Having a clear
via tape (shown 112 schematic is one thing; converting that
size). schematic into a finished PC board is some-
times quite a trick. You must determine
When the pads and where each component will be located and
traces have all been where each trace will be placed. This text is
applied, you are ready to etch the board not going to offer much help to you; circuit
as described in the etching section of l ayout is such a variable that we must trust
this booklet. After etching, remove the to your common sense with only the follow-
patterns and traces with a solvent such as ing tips:;
acetone, toluene, or finger nail polish re- The simpte two-transistor 1. Usually, the schematic suggests the
mover. amplifier becomes the layout
below. PC board's layout; begin with about the
Direct Etch tips: same order for major components.
1 Use a Printed Circuit Touch-up pen to 2. Try to stick with a single sided
close gaps or even for traces. The pen's ink will re- board; its easier in many respects. It is
sist etching if you get it on fairly heavily.
better to add a few wire "jumpers" in-
IBy the way, positive artwork is created in the same
fashion, except that you place the patterns on a clear stead of creating a two-sided PC board.
film instead of directly on the copper. 3. For seriously involved circuits
*Pay close attention to pin numbers; this (i.e. large and complex), consider more
can be tricky when components are on one side and than one PC board, linked with ribbon
the copper (or, circuit) on the other. cable or, jumpers between sections.
1 When using leaded components, place
the components on the side of the board opposite 4. when you draw the layout,
the copper. SMD components have to go on the have' all components on hand and a
same side of the copper, of course. caliper far measuring; specification
sheets for dimensions are helpful,
finis (continued)

"Think Datak for your Printed Circuit Prototypes"

Comprehensive Datak Instructions for Printed Circuit Prototyping

(Making Positive Artwork continued.)

Devices with two leads will be
mounted in two donut pads.
5. Draw the layout on graph paper before committing mate- Spacing is your decision and you
rial to circuit art (see layout above). Where to start? Usually there is may find it convenient to run
a "key" part; an IC or transistor or group of them, that should be the traces for other components under
center of the board. After placing them, add the resistors and capaci- the body of the part.
tors etc...
Once you have done your layout.... Note that we are de- Pad size: Use a size that
scribing making art for will surround the lead
Making the POSITIVE ARTWORK. a circuit using compo- fairly closely. (Solder will
nents with lead wires, bridge a considerable dif-
The Positive will be "built" on a or pins.. That is be- ference in hole size and
clear piece of film (like Datak # MS21). You cause surface mount Hole
l ead diameter.) When you
begin this process by placing a grid sheet i s pretty straight for- can make it fit, select do-
under the clear film. Then tape the two so ward ( pie) in com- nuts that have a minimum
that they will not shift. The gird will be a parison. After you of .020" between the hole
your guide, along with your layout. (Some have done this, you Minimum and the O.D. (outside di-
circuit builders do the layout on a grid can easily handle ameter).
sheet and place that under the clear film). SMD (surface mount) I n general, try to
Because components are made with leads maintain at minimum 0.05"
between pads; this re-
on 1/10 inch spacing, the grid can help you duces solder bridges.
with accurate placement of donuts. So, Step- no. 1: Place (Although some patterns
a grid sheet on your drawing board and tape a clear sheet are much closer than this).
on top so that the two sheets will stay together. (Use Try for 0.040" minimum
quality masking tape so that it will also come off when fin- between traces.
i shed.)

Step no. 2 is simply to place a donut pad wherever

there will be a component lead or pin. We suggest using The hobby knife, or PC
Datak dry transfers, if you place a pad in the wrong spot, knife, is an indispensable
just remove by scraping with your hobby knife. Accurate tool that you'll need when
spacing for multi-pin devices such as IC's is accomplished making a PC board using
any method.
by both the pre-spaced Datak Donut pads
and by following your grid. Together,
they make the process very simple. ALWAYS lap tape on
top of pad to prevent
What size donut to use? You don't light leakage during the
need to make that decision for transistors Transistor pads exposure process
and DIP's such as as IC's; just use the Datak pat (see sketches).
tern made for that part. Note the example; shown are patterns for
TO-5, TO-18 and TO-92 transistors; all three leads are transferred
together with proper spacing between leads.. POLYESTER FILM PADS TAPE

But for 1/4 watt resistors and small capacitors, donut size for
each lead is mostly up to you. Fairly large donuts are easier to work
with but sometimes you may be forced to use very small pads due to Be sure to lap tape on top of pads.
space limitations. In genera for two lead components, use a donut
anywhere from .020" to .035" O.D.. You will soon get a feel for which
to use. For parts such as big electrolytics, use a donut with an inside Finish the artwork by connecting to-
diameter about the same as the components lead wire. Just be sure gether all pads that need to be connected.
not to get so close to other pads that you will probably have a solder When you cannot make a connection between
bridge by accident. two pads that must be connected because of in-
You can even get oval "donuts" (or pads) that' o 40
have a lead wire between them, which can be very
handy in tight places. The oval shape gives a small
o terfering traces, consider using a jumper wire.
( Or, could you reroute interfering traces?)
Hopefully, most problems were solved during
pad . more area for the solder, producing a strong sol- the layout process.
der Joint in a small place. These donut pads are on
1/10" centers, of course, so that they match the spac- Once you have finished your Positive
i ng of standard IC's and other DIP (dual in-line pack- Artwork, you can either use it with the presensi-
age) devices. tized, positive acting boards or you can create a
The column to your right depicts some helpful; tips. Take negative for use with the Negative acting sensi-
your time and shoot for accuracy, checking each trace twice When tizer. Both methods are described in detail in
you finish, you are ready to use presensitized positive boards or to this booklet.
make a negative so that you can coat your own PC boards.

"Think Datak for your Printed Circuit Prototypes"

Instructions for using
This is the easiest to use of the various methods, and is gener-
A darkroom is not needed for Datak ally the most accurate. Although the negative method may cost you less
processes; subdued incandescent money, the time savings and fewer steps might compensate for material
room lighting is generally good. Do costs being a bit higher.
eliminate sunlight from windows and, What are they? The boards are conventional, 1 oz. copper PC
preferably, all fluorescent lights. We boards with a Fiberglas substrate. The copper is coated with a light sensi-
suggest either l ow wattage incandes- tive chemical that is often called a resist or a sensitizer. When this coat-
cent lights (25watts) at a distance of i ng is exposed to enough ultraviolet light, it will rinse away in the
several feet or yellow bug lights, still developer solution, exposing the copper beneath. The copper is then
kept at a distance. This whenever etched.
handling light sensitive products
which includes Positive Boards, Neg- I n brief, these are the steps we are about to describe in detail:
Fast film or when applying or han-
dling boards that you have coated 1. Expose the PC board with your positive artwork
with Datak's negative resist. on top of it to UV light.
if you already have a fully 2. Develop the board in liquid developer.
equipped dark roam, there is cer- 3. Etching the PC board will be covered in the section
tainly no: harm in using it and no about etching.
problem with safe lights etc..
Before we start with the procedure, we need to advise you that
there are two different types of positive board. They are very similar in
many respects, but you will want to be aware of the difference. The
The WORKING AREA Standard series has been around for many years. The catalog numbers
and equipment. for the Standard series always begin with a "12" (e.g. 12-024 etc.).
It is important have a The Premier series is a deluxe version and a newer innovation. It
good work area for the chemical can be exposed with a photoflood, or even a standard incandescent 100
processes used to make PC watt light bulb, uses less developer
boards. It is necessary both to be and has a protective plastic, peel-off
successful and for your personal fil m that is a big plus. The resist
safety. You will need the following coating is also superior in that small
for certain: i mperfections have been reduced to
A sink with both hot and almost nonexistent (very rarely need-
cold running water; with a faucet i ng touchup after developing). The
that will mix for warm as well. This Premier series is somewhat more
should be in an area that won't costly (average 15-20%).Premier
mind some stains. The etchant, in boards have part numbers beginning
particular, can be messy and with the numeral "14" (e.g. 14-024
stains are likely. etc. )
You don't need a dark- The two biggest advantages in using the Premier series are the
room, but you will need to be able higher quality coating and the plastic film protective cover. While this
to close out sunlight (see above ). peel-off cover is in place, you can measure, mark and cut the board to
Ventilation is important, size in normal room lighting, even bright lighting. Standard boards must
during etching and when using the always be handled in very subdued light.
negative developer. In a confined
area these chemicals may cause However, Standard boards should not
throat and eye irritation and even Confusing Terminology. be considered to be terribly inferior; they
lightheadedness even sickness The industry tends to use have been the industry's mainstay for
could result. Providing an air flow several terms for "Positive- nearly two decades and can be counted
should prevent any reaction for acting PC boards". A posi- upon for very good results. Here are the
most people; use fan to exhaust tive board i s a positive board main differences
fumes' via window. and do not be distracted by >Standard boards require UV light for
Goggles are a verygood variations such as "positive
acting", "pre-sensitzed" or exposure, Premier boards do not.
idea when working with chemicals; >Standard boards, mix developer with
and being close to sink in case coated etc.. And the terms
Precoated and Presensitzed three parts water vs. ten parts water for
an eye; needs to be rinsed out. are interchangeable as are Premier boards.
resist and sensitizer. >Standard boards should be checked
ALWAYS keep the chemi- Technically, the coating is a after developing for possible touchup be-
cals out of reach of young resist and not a sensitizer, fore etching; they may need just a dab
children. Ingestion can be the resist is light sensitive.
The term "positive" is the
with your PC ink pen.
( Continued next page)
very harmful or fatal. giveaway

Your positive will be placed Step 4. Expose Tin Plating for PC boards.
on top of the resist coating the board with your Kit no. 12-800
on the copper side of the positive. Follow the
PC board during exposure. Exposure Chart for This is a slick product
exposure time. Use
Be sure that the positive is that should be of particular i nter-
not upside-down; the cir- an exposure frame. est to professional users. When
cuit in copper is going to Place your posi- you get to the point where you
be oriented the same way tive on top of the sen- have a finished PC board, you
as your positive on top of sitized coating on the may want to tin plate the copper
the board. PC board and sand- for two or three reasons.
wich the two in the The tin plate, which sol-
exposure frame. ders very easily, looks very sharp,
shiny and clean. If you are mak-
The Exposure Frame: This device will be familiar to you if you ing a board for a customer, tin
have ever made photographic prints. The frame is simply a holder for a looks quite professional. And the
small board and piece of glass. With your positive in place on top of a look lasts.
precoated board, put the two in the frame under the glass and slide into TINNIT will also provide
the frame. The frame will hold the two tightly together for two reasons: protection for boards that will be
(1.) the positive should never move around during exposure and (2.) the stored for later use; they will re-
positive is pressed tightly against the board so that light does not get un- main solderable and the copper
der the positive. Now expose to will be protected.
li ght. The exposure
The Light Source:
See the chart at the bottom
frame; holds the
postive firmly TINNIT is electroless, re-
against the PC quiring no electrodes or wires.
of this page. We are assuming board during
that your line voltage is be- exposure to light NOTE: WE RECOMMEND
tween 115 and 125 Volts AC GOGGLES and RUBBER
.. if below this range, you may GLOVES WHILE' WORKING
have problems. Also, for the WITH THIS PRODUCT.
sun, keep in mind that its ul-
traviolet output could vary; es- 1. Dissolve the TINNIT
pecially in large cities, on hazy powdered concentrate (marked
days etc. . no. ER-18) in 12 ounces of very
Note that the Premier warm water (temperature about
series can use an ordinary 100
watt white incandescent light bulb. 130° F) and' then add water to
make one pint (16oz.).
Develop the board: While the board is being exposed, prepare a tray of NOTE: Use only a plastic
developer solution. Mix the Datak developer concentrate 1:10 with water or glass contaneror mixing an
for the Premier series; or 1:3 for the Standard series. NOTE carefully; or storage. o not use metal
mix with very warm water. A cold developer is not going to work, it containers or caps With meta llic
should be above room temperature or warmer. (Be sure to use only
Datak nos. 12-402 or 12-406.) li nings.
Use glass/plastic photographic tray. 2. Prepare the circuit
Use just enough developer to cover the board for plating by removing all
board. Rock the tray gently until the copper traces of resist with either ace
i s fully exposed in areas to be etched. It will tone, lacquer thinner or
be obvious to you when the copper is bare; DATAKOAT® thinner. If oxides
be sure that there is no haze or film remain- are present, clean with scouring
i ng. Rinse in cold water for a couple of min- powder rather than soap or deter-
utes. (Continued next page.) gent; do not use steel wool.
Continued on page seven)

Board F1 5 T 8-BL app. noon Datak ER-39 mix developer i 00 watt bulb
T type X2 bulbs** SUN* bulb concentrate Premier onl
STANDARD R 12 to 14 min. 8 to 10 min. 12 to 15 min. 3 parts water to 1 not applicable
@ 7 inches any distance @12 min.
PREMIER 9 to 12 min. 4 to 4.5 min. 10 min. 10 parts water to 1 10-12minutes
@7" 12" distance @12" distance.

** l ook for desklamps that hold two bulbs *sun about noon to two P.M.

Positive Boards continued ..... and Making a Negative from a Positive with Neg-Fast Film.

(continued from page six.)

Etching: Your are now ready to etch the board; see the sec- Remove all cleanser residue by
tion on etching later in this booklet. After etching, you will be ready to washing thoroughly i n plenty of clean
drill the board and mount the parts, solder and finish the circuit. water: If you o no thoroughly re-
Final notes: Here are some helpful tips for users of the posi- move all cleanser and etch residues,
tive PC boards: they can seriously deplete the TINNIT
1. Store used developer in a plastic or glass bottle. Plastic is bath.
best as you may squeeze most of the air out of the bottle and cap 3. Place the TINNIT solution
tightly. Do this because the developer will react, over time, with the i n a Pyrex tray and heat to between
carbon dioxide in the air and decompose. 120 and 140 degrees F. Immerse the
2. You can use the developer until it simply does not perform; board for between 10 and 30 minutes.
then flush it down the sink with a fast cold water chaser. Storing de- Agitate for a moment at five minute
veloper in a refrigerator can help to keep it fresh for very long periods. i ntervals. A bright tin plating will re-
3. We suggest leaving the resist on the board until after drill- sult.
i ng. Remove the resist with solvents including acetone or a non- 4. Rinse the board with run-
acetone fingernail polish remover. The later is available at most drug ning tap water and_ dry with paper
stores and discount stores. towels.
4. IF the board proves to be tough to etch, you probably did
not develop it long enough and some resist residue remained behind. Special notes:
Or, said residue can also be caused by too short an exposure time, If the TINNIT solution is left
too weak a light source and so on. standing it may evaporate, leaving - a
000 precipitate (white or li ght yellow).
The precipitate will again dissolve
when water i s added and heated and
Making a Negative from a positive or a i s perfectly usable.
Magazine page circuit. Do not leave, powder residue
to heat on stove; heated dry salts can
Neg-Fast fil m is a product that will help you decompose and' release very irritating
to easily create a negative for use with the Negative sulfur dioxide and ammonia gases.
Photo Resist Spray from Datak or any other negative TINNIT may be stored for
acting resist. Neg-Fast is a plastic sheet, about as about six months (longer if refriger-
thick as a sheet of paper. It is available in small sheets ated) in an airtight bottle made of ei-
5" X 6" or larger sheets 11" X 8". When exposed to light with your ther plastic or glass. Avoid metal
positive and then developed in a special liquid, a negative is produced. bottle caps.
The process is simple and very reliable. TINNIT WARNING: This
I NSTRUCTIONS: product contains acidic tin salts.
Handle Neg-Fast fil m in very subdued light Although it contains no cyanides or
and with no sunlight or fluorescent light pre- other highly poisonous materials, it is
sent. It is also OK to use yellow light. a skin and eye irritant. In case of eye
For use with a magazine arti- contact, flush immediately with run-
cle/circuit: ning water. Consult a physician as
Step 1a. IF the circuit has no printing soon as possible.
on the reverse side of the page , you can clip I F ingested, do not induce
i t from the magazine. Or, you can use an of- vomiting. Call a physician. Drink
A positive on the left, fice photocopier and make a copy. Make a plenty of water, as much as possible.
a negative on the right. good, high contrast copy with the circuit Never leave these chemicals
plenty dark, other areas white. i n the reach of children. Younger
Step 2a. A printed magazine clipping or pho- teenagers should be supervised by a
tocopy such as this requires an exposure time of four minutes at a knowledgeable and responsible adult.
distance of 24" using the Datak no. ER-39 bulb. Except for this expo-
sure time, follow the steps as given below.
For use with a pasted up or photographic Positive.
(This is a positive circuit on a transparent film.)
Step 1. Use scissors or a sharp PC knife, cut the film to a
size matching your circuit positive (or a bit larger).
Step 2. Place the film in an exposure frame with the emulsion
side up*. the positive on top of the film (the positive can acei-
ther direction, there is no "right-side-up".) Close frame securely.
(Continued next page)
Neg-Fast Film continued.


(continued from page seven)
Step 3. Expose to the Datak ER-39 bulb at a distance of 24" for Computer Software ... if you are
1-1/2 minutes (4 minutes if a paper positive). considering a computer program for
Special note: For circuits larger than 4" X 4", you may find the outer drafting your PC board layouts,
comers not fully exposed. For larger boards, you may suspend the ER-39 bulb PCDATAK may be a good choice.
so that it swings freely on its power cord. During a five minute exposure time, It is a DOS program but can run
keep the bulb gently swinging randomly back and forth across the board which under Windows or Wndows95. It is
is in its exposure frame about 24" directly below the bulb. Use a porcelain
socket as it can take the heat. very l ow cost, easy and quick to
Step 4. Use only as much developer as needed; do not return used l earn and incredibly flexible for a
developer to the bottle. Mix the developer concentrate with four parts of very l ow cost program. To print circuits,
warm tap water. Place the developer in a shallow tray (either glass or plastic, you need to have a LaserJet printer
not metal). Develop for about two minutes; or until you can see that you have a with the Postscript feature. Or, take
good clear image of the circuit's negative. The developer's temperature should the circuit on diskette to Kinko's as
be warm, not less than about 72 degrees F but not above about 90 degrees. they have such printers. Datak's
When fully developed, gently rinse in lukewarm tap water. catalog number for the software is
Step 5. Mix one part of the Fixer concentrate with 4 parts of warm tap 12-077.
water and allow the negative to stand in this solution for about five minutes. (If
you are using the developer tray, be sure to rinse it out with water first.) It is
necessary to use only enough to cover the film but you may return unused fixer
to the bottle. (When it comes to the time to buy new developers, throw away Soldering ... PC circuit layout de-
this old fixer as the developer package comes with new fixer too.) scriptions in this booklet are as-
Step 6. Rinse again in fresh, warm tap water and place gently between suming that you will be hand
a couple of paper towels to absorb excess moisture. You may then dry by leav- soldering your final circuit board. If
i ng it on top of another, fresh paper towel or hang it with a film clip. You may your prototype will eventually be a
use warm air or heat to hurry the process, but do not exceed 122 degrees production item and you are plan-
Fahrenheit or you will distort the film. ning to use dip or wave soldering
Step 7. Touch up may be done with a black pen such as Datak nos.
ER-15 or extra fine point ER-25. Eliminate any equipment, then circuit layout
pin hole spots, if any. needs to be done accordingly. This
Step 8. Finished. Use the negative booklet does not go into enough
with a PC board coated with Datak no. ER-71 depth' to teach techniques for true
sensitizer or with other maker's negative- production boards.
acting PC boards. For production, use a
Exhausted fixer and developer may software to do your layout. Most
be flushed down the drain; follow up with a programs incorporate accepted
couple of minutes of fast run- techniques that will keep you out of
ning cold water. Use a shallow photo- trouble. Datak's software,
graphic tray (glass or PCDATAK no. 12-077 automatically
plastic) for developing provides correct spacing between
`Identifying the emulsion and fixing ; use just
side of the film. traces, donuts etc..
Each sheet of film will enough developer or
have a notch along one fixer to fully cover the
edge. Hold the sheet up film. Drilling the PC board ... drilling with
i n front of you; when the a standard, household hand drill
notch is on the bottom can be an excruciating chore; and
edge and closest to your right hand, the it is very difficult to do a decent job.
emulsion side is facing you. OR, simply scratch each side with your PC We suggest that you use only a
knife tip. The emulsion side will scratch away revealing a clear film; the drill press, even if you have to beg
non-emulsion side will not show scratches. a neighbor to use his. If you use a
hi-speed mini-drill such as those
from Dremel, use a light dimmer to
slow it down about 40%. (You will
get a feel for the right speed after
using it for a short time.) A slowed-
down Dremel with a Dremel drill
press' is the ideal way to drill your
Small bits are available
from Datak and also from most in-
dustrial supply houses which will
carry dozens of sizes.

The Negative Acting Photo Resist method Sometimes steel wool will
contain oil; but it can be re-
The method is based upon using the Datak no. ER-71 Photo moved with some soap and
Resist liquid, which is a light sensitive spray-on resist. The small, 4 ounce running water. Soap,
bottle will cover about 1,700 square inches and is applied with the pump squeeze and rinse a pad two
action sprayer included in the package. Good results can be expected if or three cycles and it will be
you carefully follow the steps. clean enough to use. A liquid
You will need to begin with a quality negative. If you have dish soap is suggested.
a positive, see the section on using NegFast film to produce a negative.
Or, use standard photographic process to make a high contrast negative.

Step 1. Clean the PC board. This is a critical step and must be

done well. Scour the board with water and a common kitchen cleanser
(containing bleach) and very fine steel wool. Scrub the board and rinse
until water sheets out evenly over the entire surface when you hold the
board horizontally under a pencil-lead
stream of water. If the water tends to
pull away from the boards edges or Spray a thin, even
any point on the aboard, clean it coat. Thick coats
again. If the board cannot pass this may cause Spraying the board is an
water test, it is "dirty" and must be probl i mportant step; try to get a
cleaned until it passes. thin and even coat. A thick
Dry the cleaned board with coat can result in ragged
paper towels. You could wipe with am- edges on pads and traces in
monia (never with alcohol). Handle by your finished board.
the edges, don't touch the surface. tip: Pump the spray fully, do
not try to squirt a light coat
by pumping with short
Step 2. Coat the Board with Resist. Do in subdued light* The strokes. Start spraying off
board should be warm, ideally about 120 degrees F. Heat the board on a the edge of the board and
hot plate or you could warm it with a heat gun or hair dryer. sweep across the board;
Lay the board flat and spray a light, continuous each pump cycle should be
film . (Sink marks will indicate poor board a full stroke. (Short strokes
Drying the board in cleaning.) Sight along the board surface toward tend to shoot globs, which
a dark cupboard your light; make the coat as even as possible. are not good.)
works fine if there is
plenty of volume in Always spray on a
the cupboard. But if Step 3. Drying the PC Board. The board warm board; a board that is
the volume is quite may simply be place in a dark cupboard to dry cool is very tough to coat
small, there is over night. Or, bake it in an oven at 140 de properly. Some users let the
sometimes not grees F for twenty minutes; the oven must be board dry and apply a sec-
enough air to absorb dark. Allow the board to cool ten minutes be- ond coating.
the fumes and the fore use.
board takes a very I f your coating is not a clean looking,
l ong time to dry. even coat with few signs of bubbles, consider
Don't expect a small repeating the proc-
drawer to dry two or ess by adding a sec-
three boards over-
night. ond coat. Strive for a
thin coat, and as
even as you can The negative is clear (trans-
make it. parent) where there will be cir-
cuit and the "background" is
Step 4. Exposing the PC Board. Place your opaque.
negative on top of the resist coating and place The exposure frame
clamps the positive or You can make a
the two in a contact exposure frame. The frame
negative tightly against the negative using
will hold the negative and board tightly together Datak Neg-Fast
PC board; and the glass
to prevent light from leaking between them. top allows exposure to film or photo-
Expose the board to light using one of light.
the following choices: graphically. Also,
some software
will make a
* subdued light. After you clean the board and until you finish the develop- negative of a PC
i ng stage, work only in subdued lighting such as a 25 watt bulb several board layout.
feet away or a yellow "bug" light bulb.
( Continued on next page)

(Negative Photo Resist ..... continued from previous page.)

1.) Sunlight at about noon, for three minutes.

2.) Datak no. ER-39 bulb, for 5-1/2 minutes at THE WORK AREA
Developing a distance of 20". SHOULD BE WELL
trays should 3.) Two F15T8BL bulbs 20 minutes at 15". VENTILATED; AVOID
enough that and avoid skin contact.
the PC board Step 5. Developing the PC Board...
You need two metal or glass photo- Do not use near open
graphic trays for developing (never use plastic flames or sparks.
rtrays). If you work with small boards, find some
Ragged edges on the resist smaller trays which will save on developer.
image mean that the resist Use only Datak developer no. ER-8. Place enough developer in each tray
was not completely dry be- so that the board is under the developer by about 1/16" when it is placed
fore the exposure, OR, that flat in the tray.
the resist was applied too Note: The resist pattern is transparent during developing and can-
heavily and should not have
been such a thick coating. not be seen until it is completely dry.
Follow these developing steps:
a.) Place exposed board in first tray for 30 to 45 seconds, gently
Spread-out lines occur if you rocking the tray every five seconds. (Never touch the surface of the
exposed too long or If the board, the resist will scratch easily. Handle by the edges.)
negative was not in perfect b.) Remove board, holding by the edges. Allow it to drain for ten
contact with the PC board. seconds and then place it face down on 2 or 3 layers of clean facial tissue
This can happen if you use a (don't slide or rub!).
warped board. If the pattern c.) Carefully remove tissue and immerse the board in second tray
i s bad, you may as well sal- for ten seconds. Remove, allow it to dry and inspect the pattern against
vage the board by cleaning
off the resist with lacquer the light (hold board flat and point it toward the light; sight along board).
thinner and clean- Good developing shows up the pattern clearly with no drain marks or
I ng/recoating. (A warped stains in the areas to be etched. Old, used developer will leave globs at
board can usually be gently random.
bent into shape.) Dry thoroughly before etching; at least ten minutes at room tem-
perature. The resist must be hard before etching.

Step 6. Touch up. The board may now be handled in normal lighting.
The Datak ER-8 Developer I nspect the board for breaks in traces or pads. If there are any, you can
contains aromatic, partially touch them up with the etch resist pen. Repair any breaks before etching.
chlorinated hydrocarbons. The I f the above steps were done well, touch up will probably not be needed.
product can attack plastics
and may discolor vinyl counter
tops, attack wood finishes and Etch the PC board. (See section about etching.)
so on. In addition to the pre- 00*
cautions listed on the pack-
age, don't use this product in
areas that can't stand some
abuse. The Products...
Never leave such chemicals
where children might get Into
them. Ingestion of this and The no. ER-71 Photo Resist (left) is supplied in a
other PC board making chemi- dark bottle which will prevent deterioration.
cals can be very harmful and Officially, the shelf life is about two years; but the
even fatal, especially in small actual life is probably much longer. It can be
children. stored at room temperature; cooler temperatures
will add to the shelf life. Warm it up to at least
room temperature to apply it. The Resist has a
spray cap for application. Spin coating is also
Fast removal of all good if you are equipped to do it.
manner of etch resists can The no. ER-8 developer i s supplied in a
be done with an acetone metal can and will keep for a long time if kept
free fingernail polish re- tightly shut. If you plan to do quite a number or
mover. It can be found near boards, then you'll want to start with two cans. The
the fingernail polish in drug Resist will cover about 1,700 square inches of copper but a
stores and discount stores can of developer won't develop nearly that much area. (Area
etc.. It is a cheap and effec- will vary with circuit density.)
tive way to go.



Ferric Chloride etchant There are any number of chemicals that may be used as an
can stain clothing (and just etchant. The only one that we recommend is Ferric Chloride. It is available
about anything else) horri- from some sources as a liquid and Datak supplies it in powder form to be
bly. Wear old cloths and mixed by the user with water. This is the most effective and economical of
don't use this in an area the etchants.
that can't take some Factors that will accelerate the ferric chloride etching process are
stains. Work close to run- heat, oxygen and agitation. The etchant will work at room temperature but
ning water; an immediate at higher temperatures (say, about 125 degrees F) it will work much faster
cold water flush can re- and cleaner. Agitation not only keeps moving fresh developer over the
duce staining, rinse out an copper, but introduces oxygen, which acts something like a catalyst.
eye etc.. Ferric Chloride is not an acid; the chemical process is one of dis-
placement. We do not recommend acids for many reasons of safety and
effectiveness, disposal problems etc..

The etching container must be either glass or plastic. It can be as

simple as a photographic tray (that you keep rocking gently) to the Datak
etching tank, which bubbles air through the solution to provide both agita
tion and oxygen. A fish-tank type heater adds to the effectiveness of the
etch tank. Agitation is very important and proper etching won't happen
Etching can be done without fairly constant of the etchant during the entire process.
i n an open, photo-
graphic tray. If you Using Datak Ferric Chloride ..... We always recommend that you
keep the tray covered Wear eye protection and provide adequate ventilation. The fol-
with a piece of window l owing assumes that you will use an open, photographic tray. Mixing is the
glass when not in use,
i t will reduce the same regardless of what devices you use during etching, i.e. the etching
fumes and can be tank, tray etc..
kept this way for many
hours. Step 1. Mix a package of Datak number ER-3 ferric chloride pow-
der with 16 ounces of water. Add the powder slowly; expect heating of the
water as you go. Adding too fast can cause splattering due to the fast
heating. An empty, plastic one gallon milk jug works fine for the process.
NEVER add water to the Mix until all powder is dissolved. Then store the finished product in a plas-
Etch Powder Concentrate! tic bottle. It will keep for a long time.
Add the powder to water. Step 2. Preheat the etchant. You could preheat the etchant by im-
mersing its storage bottle in a bucket of hot water for twenty minutes be-
HEATING & fore pouring it into a tray. IT WILL EXPAND WHEN HEATED, LOOSEN
Boiling !! THE BOTTLE CAP SO THE BOTTLE WON'T BURST. Or you could use a
Pyrex glass tray on a low-heat hot plate (etc.). A heat lamp could be used
on an open tray. Room temperature will work, but slowly.
Step 3. Etching can take from ten to twenty-five minutes. Immerse
The mixing of water with the PC board and continue agitation by rocking the tray gently, or lifting
Ferric Chloride powder gen- and immersing the board with a plastic tweezers etc..
erates considerable heat. Step 4. Inspect the board periodically and it will be obvious when
You must add the powder to etching is complete. When finished, rinse the board with fresh water, wipe
the water; NEVER add wa- off with paper towels. The process is completed and you are ready to drill
ter to the powder! the board, remove the resist and load the parts.
You may pour used etchant back into the container to use it again.
Replace the etchant when the process slows down considerably. Old
etchant may be flushed down the sink but be sure to follow-up with a vig-
Used ferric chloride orous water chaser for two or three minutes. The etchant will dilute and
etchant may be disperse quickly.
stored in plastic bot-
tles for future use. If
you will be storing it Users note: Ferric Chloride etchant is available from several
for quite awhile and sources. Some is not of good quality and you will note that it is
the bottle is not full, slow to act and etches only a very small volume of copper. Datak
squeeze the bottle to provides a very high quality etchant and at a price that is better
eliminate most of the air than some of the lower grade materials. We do strongly urge you
space. It should last many to use the Datak product. Slow etching can cause undercutting,
months. weakened resist and other problems.

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