Successful United Nations Peacekeeping in Cambodia

Khlok Dara Matrikel-Nr: 733676 darakhlok@yahoo.com

State Failure, Crisis and Conflict Management Dr. Markus Lederer

MPM/MGPP Summer term 2006 University of Potsdam

September 2006

Successful United Nations Peacekeeping in Cambodia

Table of contents

Abbreviations...…………..……………………………….….……………….…ii 1- Introduction…………………………………………………………………1 2- Elements of Successful UN Peacekeeping…………………………………3 a. Background ………………..……………………...………………….3 Peacekeeping Concept …………………………………………….…3 Peacekeeping Development……………………….………………….4 b. Elements of successful peacekeeping ……………..…………………8 Internal Factors…………………………………….………………...8 External Factor…………………………………….………………..10 Clear Mandate………………………………………………………11 Available Resource………………………………………………….12 3- Analysis of UN Peacekeeping Operation in Cambodia ……………...…14 a. Paris Peace Agreement Background………………………………...14 b. Successful Operation ……………………………………………….16 c. What Other Factors?...........................................................................19 Strong Legal Framework……………………………………………19 Strong Commitment of UN…………………………………………..20 Active Participation of Cambodian people …………………………20 4- Conclusion………………………………………………………………….21 References…………………………………...………………………………….23 Appendix 1………………………………...……………………………………24 Appendix 2…………………………………...…………………………………29

i

Abbreviations

FUNCINPEC

National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia

IPA

International Peace Academy

JIM I JIM II
KPNLF KR

First Jakarta Informal Meetings Second Jakarta Informal Meetings
Khmer People’s National Liberation Front Khmer Rouge

MNF NGOs OAU ONUC
ONUSAL

Multinational Forces Non-Governmental Organizations Organization of African Unity United Nations Operation in Congo United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador Party of Democratic Kampuchea
People’s Republic of Kampuchea

PDK
PRK

SNC UK
UNAMIC UNDPKO

Supreme National Council of Cambodia United Kingdom of England
United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations

UNEF
United Nations UNTAC

UN Emergency Force
UN United Nations Transitional Authority

UNTSO UNUMOZ US

UN Truce Supervision Organization UN Operation in Mozambique United States of America

ii

Successful United Nations Peacekeeping in Cambodia
Khlok Dara

1. Introduction
Cambodia is a country that had many historical wars since the collapse of ANGKOR Empire from seventh to Fourteenth century. The most bed situation in Cambodia was happened in 1975 to 1979. The country was ruled by People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) 1 called Khmer Rouge regime (KR). During their four years in power, KR killed at least one million of their own countrymen. The trauma they inflicted is still evident in every facet of life in Cambodia. After the invasion of Vietnam military in 1979 (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 140), the civil war was happened between the four factions of Cambodia: PRK and the three other resistance factions along Thai border such as KR, National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), and Khmer People’s National Liberation Front (KPNLF).

With invaluable supports of the United Nations (UN), the Paris Peace Agreement was signed by all parties in the conflict with supports from 18 countries 2 . This is a historical successful of UN and other countries like Indonesia and France who are the leading role in finding peace for Cambodian people. The Paris Peace Agreement provided more mandate to UN to form up their agency making cease-fires, repatriation, organizing democratic election and reconstructing Cambodia. In the Paris Peace Agreement, Peacekeeping is one of the crucial roles of UN goal which aims at making cease-fire and organizing the democratic election. United Nation Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) is a well-organized unit of UN in peacekeeping in Cambodia. With their mandate provided by the Paris Peace Agreement and the resolution form both Secretary General and Security Council of
1

It is a government assigned by the Vietnam government after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1997. The name of the People ‘s Republic of Kampuchea was changed in 1989 to State of Cambodia (SOS) and by that time, economical policy of the government have been changed from planned market to free market. 2 Eighteen countries who participated in the Paris Peace Agreement are Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, China, France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Russia, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.

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UN, UNTAC did their job very well in conforming to the peacekeeping plan process. UNTAC provided peaceful election and formed up the new coalition government with democratic ideas. UNTAC peacekeeping missions have helped assure a stable situation, enhance emerging democracies, protect human rights, end conflicts, and prevent the spread of war. This is a successful peacekeeping operation of UN in the second generation of their mission. In this regard, what are the factors leading UN successful peacekeeping operation in Cambodia?

This paper will try to find out the reason why UN gets successful in peacekeeping in Cambodia. The argument is that UN had played a very good role in the Cambodian peace process. In this regard, UN mandate in bringing peaceful resolution for Cambodian people and their democratically elected leader, their primary responsibility for peace, stability, national reconciliation and construction had been fulfilled. The four main hypotheses to test are: (1) Internal supports contributed to the successful of the UN peacekeeping in Cambodia; (2) the supports from other countries involving in the Cambodian conflict especially the main actors of superpower assisted the UN peace process to fulfill its mandate; (3) the clear and practicable mandate of UNTAC brought its mandate to achieve the goal of peacekeeping; and (4) with the sufficient and available human, logistic and financial supports to the whole peace process in Cambodia, UN fulfilled their peace mandate for Cambodia.

These four hypotheses lead UN got success in their peacekeeping. With these four hypotheses, the paper will study the experiences of the peacekeeping of UN operation and analyze the situation in Cambodia when UNTAC operated their mission for peacekeeping. Paper will illustrate more why UN got successful peacekeeping in Cambodia situation. Are there any other factors that lead UN getting successful in their operation in Cambodia?

The paper will provide researchers to get more information on the UN successful peacekeeping operation in the world on one hand, and on another hand, the factors of successful peacekeeping in Cambodia as a good experience and lessons learned for other peacekeeping operation. Moreover, this is a very useful for other internal or international organization to learn from the experiences in order to form up or
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modify the peace implementation process for other places of the world. In addition, the paper will provide more knowledge for interested researchers and students as well in their field of study.

In order to get more realistic, the concept and the development of the peacekeeping will be illustrated in order to find out the concept of peacekeeping and the elements of the successful peacekeeping of UN peacekeeping operation in other countries. To do this, many books and documents from different sources were collected to study, in particular, from library. The information from internet was used as well to get more update information and documents related to the topic like UN and other peace institutions websites.

To make paper easier to understand, the research will divide into three main chapters. The first chapter will define a very brief historical background of Cambodia situation before the peacekeeping and some methodology of the research. The second chapter will study on the literature of the successful experiences of peacekeeping operation of UN in other countries. Indeed, the paper will define a brief concept of peacekeeping and some key words in order to make clearer. The third chapter will analyze why UN get successful peacekeeping in Cambodia. In this regard, the paper will reflect the four hypotheses of successful peacekeeping operation of other countries with the Cambodian situation. This chapter will define also a brief historical background of the roles of UN in peace finding in Cambodia. The last chapter is the conclusion part. Some lesson learned will be raised also for other UN operation.

2. Elements of Successful UN Peacekeeping
a. Background Peacekeeping Concept
Before we go deeper into the core analysis of the topic, it is very important to understand the main key word meaning of “peacekeeping”. The term “peacekeeping” was defined by many meaning according to the context or the intention of the implementer.

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Peacekeeping defined by the UN is “a way to help countries torn by conflict creates conditions for sustainable peace. UN peacekeepers—soldiers and military officers, civilian police officers and civilian personnel from many countries—monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist excombatants in implementing the peace agreements they have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development.” All operations must include the resolution of conflicts using force to be considered valid under the charter of the UN

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UN_peacekeeping_missions, checked on 19 August 2006). In this regard, “peacekeeping” was defined by the Agenda for Peace as “the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field, hitherto with the consent of all the parties concerned, normally involving United Nations military and/or police personnel and frequently civilians as well” (UN, 1992, website:

http://www.un.org/docs/SG/agpeace.html, checked on 20 August 2006). The agenda presented many steps of the peacekeeping. Peacekeeping cannot define clearly. The meaning is very broad. According to the agenda for peace, it was said that peacekeeping term is interrelated to other terms like preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, and post conflict peace- building. The implementation of peacekeeping should follow some guidelines or principles. According to Diehl (1993), there are five conceptual components of distinguishing feature of peacekeeping operation. Each peacekeeping operation should follow the five features. Those five components are (1) non-enforcement, (2) limited military capacity, (3) neutrality, (4) permission of the hosted countries, and (5) proper function of the peacekeeping forces including task observation, detection of violation of cease-fire, supervision of troop withdrawal, law and order maintaining, interposition force, and humanitarian activities (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 5-10).

Peacekeeping Development
Peacekeeping was established by international organizations for many years ago before the establishment of UN. However, it is not really the peacekeeping. It is just

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like observation operation when there was conflict. It was happened before the World War II by an initiative of the League of Nations which is the first initiative of the world security. By noticed that in the world, there were a lot of conflict in both internal and international arenas, perception of peacekeeping for secure peace and security was established in that time by the League of Nations. After the League of Nations failed, the United Nations followed the ideas of the world security. There are many peacekeeping operation forms since then. Beside the operation of the League of Nations, there are 60 peacekeeping operation of UN from its establishment in 1945 (see appendix 1). The peacekeeping operation was divided into three phases as followed.

The first phase of the peacekeeping was happened before the second Word War. It was in the time of the establishment of the League of Nations in 1920. The legal instruments covers to the conflict resolution were derived from the two principles constitutive sources of the League of Nations. First, the covenant created pronged schemes, under which members agreed to: “(a) respect and preserve the territorial integrity and political independence of all members against external aggression, (b) submit all disputes to either arbitration, judicial settlement, or inquiry by the Council of the League (the League’s analogue of the Security Council, with permanent and non-permanent members), the latter of which would try to settle the matters; and (c) impose economic sanctions and recommend military measure against any member of the League that waged war in disregard of its Covenant obligation”. Second, the treaty of Versailles composed of many components of peace ending the Great War. These were given the League of Nations to take responsibilities (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 90-91)

According to the covenant of the League of the Nations in article 1, most of the operation of the organizations for peace was implemented only to the members. This was mostly conducted in the way to observe conflict rather than to use force. In that time there were some operations for peace like in 1920-1921, there was a military forces and civilian commission supervise plebiscites in Schleswig, Allen stein and Marienwerder, the Klagenfurt Basin, Upper Silesia and Sopron (Chopra, Jarat, 1999, p. 32).

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The League of Nations did not achieve their mission to establish world organization. Since the League of Nations was abolished, UN was replaced this role as a world peace security organization in 1945. However, the League of Nations left many experiences and lesson learned for UN peace operation. According to Diehl said that there are four lessons learned for successful peacekeeping operation. First, there was a successful peacekeeping when there is no direct involvement of major power in the operation; second, it was much easier to arrange a ceasefire at a lower level of military conflict; third, the support of all disputant parties is crucial factor leading the League of Nations successful; and fourth, the neutral troops should be deployed in the conflict (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 20). The first lesion learned is not appropriated with the new peacekeeping generation because in order to operate peacekeeping in one country, it need unanimous agreement from all permanent member of the security Council who are all super power states. It cannot be applicable with UN peacekeeping.

The second phase of the peacekeeping was beginning from the experiences of League of Nations. It was called traditional peacekeeping which started from 1948 to 1989. During that time, there are fifteen UN operations in providing the peacekeeping to different countries in the world (see appendix 1). Historically, UN established two peacekeeping institutions in the beginning of its operation: (1) UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) which was responsible to stabilize the region in the time of cold war, and (2) UN Emergency Force (UNEF) which was the first UN peacekeeping forces (UN, 1996, p. 4). This peacekeeping review of UN said that “this model is classical peacekeeping which required the protagonist, impartiality on the part of the UN forces, and resort to arms only in self-defense”.

Theoretically, the full concept of the peacekeeping operation was derives from the UN Charter, which has been signed by more than 180 independent states since it was drafted in 1945. Article 1 of UN charter clearly states that the primary purpose of the UN is "to maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations
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which might lead to a breach of the peace" (http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/, checked on 20 August 2006). This being said, there is no explicit reference in the UN Charter to either peacekeeping or peace support operations. The traditional tasks or first generation of UN peacekeeping operations as they evolved during the first phase from 1948 to 1989 of the UN's existence, included monitoring and enforcing cease-fires; observing frontier lines; and interposing between belligerents is mostly influenced from the cold war. These tasks were generally carried out based on three key principles: “the consent of the parties; the impartiality of the peace keepers; and the non-use of force in most circumstances” (Malan, Mark, 1997, http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/ASR/6No1/Malan.html, checked on 20 August 2006). UN forces can use the force only for self-defense. The third phase of the peacekeeping operation was starting from 1989. This is the new era of the peacekeeping operation called second generation of UN peacekeeping. Mostly of scholar said that the third stage of the peacekeeping operation is a consol dative stage of the UN (Chorpra, Jarat, 1999, p. 32). This stage of the peacekeeping operation is different from the first and second stage of the peace operation of the initiator of UN and League of Nations. This stage focuses very much on the peacekeeping operations, which are multifunctional, with political, humanitarian, social and economic components requiring civilian experts, and relief specialists to work in paralleled with soldiers. In this regard, to implement peacekeeping in Mozambique, El Salvador, UN peacekeepers helped to regroup and mobilize the combatants, destroy weapons, coordinate massive humanitarian assistances program and monitor human rights (UN, 1996, p. 5).

The core objective of the third stage (second generation of UN peacekeeping) is to make all parties in the conflict to move from violence to political reconciliation, democracy consolidation and reconstruction for the nation (UN, 1996, p. 5). In order to reach the goal, UN, usually, used forces provided by its members to deploy in the area where conflict erupted. Nevertheless, some UN peacekeeping operation was not getting its objective. Some operation is an incomplete operation like Palestine peacekeeping operation. The operation was starting from the setting up of UN in

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1945 until now. Some is a complete operation like peacekeeping operation in Namibia and Somalia.

The second generation is a multifunctional operation, which were starting when the cold war was finished. It was associated with the ending of proxy Cold War conflicts through negotiated settlements, in which the UN or other multinational organizations guided the adversaries to political settlements based on compromise like the case in Namibia, Cambodia, El Salvador, Mozambique and Angola. The UN process for the peace operation after finishing cold war became involved in ending internal conflicts through multi-dimensional processes which included activities such as: “ the separation of combatants; the disarmament of irregular forces; the demobilization and transformation of regular and irregular forces into a unified army; the establishment of new policing systems; and the monitoring of elections for new governments” (Malan, Mark, 1997, http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/ASR/6No1/Malan.html, checked on 20 August 2006).

b. Elements of successful peacekeeping
Since its establishment, UN played very important roles in peace process. UN provided peacekeeping operation for many countries where international and internal conflicts erupted. Historically, UN got many successful experiences in its peacekeeping operations like in Namibia and El Salvador. The successful of UN peacekeeping provides more opportunity for those countries to develop their socioeconomy and promote of human rights. Practically, According to the scholar and many reports on previous UN peacekeeping operation, the most important successful of the UN in peacekeeping is detecting violation of ceasefire. To get successful in peacekeeping operation, there are many features to complete. However, this paper will define four important core factors variable leading UN success in the peacekeeping since the beginning of the operation of peace process in 1945. The four successful factors are (1) Clear mandate of UN operation, (2) External factor, (3) Internal factor, and available and resource.

Internal Factor
Internal factor is a crucial factor in supporting the UN successful in peacekeeping. The successful of the peacekeeping depends on strong commitment of all parties in
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the conflict in supporting its operation for peace. As said by Boutros Boutros Ghali, former Secretary General of UN that

“The United Nations can serve as catalysts, framework and support mechanisms for parties to seek peace and can help when hostile factions are prepared to work toward this common goal. However, viable political structures or institutions cannot be imposed from outside. Ultimately, no instrument can bring about peace without the will of the parties to the conflict to achieve peace” (UN, 1996, p. 7). Indeed, Ouellet (2003) agreed also that the internal factor is one crucial element of the successful peacekeeping operation. If no parties in the conflict agreed to commit their will in supporting the peacekeeping operation of UN peace operation process, the peace agreement does not happen then the conflict is still going on (Ouellet, Julian, 2003, http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/peacekeeping/, checked on 21 August 2006). The internal parties are a core element in the making ceasefire and supporting peacekeeping. They will assist UN in forming all suitable legal instruments for their country. Moreover, those parties in the conflict in the country know clearly the real situation of their country conflict. They knew what the obstacles of the peace finding process are. They will provide clear recommendation to UN operations agencies on how to solve the problems.

To see more clear on UN successful peacekeeping operation, there was a case in El Salvador where the two parties in the conflict gave very strong commitment for peace process. They provided more supports for the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (UNUSAL) mission to operate proper peace process. The commitment of the two parties brought many opportunities for UN to finish their mandate. Practically, they agreed to signed and took part actively six agreements in implementation process of peace operation. The six agreements are: “(1) All parties establish common framework for negotiation under the auspices of Secretary General in Geneva agreement in order to end arm conflict, promote human rights and reunite El Salvadoran society, (2) Caracas Agreement dealing with peace negotiation process, (4) Mexico Agreement dealing with constitutional reform, judicial system reform, guarantee the neutrality of election authority, (5) New York Agreement dealing with reduction of arm force in all two parties, and (6) Chapultepec Agreement dealing with establishment of the National Civil Police, Judicial Reform

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and the election system”(Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 257-281)

Another successful peacekeeping operation of UN operation is Mozambique peacekeeping process. Lesson learned of UN raised Mozambique government played an active diplomatic role with others to make them supporting peacekeeping operation. This action provided many critical political supports for Ajelio 3 with his home office and his Mozambique parties. UN peacekeeping review clarified “this is no doubt whatsoever that we would not today be hailing success of UN Operation in Mozambique(UNUMOZ) if on the critical nights when Dhlakama had pulled out of election process Ajelio and a few diplomat had not shifted into overdrive outside normal channels to put the process back in and on track” (UN peacekeeping Best Practices website: http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/mozambiq.pdf, checked on 22 August 2006).

The internal factor is a crucial role in providing all peacekeeping agencies operating their mission. If there is no agreement or commitment to settle the conflict by the internal parties in the conflict, there is no agreement or legal biding to allow UN mission for peace operation.

External Factor
The success of the peacekeeping in one country depended on the assistance of the external factors especially from the developed countries and the neighboring countries, in particular, those countries that supported the factions during the conflict. In experimental case, very strong supporting country friends of the peace process in El Salvador played very important roles in peace process. There are four friend states where provided more support to the peace process and let UN played a crucial role as the facilitator in peacekeeping in El Salvador. They provided UN as an apex of their triangle in negotiation for peace process (Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 248).

3

Mr. Aldo Ajello, Italy, Special Representative of Secretary General of United Nations for ONUMOZ from December 1992 to January 1995 in Mozambique

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Another successful case was the case of Mozambique which used the donor coordination as an external factor. The donor coordination in Mozambique is a main factor in bringing the successful peacekeeping in UN mandate. They established a commission to be responsible for donor coordination. Donor coordination was helped to bringing all the donors into the process and multilayered commission also established to oversee it. The commission comprised United States of America (US), France, United Kingdom of England (UK), Portugal, Germany, Italy and the Organization of African Unity 4 (OAU). Commission had regularly met with Ajelio on the peacekeeping process to ensure the operation being on track. As well as, in the peace process, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working in human rights and conflict resolution in the country played very crucial role in engagement as a full partner to support and assist the peacekeeping operation process in Mozambique (Jett, C. Dennis, 1995, http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/mozambiq.pdf, checked on 22 August 2006).

The successful peacekeeping of UN demands the strong support and commit by all relevant external parties in the conflict. The most important one is supports from those countries supported all internal parties in the conflict and supports from the five permanent members of Security Council of UN.

Clear Mandate
Clear mandate is another factor leading peacekeeping operation successful. The mandate here is focuses on clear mission, goal, strategy, action plan and business plan for the peacekeeping operation. According to the International Peace Academy (IPA) and the Best Practices Unit of the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UNDPKO) seminar report stressed that the successful of UN peacekeeping depended on the importance of establishing a clear, credible, and achievable mandate which a key in their operation for ceasefire and reconciliation (seminar report, 2002, http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/DPKO%20Seminar%20Report%202002.pdf, checked on 21 August 2006). A confusing mandate only leads to confusion on the
4

The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established in 1963 in Addis Abeba. From 32 independent Member States in 1963, the independent Member States of Africa are now 53. The OAU is entering from political liberalization to phase two by focusing on the economic integration. It has therefore a new mandate and new responsibilities, which will by no means make it, abandon its political character and its resolve to sustain peace and security in the continent, which are crucial for the socio-economic development process.

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ground. It is very important to set up the clear mandate and mission of UN operation in order to achieve the ultimate goal of the peacekeeping. The mandate must ensure unity of effort, of vision, and of political control. In order to achieve its goals, it must be able to count on the availability of adequately equipped troops. It was noted that some Member States, especially the most powerful one, do not seem willing to accept the same risks for their troops that they do for their civilian personnel.

The clear and detail mandate will influence to different ways of the peacekeeping operation of UN. Diehl (1993) said that it would cause to (1) set more expectation from the involving actors in the peacekeeping operation and (2) ensure more public supports to the operation because they knew exactly what the UN peacekeepers do. In contrary, the vague mandate will create many problems when different actors have variety expectations about its scope and implementation (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 72). This case was happened in the mandate of the several deployment of Multinational Forces (MNF) to provide interposition forces at agreed location and thereby provide the MNF presented requested by the government of Lebanon to assist in the Beirut area. Each of the fours states (United States, France, Britain and Italia) contribute troop to MNF send separated letters to Lebanon’s government. This was interpreted in differently. Therefore, each state found difficult to justify the continued deployment of peacekeeping troop when it did not appear to serve national interest and when troop seemed to be exposed target for hostile action (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 73).

Clear and detail mandate is a very important factor in the UN peacekeeping operation because it will provide more clear responsibility and duties of all components of UN agencies in the peacekeeping mission to take action. Indeed, it provided more trust to others supporters to continue their willing in the peace process due to the clear goal and mission.

Available Resource
The available resource to spend in the peacekeeping is a crucial factor in all operation to get success even in the small operation or big operation. All the policy implementation needs the available resources to run their project in order to complete

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the polity implementation. The peacekeeping operation is like a program implementation or policy implementation. Policy implementation was failed because of lacking of resources. It is a crucial factor in implementation of the policy in order to achieve it (Hogwood, W. Brian, and Gunn A. Lewis, 1984, p. 200). The same, resource is very important for the peacekeeping to gain success in their mandate. Resource was identified like finance, human and logistic. Experimentally, it was happened in Mozambique. Mozambique was a successful peacekeeping operation of UN. This success depended on the available resource for operation. Although the expense of the resource is more or less wasted in place but the resource is available whenever needs finance process (UN peacekeeping Best Practice website: http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/mozambiq.pdf, checked on 22 August 2006).

Diehl (1993) agreed also that the financial matter is rather important in the peacekeeping operation of UN. But in contrary, he described that the unavailable and insufficient fund for operation will affect to the peacekeeping in three aspects. Fist is the operation of the peacekeeping will end permanently; second, some area or troop of the peacekeeping operation will decrease because of lacking of financial support; and finally maybe the operation is still implementing but the peacekeeping forces may go without equipments or supports essential to detecting violence or ensuring the confidence of the disputants. There was happened also in UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) operation during 1960 to 196. Several states withdrew their contribution for the operation. In that time it caused a serious financial problem. Therefore, it caused to uncompleted mission (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 75-76).

The financial support is a general factor for achieving success of all program or policy implementation. If there is no financial support, the process of all program or peace operation cannot work and UN cannot operate their peacekeeping process.

As mentioned above, those four elements of peacekeeping operation are core factors leading UN peacekeeping operation successful. Historically, most of the successful peacekeeping of UN operation depends on very much on the four factors. The four factors are interlinked together. When there is a clear mandate, it requires other three factors to complete in peace operation. Experimentally, all the successful peacekeeping operation of UN requires the contribution of the four main factors. So
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what is the situation of peacekeeping, in Cambodia, comparing to these four main factors? Are there any other elements leading UN successful in its operation?

With the four factors of successful peacekeeping of UN operation, the paper will reflect these factors to the real situation of peacekeeping operated by UN in Cambodia during 1991-1992.

3. Analysis of UN Peacekeeping Operation in Cambodia
a. Paris Peace Agreement Background
The Paris Peace Agreement was singed by the four political factions in the conflict in 1991 in Paris. The result of the very important peace agreement, which Cambodian people waited for many years, was coming from the huge efforts of the all parties in the conflict, international communities and regional supports and especially from the efforts of UN since the year 1980’s. The Agreements, also known as the Paris Agreements, invited the Security Council to establish UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) and UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) and to provide it with the mandate set out in the Agreements. The Council fully supported the Paris Agreements in its resolution 718 (1991) of 31 October 1991 and requested the Secretary-General to prepare a detailed plan of implementation of peace process (http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamicbackgr.html#one, on 24 August 2006). checked

Before signing the vital peace agreement along with 18 countries, Cambodia took many years of internal conflict in the country since Cambodia got independence from the colonization of France in 1953. From that time, Cambodia just got a short peaceful time. Unfortunately, Cambodia fall into the Vietnam War again during 1960’s and 70’s including the bombardment of the American forces. From 1975-79, Cambodia was governed by the Democratic of Kampuchea regime called KR regime which killed a lot of their own people for more than one million. In 1979, the KR regime was finished by the invasion of Vietnamese forces and they install new puppy government called People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 140). The civil war continued in Cambodia between PRK and the other three factors along the Cambodian-Thai border. The three resistance parties are the Party

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of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK) known as KR, FUNCINPEC, led by Prince Norodom Sihanouk, and KPNLF (Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 54). In 1982, the three factions formed a Coalition Government of Democratic of Kampuchea, later called the National Coalition Government of Cambodia led by Prince Sihanuk. The coalition occupied seat reserved for Cambodia at the UN from 1982 until the singing Paris Peace Agreement (UN, 1996, p. 449).

In 1981, there were seventy-nine states participated including Democratic Kampuchea in the international conference organized by UN but the conference was boycotted by Soviet-bloc states. However, UN issued many resolutions for Cambodia conflict resolution in the annual General Assembly during the year 80’s. The resolutions reflected the key element settlements like: “(a) withdrawal of Vietnam forces, (b) creation of interim administering authority, (c) national reconciliation under Prince Norodom Sihanuk, (d) restoration of Cambodia’s independence and territorial integrity, (e) the rights of Cambodian to determine their own destiny free of outside intervention, (f) effective guarantee to achieve these ends” (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 141).

The negotiation process for Cambodian conflict settlement was beginning. The first fruitful result of the negotiation was a cocktail meeting that was taken place in Paris suburb of Fere-en-Tardenois in December 1987 between Prime Minister Hun Sen of PRK and Prince Sihanuk. Then, two Jakarta Informal Meetings (JIM) for settlement of Cambodia conflict were organized by Indonesia (JIM I in July 1988 and JIM II, in February 1989). These meeting leaded the interests from many countries in the region, in particularly, Vietnam agreed to withdraw their troops form Cambodia by September 1989 (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 143). Then, the Paris Peace Agreement was signed by all parties in the conflict including other 18 countries.

During that time, UNAMIC was also created by Security Council resolution 717 (1991) of 16 October 1991 before the official signing ceremony in Paris. The UNAMIC is a first mission of UN in assisting the Cambodia for ceasefire before creating UNTAC. The mandate of the UNAMIC was just only 2 year from 1991 to 1992. At the same time, Supreme National Council (SNC) was also established to control over all the four conflict factions and to coordinate between UNTAC. The
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authority is a highest authority in the transitional period. It was lead by Prince Sihanuk (http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamicbackgr.html#one,

checked on 24 August 2006). In February 1992, UNTAC was created by the Security Council with the vital mission for ceasefire and organization of peaceful and democratic election in Cambodia. UNTAC comprises of between 15,000 and 20,000 UN personnel, including human rights, civil administrative and military components, as well as a police component of some 3,600 police monitors

(http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/untacbackgr1.html, checked on 24 August 2006).

b. Successful Operation
UNTAC played very important roles in Cambodia in bringing peace and development. The effort of UNTAC was noticed that it was the successful peacekeeping experiences of the UN peacekeeping operations. According to the literature review mentioned above, there are four elements leads UN successful in their peacekeeping operations in others counties. In term of Clear mandate factor, UNTAC in Cambodia worked smoothly with their specific and detail goal mentioned in the Paris Peace Agreement (Appendix 2) signed by all parties in the Cambodian conflict including the other 18 countries in region and super powers countries. Clear and specific of UNTAC mandate is the leading role in the peacekeeping operation in Cambodia. In their operation, UNTAC divided seven distinct components: human rights, electoral, military, civil administration, civilian police, repatriation and rehabilitation. Each component had their own clear mission for their operation in keeping peace in Cambodia. The Accord of the Paris Peace gave very clear and strong mandate to UNTAC playing role in the peacekeeping in Cambodia. Its executor and guarantor responsibilities flowed from the Paris Accord’s clauses delegating from the SNC to UNTAC “all powers necessary to ensure the implementation of this agreement.” Moreover the Accord gave UNTAC the role of active mediator. The special Representative of UN had the power to decide in the absent of consensus (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 153).

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UNTAC can not reach their goal in ceasefire if all parties in the conflict did not cooperate closely in their operation. This will leading to the failure of the peacekeeping process. The internal factors are very important in the successful peacekeeping process in Cambodia. Each party has to participate actively in the peace process. As Ratner (1995) said that UNTAC could not make their peacekeeping in successful if State of Cambodia withheld support as the Khmer did. It needs the closed cooperation within all factors (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 158).

With the good and closed cooperation, building trust is also important in the peacekeeping operation. Trust will bring the smooth operation of all parties especially the implementers like UNTAC which got the powers and responsibilities from the Paris Peace Accord in 1991 and the resolution of the Security Council of UN. The success of UNTAC in peacekeeping in Cambodia was a good legacy of trust. The cooperation without level of mutual trust and political, between all parties especially from the leaders of those parties, (Hun Sen, Sihanuk, Son San, and Kiev Samphan) will not getting success in the operation (Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 65).

Beside the internal factor, it needs the strong support from all relevant parties in the conflict. The External factor is more important to make peacekeeping achievable their mandate. The factor requires all parties beside the four parties in the conflict participating actively in supporting the peace process. According to the background mentioned above, there are many external actors actively supporting from the peace settlement finding to the peacekeeping process. There are 18 countries which are the signatory of the Paris Peace Accord supported the entire peace process plan from the beginning of the peace negotiation to the end of peace process. Extended permanent five in Phnom Penh and the Core Group in New York including the Permanent Five Members of the Security Council participated actively in supporting the peace process in Cambodia (Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 161). According to the Doyle (1997), UNTAC enjoyed a very huge support from many other countries like Japan, Indonesia, France, Australia, United States, Malaysia, Vietnam and China. In this framework, the military for peacekeeping and civil

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mandate were send by member states deployed most rapidly, with 10.000 troops by early June 1992, 14.000 by July and nearly entire 15.900 by September. The troops were coming from 11 countries (Bangladesh, Bulgaria, France, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Netherland, Pakistan, Tunisia and Uruguay) and including small contingent from other 32 countries served as military observer, construction engineering, demining instructors, communication, logistic and transportation. There are other support personnel, the repatriation unit also arrived quickly (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 166). Furthermore, they had been supporting UNTAC through different aids like peacekeeping troops including financial and materials for peacekeeping operation. The total country supported the Cambodian peacekeeping operation comprised of 37 countries 5 (UN, 1996, p. 481). Beside those three factors mentioned above, successful peacekeeping operation requires the available resource for implementation. It is logic in the implementation of the any program or project. In order to fulfill the program, it needs the available and sufficient resource, otherwise the Operation without available and sufficient resource or financial support, it will not achievable. The resource is very important in all implementation. In total, the expenditure of the UNTAC operation for keeping peace is nearly two million US dollars. Cambodia is a lucky country where got he priority for the financial supports form the UN before other country where UN deployed their troops for peacekeeping at the same time with Cambodia. According to the Ratner (1995) said that budget for Cambodia peacekeeping was provided early than other countries that had the same problem in peace process. Those countries are Somalia, Rwanda, Angola and El Salvador. Furthermore, he added that the promise of UN in financial support for the peacekeeping in Cambodia is not limited even there was a budget plan (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 193). Therefore, all the activities and program for peacekeeping was working smoothly. Are these four factors mentioned above sufficient to make UNTAC successful in its peacekeeping operation?

5

37 countries supported in the Cambodian peacekeeping operation are Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Senegal, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay.

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c. What Other Factors?
The four factors mentioned above are the main factors in the successful peacekeeping operation launched by UNTAC in Cambodia in 1991 to 1993. Most of the documents and report on the peacekeeping in Cambodia determined that UNTAC played very vital roles in the Cambodia settlement conflict, especially, in the time of the peacekeeping, to assure the peaceful polling and reconstruction after the conflict finished. However, the four vital factors mentioned above are not enough to lead UNTAC successful in peacekeeping operation in Cambodia. There are more factors supported the successful peacekeeping in Cambodia. Next, the paper will illustrate more elements for UN successful peacekeeping in Cambodia.

Strong Legal Framework
The efforts of all relevant parties to settle the Cambodian conflict established the peace agreement for Cambodia. This Peace agreement is strong legal instruments to establish major institutions and UN agencies for peace operation like SNC, UNAMIC and UNTAC. This is a final act for peace agreement in Cambodia. There are three main legal framework supported to the peace process in Cambodia. The three main legal frameworks lead UNAMIC and UNTAC successful in their work in peacekeeping. The three main legal documents are (1) Agreement on Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict; (2) the agreement concerning the sovereignty, independence, Territorial Integrity and Inviolability, Neutrality and National Unity of Cambodia; and (3) the Declaration on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia (UN, 1996, p. 454). The Paris Peace Agreement in 1991 is the core legal framework in ceasefire in Cambodia. It is clear and strong basic legal instrument in settlement of Cambodia conflict. This Accord was signed by all parties in the conflict and other 18 countries including the strong supports from all super power counties (United States, China, and Russia who are the supporter of those parties in the conflict in Cambodia). According to the Accord the mandate of UNTAC was said clearly in the Accord (see appendix 2). All parties in the conflict respected to the Accord even big country like Russia that used to support Vietnam in supervision Cambodia from 1979. Beside the core legal instruments, there are ten resolution of the Security Council, which supported the peace process in Cambodia.

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Practically, all parties in the conflict did not violate the core agreement (UN, 1996, p. 454). All parties in the conflict, including those countries that supported all the four parties in the conflict (China, US, Soviet Union, and ASEAN 6 countries), agreed to respect to the agreement which defined in article 9 that “the cease-fire shall take effect at the time this Agreement enters into force. All forces shall immediately disengage and refrain from all hostilities and from any deployment, movement or action which would extend the territory they control or which might lead to renewed fighting. The Signatories hereby invite the Security Council of the UN to request the Secretary-General to provide good offices to assist in this process until such time as the military component of UNTAC is in position to supervise, monitor and verify it”.

Strong Commitment of UN
UN played very important role in the peace process in Cambodia from the beginning of the year 80’s. UN actively supports the peace plan process and encourages all parties in the conflict to solve the problem as mentioned in their Secretary General Resolution in the year 80’s on peace process in Cambodia (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 141). Even the Paris Peace Agreement did not yet sign, UN prepared their peace process plan already by focusing to establish UNAMIC and UNTAC in order to ceasefire and organize election and restoration of Cambodia from the long term of civil wars. Diehl (1993) recognized the strong commitment of the UN in Cambodian peace process. He added that UN committed very strong efforts to finding peace, facilitating, sponsoring negotiation and representing on in series of diplomatic triumphs (Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, p. 196). Although KR did not join the election, but UNTAC organized peaceful election dating from 23-25 May 1993. It is a great work of UNTAC in that time. It was very surprise for most of the foreign observers. There was no violence marred the election. As a result nearly 90 percent of registered Cambodian turned out at fixed 1.400 and 200 mobile polling election stations (Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, p. 180).

Active Participation of Cambodian People
6

ASEAN is Association of South East Asia Nations. It composed of 10 countries located in South East Asia. The ten country members are Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei Darussalam, Myanmar, and Singapore. Recently, ASEAN country have been discussing on adding one more country in ASEAN. This country was just get independence from Indonesia. This country is East Timor. ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok

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The strong support from the Cambodian people is a constructive factor in the successful peacekeeping operation conducted by UNTAC in Cambodia. Cambodia people participated actively in peacekeeping with UNTAC operation. There are more than 90 percent of number of full rights for voting people was registered for election and 90 percent of them voted. Furthermore, peacekeeping and election process were gotten many supports from all people around the country even people in the KR area (Doyle, W. Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, p. 199).

UNTAC won the sympathy, supports and trust from Cambodian people who saw itself as a protector at the time when they had not faith in their own leader (Lao, M. Hay, 1994, p. 218). Cambodian people considered UNTAC as a new authority in Cambodia to serve them from war and will help their country from destructed country to developed country. When the UNTAC arrived to Cambodia, many complaints from Cambodian people on land property were send to UNTAC authority because they are confident that UNTAC is only one authority can help them to solve this problem.

4. Conclusion
UN played a crucial role in finding peace for Cambodian people. UN established international conferences for settlement for Cambodia conflict since 1981. The Process of peace can’t work without the active and strong supports from invaluable efforts of UN. Through many supports, the final agreement of peace in Cambodia was established in Paris in 1991. The Paris Peace Agreement is a fundamental legal framework to form up all necessary UN agencies, UNAMIC and then UNTAC, and SNC to make more successful peace operation in Cambodia. The hypotheses of the paper are true. All the four main elements are the corner stone making UN successful peacekeeping in Cambodia. In case of Cambodia, however, there are other accessory factors, as well, achieving peacekeeping in this country. The achievements of UN in Cambodia are the contributions of many aspects in which the most important factors are clear and specific mandate and strong commitment of the UNAMIC and UNTAC in peace operation. Strong support from all actors including Cambodian people themselves is a factor to push country from conflict to peace including the four

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parties in the conflict. However, the legal framework (Paris Peace Agreement) is a very important element for the success in Cambodian peacekeeping as well. UNTAC's most notable success was the preparations for and conduct of the elections. An estimated 89.5 per cent of the population voted in the first real elections ever held in the country. This democratic election is a first election in Cambodia since the Cambodia got independence from France in 1953. UNTAC also succeeded in isolating the Khmer Rouge, beginning the tortuous process of national reconciliation and giving the Cambodian people for the first time in almost 40 years the opportunity to choose their government in a comparatively free, fair and democratic manner. A new constitution was written, a new government formed, and an integrated national army was established. In addition UNTAC repatriated all Cambodian refugees from the Thai border and closed the camps there, freed the press, alleviated conditions in the prisons, started the gargantuan task of mine clearance, imparted new skills to thousands of Cambodians, fostered the rapid growth of human rights consciousness and other civic values and began restoring Cambodia's shattered infrastructure. UNTAC achieved immense success in its 'hearts and minds' campaign and in its use of civilian volunteers. The successful peacekeeping in Cambodia established good experiences for other peace operation of UN in other countries. Among the experiences and lesson learned from the successful peacekeeping, there are three mains lessons learned. First, support from all the factions in the conflict is very important factors for UN action to deploy their troops and make ceasefire. Indeed, Cambodian people support and trust the operation of UN is a most crucial factor to facilitate UNAMIC and UNTAC more successful in their operation. Second, support from major power country is a leading role in making UN more opportunity to get more support in both political and economical aspects. If there is no support from those major power countries (US, China, and Soviet Union), the Paris Peace Agreement did not happen. Third, also, strong commitment and clear mandate of UN mission agency (UNAMIC and UNTAC) is a vital factor to make the peacekeeping more successful. UNAMIC and UNTAC completed their duties with strong commitment to ceasefire and organize peaceful election for Cambodia people.

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References
A- Books and legal documents Sources Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict, 23 October 1991, Paris, France Chopra, Jarat, 1999, Peace-Maintenance: The Evolution of International Political Authority, Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics, London and New York Diehl, F. Paul, 1993, International Peacekeeping: With a new epilogue on Somalia, Bosnia, and Cambodia, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London Doyle, W.Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, C. Robert, 1997, Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Cambridge University Press Hogwood, W. Brian and Gunn A. Lewis, 1984, Policy Analysis for the Real World: Implementation, Oxford University Press, London Lao, M. Hay, 1994, The UNFinished Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict, Khmer Institute of Democracy (KID), Phnom Penh Ratner, R. Stever, 1995, The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflicts after the Cold War, St. Martin’s Press, New York United Nations, 1996, A Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping, third edition, United Nations, New York, NY 10017

B- Internet Sources
Dennis C. Jett, 1995, Lessons Unlearned - Or Why Mozambique's Successful Peacekeeping Operation Might Not Be Replicated Elsewhere, UN website: http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/mozambiq.pdf, checked on 22 August 2006 Malan, Mark, 1997, A Concise of Conceptual History of UN peace Operation, African Security Review, vol. 6, No.1, website: http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/ASR/6No1/Malan.html, checked on 20 August 2006 Ouellet, Julian, 2003, Peacekeeping, Beyond Intractability website: http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/peacekeeping/, checked on 20 August 2006
Seminar Report, 2002, Past, Present and Future Challenges in Peacekeeping, website: http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbpu/library/DPKO%20Seminar%20Report%202002.pdf, checked on 21 August 2006

United Nations, Cambodia UNTAC Background, UN Website:
http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/untacbackgr1.html, checked on 24

August 2006 United Nations, Cambodia, UNAMIC Background, UN website: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamicbackgr.html#one, checked on 24 August 2006 United Nations, An Agenda for Peace, Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping, 1992, Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992, UN website: http://www.un.org/docs/SG/agpeace.html, checked on 20 August 2006 United Nations, United Nations Charter, UN Website: http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/, checked on 20 August 2006 Wikipedia Website, List of UN Peacekeeping mission, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UN_peacekeeping_missions, checked on August 19, 2006

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Appendix 1: United Nations Peacekeeping Operations from 1948-2005
Completed missions

Africa
Dates of Name of Operation operation 1960– United Nations Operation in the 1964 Congo (ONUC) 1988– United Nations Angola Verification 1991 Mission I (UNAVEM I) 1989– United Nations Transition Assistance 1990 Group (UNTAG) 1991– United Nations Angola Verification 1995 Mission II (UNAVEM II) 1992– United Nations Operation in 1994 Mozambique (ONUMOZ) 1992– United Nations Operation in Somalia 1993 I (UNOSOM I) 1993– United Nations Observer Mission in 1997 Liberia (UNOMIL) 1993– United Nations Observer Mission 1994 Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) 1993– 1996 1993– 1995 1994 1995– 1997 1997– 1999 1998– 1999 1998– 2000 1999– 2005 United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III) United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) Location Congo Angola Namibia Angola Conflict Congo Crisis Angolan War of Independence Namibian War of Independence Angolan Civil War Website [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Mozambique Liberian Civil War Somalia Liberia Rwanda Uganda Rwanda Somalia Chad Libya Angola Angola Somali Civil War Liberian Civil War Rwandan genocide Rwandan genocide Somali Civil War

Aouzou Strip dispute [11] Angolan Civil War Angolan Civil War [12] [13]

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone civil war [14] Central African Republic Central African Republic mutinies [15]

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone civil war [16]

Americas
Dates of operation 1965– 1966 1989– 1992 Name of Operation Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP) United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) Location Dominican Republic
1

Conflict

Website

Dominican Civil War [17] Nicaraguan Civil War [18]

Central America

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1991– 1995 1993– 1996 1996– 1997 1997 1997 1997– 2000
1

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)

El Salvador Haiti Haiti Guatemala Haiti Haiti

El Salvador Civil War [19] 1991 coup and [20] military rule in Haiti Stabilizing Haiti's new [21] democracy Guatemalan Civil War [22] Training of the Haitian [23] National Police Training of the Haitian [24] National Police

Shown are the flags of the five countries in which ONUCA operated. They are in this order (sorted alphabetically): Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Asia
Dates of operation 1962– 1963 1965– 1966 1988– 1990 1991– 1992 1992– 1993 1994– 2000 1999 1999– 2002 2002– 2005
1

Name of Operation United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF) United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor UNMISET)
2 1

Location West New Guinea

Conflict

Website

Indonesian takeover of [25] West New Guinea

India Indo-Pakistani War of [26] 1965 Pakistan Afghanistan Soviet invasion of [27] Afghanistan Pakistan Cambodia Cambodia Tajikistan East Timor Fall of the Khmer Rouge Fall of the Khmer Rouge Tajikistan Civil War Indonesian invasion and occupation Indonesian invasion and occupation Indonesian invasion and occupation [28] [29] [30] [31]

2

East Timor East Timor

[32] [33]

The first flag shown is that of the West Papua (West New Guinea), the country that had been arranged to succeed the Dutch colony. However, the Netherlands, whose flag is the second shown, was later forced to hand over the territory to Indonesia, whose flag is last.
2

Shown are the flags of the newly independent East Timor and its former occupier, Indonesia (in that

Europe

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Dates of operation 1992– 1995 1994– 1996 1995– 2002 1995– 1999

Name of Operation
1

Location

Conflict

Website

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO) United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slovenia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG)
2

Former Yugoslavia

Yugoslav wars

[34]

Croatia

Croatian War

[35] [36]

Bosnia and Bosnian War Herzegovina Former Yugoslav Aftermath of the Republic of Yugoslav wars Macedonia Croatia Croatian War

[37]

1996– 1998 1996– 2002 1998

[38]

Prevlaka Peninsula Croatia

Prevlaka territorial dispute Croatian War

[39] [40]

1

This mission operated within the current successor states to the Former Yugoslavia of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The flags are shown in this order.
2

Prevlaka Peninsula was claimed by both Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the flags are shown in this order. Upon resolution, all parties accepted Croatia's claim to the territory.

Middle East
Dates of Name of Operation operation 1956– First United Nations Emergency 1967 Force (UNEF I) 1958 1963– 1964 1973– 1979 1988– 1991 1991– 2003 United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM) Second United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) Location Egypt Israel Lebanon Yemen Egypt Israel Iran Iraq Iraq Kuwait Conflict Website

Suez Crisis, Six-Day [41] War Lebanon crisis of [42] 1958 Yemen Civil War (See also Yemen Arab [43] Republic) Yom Kippur War Iran-Iraq War Gulf War [44] [45] [46]

Current deployment

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Africa
Start of operation 1991 Name of Operation United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB) United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Location Western Sahara Democratic Republic of Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Liberia Burundi Côte d'Ivoire Sudan Conflict Website

Moroccan occupation [47] of Western Sahara Second Congo War Eritrean-Ethiopian War [48] [49]

1999 2000 2003 2004 2004 2005

Second Liberian Civil [50] War Burundi Civil War Civil war in Côte d'Ivoire Second Sudanese Civil War [51] [52] [53]

Americas
Start of operation 2004 Name of Operation United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) Location Haiti Conflict 2004 Haiti rebellion Website [54]

Asia
Start of operation 1949 Name of Operation United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) Location India Pakistan Conflict Indo-Pakistani Wars Website [55]

Europe
Start of operation 1964 1993 1999 Name of Operation United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
1

Location Cyprus Georgia
2

Conflict Cyprus dispute Abkhazian War Kosovo War

Website [56] [57] [58]

Kosovo

1

The United Nations and all foreign governments but Turkey recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, whose flag is shown first, over the whole island of Cyprus. The second flag is that of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a de facto state, by virtue of controlling the northern

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third of the island, which is recognized only by Turkey and the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
2

There is no official flag of Kosovo. The top flag is the flag of Albania, used by the Albaniandominated administration and the vast majority of Kosovo Albanians. The bottom flag is the flag of Serbia, used by the Serb-inhabited area of north Kosovo. For more see flag of Kosovo.

Middle East
Start of operation 1948 Name of Operation United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) Location Conflict Website

1

(Monitors the various Middle East ceasefires and assists [59] UNDOF and UNIFIL) Golan Heights Agreed withdrawal by Syrian and Israeli [60] forces following the Yom Kippur War. Lebanese Civil War and Syrian occupation [61] of Lebanon

2

1974

1978

Lebanon

1

There is no officially recognized flag of the entire region of the Middle East. Shown is a map of the Middle East.
2

Various regions of the Golan Heights have been claimed by Israel, Lebanon, and Syria; all three flags are shown, in that order.

Source: Wikipedia website:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UN_peacekeeping_missions, Checked on 17 August 2006

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Appendix 2: UNTAC Mandate
Section A: General Procedures 1. In accordance with Article 6 of the Agreement, UNTAC will exercise the powers necessary to ensure the implementation of this Agreement, including those relating to the organization and conduct of free and fair elections and the relevant aspects of the administration of Cambodia. 2. The following mechanism will be used to resolve all issues relating to the implementation of this Agreement which may arise between the SecretaryGeneral's Special Representative and the Supreme National Council (SNC): a. The SNC offers advice to UNTAC, which will comply with this advice provided there is a consensus among the members of the SNC and provided this advice is consistent with the objectives of the present Agreement; b. If there is no consensus among the members of the SNC despite every Endeavour of its President, H.R.H. Samdech Norodom Sihanouk, the President will be entitled to make the decision on what advice to offer to UNTAC, taking fully into account the views expressed in the SNC. UNTAC will comply with the advice provided it is consistent with the objectives of the present Agreement; c. If H.R.H. Samdech Norodom Sihanouk, President of the SNC, the legitimate representative of Cambodian sovereignty, is not, for whatever reason, in a position to make such a decision, his power of decision will transfer to the Secretary-General's Special Representative. The Special Representative will make the final decision, taking fully into account the views expressed in the SNC; d. Any power to act regarding the implementation of this Agreement conferred upon the SNC by the Agreement will be exercised by consensus or, failing such consensus, by its President in accordance with the procedure set out above. In the event that H.R.H. Samdech Norodom Sihanouk, President of the SNC, the legitimate representative of Cambodian sovereignty, is not, for whatever reason, in a position to act, his power to act will transfer to the Secretary-General's Special Representative, who may take the necessary action; e. In all cases, the Secretary-General's Special Representative will determine whether advice or action of the SNC is consistent with the present Agreement. 3. The Secretary-General's Special Representative or his delegate will attend the meetings of the SNC and of any subsidiary body which might be established by it and give its members all necessary information on the decisions taken by UNTAC. Section B: Civil Administration 1. In accordance with Article 6 of the Agreement, all administrative agencies, bodies and offices acting in the field of foreign affairs, national defense, finance, public security and information will be placed under the direct control of UNTAC, which will exercise it as necessary to ensure strict neutrality. In this

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respect, the Secretary-General's Special Representative will determine what is necessary and may issue directives to the above-mentioned administrative agencies, bodies and offices. Such directives may be issued to and will bind all Cambodian Parties. 2. In accordance with Article 6 of the Agreement, the Secretary-General's Special Representative, in consultation with the SNC, will determine which other administrative agencies, bodies and offices could directly influence the outcome of elections. These administrative agencies, bodies and offices will be placed under direct supervision or control of UNTAC and will comply with any guidance provided by it. 3. In accordance with Article 6 of the Agreement, the Secretary-General's Special Representative, in consultation with the SNC, will identify which administrative agencies, bodies and offices could continue to operate in order to ensure normal day-to-day life in Cambodia, if necessary, under such supervision by UNTAC as it considers necessary. 4. In accordance with Article 6 of the Agreement, the authority of the SecretaryGeneral's Special Representative will include the power to: a. Install in administrative agencies, bodies and offices of all the Cambodian Parties United Nations personnel, who will have unrestricted access to all administrative operations and information; b. Require the reassignment or removal of any personnel of such administrative agencies, bodies and offices. 5. a. On the basis of the information provided in Article 1, paragraph 3, of annex 2, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General will determine, after consultation with the Cambodian Parties, those civil police necessary to perform law enforcement in Cambodia. All Cambodian Parties hereby undertake to comply with the determination made by the Special Representative in this regard; b. All civil police will operate under UNTAC supervision or control, in order to ensure that law and order are maintained effectively and impartially, and that human rights and fundamental freedoms are fully protected. In consultation with the SNC, UNTAC will supervise other law enforcement and judicial processes throughout Cambodia to the extent necessary to ensure the attainment of these objectives. 6. If the Secretary-General's Special Representative deems it necessary, UNTAC, in consultation with the SNC, will undertake investigations of complaints and allegations regarding actions by the existing administrative structures in Cambodia that are inconsistent with or work against the objectives of this comprehensive political settlement. UNTAC will also be empowered to undertake such investigation on its own initiative. UNTAC will take, when necessary, appropriate corrective steps. Section C: Milltary Functions 1. UNTAC will supervise, monitor and verify the withdrawal of foreign forces, the cease-fire and related measures in accordance with annex 2, including:

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a. Verification of the withdrawal from Cambodia of all categories of foreign forces, advisers and military personnel and their weapons, ammunition and equipment, and their non-return to Cambodia; b. Liaison with neighbouring Governments over any developments in or near their territory that could endanger the implementation of this Agreement; c. Monitoring the cessation of outside military assistance to all Cambodian Parties; d. Locating and confiscating caches of weapons and military supplies throughout the country; e. Assisting with clearing mines and undertaking training programmes in mine clearance and a mine awareness programme among the Cambodian people. 2. UNTAC will supervise the regrouping and relocating of all forces to specifically designated cantonment areas on the basis of an operational timetable to be agreed upon, in accordance with annex 2. 3. As the forces enter the cantonments, UNTAC will initiate the process of arms control and reduction specified in annex 2. 4. UNTAC will take necessary steps regarding the phased process of demobilization of the military forces of the parties, in accordance with annex 2. 5. UNTAC will assist, as necessary, the International Committee of the Red Cross in the release of all prisoners of war and civilian internees. Section D: Elections 1. UNTAC will organize and conduct the election referred to in Part ll of this Agreement in accordance with this section and annex 3. 2. UNTAC may consult with the SNC regarding the organization and conduct of the electoral process. 3. In the exercise of its responsibilities in relation to the electoral process, the specific authority of UNTAC will include the following: a. The establishment, in consultation with the SNC, of a system of laws, procedures and administrative measures necessary for the holding of a free and fair election in Cambodia, including the adoption of an electoral law and of a code of conduct regulating participation in the election in a manner consistent with respect for human rights and prohibiting coercion or financial inducement in order to influence voter preference; b. The suspension or abrogation, in consultation with the SNC, of provisions of existing laws which could defeat the objects and purposes of this Agreement; c. The design and implementation of a voter education programme, covering all aspects of the election, to support the election process; d. The design and implementation of a system of voter registration, as a first phase of the electoral process, to ensure that eligible voters have the opportunity to register, and the subsequent preparation of verified voter registration lists;

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e. The design and implementation of a system of registration of political parties and lists of candidates; f. Ensuring fair access to the media, including press, television and radio, for all political parties contesting in the election; g. The adoption and implementation of measures to monitor and facilitate the participation of Cambodians in the elections, the political campaign and the balloting procedures; h. The design and implementation of a system of balloting and polling, to ensure that registered voters have the opportunity to vote; i. The establishment, in consultation with the SNC, of coordinated arrangements to facilitate the presence of foreign observers wishing to observe the campaign and voting; j. Overall direction of polling and the vote count; k. The identification and investigation of complaints of electoral irregularities, and the taking of appropriate corrective action; l. Determining whether or not the election was free and fair and, if so, certification of the list of persons duly elected. 4. In carrying out its responsibilities under the present section, UNTAC will establish a system of safeguards to assist it in ensuring the absence of fraud during the electoral process, including arrangements for Cambodian representatives to observe the registration and polling procedures and the provision of an UNTAC mechanism for hearing and deciding complaints. 5. The timetable for the various phases of the electoral process will be determined by UNTAC, in consultation with the SNC as provided in paragraph 2 of this section. The duration of the electoral process will not exceed nine months from the commencement of voter registration. 6. In organizing and conducting the electoral process, UNTAC will make every effort to ensure that the system and procedures adopted are absolutely impartial, while the operational arrangements are as administratively simple and efficient as possible. Section E: Human Rights In accordance with Article 16, UNTAC will make provisions for: a. The development and implementation of a programme of human rights education to promote respect for and understanding of human rights; b. General human rights oversight during the transitional period; c. The investigation of human rights complaints. and. Where appropriate, corrective action. Source: Extraction from the Paris Peace Accord in 1991

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