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Mackenzie Institute Update Spring 1990

Mackenzie Institute Update Spring 1990

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The newsletter of the Canadian militarist think tank the Mackenzie Institute, Spring 1990, 6 pages. For more on the Institute see: http://www.powerbase.info/index.php/Mackenzie_Institute_for_the_Study_of_Terrorism,_Revolution_and_Propaganda
The newsletter of the Canadian militarist think tank the Mackenzie Institute, Spring 1990, 6 pages. For more on the Institute see: http://www.powerbase.info/index.php/Mackenzie_Institute_for_the_Study_of_Terrorism,_Revolution_and_Propaganda

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THE MACKENZIE INSTITUTE
SPRING 1990

After three years of publishing and operating, it is time to take stock. What are the Institute's goals; what has it achieved; where does it go in the 1990s?

"SChinese excellence" in warfare was defined twe~ty-five enemy a~o by up.reme T~io~~~~~i:d~~t!t!fi~~li~~~~~emilitary philosopher Sun Tzu as "breaking the cen turi,esresistance.the of
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without fighting". In practice, all conflict is a mixture of persuasion and compulsion. r!:volutionand propaganda. of psychological and physical actions. Sun Tzu placed emphasis on the former, because In 1986 we had Canada amatrix of the cost to the attacker was less, and the prize was likely to be captured intact. institutes informing the public on arms The alternation of force and persuasion - terror and propaganda - is particularly .controland disarmament, strategic important to the revolutionary, if only because he starts out at a grave disadvantage in studies, internationalaffairs) intelligence terms of legitimacy, power and resources. Always, where the revolutionary challenge studies, and economics. The threat from' is serious, politics dominates and force is merely a means to the political end. Thus, nuclear war received attention, and 50 ideas are fundamental. did OUT preparedness for conventional Religious milita nts, fanatical ideologues, frustrated nationalists, minorities with ..War. Th efe WilS,how~yerr no single ' ...... lezitimate grievances, and other movements or cOLlOtrie.1l , con.'linc.e.Qb-b"dghteQll ,..sotirce-orihtormanonon' thefo'rm.roF~ -ca~ses" may use such revolutionary methods to redress disparities with their own conflict that have become daily news regimes or ~'\fiththe developed nations. Inevitably, it is the open society that is items- those that fall somewhere between vulnerable, Lenin, Stalin and Hitler understood this well, as do their successors. "War" andrpeace". In Italy in the 19305, Antonio Gramsci, a Marxist, brought the ideological aspect of , The Mackenzie Institute fOT theStudy of revolutionary warfare up-to-date and his tactics are widely used by radicals today, Terrorism, Revolunonand Propaganda Gramsci saw that the social and political orders were essentially cultural phenomena cameinto exi$t~ntelateJn 1986 to provide rather than the products of economics as Marx had taught. Activists had to erode the -. Canadianswitli aso\_i'rce of information existing order from the inside, through silent, methodical conquest of the state through on such cpnfIictfol11115;.'thelnstitute . the cultural occupation of society. Thus the institutions, particularly those that .. providesanill(f~p~~dentn1eausby vibiph influenced morality, public opinion and popular culture, became prime targets. The iriforrileq_individuals;whd are cbl"\cerJ1~d open society was the intended victim of these techniques, which can work only if about the. dii'ectiOl.{riiMmethoos of . authority is inhibited from responding, as has generally been the case in the modem-political \V~rfare'may:reach a democracies rather than in closed totalitarian regimes. wider audience .. AccordinglY, the Institute publishes Mackeniie Papers and' Let us examine the components of the Institute's field of study.

information on the subjects of terrorism,

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Ontario as a oQo-profttCorpdration. The Insti tute hashG~gendain the domestic political arena. Its activities are. 'snpervise.d'bya BOard of.CovenlOrs of·:. ; '/ariedpoIiticaJ opiuiQn\yhiCh is united in, . the peij efth at Cal1,Ma'& traditions, the .;,.; llberai de-mocia tksvsh~m-and the Vv'esterri h~;'ltagear.e'W.?:rtij4~£e~~ing,; , '.'

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n December 21, 1988 Pan Am flight 103 blew up over Scotland, 259 people died, On September 19, 1989 a French civilian DC-lO exploded over the Niger desert, killing al1171 on board, On November 27, 1989, a Colombian Boeing 727 airliner was destroyed in the air by a bomb. This time 107 people died. \Vhile the incidence of terrorism may be declining, its lethality is increasing, Terrorism seems to be changing from its 19705 and '80s form as violent theatre, designed to catch headlines and direct

attention to some cause, to being lowintensity warfare based on attrition, OUf responses have not kept pace. While the ideolo gicalina tienalist/religious motive for terrorism remains important in some movements, mercenarv motives are now uppermost in others. this is the case in much Middle Eastern hostagetaking, and it is particularly so in drugrelated terrorism, Cruel though the "idealistic" terrorist can be, there are usuallv limits to his or her atrocities imposed by a need to justify acts within the philosophical framework and thus retain the support of true believers, For

the mercenary, such restrictions do not apply. For many years it has been the conventional wisdom that terrorism can contribute effectively to a wider revolutionary strategy but, unaided, is incapable of winning more than minor concessions. In Colombia, some observers have forecast a national surrender to the terrorism of the drug lords. Would this be a freak event or a trend-setter? The Institute has commissioned new research on this continuing and in some respects worsening threat. A 1990 paper will deal specifically with the danger to airline passengers. Alternative strategies for dealing with mercenary terrorism will need to be researched. Our first paper on terrorism, Randall Heather's Terrorism, "Active Measures" and SOt dealt with terrorist attacks in West Europe against the defence establishment, particularly scientists working on SDT-related research, and their facilities. It also listed the mysterious deaths of similarly employed scientists in the United Kingdom, and posed questions concerning possible links and causes. This was 1987, the USSR was still regarded as an active sponsor of terrorism, and one of the possibilities tentatively raised pointed to covert operations. The paper was picked up by the American press and specialist literature. The response from Moscow was interesting. On January 21, 1988, lzvfstiya ran a 22 column inch article, "A Lie Crying to Heaven" which set out to ridicule the paper. Two things are certain: the author, Melor Sturua, must have been supplied with the material and told to thrash it; and he would have had no knowledge whatever of the real facts and no way of checking. If our paper was really absurd (and plenty of absurd material does get published in the \Vest) then why did the Soviet au thorities pick on Heather's paper for such royal treatment? But if it was too close to the mark ... The deaths in England 'went on, and Heather was interviewed bv CBC for" feature item. Later, ABC made extensive use of his advice and material for a 20/20 program and, after the murder of Alfred Herrhausen, Heather was interviewed for ABC News. This subject remains open and a follow-up paper is possible.

Studying National Security at Colorado Springs.: Ken Hilborn, U. of \.·Vestern Ontario, lvlaurice Tugwell, Mackenzie flls/ilute Director, Ken lv1aconochic, MeG'ill, Sam Nesdoly, Acadia, Phlilipe Le Pestre, Unioersue dll Quebec a MOl1il'lia/, Alec Douglas, National Defence, Aaroll Hywarrel1, U. o_fNlamtaba, CO/ill Pearce, U, of Toronto, John Ferris, U. of Calgary.

In August 1989 we published The FigM Against Terrorism, a two-part paper by the international!v known specialist, Professor Paui Wilkinson, and the Institute's research associate, Robert Chisholm. Wilkinson focused attention on the menace of the sponsor states and on the democracies' failure to act effectivelv to end such behaviour. Chishol~ dealt with terrorism from Canada's viewpoint.

his is a vast field covering the Soviet and international communist movements, many Third World conflicts, subversion, militant religion, internal security, and counter-insurgency. Our first paper, Corbacne», "Reform", and the USSR, by G.P. Armstrong and Teresa Rakowska-Harrnstone, discussed prospects at the outset of the "Corbachev revolution". Six months later, Francoise Thorn's piece on Moscow's "New . Thinking" as an instrument of foreign policy described Soviet tactics for turning an unfavourable situation to Moscow's advantage. In response to a massive, publicly-funded peace campaign to disarm Canada, in the fall of 1988 we published a four-part Defence of Freedom series covering the threat, political and military options, and the views of our

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allies. The series was followed by Evelyn le Chene's paper on chemical and biological warfare, 'which dealt with the problem in the East-West as well as on a regional basis. _ Since then, democracy has won a series of stunning bloodless' victories over totalitarian communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. Crarnsci's techniques have worked perfectly, but in the opposite direction to that intended by their author. This victory was possible because Mikhail Corbachev had removed the so-called "Brezhnev doctrine" - the insurance policy under which Soviet tanks would save puppet communist tyrants from the wrath of their peoples while at the same time glasnost in the USSR undercut censorship in the satellite states. Except in medieval Romania, Marxist regimes were restrained in their responses. The opposition parties eroded the communist order bv the silent, methodical occupation' of the vital points of society, particularly its moral summit. In Czechoslovakia, Vaclav Havel called it a "cultural revel ution" . Canadian reactions to these and related events have been confused. As one communist regime after another carne under pressure to surrender power to the people, and as the strength of popular hatred for communist rulers was plain for all to see, news reporters with untainted

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progressive reputations became bornagain freedom fighters, Yet, at the same time, in communist countries (including the USSR) where the desire for freedom is still effectively suppressed, and in conflicts where Leninists are trying to seize power, the Canadian media remains at best ambivalent and at worst procommunist. The exception is China, where the cruelty of the regime - denied or excused for so many years by Canadian opinion formers - finally spattered viewers with the blood of its victims and earned long overdue condemnation.

capitalism" ploy that rescued it in 1921, and the "Russian patriotism" game that came to its aid in 1941. The party that has aimed a rifle at our head for so many years has lowered it while appealing to our "bourgeois sentimentality" to help it out of trouble. It is nice not to look down the barrel of a gun; but do we really want to restore the party's economic power 50 that it can raise the rifle again? Or would we prefer that reports of the death of communism not be an exaggeration? In his Toronto Star column for November 8, 1989, journalist Richard Gwyn illustrated the confusions of his profession. After noting that "All that really seems to stand between the party and oblivion these days is the barrel of a gun, as in Tiananmen' Square", he concluded with the statement: "Also, we owe to communism today's defining mora I vision of a pea ceful, disarmed world". Are we talking about Lenin's peace of universal communism held in place by guns, or the peace that follows a bloodless, Gramsci-style defeat of communism?

Soviet Union finally being forced to surrender its monopoly of power, The bad is the alternative prospect of the party weathering the storm, the Soviet economy recovering, and the rifle returning to the aim. Now that economic and political reforms have apparently been abandoned in favour of renewed centralized planning, what exactly is it that President Bush and Prime Minister Mulroney have promised to support, if not the refurbishing of communism? Beneath the surface of severe economic, ethnic, social and spiritual problems, the USSR continues to streamline, modernize, and re-equip its armed forces, The Japanese are not known as professional Cold Warriors, but their Defence Agency has reported "no change in the trend towards military buildup by the Soviet Union". The intelligence, subversive, peace and arms control offensives continue, and the West finds it increasingly difficult to maintain viable defences. British author and journalist James Adams reports that the Russians are "secretly developing what may be the ultimate weapons of war - geneticallyengineered poisons that can destroy the ability~()f treeps to-fight". weapons far ia - advance of anything in the West, which can "penetrate chemical defence equipment now in service with NATO forces". If the \Vest puts all its money on the first, good prospect, and this does not materialize, it may find the tables turned in a most uncomfortable way, Soviet Armv lieutenant Vitalv G, Urazhetsev'told a gathering in Moscow recently that the "arm)' is the place today where conservative forces are concentrated". A military coup to reverse recent trends mal' not be likely, but it is by no means impossible, Finalty, if the failure of perestroika continues to erode the economy and social fabric, anarchy or civil war be~ome possible. Considering the nuclear, chemical, biological and sophisticated conventional weapons available, such events may not easily be contained. Overwhelmed by euphoria, most of the media and the publics in the noncommunist world are blind to danger and resentful of prudent opinion. For this very reason, the Mackenzie

In more general terms, we are assured by Ed Broadbent, Douglas Roche and many others that the cold war is over. Two years ago, such luminaries would doubtless have denied that there was a such a war outside the imaginations of "Cold (War) Warriors". "The Death of Communism" is another popular phrase. Questions: if the cold war is over, presumably it has been won by the 'Vest. Who are we to thank for this: effete intellectuals and peace-at-any-price disarmers who, confronted bv nuclear blackmail, counselled appeasement; or the Cold At the heart of this confusion lies the Warriors who faced reality and responded charm of Corbachev Through sheer force rationally) But-perhaps til€' cola Wat-AaR - of persOnalTIy he has managed to present not been won, simply suspended or his defeats and unavoidable concessions concealed. In that case, how can we talk as if they were acts of charity. By dumping of the death of communism? his allies and thrusting their economic problems onto the West, and by the Sun Tzu would caution us against the skilful use of slogans catering to Western comfortable illusion that winning battles hopes, he has convinced many in the is the same thing as winning a war. Mr. democracies that he is not a communist, Gorbachev presents the democracies or that he is a communist of a new kind with a completely new agenda. He may which rejects all communist doctrine. Yet or may not succeed in rescuing Soviet at the same time he reassures his Russia from its present sea of disorders. domestic audience that he remains a true But he is a true Leninist, displaying communist. Whom is he deceiving? weakness to mask existing and potential strength, and employing contradictions Carleton University professor Ian Prattis to squeeze advantage out of disaster. As a wrote to the Globe and lvfail Canadian communist journalist pointed recommending Corbachev for the Nobel out in the party newspaper in overnber Peace Prize: no one in the USSR has done 1989: "in all of the past 72 years no one this, Instead, 'world chess champion ever made so much as a penny by betting Garry Kasparov cautions: "He is not a on Soviet collapse in a crisis". hero in the Soviet Union. He is a failure, '" the last hope of the Soviet Communist Moreover, Corbachev is the world leader Party to stay in power", best able to play the Gramsci game back at us, trading narrow control in the East For reasons half good and half bad, the for widespread influence first in Europe West backs Corbachev and his and then throughout the 'world and perestroika. The good is the damage hoping, perhaps, to emerge as the perestroika and glasnost have already saviour of mankind (and of communism). done to the USSR and the bloc, and the It was the "peace" card that saved the prospect of the Communist Party of the party in 1918, the "returning to

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Institute's two conferences have dealt with unfashionable issues. The first, in November 1988, discussed the nature of subversion. In one presentation, former Polish ambassador (and senior military intelligence officer) Zdzislaw Rurarz provided an insider's view of the ;' workings of Warsa\-vPact intelligence and , subversion in the West. The 1989 ~ conference considered the second, uncomfortable prospect in which the USSR does not collapse and eventually returns to business as usual, but with a decisive strategic adva n tage. Our talented panel included Oxford sovietologist James Sherr, New York author and intelligence analyst Edward , Jay Epstein, former KGB major Stan Levchenko, and former Soviet nomenklatura member Alexandra Costa. A summary of the views expressed at the conference INilI be published, and the Institute will continue to address EastWest issues in a serious way. If such caution turns out in the end to have been unnecessary, what will have been lost? H, on the othe'r hand, myopic optimism goes unchallenged and later turns out to have been misplaced, the likely consequences are incalculable. In 1989 we were invited bv the New York-based National Strategy Information Center to cooperate in their National Strategy Conference held at Colorado Springs in July. To this end we notified departments and centres of strategic and international studies in our universities, inviting participation in this two-week seminar. As a consequence, nearly half those attending were from Canada, hearing the latest from well-informed speakers on all aspects of defence and strategy. The Canadian position was well represented in presentation and discussion.

is always difficult and sometimes impossible. However, because political warfare, terrorism and revolution relv on propaganda, the topic must be ' addressed. As a rule, analysis proceeds through case studies, which yield patterns and organizations. From such examples, working hypotheses emerge. Little can be proved with the degree of certainty we have come to expect in a scientific age, but awareness can nevertheless be developed, and with it the promise of greater freedom.

elites in the 1930s. The astonishing revelations in this booklet attracted considera ble in lerna tional atten tion, being reviewed and quoted widely, It showed, bv careful case studv, how some of the West's most respected Journalists and editors were fooled year in, vea r ou t, by this communist deceiver. ' David Levy wrote what was to be a posthumous testament of his experiences as a Moscow correspondent back in the Brezhnev years. u.s. specialist Herbert

5ta11 LC"(Ichenko, Ronald Baxter and Edward lay Epstein disCliss intelligence at 1989 Conference.
In the "1987 paper, A !vfythology of Pence, institute director Maurice Tugwell dissected the psychological strategy of the peace movement. Later in the same year journalist Derek Nelson contributed a paper on the deceptions of Sandinista "politics I hospitality" and the selfdeceptions of the Canadian true believers who travel to t\icaragua in search of the dream revolution. Vancouver physician Jack Rosenblatt's paper, Slwiet Propagal1da and the Physicians' Pence Movement, pointed to the political rather than professional nature of a minority pressure group that seems always to follow the Soviet line. In 1989 we began an occasional series called Media Report. because the news media are the generally unconscious and unwilling carriers of propaganda and disinformation. The first, bv Australian professor Robert Manne, d~scribed the life and times of Wilfred Burchett, possibly the most outrageous and successful Soviet agent of influence since Willi Munzenberg conned West European Romerstein provided an up-to-date assessment of the Soviet "Active Measures" apparatus and its activities in the age of glasnost. The sheer size and output of this "orchestra" should give pause to those who proclaim the death or disappearance of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This series will continue. A careful examination of media treatment of the controversy surrounding the proposed NATO training base in Labrador is coming next.

nly w.hen we are aware of our delusions, explained French philosopher Jacques Ellul, will we experience the beginning of genuine freedom. To gain awareness we must step back and examine the means of deception and covert influence. Propaganda and its half-brother, deception, are hard subjects, because knowing where truth ends and lies begin

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Domestic Issues

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arly in 1989 it seemed that attempts by "civil libertarians to destroy the effectiveness of the Canadian Security and Intelligence Service (if not to destroy the service itself) were being opposed only by a tiny handful of former professiona Is and security-minded individuals. With a parliamentary review of The Act authorizing the Service's powers likely to be swamp~d by special interest advocacy, we published a paper by lawyer Andrew Kavchak, putting the c~se £o"ran effective security service. This paper has had an impact o~ the debate, and the Institute will contribute further, Another issue involving Canada's future social well-being is immigration. The destabilizing potential of unplanned, uncontrolled immigration on our economy, social fabric and capacity to succeed as a nation needs to be understood. So far, the government has taken refuge in propaganda to try to disguise the true nature of the problem. The way this situation has been allowed to arise, and the answers to it, are set out in A Time Bomb Ticking: Canadian immigratiolllri crisis, written by former Immigration Appeal Board vicechairman, Charles M. Campbell. In 1990 there will be a paper on the socalled Charter of Rights, another domestic issue corrosive of Canada's democracy.

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This points to the heart of the West's most pressing dilemma: the danger or the presence of a spiritual and moral vacuum. Success measured only in material terms cannot be a substitute' for a commitment to a healthy and prosperous society where one's neighbour's success and well-being is just as important as one's own. The socialist answer, well intended no doubt inevitablv leads to material as well as mo~al ruin, Indeed, socialism under other banners has produced or is generating these results in ~anada ... Governments that make policy by opmlOn polls ensure that the lowest commo.n denominator 'will dictate public policy. Governments that provide graven images 511 ch as mu Iticu lturalism, charters, and pay equity programs as if these were objects of moral worth are soaking up the nation's spirit for the worship of false gods,

housekeeping, ignores history itself as well as the physicist's adage that nature abhors a vacuum. Already we are hearing the chant that socialism has never been given a fair chance, while yesterday'S communists are regrouping under "socialist" banners. Nor should we forget that in the 1920s and '305, fascism gre'w out of disillusioned socialism. Cults, exotic religions, drugs (and their lords), militant nationalism or regionalism, and racism are also at the starter's gate. Each would relieve the individual of having to take responsibility for his own moral condition. We will commission studies of domestic issues that lie within our field and relate to this problem: schools, universities, the churches, political culture, and more on the media. It is this Institute's commitment to individual responsibility that bars it from seeking or receiving government funding - a small, first s~ep to intellectual freedom, but one that IS remarkably rare in Canada.

riting in the London Daily Telegraph, George Walden made this comment:

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The fact that Communist regimes are embarking 011 a long and perilous journey to democracy at the very moment when we ourselves are losing touch with its most profound roots, and when 0 IJ r lila teri« listie societies are afflicted with scolJrges that our former adversaries can expect to inherit, is all explosive irony. And if the global reformation turns out to be more managerial than moral, what guarantee will there be of perpetual peace?

Samuel Pope, James Sherr, and Brian Hearly address defence, arms control, and deception at 1989 conference.

While it may be appropriate to criticize aovernments for playing god, to turn to that source for a solution to spiritual and moral problems is to invite rule by propaganda. In this sphere, we are on our own. Either we stand on our own feet, or we do not stand at all. Francis Fukuvama's thesis that mankind is reaching "the end of history" and will henceforth live withou t abstract goals and be concerned only with economic

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THE MACKENZIE INSTITUTE
Suite 906, 100 Adelaide Street West, Toronto, Canada, M5H 153

for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda
Telephone: (416) 360-0534 Telefax: (416) 360-5793

Board Members
.c.' :.., , :

Mackenzie Papers L Corbachev, "Reform", and the USSR, C.P. Armstrong & Teresa RakowskaHarrnstone (2. A Mythology of Peace, Maurice Tugwell 3. Terrorism, "Active Measures" and SOl, Randall Heather 4. Moscow's IINew Thinking" as an Instrument of Foreign Policy, Francoise Thom 5. Nicaragua: The Pilgrims' Tales, Derek Nelson ( 6. Soviet Propaganda and the Physicians' Peace Movement, Jack Rosenblatt DEFENCE OF FREEDOM series 7. Threats to Western Values, Kenneth H.W. Hilborn 8. Political Options, Bertil Haggman & Judi McLeod 9. Military Options, Brian S. MacDonald, John Marteinson & Maurice Tugwell 10. Canada's Allies Speak, Frank R. Barnett, Heinz von zur Cathen, l Coenraad Ramaer & Alan Lee \Villiams. 11. Chemical and Biological Warfare Threat of the Future, Evelyn le Chene. 12. Canadian National Security and the CSIS Act, Andrew Kavchak. (13. Media Report - Agent of Influence: The Life and Times of Wilfred Burchett, Robert Manne. 14. The Fight Against Terrorism, Paul Wilkinson & Robert Chisholm. 15. Media Report - Reflections of a Moscow Correspondent, David Levy. 16. A Time Bomb Ticking: Canadian Immigration in Crisis, Charles M. Campbell, 17. Media Report - Soviet Active Measures and Propaganda, Herbert Romerstein.

.: ·A~JJra:donC(mr~n,~~O,CD, CdeG; . BA, MA, AM, PhD,·DLitl,Profes50r·· Emeritus) English Department, .... University of VVesternOntCltioand fotmer ·ChairulC'ib:.of its B6ard of Governors: . . a:ttho r. .. . . JeariFoul'niE!r, OC,CD,BA,·LL L, formerty:official in External Affairs, Privy CouncilandPrime.Ministers . ·bfficej Agent Gener~Ifof Quebec inlJK; dite'CtCJf;Trust ompanies. C .... ian F~aser, OMrvt CD, SA, President, CML Communications, Halifax: former officer,RHC, Cornmarrding Officer, 2 RCR;ilnd Commander. Can adian Airborne Regiment. . .. "' D: Brian Ha.y, 13X; ti;IX; ·I\IBA, y:~, .. Communications Consultant; formerly: din;ctOtipublic. affairs, Texaco Canada: >'qianager, ..publ(c.teIMions, Imperial' CHI. Director; Outward Bouild Wilderness School; officer, Canadian Anny Reserve, .

JOhnA. McCordi~k, BA consultant,· former diplomat (Canadian ambassador to Czechoslovakia, Austria-and Poland), officer, 48th Highlanders. Frank Oxley, communications and public relations consultant, Jortrier journalist, WWlIb Day veteran. Jack Rdsenblatt, MD, Vam;ouver ph)lsidan specializjrigiri allergy and . clinical immu nology.Former m~m ber, Vancouver City Spedal Committee 00 Peace. . David.Somerville, BA, President, The> National Citizens' Coalition; co-founder and Vice-Chairman, International Black Ribbol1 Dav Com.mittee;former officer, , ~48thH:jghl~nders. ~"~~ ~ ..,.;,.""""" ...

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Maurice Tugwell, CBE, PhD, Director, The Mackenzie Institute; formerly: .. ditedof; Centre.torConflict Studies, .: UN'S; officer, Parachute Regi.n\ent, British Army.'

Funding subscription-It dd.~s ~cc~ptfund5' .• ftoint111ygb\'ei~meI'lt or gO\T~rriment_agency, rnstead,bu~getsate.raised .': ., .. through the foresighted generosity or anumber ofCanadranmdlVJd~als "rtd fQ~:ndationsand these have enabl~d the Insfituteto'emergeas a11active .• .•. ·p?rticiPNltin~ye$teri")J~~eaT,{"~ contribu tortp public uhdel'stan9ing. ........•. ;. .,.•Ad~ttionany,:it1div1.(Illa15whbsupportJhese ·purpos~:sareenc()+lTag~d-tobecom~· .': ·F'riendsojthe MackGn~ie institute. Friends who c6ntribute $3;; cana:dlptl0r more .... annu.ally ($30 U,~:or £20)recei ve Mackenzie Paper5 free ()f char.gefo,r on~ yea.r.a.n(,tL are invited to renewtheir connection annually. They are notified ofseminars and., .other function5thfinhe Institute may host, and ate kept in ~ouch by an octasioryali ~ewsJetter; B), dQ.nating~s generously as means allow, theyalso'dentons!jate ...•.... theircQmitlifm~nlto the Institutes work., . .... . ';Canadianiax exemption receipts ar~ issued to t~ose who require them,

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