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CYLINDER DEACTIVATION 1. INTRODUCTION With alternatives to the petrol engine being announced ever so often you could be forgiven for thinking that the old favorite the petrol engine is on its last legs but nothing could be further from the truth and possibilities for developing the petrol engines are endless. One of the most crucial jobs on the agenda is to find ways of reducing fuel consumption, cutting emissions of the green house gas CO2 and also the toxic emissions which threaten air quality. One such fast emerging technology is cylinder deactivation where a number of cylinders are shut down when less is needed to save fuel. The simple fact is that when you only need small amounts of power such as crawling around town what you really need is a smaller engine. To put it another way an engine performs most efficiently when its working harder so ask it to do the work of an engine half its size and efficiency suffers. Pumping or throttling losses are mostly to blame. Cylinder deactivation is one of the technologies that improve fuel economy, the objective of which is to reduce engine pumping losses under certain vehicle operating conditions. When a petrol engine is working with the throttle wide open pumping losses are minimal. But at part throttle the engine wastes energy trying to breathe through a restricted airway and the bigger engine, the bigger the problem. Deactivating half the cylinders at part load is much like temporarily fitting a smaller engine. During World War II, enterprising car owners disconnected a spark plug wire or two in hopes of stretching their precious gasoline ration. Unfortunately, it didn’t improve gas mileage. Nevertheless, Cadillac resurrected the concept out of desperation during the second energy crisis. The “modulated displacement 6.0L V-8- 6-4” introduced in 1981 disabled two, then four cylinders during part-throttle operation to improve the gas mileage of every model in Cadillac’s lineup. A digital dash display reported not only range, average mpg, and instantaneous mpg, but also how many cylinders were operating. Customers enjoyed the mileage boost but not the side effects. Many of them ordered dealers to cure their Cadillacs of the shakes and stumbles even if that meant disconnecting the modulated-displacement system Like wide ties, short skirts and $2-per-gallon gas, snoozing cylinders are back. General Motors, the first to show renewed interest in the idea, calls it Displacement on Demand (DoD). DaimlerChrysler, the first manufacturer to hit the U.S. market with a modern cylinder shut-down system calls its approach Multi- Displacement System (MDS). And Honda, who beat everyone to the punch by equipping Japanese-market Inspire models with cylinder deactivation last year, calls the approach Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) The motivation is the same as before — improved gas mileage. Disabling cylinders finally makes sense because of the strides achieved in electronic power train controls. According to GM, computing power has been increased 50-fold in the past two decades and the memory available for control algorithms is 100 times greater. This time around, manufacturers expect to disable unnecessary cylinders so seamlessly that the driver never knows what’s happening under the hood. 2. CYLINDER DEACTIVATION-MECHANISM Cylinder Deactivation is the method of deactivating Cylinders as per the Power requirement of the Engine in order to achieve better Fuel efficiency as well as Emission Control. Cylinder deactivation works because only a small fraction of an engine’s peak horsepower is needed to maintain cruising speed. Passenger cars require 25 or so horsepower to cruise at 60 mph while 35 horsepower is enough to drive a large SUV at that speed. Using a reduced number of hard working cylinders to produce the necessary power is more efficient than employing the full complement of lightly loaded cylinders. The energy savings come from reduced pumping losses. In all gasoline engines, energy is consumed drawing the air needed for combustion past a partially closed throttle plate. Shutting down half the cylinders demands a wider throttle setting to ingest the same amount of air drawn in when all the cylinders are working. The wider throttle position yields lower pumping losses and better mileage. Operating half the valves also diminishes the energy spent turning the camshaft. Minimizing the load carried by half the pistons and connecting rods trims friction and reduces energy losses to the cooling system. The mechanical components needed to disable cylinders are surprisingly simple. All three systems scheduled for 2004 implementation use a computer-controlled squirt of oil pressure to slide a pin inside either selected valve lifters (DaimlerChrysler and GM systems) or half of the rocker arms (Honda). The normal transfer of motion from a cam lobe to a valve stem is thereby interrupted. In DCX and GM pushrod applications, the outer portion of each disabled lifter telescopes over the inner portion to maintain contact with the cam lobe without opening the valve. The Honda approach is a variation of the VTEC (variable valve timing electronic control) cam-lobe-switching scheme used for more than a decade. Instead of skipping between high- and low-lift cam lobes, VCM selects a rocker-arm alignment that delivers no valve lift. In every case, the engine control computer triggers cylinder deactivation after studying coolant temperature, vehicle speed and engine load parameters. Each cylinder is disabled by interrupting not
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nearly all of the energy required to compress the gas spring on the up stroke is returned to the crankshaft on the down stroke.com 2 . the lifters are in continuous contact with the camshaft. This method is mainly used by General Motors in its automobiles.newtechpapers. 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. There are four subsystems in this deactivation hardware system • Electronic control module (ECM) • solenoid valves • hydraulic subsystem • lifter locking pin mechanism When the solenoid valve in the system is energized. de-coupling the camshaft from the valves. the end cylinders on the left bank and the center cylinders on the right bank are disabled. the locking pins inside that lifter are free to move. But this method’s feasibility and technology is still in experimental stage. Deactivation requires only 40 or so milliseconds and is timed to occur immediately after the power stroke so the disabled cylinder remains filled with exhaust gas. DISPLACEMENT ON DEMAND USING LIFTER PIN CONTROL MECHANISM. (One solenoid operates both of the lifters for each disabled cylinder. Another method which can be employed is Active Valve Train technology (AVT) which does away with camshafts. When commanded by the power train control computer. This method is similar to the V tech engines used by the famous automobile manufacturer Honda. In this method we use a system of four components which sense the power requirement and the displaces or de activate the cylinder. METHODS USED FOR CYLINDER DEACTIVATION One of the most employed techniques for cylinder deactivation process now is the Displacement on demand method using Lifter Pin Control Mechanism developed by Delphi Automotive Systems which is an Italy based automobile component manufacturer. then the pressure force acts on the pins. a Lifter Oil Manifold Assembly (LOMA) routes oil pressure to four solenoid control valves. DISPLACEMENT ON DEMAND USING LIFTER PIN CONTROL MECHANISM. The cylinder deactivation hardware is based on control algorithm which has been developed to characterize the dynamic response of the deactivation system 5. the engine oil pressure increases in the control port. the solenoids direct oil to valve lifters equipped with the switching mechanism.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. the three makers implementing cylinder deactivation go their separate ways. That creates what amounts to a gas spring. From this common ground. 3.newtechpapers. As the piston rises and falls. At the same time. This method will be explained in the following pages Another method used mainly for cylinder deactivation is the Deactivation using Variable Profile Cam shaft developed by Lotus automotive systems.com only the operation of the intake and exhausts valves but also spark and fuel delivery.) To maintain even firing intervals. Principle of Operation. In the valley between cylinder banks. If the control port is pressurized while in this state. When a lifter is on the cam base circle.
For ECM control purposes.newtechpapers. the switching must occur after the intake event begins but before the exhaust event commences. Lost motion between the camshaft and the engine valve occurs when engine oil pressure is applied to the spring-biased locking pins inside the lifter. and a pole piece. This physical model can provide guidance in calibrating the deactivation timing and improving robustness of the system. a spring. Characterization of the total actuation time is not easily achieved given the fact that laboratory testing cannot encompass every possible engine operating condition. The common port of the control valve is connected via an oil gallery to a pair of spring-biased locking pins inside the valve lifter (a simplified sketch is shown in Figure 4 later). A typical solenoid consists of a plunger. which can be characterized by: Locking Pin Mechanism FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. de-coupling the camshaft from the engine valve. The time it takes for the pins to move to the full travel point (determined by the design criteria) from the time when the control pressure rises to the critical pressure level.com 5. yet simple enough analytical model in order to characterize the dynamic behavior of the deactivation hardware system. The common port of the control valve is connected via an oil gallery to a pair of spring-biased locking pins inside the valve lifter (a simplified sketch is shown). Therefore. a coil. The total actuation time consists of three elements: the solenoid plunger response time. the cam profile and the firing order of the engine. inside the lifter. The common port is then switched to engine oil pressure for deactivation (valve energized) or to engine sump for activation (valve de-energized). 5. The Electronic Control Module optimizes engine performance by measuring multiple instantaneous events to enable real-time control of the Solenoid valve of Lifter Pin Mechanism.2 SOLENOID VALVE OPERATION.1 ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE. de-coupling the camshaft from the engine valve. is called the locking pin response time p Dt . Lost motion between the camshaft and the engine valve occurs when engine oil pressure is applied to the spring-biased locking pins inside the lifter. it is crucial to know the dynamic responses of the deactivation hardware system in order to coordinate the deactivation hardware control with other engine control functions. A 3-way normally closed direct current ON/OFF solenoid valve controls cylinder deactivation. de-coupling the camshaft from the engine valve. 5.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www.newtechpapers. As the exhaust valve must deactivate/reactivate first. The locking pins inside the deactivation lifter are designed to change states only on the base circle of the camshaft upon pressurization. the hydraulic subsystem response time and the lifter locking pin mechanical response time. the total actuation time is critical for proper design and control of the ECM deactivation system. The plunger dynamics can be represented by Equation (1). one objective of this study is to develop a high fidelity. These requirements define the switching window of the base circle. It is desirable to control the switching sequence of the valves cylinder-by-cylinder and to complete the transition between V8 and V4 modes within one engine cycle.3 LOCKING PIN MECHANISM. The common port is then switched to engine oil pressure for deactivation (valve energized) or to engine sump for activation (valve de-energized).com 3 . the size of which is dependent on the number of cylinders switched at the same time. Specifically.
each cylinder is switched independently. ADVANTAGES OF CYLINDER DEACTIVATED ENGINES OVER NORMAL ENGINES FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. Here the valve should be opened a little earlier than normal condition. which does not produce any lift at all. 7. By doing this the valve can be kept opened for a longer time and the valve will be opened more than the usual or normal condition. the engine gets the best features of low-speed and high-speed camshafts in the same engine.newtechpapers.In bank control mode both cylinders of each bank are switched at the same time. Hardware for the cylinder deactivation system exists for both individual cylinder control mode and complete bank control mode.com 4 .com Locking Pin Model Diagram 6. In this way. Boxer engines. In cylinder control mode. As the engine moves into different rpm ranges. This virtual doubling of the switching window for individual cylinder control permits mode switching at higher RPM and increases robustness to variation.g. Cylinder Bank Control is commonly used in Engines which is having Cylinders in more than one bank.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. Cylinder Bank Control. This results in two cylinders from each bank being selected for activation/deactivation . This technique uses a Cam Profile Switching tappet (CPS) to switch between two different Cam profiles. 8. Individual Cylinder Control. V engines. the engine's computer can activate alternate lobes on the camshaft and change the Cams timing. The operating window for cylinder control mode (intake valve opening to exhaust valve opening of a cylinder) is 180 crank degrees greater than the operating window for bank control mode (intake valve opening of one cylinder to exhaust valve opening of the second cylinder). 2-valve-percylinder valve train engine is used as a test engine for the deactivation mechanism. Individual Cylinder Control is mainly used in inline cylinder engines.newtechpapers. Cylinder selection for deactivation is determined by engine firing order and the desire to keep an even firing order in the deactivated mode. Currently two methods are used for this type of Control. The Control type is decided by the Control algorithm used in the Electronic control hardware. METHODS USED IN DISPLACEMENT ON DEMAND USING LIFTER PIN CONTROL MECHANISM. 1. 2. Whenever the engine speed increases these pressure actuators presses or pushes the cam shaft towards the valve lifter. e. An OHV (Over Head Valve) V8 cam-in-block (pushrod). This is similar to the patented V-Tech technology used in Honda engines in which whenever the engine speed increases the combustion time reduces in order to keep the combustion time nearly constant. DEACTIVATION USING VARIABLE PROFILE CAM SHAFT This technique was developed by lotus automotive systems that allow the engine to effectively have multiple camshafts. Cylinder control mode requires four control valves compared to two control valves for bank control mode. This is achieved by the varying the position of the cam shaft which is placed in pressure actuators which is controlled by a micro processor and electronic circuits. Cylinder deactivation can be attained by switching between a normal Cam lobe and a plane circular lobe.
Also developing valve deactivation systems for light. Delphi Automotive: supplies a portion of the LOMAs and switching lifters for GM’s 5. market V-12 mileage improved by a claimed 20 percent in 2001 and 2002 model years.7L Hemi V-8 and GM’s 3. Ford Motor Company: has investigated cylinder deactivation but no applications planned for near future. DISADVANTAGES OF CYLINDER DEACTIVATION Engine balancing. Increased cost of manufacturing. the calculations will not give the true value. • • GENERAL MOTORS: uses displacement on demand system which is said to save fuel by 20% HONDA: Is conducting research to incorporate cylinder deactivation with its patented VTECH engine PORSHE and SUBARU: Uses lotus designed various cam plus which works almost similar to Vtech engine Mercedes-Benz: optional on certain European market V-8s since 1998.3L V-8. Since these methods are still under experimental stage.newtechpapers. Complexity of system makes maintenance difficult. The conventional way of attaching counter masses to the moving parts like crank shaft is very difficult as it is very difficult to calculate and attach the counter mass. 11. the overall weight of the system increases and thus engine becomes more bulky and takes more power to run the vehicle.3L V-8.Complex lifter locking mechanism and solenoid valves are difficult to maintain. Siemens-VDO Automotive: exploring cylinder deactivation for possible future use. and solenoid valves etc.Though the process of deactivation will reduce the operating cost.com 5 .Deactivating cylinders can cause change in engine balancing which can lead to very violent vibration and increased noise levels. the cost of the additional parts or the de activation components like electronic control module and the complexity in the design and manufacture of the lifter pin mechanism will increase the cost of manufacturing and thus the vehicle owner will be benefited in a long run only. lifter locking mechanism.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www.S. we make several assumptions that the oil reaches both the side at the same time. 9. Eaton Automotive: supplies a portion of the LOMAs and switching lifters for GM’s 5. the reliability of the engine is not predicted yet. Technology retired (in U. U. Also. Nissan and Toyota: no near-term plans to implement cylinder deactivation.) with 2003 arrival of turbocharged V-12 engines.9L V-6.com Increased fuel efficiency (10-20%) Decreased emissions from deactivated cylinders Better breathing capability of the engine.S. . thereby reducing power consumed in suction stroke.newtechpapers. 10.Due to the presence of additional components like hydraulic lines used in hydraulic sub system. KEY PLAYERS USING CYLINDER DEACTIVATION TECHNIQUES. This can be avoided to some extend using hydraulic engine mounts located at different points on the engine and using noise reducing materials.and heavy-duty European diesel engines. INA: German bearing and valve train specialist supplies switching lifters for DC’s 5. Overall increase in weight. FUTURE TRENDS • • • • • • • FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www.
html FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. Also.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD –www. which uses valve controls with high speed hydraulic actuators there by eliminating the use of Cam shaft.com/seminartopics.com Research is under progress for a new technology named as Active Valve Train Technology.edufive.newtechpapers.newtechpapers.Cylinder deactivation seems to be a good answer to this problem With the increase in price of petroleum products. CONCLUSION The yell for a pollution free environment can be seen even now with developed countries the number of norms like EUROIII is there in the present world itself and the number of vehicles is increasing even under developed countries are planning to impose such norms . researches are going on even by companies which are not mentioned here. 13. (petrol &diesel) vehicle owners are also looking for smart engines that determine and burns right amount of fuel according to the power requirement so we can see a better future for this revolutionary technique. Delphi Motors (2001-01-0669) Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) Technical papers • • SEMINAR TOPIC FROM • :: www. So cylinder deactivation solve these problems to a great extend without compromising engine on performance thus satisfying both manufacturer and the customer. BIBLIOGRAPHY • • Automotive industries Ltd World wide web Research paper published by Quant Zheng . Also a new technology called controlled auto ignition (CAI) which replaces the conventional spark plugs and fires at carefully timed moment to set the compressed charge of fuel alight.Future world demands automobile which burn less fuel . So we can expect more innovative and productive ideas and modifications in the existing techniques.com 6 . 12.