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CP1258_21-Sep-2011_RM01

CP1258_21-Sep-2011_RM01

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11/26/2012

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Numerical Control

Computer Assisted Part Programming

Computer Assisted Part Programming

 Part Programmer’s job  The computer’s job

Part Programmer’s job
 Defining the workpart geometry  Specifying the operation sequence & tool

path

Defining the workpart geometry

The drawing somewhat irregular in overall appearance, the outline of the part consists of intersecting straight lines and a partial circle.

Define the workpart according to the operations to be performed

Computer assisted part programming Part programmer’s job APT Program CRT Computer’s job Input Translation Arithmetic Calculations Cutter Offset Post processor Machine Tool .

NC part programming languages APT (Automatically Programmed Tools) ADAPT (Adaptation of APT) EXAPT (Extended subset of APT) UNIAPT SPLIT (Sundstrand Processing Language Internally Translated)  COMPACT II  PROMPT  CINTURN II      .

 The full APT program requires a computing system that would have been considered large by the standards of the 1960s.  This precluded its use by many small and medium sized firms that did not have access to a large computer. . but it can be used for both positioning and contouring jobs.  ADAPT is not as powerful as APT.  It was intended to provide many of features of APT but to utilise a small computer.ADAPT (Adaptation of APT)  Developed by IBM under Air Force contract.

 There are three versions:  EXAPT I – designed for positioning (drilling & straight cut milling).  EXAPT II – designed for turning  EXAPT III – designed for limited contouring operations.EXAPT (Extended subset of APT)  Developed by Germany starting around 1964 and is based on the APT language. .  One of the important features of EXAPT is that it attempts to compute optimum feeds and speeds automatically.

California.UNIAPT  UNIAPT package represents another attempt to adapt the APT language to use on smaller computers.  Their efforts have provided a limited version of APT to be implemented on minicomputers. thus allowing many smaller shops to possess computer-assisted programming capacity. .  Developed by United Computing Corporation of Carson.

 It can handle upto five axis positioning and possesses contouring capability as well.  One of the unusual features of SPLIT is that the processor is built into the program.SPLIT (Sundstrand Processing Language Internally Translated)  This is a proprietary system intended for Sundstrand’s machine tools. .  Each machine tool uses its own SPLIT package. thus the need for special postprocessor.

.COMPACT II  This is a package available from Manufacturing Data Systems. a firm based in Ann Arbor. which in turn produces the NC tape. MDSI has roughly 3000 client companies which use this system.      Inc. MDSI leases the COMPACT II system to its users on a timesharing basis. COMPACT II language is one of the most widely used programming languages. The NC language is similar to SPLIT in many of its features. The part programmer uses a remote terminal to feed the program into one of the MDSI computers.(MDSI). Michigan.

 It is designed for use with a variety of machine tools. including lathes. Inc. of Milwaukee. flame cutters and punch presses. .. Wisconsin. machining centers.PROMPT  This is an interactive part programming language offered by Weber NC System.

.CINTURN II  This is high level language developed by Cincinnati Milacron to facilitate programming of turning operations.

Product of the MIT developmental work on NC programming systems. Today it is the most widely used language in the united states. APTURN – lathe operations APTMIL – milling and drilling operations APTPOINT – for point to point operations .APT (Automatically Programmed Tools)  Development began in June 1956 and it was first used in around       1959. APT used for both positioning (PTP) and continuous path programming in up to five axes.

 Command the cutting tool through its sequence of machining operations.  APT can be used to control a variety of different machining operations.  Over 400 words in the APT vocabulary.  APT is three dimensional system that can be used to control upto five axes. .APT  Used for computer assisted part programming.

2. tool. . 4. Auxiliary statements – miscellaneous statements used identify the part.APT Language  There are four types of statements in the APT language: 1. Postprocessor statements – used to specify feeds and speeds and to actuate other features of the machine. tolerances and so on. Motion statements – used to describe the path taken by the cutting tool. 3. Geometry statements – define the geometric statements that comprise the workpart. They are also sometimes called definition statements.

0. .  General form of an APT geometry statement is symbol= geometry type/descriptive data Example P1= POINT/5.0.Geometry statements  To program in APT the workpart must be defined.0 P1 Symbol can be any combination of six or fewer alphabetic & numeric characters.4. Alphabet one of the six must be an alphabetic character.0.

. POINT.P4 Slash separates the surface type from the descriptive data. These data may include quantitative dimensions and positional data.Identifies the type of geometry element. LINE. PLANE & CIRCLE Define the element precisely. completely & uniquely. previously defined geometry elements and other APT words. Commas are used to separate the words and numbers in the descriptive data. L3= LINE/P3.

By the coordinates of two points L1=LINE/2. 0 7 6 5 L1 P2 4 3 2 P1 1 2. By two pints. 4. L1=LINE/P1. 5. 1.LINE 1. P2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .0.

TANTO. TANTO. L1=LINE/P1. RIGHT. C1 7 Y 6 5 4 C1 3 L1 2 P1 1 L2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X . LEFT. By a point and tangent to a circle.3. C1 L2=LINE/P1.

30.4. L3 7 Y 6 5 L4 L3 4 3 2 30° P1 20° 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X . ATANGL. ATANGL. By a point and the angle of the line to the x-axis or another line. LEFT. L3=LINE/P1. LEFT. 20 L4=LINE/P1.

L5=LINE/P2. By a point and being parallel to or perpendicular to another line. PARLEL. L3 7 Y 6 5 L6 L5 4 P2 3 L3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X .5. PERPTO. L3 L6=LINE/P2.

C3. By being tangent to two circles. TANTO. C4 L10=LINE/RIGHT. C4 L8=LINE/LEFT. RIGHT. TANTO. TANTO. TANTO. LEFT. TANTO. C3. TANTO. LEFT. C4 L9=LINE/RIGHT. C3. C3. TANTO. C4 7 Y 6 5 L8 L7 L9 4 C3 3 C4 2 L10 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X . TANTO.5. L7=LINE/LEFT. RIGHT.

L3 New line parallel to another line which has been previously defined. PARLEL.L4=LINE/P5. . Line L4 must pass through point P5 and be parallel to line L3.

Y PL1 P2 P1 P3 X Y . the three points must not lie along a straight line. similar to the previous line parallelism statement.A Plane can be defined by specifying three points which it passes: PL1=PLANE/P1.P3 Of course. A plane can be defined as being parallel to another plane.P2.

PL2=PLANE/P2.PARLEL.PL1 Plane PL2 is parallel to plane PL1 and passes through point P2. .

By convention. The orientation of the circle perhaps seems undefined. it is a circle located in the x-y plane.5. C1=CIRCLE/CENTER.0 The two APT descriptive words are used to identify the center and radius. A circle can be specified by its center and its radius.RADIUS. .P1.

4.0.There are several ground rules that must be followed in formulating an APT statement: 1. y=4.0 and z=0. The coordinate data must be specified in the order x. . 2. For example. the statement P1=POINT/5. For example.0.z.y.0.0 is interpreted by the APT program to mean a point x=5. Any symbols used as descriptive data must have been previously defined.L1.0.L2 the two lines L1 and L2 must have been previously defined. in the statement P2=POINT/INTOF.

1.2.1.0.0 4.1.3.4.0. . A symbol can be used to define only one geometry element.0 P2=POINT/1.0 P1=POINT/2.0.3.0. P1=POINT/1. The same can not be used to define two different elements. the following sequence would e incorrect.0. For example. the following statements in the same program would render the program incorrect.0 Only one symbol can be used to define any given element.0.1. P1=POINT/1.1.0. For example.0.

0 7 6 L1 P4 P2 P1 C1 5 4 3 2 P3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 2 C1=CIRCLE/4. 3.0. RADIUS. C1=CIRCLE/CENTER. By the coordinates of the center and the radius. 2.0. 4. 3.0. 0.0.1.0. 0.0.

2.0 .2. RADIUS. C1=CIRCLE/CENTER. By the center point and the radius. P1.

3. TANTO. L1 . P1. C1=CIRCLE/CENTER. By the center point and tangent to a line.

P4 . P3. C1=CIRCLE/P2.4. By three points on the circumference.

the tool is commanded to go to point P1.Motion statements  General form of motion statement is motion command/descriptive data An example of a motion statement is GOTO/P1 The statement consists of two sections separated by a slash. The second is comprised of descriptive data. which has been defined in a preceding geometry statement. The first section is the basic motion command. which tells the tool what to do. which tell the tool where to go. In the example statement above. .

0. TARG is the symbol given to the starting point.FROM/TARG The FROM is an APT vocabulary word which indicates that this is the initial point from which others will be referenced. -2. FROM/ -2. The FROM statement occurs only at the start of the motion sequence. 0.0. In the statement above. . Any other APT symbol could be used to define the target point. y and z coordinates of the target point.0 Where the descriptive data in this case are the x.

0.0 and z=0. 7. the tool has been instructed to go to the location whose coordinates are x=2. The GOTO statement instructs the tool to go to a particular point location specified in the descriptive data. . 0. P2 is the destination of the tool point.0. In the second statement. Examples: GOTO/P2 GOTO/2.0 In the first statement.0. y=7.PTP (Point To Point) MOTIONS There are only two basic PTP motion commands: GOTO and GODLTA.

0 in the x direction and 7.0.5 . 0.0 Instructs the tool to move from its present position 2. Then the GODLTA command would be used to drill the hole. The z coordinate remains unchanged. -1. the statement GODLTA/2. For example. 0. +1.0. 7. 0.5 GODLTA/0.0.0. The tool can be directed to a particular hole location with the GOTO statement. as in the following sequence: GOTO/P2 GODLTA/0.0.0 in the y direction. The GODLTA command is useful in drilling and related operations.The GODLTA command specifies an incremental move for the tool.0.

0. 0.0. 0.0 P2=POINT/1. 2.5 GODLTA/0. 1. 3.0. -1. 0.0 GOTO/P2 GODLTA/0.0.0.0 P2 1. +1.5.0 FROM/P0 GOTO/P1 2.0 GOTO/P0 .0 GODLTA/0.0. 0.0.0 GODLTA/0.0. +1. -1. +1.0 1. 1. 0.0 P3 1. 0.0.0.0. 0.0.3) P1 P1=POINT/1.0.0 3.0.0.50 x GOTO/P3 GODLTA/0.0.0.0.0 GODLTA/0.0 P3=POINT/3.Example: Motion statements y P0(-1. 0.0 P0=POINT/ -1. -1.0.5. 0.

CONTOURING MOTIONS Three surfaces in APT contouring motions which guide the cutting tool Check surface Cutter Drive surface t e ativ men Rel m ove l Too Part surface .

the tool is directed along two intersecting surfaces as shown in fig. 3. Part surface: This is the surface on which the bottom of the cutter rides. Check surface: This is the surface that stops the movement of the tool in its current direction. To accomplish this control. Three surfaces have very specific names in APT.Contouring motions Contouring motions are somewhat more complicated because the tool’s position must be continuously controlled throughout the move. 2. Drive surface: This is the surface that guides the side of the cutter. . 1.

This is determined by APT modifier words within the descriptive data of the motion statement. ON and PAST and their use with regard to the check surface as shown in fig. Drive surface Check surface Tool TO ON PAST . The three main modifier words are TO.There are several ways in which the check surface can be used.

This is used when the drive surface is tangent to a circular check surface.A fourth modifier word is TANTO. as shown in fig. Drive surface Check surface .

There are six motion commands: GOLFT GOFWD GORGT GOBACK GOUP GODOWN GOUP Cutter coming from this position GOLFT GOBACK GOFWD GODOWN GORGT .The APT contour motion statement commands the cutter to move along the drive and part surfaces and the movement ends when the tool is at the check surface.

The statements with the slash are self-contained. No additional data needed. the feed and other features of the machine tool. . COOLNT/ END FEDRAT/ MACHIN/ RAPID SPINDL/ TURRET/ The postprocessor and auxiliary statements are of two forms: either with or without the slash(/). The APT words with the slash require descriptive data after the slash. These are called postprocessor statements. statements must be written that control the operation of the spindle.Postprocessor statements To write a complete program.

Auxiliary statements The complete APT program must also contain various other statements. and so on. part identification. These are used for cutter size definition. CLPRNT CUTTER FINI INTOL/ OUTTOL/ PARTNO . called auxiliary statements.

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