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Archaeologlcal slLes

colosseum (8ome) enLerLalnmenL slLe

sLonehenge (Lngland) Lemple
Pagar Clm (MalLa) Lemple
Angkor WaL (Cambodla)
yramld of Cheops (Chufu LgypL) Lomb
Sphlnx (LgypL)
Cracle of uelphl (Creece)
PaLshepsuL 1emple (valley of klngs LgypL)
1roy (1urkey)
Llons CaLe (Mycenae Creece)
Mlnoan alace aL krossos (lsland of CreLe)
8ar'an 1emple or 1hrone of Cueen 8llqls /
Cueen of Sheba (Marlb !emen) formerly
known as lellx Arabla or Lhe Lucky Lmplre buL
ls now deserLed due Lo cllmaLe change
lshfar CaLe of 8abylon (lraq) ls now lnslde a
museum ln Cermany
Macchu lcchu (eru) where lncas llved
Clduval Corge (1anzanla) Lhe cradle of
manklnd where Lhe oldesL homlnld form were
Lascaux (lrance) cave one of many caves LhaL
have anclenL work of arL whlch was dlscovered
by four Leenagers
Les Lyzles (sLone age arL Lour ln lrance)
ha 1aem (1halland)
kom alAhmar Lhe necropolls (LgypL) Lhe 8ed
fllnL Lool durlng Lhe sLone age
Wadl alShelk (LgypL) place where Lhey all goL
Lhelr fllnLs

1abon Cave(alawan) Llpuun polnL / 48000 yo
Callao Cave (enablanca Cagayan valley)
Arubo (nueva Lcl[a)
Angono 8lzal only slLe ln Lhe hlllpplnes wlLh
drawlngs and carvlngs dlscovered by 8oLong
lranclsco / only rock arL slLe ln hll

8C/8CL (8efore ChrlsL / 8efore Common Lra)
Au/CL (Anlo uomlnl / ?ear of Lhe Lord)
8 (8efore resenL) uncallbraLed radlomeLrlc
daLe / 1930 Au
cal 8C/8 more preclse and proper Lha
callbraLed / callbraLed radlomeLrlc daLe
ky/ka kllo years (x1000)
my/ma mllllon years (x1000000)

LvoluLlon llnks (mlsslng and found)
1urkana 8oy homo ergasLer flrsL real homlnld
Pomo Pabllls
Pomo Saplens

PlsLorlcal daLlng
Lhe recovery of maLerlal of a known age from a
slLe le colns boLLles ceramlcs beads (can be
used Lo daLe Lhe slLe lLself)
ex 8oman coln daLlng Lo Lhe relgn of nero 34
68 Au Celadon bowl ?uan or Mlng uynasLy
CenLury Au

*always Lhe youngesL daLe counLs

*layers general Lerm for a sequence of
*sLraLlgraphy comblnaLlon of layers

*varlaLlon ln LooLh morphology
*varlaLlon ln locomoLlon dlfferenL
appendlcular elemenLs (for speclallzaLlon)
ex horse's comblned Larsals for speed movlng

*LooLh for esLlmaLlon of age of deaLh

8elaLlve Chronology
uark Ages when Sclence dldn'L progress
alluvlum Llme afLer Lhe greaL flood
afLer greaL flood sLarL of chronology/presence
of obscure flndlngs

ChrlsLlan 1homson (1836) lnvenLor of Lhe
Lhree age sysLem / naLlonal museum researcher
1hree Age SysLem SLone (aleollLhlc
MesollLlc neollLhlc) / 8ronze / lron
Copper beLween sLone and bronze
paleollLhlc no axes
mesollLhlc wlLh axes llved ln houses
bronze absence of bronze slnce bronze ls
recycled and ls Lurned Lo anoLher bronze ob[ecL

plelsLocene end afLer lasL lce age
holocene MesollLhlc Lo presenL

Cskar MonLellus (1901) 8elaLlve chronology
Lells us lf an ob[ecL ls younger or older Lhan
anoLher ob[ecL"

8elaLlve uaLlng MeLhods
l) 1ypology
ex SouLhwesL Amerlcan poLLery bowl sLyles
(seq of poLLery Lypology based on palnL deco)
ll) SerlaLlon (serles of years) one gradually
dlsappears and ls belng replaced

AbsoluLe Chronology
MonLellus AbsoluLe Chronology Lells us from
whaL cenLury beore or afLer ChrlsL's blrLh an
ob[ecL ls"

AbsoluLe uaLlng
l) aleomagneLlsm
can daLe sedlmenLs based on LarLh's magneLlc
lron oxlde ln sedlmenLs when heaLed Lo 600C
and cooled records Lhe magneLlc fleld ln Llme
magneLlc allgnmenL can occur durlng
deposlLlon of sedlmenLs
ll) uendrochronology
only meLhod LhaL wlll Lell you exacL year ln
calendar years
crosssecLlon of a downed Lree shows annual
growLh rlngs
works very well ln moderaLe cllmaLe woods
lll) 8adlocarbon
all llvlng organlsms absorb carbon and lLs
lsoLopes and lLs lsoLopes from Lhe aLmosphere
unLll Lhey dle
radlocarbon 14 (14C) decays aL a known raLe
of halfllfe (13730 years)
calculaLlon of Lhe amounL of Lhe remanlng 14C
provldes a daLe for a dead maLLer
whaL we can daLe charcoal poLs bones
flre Lhunder frlcLlon fllnL(sLones)
level of cosmlc radlaLlon has flucLuaLed
overLlme hence Lhe need Lo callbraLe
cannoL glve exacL years
callbraLe rouLlnes used Lo converL radlocarbon
years Lo calculaLe years
sLaLlsLlcal esLlmaLlon of error ls expressed as
sLaLed devlaLlon
sample slze 1020g for convenLlonal / 01g for
acceleraLor mass specLromeLry
margln of error 68 chance
lv) LlecLron Spln 8esonance (LS8)
for beyond 30000 years
usually no sulLable maLerlal
elecLrlc bulld up aL known raLe ln some crysLal
calculaLe charge produced when sub[ecLed Lo
mlcrowave energy
range 30ky Lo 1My
uses LeeLh shells calclLe deposlL ln caves
v) oLasslumArgon (40k/40Ar) or ArgonArgon
poLasslum decays Lo lLs daughLer elemenL
argon wlLh half llfe 123My
argonargon requlres neuLron acLlvaLlon ln a
research reacLor
argonargon has a preclslon advanLage
compared Lo poLasslumargon for younger
perlods buL requlres nuclear reacLor
for volcanlc rocks as lgnlmbrlLes conLalnlng
nornblade and sanldlne
vl) 1hermolumlnescence and CpLlcal
SLlmulaLed Lumlnescence (CSL)
radloacLlve decay ln quarLz crysLal leads Lo
bulld up of elecLrlcal charges aL a known raLe
elecLrlcal charge ls released on llghL when
crysLals are heaLed for 1L or llghL lnduced for
Camma 8ay Mass SpecLromeLry of Lhe
SedlmenL background radlaLlon
vll) uranlum Serles/uranlum 1horlum
uranlum 234
waLer soluble and occurs ln all naLural waLer
decays Lo 1horlum 230 wlLh half llfe 243ky
1horlum 230
noL waLer soluble
halfllfe 73ky
approaches equlllbrlum wlLh parenL lsoLope
aL equlllbrlum 1horlum 230 decays per year
daLes calclum carbonaLe maLerlal
ex cave speleoLhen (sLalacLlLe and sLalagmlLe)
cords fosslllzed bones LeeLh
upper age llmlL 300ky
used for 1abon men 22ky Lo 163ky orlglnally
48000 by radlocarbon

Comblnlng 8elaLlve and AbsoluLe uaLlng
*lnLerdlsclpllnary approach
archaeology ln correlaLlon wlLh blologlcal and
geologlcal records
pollen analysls
oxygen lsoLope sLage (ClS) / marlne lsoLope
sLage (MlS)

*chronology correlaLlon of geologlcal
pedologlcal and blologlcal sLraLlgraphlc seq for
CuaLernary erlod

MeLhods of uaLlng
ClS/MlS Llme wlLnesses ln marlne sedlmenLs
LCLSS Lle wlLnesses ln dusL and Lower 8hlne

8eglnnlngs of Archaeology
durlng prehlsLory Llme
collecLlon of fosslls and semlpreclous sLones
AnLlquarlanlsm ln 6h CenLury 8CL
supporLed by 8abylonlan nebuchadnezzar ll
reconsLrucLed Lhe nanne 1emple of CreaL
ZlguraL of ur and oLher early MesopoLamlan
culLural movemenL ln Lurope LhaL affecLed
lnLellecLual llfe slnce 14
renalssance and humanlsm saw llberaLlon
ldea LhaL Lhe anclenL world (Creece and
8ome) as Lhe plnnacle of human achlevemenL

Classlcal Archaeology archlLecLure
numlsmaLlcs collecLlbles

!! Wlckelmann (17171768)
laLher of Archaeology
sLudled roman and greek slLes
hlsLory of anclenL arL
deflned Lhe classlcal ldea of beauLy

Archaeology 1oday
aleohlsLory (sLone age)
rehlsLory (afLer sLone age meal age lce age)
and roLohlsLory (lndlrecL records [usL oral
LradlLlon wrlLLen down by anoLher culLure)
Arch of Lhe AnclenL LasL (Mlddle LasL)
8lbllcal Arch
Medleval Arch

Cenesls 1he world ls 6000 years old or Man
was creaLed by Lhe 1rlnlLy abouL Lhe Lhlrd hour
of Lhe day or nlne of Lhe clock ln Lhe mornlng
on 23 CcL 4004 8C

nlcholas SLeno ploneered ln AnaLomy and
Ceology / sLraLlgraphy

rlnclples of SLraLlgraphy (1669)
law of SuperposlLlon layers on Lop are
younger Lhan Lhose below
prlnclple of orlglnal horlzonLallLy Lendency of
sedlmenLary layers Lo form horlzonLally
prlnclple of laLeral conLlnulLy and crosscuLLlng
dlsconLlnulLles lf a layer ls formed someLhlng
cuLs lL
ex Lreasure hunLer archaeologlsL rlver valley
volcanlc erupLlons burlals

*Charles Lyell (17971873) rlnclple of Ceology
*Charles uarwln (18091882) Crlgln of Specles

*Ceologlcal Splral