Nanotechnology Based Drug Delivery

Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M.Pharm., Ph.D Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutics JN Medical College KLE University Belgaum-590010

20/03/2008

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

1

Applications of Nanotechnology

20/03/2008

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

2

Targeted Drug Delivery

20/03/2008

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

3

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Metal-based nanoparticles Lipid-based nanoparticles Polymer-based nanoparticles Biological nanoparticles 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 4 .

of Pharmaceutics 5 .Nanobiopharmaceuticals In biopharmaceuticals. and polymerbased technologies host of newer technologies such as nanoparticles including various nanodimensional entities such as molecular imprinted polymers. and transdermal and transmucosal delivery have come up. pulmonary. monoclonal antibody-based. injectable and implantable. metallofullerenes. prodrug delivery. oral. 20/03/2008 Dept. in addition to the main technologies covered-liposomal.

Minimizing the drug use would significantly reduce the effective cost of drug which would give financial relief to the patients. 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 6 .Drug Delivery Technology Important to Pharma Industry Drug delivery formulations involve low cost research compared that for discovery of new molecule.

Drug Delivery Technology Important to Pharma Industry Delivery systems increase commercial opportunity by distinguishing a drug from competitive threats posed by “me too” drugs and Novel means of delivery particularly using nano-carriers. 20/03/2008 Dept. can allow branded drugs to be rescued from abyss of generic competition (may be called “resurrection of drug”). of Pharmaceutics 7 .

Liposomal based Amphotericin B formulation 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 8 .SOME SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS OF NANODEVICES Development of one dose a day ciprofloxacin using nanotechnology Tumor targeted taxol delivery using nanoparticles in Phase 2 clinical trial stage Improved ophthalmic delivery formulation using smart hydrogel nanoparticles Oral insulin formulation using nanoparticles carriers.

CHALLENGES Prevention of drug from biological degradation Effective Targeting Patient Compliance Cost effectiveness Product life extension 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 9 .

of Pharmaceutics 10 .PRIORITY AREAS Cancer Nanotechnology (i) Diagnosis using Quantum Dots (ii) Tumor Targeted Delivery (iii) Imaging (iv) Cancer Gene Therapy 20/03/2008 Dept.

bacterial and viral diseases Oral and pulmonary routes for systemic delivery of proteins and peptides Nanotechnology in Tissue Engineering 20/03/2008 Dept.PRIORITY AREAS DNA Vaccines for parasitic. of Pharmaceutics 11 .

Drug Delivery Carriers 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 12 .

Targeting Ligands 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 13 .

of Pharmaceutics 14 .Liposome's 20/03/2008 Dept.

etc. thereby providing a means to conveniently couple “tags” on a covalent basis. Such “tags” can be antibodies. This provides significant versatility in assay formats (i.) possible. receptor-based. their aqueous core encapsulates up to millions of molecules of signal generating “markers” that can be detected in a variety of different way. 20/03/2008 Dept. antigens. This provides significant versatility in the detection schemes possible. of Pharmaceutics 15 ..e. and electroactive compounds. nucleic acid probes. A variety of different encapsulants are possible including visually detectable dyes (since the lipid bilayer is transparent).Liposome's Their exterior lipid bilayer is very chemically reactive. etc. optically and fluorometrically detectable dyes. immunoassay. With diameters ranging in size from approximately 50 nm to 800 nm. nucleic acid probe. enzymes. cell receptors.

of Pharmaceutics 16 .Niosomes 20/03/2008 Dept.

of Pharmaceutics 17 . such as chemical instability. Niosomes alleviate the disadvantages associated with liposomes.Niosomes Niosomes. They have the potential for controlled and targated drug delivery Niosomes enhanced the penetration of drugs 20/03/2008 Dept. variable purity of phospholipids and high cost. are widely studied as an alternative to liposomes These vesicles appear to be similar to liposomes in terms of their physical properties They are also prepared in the same way and under a variety of conditions. non-ionic surfactant vesicles. from unilamellar or multilamellar structures.

Nanopowder 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 18 .

Such compounds have two or more different cations (positively charged elements) in their chemical formula. of Pharmaceutics 19 . A jar of a true nanopowder when emptied from chest height to toward the floor will disperse into the air before reaching the floor. Most manufacturers of “nanopowders” produce micropowder assemblies of nanoparticles but the powder itself is rarely a nanopowder.Nanopowder Nanopowders are powders composed of nanoparticles. An example of a complex compound is calcium titanate (CaTiO3). that is particles having an average diameter below 50 nanometers (nm). 20/03/2008 Dept.

Nanocluster 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 20 .

Nanocluster One of the central themes in nanoscience research is to synthesize high quality nanoparticles with precise control over particle size. structure. 20/03/2008 Dept. nanoclusters in a size range from subnanometer to ~2 nm and nanocrystals (typically 2-100 nm). two regimes are of particular interest. shape. metal and semiconductor). and composition. that is. of Pharmaceutics 21 .g. For inorganic nanoparticles (e.

Nanocrystals 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 22 .

drug nanocrystals.Nanocrystals When the size of the material is reduced to less than 100 nanometers. controlled precipitation etc. Nano-design of drugs by various techniques like milling. this technology is explored to increase oral bioavailability of sparingly water soluble drugs. As decreased size will increase the solubility of drugs hence. the realm of quantum physics takes over and materials begin to demonstrate entirely new properties.. high pressure homogenization. nanoparticles. nanoprecipitates. 20/03/2008 Dept. nanosuspensions (which for ease of understanding commonly mentioned as nanocrystals). are explored to produce. of Pharmaceutics 23 .

of Pharmaceutics 24 .Micelle 20/03/2008 Dept.

and substances with intermediate polarity will be distributed along the surfactant molecules in certain intermediate positions. Micelles are known to have an anisotropic water distribution within their structure. of Pharmaceutics 25 . exposed to water.Micelle Micelle is an aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water. 20/03/2008 Dept. Hydrophobic drugs can be encapsulated/solubalized. Amphiphilic molecules form micelle above a particular concentration which is called as critical micellar concentration (CMC). with a completely hydrophobic (water-excluded) core. The spatial position of a solubilized drug in a micelle will depend on its polarity. with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior surface. nonpolar molecules will be solubilized in the micellar core. means water concentration decreases from the surface towards the core of the micelle. into inner core.

of Pharmaceutics 26 .Dendrimers 20/03/2008 Dept.

and approximately double the molecular weight of the preceding generation. Each subsequent growth step represents a new "generation" of polymer with a larger molecular diameter. and a highly. of Pharmaceutics 27 .Dendrimers These branched macromolecules are constructed around a simple core unit. narrow molecular weight distribution. twice the number of reactive surface sites. specific size and shape characteristics. The manufacturing process is a series of repetitive steps starting with a central initiator core. 20/03/2008 Dept.functionalized terminal surface. Dendrimers have a high degree of molecular uniformity.

of Pharmaceutics 28 .Polymeric Nanoparticles 20/03/2008 Dept.

Polymeric Nanoparticles In recent years. and in their ability to deliver proteins. biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention as potential drug delivery devices in view of their applications in drug targeting to particular organs/tissues. 20/03/2008 Dept. as carriers of DNA in gene therapy. peptides and genes through a per oral route of administration. of Pharmaceutics 29 .

Carbon 60 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 30 .

Carbon 60 C60 are spherical molecules about 1nm in diameter. of Pharmaceutics 31 . it is possible to develop functionalized C60 with better drug targeting properties 20/03/2008 Dept. On the other hand with development of various chemical substitutes for C60. Hence they find application as NanoPharmaceuticals with large drug payload in their cage like structure. comprising 60 carbon atoms arranged as 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons: the configuration of a football.

of Pharmaceutics 32 .Carbon Nanotube 20/03/2008 Dept.

gene therapies and vaccines. The modified nanotubes have so far only been used to ferry a small peptide into the nuclei of fibroblast cells.Carbon Nanotube Carbon nanotubes are adept at entering the nuclei of cells and may one day be used to deliver drugs and vaccines. 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 33 . But the researchers are hopeful that the technique may one day form the basis for new anti-cancer treatments.

Electrospray 7.Mills 4.Homogenizer 2.Spray Milling 5.Supercritical Fluid Technology 6. of Pharmaceutics 34 .Equipments for Nanoparticles 1.Nanofiltration 20/03/2008 Dept.Ultracentrifugation 8.Ultra Sonicator 3.

Homogenizer & Ultra Sonicator 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 35 .

Methods of Drug Delivery 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 36 .

in 20/03/2008 Dept. of Pharmaceutics 37 .E-mail: bknanjwade@yahoo.co.

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