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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

DRS Defense Solutions, LLC Advanced Marine Technology Center www.maestromarine.com support@maestromarine.com December 2, 2010

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Defining Parts .................................................................................................................................... 1 Creating a Substructure ................................................................................................................ 4 Creating a Module......................................................................................................................... 6 Defining Material and Element Properties ....................................................................................... 9 Material Properties ....................................................................................................................... 9 Element Properties ..................................................................................................................... 10 Importing Geometry ....................................................................................................................... 15 Construction Geometry .................................................................................................................. 17 Creating Endpoints .......................................................................................................................... 21 Defining Stiffener Layouts ............................................................................................................... 23 Creating Strakes .............................................................................................................................. 26 Verifying Design Parameters ........................................................................................................... 32 Creating Bulkheads ......................................................................................................................... 33 Model Integrity Checks ................................................................................................................... 41 Defining Constraints........................................................................................................................ 43 Creating a Load Case ....................................................................................................................... 45 Balancing the Model ....................................................................................................................... 48 Solving the Model ........................................................................................................................... 49 Analyzing the Model ....................................................................................................................... 50 Failure Mode Evaluation ................................................................................................................. 52

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

1.0

Introduction

This tutorial will walk through the complete process of creating and analyzing a midship section in MAESTRO given a basic set of design parameters and hull geometry. To use this tutorial, you are expected to have a general knowledge of the MAESTRO graphic user interface (GUI) and MAESTRO elements (i.e. substructures, modules, strakes, etc.). If you are not comfortable with these areas, please first review the General section of the MAESTRO help file. During the tutorial, it is recommended to save your model often. A fully completed model for this tutorial can be found in the Models and Samples/Tutorials/Midship Section folder for reference at any time. The basic hull characteristics for this exercise are: LBP: 415 feet Camber in Main Deck: 6 inches Half-Breadth at Main Deck: 23.5 feet Hull Depth at Centerline (Main Deck): 29.25 feet Hull Depth at Centerline (2nd Deck): 21 feet Displacement: 500 LT Design Draft, Full Load: 14 feet Material: HTS (High-tensile Steel) Stiffeners/Girders/Frames: T cross-sections Transverse Frame Spacing: 8 feet Transverse WT Bulkhead Spacing: 48 feet A *.dxf file (MAESTRO.dxf) of the forward and aft stations is available as a modeling guide for the midship section. The initial design parameters for this midship section are: Design Bending Moment: 2.55 x109 lbf-in Required Section Modulus (SM): 1.31x105 in3 Total Required Moment of Inertia (I): 2.35x107 in4

2.0

Defining Parts

We will begin by opening a new instance of MAESTRO and setting up the job information. To do this, select File > Job Information from the main menu or click the job information icon .

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

For this tutorial, we are only concerned about the Model Characteristics section of the Job Information dialog (see image above). Since we are only modeling the midship section of this ship, check the Cut Model box. We also are only modeling one half of the hull because it is symmetric about the centerline, so make sure the Transverse Symmetry box is checked. We will then click OK to save the changes. This tutorial will use the unit system consisting of inches and pounds force (lbf) so before we create any parts, we want to set the units. Select File > Units from the main menu. This will open the units dialog:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

From the drop down menu near the bottom in the Standard Unit Systems section, select ips. Then click Apply to Parameter Data to set the new unit system. You should now see the parameter units change to a combination of inches and lbf:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Individual parameters can also be changed by selecting a new label from the appropriate drop-down box.

2.1

Creating a Substructure

Now that the units are set, we are ready to create our first substructure. Remember that a substructure is a set of modules that are generally associated with each other. In this case, we are only creating one module to represent the midship section between two watertight bulkheads but you can imagine if you were creating a full ship, you may want to split the modules into bow, midbody, and aft. To launch the parts dialog, select Model > Parts > Create/Modify from the main menu or click the parts icon .

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Click on top in the parts tree within the dialog. The part top is the fundamental highest level for the global coarse mesh model in MAESTRO. All of the substructures and modules will be created within this part. After clicking on top the Part Name box should update with /top. Click in the box and after /top, type /midship for the first substructure. This name can be whatever you choose. Generally it is given a descriptive name to help organize the model. Next, click the radio button next to Substructure and then click Create. The first substructure is now created, but we want to define its location. Expand the top element by clicking the + and then click on midship in the parts tree. Click the Location tab.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

The origin location is location of the substructure origin relative to the global coordinate system. For the X origin location, type in 2424. We will leave the Y and Z origin values at 0. Click Modify to save the changes for the substructure. We will address the remaining two tabs in the next section.

2.2

Creating a Module

If the Parts dialog is not still open, open it again from the menu or parts icon. Click the General tab and then click on the midship substructure in the parts tree. The Parts Name box should now show /top/midship.

We now want to create a new module underneath this substructure. Click in the Part Name box and after midship, type /m1 and click the radio button next to Module. Then click Create. If you expand the parts tree, you should now see the module m1 underneath the substructure midship.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

It is important to always confirm the part specified in the Part Name is the part you intend to modify. The above image indicates the Part Name is /top/midship; therefore, you must click on m1 in the parts tree to update the Part Name field. Next, we want to define the location of this module. Note that the location of the module is relative to the substructure location, which we defined as 2424 inches from the global x origin. In our case, module m1s origin is located 2424 inches from the global origin so we can leave the location of m1 at (0, 0, 0). Now click on the Sections tab.

By default, 10 evenly spaced sections are created. However, we only want 6 sections with 96 inch spacing. There are a couple ways to change this: all of the sections can be removed and 6 new ones can be added or 4 sections can be removed and the remaining 6 can be re-spaced. We will use the first option, so click section 1, hold down the shift key and scroll down and click section 10. You should see all of the sections highlighted now.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Click the Remove button. Now we can create the new sections by clicking the Add button.

Type in 6 sections with 96 in spacing and click OK. These sections should now be listed in the parts dialog. Click Modify to save these changes. Next, click the Default Values tab.

The Sections/Bay defines the number of strake sections per structural bay. This allows for the transverse frames to be placed every second section, or third section or any other regular spacing. The Reference End and Opposite End Frame options define whether a transverse frame will be located at DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 8

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

either end of the module's strakes. Since we will be creating watertight bulkheads at the forward and aft ends of our model, we want to uncheck both Reference End Frame and Opposite End Frame. Click Modify to save the changes and then close the parts dialog. The parts tree in the main GUI should now show the new substructure and module.

3.0

Defining Material and Element Properties

We next want to create our plate and beam element properties. But before we can do that, we need to define the material that these elements will be made of.

3.1

Material Properties

The material dialog can be opened by selecting Model > Materials from the main menu, or clicking the materials icon .

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

There is a default ST24 material in MAESTRO. We are going to create a new high tensile steel (HTS) material. Click the ID button at the top of the dialog to create a new material property. Type in the name HTS and click Create. The material properties for this new material are: Youngs Modulus: 2.96x107 Poisson Ratio: 0.33 Density: 0.283 Yield Stress: 47000 Ultimate Tensile Strength: 72000 Reduced Yield Stress at AL Heat Affected Zone: 47000 Weld Residual Stress/Yield Stress: 0 Structural Proportional Limit Ratio: 1 (NVR)Allowable Bending Stress: 37600 Once these values are typed in, click Modify and close the dialog.

3.2

Element Properties

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Our tutorial model only requires plate and beam elements. Rod and Spring elements can be created in the same manner if needed. Open the Properties dialog by selecting Model > Properties > Plate from the menu or click the properties icon .

3.2.1

Plate Elements

We will use the following midship drawing to determine the plate thicknesses we will need when creating the model.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

If the properties dialog is not already open to the plate tab, open it now. Click the ID button to create a new plate property. Now we want to give the property a descriptive name. We will first create the 5/16 property so type the name 5/16in HTS. It is good to include a material description in the name, especially when creating models with multiple material properties. This methodology applies to beam, rod and spring elements as well. Next we want to define the thickness of the plate. Right-click in the white-space underneath the column labeled Layer and select Add. Select the HTS material from the drop-down. In the thickness column, type in 0.3125 and then click Create to save the new plate property. Multiple layers of different materials can be added to a plate property to create composite properties. We now want to repeat this process for the remaining 4 plate thicknesses: Name 3/8in HTS 1/2in HTS 7/16in HTS 5/8in HTS Thickness (in.) 0.375 0.500 0.4375 0.625

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

3.2.2

Beam Properties

We are now ready to create the beam properties which will represent the frame, girder and stiffener elements in our model. We first want to create a null beam property. This will allow us to set a stiffener layout that represents an unstiffened panel or to create a strake that does not have transverse frames. Click the ID button on the Beam tab of the Properties dialog. Type in the name null and set all the web and flange parameters to 0 and select the HTS material and then click Create.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We are now ready to create the structural beam elements. The first one we will create is a 7 x 6 x 17# Tee shape. Click ID to create a new property and type the name 7 x 6 x 17# T (HTS). Since this is a tee-shape element, we do not need to change the Type. Input the following parameters and click Create: Web Height: 6.545 Web Thickness: 0.285 Flange Width: 6.75 Flange Thickness: 0.455 Note that the web height is 6.545 inches as opposed to 7.0 inches because MAESTRO includes the flange thickness as part of the web height. The following table will list the remaining beam elements that need to be created. Name 12x4x0.35/0.375 T (HTS) 7x6 x15# T (HTS) 4x4x7.5# T (HTS) Web Height (in) 12.0 6.615 3.685 Web Thickness (in) 0.35 0.27 0.245 Flange Width (in) 4.0 6.75 4.0 Flange Thickness (in) 0.375 0.385 0.315

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

6x4x7# T (HTS) 10x4x15# I-T (HTS) 8x4x10# I-T (HTS) 4x4x5# T (HTS)

5.775 10.0 8.0 3.785

0.2 0.27 0.265 0.175

4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

0.225 0.385 0.375 0.215

The Beam tab of the Properties dialog should now be populated with all of the beam elements.

4.0

Importing Geometry

We are now ready to import our *.dxf section curves to use as reference geometry. The first thing we need to do is to make sure that top is set as the current part. There should be a hand under the folder next to top in the parts tree signifying the current part.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Choose File > Import > DXF (R12) from the main menu. Navigate to the location of the DXF file MAESTRO.dxf and click Open. This file can be found here: C:\ProgramData\MAESTRO\Models and Samples\Tutorials\Midship Section for Windows Vista and Windows 7 or here: C:\Program Files \MAESTRO\Models and Samples\Tutorials\Midship Section for Windows XP.

MAESTRO will only open *.IDF files, but there is a built-in geometry translator for DXF and GF files. Our input file is in Feet so we need to change that from the Input File Units drop-down. We also need to scale the z Multiplier by -1 to make sure our sections are orientated correctly. This scale factor is applied to the input coordinate system, so in this case we are flipping the vertical coordinates (i.e. ycoordinate in MAESTRO). Click OK to load the geometry.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

You should now see the section curves for the entire ship as well as a new folder under top called dxfin.

5.0

Construction Geometry

Construction lines and markers are very helpful for planning out endpoint and node locations. In this section we will use a combination of construction markers, construction lines, and additional nodes (used as reference points) to plan out our endpoint locations. We now want to make our module m1 the current part. This will allow us to create our reference node. We will refer to the plate thickness drawing from section 3.2.1 to layout the endpoint locations.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

The endpoint locations are laid out to capture the changes in plate thickness, section shape and intersection points. The following table provides the transverse or vertical coordinate for each endpoint. We will use construction lines to intersect the section curve at these locations to capture the section geometry. Endpoint Transverse Coordinate (in) Vertical Coordinate (in) 1 0.0 2 24.0 3 60.0 4 180.0 5 240.0 6 Bilge Bilge 7 48.0 8 84.0 9 144.0 10 205.5 DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 18

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

252.0 300.0 Deck Edge 192.0 84.0 0.0 0.0 84.0 192.0

252.0 252.0 252.0

We will set construction markers on the reference end section curve for our module, create the endpoints with identical transverse and vertical coordinates and then use additional construction geometry to match the shape of the opposite end section curve. Our reference end curve is the 5th curve from the bow so we will want to zoom in on this curve to start marking points. You could also create a cutting plane at this location to isolate the section curve. Select Tools > Cutting Planes > YZ Slice from the menu and then click the section curve of interest. We can now easily place a marker at the endpoint 1 location using the point construction marker. Construction geometry can be accessed from Tools > Construction Geometry or by holding the Ctrl key and right mouse clicking to bring up the same menu. Select Point from the construction marker menu and then click at the end of the section curve. You should now see a circle placed where endpoint 1 is located.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

This process can be repeated for endpoint locations 6, 13 and 16. We are now going to create an additional node to use as a reference point. Open the additional node dialog by selecting Model > Nodes > Create/Modify > Additional Node from the main menu or clicking the additional node icon . We also want to make sure nodes are visible in the model by clicking the Node on/off icon .

Click ID to create a new node. We now want to place a marker at the location for endpoint 2 so we will set the Y coordinate to 0 and the Z coordinate to 24.0 and click Create. There should now be a node under the section curve 24.0 inches from the centerline. If we zoom in, we can see that the node is not on the section curve. Select Project from the construction marker menu and then first select the section curve and then the reference additional node we just created. There should now be a construction marker 24 inches from centerline along the section curve. This can be repeated using the same reference node for endpoint locations 3 thru 5. Open the additional node dialog and select ID 1. Edit the coordinates and click Modify to make the changes. For endpoints 7 thru 12 we will move our reference node to the appropriate height and create a transverse construction line through it. We can then place a construction marker at the intersection between the construction line and section curve. We will walk through the steps for endpoint location 7 and then these can be repeated for 8 thru 12. Edit the reference node so that the Y coordinate is now 48.0 and click Modify. From the construction line menu, choose Transverse and then select the node. There should now be a transverse line intersecting the section curve at 48.0 inches above the baseline. Next, select Cross from the construction marker menu and then click one of the intersecting curves near the intersection point and then click the other curve. You should now see a construction marker on the section curve at endpoint location 7. We can then use either the project method as we did for the bottom shell points or intersect a vertical construction line to mark endpoint locations 14 and 15. End points 17 thru 19 can be typed directly into the endpoint definition since we know both the transverse and vertical coordinates.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We can clean up the model view by returning to the construction geometry menu and selecting Delete > Lines. We can also delete our reference node by selecting it in the additional node dialog and clicking Delete.

6.0

Creating Endpoints

Now that we have our endpoint locations marked at the reference end, we can start to create endpoints.

Open the endpoint dialog by selecting Model > Nodes > Create/Modify > EndPoint from the main menu or clicking the endpoint icon .

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Note that the Opposite X location is automatically filled in from our module section definitions. Click ID to create a new endpoint and then click in the Reference X location box. These values can be typed in manually, or after clicking in the box you can select a construction marker (or existing node) to automatically populate the X, Y and Z coordinates. Click the endpoint marker for location 1 and then click Create. We will set the opposite location later by creating a construction marker at the endpoint 1 location of the opposite end section curve. The endpoint can be changed by setting the new coordinates and clicking Modify. Click ID again to create endpoint 2 and set the reference coordinates by clicking in the X location box and then clicking the construction marker for endpoint location 2. This time we will set the Opposite Z location to 24.0 before clicking Create. We can then project a construction marker for the opposite end of the endpoint onto the other section curve. This can be repeated for endpoints 3 thru 5. The side shell endpoints opposite location can be found by setting the Opposite end Y coordinate and then intersecting the section curve with a transverse construction line as we did in the previous section. Endpoints 17 thru 19 will have the same reference and opposite coordinates.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Once you become more comfortable with MAESTRO, you may develop a slightly different method for utilizing DXF and construction geometry or even combine some of the steps from sections 5.0 and 6.0.

7.0

Defining Stiffener Layouts

Stiffeners are defined as beam elements and are used to add additional stiffness in the defined direction. In a MAESTRO coarse mesh model, the stiffeners are not actual finite elements, but instead their properties are smeared into the stiffened quad element creating an orthotropic material. Stiffener layouts can be defined by a number of stiffeners per panel or a breadth between stiffeners. Edge stiffeners can also be added to either of the definition methods. We will refer to the following stiffener layout drawing for our definitions.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

It is important to establish a consistent stiffener naming convention before you begin to create layouts. The following methodology is merely a suggestion; stiffener layouts can be given any naming convention the user chooses. The following is stiffener layout format we will use in this tutorial: Beam Element Property (Material) (breadth between/# stiffeners + edge stiffeners) The edge stiffeners variable is defined by a 0, 1, 2, or 3, where each ones represents: 0: no edge stiffeners 1: stiffener on edge 1 2: stiffener on edge 2 3: stiffener on edge 1 and 2 We will now walk through the process of creating the first stiffener layout from the drawing. The remaining layouts can be created using the same procedure. These stiffener layout names are given below: DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 24

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Layout # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 null

Layout Name 7x6 3/4x17# T (HTS) (24in+1) 7x6 3/4x15# T (HTS) (24in+0) 7x6 3/4x15# T (HTS) (24in+1) 10x4x15#I- T (HTS) (24in+1) 10x4x15# T (HTS) (24in+0) 8x4x10# I-T (HTS) (24in+0) 4x4x7.5# T (HTS) (24in+0) 6x4x7# T (HTS) (24in+0) 8x4x10# I-T (HTS) (32in+0) 4x4x5# T (HTS) (18in+0) 4x4x5# T (HTS) (24in+0) 4x4x5# T (HTS) (32in+0) 4x4x5# T (HTS) (30in+0) null

Open the stiffener layout dialog by selecting Model > Stiffener Layout from the main menu or clicking the stiffener layout icon .

Click the ID button to create a new layout. Type in the name for stiffener layout 1: 7x6 3/4x17# T (HTS) (24in+1). This means we are going to create a layout with 7x6 x17# T stiffeners, with 24 inch spacing and an edge 1 stiffener. Select the beam property, which we defined in section 3.2.2 from the drop-down menu. Click the Breadth Between Stiffeners radio button to make the input box active. Type in 24 and then check the Edge 1 Stiffener box. Finally, click Create to save the layout.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

If creating a layout with a set number of stiffeners, that number would be entered in the Number of Internal Stiffeners box and the name would be something like: 7x6 3/4x17# T (HTS) (3+1) In this case there would be 3 internal stiffeners and one stiffener on edge 1 for a total of 4 stiffeners. Repeat the process above to create the remaining 13 layouts including the null layout which will have 0 internal stiffeners and no edge stiffeners checked. The beam property is not important since no stiffeners are defined in the null layout.

8.0

Creating Strakes

Now that our endpoints are created and our element properties are defined, we are ready to create our strakes. Strakes are a convenient way to create all of the structural elements (i.e. plates, frames, girders and stiffeners) between two endpoints, utilizing the longitudinal symmetry between endpoints within a module. Please refer to the Model Organization section of the MAESTRO help file for more details. The strake dialog can be opened by selecting Model > Elements > Create/Modify > Strake from the main menu or clicking the strake icon .

We will walk through each of the tabs during the creation of our first strake using the following figure as a guide: DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 26

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Click the ID button to create a new strake. Click inside the Endpoint 1 box and then click on the first endpoint at the keel and then click the second endpoint along the bottom shell. If the endpoints are not visible click the Node On/Off icon . From the location tab, choose bottom. The location of the strake determines whether or not those plate elements will receive a hydrostatic pressure during the analysis. Locations of bottom or side will make the element wetted, whereas deck or other will not. Normally, all of the outside shell elements of a vessel will be wetted as they will see pressure from the water they are in. At any time, you can select View > Wetted Elements from the main menu to check that the strakes are properly defined. Next, click on the Plates tab and select the appropriate plate property from the drop-down. In this case, our first strake has 5/8 plating so we will choose 5/8in HTS

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Next, click the Frames tab and select 10x4x15# I-T (HTS) from the drop-down. The frame definitions are given in the figure above on the left side. We will leave the Frame Web Orientation as it is since these are transverse frames and we want them to be orientated in the positive normal direction of the strake.

Next, click the Girders tab, check the Enable Girder box and select 12x4x0.35/0.375 T (HTS) from the drop-down. All of the girders in this module are the same and their specification can be found in the figure above. Select Up for the direction of the girder; this will orient the girder straight up in the Y DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 28

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

direction versus choosing 0 and orientating it 0 degrees from the positive normal direction of the strake plate. The girder is always created on the Endpoint 1 side of the strake. For the girders on the main and 2nd deck, the first endpoint will be on the centerline. In these two cases, the girder direction will then be down and the frames will be located on the Transverse, Negative side of the plate.

Next, click on the Stiffener tab. Since this strake is unstiffened, select null from the drop-down menu. For the remaining modules, we will want to make sure we choose Longitudinal for the direction since our ship is longitudinally stiffened and Same for the side.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Lastly, we will click on the Deletions tab.

We only need to use this tab if we want to remove the plating, frame or girder in one or more sections of the strake. In this strake and the remaining ones, we will not need to use this tab. We are now ready to click Create. After this you should see the first strake appear on the screen.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We will now quickly go through the steps for the second strake. The necessary information for the remaining strakes can be found in the figure above. Remember, the completed model in the Midship Section tutorial folder can also be used as a reference. Click ID for the next strake and select the following properties from each tab: General: Type: Regular, Endpoint 1: 2, Endpoint 2: 3, Location: Bottom Plates: 1/2in-HTS Frames: 10x4x15# I-T (HTS) Girders: uncheck Enable Girder Stiffener: 7x6 3/4x17# T (HTS) (24in+1) Click Create to save the second strake.

Repeat this process for the remaining strakes.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We can view that the stiffeners are defined correctly by clicking the Stiffeners On/Off icon

9.0

Verifying Design Parameters

Now that we have our module created, we want to check our design parameters (section modulus, moment of inertia) to make sure they meet our requirements we established in section 1.0. To view the moment of inertia and section modulus at each section, select Hull > View Longitudinal > Properties from the main menu. The grid tab at the bottom of the MAESTRO GUI will display the sections and their corresponding properties.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

From a visual check of the results, we can see that Izz is never less than 2.38x107 in4 which is greater than the required 2.35x107 in4. Also the section modulus (Izz/Y (+/-) is never less than 1.353 x105 in3 which is greater than the required 1.31 x105 in3.

10.0 Creating Bulkheads


Now that we know our module meets our initial design parameters, we are ready to apply the design bending moment. Before we can do that, we need to create forward and aft bulkheads so that the model will not collapse at the ends once the load is applied. Since the two bulkheads will be identical in structure, we will use compound elements for this step. Compound elements provide a convenient method for quickly creating repetitive transverse structure. A prototype is created once and can be repeated along a module's longitudinal direction using the replication rule. Compound elements must be defined by endpoints only, and not additional nodes. This means we will need to create new endpoints to define the bulkhead elements. Similarly to when we created the initial endpoints, we will use construction geometry to find intersection points to snap the endpoint reference and opposite locations to. Starting with the reference end of the module we will create transverse construction lines at the four existing endpoints along the side shell below the main deck. Hold down the Ctrl key and right mouse-click. Select Line > Transverse from the menu. Without clicking on any endpoints, return to the construction geometry menu and select Repeat. This will allow you to create multiple transverse construction lines. Now click the reference location of each of the four endpoints.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We now want to create the vertical construction lines. Unfortunately, we have more endpoints along the bottom shell than we do on the two decks. We will have to use triangle elements to create a fully connected mesh and transition from the bottom shell to the main deck. First we will create a vertical line at the keel. Next we want to choose Line > 2 Points from the construction geometry menu and then click the third bottom shell node and then the second main deck node. Repeat this process for the fourth and third nodes on the bottom shell and main deck. We now want to create construction markers at all of the intersection points between the bottom shell and main deck. We can use the Marker > Cross option from the construction geometry menu. Once these are created we want to create new endpoints at these markers. These endpoints will have the same reference and opposite Y and Z coordinates. We can now delete the construction geometry and the model should look like this:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

If you look at the turn of the bilge, you can see there are not enough nodes to create good elements with proper aspect ratios and internal angles. We want to create one more node to transition this area. Create a 2 Points construction line from the bottom shell endpoint next to the turn of the bilge and the main deck endpoint closest to (not at) the side shell. Then create a Transverse construction line at the side shell endpoint just above the turn of the bilge. Create a Cross construction marker at this intersection and then a new endpoint.

The endpoints between the main and second decks can be quickly created because we know the transverse coordinates and vertical coordinates of the existing endpoints. The fastest way to create DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 35

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

these is to open the Endpoint dialog and select the endpoint on the side shell between the main and second deck. Click the ID button for a new endpoint and then change the reference and opposite end Z coordinate to 192 inches and click Create. Repeat this for the endpoints at 84 and 0 inches.

We are now ready to create our compound elements. Select Model > Elements > Create/Modify > Compound from the main menu or click the compounds icon .

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We first need to create our compound before we can define the elements in it. Click the ID button and type in WT Bulkheads for the name. Click Create Cmpd to initialize the compound. We are now ready to create quad and triangle elements. Click on the Quad tab.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Quad elements are defined by 4 nodes, a plate property, stiffener layout and stiffener direction. The stiffener direction is dependent on the order of the nodes which define the edges. For example, the edge of the quad between nodes 1 and 2 is edge 1. All of our bulkhead elements will be 5/8 thick and the quads will have 10x4x15# I-T (HTS) (24in + 0) stiffeners. We will start in the upper left corner on the reference end of the module. Click ID on the Quad tab page and then click in the Node 1 box. Start by clicking the upper-left most node and then work in a clock-wise direction picking the four points of the quad as shown below. Select the plate thickness and stiffener layout from the drop-downs. Our stiffeners will be vertical so select Edge 1 to Edge 3 for the Direction.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

You should see this same quad element repeated at each endpoint section. When creating new elements, its helpful to verify that the second value in the node boxes is always 0. These coordinates represent the endpoint number and endpoint section. It is important to create the prototype elements at the reference end so they can be repeated to any of the subsequent strake sections. Before we create the rest of the quads and triangles, we will set the rule so the compound is only created at the forward and aft sections of the module. Click the Rule tab in the Compounds dialog and then uncheck all the numbers except 0 and 6. These numbers represent the endpoint sections. Then click Set Rule and the model should update with only quads at the ends of the module.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We can now repeat the quad creation process for the rest of the bulkhead. Note: we want to keep the quad orientation the same for the stiffener layout and normal direction so always start the quad in the upper left corner and work clockwise. The white arrow on the highlighted quad indicates the orientation. The arrow points from node 1 to node 2, which also signifies edge 1. You will need to create 4 triangle elements (1 at the keel corner and 3 at the bilge). These elements are created the same as a quad except they require only 3 nodes. Be sure to maintain the same orientation with the triangle elements as well. The complete bulkhead should look like the model below:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

11.0 Model Integrity Checks


Now that we are finished with the modeling stage, it is good to perform a few integrity checks on the model. Normally when creating a large model, it is a good idea to perform these checks after each module is created. Wetted Elements The first check is to verify that the elements that should be defined as wetted are. Select View > Wetted Elements from the main menu. All of the elements except for the outside shell elements should no longer be displayed.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

If this is not the case, click the query icon and then highlight and right-click the element that should not be wetted and uncheck Wet from the menu. Once your model looks like the image above, right-click in the modeling space and select Element Type to return to the standard view. Element Connectivity This check makes sure that all of the elements are connected. Select Tools > Integrity Check > Element Connectivity from the main menu. You should get the following message:

If not, some changes need to be made to the model to fix the connectivity error. Free Edges

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

This check verifies that no free edges exist in the model. A free edge occurs when not all the elements share common edges with each other. This usually occurs when a node is used by one element in a specific area but not by its neighboring element. Select View > Edges > Free Edges from the main menu. It is easiest to see the free edges in wireframe mode , with stiffeners and end points turned off.

Free edges normally show up in red. There should be no free edges displayed in your model.

Aspect Ratio This check verifies that no elements aspect ratio is above a certain limit. Select Tools > Integrity Check > Aspect Ratio from the main menu. Set the threshold to 5.0 and click OK. You should receive a message stating no elements with an aspect ratio greater than 5.0 found. Overlapped Elements This check verifies that no elements were created on top of each other. Select Tools > Integrity Check > Overlapped Elements from the main menu. You should receive a message stating no duplicate elements found. If not, delete the overlapped elements.

12.0 Defining Constraints


Before we can solve our model, we need to first constrain it. Constraints are used to restrict the models movement in any of the three translational or three rotational degrees of freedom. To define constraints, select Model > Define Constraints from the main menu or click the constraints icon DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 43 .

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Click the General tab.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Next, click inside the large white space and then we can click nodes in our model to be the constraint points. If nodes are not turned on, turn them on now. Click the main deck node at the centerline in the forward and aft end of the module. You should see these appear in the Constraints dialog. Now we want to set the degrees of freedom to constrain at each node. For the first node we want to constrain it in the X, Y and Z direction so double-click the 0 under the X, Y and Z column. They should turn to 1s. Now do the same for the second node in the Y and Z directions.

We do not need X because it is already constrained at the first node in that direction and since the model has transverse symmetry, the model is constrained for rotation about the Y axis. The Y and Z constraints at both nodes restrict rotation about the X and Z axes. Click OK to save the constraints and close the dialog.

13.0 Creating a Load Case


A load case consists of all of the loads which act on the structure at the same time. Loads which do not act simultaneously should be placed in separate load cases (unless their interaction is negligible). Each load case produces a separate solution for the nodal displacements, and hence load effects, in the structure. In our example we will only have one load case and the only loads acting on it are its selfweight and our prescribed bending moment.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Select Loads > Create/Modify from the main menu or click the loads icon

to open the loads dialog.

Click ID to create a new load case and we will call it Bending Moment. Since we are just applying the self-weight and bending moment load, check the box next to Include structures mass and End Moment only and then click Create.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Notice that some of the tabs at the top disappeared after we created the load case. These tabs appear and disappear depending on the load options checked on the General tab. For more information on the different loading options, please see the Defining Loads section of the MAESTRO help file. We now want to click on the End Moments tab.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

For this tutorial we will apply a sagging bending moment. On the Vertical Bending Moment row under the Reference End and Opposite End boxes, type in 2.55 x 109 lbf-in and click Modify. The Vertical Shear Force will be automatically calculated when we balance the model in the next section. Click Close.

14.0 Balancing the Model


To balance the model, select Model > Balance or click the balance icon . In the case of our model, the balance only solves for the vertical shear force so you should get the following message:

Click Yes to balance. We can now go back into our loads dialog and see that the Vertical Shear Force is no longer 0.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

15.0 Solving the Model


Once our model is constrained and balanced, we are ready to solve it. Select File > Analysis/Evaluation > Global FEA from the main menu or click the analyze icon .

We want to click the radio button next to MAESTRO in the Failure Mode Evaluation section and then click OK to solve. We will discuss the failure mode evaluation in later sections. Once the analysis is complete, you should receive a completion message:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Click Yes to view the deformed model.

Note that the deformation is exaggerated from the actual deformation. If you look in the Output window, you will see the maximum displacement is:
Maximum Displacement=0.806243 in at FeTag=74

You can undeform the model by unchecking Results > Deformed Model from the main menu.

16.0 Analyzing the Model


Now that the model has successfully solved, we can view the stress patterns or recover specific stresses and displacements. For a description of the different stresses that can be recovered, please see the Stress Results section of the MAESTRO help file. DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 50

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

As an example, we will view a contour plot of the Von Mises stress. Select Results > Stress > Mid Von Mises from the main menu. The model should update with a view of the Von Mises stress distribution. To change the plot to contour, click the contour icon .

Clicking the dynamic query icon drop-down arrow and selecting Stress Mid allows you to highlight elements and recover their specific stresses.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

Nodal displacements can also be recovered from the model. Click the dynamic query drop-down and select Node. Now return to the drop-down menu and you should see new options specific to nodes. Click on Deformation and you can now highlight a node in the model and recover the translational and rotational displacements. Double-clicking a node or element with the dynamic query on will echo the results (stress, displacement, etc.) shown in the pop-up window.

17.0 Failure Mode Evaluation


A large and complex thin-wall structure can fail in many different ways, which are called the failure modes. The various factors that determine the failure modes include the geometry of the structure, the boundary conditions, and the loading on the structure. In this tutorial, we will go through some of the options for checking and recovering the adequacy parameters. For more information on failure mode evaluation and the adequacy parameter definitions, please see the Failure Mode Evaluation section of the MAESTRO help file. Failure mode evaluation is performed on evaluation patches in the model. During the analysis of the model, MAESTRO automatically created evaluation patches. A patch is a collection of elements with its boundary supported by bulkheads or beams. A patch can also be a single element. To view the created patches, select View > Evaluation Patches > Patch from the main menu.

The gray quad elements are patches consisting of a single element. Patches can also be manually defined. DRS Defense Solutions, LLC, Advanced Marine Technology Center | www.maestromarine.com Page | 52

MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

To view the failure mode evaluation results, select Results > Adequacy > Minimum Value (All) from the main menu. This will show the minimum adequacy parameter for each patch.

We can see from the model that the second deck has negative adequacy parameters which mean the structure is under built and would fail under the prescribed load, given the safety factors defined in the Job Information dialog. To investigate which parameters are failing, click the adequacy parameter icon drop-down and select Adequacy. Highlight one of the second deck quad elements and the adequacy parameters for that element will appear:

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We can now see that PCSF and PCSB are negative for the patch. Note, when viewing the adequacy parameters for a single element, the results shown are for the entire patch, except for PCSB and PFLB which are calculated for the single element only. We can now launch the Evaluation dialog by rightclicking on a quad element and selecting Launch Evaluation Dialog from the menu.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

This dialog should automatically update with the stiffened panel properties as well as the calculated stress applied to this element. First, we want to click the radio button next to MAESTRO in the upper right-hand corner under Method. If we want to make changes to the panel and recalculate, click the radio button for User Defined under the Input Data section. Lets try changing the breadth between stiffeners from 18.0 inches to 12.0 inches and then click Compute.

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MAESTRO Midship Design Tutorial

We can now see that all of the adequacy parameters are positive. We also could have tried changing the stiffener property or plate thickness. We could now go back and change the stiffener layout for the entire strake and re-run the analysis. One thing to keep in mind as we are changing parameters is the self-weight of the structure. Structural weight is usually kept as low as possible. This can be quickly checked by right-clicking on the module m1 in the parts tree and selecting Show Weight. This can be done each time a plate thickness or stiffener layout is changed in the model in order to find the best tradeoff between structural strength and weight.

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