Hebrew Invective Poetry: The Debate between Todros Abulafia and Phinehas Halevi Author(s): ANGEL SÁENZ-BADILLOS

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ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Hebrew Invective Poetry: The Debate between Todros Abulaf?a and Phinehas Halevi

The Character

of the Debate

poems constituting a poetic debate between Halevi.1

a and colleagues/including seriesof thirty-five short poetryofhis friends
him and the poet Phinehas

collected

IN HIS GREAT OMAN,

not only his own

the poet Todros ben JudahHalevi Abulafia
compositions/ but also some samples

of the

he Neubauer thoughtthathe was also called Vidal Profiat,that owned
property near Perpignan, Abraham Bedersi.5 Such We know only that he wrote secular be certain about any aspect of his life. and that he was apparently in the court at Toledo for some time, poetry
PROOFTEXTS16 (1996):49-73 ? 1996by The Johns Hopkins UniversityPress

the Learned and Sancho IV. His life and words have reigns of Alfonso been studied frommany different points of view.2 Who was his opponent, Phinehas Halevi hameshorer? Little about him is known. He has been identified as a son of Joseph Halevi, a grandson of Zerahia Gerondi, and a member of a renowned family of liturgical poets If this identification is correct, he established in Provence and Catalonia.3 would talmudic scholar Aaron have been the brother of the notable and the author of several liturgical and halakhic poems.4 A. Halevi and that he was a friend of the Proven?al poet identifications are difficult to prove; we cannot

One of the participants in the debate is well known: the Toledo courtier and poet Todros ben Judah Halevi Abulafia (1247-1306), probably thebest andmost prolific Hebrew authorof Christian Spain during the

the Golden Age and even to other major poems written by Todros Abulafia himself. for when bothpoetswere stillyoung. realistic topics. But present theOxford manuscript interrupts the debate after poem no.6 with the longerdebatewith Taking thisexchange of poems together dubious political behavior. who would be TodrosAbulafia and won a long replyby the latter. form a separate unit consisting of poems on a similar topic. sphere of theperiod. we cannot establish the real order of the events. that the poems in the long series of debate poems are more Supposing to determine or less from the same period. 482-97. However. we must conclude were always shifting between friendship and rivalry.8 tion mainly on the first the What is the interest this of debate from point ofview of the history that the poems have scant poetry? H. we are dependent upon of the poems."11 a kind of "underground I consider this series with respect to high literary composition.9Compared with thegreat lyricalcompositionsof . The first three poems of the series clearly form a In its separate unit consisting of poems of friendship and separation."10 or even of what French critics call literature" that was marginal "contre-texte. are much ability to write poetry. these poems about trivial. there is no certain way whether theyprecede or follow thepoems written by both authors in ante quernis 1280/817 It is which the terminus homage toDon ?ag. more vehement and aggressive than the remaining poems. 498 to that the rest of the poems. Following the usage of the age. since the chronological order of the poems is unknown. 497. We shall concentrate of Hebrew half of thedebate. he wrote a long panegyric to the most important Jewof Castile. and inmany cases we are not sure if these superscriptions are historically accurate. the for the interpretation of its background. and there are reasons for believing from no.probablyduring thereignofAlfonso X likely that the short poems constituting this poetic debate were written and before 1280. The poem included some harsh allusions to that the relations between the two which we began. Schirmann observed but that they are of interest as a reflection of the atmo literary value. Don ?ag (Isaac) executedbyAlfonso in 1280on account ofhis ben ?adoq. the rest of the group shows a certain unity. 513. which are our atten closer in style to conventional language. the nos. the kind that vulgar language. It is also difficult to determine whether the series of debate poems constitutes a single poetic debate or whether it is a collection of composi tions written at different occasions.50 and probably in Todros's ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS house. written in a seen as a low kind of literary text. The unity of thematerial is uncertain. But we cannot poets on dated offer a psychological interpretation of their relations based written materials. The first sixteen poems. form in the dtw?n. no. may be has been called "lyric of realism.

13 My soul. he is its lord. poetrywas being written in the Galician-Portuguese language the Castilian language. employing similar expressions and calling him hagevir ("the Phinehas even before the separation of the two poets: Phinehas has made him forget his complaints and return to writing rest. magnifyingthe love ofhis as a soul forthe illustrious friend. 480) Todros's answer.12 classical language and employing the standardmotifs of poems of friendship and separation. and genres. He assumes a Neoplatonic conception of the . in The Structure and Contents of the Debate in which thereisno reply). being The first three fromthe poems of theseries are clearlydifferentiated true Andalusian friendship poems. preserves the tone of friendship and esteem. 3) with which soul: He plays with the words and the images. and it is serving him. the influences of its The debate took place inChristian Toledo. and it remained with him. after the conquest of the cityby Alfonso VI (1085).479. to scriptions thed?w?n. v. poem (no. Although the city inhabitants. 481. (no. He turns to his friend with great respect. stating thathis own soul had lefthim to serve Itwas with the knight. Their analysis may uncover the new tendencies of the as a continuation what degree the period and show to poetryofChristianSpain can be seen of Andalusian patterns and how much itwas open to own times. the city and particularly. he. (no.thefirst is by Todros. twelve verses with the same meter and rhyme. depictinghis friendship resembling net to hunt hearts. nearly two hundred years of its earlier Andalusian character even after the conquest.Hebrew Invective Poetry 51 to be a representative development of poems of Hebrew poetry in Christian Spain. had been living for generations in a predominantly Romance atmosphere. itflew to serve you and rebelled against me. when you departed. but says that thearrivalof The first poem by Phinehas is a single verse couched in the poetry. by the time of our poet. was torn off and went astray. According to the super lord/' "the knight"). explaininghis change ofmood: he acknowledges thathe was angryand had stoppedwriting poetry. the court. and prose was being written and althoughArabic was still spoken or understood by many of its retained much Under the auspices of Alfonso X.

When a We can imagine that after the debate.52 Iwas ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS like a deceased whose soul ascended to the heavens. Even ifTodros is the author of the superscriptions. ing reply between the poems: themain motif and often the words themselves are in a kind of chain. at least.15 be sure that he has preserved the complete debate. homogeneity debates Competitive and Hebrew pieces or sources of inspiration?without forgetting possible Arabic or Hebrew must bear inmind that both poets were active in the court of models?we Alfonso theWise. and the platonic death for the love of the beloved more recent. Each reply taken up again in successive compositions. By putting these three poems at the head of the poetic exchange. has the same rhyme and meter as the preceding poem. the verses of Todros followed by the correspond In most cases. consisting of thirty-two poems. 9) the rest of the poems. represents a different. In any case. for understanding provide background The next group. was well integrated into it. we cannot exchange. discussion between the two poets. It circumstantial dialogue. and that Todros. life in this and the following reign. starting constitutes a well-organized with a personal anecdote and touching on several different aspects of the same question: Which of them is better qualified towrite poetry? Alter nating short poems discuss the respective poets' skill in the handling of language and verse. verses. If points of contact skills are well known poets' but in the history of Hebrew-Spanish poetry. with each poet subtly trying to praise his own poetry and ridicule that of his adversary with invective that sometimes nor are there tragic overtones. the other sophisticated play of words. . its tone varying between festive and serious. the poets simply mock each other and try to outdo each other with a one does not answer. sometimes there are differences inmeter and rhyme that lead us to suspect that one or more have been lost. approaches obscenity. there is a verbal connection of his opponent). Together with the two preceding dualism of body and soul.14 tinue to be friends as at the beginning. they con demands response. but my corpse descended into she'ol. the debate consists of parallel composi are old and new images together in a delicate juxtaposition: is an ancient image. about the remnants preserve substantial Arabic and unity. We active part in economic taking must assume that he was familiar with the language and cultural life at we searchfor to it isdifficult findparallels forthisone. The tone is not bitter. mostly in groups of two poems each (according to the superscriptions. but there usually are in the Four basic types of classical meter are used exceptions. From a formal point of view. in both poetry. Todros probably intended to Here tions of one to five verses. (v. this poem forms an independent unit.

my brother.18 answers in an angry mood.Hebrew Invective Poetry 53 court. it iswell known that your spear does not reach the place ofmy arrow. But in Romance is also very common satirical poetry. as weapons for defending oneself or for attacking enemies. there was a deep inhis home in Toledo. who was known for his small stature. ARROWS AND SPEARS Todros replies: Ifyour body is tall.17 Todros lacking good manners: According to the superscription Todros of the first poem. Assigned a bed that was too short forhim. poetry. since theydid not ridicule the physical defects of theiropponents. 483)19 From the very beginning of the debate. For these reasons. in good manners you are small. you lack human knowledge and intelligence.and for Ifyour body has grown and you are fat. he the debate. relates that Phinehas had been a guest began thedebate bymocking his guest forbeing tall and fat. equivocal language con which employs these terms with a sexual connotation. they are considered. Schirmann already observed that this debate was written after the style of the Proven?al tensones.16 To what is that correct? degree A. an eye for an eye: Know. and I am small. (no. it friendship that provoked an groaned about his discomfort and made unpleasant comparison with the height of his host. we can observe a significant B. (no. Phinehas tinues the image:20 praising thequality and power of his own poetry. you shall labor in vain trying to attainmy end. (no. Truly. above all. 484) like "spear" or "arrow" are frequent inArabic and Hebrew fakhr?Words in the poetry of Ibn Gabir An example: l.in the styleofArabic Is there sexual symbolism in these terms. or are they just a way of . the courtly Romance poetry of the time should also be taken into consideration. 482) Phinehas of of Hebrew poets of the difference tonerelativeto that the Golden Age. THE SHORT BED was an incidentin theirfriendship between the twopoets. that just as you are small.

(no. But I have words like arrows. 490) It is clear now that the "arrow" has sexual connotations. 489J22 and more offensive: Your poetry is not like a golden jewel. more personal (no. (no. and it shall pierce heart and entrails. a half. and truly I set thewords as a target. In all your days. while I hit a hair with my sling and do not miss. your heart did not aim or throw the arrows of answers. 485) says Todros: You have not enough. 486) Phinehas answers in the typical tone oifakhr: The breath ofmy lipswill match thewings will pass like thewinds. his arrows do not attain the is true: hearts.54 How ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS can you compare my spear with your arrow? were broken. when you don't shoot like an arrow? (no. (no. 487) ridicules his adversary for lacking the metrical technique to sustain the rhyme and meter until the end. How can you say that you don't miss. It is sweet as nectar and honey at the beginning. Todros's answer opens a new way."23 Yellin states. the opposite Todros Pleasant is your eloquence. it is like a yoke that smashes the neck. You cannot aim your arrow straight at a mountain. Even if it Iwould take forpunishing you. feathers and ironwould be lacking. wicked one. and it Iwill put my eloquence on its tip. or like a golden jewel on a maiden's neck. but at the end it is bitter as poison. Ifyou made arrows from your spear. 488)21 Phinehas defends thequality of his poetry: My poem is like fine gold worn by a gazelle. the spear would be worth double. and from the rest Iwould make one and even two arrows. (no. for the arrow. . and itwould be very dear if itwere truthfulto the rhyme and linked. They would be like birds without wings or like corpses without spirits. "you do not have virile potency. In his own case.

or in the invectives of Provence-Catalonia27 literary atmo of the Toledo court. 12:4) and the speak of "daughters of poetry. 495)29 and woe to the father Mishnah Todros answers in threeverses that the Bible (Eccles. son can have a daughter and two thousands. (no. handicapped. (no. no man has known her. will smash your neck. My and he has a good name. and a peg for sticking in.my brother. but woe to you.unclean daughters. own poems.Hebrew Invective Poetry 55 C. The "peg" (m*?) is not With great might you present them as sons. but they are just dirty. 493) manly penis.26 but they are not infrequent in the or Galicia. (no. and the daughter ofmy poetry is the fairestof virgins. 491) but He rejectsthe accusation of sterility maintains thathis poem is masculine. 494)28 Phinehas answers in a similar tone: The equivocal language is now absolutely clear. pushing the terms to extremes: throughtheritualbath inorder tobe prepared forsexual unionwith his image as Todros while that of Todros is feminine and impure.5:26. using the same images: Your daughter is a virgin. with the peg sunk into him." not of "sons": Do you think that the sons beautify your poetry and do you blame themelodies as being female? .We are not used to finding only Jael's in Judg. (no. SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF POETRY Phinehas replies toboth insults: It is like a golden jewel for all throats. It has to pass The son of your poetry is not suitable for taking a woman. is considered to be born of woman. and in fact itsheart is a woman's heart. The sons ofmy poems liewith him every day. whose sons are females. Todros accepts the challenge: sphere The son of your poetry. 492) Phinehas continues the debate. "When she takes her bath he will join her"? He would not be able even if she were a married woman! (no.25 How can you say. wounded.but the such allusions in Hebrew poetry. My magnificence lies in themany sons. The debate now centers itself on this new retorts. but she is sick.24 but it The son ofmy poetry will not join the daughter of your poetry until she goes to the bath.

" There are daughters who are like sons. and poor men and rich alike desire my edifice. Your mind does not contain poetry." and "poetry's daughter's will be humbled" before me. 496)30 Phinehas writes three similar verses: Solomon of old referred to poetry as "daughters. It now employs images of poetry as construction. O Lord!" (no. How can you compare my poetry to yours? Are pearls to be compared to stones? The brooks of your poetry become scanty and dry. so he chose to disparage their golden ornaments and their good meaning. (no. THE EDIFICE OF POETRY The debate continues in a new direction. and puts the quarrel in an terms of which of the poets is the better builder. a symbol of fertility: True. in the typicaltoneoffakhr: The new theme of the poem as building is taken up again by I join lime and carved stones.and they deserve to be humbled. inmore conventional terms. The structure of your poetry is ruined. and sons who are like daughters. (no. alluding to something hidden: He knew that you were going towrite poems. the image of . itpleads. 498)32 Phinehas: epigramby IbnGabir l. they almost grow thistles." revealing a mystery. but poetic ability is ascribed tome as to David. "Make me healthy.56 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Are they in the Bible or theMishnah "poetry's sons"? They are just "poetry's daughters. that Imay be well. while I join pearls. In one of the lengthiest he Todros says that builds his poems replies. Written on my heart is the law ofmy eloquence thatwas given tome at Sinai. 499) E. Therefore "the daughters of poetry shall be humbled"?since you are their father. (no. Todros appropriates "I am poetry/' "the daughters are my daughters. thus introducing water. 497)31 D. you join lime and limestone. PEARLS AND WATER out of pearls rather than lime and stones.

like thewaters of clouds. the truthofmy words! To join pearls is not truewisdom. since waters will increase. In fact. I shall enter the ark before the deluge. (no. 503) For Todros.your poetry is like sea water. 500) To this.and thewaters became sweet. even if thewaters of abyss and of heaven were opened? They rise and subside. thewaters of the sea of poetry were bitter. from which all the clouds draw. (no. (no. a big sea and broad. because your works are not strong.my friend. Todros uses in his rhymes the same words . 501) its negative Todros picks up this last image and defendshimselfby drawing out aspect: True.Hebrew Invective Poetry 57 Give me the gullies of your poetry. while mine is like thewater of the clouds. (no. my brother. these words may have a positive meaning: In fact. (no. but Iwill only grow and inherit lands and territories. has a lie a base on which to stand? might drink? They became sweet. indeed. there I put it. 504) Phinehas replies with three verses: Iwill seek tranquillity. your poetry makes mud. and I'll send fountains to the gullies. since it looks like ankle-deep water. But the Lord showed my mind's eye the tree. whose waters will increase.you speak the truth when you call my words a flood. Phinehas answers: See. (no.33 Beforeme. for I am the sea of poetry. Human insight takes bricks and turns them into gems and necklaces.and I shall be another Noah. I'll float over its surface Iwould not fear. their But Noah would not have been safe in the ark of your verse. 505) that opponenthad employed: his In a display of virtuosity. but not that the thirsty rather they became a flood. like those of every ample sea. 502) answers with an attack: Phinehas Your lips are falsehood. and there is nothing between them.

Inmy speech is an ocean of nectar. I shall be slow and say that it is not that I lack strength. I drop some for them to glean. see: is there anything in them but insight? Imay be hasty. GRAPES. demanding Is there no word or sound left in your mouth? Are the small coins finished from your purse? Your tongue is too short. even ifyou should work on it for a century. thewise heart likes to be deliberate. my verses' cloud gives no rain. they almost wash away themoon and sun in the sky. (no.while my tongue seems like a sword. AND FIRE This elicited a new reply by Phinehas: that poetry is your legacy. 506) so Todros provoked Phinehas seems not to have replied to this poem. (no. THE SPEED OF POETIC COMPOSITION Phinehas now answers in a different rhyme and meter: A fool speaks maliciously against me. my poetry's sea has no end or limit like sand. but examine all the poems. Iwill rent them a small garret forpoetry. but my poetry is better than yours. (no. rather. that Are you rightwhen you maintain language is your acquisition? . while the counsel of the foolhardy is rash. a response: him again. do not make contention with a mighty man. But I advise you: ifyou are weak. 507) F. 509) G. polished forkilling. had the flood resembled my poems. and there I'll put foryou a table and bed. 508) Todros defends himself against this new charge: You call me foolhardy. saying that Since he is hasty.but my soul answers appropriate words at any time. She may go fast. (no. Set your lips to begging at the ground where my songs are threshed.58 Noah ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS and his ark would have sunk. not split. MEAT. Their waters do not cease rising.

It is like ass meat.Hebrew Invective Poetry 59 I hold the balance of eloquence inmy hand. (no. so that you can eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Such a connection would signify are used to searching for the rootsof thiskind of poetry inArabic or was in which this exchange was composed? the atmosphere the poems to be considered a true heritage of Muslim Spain. The wine ofmy poetry is preserved in its grapes. I shall roast it inmy fire. and there is not beside me whose hand is steady. 512)34 Two verses by Todros conclude thedebate: Stop. Your grapes are sour. (no. but yours cannot be swallowed. and that the new fashions have not replaced but have been added to traditional Hebrew elements and to Arabic technique. but there may also be a strong connection with dents a curious blend of Romance poetry. 513) numerous allusions to other biblical verses and to Jewish customs assure us that the poets have not forgotten their own traditions. lestmy wrath against you grow. but you and your family consume it raw. "that make bum the blaze!" (no. I do not deny that both Arabic and Hebrew prece can be found. and bring down devouring fire frompoetry's sky. or do scholars reflect the new trends of Romance poetry? Hebrew theymainly . to consume the house of your verse and its stones. and even thewater that is in the ditch. (no. 510) Todros replies. pouring festive poems. 511) Phinehas's final reply: Do you intend to bum the field ofmy poetry with your furorand with your stormwind? I have waters thatwould put out the fire and calm thewind. My poems can be consumed raw.while I hold whole clusters. praising himself: This poem ofmine and thesewords testifythat I am the king of poets. I eat my paschal lamb roasted. to The long reference 1Kings 18:38 at theend of thedebate and the The Debate What in the Framework of Medieval Invective Poetry Are Hebrew forerunners. and the songs are seasoned in the shoots of its vine. and grapes' blood.

The trend represented by Horace a smile in the face of human defects in order to verum. arabic Among invective poetry poetry. This was the case as long as the bedouin element was significant in Arabic poetry. the dishonor. and humiliate weapon.35 But it is true that late indignation Latin poetry could have had direct or indirect influence on the literary atmosphere of Christian Spain. satire. Itmay be useful to distinguish. between Muslims After the victory of Islam.thatrepresented Juvenalis summarizedas difficile by a. During the pre-Islamic period. between satire?condemnation of the society from the point of view of an ideal?and invective?an attack on another person. The poet was motivated by the desire to touch his adversary in theweakest point?his prestige. obscene. epigram. alongside perpetu their dead.42 Under the early caliphs. insulting poem. its purpose was to concentrate in a few words the insult thatwould smash the victim. trying to hurt and destroy as a consequence of the and contempt for vice. was attacking their enemies with mockery. as do some of themodern studies of the genre. to the coarse. type. or an imprecation. however. avoid thesedefects. seeking to elicit est suturam non scribere.41 enemy.36 author's moral exceptional We do not need different traditions.40 Many In a sense.39 adversaries that the hij?' was originally an incantation. diatribe."38 The hij?* may have had noble deeds and dignifyingthe memory of ating the fameof the tribe's the oldest functions of pre-Islamic many variants: curse. became frequent. and so on. and serious. impiety. would in the city of Toledo at this time. authors agree in pointing to a magic pan-Semitic origin.60 these quite angel s?enz-badillos not be to search out ancient classical models of satiric or invective poetry such as Horace or Juvenal.37 Hij?y became one of the traditional major genres of classical Arabic poetry and one of the most varied in tone and form. the hijti* is seen as the poetic expression of rivalry among tribes. moralistic. "from the lofty. original 3 an H?/ important role in the struggles that took place played and polytheists during the life of Muhammad. personal attacks became less frequent. such satire was thereexisted both individual and collective hij?\ the latterbeing the . and that itwas employed an insult intended to weaken. But in general. it tried to stigmatize the failings of the thatwere the antithesis of the qualities glorified by mad?h. immoral. and flippant. a mixture that. but satire on kufr. though these two poets have the embodiment of the two main tendencies in the history of become is summarized as ridentem dicere satire. invective. a Goldziher maintains in the battlefield as a curse.

The great poets Ibn Ab? Tamm?m. a group. invective became crude and obscene observations.46 Frequently.45 Ibn Hazm's regret in his latter years for having written satirical in his youth is probably representative of the dominant attitude poems toward satire in theMuslim West. lowly origin.After670. Besides. But they were not popular Arabic literary tradition did not West. a Among the characteristics of invective poetry is complete disregard the words. and that is Renowned and Ibn al-R?m? were blamed poets like Ab? Nuw?s forhaving written obscene satires. hi)Wis followedby passages of of the zajal authors. Even though themore popular atmo to sphere that gave rise to the zajal would likely have made concessions themost representative satire. the include satirical debates in the form of long dialogues.43 the eighth recalling the shameful past of During therewere poets who earned a reputation for foul speech. and so on. al-Abyad.Butminor thatmany Arabic precedents exist for invective poetry thatmight well be appropriate models for the composi in theMuslim tions we are discussing here. a For such poets. Such indecent hijtf fell into eclipse in the ninth enemies. and may be closer to zuhd especially when it descended to the level of personal than to hij?\ It is true thatIslamic societyopposed hi?' to some degree. but this type of impersonal satire is very different from true personal invective. In summary. satire and invective poetry were held in low regard. the obscenities.inordernot to spoil it. Sometimes. but itwas the sovereigns had poets in their nevertheless. accusing them of avarice. using century. and ab? T-Q?sim al-Sumaysir wrote many poems of this type. fakhr in the same composition. century. during the period of neoclassical poetry. are so for the truth. and al-Mutanabb? wrote virulent epigrams to al-R?mi. the only object is to exaggerated . Sometimes especially that no one takes them seriously.Hebrew considered practiced Invective Poetry 61 practice was extended to include diatribes among the princes of poetry. InMuslim Spain. and so on. means of sustenance. Ibn Bass?m stated that he did not include works. sometimes full of obscenities. hij?' was never among the most commonly cultivated genres. The theorists restricted the subject matter of the genre to defects of a moral order.44 advice to the harshest collective or Hija" ranges from moralizing individual satire. why some anthologistsdid not includeexamples of it in their probably Western poets like al-Yakk?. Also common was blame of Destiny and themen of the generation (dhamm al-zam?n wa-abn?yih). not physical defects. including al-Andalus. patrons and others. Dhakh?ra. none is found in the d?w?n of Ibn Quzm?n. In the West. the any hijtfinhis anthology. insult. this entourage toproclaim their glory and attacktheir to be contrary to the teachings of the new religion. there is no doubt the humiliate theadversary.

far from the earthy humor of the debate with which we are concerned. that seems to reflect profound problems in the poet's soul.59 In all these satires is tragic. as in his satire of an ignorant master of talmudic in this connection is the to be taken into consideration studies.60 critical remark against Samuel Hanagid's poetry. of political ormilitary adversaries (Samuel Hanagid). It includes themocking of personal enemies (as in.49 He directed invective also against abuses within the Jewish community.53 plagiarists. But during his stay in al-Andalus.54 it is not easy to and bad poets. those of and Yehudi ben Sheshat. e. such as the general complaint about Destiny and themen of the genera tion. of Ibn Kapron.mercilessly attacking his father-in-law when to divorce his wife. The best example of invectiveisprobablyhis . almost cosmic element. of or plagiarists. of the igno in order to disqualify the adversary. the disciple the disciples ofMenahem. the poems of Hebrew didactic debate poems.g.of contemptible envious people (IbnGabir l).47 defects or descend In the first Andalusian Ibn Khalfun). we already encounter harsh invectives. Dunash. he did write harsh satires against the rich and ignorant men of Seville.48 trying has some very intense verses directed against spe Samuel Hanagid must in danger as long as these that his own life was bear in mind enemies were alive. playing on the Latin and Romance meaning reveals a harshness that is not deterred from resorting to personal insults rant and arrogant (Moses Ibn Ezra in his exile period). of Dunash.we lwrote some satirical poems against themen of Solomon Ibn Gabir his time in general52 (as was common in Arabic poetry). But it rarely goes as far as personal insult. which he calls "colder Some of the expressions and than the snow of the Sierra Nevada.50 Also series of short verses describing an apple included in the well-known d?w?n. as when he speaks of throwing lances.. since they would not have been in character for him. and even more rarely does it touch on physical to cruel and obscene language. a We would not expect to find invectives among Judah Halevi's poems.51 or cificfoes such as Ibn cAbb?s Ibn ab? M?s?.HEBREW SATIRE AND INVECTIVE Hebrew Andalusian satire follows many Arabic literary traditions. as well as against themen of his generation in general. But he went beyond that. rejoicingat their death.55 In some of themore concrete passages.58 or compares his poetry to knowwhom he is attacking.56 a sharp sword."57 can be found in Ibn Gabirol's used by Todros and Phinehas images poems.62 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS . Ibn Sheshat's mockery of his name. The vagabond poet Isaac Ibn Khalfun wrote harsh satires against the world and destiny.

he said: He wrote satirical poetry.(ibid. In his exile. I did not practice them very much. were similarly criticized [But he was] a man whose pride affected his philosophic nature and the balance of his character: nobody escaped his snares or avoided all the insults worst manner. and I do not like to recall them. and muwashshafy?t. (Kit?b al-muh?dara wa-'l-mudlt?kara. these must be classified as satires rather than as true invectives. and did so in an original way. he made people laugh and evoked mirth as he uncovered their lies. some witty poems. all thosewho plagiarize and abuse literature.. a consequence of the uncontrolled release of the choleric temperament thatmay be observed in poems by Ibn Gabir l. (ibid. invective: he maintains that he has not written any personal None against any particular individual has ever passed my lips. (ibid. as is obvious to that came to his mind. However. which felt ashamed for having composed. (ibid. or Ibn Sahl.pretending to be poets. he exposed them in the anyone who reads his works. ifhe had restrained himself. without excusing their faults. They may be seen as a juvenile mistake. In hij?\ He directed itabove all he did not control his passions.Hebrew Invective Poetry 63 the sixth part of his cAnaq to twenty-four Moses Ibn Ezra dedicates of friends and of Destiny. 57r) However. like love poetry. even though it is an easy thing. against In describing their attitude. satirical poems on the wickedness wrote many complaints against his fate and about the ignorance of he also themen of his generation. but let absolutely free. Of Ibn Gabir l. his choleric soul had uncontrollable His uncontrolled temper led him to insult the power over his intellect. 57r) . they are outside the little that can be called good and they are within the much that can be considered mischievous. such as Ibn Balcam for inclining toward invective: of Toledo. mighty and to offend them.. itwould have been much better forhim. 41v) Recalling says: the poetry that he himself had written in earlier times. saw satire as a kind of excess. he wrote: He could move one to pain with his elegies and hurtwith his satires. 38r) he now Other poets. Ibn Balcam. he As for invective and mocking poetry. since it is easier to destroy than to build. 40r-40v) About Ab? cAmr Ibn Sahl. and in some of his own poems.. he When writing his Kit?b al-muh?dara wa-'l-mudh?kara in his later years. Though a phi losopher by nature and knowledge..

Mozarabs. However. ROMANCE INVECTIVE POETRY Santiago de Compostela. and the Galician-Portuguese center in the northwest. who were living fully according literature. invective poetry was not particularly cultivated in al-Andalus. But we never find anything similar to the chain of poets kindwe findis seriesof wordplays thatallow thepoet todisplayhis skill.64 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS He based his critique of hijtf on general ethics rather than on religion. which became the language of lyric poetry in Castile and Leon. with its already long tradition of influence on Alfonso's troubadour poetry in the language of Oc. About the origin of Proven?al poetry.61 Abraham Ibn Ezra iswell known for his satirical wit. the court of Alfonso the Learned was visited by many Proven?al and still more by trou troubadours.62 This second center doubtless came into being and Proven?al of noblemen to thanks to the pilgrimages troubadours . in this The Romance poetry that was heard and written in Toledo also had an important tradition of satire and invective poetry that period In Toledo. this seems to reflect his personal attitude and nonconformity with respect to the characters that appear in his poems the society of his time. In his case.64 and joglars from Galicia. on Plato and other ancient Greeks rather than on Torah. where the debate between Todros and Phinehas took place. to the current fashions of and Jews. we are not able to see in the Andalusian tradition a direct model for the debate between Todros and Phinehas. general types Ifwe seek series of poems in Andalusian Hebrew poetry. Hebrew Even if theHebrew writers ofMuslim Spain were able to find examples of invectives not imitate poetry. on the other hand. there was a majority of Christian settlers. Two centers must be considered Romance the sources of court: Provence. personal attacks and mutual Hebrew poetic Therefore.63 In any case. The king wrote his own poetry in badours Galician. they did that aspect of Arabic literature during the Golden Age. particularly that of theMuslim East. the only invectives found in Todros's d?w?n. Though models ued many of thetraditions the of also soughtother preceding epoch. are of men rather than specific individuals. there has been and continues to be a significant debate among scholars as to whether itsmodels were Arabic or Latin poetry. C. though local poets also contributed with their own literary genres and traits. theHebrew authors of thirteenth-century Christian Spain contin inArabic and like the various descriptions of the apple made by Samuel Hanagid or the his guests. they in a different direction. and other literary competitions inwhich Judah Halevi were involved. alongside Muslims. he also referred to it as a desecration of the holy tongue.

ifnot outright to an of insults."72 It has been observed that the ten??o had its golden exchange that is."76 The Portuguese minstrel Louren?o was often ridiculed .66 It is very likely that the most immediate models for this poetry may be found in the Galician so important a role in the court of that played poetry Portuguese kind of poetry. or moral problems. classical Greco-Latin poetry since antiquity. since he "nunca cantar eguai nen rimou.69 The closest model for this kind of continuous debate including inwhich would be the Proven?al tens?. literature. they oftenincludea discussion of therelative qualityof the expressing their longing for freedom.Hebrew could not have breathed Invective Poetry 65 lived at the court and thatwe are discussing. but often the authors were aristocrats who used the form as a way of "cantigas de burla" of this time. a one of his verses that had a saying that minstrel read good rhyme. when Todros was a young courtier. but itwas usually not under four. and never had poets any talent.71 Though the contents of such In a ten??o between Joan Perez D'Avoin and Joan Soarez Coelho. 1250 and 1280.73 debates vary. which frequently included attacks against other poets. the words of which could include obscenities. saying that "non sab' el muito de trobar. derived from the Proven?al tens?. In both traditions. The poems Alfonso X. both mock a minstrel who cannot sing or play the lute. Looking at the corresponding form in Galician-Portuguese "the ten??o is a poem in dialogue form. the language is still in comparison with the usual obscenities and rudeness of the moderate several kinds of poetic genres. literary.67 We must recognize that although this poetry reaches a level of impudence that is not usual inHebrew poetry.where thekinghimselfandmany ofhis nobles cultivatedthis two poets' verses.70 The number of strophes was not fixed. a series of burlesque compositions two poets attacked each other in interchanging strophes. Itwas probably a spontaneous outgrowth of jogral prac tices.65 They also have many elements in common with the Galician-Portuguese cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer. between age in Toledo during the reign of Alfonso the Learned.74 Derision ofminstrels for lack of poetic talent was frequent in the thirteenth century. as was it was usual the case in in theirsatireand insult. Alfonso Eanes do Coton ridicules Suer' Eanes.68 The poetry of the troubadours knew Proven?al-Catalan personal sirventes and in the literary sirventes that often include debates among the troubadours. and all doubted that he could really be its author. in essence to a discussion devoted of political. debates."75 Pero da Ponte mocks the same Eanes. to express rivalry in poetic debates. but most frequently reduced to an a exchange of opposing views at very personal level. like its model. concluding with two shorter strophes called tornadas. and. apparentlyemploy thesame tone found in the to anyone who been unknown the intellectual air of the age. historical.

poetry here is not a an enemy. the latter says to Louren?o: with Joan Garcia de Guilhade. the whole mockery was not meant to be taken too seriously. with itsmagic character. Louren?fo]. we would have to explain how the Hebrew poets of thirteenth-century Christian Spain could receive an old into Hebrew Arabic influence that had not been incorporated poetry the Golden Age of al-Andalus.84 Among the poets of Galicia.80 Joan d'Avoin says to the same Louren?o: ben tanto sabes tu que ? trobar ben quanto sab'o asno de leer. The rude animosity.82 An important aspect of the Proven?al and Catalan satires and invec tives is that even when the poets insulted one another mercilessly (?s in the case of Guerau de Cabrera to theminstrel Cabra). Louren?o disputes disparaging his poetic ability and praising his own. e te farey o citolon na cabe?a quebrar!79 In a new ten??o. in the Hebrew poetry of al-Andalus. the Hebrew during old poetry of the bedouin type may still be in the background of the .66 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS in for trying to become a troubadour. On In these ways. there was not real was a kind of amicable play. and he wrote many ten?aos using thewell-known insults. Ves. On the other hand.78 In another ten??o.83 The same occurred in Galicia. too. our debate seems to be close to considerations? the old Arabic weapon Where arewe toplace our poetic debate in the light thepreceding of the one hand. it is easy to find a single person writing pious hymns and as a kind of literary fashion or verses that are satirical or obscene entertainment. Nevertheless.77 In one ten??o. But the against possibility cannot be excluded that this since no clear model of such a debate can be found debate. nin rrimades nen ssabedes iguar.85 Romance invective poetry. a Portuguese nobleman. Joan Soarez Coelho says to Louren?o: e tu dizes que entenz?es faes que poys non riman e son desiguaes. poys mal i enten?as. themes of lack of talent and the corresponding with the poet Rodrigu' Eanes. for its real objective language was to arouse laughter.81 Pero Garcia says to Louren?o: que de trobar nulha rem non sabedes. ora m'assanharey. but he was very much appreciated the court of Alfonso X. we are far from the original world of invective.

since the previous according and for his excellent 1. Are you speechless?)87 Universidad Complutense de Madrid Department? de Hebreo NOTES de Investigaci?n Cient?fica T?cnica of theSpanishMinisterio de Educaci?n y Ciencia.Zion 2 (1937): 19-55. The topic of Jewish satire important notes and commentaries For a specific case of it. Yellin.Hebrew Invective Poetry 67 composi may be sim?ar and the invectives may be alike. Nevertheless. Mizrah uma'arav 4 (1930): 94-104. 1 HaHvrit (1936).86 In these rhymed short compositions the poems continue to be faithful to their literary roots. H. and the quantitative meter in numerous mono patterns and rhymes. HelmanHca36 (1985):195-210.1. Gan nameshalim vehahidot (DTw?n of Don here (Jerusalem.1-94. see J. The research for this article was made possible by a grant from the Direcci?n General was merely a facsimile the of manuscript. H. all denote Andalusian origin. strophes used by contemporary We can only describe our present debate as a hybrid type of composi tion. pp. Brody. TelAviv. Though the tone minstrels and troubadours is very clear. The formal differences are signifi their use of verse cant: the metric techniques of Todros and Phinehas. Targarona. Yedi'ot Lehmann. Baer. hashirah hamakhon leheqer uveProvans Hashirahha'ivntbiSfarad [Hebrewpoetry inSpain and Provence]Oerusalem and A. . I y R. has not been systematically and Satire in the Poetry of theMaimonidean "Polemic Controversy. studied. Bernstein. representing the polycultural ambience of Toledo at that time. pp.. The poems are quoted Abu-l-c?fiah) Gaster edition by Moses in Yellin's to their numbers edition. J. "War and Peace" [Hebrew]. Tarbiz2 (1931): notes by I. of revision this wish toexpress paper my gratitudetoProfessor Scheindlinforthestylistic for its improvement. D. Schirmann. S?enz-Badillos.Davidson. the Can we imagine a young Jewish poet in the court of Alfonso Learned saying to another Jewish poet: "de trobar nulha rem non sabedes"! if.e..after a (You don't know anything about composing poetry). 366-448. the Romance and usages. 2. (1981):133-51. 479-513). suggestions son of Yehuda Tadros ed. which are different from tions follow their own manners those of this particular Hebrew debate. The exchange of poems had been editedwith 90-100. 1960).2. H. S. he would reply: left in your mouth?" i. The respects. we cannot exaggerate the similarity of our debate with the extant types of tensones or ten??os inRomance poetry.Y. 1932). 22-30 (nos.. No wonder y*i ysn i?ni ("Is no word or sound silence. Inhis edition. short Yellin and provides invective to the poems. 2." Prooftexts 1 for example. Cf. small number of accentual-syllabic contrast with the comparatively debate thatwe have analyzed here seems inmany ways to be closer to the Romance type of invective than to the Arabic one.

Doron. 64. 449-53. Ibn D?w?d Reviled for The Bad and Their Ugly it is not difficult to find parallels in the index on p. l said about himself: "I am despised in your eyes Solomon Ibn Gabir l: Secular Poems Brody and H. 74) or hear (no. 499-500. p. 455-59.. etc. Bertr?n de Born wrote (Madrid. reply. 7ff. no. 482-90. 8. pp. sirventes or in the satirical cantigas of Galicia. such ridicule was invective poetry. 495-501. the arrow. 60. what Ibn Gabir collection others the TowardInvective (Leiden. 2d et obsc?nit? nun chez les troubadours: Pour une m?di?val(Paris. Hazan. 19.1984). Schirmann. 483. ed.no. "Contribution ? l'?tude du divan de Todros IV Congreso Internacional "Encuentro de las tres culturas" (Toledo. See E. See no. 34. 6. (Cambridge. PoetryandHalakha [Hebrew] (Ramat Gan. 1988). Hashirah. The Medieval Lyric. 1974).R. 1989. 507-13. See . derides on account d'escarnho (Coimbra. 501-6. a severe illness" (no. about (2. 482. Cf. about who has written better poems. Schirmann. 449. 397 and Todros's 2. II of Aragon. 489. cf. 126 ff. Ibn Shoshan 17. pp. p.. 18. "que cannot see refer to someone who (no. en la Espa?a Medieval a sirventes 1971). v. 508. about 9. 510-13. 475)."MGWJ 20 (1871): no. p. see nos. In his notes. 494. 5. among other things. See P. 482-513 the son and daughter of poetry. my wrath that in cases when a poem in the dTw?n consists of a single verse. On in the Arabic by Hamza al-Isfaham. mahir: 484.68 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Halevi Abulafia: HebrewPoet inChristian A Todros Spain [Hebrew]." 13. Ben 135-46. On the other hand. In the dTw?n of Ab? there is a subdivision of the chapter on hij?3 . cf. Mocking the opponent's to most literatures. 57. 76. he changes lack of poetic faculty is common 21. frequent in old Arabic in his Kit?b al-zahra a chapter entitled "On Those al-Isbah?n? (d. Galician-Portuguese poet. / who Physique or Blamed for Their Evil Qualities. However. hijtf against poets Nuw?s prepared tradition. 207ff. for being thin. 449. 910) includes son. Schirmann. Iehouda Hal?vi 26 Aboulafia. Remember I am because small" in H. 15. 2. pp. 491-98. Yellin approche du contre-texte was burning against Ti?n. Yellin. 1185-87. merubbe: 492. 10. Yellin 2. . 1994) (inpress). 505-6. 507. 486-88. J. 5. I have discussed these panegyrics de la corte Alfonsi/' en la "El mundo cultural Internacional sobre la Cultura Hispano-Judia Espa?a Congreso judio alfonsi"(TelAviv. Lapa 1965). I declare improper the himself is small. 485. 2. mocking a a minstrel called Saco p. Shalem: nos. p. van Gelder. Hashirah 2. 1988). 105)well. and it is unnecessary. Schirmann.pp. A. Burlesque 12. 493. "before that time. 4. B. pp. 20. P. 27?. Against the accepted the rhyme on this occasion. We refer to this edition below as B-S. usage. Alfonso him. Chapira. 3. ? poetry." Revue des ?tudes juifs6 (1941/45): f." See G. 29) divides nos. 132-33 of the Cantigas e de mal dizer dos cancioneiros medievais ed. 4: ona^ pearls. S?tira e invectiva Proven?al Scholberg. mishqal hatenu'ot: 490. 1. Hashirah 11. about the stones and the waters. van Gelder. Dronke. 509. 3. p. about 4. 398. Fern?n P?ez de Tamalancos. into five parts: 1. Bee. Poetry(Hija') inClassicalArabic Literature Ugly:Attitudes is directed against a lawyer. 1991). 19. who was already dead by that time: "Due to the defects of the crippled. 103 of the same d?a perna e ?opegava del? muito".1977). 157 and p. See ibid. pp. the Cantiga no. See the line by the aristocrat David against Todros and his father. 491. against c. 14. it suggests There is no way may be that the dTw?n preserves only the first verse of a longer composition. to prove such a supposition. M. 507. inmy paper "Poetas menores 7. era manco of his great body and his lack of musical talent. 50. 502-4. 2. Rodrigues galego-portugueses. "Der Dichter Pinehas ha-Levi. [Hebrew] (Jerusalem.pp. 16.

27 f. inArabic invective poetry. efodeu. Abbasid times.. either the male or the female organ of copulation. p. see P. The Cantiga no. the the Oxford ms. but when a consecrated pp. ina cantiga mal dizer. 30.116. sperm. 142v.. among the insults that Guillem p. 14: nvmr* mirais. The first is full of images from the includes a clear quotation the second from Judg. Maimonides maintained that languagewas one of the 26. Marquez Villanueva Mass. Snow. saying: saps viular e pitiz chantar .. 2. Laud. Cf. ends the debate at this point. where it is said about Fernando Escalho "ouve sabor defoder. for the sun. this accusation partner being a frequent. see also "e de mais ? pre?o que nunca erra / de dar gran con seu colpe tragazeite no. 29 f. 28. Ibn Khalfun. distinguishinghim fromanimals. A. See Scholberg.but thebasicmeaning is the readings that 25. King. In the second half of the twelfthcentury. Hebrew is called "The Holy Language" because has been set to the act of generation. pp. 87. bishop of Urgel. Lapa.KingAlfonsoX. Homosexuality had been a very common topic of Arabic to be the active partner was a motif of pride. seen as a matter of personal the latter died. who types of obscene analyzes convincingly pp. le perdeu todo o cantar por?n. 1221-1284: 110-31. Only to the joglar Cabra. xm&ytb." 24. van Gelder. 363 and 379 deride ridicule." several this topic. see van Gelder. 20:16. including many obscene details.p.Cf. to a different series on a similar topic. On de Bergadan and Galicia. Sank 100b. 232. ed. Cf. J. Possibly." 31. "The SatiricalPoetry ofAlfonso :A X Castile.Hebrew dedicated ensenhamen to such compositions against Invective Poetry 69 poets. trasgitarguiza de juglar 22. 115. 1990).1. cf. 29. Mirsky (Jerusalem. Cantigas was d'escarnho e de mal dizer. According in it no word to him. 101-4.. The Oxford same. In the Galician-Portuguese planto to him. The same is true in Provence he included his homosexuality. p. University." in Alfonso of organs: [small might be preferableto thoseadopted by Yellin. 377. v. 11. 22. arbitrarily joined to the preceding will be humbled" (Eccles. pp. . which by wrote against his neighbor Pons de Mataplana. Zuhayr: verse A well-known by al~Mutanabbl a matter of pride being masculine are one step higher than women. particular object of Fern?n Diaz's homosexuality. See also Rodrigues F. "obscenity. 46f.131. already mentioned. no." See Rodrigues Lapa. are well 23. the poet this time was offense. s. whether "I do not know. 12:4). See thedescriptionof thebishop of Urgel writtenby Bergadan. Sexual expressions language and obscene index of subjects. Harvard 1984. invective poetry since 28.theCatalan noble poet Guerau de Cabrera addresses an a guascon" See Scholberg. Proven?al compositions." See Scholberg. f. p. and this new series was following poems belong one. 225 published by Rodrigues Lapa the sexual impotency of Domingo Caorinha. nor is recall that "men this topic. de weapons of aMuslim and his playswith the sexual 17 November An International Symposium. "mal In Romance it is also frequent. inobscene expressions. 155. See Guide of the Perplexed 3:8. or excrement. Themotif appears in the Talmud. spear].p. "The daughtersof poetry . See his note in Yellin.. Bodl. with tibe passive nos. presents in this verse some textual T. ms. As the ?1 Hisn are men or women. See Rodrigues Lapa. was given to human beings.v. 1961). nos.but italso recallsan Arabic verse by says: "Being for themoon. and that faculties that as it therefore should not be employed inappropriately.ed. non sabs balar ni two verses answering Todros's four. and sometimes 27. known in his sirventes against the non a In Romance literature: Bergadan. (Cambridge.. feminine is no blemish See van Gelder. A few decades earlier.. the Learned Look at ItsRelationship to the 'Cantigasde SantaMaria'. wwm in Itzhak Ibn Khalfun: Poems [Hebrew]." About Qur'?n 2:228. says "q'ei classical mocks en cotilos la pel. designate urine. however." p. Scholberg. period. Bee. 33. 16. Or.

Histoire si?cle de /. L'honneur chez les Arabes avant l'Islam: "Hidj?\" in the debate. probably meaning 32. J. D. in the basis resentment."Miscel?nea de 33. 11. pp. 686ff. 1. Satire is not a matter of Art of 37." ed. van Gelder. Three and 34.1932). 1-105. 417ff.Van Bekkum. pp. of 3:352ff. 23-42. Seemy article "Yishaq ibnJalfun Semuel ibn y Nagrella ha-Nagid.-C. content is invariably prosaic..p. 4. Tacit for a moment the nature of the personal from invective comedian abyss between to 36. p. Medieval other contributions: Calif. E. pp. Goitein. there is a meaning to consider itworthwhile indignatio versus. 17:14 in the last.new ed. Rosenthal.A. 22:5. On the Medieval Arabic Literature (Princeton.TheProblem Style(London. itdiffers of is not . 105.Goldziher.Abhandlungen arabischen PhilologieI (Leiden. 3ff. Far?s. Cf. 39. for instance. The in that it is not an attack aimed by a particular at a particular. 214ff." pp. A.C Pellat. 45. in Dispute Poems and in theAncient Europe. G. thehistorical fact is that thepropervehicle of satire. Cf. Worcester. Muslim Society. there is an impassable [T]he satirist is indignant because indignant. "Desde S?enz-Badillos and Judit Targarona Borras (Cordoba. "Observations debates. 12:4 in the first the ankles verse. R. Pellat. does not suffice for the real satirical but of impersonal condemnation. his definition parody as an imitation a grave or dignified writing thatis method of treatment made ridiculous by the leads him away from the typeof invective under on discussion here.p. of the satire. pp. This work among "Fiction and Reality: Sources for the Role of Sex inMedieval F. See. "Truesatire impliesthecondemnation a societyby reference an ideal.1965).pp. 43-62. 1975). biblical quotations Jer. (Leiden and London. "Hidj?'." Encyclopaedia Islam. . 1896). Blach?re. see A. 3-22. (repr. 77-90. I. 1991). the ancients_Nevertheless. SiruTatayn..pp. 2:380. p.Reinick and H. I. pp.TheArt of Satire (New York. See van Gelder. (Paris. 1960). cf. the adversary. 1971). L. 43. al-'Askar?. 1990).: seems to prose is of most famous Here again. 1979). 47:3. J. 1963).70 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS frame the poem: Gen. Bellamy.. though attitude. p. de la litt?rature Arabe des origins ? la du XVe fin der Hig?-P sie. 92 ff. Horace form no more makes and Juvenal among the satire of Horace-The the form may be. 31:43 and Eccles. S. the Hebrew Debate and Medieval Near see W. Angel 48.2 the sons of Earth el campo de batalla Granada. 133ff. 41. many of the satires have been written themetrical whatever in verse. Al-Sayyid-Marsot. 59 ff. 30 ff.pp. Still. 33.Vanstiphout (Leuven. HE. theeditionbyMirsky. Cf. 1038-56. Ibid." indignation of this kind. Scholberg. J. 38. H?mori.pp.. 3:572ff."Ueber die Vorgeschichte humiliate sees it more as an invective meant todishonor and de ?tude sociologie (Paris. includes. See S?mu'el trans. just 35." Dialogues J.Davidson inhis Parody inJewish Literature New York. in the well-known tag of Juvenal. 60. Ibid." and pp." he "It isonly in the twelfth and centurythat first Abraham Ibn Ezra's epigrams and other parodies in prose and verse from that But of of century. mentions 47. . which makes versus is true But personal satire_Tacit indignatio enough. On medieval inMedieval East. 1964). Cf. zur 40. 42. and .. .D. Exod. . as water understood that covers 33. Hebrew (1984): 21-43. Recall the harsh satire against Estudios Arabes y Hebraicos 49. ha-Nagid: Poemas. . Ezek." Murry. 44. I. J. L.states.pp. in bnn "?3D. (Yellin's interpretation." Literature. me that "it MiddletonMurry. followingIbn Jan?h)." Popular pp. C. For the sexual and moral that appear aspects in Islamic society. ed. See van Gelder. "Sex and Society in Islamic "The Sexual Mores of the Common People. their consideration Society and the Sexes in Islam (Malibu. the reality and his dream. we meet with parody inJewishliterature. 46.

Ed. for instance. 303 of the collectionofRodrigues Lapa. complaint alluding mainly section of her book and themen of his generation. by another songs is detenrdned fruitful interchanges between Arabic at one particular poets in or thatsome of thepoets north of the Pyrenees could have had a certain amount of acquaintancewith Arabic songs" (p. 65. 97. 68. La poes?a trovadoresca Espa?a y Portugal (Madrid. Angel S?enz-Badillos nbw. 79 ff. In mon 59. 152.. 2. that poetry. As inTheocritusor Virgil. For instance. p. B-S no. 54. v. 1980). See my article "Selomoh ibn Gabir l y S?mu'el ha-Nagid: de la amistad al 182. See my article "Cinco poemas Sefarad as row nnp four poems of ironic of the d?w?n. 1978).B-S no. See . 50). trans. 274ff." 50. p.This tendency poetry indialogue continuedduring of Middle Ages in the literature conflictus. p. B-S no. d^ano for instance in nrbpw ib 54. 2d ed.1977). P. 154. have been borrowed. 58. Scholberg. s?lective critique du occitane moyenage: Bibliographie litt?rature (Toronto see and On Galician-Portuguese literature. p. ^ . 1975). 102. . Dronke. pp. 81. See Yehuda ha-Levi: Poemas. Taylor. 630ff.. 1977). 1. See ?. 94ff. forinstance. that "there were and Romance Spain . TPn 60. 234. pp. 226ff. P. etc.pp. 56ff.Pagis. lpt1*nn\ -? "wmp. Los Trovadores: Historia Martin m?di?vaux (Paris. 252ff. ? des au moyen age: contribution une typobgie genrespo?tiques literaria y textos (Barcelona. p. * and (Madrid. Provence is doubtless the better known. 37 (1977): 317-26. mockery") (D?w?nShemuel 51. In r?KWK B-S no.. Medieval that writing poetry of amour courtois is a scholars have claimed 1968). 65 f. point in time?then the however. on his departure from Saragossa. 62. 167. 74ff. v. most scholars see in Latin literary traditions themain explanation Latin and the Rise of European Love-Lyric. 191. 56." Destiny ") 53.Historiade las literaturas Hisp?nicas no castellanas(Madrid. 113. B-S no. 1977-78).pp. La lyrique fran?aise et and Buffalo. 13. 5. 1987).).no. 115. pp. Romero devotes a whole 57. 63. pp. B-S no. (Oxford. D. For instance. which she distinguishes from his "complaintsagainst tohis "satiricalpoems" (pp. as a to "wu ira. distinguishes. Such a claim and the rest of Europe borrowed that Provence convention involve a number that its notions Europe secular of very different things-If and motifs and images means it so that amour courtois is a 'new occur and suddenly mysteriously that basically the character culture."seeMaria Rosa Menocal. Jarden. R. Bee. of the origin of However. -poti^"u.Mart?n de Riquer 1:58. writes: "Innumerable from the Arabs.Hebrew Invective Poetry 71 his edition 2d 1985]. 1984). 95. vol. vmw. de Riquer. 133ff.He admits. against Destiny vol. Cf. See.for instance. p. 52. 63. A. 55. [Jerusalem. ten??o AlfonsoXwith Pai Gomes Charinho inno. See C. In de Semuel ha-Nagid. pp. 54). B-S no.R.pp. Cf. 501 ff. pp.devotes a fewwords to IbnGabirol's satirical poems. the introduction bibliographyby Pilar V?zquez inDiez Borque. may feeling. in his introduction to E. p.' Western European in of whole of thischapter isevidence to thecontrary"(p. pp. 43. La See. D. Jarden includes ("poems Selomo Ibn Gabir l: Poes?a Secular (Madrid. 67. the the of 67. in his edition The SecularPoetryofRabbi SolomonIbnGabir l [Hebrew] (Jerusalem. Romero's anthology and poems of self-praise.a group of thirty-eight poems called ^tvj row. vrab m nn btmv. that they must from outside. Judit Targarona Borr?s 61. defendersof the"Arabichypothesis. Among therecent The Arabic Role inMedieval Literary History:A Forgotten Heritage (Philadelphia. Jarden. pp. rompimiento.). 43. en 64. Alvar. 114 f. Bec. ed. 181ff. in Corollas Philologicas in honorem Iosephi Guillen Caba?ero (Salamanca." pp. 1994). of 66. hanagid:ben tehilim. 1983). B-S no. v. 1. 575-601. 110. B-S no. See van Gelder.

p. also C. 135. pp. 50). Or. inwhich on a topic to debate and on the to be defended two agree in advance by each. in these compositions. 83. by the Proven?al aw . Tavani. See p. humor" (p. . his virility. Brody. S?enz-Badillos. 70. "Todros ben Yehudah ha See J. 161f. 23. C. Gan hameshalim. 1957). 64 ff. Jensen. La poes?a Urica medieval celles de son adversaire" 73.see ibid. 1:67. G. 1987). 44 ff. La tens?n proven?ale (Paris. partim?n. p. 84. F. 72. several . 78. 78ff. xi). de Riquer five different kinds of debate poetry: tens?. which he for his poem nan adopted X. See Bee. Cf. troubadours. p. Louren?o: Poesie e tenzoni (Modena. about compose ten??os that do not have poetry] as much as the same the ass or the about same meter. Cf. See Scholberg. Tavani. another thirteenth-century Toledan Hebrew writer. 2. Alvar pp. as a position take part. reading. insulting 75. See also D. 1934): de nature satyrique." 82. 80." Actas delW Congreso "Las moaxajas 136. and rhyme knows I will 1964)." juglaresca y or?genes a p. II. 6th ed. (Madrid. son muy en uso entre los trovadores las veremos amistosas. Ibid." Mitteilungen des Forschungsinstitut ?r hebr?ische Levi Abulafia." Helmantica36 (1985): Internacional de Todros AbuTafiah. Burlesque. and 67. 126. distinguishes tornejamen. ten??o. making break your instrument on your head!" Cf. The poem was published H. Jones. As Men?ndez Pidal said. opinion exprime the (p. Scholberg. 61. Beltran. Scheindlin the stories of Jacob ben Eleazar. known. In the tornejamen. See P. 76. see his in Between Arabic and Romance" article "The Love Stories of Jacob ben Eleazar. Cf. . Yellin. aunque luego muy See Poes?a de las literaturas rom?nicas. and D. 114. 97. and A. 77. 1988). Antolog?a de la poes?a gallego-portuguesa and A. 48. "Encuentro The result reached telgedichtedes Todros Abu-rAfija. 52. interlocuteur son et sur les m?mes rimes que dans des copias altern?es de m?me mesure. 56. Earliest The Portuguese Lyrics(1978). R. 74. 195-210. comme d'ailleurs 71. G?mez Moreno. 85. (Madrid. rudas. pero juglar despiadadamente. "G?r of Alphonso by Todros made anything about trobar [composing poetry]: not how tomake or how tomake rhyme regular verses. 103 ff. un poeta hebreo en la cortede Alfonso X el Sabio. "See. "el trovador zahiere e insulta a su no supone la menor Estas burlas el desprecio animosidad." Tavani. 111. Cf. pp." 81. The closest of the other types is the partim?n. de las Tres Culturas (Toledo. individual. "That you don't know Tavani. pp. 161: "Exemple de refoulement la aristocratique plupart de nos contre-textes?" and V. Both Dichtung authors recognize that this is not a muwashshah. shirei ezor no. de Riquer l:53ff. 92. "Como constante dessa poesia. troubadours kind of dialectical play. gallegos. "And you Tavani. p.p. sempre ou directa ou mais ou menos as regras do bom conforme estocada velada.written 1 (1933): 92-93. in honor other attempts to imitate the strophic forms used as in the case of the cane?. cobla. p. know say that you p. now Iwill be angry since you are a very bad 79. on by our analysis dovetails nicely with that of Prof. Scholberg. 1985).72 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS 69. Louren?o. J. [Hebrew] . dans laquelle chaque "La tens?n est un pi?ce dialogu?e. Pedr' Amigo de Sevillewrites a cantigatoPero d'Ambroa pp. p. "You trobar [composing p. Bee. p. Scholberg. 75. Scholberg.Targarona. As iswell p. as Rodrigues Lapa says. Alvar (Madrid. 86. and cobla tensonada.

3 (Jerusalem. He comes to the conclusion to quite a different genre from the one that concerns which belong . vol. 16-20. having clearprecedents in though al-Andalus.Hebrew Invective Poetry 73 by Jacob ben us here. Proceedings theEleventh of Eleazar. are a Division C. that the narratives cultivated 1994). Arabic andHebrew literature of kind ofhybrid literature. As reflect the spirit of Romance they nevertheless Todros says in poem no. v. World Congressof Jewish Studies. 1. literature. 87. pp. 507.

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