ENGLISH GRAMMAR

SESSION OBJECTIVES
• To understand Gerunds and
Infinitives. • To explain various phrasal verbs and conditionals. • To understand different types Direct and Indirect Sentences.

What exactly are the verbal?
Verbal include gerunds, infinitives, and participles: 1. A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. – Writing a good essay takes effort. 1. An infinitive is a to + verb verbal that functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb. – To graduate from college takes time. •

relax for a while.GERUNDS Gerunds always end in –ing • They are used in the sentence as nouns and in every way that any other noun can be used: – – – Swimming is a good exercise. (object of preposition) . (direct object) After eating. (subject) Jiya does not enjoy cooking.

begin with the gerund and ask the following question: • Gerund + whom/what? = direct object .Gerund Phrases • Like participles. gerunds can have a direct object. • To find out whether or not the gerund has a direct object.

GERUND PHRASES • Example: • Giving the money proved a mistake. . • Giving + What? = money • Money is the direct object of the gerund.

Gerund Phrases • Gerund phrases can also have indirect objects: • To find out whether or not the gerund phrase has an indirect object. locate the direct object. then ask the question to/for whom/what? . begin with the gerund.

Gerund Phrase • Example: • Giving Shyam the money proved a mistake. • Giving + what = money (direct object) • Giving money to/for whom? = Shyam • Shyam is the indirect object of the gerund phrase. .

It completes the gerund phrase.Gerund Phrases • Gerund phrases can also have prepositional phrases in them: • Giving Rakesh the money on Friday night proved a major mistake. • Since on Friday night tells when? The prepositional phrase functions as an adverb. .

Ask the following question: . • To find out how they function as a noun. isolate the gerund or gerund phrase.Gerunds • Gerunds end in –ing • Gerunds are nouns. locate the main verb in the sentence and the main direct object (if there is one).

• We + can afford + What? = direct object • Answer: • Making the same mistake is the direct object of the sentence.Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds • Subject + verb + what? = direct object • We can’t afford making the same mistake. .

What is the purpose of Janet coloring her hair? She colors it to appear younger. they indicate purpose. Instead. but aren’t. They look like verbs.Then what are infinitives? • • • • • • Infinitives consist of “to” plus a verb. She wants to feel better about herself. Do hairdressers ask too much? .

An infinitive . or an adverb).INFINITIVE PHRASE Definition: a group of words consisting of an infinitive and all the words related to it (an infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun. an adjective.

Kinds of Infinitive Phrases as subject as direct object as predicate noun (or subject complement) as appositive .

Infinitive Phrase: As Subject To snow hard is a wonder. .

.Infinitive Phrase: As Predicate Noun (or Subject Complement) The trick was to carry the egg slowly.

Infinitive Phrase: As Direct Object Girls like to study hard. .

.Infinitive Phrase: As Appositive My teacher’s wish to climb the Mountain could happen.

make. I am trying ___ in all of my classes. 4. But you don’t seem __ very motivated. succeed. I plan ___.Do you use infinitives correctly? • 1. 5. . 3. graduate. I am. Do you need ___ a college degree? Yes. Use: be. Yes. finish. I see that you have decided ___ something of yourself. Oh. 2.

I am trying to succeed in all of my classes. 2. 4. 5. I plan to graduate. graduate. You don’t seem to be very motivated. .Do you use infinitives correctly? • 1. 3. Do you need to finish a college degree? Yes. succeed. finish. Use: be. I see that you have decided to make something of yourself. make.

2. Most people like __ ice cream. Which verbal best fills each blank? The boss asked me __ the job. c. eaten.Do you know how to use verbals? • 1. c. c. eating. b. b. . finishing. b. took. 3. to take. We rarely finish __ our tests early. to finish. a. finished. a. taking. to eat. a.

b. 2. finished. c. a. took. taking. finishing. a. to eat. a. We rarely finish __ our tests early. b. . c. to finish. eaten.Do you know how to use verbals? • 1. b. eating. 3. Most people like __ ice cream. c. to take. Which verbal best fills each blank? The boss asked me __ the job.

3. The hard workers kept (to go. knowing) all the correct answers. The extreme thief stopped (taking. 4. A genius seems (to know. .Do you know your verb forms? • 1. going) out. to take) candy from the baby. 2. Which verb form is the right one? They were hoping (to go. going) very late.

Which verb form is the right one? They were hoping (to go. knowing) all the correct answers. A genius seems (to know. to take) candy from the baby. . going) out. 3. going) very late. 4. The extreme thief stopped (taking.Do you know your verb forms? • 1. 2. The hard workers kept (to go.

Can you use verbals correctly? 1. Clark had (fly) from Atlanta to Chicago when the plane (hit) turbulence. Kevin would have (rise) early if he had (hear) the alarm. 9. We have (see) __ the results. 8. they’re good. Eunice has (buy) her essay online. 6. 10. 4. 7. Have you (forget) __ anything that you need? The students have (take) __ the survey already. . How many books are you (carry) __ to class? Do you have a way of (get) to college? Alfredo knows how (get) __ 70% on Compass English. 2. 3. Hope has (burn) her mother’s cake. 5.

You can use verbals correctly: 1. 10. 3. they’re good. How many books are you carrying to class? Do you have a way of getting to college? Ryan knows how to get 70% on Compass English. Clark had flown from Atlanta to Chicago when the plane hit turbulence. 8. 7. 5. Eunice has not bought her essay online. . 4. Kevin would have risen early if he had heard the alarm. Have you forgotten anything that you need? Students have taken the survey already. 2. 6. We have seen the results. Hope has burnt her mother’s cake. 9.

Subject-Verb Agreement .

•Plural subjects need plural verbs.Basic Rule •Singular subjects need singular verbs. .

. 1. Someone has to answer the phone. 2. but they are always singular — so they need a singular verb. Everyone who worked on the science project is a winner.• Pronouns such as everyone and everybody seem plural.

the basketball Each of players is excited about tonight’s game. .• Phrases that come between the subject pronoun and its verb — may contain plural words and confuse.

.• Verbs that accompany pronouns such as all and some will be determined by whether the pronoun is referring to something that is COUNTABLE or 1. You could count the workers. Some of the workers on not. the building have left for the day.

. spilled on the floor. Some of the salt was not.• Verbs that accompany pronouns such as all and some will be determined by whether the pronoun is referring to something that is COUNTABLE or 1. Salt is considered one lump item.

None of the boys has helped at the game. but it can be used as a plural pronoun. OR None of the boys have helped at the game.• None is usually regarded as singular. Either is correct! .

Some of the tile in our room. Don’t be fooled by extra phrases! . along with. was tardiness. and as well as seem to combine subjects.Phrases such as together with. together with that of our teacher. was soaked. as well as the hall. The major problem we had. but they do not .

Either is okay with me. Either of those answers seems to be right.When either and neither appear as a subject alone (without the words or and nor). 1. they are singular. You can have the bed by the window or the one by the door. 2. Seems like plural things! .

Here are the papers you gave me.Here is my answer.The words there and here are never subjects. Here is not the subject. . 2. 1.

2. Other verbs do not add s-endings. it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. singular subjects (he. she.He asks for help. 3.They ask for help. 1.Verbs in the present tense for third-person.She asks for help. Tricky subject pronouns .

a)correct b)is c)was d)were e)does .Bill am going to the store.

The teachers are going to the movie. a)correct b)am c)is d)does e)was .

This are going to be the easiest quiz of all time. a)correct b)is c)am d)was e)were .

a)correct b)were c)am d)are e)when .Everyone at the movie is taking a five hundred rupee.

This is a fun book to read. a)correct b)was c)were d)am e)does .

a)correct b)was c)is d)am e)does .One time I were at the mountains.

CONDITIONALS .

then they would have won the race. • Examples: If I go into town tomorrow. If they had been faster. If he spoke Chinese. then I will see a movie. . then he would work as a guide in China.IF and THEN Clauses • Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses.

IF Clauses (the condition) • IF clauses present the condition. • Examples: If I go into town tomorrow… If he spoke Chinese… If they had been faster… .

…. then he would work as a guide in China. … then they would have won the race.THEN Clauses (the results) • THEN clauses present the results. • Examples: … then I will see a movie. .

IF and THEN Clauses • The word “then” is optional.” • There are special rules for leaving out the word “if”. . So it is a “THEN” clause. but the clause is still the result of the condition. without the word “then. We will learn them later.

• Example: If she studies.Conditional I (present/future – possible) something is • When possible now or in the future • Form: If (present) then will V. she will pass the geography test. (It is possible !!) .

Unless we finish soon. we will miss the train. .Unless • Unless = if not • Example: If we don’t finish soon. we will miss the train.

They will make a cake before they go. I will read a book. they are like Conditional I: Temporal (present). after. by the time etc.) • When they refer to the future. until. . • Examples: Until he arrives.• Temporals are time expressions. Temporals (Examples: before. will V.

• Form: If (past) then would V. so it’s impossible. or in the future. • Example: If he spoke Chinese. (Fact: He doesn’t speak Chinese.) . he would work as a guide in China.Conditional (present/future – impossible) something is NOT • When THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA possible now.

so it’s impossible. (Fact: He’s not here. he would do it. he would do it. Example: Were he here. .Special Rules for Conditional • “To be” is always “were” Example: If he were here.) • You can drop the “if” by moving the “were” to the front.

something that is impossible.) He wishes he spoke Chinese. (He doesn’t. you wish for a miracle. a wish usually will not come true. (I’m not there.wish + (past) • Unlike a hope (which is possible).) . • Examples: I wish I were in Costa Rica. In general.

(Fact: He probably won’t. would rather wishing for something that is probably impossible.• “Would rather” is like Conditional II. • Form: Subject 1 would rather subject 2 (past). Example: I would rather he came right now.) .

) • If the boys had practiced more. (Fact: She did look both ways. they would not have lost the game. so they lost the game. (Fact: They did not practice enough.) . so a car did not hit her.Where does the “not” go? • If the girl had not looked both ways when she crossed the street. a car would have hit her.

this is not a question !! . we would have done it. Special Rules for Conditional Sentences • Example: If he had been there. we would have done it. Had he been there. • Be careful !! Although you are starting with a “little verb”.• You can drop the “if” by moving the “had” to the front.

Good Luck !! Just remember to ask yourself: 1) Is the situation possible or impossible? 2) Is the situation in the past or in the present/future? .

Direct and Indirect Objects .

.• A direct object answers Direct object Indirect object the questions whom or what. Example: What did Rishi’s mother send? She sent a gift. Example: To whom did she send the gift? She sent the gift to me. • An indirect object answers the question to whom or to what.

Direct Objects .

The action is “sang. Find action verb • 2. Example: Meera sang a song. 1. Ask “who?” or “what?” after the action verb One of the questions will be answered if there is a direct object.How to Find a Direct Object • 1.” 2. Sang who? Sang what? The second question is answered. The answer “song” is my direct object. .

Diagramming Direct Objects Subject Action Verb Direct Object .

students studied notes .How to Diagram Direct Objects Example: S AV DO The students studied their English notes.

Indirect Objects .

) Example: Mother gave me a cookie.How to Find an Indirect Object • 1. . Both of these questions got an answer. The sentence pattern will always be S – V. (If you get answers to both questions then you have found both a direct object and an indirect object. 1. Gave who? Me.” 2. The “who?” will be the indirect object and it will come after the action verb. The “what?” will be the direct object and it will come after the indirect object.IODO. That means that “me” is the indirect object and “cookie” is the direct object. The action verb is “gave. Ask “who?” or “what?” after the action verb. Gave what? Cookie. Find the action verb • 2.

you have found both a direct object and an indirect object. “Present” is a DO. 2.How to Find an Indirect Object • Another example: Leena brought her a present. “Her” is the IO. The action verb is brought. . 1. Brought who? her Brought what? a present Since both questions had answers.

Diagramming Indirect Objects Subject Verb Direct Object (x) Indirect Object .

Sheela gave (x) Jeeya gift .Diagramming Indirect Objects Example: S V IO DO Sheela gave Jeeya a gift.

These are phrasal verbs.Phrasal verbs We often use with the following verbs: in up by out along on away round about over off down back through over So you can say – put up – get on – take off. .

We often use out/off/up etc. • Get on • Drive off • Come back • Turn around . with verbs of movement.

• Break down • Look out • Take off • Get up • Get on • Get by .But often the second word (out/off/up) gives a special meaning to the verb.

Sometimes a phrasal verb is followed by a preposition. For example: • Run away from with • Keep up to • Look forward • Cut down on

expression •As I was saying. I haven’t seen her for ages. •As I/you say, we'll have to get there early to get a seat. •Talking of skiing, whatever happened to Bill Jakes? •If you ask me, she's heading for trouble.

meaning/functions •takes the conversation back to an earlier point. •repeats and confirms something someone has already said. •starting a new topic but linking it to the present one. •if you want my opinion (even if no-one has asked for it)

conversation reminds you of something important. Come to think of it. . forgotten. I •something in the haven't rung George yet.•That reminds me. •something in the • conversation makes did he give me his you realise there may number after all? I be a problem/query think he may have about something.

Success for YOU… …in the new global and diverse workplace requires excellent communication skills! .

Madhulika Jha Director Amity Institute Of English & Business Communication Contact: 9810362914 E-mail: madhulikaj@amity. Dr.edu .THANK YOU Prof.

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