Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model

Core Dimensions Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signif. Psychological States
Meaningfulness of Work

Outcomes

Autonomy

Responsibility for outcomes

Feedback

Knowledge of Results

High intrinsic motivation High job perormance High job satisfaction Low absentee ism & turnover

avenue for feeling success • Knowledge and skills • Satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work .Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics Model • Growth need strength – job is a vehicle for personal growth. sense of achievement.

Motivating Potential Score Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance 3 MPS = X Autonomy X Feedback .

task identity.Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics Model • Combine tasks: Effects skill variety. & task significance • Group tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identity • Give workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety. autonomy. feedback • Vertically load jobs: Effects autonomy • Open feedback channels: Effects feedback .

consult . give suggestions. listen to others.Designing Jobs for Teams • Team has to be an identifiable group. share information.. doing a specified piece of work. and be self-managing • Key behaviors: Ask for ideas. help others • Manager’s role: Make alterations needed for effective group performance.

Goals That Motivate • • • • Specific Goals Difficult Goals Goal Acceptance Goal Feedback .

Why Goals Motivate • Mobilize energy in relation to goal • Focus attention towards goals attainment • Encourages setting of action plans or strategies for goal attainment • Encourages persistence until goal is attained .

Enhancing Goal Acceptance • Participation • Rewards • Supportiveness .

commissions. piecework .Incentives for Individuals • For Executives – Compensation tied to achieving strategic goals • For Lower Level Employees – Tied to performance: bonuses.

Incentives for Groups • • • • Team incentives Profit sharing Gain sharing Stock options .

Where Pay Fails to Motivate • Bonuses or merit pay is too small • Non-existent link between pay and performance • Performance appraisal is done poorly • Effect of unions • Adaptation problems .

Effective Reward Systems • Set high goals for performance • Develop accurate ways to measure performance • Train supervisors in performance appraisal • Link pay to performance • Make increases noticeable and meaningful .

Backwards & Forwards • Summing up: Examined how Hackman’s & Oldhams Job characteristics Model can be used to redesign jobs to engage motivation. studied how and why goals setting works & looked at ways to use pay as a motivator • Next time we begin our study of groups in the organization looking at how they function and the role of cohesiveness .

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