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Handbook of Meat Processing

Handbook of Meat Processing

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Handbook of
Meat Processing

Handbook of
Meat Processing

Fidel Toldrá

EDITOR

A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Edition first published 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing

Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing
program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form
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for users of the Transactional Reporting Service are ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-2182-5/2010.

Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand
names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor men-
tioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in
regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in
rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services
of a competent professional should be sought.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Handbook of meat processing / edited by Fidel Toldrá.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8138-2182-5 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. Meat—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Meat
industry and trade—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Toldrá, Fidel.
TS1960.H36 2010
664′.9—dc22

2009037503

A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress.

Set in 10 on 12 pt Times by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited
Printed in Singapore

Disclaimer

The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or
completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without
limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales
or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situ-
ation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal,
accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a com-
petent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for
damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a cita-
tion and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher
endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make.
Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disap-
peared between when this work was written and when it is read.

1 2010

Contents

Preface

ix

List of Contributors

xi

About the Editor

xv

PART I. Technologies

3

1. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Meat

5

Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan

2. Technological Quality of Meat for Processing

25

Susan Brewer

3. Meat Decontamination

43

Panagiotis N. Skandamis, George-John E. Nychas, and John N. Sofos

4. Aging/Tenderization Mechanisms

87

Brian C. Bowker, Janet S. Eastridge, Ernie W. Paroczay,
Janice A. Callahan, and Morse B. Solomon

5. Freezing/Thawing

105

Christian James and Stephen J. James

6. Curing

125

Karl O. Honikel

7. Emulsification

143

Irene Allais

8. Thermal Processing

169

Jane Ann Boles

9. Fermentation: Microbiology and Biochemistry

185

Spiros Paramithiotis, Eleftherios H. Drosinos, John N. Sofos, and
George-John E. Nychas

10. Starter Cultures for Meat Fermentation

199

Pier Sandro Cocconcelli and Cecilia Fontana

11. Drying

219

Endre Zukál and Kálmán Incze

v

vi Contents

12. Smoking

231

Zdzisław E. Sikorski and Edward Kol´akowski

13. Meat Packaging

247

Maurice G. O’Sullivan and Joseph P. Kerry

14. Novel Technologies for Microbial Spoilage Prevention

263

Oleksandr Tokarskyy and Douglas L. Marshall

15. Plant Cleaning and Sanitation

287

Stefania Quintavalla

PART II. Products

299

16. Cooked Ham

301

Fidel Toldrá, Leticia Mora, and Mónica Flores

17. Cooked Sausages

313

Eero Puolanne

18. Bacon

327

Peter R. Sheard

19. Canned Products and Pâté

337

Isabel Guerrero Legarreta

20. Dry-Cured Ham

351

Fidel Toldrá and M. Concepción Aristoy

21. Mold-Ripened Sausages

363

Kálmán Incze

22. Semidry and Dry Fermented Sausages

379

Graciela Vignolo, Cecilia Fontana, and Silvina Fadda

23. Restructured Whole-Tissue Meats

399

Mustafa M. Farouk

24. Functional Meat Products

423

Keizo Arihara and Motoko Ohata

PART III. Controls

441

25. Physical Sensors for Quality Control during Processing

443

Marta Castro-Giráldez, Pedro José Fito, Fidel Toldrá, and Pedro Fito

26. Sensory Evaluation of Meat Products

457

Geoffrey R. Nute

27. Detection of Chemical Hazards

469

Milagro Reig and Fidel Toldrá

28. Microbial Hazards in Foods: Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications

481

Daniel Y. C. Fung

Contents vii

29. Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in Meat Products
by PCR

501

Marta Hernández, Alejandro Ferrando, and David Rodríguez-Lázaro

30. HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

519

Maria Jo ã o Fraqueza and António Salvador Barreto

31. Quality Assurance

547

Friedrich-Karl Lücke

Index

561

Preface

For centuries, meat and its derived products
have constituted some of the most important
foods consumed in many countries around
the world. Despite this important role, there
are few books dealing with meat and its
processing technologies. This book provides
the reader with an extensive description of
meat processing, giving the latest advances
in technologies, manufacturing processes,
and tools for the effective control of safety
and quality during processing.
To achieve this goal, the book contains 31
chapters distributed in three parts. The first
part deals with the description of meat chem-
istry, its quality for further processing,
and the main technologies used in meat
processing, such as decontamination, aging,
freezing, curing, emulsification, thermal pro-
cessing, fermentation, starter cultures, drying,
smoking, packaging, novel technologies,
and cleaning. The second part describes the
manufacture and main characteristics of

ix

worldwide meat products such as cooked
ham and sausages, bacon, canned products
and p â t é , dry - cured ham, mold - ripened sau-
sages, semidry and dry fermented sausages,
restructured meats, and functional meat prod-
ucts. The third part presents efficient strate-
gies to control the sensory and safety quality
of meat and meat products, including physi-
cal sensors, sensory evaluation, chemical
and microbial hazards, detection of GMOs,
HACCP, and quality assurance.
The chapters have been written by distin-
guished international experts from fifteen
countries. The editor wishes to thank all the
contributors for their hard work and for
sharing their valuable experience, as well as
to thank the production team at Wiley -
Blackwell. I also want to express my appre-
ciation to Ms. Susan Engelken for her kind
support and coordination of this book.

Fidel Toldr á

Contributors

Irene Allais

Cemagref, UMR Genial, Equipe Automat
& Qualite Alimentaire, 24 Av Landais,
F - 63172 Aubiere 1, France.
E - mail: irene.allais@cemagref.fr

Keizo Arihara

Department of Animal Science, Kitasato
University, Towada - shi, Aomori 034 - 8628,
Japan.
E - mail: arihara@vmas.kitasato - u.ac.jp

M. Concepci ó n Aristoy

Department of Food Science, Instituto de
Agroqu í mica y Tecnolog í a de Alimentos
(CSIC), PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot
(Valencia), Spain.
E - mail: mcaristoy@iata.csic.es

Ant ó nio Salvador Barreto

Faculdade de Medicina Veterin á ria,
DPASA, TULisbon, Av. da Universidade
Tecnica, Polo Universit á rio, Alto da Ajuda,
1300 - 477 Lisboa, Portugal.

Jane Ann Boles

Animal and Range Sciences, 119
Linfield Hall, Bozeman, Montana
59717, USA.
E - mail: jboles@montana.edu

Brian C. Bowker

Food Technology and Safety Laboratory,
Bldg 201, BARC - East, Beltsville,
Maryland 20705, USA.
E - mail: brian.bowker@ars.usda.gov

xi

Susan Brewer

Food Science and Human Nutrition,
University of Illinois, USA.
E - mail: msbrewer@illinois.edu

Janice A. Callahan

Food Technology and Safety Laboratory,
Bldg 201, BARC - East, Beltsville, Maryland
20705, USA.
E - mail: Janice.callahan@ars.usda.gov

Marta Castro - Gir á ldez

Institute of Food Engineering for
Development, Universidad Polit é cnica de
Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022
Valencia, Spain.

Pier Sandro Cocconcelli

Istituto di Microbiologia, Centro Ricerche
Biotecnologiche, Universit à Cattolica del
Sacro Cuore, Piacenza - Cremona, Italy.
E - mail: pier.cocconcelli@unicatt.it

Eleftherios H. Drosinos

Laboratory of Food Quality Control and
Hygiene, Department of Food Science and
Technology, Agricultural University of
Athens, Iera Odos 75, Votanikos, 11855
Athens, Greece.
E - mail: ehd@aua.gr

Janet S. Eastridge

Food Technology and Safety Laboratory,
Bldg 201, BARC - East, Beltsville, Maryland
20705, USA.
E - mail: janet.eastridge@ars.usda.gov

xii Contributors

Silvina Fadda

Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos
(CERELA), CONICET., Chacabuco 145,
T4000ILC Tucum á n, Argentina.
E - mail: fadda@cerela.org.ar

Mustafa M. Farouk

AgResearch MIRINZ, Ruakura Research
Centre, East Street, Private Bag 3123,
Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.
E - mail: mustafa.farouk@agresearch.co.nz

Alejandro Ferrando

Departamento de Bioqu í mica y Biolog í a
Molecular, Facultad de Biolog í a,
Universidad de Valencia, Dr Moliner, 50,
Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain.

Pedro Fito

Institute of Food Engineering for
Development, Universidad Polit é cnica de
Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: pfito@tal.upv.es

Pedro Jos é Fito

Institute of Food Engineering for
Development, Universidad Polit é cnica de
Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: pjfito@tal.upv.es

M ó nica Flores

Department of Food Science, Instituto de
Agroqu í mica y Tecnolog í a de Alimentos
(CSIC), PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot,
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: mflores@iata.csic.es

Cecilia Fontana

Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos
(CERELA), CONICET., Chacabuco 145,
T4000ILC Tucum á n, Argentina.
E - mail: cecilia.fontana@unicatt.it

Maria Jo ã o Fraqueza

Faculdade de Medicina Veterin á ria,
DPASA, TULisbon, Av. da Universidade
Tecnica, Polo Universit á rio, Alto da Ajuda,
1300 - 477 Lisboa, Portugal.
E - mail: mjoaofraqueza@fmv.utl.pt

Daniel Y. C. Fung

Department of Animal Sciences and
Industry, 207 Call Hall, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506,
USA.
E - mail: dfung@ksu.edu

Isabel Guerrero Legarreta

Departamento de Biotecnolog í a,
Universidad Aut ó noma, Metropolitana,
Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186,
Del. Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55 - 535,
C.P. 092340, Mexico City.
E - mail: meat@xanum.uam.mx

Marta Hern á ndez

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and
Microbiology, Instituto Tecnol ó gico
Agrario de Castilla y Le ó n (ITACyL), Ctra.
Burgos km.119, Finca Zamadue ñ as, 47071
Valladolid, Spain.

Karl O. Honikel

Max Rubner - Institut, Arbeitsgruppe
Analytik, Kulmbach, Germany.
E - mail: karl - otto.honikel@t - online.de

Elisabeth Huff - Lonergan

Muscle Biology, Department of Animal
Science, Iowa State University, 2275 Kildee
Hall, Ames, IA 50011 USA. E - mail:
elonerga@iastate.edu

K á lm á n Incze

Hungarian Meat Research Institute, 1097
Budapest, Gubacsi ú t 6/b, Hungary.
E - mail: ohki@interware.hu

Contributors xiii

Christian James

Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering
Research Centre (FRPERC), The Grimsby
Institute of Further and Higher
Education(GIFHE), HSI Building, Origin
Way, Europarc, Grimsby, North East
Lincolnshire, DN37 9TZ UK.
E - mail: JamesC@grimsby.ac.uk

Stephen J. James

Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering
Research Centre (FRPERC), The Grimsby
Institute of Further and Higher
Education(GIFHE), HSI Building, Origin
Way, Europarc, Grimsby, North East
Lincolnshire, DN37 9TZ UK.
E - mail: jamess@grimsby.ac.uk

Joseph P. Kerry

Department of Food and Nutritional
Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland.
E - mail: Joe.Kerry@ucc.ie

Edward Ko ł akowski

Department of Food Science and
Technology, Agricultural University of
Szczecin, Papie a Paw ł a VI St. 3, 71 - 459
Szczecin, Poland.
E - mail: ekolakowski@tz.ar.szczecin.pl

Catherine M. Logue

Department of Veterinary and
Microbiological Sciences, North Dakota
State University, 1523 Centennial Blvd,
130A Van Es Hall, Fargo, North Dakota
58105, USA.
E - mail: Catherine.Logue@ndsu.edu

Friedrich - Karl L ü cke

Hochschule Fulda (University of Applied
Sciences), P.O. Box 2254, 36012 Fulda,
Germany.
E - mail: friedrich - karl.luecke@t - online.de

Douglas L. Marshall

College of Natural and Health Sciences,
University of Northern Colorado,
Campus Box 134, Greeley, Colorado
80639 USA.
E - mail: douglas.marshall@unco.edu

Leticia Mora

Department of Food Science, Instituto de
Agroqu í mica y Tecnolog í a de Alimentos
(CSIC), PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: lemoso@iata.csic.es

Geoffrey R. Nute

University of Bristol, School of Clinical
Veterinary Science, Division of Farm
Animal Science, Bristol BS40 5DU, Avon,
England.
E - mail: Geoff.Nute@bristol.ac.uk

George - John E. Nychas

Laboratory of Food Microbiology &
Biotechnology, Department of Food
Science & Technology, Agricultural
University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Athens
11855, Greece.
E - mail: gjn@aua.gr

Motoko Ohata

Department of Animal Science, Kitasato
University, Towada - shi, Aomori 034 - 8628,
Japan.

Maurice G. O ’ Sullivan

Department of Food and Nutritional
Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland.
E - mail: maurice.osullivan@ucc.ie

Spiros Paramithiotis

Laboratory of Food Quality Control and
Hygiene, Department of Food Science and
Technology, Agricultural University of
Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens,
Greece.

xiv Contributors

Ernie W. Paroczay

Food Technology and Safety Laboratory,
Bldg 201, BARC - East, Beltsville,
Maryland 20705, USA.
E - mail: ernie.paroczay@ars.usda.gov

Eero Puolanne

Department of Food Technology, Viikki
EE, P.O. Box 66, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
E - mail: Eero.Puolanne@helsinki.fi

Stefania Quintavalla

Department of Microbiology, SSICA, V.le
Tanara 31/A, 43100, Parma, Italy.
E - mail address: stefania.quintavalla@ssica.it

Milagro Reig

Institute of Food Engineering for
Development, Universidad Polit é cnica de
Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: mareirie@doctor.upv.es

David Rodr í guez - L á zaro

Food Safety and Technology Group,
Instituto Tecnol ó gico Agrario de Castilla y
Le ó n (ITACyL), Ctra. Burgos km.119,
Finca Zamadue ñ as, 47071 Valladolid,
Spain.
E - mail: ita - rodlazda@itacyl.es

Peter R. Sheard

Division of Farm Animal Science, School
of Clinical Veterinary Science, University
of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU, Avon, UK.
E - mail: Peter.Sheard@bristol.ac.uk

Zdzis ł aw E. Sikorski

Department of Food Chemistry, Gda n´ sk
University of Technology
E - mail: sikorski@chem.pg.gda.pl OR
zdzsikor@pg.gda.pl

Panagiotis N. Skandamis

Laboratory of Food Quality Control and
Hygiene, Department of Food Science and
Technology, Agricultural University of
Athens, Iera Odos 75, Votanikos, 11855
Athens, Greece.

John N. Sofos

Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
Colorado 80523, USA.
E - mail: John.Sofos@ColoState.EDU

Morse B. Solomon

Food Technology and Safety Laboratory,
Bldg 201, BARC - East, Beltsville, Maryland
20705, USA.
E - mail: Morse.Solomon@ARS.USDA.GOV

Oleksandr Tokarskyy

Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and
Health Promotion, Mississippi State
University, Box 9805, Mississippi State
University, Mississippi 39762 USA.

Fidel Toldr á

Department of Food Science, Instituto de
Agroqu í mica y Tecnolog í a de Alimentos
(CSIC), PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot,
Valencia, Spain.
E - mail: ftoldra@iata.csic.es

Graciela Vignolo

Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos
(CERELA), CONICET., Chacabuco 145,
T4000ILC Tucum á n, Argentina.
E - mail: vignolo@cerela.org.ar

Endre Zuk á l

Hungarian Meat Research Institute,
Budapest 1097, Gubacsi ú t 6/b, Hungary.

About the Editor

Fidel Toldr á , Ph.D., is a research professor at
the Department of Food Science, Instituto de
Agroqu í mica y Tecnolog í a de Alimentos
(CSIC), and serves as European editor of
Trends in Food Science & Technology , editor
in chief of Current Nutrition & Food Science,
and as section editor of the Journal of Muscle
Foods . He is also serving on the editorial
board of the journals Food Chemistry , Meat
Science , Open Nutrition Journal , Food
Analytical Methods , Open Enzyme Inhibition
Journal and Journal of Food and Nutrition
Research . He is a member of the European
Food Safety Authority panel on flavorings,
enzymes, processing aids, and materials in
contact with foods.
Professor Toldr á has acted as editor or
associate editor of several books in recent

xv

years, including Handbook of Muscle
Foods Analysis and Handbook of Processed
Meats and Poultry Analysis (2009), Meat
Biotechnology and Safety of Meat and
Processed Meat (2008, 2009), Handbook of
Food Product Manufacturing (2007),
Advances in Food Diagnostics , and Handbook
of Fermented Meat and Poultry (2007, 2008).
Professor Toldr á also wrote the book Dry -
Cured Meat Products (2002).
Professor Toldr á was awarded the 2002
International Prize for meat science and tech-
nology by the International Meat Secretariat
and was elected in 2008 as Fellow of the
International Academy of Food Science &
Technology (IAFOST) and in 2009 as
Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists
(IFT).

Handbook of
Meat Processing

Technologies

Part I

5

Chapter 1

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