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Architect Jiten Prajapati Mumbai September 2006
Need for energy efficient buildings ? Design guidelines for two commercial buildings
Warm and humid climate Hot and dry climate
Need for Energy Efficient Buildings
User behaviour has changed Commercial buildings are huge consumers of energy Average mall - Rs. 25 lakh/ month Multistoreyed office - Rs. 15 lakh/ month Large potential for energy conservation Can lead to a thermally comfortable indoor environment Modern science has provided quantitative support
• Has to be airconditioned and artificially lit • Manifold increase in consumption of energy e.Example .g.a building without any chajja’s in Mumbai • No protection from rains and sunshine. 15 lacs as energy bill per month . Similar building pays Rs.
• Understanding thermal performance of building design • Optimising design and operational parameters of the building . • Understanding climate • Incorporation of passive solar techniques – Consumption of conventional energy is reduced through appropriate design.What do we mean by energy efficient buildings? – Buildings that are comfortable for improving the productivity of occupants.
Warm and Humid Zone Multi-storeyed air conditioned office building .
Mumbai . Nayak Energy Systems Engineering IIT Bombay.400 076. India . K. Powai. Prajapati and J.Energy Conservation Measures in the Design of a Commercial Building for Mumbai J.
Type of Building Studied TERR 7TH FLOOR TERR TERR 6TH FLOOR FC 5TH FLOOR GCW 4TH FLOOR 3RD FLOOR LEGEND 2ND FLOOR 1ST FLOOR TERR = TERRACE FC = FALSE CEILING GCW = GLASS CURTAIN WALL GROUND LEVEL GROUND FLOOR BASEMENT SECTION STAIRCASE L STORE STAIRCASE TOILETS PANTRY L LIFT LOBBY L TOILETS STORE GCW N OFFICE HALL GCW CABINS NOTE: HATCHED PORTION INDICATES AIR-CONDITIONED AREA GCW CABINS • Fully glazed south facade • Air-conditioned and artificially lit • Built-up Area = 7074 sqm • Conditioned Area = 5400 sqm • Ground + seven storeyed RCC structure TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN .
Analysis of climate .
00 400.00 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Month Annual Load = 6384 GJ Note: Only cooling load in Mumbai (no heating load) .00 200.00 300.00 Heating Energy Demand (GJ/month) 600.00 500.00 100.Performance of Building 800.00 0.00 Cooling 700.
Component-wise thermal gains Surface 100% 80% Percentage 60% 40% 20% 0% -20% JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Internal Convective Air exchange month .
Studies to Improve Building Performance PARAMETERS INVESTIGATED Glazing Size Glazing Type Orientation (longer axis) Shading Colour of External Surfaces Wall Type Air Change Rate Internal Gain Scheduling of air changes Setpoint for heating and cooling .
2m height) (% saving) N.5 .2m GLAZING SIZE BASECASE (Full ht.A.Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Glazing Size 6500 6000 Annu al Load (GJ) 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE GLAZING SIZE (restricted to 1. 6. glass) (restricted to 1.
Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Glazing Type 7000 6500 Annu al Load (GJ) 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE Double clear Single clear Double low-E Double reflective coated GLAZING TYPE BASECASE (single reflective coated) Single clear Double clear Double low-E Double reflective coated (% saving) N. -9.9 2.A.9 -0.3 -6.2 .
Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Orientation 6500 Annu al Load (GJ) 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE N-S NE-SW E-W ORIENTATION (longer axis) BASECASE (NW-SE) N-S NE-SW E-W (% saving) N.1 .A.7 2. 6 7.
5 .A. 1.4 8.Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Shading 6500 6000 Annu al Load (GJ) 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE 10% 20% 50% SHADING BASECASE (No shading) 10% 20% 50% (% saving) N.7 3.
A.g. 2.4 . -4 (% saving) N.SURFACE BASECASE (White) dark grey WALL TYPE BASECASE (Concrete block wall) ACCB (e.Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Colour 7000 Annu al Load (GJ) 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE dark grey Effect of Wall type 6500 Annu al Load (GJ) 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE ACCB COLOUR OF EXT. Siporex) (% saving) N.A.
5 2 4 (% saving) N.0 ach) 0.5 -10. 1.5 ACH 2 4 AIR CHANGE RATE BASECASE (1.7 -3.8 .Studies to Improve Building Performance Effect of Air changes 7500 Annu al Load (GJ) 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 BASECASE 0.A.
7.1 1.4 (% saving) N.A.25 °C) (% saving) N.Studies to Improve Building Performance OTHER PARAMETERS INTERNAL GAIN BASECASE (100%) 10% 50% No internal gain SCHEDULING OF AIR CHANGES SETPOINT BASECASE (21 °C . 51.A.24 °C) ( 20 °C .1 .1 57.6 29.
4903 23 .A.Comparison Between Improved and Basecase Building 7000 6000 Annu al Load (GJ) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 BASECASE IMPROVED BASECASE IMPROVED Annual Load % saving (GJ) 6384 N.
Conclusions – Part 1 • Cooling load predominant in Mumbai • Internal gains and external surfaces main contributors to heat gain • Effect of various parameters studied • Savings of 23% of annual loads can be achieved by optimising building design Acknowledgement: We are grateful to Solar Energy Centre. Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources for sponsoring the project .
Hot and Dry Zone Low-rise passive cooled office building .
Gulbarga Client: Karnataka State Police Housing Corporation Architects: KEMBHAVI ARCHITECTURE FOUNDATION .G.) Complex.P.Passive Downdraft Evaporative Cooling (PDEC) System Inspector General of Police (I.
Identification of Climatic Zone Analysis of Climate Analysis of Building Design Indoor Temperature Cooling Loads Passive Technique Passive Downdraft Evaporative Cooling Tower Implications of Design .
Climatic Zones of India • • • • • • HOT & DRY WARM & HUMID MODERATE COMPOSITE COLD & SUNNY COLD & CLOUDY Gulbarga .
Bio-climatic Chart APR MAR COMFORTMAY ZONE JAN .
00 12.00 24.2 (upper comfort lim) tia oC tn oC tn -2.00 36.Inside Temperature of a Typical Room comfort fraction 40.00 30.00 4.00 tim e hrs toa oC tn +2.00 34.00 20.00 28.00 temperature deg C 32.00 6.00 16.00 2.00 24.00 26.00 22.00 8.00 14.2 (lower comfort lim) .00 20.00 10.00 38.00 22.00 18.
Cooling Loads .Typical Room VENTILATION 19% WALLS 4% ROOF 29% WALLS ROOF GLAZING INTERNAL LOADS GLAZING 14% INTERNAL LOADS 34% VENTILATION LOADS .
• Estimated Performance in May : – Outside air temperature = 38 °C – Temperature of air = 25 °C (at exit of tower) • About 4 .5 lakhs • Area cooled = 1100sqm. Givoni • Cost = 17.10 air changes per hour Note: Approximate cost and area CROSS BAFFLE WALL TO DIVERT WIND INTO TOWER INLET OF TOWER WATER SPRINKLER TO COOL AIR BY EVAPORATION TERRACE FLOOR WOOD CHARCOAL LAYER TO FILTER OUT DUST AND INSECTS BAFFLE TO DIVERT AIR FLOW TO DIFFERENT ROOMS FIRST FLOOR COOL AIR EXITING FROM PDEC TOWER GROUND FLOOR WATER COLLECTED IN DRAIN FOR RE-CIRCULATION . cooled by evaporation of water and then introduced in the building. • Simple system based on shower spray system developed by B.Design of PDEC System • Ambient hot-dry air is trapped.
in May.0 10.0 25.0 20.0 15. the drop in day-time temperature is significantly high in May. i. Thus.Estimated performance of PDEC tower in various months 40. .e. the temperature of cooled air leaving the tower is about 25°C while the corresponding ambient temperature is about 38 °C.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month Ambient PDEC tower •PDEC system works very well in the summer months For example. about 13 °C.0 Temperature (°C) 30.0 35.
Implications of PDEC system ADVANTAGES • Low cost single pass system • Easy to maintain • Entry of birds and pests prevented • Charcoal tray to filter out dust • Sophisticated water treatment is not required • Single tower serving multiple floors • Can be used for pre-cooling the building at night DISADVANTAGES • High humidity • Noise due to spraying of water .
Energy Savings Estimated Savings • Approx. Rs. 3.5 lakhs/ annum Simple Payback Period • 5 years .
Hubli and Karnataka State Police Housing Corporation. Bangalore .Conclusions – Part 2 Passive solar architecture can be used effectively in a non-conditioned building in a hot and dry climate to: – Provide indoor comfort – Reduce consumption of energy Acknowledgements: Kembhavi Architecture Foundation.
Thank You .
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