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Production, Distillation, Quality Control, Liquor Section, D. M.

Plant & Packaging of Alcoholic Beverages

Specially Sprit made Beverages

Training Report On

Executed at

National Industrial Corporation Ltd.

Distillery: - Raja-Ka-Sahaspur, (Bilari) Distt. Moradabad (U.P.)202415

Submitted in Partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology

Guided By:Mr. Praveen Kumar Bais (HOD- D. M Plant, R&D Mr. Mukesh K. Varshney (HOD- Bottling and Packaging)

Submitted By:Mohd. Kafeel Khan Mohd. Hasan Khan B. Tech. 5thSemester {Food Technology} Roll No:-09237036 & 035



Preface Acknowledgement Declaration What is Alcoholic Beverages

Organization Profile
I. Introduction Plant of Nicols House Product of Nicols House Technical Session (Distillery) Production: a. Molasses b. Yeast And Yeast Culture c. Fermentation Distillation ENA Plant Quality Control Ware House Liquor Section D. M. Plant Packaging Of Alcoholic Beverages


Utilities Conclusion Bibliography

Summer training is one of most important parts of the curriculum for Engineering & Technology studies. Its basic idea is strength the students concept through practical training and make their aquatinted with recent development as part of B. Tech Course. This report is based upon my work experienced in

National Industrial Corporation Ltd. Distillery: - Raja-KaSahaspur, (Bilari) Distt. Moradabad (U.P.) 202415 where I underwent 4 weeks training from 1st July 2011 to 30th July 2011. We were doing work at Production, Distillation, Quality Control,

Liquor Section, D. M. Plant & Packaging of Alcoholic Beverages. Despite all the limitations and obstacles, I have put my
efforts and hard work to make the objective accomplished in stipulated time. I have come across difficulties to make this project a reality, but with the extreme support of my guide, I have completed it successfully. We made Deep study of it and effort has been made to make the best report a lucid, simple authentic and recent account of each and every topic. While doing this project I realized that the things learned from the books are quite different from the actual practice. The sequence of chapters were selected, keeping in view of the training schedule made by the Training and Development Department and also keep in view of process.

I am very grateful to my respected Prof. Dheer Singh, Dean Engineering & Technology and Miss Neha Choudhary, Department of Food Technology, who give me valuable guidance. No project can be done in vacuum. The accomplishment of this project would have not been possible individually without the encouragement, assistance and valuable support from various sources Thus my wholehearted thanks to almighty. I express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtness to Mr. V. K. Jhang, Work Manager & Mr. Vijay Harit, Manager Administration & Legal who trusted me and gave me the opportunity to work as a summer trainee in National Industrial Corporation Ltd. and coordinated my training schedule so efficiently. My special thanks to Mr. Mukesh K. Varshney (HOD: Bottling & Packaging), Mr. Praveen Kumar Bais (HOD: - R&D, D. M. Plant), Mr. Rahat Ali (Production & Distillation), Om Prakhash Pandey (Blanding & Warehousing). They provided the easiest possible solutions to my problems, which were helpful in the development of the project. I am also thankful to the whole staff of National Industrial Corporation Ltd. Distillery: - Raja-Ka-Sahaspur, (Bilari) Distt. Moradabad. Who helped me in every possible way throughout the summer training? In spite of their busy schedule gave me immense help and guidance. I owe a deep sense of gratitude to all the respondents who gave me valuable information for the project. Last but not the least I thankful to my parents for supporting me both morally and financially in accomplishing this project and friends for bearing with during the summer training.

I do hereby declare that the Project report entitled Production, Distillation, Quality Control, Liquor Section, D. M. Plant & Packaging of Alcoholic Beverages Submitted toward National Industrial Corporation Limited in Partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech). Programmed offered by Department of Food

Technology, Institute of Engineering & Technology Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India. This report has not been submitted to any other institute or university for fulfilment of any other course of study or any other purpose. This project is my original work with my training mate. The data is collected from Internet, Books, Distillery staffs and my personal experience at National Industrial Corporation Limited.
Mohd. Kafeel Khan Mohd. Hasan Khan


An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: Beers, Wines, and Spirits. Alcoholic beverages that have Lower Alcohol content (beer and wine) are produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing plant material. Beverages of Higher Alcohol content (spirits) are produced by fermentation followed by distillation. Alcoholic Beverages


Distilled Sprits


Wines Rum Brandy Whisky Gin Vodka

Beer Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches which are mainly derived from cereal grains most commonly malted barley although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. Alcoholic beverages which are distilled after fermentation, fermented from noncereal sources such as grapes or honey, or fermented from un-malted cereal grain, are not classified as beer. The two main types of beer are lager and ale. Ale is further classified into varieties such as pale ale, stout, and brown ale. Most

beer is flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative. Other flavorings, such as fruits or herbs, may also be used. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), but it may be less than 1% or more than 20%, and at least as high as 55%. Beer is part of the drinking culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals, cantus, pub culture, pub games, and pub crawling. The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. The beer-brewing industry is global in scope, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and thousands of smaller producers, which range from regional breweries to microbreweries. Wine Wine is produced from grapes, and fruit wine is produced from fruits such as plums, cherries, or apples. Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process and a long aging process (months or years) that results in an alcohol content of 9%16% ABV. Sparkling wine can be made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to occur in the bottle. Spirits Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. Spirits are produced by the distillation of a fermented base product. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Spirits can be added to wines to create fortified wines, such as port and Sherry.

National Industrial Corporation Ltd.

Distillery: - Raja-Ka-Sahaspur, (Bilari) Distt. Moradabad (U.P.)202415

The Mother Unit of Nicols House

National Industrial Corporation Limited was established in 1943 by Seth Family headed by Rai Bahadur Seth Ajudhia Prasad, Rai Bahadur Seth Ram Rattan and Seth Ram ji Dass having 600 share holders in India and abroad. It was actively engaged in the manufacture and trading Sugar, alcohol, textile, edible oil as well as construction and banking. The Company is presently headed by Mr. S.P. Seth and his son Mr. Rakesh Seth who with their vision and dynamism, have taken the company to a continuing growth path with the company achieving a turnover of one hundred forty seven crores during the year 2005. Even today, it is a family owned enterprise run by the third generation. Management of day to day affairs is carried out by a team of highly educated and experienced professionals in every department of the Organisation. The functioning of this corporation is through its distillery located in Raja Ka Sahaspur (Bilari) Moradabad U.P. and bottling units in the various parts of the Country. The Distillery was initially formed with the objective of supplying power alcohol for the vehicles in World War II. Thereafter, it supplied Industrial alcohol to various chemicals and alcohol based units. Later, in the 50's & 60's the demand for potable liquor started rising. The Distillery went in for a massive modernization & expansion programme including production refined neutral Alcohol, maturation facilities, high speed automatic bottling lines and captive power generation planned & executed by foreign consultants based on International Technologies.

After nearly 60 years of successful working, it is today one of the largest alcohol producing Distilleries in India. The Company has a workforce of 500 employees, including 150 employees in the field for the marketing of the products. Based on the experience of nearly six decades in the alcohol industry, the Company has collaborated with many other Distilleries and Bottling Units, offering them the technical know-how & management expertise for bottling of company products throughout the country. The manufacturing (Bottling) Units are located at Bilari (UP), Derabassi (Punjab), Jaipur (Rajasthan), Jammu (J&K), Mapusa (Goa), Asansol (West Bengal) and the Company has thelle ups for bottling in the States of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Uttaranchal & Arunachal Pradesh. The wholesale' depots of the Company are located at Delhi & Dehradun and branch office at Mumbai. The Company is one of the largest suppliers to Canteen Stores Department (CSD) & Para Military Forces. National Industrial Corp. Ltd. is dedicated exclusively for promoting Indian products in foreign markets. It is today one of the leading exporters of Alcoholic Beverages to Gulf & Middle East countries, Africa etc. The company has technical collaboration with Ian Macleod, Edinburgh, Scotland for bottling of Scotch & Admixes in India, As well as distillerie des cordeiers France for brandy. All the manufacturing units are managed from the corporate office by a team of professionals based at the headquarters at New Delhi. The company is committed to the principle of high business ethics and global quality standards. In spite of the uncertainties faced due to the nature of industry, the company has withstood the challenges due to the experience of promoters in the industry and inherent strength possessed by the company.


Founder of Nicols House



(31st May 1906 - 11th March 1984)

Board Of Directors Manufacturing Units

Mr. S.P. SETH Chairman Mr. RAKESH SETH Managing Director Mr. S.B. SEN GUPTA General Manager Mr. K.P. RAMAN Executive Director Members Mr. K.K. VIJ Mr. NANAK SINGH Mr. VINAY BATRA

Company Depots Registered & Corporate Office

A-270, Defence Colony, New Delhi-110024 Phone: 51552555 Fax: 51552552 Bankers State Bank of India State Bank of Patiala Statutory Auditors M/S. J.N. Sharma & Co. Chartered Accountants Delhi Delhi Wholesale Depot: F-90/33, Basement Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-1, New Delhi Uttaranchal Depot: Ajabpur Danda, P.O. Nehru Gram, Near Rishpana Pul, Dehradun Ph.:0135-2666814

Branch Offices
Bombay Office Office No. 203-A, Picasso Business Centre, 202/212, Church Gate, Chamber-5, New Marine Lines, Mumbai 400 020 Phone: 022-22694135 (D), 22624560 Extn. 203 Fax: 22871166 Moradabad Office Prince Road, Near Chadha Complex, Moradabad (U.P.)


Plant of Nicols House

DISTILLERY UNIT: Raja-Ka-Sahaspur, Distt. Moradabad (UP.) Phone: 05921-270914, 270755 Fax: 0591-270542 Gram: "DISTILLERY" Raja-Ka-Sahaspur BOTTLING UNIT 1: F-147-148, Udyog Vihar, Jaitpura Dist. Jaipur (Rajasthan) Ph.: (01423)224571 Fax: (01423)224571 BOTTLING UNIT 2: Ambala Chandigarh Road, Village Roni, Derabassi (Punjab) Ph.: (01762)281411, 281412 Fax: (01762)281412 BOTTLING UNIT 3: D2-40, Tivim Industrial Estate, Karaswada, Mapusa, Goa403526 Phone: (0832)2257082 Fax :( 0832)2257082 BOTTLING UNIT 4: SIDCO Industrial Complex, Phase-l, Bari Brahma Industrial Estate, Jammu (J&K) Ph. :( 01923)221195 Fax :( 01923)222340 BOTTLING UNIT 5: ADDA, Industrial Estate, P.O. Kanyapur, Asansol, Distt. Burdwan (W.B.) Ph. :( 0341)2259587 Fax: (0341)2259589

Product of Nicols House






Technical Session
Distillery: - Raja-Ka-Sahaspur

The Mother Unit of Nicols House


Molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar cane, grapes or sugar beets into sugar. The word molasses comes from the Portuguese word melao, which ultimately comes from Mel, the Latin word for "honey". The quality of molasses depends on the maturity of the sugar cane or sugar beet, the amount of sugar extracted, and the method of extraction. Sweet sorghum syrup is known in some parts of the United States as molasses, though it is not true molasses. The history of the Word molasses (Melasse in German and Dutch) is not mentioned in Etymological dictionaries since it is quite definitely and clearly derived from the Romanic languages. It occurs in the same word from and with the same meaning in French, la mlasse, i.e. syrup or sugar honey and it has its counterparts in other Romanic languages, melassa (Italian), melaza (Spanish)*, melao (Portuguese), going back to the feminine form of the Latin adjective mellaceus, -a, -um, i.e. honey-like, and ultimately, to mel (Latin), honey. Accordingly, it originally was used in the context (substantia) mellacea, i.e. honeylike substance. The change in meaning appears in the Spanish suffix -aza, which expresses a coarsening, whereby attention is directed to the character of the substance as a coarse, thick crude honey. Any attempt, therefore, to derive the word from the Greek (melas), black, is misdirected. The term molasses is applied to the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization. The amount of molasses obtained and its quality (composition) provide information about the nature of the beets (local conditions of growth and effects of the weather) and the processing in the sugar factory, such as the efficiency of the juice clarification, the method of crystallization during boiling, and the separation of the sugar crystals from the low-grade massecuite.

The daily storage loss in Western Europe is estimated at 0.062% sugar on stored beets or 0.1% sugar decrease in the white sugar yield, resulting in the differences shown in Table 1 for each 1% sugar decrease in stored beets. If the concept molasses is to be strictly defined it is necessary to distinguish between theoretical and practical molasses. The theoretically final molasses is a mixture of sugar, non sugars and water, from which no saccharose crystallizes under any conceivable physical and technically optimum conditions, with no regard to time. If relatively more favourable conditions for crystallization are maintained (low water content, low temperature, long crystallization time, and thin layers of the syrup film) the crystallization might be so extended that with intensive centrifugation of the molasses a quotient (Q) of 49 would be attainable. Q represents the percentage of sugar in the total solid content of the molasses. The lower the purity or purity coefficient, the more closely syrup approaches theoretical molasses. Unusual specimens of molasses, produced in experimental studies, have quotients from 45 to 50. The practically obtainable molasses is the end syrup from which, with maintenance of the technical conditions promoting crystallization, no significant additional amounts of saccharose can be recovered by further concentration. In this sense molasses with purity quotients above 64 are no longer true molasses they are crystallisable syrups. Commercial molasses ordinarily have a quotient around 60, i.e. approximately 48 % sugar is present in molasses whose solids content is 80%. (Q denotes purity quotient of molasses; S is sugar content; T represents dry substance.) Efforts to understand and master the conditions leading to exhausted molasses are as old as the sugar industry itself. Since the formation of molasses and the problems of crystallization of sugar are closely related, a clear understanding of the influences of the non sugar substances on the crystallization of the saccharose from aqueous solutions simplifies the study of the formation of molasses. The many studies along these lines can be divided fundamentally into two categories.

(i) Mechanical theory of molasses formation

This old theory is based on the decrease in the rate of crystallization which depends on the speed with which the dissolved sugar molecules are transported out of the liquid on to the crystal surface as well as on the rate at which they are built into the crystal lattice. (ii) Chemical

theory of molasses formation

This theory is based on the mutual solubility influences in the system: water sugar, salts or non sugar components. In many studies of the influence of the non sugar components on the solubility of sucrose, pure substances or mixtures of pure substances have been employed, but they did not always correspond to the complicated relationships prevailing in molasses. The use of ion exchangers made it possible to start these investigations directly on molasses. It has been found that nitrogenous materials have practically no effect with respect to the sucrose solubility; potassium and sodium have considerably stronger molasses-producing properties than calcium and lithium. Because of the economic significance of the composition of final molasses there is great permanent interest in the sugar industry in being able to calculate beforehand the amount of molasses that may be expected, i.e. at the time of delivery and processing of the beets. Such preliminary methods of estimation are based on values derived from experience such as: A. The ash factor, i.e. the molasses usually has a weight ratio ash: sugar of 1:5. B. The harmful beet nitrogen; it is assumed that in the molasses there is a constant ratio 1: 25 between nitrogen and sugar. C. Diagrams or formulae which, with the inclusion of a few supplementary analytical data, give the amount of the molasses of

the beet from the polarization of the beets and the purity of the thick juice (evaporator syrup). D. Numerical relationships between the sugar content of the beet and the alkalis in the diffusion juice. E. The exhaustibility quotient, which is a numerical value of the molasses and which can be used in the control of the crystallization operation. The literature dealing with molasses is scattered among numerous publications and reports on parts of this topic in general and special problems, and is frequently not easily accessible. Molasses is a thick gelatine residue in sugar processing which cannot be further economically crystallized. It consists of solids, sucrose and reducing sugars. As per the amount of reducing sugars present molasses is graded as I, II, III and below Grade. Molasses having reducing sugar above 50% are taken as I grade, and below 40% are below grade. The commercial value of molasses is tested for the Brix (Total Dissolved solid) and TRS (Total reducing sugars) which represent its quality and grades for sale. Molasses are fermented in distilleries to produce alcohol commercially. India has been producing about 1.7 billion litres of liquor utilizing 75-80% molasses produced in the country. Though the free production of liquor using molasses is restricted for social reasons, its application in the preparation of alcohol based chemicals is also economically viable. India has the largest chemical industry in the world using sugar cane molasses to produce Ethyl Alcohol, Acetaldehyde, Acetic Acid Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) is being produced by molasses only.


Composition of Cane Molasses

Molasses is not just one chemical compound, but many. The main content is sugar (sucrose) (C12H22O11). The rest is complex and will vary depending if the molasses is from sugar beets, cane sugar (the two most common sources), or other. The total sugar content in molasses is approximately 50 %. Minor carbohydrates are glucose, fructose, raffinose and some other oligo- or polysaccharides. Their concentration is below 1 % and depends to a significant extent on the manufacturing process. Some of the minerals found in molasses are potassium followed by sodium, calcium and magnesium. Their content depends mainly on soil type and water availability. Additionally, the calcium and sodium content is influenced by processing practices. 21 About 20 % of the total mass consists of nonsucrose organic matter, in particular of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) containing substances, such as betaine. In addition molasses contains free and bound amino acids and pryrrolidone carboxylic acid (a conversion product of glutamine). In the manufacturing process most of the amino acids undergo changes so that less than the amounts expected from beet roots are found in molasses. Because molasses is used quite a bit in animal food, and agriculture is becoming more and more scientific, you can find quite a few articles online that have even more detail about the chemical composition of molasses. See the links below for a start.


Typical Composition of Cane Molasses

Brix, spindle Weight/gallon Nitrogen Crude Protein Total Sugars Density (as fed) Dry Matter Moisture Ash Organic Matter Reducing Substances, as Dextrose Sucrose Fructose Glucose pH Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Chloride Magnesium Sulfur Sodium Copper Iron Manganese 86.0 degrees 11.8-12.0 lbs 1.01 % 6.30 % 48.3 % 11.8 lbs/gal 76.5 % 23.5 % 16.0 % 62.5 % 11.5 % 35.9 % 5.6 % 2.6 % 4.9 - 5.4 0.8 % negligible (not for use) 4.2 % 2.1% 0.27 % 0.78 % 0.09 % 14 ppm 130 ppm 5 ppm Zinc Cobalt Iodine Selenium Biotin Folic Acid Inositol Calcium Pantothenate Pyridoxine Riboflavin Thiamine Niacin Choline 8 ppm negligible negligible negligible 3 ppm 0.04 ppm 6000 ppm 60 ppm 4 ppm 2.5 ppm 1.8 ppm 500 ppm 700 ppm


Quality of molasses
Quality of molasses is generally depends upon the Brix, total reducing sugar as invert sugar percent and ash percentage. Based on this parameter ISI has prescribed the following three grades of molasses. Characteristics
1. Density in Degree Brix at 275 C

ISI requirement
Grade Ist 85 14% 50% IInd 80 17.5% 44% IIIrd 80 17.5% 40%

2. Ash sulphate by wt. Calculated for 1000 Brix 3. Total reducing matter (as invert sugar by wt.)

Storage of molasses
The production of cane sugar in our country is seasonal (4-6 months); therefore it is necessary to storage of molasses. The quantity of molasses for at least 3 month is needed for the storage according to capacity of distillery, and the quantity of molasses for distillery producing 60 KL per day R. S quantity of 2100 to 2200 quintal of molasses per day. National Industrial Corporation Ltd. Distillery: - Raja-Ka-Sahaspur is having there molasses storage is as follows: Made of Contraction: Stainless Steel Height of Tank: 25 ft. Diameter of Tank: 20 ft. Capacity of Tank: 175500 quintal


Analytical Work Related To Molasses

Aim: Determination the Total Sugar as Invert Sugar in Final Molasses. Reagents: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

Neutral Lead Acetate [(CH3COO)2Pb] Disodium Phosphate And Potassium Oxalate Solution Fehling solution A and B NaOH (4%) Conc. HCl Phenolphthalein Indicator Ethylene Blue Indicator

Procedure: Weight 12.5gm molasses and put into 250ml measuring flask with the add of DM water and 25ml undiluted 10% (CH3COO)2Pb solution are added for clarification. Make up the volume to 250ml mark with DM water and filter after through mixing. Transfer 50ml of the clear filtrate to a 250ml measuring flask, add 10ml of disodium phosphate, potassium oxalate solution make up the volume to 250ml mark with DM water, shake well and filter. Take 50ml of the filtrate in a 100ml measuring flask & add 5ml conc. HCl and heat to 60C a water bath for 10 minute. Cool to room temperature and neutralize with NaOH solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator. Rinse and fill the burette with solution and titrate with 10ml of Fehling solution (5ml Fehling A and 5ml Fehling B) use 3-4 drops of ethylene blue as indicator. End point is the change colour from very deep blue to olive green and finally to the red colour of the cuprous oxide. The Fehling Solution used has to be standardized firstly with a solution of invert sugar containing 2gm of invert sugar per ml.

Calculation: Fehling Factor = 25.6/a, Where a is burette reading 10ml of Fehling solution = 0.05128gm of Reducing Sugar Total Sugar as Invert Sugar = 0.05128100 B. R. F. F. D. F. Where, B. R. - Burette Reading F. F. - Fehling Factor D. F. - Dilution Factor Aim: Determination the Reducing Sugar in given Molasses sample. Reagents: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Neutral Lead Acetate [(CH3COO)2Pb] Disodium Phosphate And Potassium Oxalate Solution Fehling solution A and B Ethylene Blue Indicator

Procedure: Weight 12.5gm molasses and put into 250ml measuring flask with the add of DM water and 25ml undiluted 10% (CH3COO)2Pb solution are added for clarification. Make up the volume to 250ml mark with DM water and filter after through mixing. Take 50ml of the clear filtrate to a 250ml conical flask, add 10ml of disodium phosphate and potassium oxalate solution make up the volume to 250ml mark with DM water, shake well and filter whole solution. Take the filtrate in a burette for titration. Titrate with 5ml Fehling A and 5ml Fehling B solution use 3-4 drops of ethylene blue as indicator. End point is the change colour from very deep blue to olive green and finally to the red colour of the cuprous oxide. Calculation: Fehling Factor = 25.6/a, Where a is burette reading 10ml of Fehling solution = 0.05128gm of Reducing Sugar Percentage of Reducing Sugar = 0.05128100 B. R. F. F. D. F.


Yeast and Yeast Culture

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly known as bakers yeast, concentrating on cell population growth and fermentation end products. The use of instrumentation such as a carbon dioxide gas analyzer, a spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) facilitated the study of both changes in cell population and cell metabolism. Analysis of carbon dioxide production and optical density over time was applied in the examination of changes in yeast cell population. As mentioned above, yeasts are found throughout the world; more than 8,000 strains of this vegetative microorganism have been classified. Approximately nine or 10 pure strains, with their sub classifications, are used for fermentation of molasses; these all belong to the type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each strain has its own characteristics, imparting its special properties to the distillate derived from its fermentation. Strains used in the fermentation of molasses are used in fermentation for rum, tequila, and beer production. A limited number of yeasts are also used in the fermentation of wines, from which brandy is distilled. In molasses based products, yeast cells are grown in molasses mixtures. The molasses mixture is sterilized, and then inoculated with lactic-acid bacteria to increase acidity. (Yeast is more tolerant of higher acidity than many commonly occurring bacteria.) When the desired acidity is reached, the mixture is again sterilized and a pure yeast culture is added. The yeast is grown under controlled conditions until it reaches the optimum point for mixing with the molasses.


Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is produced by fermentation of sugars. Fermentation alone does not produce beverages with Alcohol content greater than 12 to 15% because the fermenting yeast is destroyed at high Alcohol concentrations. To produce beverages of higher Alcohol content the aqueous solution must be distilled. The fermentation of carbohydrates into Alcohol is one of the oldest known chemical processes. The reaction is catalyzed by yeast enzymes called Zymases. A balanced chemical reaction for this process, assuming the sugar is Table Sugar or Sucrose, Fermentation can be represented as:

C12H22O11 + H2O
Sucrose DM Water Zymases

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Glucose Fructose

C6H12O6 + H2O
Glucose DM Water

4CH3CH2OH + 4CO2 Ethyl Alcohol Carbon Di Oxide

Two types of dry yeast are produced, active dry yeast (ADY) and instant dry yeast (IDY). Instant dry yeast is produced from a faster-reacting yeast strain than that used for ADY. The main difference between ADY and IDY is that ADY has to be dissolved in warm water before usage, but IDY does not. The principal raw materials used in producing bakers yeast are the pure yeast culture and molasses. The yeast strain used in producing compressed yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Other yeast strains are required to produce each of the 2 dry yeast products, ADY and IDY.


Batch Type Fermentation The batch type fermentation process is adopted by Nicol distillery. It is the best process, where ones the pitching of wash has been affected and no further attention paid to till the fermentation is completed. The process has been modified is batter. Some time where the filling in main fermentor is done in stages, otherwise the course of process is same. In this process numbers of vats are change with fresh yeast inoculums from prefermentor in ratio 1:10-15. These fermentors separately filled with diluted molasses of desired specific gravity. Fermentation process Fermentation plant is well equipped with excellent arrangement of steam coils, cooling coils and air sparger in prefermentor. Diluter Diluter having three connection, one for inlet of water & second one for inlet of molasses and third one for outlet of desired Brix. It is a drum shaped and situated beside of prefermentor. The dimension of diluter is 156238 Cm2. Diluted molasses come in fermentor house through gravity. Yeast Vessel Yeast vessel made of copper, for sterilizing steam line is placed in the vessel. It is connected with prefermentor by pipe line. The lab prepared culture is added in the yeast vessel by the flask and temperature maintained about 37C. The yeast vessel is fully covered, no exchange of air into the vessel. After adding the lab culture in the vessel, vessel sterilized about 3-4 h and the cell of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is growing.

Vessel No. Yeast Vessel 1 Yeast Vessel 2 Yeast Vessel 3 Yeast Vessel 4 Prefermentor

Capacity 800 L 800 L 2000 L 2000 L

The shape of prefermentor is bulb tank type. Each bulb tank is provide with air sparger pipe (copper made), steam line for sterilization and cooling coil. First of all prefermentor is limed, steamed and finally washed with water. After this, diluted molasses specific gravity 1.040 is taking into prefermentor upto half working capacity. Mixed lab yeast from yeast vessel in to prefermentor and provide sterilized air from proper yeast propagation. Add 100gm Urea, 10 ml Conc. H2SO4 for each 1000 L of wort and also add Anti Bacterial Agent (Sodium Meta bi Sulphate) & Anti Biotic (Panted tablet 400mg) which suppers the bacterial growth. Than after 2 hour, gradually filling with wort is started upto working capacity and again provide Urea, Conc. H2SO4, Anti Bacterial Agent (Sodium Meta bi Sulphate) & Anti Biotic (Panted tablet 400mg) in proper amount and gives continue air. After 6-8 hour, this propagated yeast is send to the main fermentor for fermentation. Before transfer of propagated yeast in to fermentor we checked the cell count per ml. If the cell count is in proper amount then transfer it to the fermentor for fermentation. Tank No. Prefermentor 1 Prefermentor 2 Prefermentor 3 Capacity 39291.51 L 39291.51 L 39291.51 L


Fermentor The fermentor is made of mild steel and flat in the bottom. Fermentors are equipped with standard cooling coil around the periphery arrangement for filling of wort and drain for sludge. The propagated yeast of prefermentor which is ready simultaneously, is taken in one fermentor and dilute molasses about 20-22 Brix (1.0801.090 sp. Gravity) having 12-13% sugar is added gradually. The wash back is normally filled in a period 4-5 hour. This filling is done in 2-3 stage. Fermentor is active after 1-2 hour taking yeast from bulb tank to main fermentor and 50% of sugar is fermented in to alcohol within 8-10 hour. After pitching whereas total fermentation takes place in about 30 hour. After fermentation 7-8% V/V is obtains. During fermentation temperature increase upto 38C, so we used external cooling coil to maintain temperature about 30-35C and pH maintain about 4.5-4.8% by using H2SO4.

C12H22O11 + H2O
Sucrose DM Water Zymases

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Glucose Fructose

C6H12O6 + H2O
Glucose DM Water

4CH3CH2OH + 4CO2
Ethyl Alcohol Carbon Di Oxide

Fermentor Column Fermentor A Fermentor B Fermentor C Fermentor D

Capacity 273851.75 L 275033.98 L 285640.28 L 285640.28 L


Batch Distillation

Heating an ideal mixture of two volatile substances A and B (with A having the higher volatility, or lower boiling point) in a batch distillation setup (such as in an apparatus depicted in the opening figure) until the mixture is boiling results in a vapor above the liquid which contains a mixture of A and B. The ratio between A and B in the vapor will be different from the ratio in the liquid: the ratio in the liquid will be determined by how the original mixture was prepared, while the ratio in the vapor will be enriched in the more volatile compound, A (due to Raoult's Law, see above). The vapor goes through the condenser and is removed from the system. This in turn means that the ratio of compounds in the remaining liquid is now different from the initial ratio (i.e. more enriched in B than the starting liquid). The result is that the ratio in the liquid mixture is changing, becoming richer in component B. This causes the boiling point of the mixture to rise, which in turn results in a rise in the temperature in the vapor, which results in a changing ratio of A : B in the gas phase (as distillation continues, there is an increasing proportion of B in the gas phase). These results in a slowly changing ratio A: B in the distillate.


If the difference in vapor pressure between the two components A and B is large (generally expressed as the difference in boiling points), the mixture in the beginning of the distillation is highly enriched in component A, and when component A has distilled off, the boiling liquid is enriched in component B. It is the operation of evaporation and condensation of constituent according to their boiling point. In this method the more volatile constituent is separated from less volatile constituent. Alcohol is more volatile then water. Fermented Wash is a binary mixture and it is send to steel for recovering alcohol from it.

Analyzer column One analyzer column was build in segment containing 18 tunnel type plate and 5 tunnel type plate in the degasifying column. As the named suggest analyzer means the separation of more volatile vapour from the fermented wash leaving behind the less volatile liquid at the bottom. The fermented wash from the wash charger is pumped to passing through beer heater (Preheater), heat exchanger and after heated to an extended to feed to the feed plate in top of column.

Steam is given to bottom of the analyzer column through sparger. The temperature in the bottom about 105-106C. At this temperature under satisfactory working condition there is no loss of alcohol from spent wash. There are 23 plates in the column, wash from feed plate, the sprit to the next down plate through down pipe and separate over the plate and similarly to the rest plate column. Vapour rich in alcohol ash end to the upper side of column, finally reaches to the vapour line. The liquid going down from plate to plate ultimately nil in alcohol reached a bottom of column and is send to the heat exchanger for heat recovery. Analyzer Column Inner Dia - 72 No. of Plate - 18 No. of Segment - 10 M. O. C. - S. Steel Plate Spacing - 22 Type of Cap - Tunnel cap Rectifier column Alcoholic vapours coming out from analyzer column are some less reached (about 30-40%) in alcohol. These are passed through rectifier higher boiling fraction level behind the vapour quiet rich in alcohol (93-94%) reached to the top of the rectifier, from where these are twisted to the beer heater. The temperature of vapour entering rectifier column bottom is about 94-95C. A very important and valuable by product name as fusel oil collected from lower portion of rectifier column. If it is not separated out than is it a contamination for the final product as it is a very pungent and bed smelling product. It is mixture of higher alcohol and it is used as solvent, perfumes, source of various chemicals. Degasifying Column Inner Dia - 72 No. of Plate - 5 No. of Segment - 3 M. O. C. - S. Steel Plate Spacing - 22 Type of Cap - Tunnel cap


Rectifier column Inner Dia - 72 No. of Plate - 42 No. of Segment - 12 M. O. C. - Copper Plate Spacing - 22 Type of Cap - Bubble cap Exhaust column It is a small Rectifier placed just below the rectifier. The stripping of the rectifier and washing of fusel oil are taking into the exhaust column. The liquid is steamed (101-102C) a part of volatile liquid (alcohol) rises though it plate and add to other vapours of rectifier and the rest of liquid is thrown out from the column. Beer Heater Beer heater is a hollow cylindrical body fitted with tubes. Wash from charger through control valve is passed through the tubes and alcoholic vapours coming out from rectifier column are passed through the shell side in opposite direction. Heat transfer occurs between fermented wash and vapour rising from rectifier column with a partial condensation of alcoholic vapour and partially heating of fermented wash. Condensed alcohol is sent to the top of rectifier and fermented wash is sent to the heat exchanger for further heating.

Beer Heater Heat Transfer Area - 900 ft2 Tube Diameter - 40 mm Length of Tube - 9 No. of Tube - 400 Heat exchanger The plate type heat exchanger is used in distillery. The plate type heat exchanger play an important role in economy of steam. The fermented wash preheated in beer heater is taken in plate type heat exchanger and spent wash which is come from analyzer column is also taken in plate type heat exchanger. The heat transfer between fermented wash and spent wash. After the heat exchange temperature of fermented wash increased upto 80-85C. Now this heated fermented wash is feed into degasifying column. Heat exchanger Type - Plate with Rubber Gasket M. O. C. - S. Steel No. Of Plate - 72 Capacity - 26000 l/h Condenser The function of the condenser is same to the beer heater expect in condenser shell side water is taken while in beer heater we taken fermented wash shell side. Some part of condensed vapour is return back to the column (reflux) while some part is taken as head product. Condenser Heat Transfer Area - 500 ft2 Tube Diameter - 40 mm Length of Tube - 8 No. of Tube - 250 Vent Condenser Heat Transfer Area - 300 ft2 Tube Diameter - 35 mm Length of Tube - 7.5 No. of Tube - 180

Cooler The main function of cooler is to reduce the temperature of withdrawn product upto desirable temperature before storage. The liquid passed in shell side and water in tube. After cooling product is taken in a safe glass, where its strength is checked and finally sends to receiver room of the storage. Cooler Heat Transfer Area - 15m 2 Tube Diameter - 35 mm Length of Tube - 3m No. of Tube - 60 SPECIFICATION: Aldehyde Column Inner Dia - 45 No. of Plate - 84 No. of Segment - 14 M. O. C. - S. Steel Plate Spacing - 9 Type of Cap - Bubble cap Aldehyde Condenser Heat Transfer Area - 20 m2 Tube Diameter - 32 mm Length of Tube - 3 m No. of Tube - 70 Vent Condenser small Heat Transfer Area - 9 m2 Tube Diameter - 30 mm Length of Tube - 3m No. of Tube 40 m


In Nicol distillery have an E. N. A. Plant, whose capacity is 45 KL per day. In E. N. A. Plant distilled further rectified spirit with a mixture of water in ratio 1:5. Purifier Column The column is made of copper and plays an important role to purify the quality of spirit. In this column spirit and water mixture is feed on 13th, 14th & 15th plate. This column consists of 35 plates with bubble caps. The bottom temperature maintained 91-95C. We collect some impure from the final condenser of purifier and reflux further feed to column then it is leaves drown back to the rectifier column. Purifier Column Height - 20 ft Diameter - 42 No. of Plate - 35 Plate Spacing - 8 Type of Cap - Bubble cap Rectifier Column Alcoholic mixture coming from the bottom of purifier 15th plate. This column consists of 45 plates with bubble caps. The mixture feed to rectification column and higher boiling fraction leaves behind and vapours quiet rich of CH3CH2OH 95% reaches to the top of column from where tube are twisted to condenser. A very important by product is collect from bottom and fusel oil is essential to remove. The presence of fusel oil the bed smelling final product drowns from 40-45th plates is obtained.

Rectifier Column Height - 20 ft Diameter - 42 No. of Plate - 45 Plate Spacing - 8 Type of Cap - Bubble cap Exhaust Column It is a small Rectifier placed just below the rectifier. The stripping of the rectifier and washing of fusel oil are taking into the exhaust column. The liquid is steamed (101-102C) a part of volatile liquid (alcohol) rises though it plate and add to other vapours of rectifier and the rest of liquid is thrown out from the column. Exhaust Column Height - 10 ft No. of Plate - 15 Plate Spacing - 8 Type of Cap - Bubble cap Refining Column The column is made of copper and it consists of 8 segment & 40 plates with bubble caps. ENA draw coming from rectifier column goes through it for further improvement of quality. It is consists steam coils to avoid direct contact of live steam & draw it taken from middle column. Refining Column Height - 10 ft No. of Plate - 25 Plate Spacing - 8 Type of Cap - Bubble cap

Condenser In ENA plant two condensers present on rectifier column and two condensers present on purifier column. In shell side the vapours are present and in tube water is passing. The condensate of condensers is send to the top of rectifier & purifier column. From the both column vent condenser some impure spirit (10-20%) can be drawn in the form of head. First Condenser of Purifier Heat Transfer Area 16 m2 Second Condenser of Purifier Heat Transfer Area 6 m2 First Condenser of Rectifier Heat Transfer Area 25 m2 Second Condenser of Rectifier Heat Transfer Area 6 m2 Cooler The main function of cooler is to reduce the temperature of withdrawn product upto desirable temperature before storage. The liquid passed in shell side and water in tube. After cooling product is taken in a safe glass, where its strength is checked and finally sends to receiver room of the storage. Cooler Heat Transfer Area - 10 m 2 Tube Diameter - 25 mm Length of Tube - 2.5m No. of Tube - 40

Analytical Work Related to R. S & E. N. A
Aim: Determination of Total Acidity of Absolute Alcohol. Reagent: i. Standard NaOH 0.05N ii. Phenolphthalein Indicator Procedure: Take 50ml of sample and add about 200ml of DM water and titrate against with Standard NaOH 0.05N solution using Phenolphthalein as indicator. Calculation: Total Acidity Expressed as Tartaric Acid, gm per 100 Litre of Absolute Alcohol. = 0.00375V110010002 V2 Where, V1 = Volume of NaOH used for titration in ml. V2 = Alcohol, % by Volume. Note- 1 ml of Standard NaOH solution is equivalent to 0.00375gm of Tartaric Acid.

Aim: Determination of Volatile Acidity of Absolute Alcohol. Reagent: i. Standard NaOH 0.05N ii. Phenolphthalein Indicator Procedure: Take 50ml of sample and add about 200ml of DM water and titrate against with Standard NaOH 0.05N solution using Phenolphthalein as indicator.

Calculation: Volatile Acidity Expressed as Acetic Acid, gm per 100 Litre of Absolute Alcohol. = 0.003V110010002 V2 Where, V1 = Volume of NaOH used for titration in ml. V2 = Alcohol, % by Volume. Note- 1 ml of Standard NaOH solution is equivalent to 0.003gm of Acetic Acid.

Aim: Determination of Fixed Acidity of Absolute Alcohol. Reagent: i. Standard NaOH 0.05N ii. Phenolphthalein Indicator Procedure: Take 50ml of sample and evaporate near dryness. Add about 100ml of DM water and again evaporate to dryness. Dilute and titrate against Standard NaOH 0.05N solution using Phenolphthalein as indicator. Calculation: Fixed Acidity Expressed as Tartaric Acid, gm per 100 Litre of Absolute Alcohol. = 0.00375V110010002 V2 Where, V1 = Volume of NaOH used for titration in ml. V2 = Alcohol, % by Volume. Note- 1 ml of Standard NaOH solution is equivalent to 0.00375gm of Tartaric Acid.


Aim: Determination of Higher Alcohol. Reagent: i. Salicylic Aldehyde 1% solution (m/v). ii. Conc. H2SO4 Procedure: Take 10ml of sample in the bottle and add 1ml of Salicylic Aldehyde and 20ml Conc. H2SO4. Allow to standard at room temperature for over 12 hours. Note the colour change (for quick routine analysis, the colour change may be noted after a shorter interval of 15 to 20 minutes at 15-10C). Observation: The colour developed after the reaction indicates the amount of higher alcohol as follows. Colour Light Yellow Yellow to Brownish Brown Red Dark Red to Black Amount of Higher Alcohol Only traces About 0.01% V/V 0.02 to 0.03% V/V About 0.05 to 0.1% V/V About 0.1% V/V

Aim: Determination of Aldehydes. Reagent: i. Sodium Meta-Bi-Sulphate Solution, 0.05N ii. Standard Iodine Solution, 0.05N iii. Standard Sodium Thiosulphate Solution, 0.05N iv. Starch Indicator Procedure: Take 50ml of distillate of liquor in a 250ml iodine flask and add 10ml of Sodium Meta-Bi-Sulphate Solution. Keep the flask in a dark place for 30 minute with occasional shaking. Add 25ml of


Standard Iodine Solution and back excess Iodine against Standard Sodium Thiosulphate Solution using Starch as Indicator. Simultaneously run a blank taking 50ml of DM water in place of distillate of liquor in the same way. The difference in titration value in ml of Sodium Thiosulphate Solution gives the equivalent Aldehyde. Calculation: Aldehyde Expressed as Acetaldehyde, gm per 100 Litre of Absolute Alcohol. = 0.0011V110010002 V2 Where, V1 = Difference in ml of Standard Sodium Thiosulphate Solution used for blank. V2 = Alcohol, % by Volume. Note- 1 ml of Standard Sodium Thiosulphate solution is equivalent to 0.0011 gm of Acetaldehyde.

Aim: Determination of Esters. Reagent: i. Standard NaOH 0.1N ii. Standard H2SO4 0.1N Procedure: To the neutralized distillate from the of Volatile Acidity determination. Add 10ml of Standard NaOH and reflux it on a steam bath of one hour. Cool & back titrate the excess of Standard NaOH with Standard H2SO4. Simultaneously run a blank taking 50ml of DM water in place of distillate of liquor in the same way. The difference in titration value in ml of Standard Acid Solution gives the equivalent Esters.

Calculation: Ester Expressed as Ethyl Acetate, gm per 100 Litre of Absolute Alcohol. = 0.0088V110010002 V2 Where, V1 = Difference in ml of Standard Acid Solution used for blank. V2 = Alcohol, % by Volume. Note- 1 ml of Standard Acid solution is equivalent to 0.0088 gm of Ethyl Acetate.

Sensory analysis of Alcohol

Sensory analysis (or sensory evaluation) is a scientific discipline that applies principles of experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) for the purposes of evaluating consumer products. The discipline requires panels of human assessors, on whom the products are tested, and recording the responses made by them. By applying statistical techniques to the results it is possible to make inferences and insights about the products under test. Most large consumer goods companies have departments dedicated to sensory analysis. In quality control we are doing three type of sensory. 1. Sensory By Sight 2. Sensory By Smell 3. Sensory By Taste


In ware house we stored the produced alcohol. There are three main sections of ware house. i. ii. iii. Receiver Room Spirit Storage Room D.S., S.D.S. Room

Receiver Room This is the storage where alcohol produced from plant is first placed. After a certain interval of time (Maximium72 hrs) alcohol is transferred from this room to different rooms. This particular period is termed as completed out turn (C.O.T) in a particular C.O.T. we give account of molasses taken for production of alcohol and the quantity of alcohol produced from it. Recovery of alcohol efficiency is calculated on the Distillation have complete control over production of alcohol by the calculation of C.O.T figures. Capacity of different receiver tank is given below: Receivers No. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 Capacity 56491BL 56678BL 56383BL 57428BL 58407BL 57571BL 37076BL 34990BL 26340BL 12872BL


Spirit Storage Room

Alcohol produced from plant is R.S. (93% V/V) and E.N.A. (95% V/V). Spirit storage tank is given below. Rectified Spirit A Rectified Spirit or rectified alcohol is highly concentrated ethanol (drinking alcohol) which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification. Rectified spirits are used in mixed drinks, in the production of liqueurs, for medicinal purposes, and as a household solvent. Pure or highly rectified spirit (called also ethyl alcohol), the spirituous or intoxicating element of fermented or distilled liquors, or more loosely a liquid containing it in considerable quantity. It is extracted by simple distillation from Sugar cane Molasses and infusions of a saccharine nature, which have undergone vinous fermentation, as the radical ethyl forms common or ethyl alcohol. R. S. Tank No. RSV1 RSV2 RSV3 RSV4 RSV5 RSV6 RSV7 RSV8 RSV9 RSV10 RSV11 RSV12 RSV13 RSV14 Capacity 63310BL 88720BL 74450BL 66900BL 67460BL 68150BL 70176BL 60990BL 65340BL 88472BL 74560BL 69683BL 77525BL 75623BL

Extra Neutral Alcohol The highest level of ethanol purity is ENA or Extra Neutral Alcohol for High quality beverages and liquor. This is only domestically produced from fermentation Sugar Cane sources. Based on the type of Sugar cane processed and the enzymes used to break starch down to sugar, different quantities and types of impurities are produced. In addition to meeting all of the quality requirements for USP, NF and FCC grade materials, ENA beverage alcohol must pass stringent organoleptic analysis for taste and odour. Even in this day of modern technology and sophisticated analytical equipment and techniques, the human senses are able to detect impurity levels beyond the detection limits of the equipment. Since ENA is intended for human consumption, this test is the most important screening tool. Organoleptics are normally run at 40 proofs (20% by volume). E. N. A. Tank No. ENV1 ENV2 ENV3 ENV4 ENV5 ENV6 ENV7 ENV8 ENV9 ENV10 ENV11 ENV12 ENV13 ENV14 Capacity 46780BL 46780BL 63400BL 63400BL 82340BL 82120BL 52670BL 52560BL 35698BL 35678BL 74560BL 69683BL 77525BL 75623BL

Denature Rectified Spirit Industrial alcohol is distilled ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH), normally of high proof, produced and sold for other than beverage purposes. It is usually distributed in the form of pure ethyl alcohol, completely denatured alcohol; especially denatured alcohol and proprietary solvent blends. Pure ethyl alcohol is used in laboratories and in industry for its sanitizing, cleaning and solvent properties. Many medicines, food products, flavourings and cosmetics could not be produced without it. It is used to process vaccines, compound tonics, syrups, tinctures, liniments and antiseptics as well as being vital in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as Chloroform, Atabrine and barbiturates. It is used in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, detergents, explosives, inks, hand cream, plastics and textiles. There are literally hundreds of products and uses for this chemical. D. S. Tank No. DSV1 DSV2 DSV3 DSV4 DSV5 DSV6 DSV7 DSV8 DSV9 Capacity 46494BL 46084BL 46608BL 23945BL 37600BL 12579BL 12689BL 18880BL 13500BL


For manufactures of Indian Made Foreign Liqueur (IMFL) following process is: Maturation Reduction Degree proof Blending

Maturation Maturation is slow oxidation process in which the Aldehyde content which is present in Ethanol is converted to firstly in Acetic Acid and finally changes into Ester.
[Oxidation] [Hydrolysis]


Acetic Acid


This process is done into wooden vate and wooden barrel. The matured spirit having mallow flavour. These vate are made of Sal wood and cooled by external cooling coil.

Reduction Reduction is a process, which the high strength spirit diluted with the help of DM water to desired strength of spirit.


Given Volume Degree proof Required Degree proof


Degree proof Spirit strength may be designated in several waysweight per gallon, percentage by weight, or percentage by volume, all these having reference to absolute (i.e., pure) alcohol and water. There are other standards in common use; e.g., U.S. proof spirit, which is 50 percent by volume alcohol. Each degree of U.S. proof represents 0.5 percent alcohol, so that liquor having 50 percent alcohol is termed 100 proof. British proof is based on a specific concentration of alcohol, a 50 percent alcoholic content being equivalent to 114.12 U.S. proofs. British proof is expressed as degrees over or under proof (that is, over or under 50 percent alcohol), while U.S. proof is expressed in direct proof figures. The metric Gay-Lussac system simply states the percentage by volume of alcohol in distilled liquor.

Blending Blending is the process in which two or more than two different strength of spirits mixed together to get desired strength of the spirit. Blending is another method of obtaining a balanced product with precise flavour characteristics. Blended products are composed of one or more highly flavoured components, a high-proof component with a low congener content, a colour adjustment ingredient, and perhaps an additional flavouring material. An example is a blended whiskey, which may contain several whiskeys, a grain spirit distilled at 90 to 95 percent alcohol, caramel colouring, and perhaps a small amount of a flavouring blender (part of which may be sherry or port wine). A blended Scotch consists of several highly flavoured malt whiskeys produced in pot stills and a base whiskey produced from grain in a continuous distillation system.



Total Volume Strength Raised in Degree proof Strong Spirit Strength in Degree proof

Sequential Blending Sequential blending is the loading of one product component at a time through a single flow meter and a single flow control valve. The blend ratio is correct only after all components of the blend have been loaded. In-line Blending (Ratio Blending) In-line blending is the simultaneous blending and loading of two or more product components. Each component has a dedicated flow meter and flow control valve. In-line blending can be either nonproportional or proportional as described below.

Blending Vate BLV 1 BLV 2 BLV 3 BLV 4 BLV 5 BLV 6 BLV 7 BLV 8 BLV 9 BLV 10 BLV 11 BLV 12

Capacity 9790 L 17340 L 16010 L 30880 L 44040 L 21880 L 17650 L 15600 L 36430 L 19623 L 12688 L 34330 L



Deionizers Pure Aqua is a leading provider of deionization solutions. Our water deionizers are rugged, pre-engineered, pre-assembled, standardized units that minimize expensive installation and start-up costs. We have designed our Deionization systems to maximize the efficiency and repeatability of the unit during the service and regeneration modes. The Process of Deionization or Ion-exchange In the context of water purification, ion-exchange is a rapid and reversible process in which impurity ions present in the water are replaced by ions released by an ion-exchange resin. The impurity ions are taken up by the resin, which must be periodically regenerated to restore it to the original ionic form. (An ion is an atom or group of atoms with an electric charge. Positively-charged ions are called cations and are usually metals; negatively-charged ions are called anions and are usually non-metals). The following ions are widely found in raw waters: Cations Calcium (Ca2+) Magnesium (Mg2+) Sodium (Na+) Potassium (K+) Iron (Fe2+) Anions Chloride (Cl-) Bicarbonate (HCO3-) Nitrate (NO3-) Carbonate (CO32-) Sulfate (SO42-)


Ion Exchange Resins There are two basic types of resin: cation-exchange and anionexchange resins. Cation exchange resins will release Hydrogen (H+) ions or other positively charged ions in exchange for impurity cations present in the water. Anion exchange resins will release hydroxyl (OH-) ions or other negatively charged ions in exchange for impurity anions present in the water. The application of ion-exchange to water treatment and purification There are three ways in which ion-exchange technology can be used in water treatment and purification: first, cation-exchange resins alone can be employed to soften water by base exchange; secondly, anion-exchange resins alone can be used for organic scavenging or nitrate removal; and thirdly, combinations of cationexchange and anion-exchange resins can be used to remove virtually all the ionic impurities present in the feed water, a process known as deionization. Water deionizers purification process results in water of exceptionally high quality.



For many laboratory and industrial applications, high-purity water which is essentially free from ionic contaminants is required. Water of this quality can be produced by deionization. The two most common types of deionization are: Two-bed deionization The two-bed deionizer consists of two vessels - one containing a cation-exchange resin in the hydrogen (H+) form and the other containing an anion resin in the hydroxyl (OH -) form. Water flows through the cation column, whereupon all the cations are exchanged for hydrogen ions. To keep the water electrically balanced, for every monovalent cation, e.g. Na+, one hydrogen ion is exchanged and for every divalent cation, e.g. Ca2+, or Mg2+, two hydrogen ions are exchanged. The same principle applies when considering anionexchange. The decationised water then flows through the anion column. This time, all the negatively charged ions are exchanged for hydroxide ions which then combine with the hydrogen ions to form water (H2O). Mixed-bed deionization

In mixed-bed deionizers the cation-exchange and anionexchange resins are intimately mixed and contained in a single pressure vessel. The thorough mixture of cation-exchangers and anion-exchangers in a single column makes a mixed-bed deionizer equivalent to a lengthy series of two-bed plants. As a result, the water quality obtained from a mixed-bed deionizer is appreciably higher than that produced by two-bed plants.



Key parameters to be considered when selecting a packaging system are: Process Distribution, shelf-life requirements, legislation Product composition and quality as produced and at full shelf-life Product protection required during storage, distribution and retail sale Pack size, printing options, display etc. Packing system concept, automation options, ability to integrate with existing and/or future systems Consumer appeal, image of product and packing Advantages of PET container are: Superior packaging to product ratio: PET container being 63% and 47% more energy efficient than glass bottles and aluminum cans respectively. PET bottles are 32% more energy efficient than glass bottles during delivery of 1000 gallons of soft drinks. Glass bottles and Aluminum-cans generate 230% and 175% times more atmospheric emissions compared to PET. PET bottles contribute 68% and 18% less solid waste by weight compared to glass and aluminum containers. 100 kg of oil is required to produce 1000 1-litre PET bottles as against 230 kg for 1000 equivalent glass bottles. PET bottles help in fuel saving due to their lower weight.


The resins used in PET bottles to pack carbonated drinks are of a very special quality. The PET bottles have to be extremely strong to contain the internal pressure of CO2 without distortion and expansion. This is obtained by using a resin, which has high intrinsic viscosity and lower co-polymer levels. Packaging Materials for Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic drinks originated through the action of yeast cells on sugar containing liquids. Alcoholic drinks are aromatic liquids with specified alcohol content. Some kinds contain carbon dioxide, others a quantity of sugar. They are either fruit/sap based or grain based. They can either be non-distilled or distilled depending on the volume percentage of alcohol per liter. The border between the two kinds of drink is about 20%. The different types of alcoholic beverages are beer, wine, whiskey, brandy etc. Distilled Alcoholic Beverages These drinks are obtained by distillation of alcohol containing drinks. During distillation the aqueous part is separated from the alcohol. The distillates obtained are sold under several names like brandy, gin, whisky cognac, vodka, etc and have different alcohol percentage. Because of their high alcohol percentages, these liquors are mostly packed in glass bottles so that they can be kept for an infinite time after opening. The bottles are sealed to prevent alcohol from evaporating and to protect the contents of the bottles from dirt and dust.


Functions of packaging

Physical protection - The food enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc. Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapour, dust, etc., is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, and safe for the intended shelf life is a primary function. Containment or agglomeration - Small items are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. Powders, and granular materials need containment. Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. Some types of information are required by governments. Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly evolving phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the package and (in many cases) the point of sale display. Security - Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. Packages can be engineered to help reduce the risks of package pilferage.

Some package constructions are more resistant to pilferage and some have pilfered indicating seals. Packages may include authentication seals to help indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit. Packages also can include anti-theft devices, such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronic article surveillance tags, that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require specialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of retail loss prevention. Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse. Portion control - Single serving packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. It also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed onelitter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

Package development considerations

Prevention Waste prevention is a primary goal. Packaging should be used only where needed. Proper packaging can also help prevent waste. Packaging plays an important part in preventing loss or damage to the packaged-product (contents). Usually, the energy content and material usage of the product being packaged are much greater than that of the package. A vital function of the package is to protect the product for its intended use: if the product is damaged or degraded, its entire energy and material content may be lost.

Minimization (also "source reduction") the mass and volume of packaging (per unit of contents) can be measured and used as one of the criteria to minimize during the package design process. Usually reduced packaging also helps minimize costs. Packaging engineers continue to work toward reduced packaging. Reuse The reuse of a package or component for other purposes is encouraged. Returnable packaging has long been useful (and economically viable) for closed loop logistics systems. Inspection, cleaning, repair and recouperage are often needed. Some manufacturers re-use the packaging of the incoming parts for a product, either as packaging for the outgoing product or as part of the product itself.[18] Recycling Recycling is the reprocessing of materials (pre- and postconsumer) into new products. Emphasis is focused on recycling the largest primary components of a package: steel, aluminum, papers, plastics, etc. Small components can be chosen which are not difficult to separate and do not contaminate recycling operations. Energy recovery Waste-to-energy and Refuse-derived fuel in approved facilities are able to make use of the heat available from the packaging components. Disposal Incineration, and placement in a sanitary landfill are needed for some materials. Certain states within the US regulate packages for toxic contents, which have the potential to contaminate emissions and ash from incineration and leachate from landfill.[19] Packages should not be littered. Development of sustainable packaging is an area of considerable interest by standards organizations, government, consumers, packagers, and retailers


Bottling Plant
Nicols distillery has Semi Automatic bottling plant. The plant has seven bottling filling lines. Three IMFL and four Country Liquor lines is working. Distilled spirits react upon exposure to many substances, extracting materials from the container that tend to destroy the liquor aroma and flavour. For this reason, glass, being nonreactive, has been the universal container for packaging alcoholic liquors. (A few products are now packaged in plastic bottles, but these are primarily 50-millilitre miniatures, the light weight of which is particularly suited for use by airlines.) Early hand methods of filling, labeling, corking, and other operations have been replaced by highly mechanized bottling lines, with bottles cleaned, filled, capped, sealed, and labeled at a rate as high as 80 bottles per minute. This progress became possible with the development of high-strength glass, plastic closures with inert liners, and high-speed machines.

Type - Semi Automatic Length Washing Chain Conveyor - 8 ft Chain Conveyor - 16 ft Belt Conveyor - 24 ft Two Filling Machine - 6-8 Head Sealing Machine - 2-3 Inspection Screen - 2 Labelling - Manually


Capacity Quarts - 800 cases/8hr, Filling/minute = 70-80 bottle (180ml) Pints - 600 cases/8 hr, Filling/minute = 25-30 bottle (375ml) Nips - 400 cases/8 hr, Filling/minute = 8-10 bottle (750ml)

Washing Section We start with empty bottles than inspect each bottle and washed firstly with water, chemicals than again cleaning with water in washing chamber and put them into chain conveyor for filling the liquor. Filling Section. After the washing of bottles liquor is filling by the filler with the help of 6-8 filling head machine. Net weight filling is the only filling technique that controls the quantity of product when filled in the bottle and not upstream. This gives the certainty to fill every bottle by the nominal quantity. After filling, bottle is gone to the capping & inspection section.

Capping & Sealing Section In this section firstly bottle capped by worker and then sealed by semi automatic sealing machine. Sealed bottle passes through the chain conveyor towards inspection section. Inspection & Labelling Section In this section sealed bottle is inspected in UV Ray, if any other unwanted constituent found in bottle than it is going to recycle. If bottle free from any other constituent then going towards labelling by the belt conveyor. The labelling process is done by manually. After labelling, bottle is going towards packaging section.

Packaging of IMFL Bottles

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.

Carton Size of Indian Made Foreign Liquor for Packaging

750ML Brandy 750ML Whisky 750ML Gin & Vodka 750ML Rum 1000ML Brandy & Whisky 1000ML All Brand PET 180ML Brandy 180ML Whisky, Gin Vodka & Rum 375ML Brandy 375ML Whisky, Gin Vodka & Rum 90ML Brandy & Whisky

Size (LBH)
340240290 340240290 340235270 385285225 295295265

Partition (LBH)

Plate (LB)

Capacit Printin y g
12750 Double colour 12750 Double colour 12750 Double colour 12750 Double colour 121000 Double colour 121000 Double colour 48180 Double colour 48180 Double colour

330220175 330230 330220175 330230 310220175 310220 360270200 360270 275275175 280280

300255322 450340172 440315150

295230180 295230 435320140 435320 425300120 425300

430285215 370290190

420265180 420265 350270130 350270

24375 24375

Double colour Double colour


480190100 480190


Double colour


The boiler used in National Industrial Corporation Limited is fire tube, Lancashire type boiler. The fuel used in boiler is petroleum cock and biogas (CH4). The calorific value of fuel is 8050 Kcal/gm and the presser of boiler about 21kg/cm2. Firstly generated steam is saturated & it temperature is 225C and super heated by super heater, where it temperature is 272C. Specification of Boiler Type - Fire Tube Capacity - 12 ton Heat Transfer Area - 400 m3 No. Of Tubes - 300-350 France temperature - 1200C Water used - DM water pH > 9

Force draft fan - 40 HP Induce draft fan - 80 HP Feed pump - 40 HP Multi cyclone - 2

Cooling Tower
Specification of Cooling Tower Type - Double Flow Induced Draft Capacity - 200 m3/hr Design - Cross Flow Inlet Temperature - 40-45c Outlet Temperature - 30-32c Water Proof Fan Motor - 15 HP Type of Fan Drive - Direct Drive

The main aim of National Industrial Corporation Limited is to optimizing the supply of liquor in Uttar Pradesh & other state is to make liquor available to the Army & Para military at the right place, in right quantity, in right quality and at the right time. The products of National Industrial Corporation Limited are used as traditional purpose i.e. party, marriage, birthday etc.

The National Industrial Corporation Limited is situated far from city. So there is no chance to pollute the city and distillery has an Influent Treatment Plant, who converts the spent wash into Bio Gas & Bio Fertiliser. After treatment spent wash convert into treated water. The packaging of bottle is according to consumer, now days the liquor is package in PET bottle for less environmental pollution.

So National Industrial Corporation Limited is a good distillery for environment and have certificate from national safety & hazard council.


Reference Books Food Microbiology Traditional Food Technology Bottling & Packaging Technology Industrial Engineering Chemistry (1936) Chemical Engineering and Processing Quality & Low Websites:1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- Some personal experience is also obtained during course of this summer training. Spencer, J.F.T. and D.M. Spencer, eds. Yeast Technology. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1990.
Steel, R. Biochemical Engineering: Unit Processes in

Fermentation. The MacMillan Company, New York, NY, 1958.