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QUALCOMM is a leader in developing and delivering innovative digital wireless communications products and services based on the company’s CDMA digital technology. Today, QUALCOMM is enabling the rapid deployment of 3G networks, devices and applications. Headquartered in San Diego, California, QUALCOMM is a 2003 FORTUNE 500® company and included in the S&P 500 Index. QUALCOMM is traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market® under the ticker symbol QCOM. To learn more about QUALCOMM visit, www.qualcomm.com.
INTRODUCTION QUALCOMM® Incorporated developed this guide to help you learn the acronyms and terms frequently used in the wireless communications industry. We hope that this guide will prove useful as you define and lead your organization’s wireless data strategy. To learn more about the innovative ways in which enterprises are integrating 3G CDMA mobility solutions into their businesses, please contact us at 1-888-888-8101 or send email to email@example.com. For information on how 3G CDMA can go to work for your business, visit www.qualcomm.com/enterprise. For additional information on commercial 3G wireless applications, services and devices, go to www.3gtoday.com.
First Generation. Wireless networks based on analog technology. 1G wireless networks were designed to carry only voice traffic and were limited by network capacity constraints. 1G networks were typically based on AMPS. See also AMPS.
Second Generation. Wireless networks based on digital technology. 2G systems offer increased voice quality and capacity over 1G systems. Historically, 2G systems provided voice and 9.6 to 14.4 Kbps circuit-switched data service. Today, 2G systems are being replaced by 2.5G and 3G networks.
2.5G refers to technology that is more advanced than 2G, but which does not meet the requirements for 3G. 2.5G technology is added to a 2G network to provide packet-data service and data rates that range from 20 to 40 Kbps. In practice, 2.5G is synonymous with the GPRS networks.
Third Generation. Wireless networks designed to increase voice capacity and provide high-speed data over 2G and 2.5G networks. According to the official ITU definition, a 3G network must provide a minimum of 144 Kbps. CDMA provides the basis for 3G technology, which has been implemented as CDMA2000 and WCDMA (UMTS). Visit www.3gtoday.com.
Triple Data Encryption Standard. A private symmetric cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified computer data issued as a Federal Information Processing Standard Publication. DES was initially developed by IBM in the late 1970s and later promulgated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 3DES is an updated version of DES that encodes the data three times for triple security. See also DES.
Commonly referred to as “Wi-Fi,” 802.11 refers to the standards issued by IEEE for WLANs. 802.11 transmits data over the air in an unlicensed frequency, such as the 2.4 GHz band. Wireless access points are connected to an Ethernet hub or server, transmitting a radio frequency of approximately one hundred feet. Common extensions of the 802.11 standard include: 802.11a – uses the 5 GHz band and an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing as the signal modulation technique rather than FHSS or DSSS. 802.11b – uses the 2.4 GHz band and DSSS for signal modulation. 802.11g – allows for faster data rates than 802.11b in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11g is compatible with both 802.11a and 802.11b and uses similar modulation techniques for both standards. Coverage is limited and transmission speeds are dependent upon the specification, location and backhaul. 802.11 standards are complementary to WWANs. See also WLAN, WWAN, FHSS and DSSS.
A network device that acts as a communication hub for wireless devices to connect to a wired LAN.
Advanced Encryption Standard. A standard for encryption which is intended to replace the DES. AES supports key lengths ranging from 128 to 256 bits. See also DES.
Refers to the radio frequency portion of the circuit between the cellular handset or wireless modem and the active base station.
Term is a registered trademark owned by Sierra Wireless and has become synonymous with a WWAN card. Synonymous with a wireless PC card. See also PC Card.
Advanced Mobile Phone Service. Refers to the first analog cellular phone system commercially deployed in the 1980s. See also Analog.
Wireless network technology involving the modulation of radio signals, whereby information is transmitted as sound waves via radio signals. Analog only permits one call per channel, in contrast to digital technology, equipped to handle multiple calls per channel. Most wireless transmission is now done digitally.
American National Standards Institute. A standards-setting, nongovernmental organization that serves as the official United States member body to the world’s leading standards bodies, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ANSI develops and publishes standards for transmission codes and protocols for use in the United States. See also ISO.
Application Programming Interface. A set of standard software interrupts, calls and data formats that application programs can use to initiate contact with network services, mainframe communications and program-to-program communications. For example, BREW provides an API for the development of applications for wireless devices. See also BREW.
Average Revenue Per User. Commonly used by carriers and telecommunications/wireless analysts to estimate ROI measures for investments in network infrastructure and end-user services.
In the context of wireless communications, refers to transporting data or voice between the wireless network and the PDSN, or the Internet or Ethernet in the case of an enterprise WLAN implementation.
In wireless communications, band refers to a frequency or contiguous range of frequencies. Currently, wireless communication service providers use the 800 MHz and 1900 MHz bands for transmission in the United States.
In wireless communications, bandwidth refers to the range of available frequencies that can carry a signal. For digital, bandwidth is usually expressed in bps or Kbps. For analog, bandwidth is expressed in Hertz (Hz). See also bps, Kbps and Hertz.
Often referred to as a cell site, a base station is a transmitter/ receiver location, through which radio links are established between the wireless system and the wireless device. The cell site is comprised of an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers. Each cell in a cellular network requires a base station. See also BSC and BTS.
Base Station Controller. A component of a Base Station. BSCs supervise the functioning and control of multiple Base Transceiver Stations and act as a small switch. See also BTS.
Base Transceiver Station. The electronic equipment coupled with the antenna that comprises a PCS facility or single cell site. See also Cell Site.
Bits Per Second. The de facto standard for measuring the smallest unit of information in communications and data processing. See also Kbps.
Two-way wireless device that allows users to check email and voice mail (via text), and page other users using a wireless network service. Blackberry users must subscribe to a wireless service that provides data transmission service. Also known as a Research in Motion (RIM) device.
A short-range wireless communications standard that operates using Frequency Hopping Spread System (FHSS), spreading data packets across the designated frequency range of 2.45 GHz. Bluetooth provides a short-range distance of approximately 10 meters and raw data transmission rates of up to 1Mbps. Based on radio frequency transmission, Bluetooth supports both voice and data and transmits signals between phones, computers and other devices to allow for connectivity without a wireline connection.
Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless. QUALCOMM’s BREW solution is an open application development platform that makes it possible for developers to create portable applications that will work on wireless devices. BREW enables users to download and install applications including games, ring tones and content to BREW-enabled phones. BREW runs in between the application and the chip operating system. Visit www.qualcomm.com/brew.
Generic term for high-speed digital Internet connections, such as DSL or cable modems in the wireline world. Broadband can carry multiple channels at once, enabling voice, data and video services simultaneously. Broadband refers to download speeds of approximately 2 Mbps, 40 times faster than speeds of a 56K modem.
Another name for wireless service provider or wireless operator. Verizon and Sprint are examples of US carriers. See also Channel.
The CDMA Development Group is an international consortium of companies that are working together to develop the necessary products and services to lead the adoption and evolution of CDMA wireless systems around the world. The more than 100 member companies will help ensure interoperability among systems, while expediting the availability of CDMA technology to consumers. Visit www.cdg.org.
Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA is a digital wireless technology that works by converting speech into digital information, which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. Using a unique code to distinguish each call, CDMA uses spectrum efficiently, enabling more people to share the airwaves simultaneously without static, cross-talk or interference. In 1999, the ITU selected CDMA as the industry standard for new 3G wireless systems.
A brand name, trademarked and reserved for the exclusive use of CDG member companies. cdmaOne was a term coined for QUALCOMM’s original CDMA systems based on the IS-95A and IS-95B standards, which made use of 1.25 MHz channels to deliver voice and data.
A direct evolution from cdmaOne technology. CDMA2000 provides a set of specifications which offer enhanced voice and data capacity. The CDMA2000 family includes: CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and CDMA2000 1xEV-DV standards. CDMA2000 is recognized by the ITU as a global standard for 3G wireless systems. It is also known as IS-2000. See also IS-2000.
Commonly referred to as 1X or sometimes as 1XRTT, CDMA2000 1X is a 3G technology that is commercially available today. 1X is 21 times more efficient than analog cellular and 4 times more efficient than TDMA networks. Typical 1X networks provide peak rates of 144 Kbps for packet data and provide an average throughput range of 60-90 Kbps on a loaded network.
1xEV-DO is short for First Evolution, Data Optimized. 1xEV-DO provides peak data rates of up to 2.4 Mbps in a standard 1.25 MHz channel used exclusively for data. 1xEV-DO provides average throughput speeds of over 700 Kbps—equivalent to cable modem speeds—and fast enough to support applications such as streaming video and large file downloads. Future releases will increase to 3.08 Mbps for the forward link.
1xEV-DV is short for 1X Evolution, Data and Voice. This standard is under development and is expected to be commercially deployed in 2005. CDMA200 1xEV-DV will support voice as well as data. Release C supports a forward link of 3.08 Mbps and a reverse link of 153 Kbps. Release D supports a forward link of 3.08 Mbps and a reverse link of approximately 1.0 Mbps.
Cellular Digital Packet Data. An add-on technology that enables first-generation analog systems to provide packet data. CDPD is an IP network that runs at 19.2 Kbps with throughputs typically less than 10 Kbps. Today, CDPD is being phased out with 2.5G and 3G systems.
The geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station. Wireless transmission networks are comprised of many hexagonal, overlapping cell sites to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions.
Analog or digital communications in which a subscriber has a wireless connection from a mobile handset to a relatively nearby transmitter. The transmitter’s span of coverage is called a cell. Generally, cellular telephone service is available in urban areas and along major highways. As the cellular telephone user moves from one cell or area of coverage to another, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell transmitter at a base station. See also Roaming.
A fixed transmitter/receiver location also known as a base station, the cell site establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell site is comprised of an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers. See also Base Station.
The amount of wireless spectrum occupied by a specific technology implementation. For cellular, there is a transmit side and a receive side. For example, a 5 MHz channel uses 5 MHz to transmit and 5 MHz to receive, using a total of 10 MHz of wireless spectrum.
A network that establishes a physical circuit temporarily on demand and keeps that circuit reserved to the user until it receives a disconnect signal. A dial-up modem is an example of a circuitswitched connection.
Compact Media Extension. A simple and economical way for service providers to send multimedia to handsets. CMX is a software-based system that permits MIDI music to be combined with text, graphics, animation and voice—all time-synchronized and transmitted together in a file format small enough to be practical for a wireless handset. CMX is available on certain QUALCOMM mobile chipsets. Visit www.cdmatech.com.
Geographic area served by a cellular system in which service is available to wireless users.
Customer Relationship Management. An integrated information management system that is used to plan, schedule and control the pre-sales and post-sales activities in an organization. CRM solutions comprise of software, hardware and networking tools to improve customer tracking and communication. Today, many enterprises are extending their CRM solutions to include wireless connectivity to home databases. Remote access to a corporate database, for example, enables sales professionals to access timely customer data, leading to increased productivity and better customer service.
Data Encryption Standard. A 56-bit, private key, symmetric cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified computer data issued as a Federal Information Processing Standard Publication. See also 3DES.
A form of transmission that transforms analog signals—speech, for example—into a series of electrical or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. This numerical data is then converted into various forms depending on the type of network, such as electronic pulses for a wired network, optical light waves for fiber optics or radio waves for wireless transmission. Digital networks offer superior Quality of Service (QoS), secure transmission and more bandwidth than analog lines.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. A technique used in radio transmission systems, such as in WLANs and in some PCS systems. DSSS involves the conversion of a data stream into a stream of packets, which are then transmitted over a wide range of frequencies using a “scattering” approach. In a WLAN environment, DSSS typically operates in the 2.4 GHz band. See also 802.11, WLAN and PCS.
Refers to certain models of phones equipped to use both the 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to send and receive calls. The device can switch between these bands.
A dual mode wireless device uses both the analog and digital frequencies, using the 800 MHz and 1900 MHz channels.
Enhanced 911 service that automatically provides the caller’s geographic location and wireless phone number to the 911 call center. The FCC’s wireless E911 rules seek to improve the effectiveness and reliability of wireless 911 service by providing emergency dispatchers with precise location information, within 50 to 100 meters of the caller’s exact location. Visit www.fcc.gov/911/enhanced.
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution. An ITU recognized 3G technology which is an upgrade to GPRS in the Americas. EDGE data rates are expected to be less than 100 Kbps. Most European operators will migrate directly from GPRS to UMTS/WCDMA. See also TDMA.
In security, encryption is the ciphering of data by applying an algorithm to plain text. Symmetric encryption uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt the message. Asymmetric encryption, also known as public key encryption, equips each user with two keys—a private key and a public key—both of which are provided by a trusted third party.
In wireless communications, refers to safeguarding information in a network by cryptography and encryption to ensure secure data transmission from the point of origin to the point of destination. See also Encryption.
Enterprise Resource Planning. A business management system that integrates all major facets of a business such as manufacturing, finance, sales and human resources functions. ERP software links together various back-office computer systems including SFA and CRM applications. Typically, ERP software incorporates heavy use of telecommunications and may include mobility interfaces. See also SFA and CRM.
Federal Communications Commission. The government agency responsible for regulation of the communications industry. Visit www.fcc.gov/aboutus.html.
Field Force Automation. Refers to information technology solutions designed to help companies improve communication with employees in the field and yield increased productivity. FFA solutions typically comprise of integrated software, hardware and networking components. Today, the utilities and insurance sector provide examples of industries that are successfully deploying field force automation solutions to better manage remote employees.
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. A technique used in radio transmission systems, such as in WLANs, and in some mobile networks. FHSS involves the conversion of a data stream into a stream of packets in which short bursts of packets are transmitted over a range of 75 or more frequencies. The data is sent via transmitters and receivers that move from one frequency to another in a “hop” sequence. See also 802.11, WLAN and PCS.
A combination of hardware and software which limits the exposure of a computer or group of computers to an attack from an outside network. A firewall is a system or combination of systems that enforce a boundary between two or more networks.
Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access. FOMA is the brand name of NTT DoCoMo’s 3G WCDMA service and a modified version of WCDMA. It is expected that NTT DoCoMo will transition to the final release of WCDMA (UMTS) in 2004 or later.
An access standard defined by the ITU. Frame relay technology employs a form of packet-switching and multiplexes data. The key advantage to a frame relay network is its ability to accommodate data packets of various sizes associated with virtually any native data protocol. See also ITU and Packet-Switched Network.
The rate at which an electromagnetic waveform alternates, usually measured in Hertz (Hz) or Megahertz (MHz).
GSM ANSI-136 Interoperability Team. A technology that enables GSM and TDMA networks to interoperate. Special handsets must be manufactured (often called “GAIT phones”) and used in conjunction with GAIT networking.
A network point that acts as an entrance to another network.
General Packet Radio Service. A standard that is an upgrade to a GSM network, adding packet data to the existing voice network. GPRS uses the same time slots as voice calls, with each time slot providing approximately 9.6 Kbps of data throughput. A GPRS network that offers 28.8 Kbps down to the phone and 9.6 Kbps from the phone back to the network is using three time slots down and one slot up. GPRS peak rates are less than 50 Kbps. See also 2.5G.
Global Positioning System. A worldwide radio-navigation system that was developed by the US Department of Defense to enable users to determine their exact location anywhere on the globe from land, air or sea. GPS works via radio signals sent from orbiting satellites to receivers on the ground. Radio signals are collected from various satellites and used to calculate the distance between the receiver and each satellite. GPS receivers are becoming increasingly smaller and more economical, allowing them to be used in a wider range of commercial applications including fleet management, fraud management and security applications.
A solution combining Global Positioning System satellite and wireless network infrastructure to provide position location services. The gpsOne solution enhances location services availability, expands terrain coverage, accelerates the location determination process and provides better accuracy for callers, whether during emergency situations or while using GPS-enabled commercial applications. Visit www.snaptrack.com.
A category of enterprise software that allows employees to work more collaboratively. Groupware includes email and Personal Information Management (PIM) functionality such as calendar, to-do-lists and contact information, and allows employees to share data. Examples of groupware include Microsoft® Exchange/ Microsoft® Outlook® and Lotus® Domino/Lotus® Notes. See also PIM.
Global System for Mobile Communications. A 2G wireless telecommunications standard for digital cellular services deployed first in Europe. GSM is based on TDMA technology and provides circuit-switched data connections at 9.6 Kbps. See also TDMA.
A technology that enables the convergence of GSM-MAP and CDMA2000 1X networks. GSM1X overlays the current GSM/GPRS core network, maintaining all key features and services in the existing system, combined with CDMA2000 1X radio access equipment. GSM1X provides the spectral efficiency of CDMA technology, increasing voice and data capacity and making global roaming possible today. Visit www.qualcomm.com/GSM1X.
The process by which a cellular phone conversation is transferred from one BST to another without interruption. When a cellular user is in motion, in a car for example, and travels out of range of the original cell site, the BSC acts as a switch and ensures that the call is effectively passed over to the next cell site. There are two types of handoffs: hard and soft. A hard handoff requires the connection to first be broken in the original cell before it is made in the successor cell. Hard handoffs are required in TDMA and GSM systems because these systems employ different frequencies in adjacent cells. A hard handoff may affect data communications adversely as information may be lost when the connection is broken before it is transferred. Conversely, a soft handoff does not require the original connection to be broken when entering an adjacent cell. Soft handoffs employ a “make and break” handoff algorithm. Soft handoffs are used in CDMA systems which do not require the use of different frequencies in adjacent cells. See also BSC, BTS, TDMA and CDMA.
A wireless device that contains a transmitter and receiver. Also known as a terminal or mobile phone.
The international unit for measuring frequency, equivalent to cycles per second. One megahertz (MHz) is one million Hertz. One gigahertz (GHz) is one billion Hertz. WLANs operate at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.
A scattered location, such as a coffee shop, airport or bookstore, where a user can establish a WLAN or “Wi-Fi” connection with its service provider. Hot spots provide a wireless access point for the user and limited coverage of up to approximately 100 hundred feet, depending on the location. See also 802.11, Wi-Fi and WLAN.
Integrated Dispatch Enhance Network. A proprietary technology based on the TDMA standard that allows users to access phone calls, two-radio transmissions, paging and data from one wireless device. Nextel Communications® uses the iDEN standard as the basis for its networks.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The largest global technical professional society, the IEEE is a standards body responsible for developing computing and electronics standards. The IEEE developed 802.11 standards for WLANs that are widely followed today. Visit www.ieee.org. See also WLAN and 802.11.
International Engineering Task Force. The IETF is a large international volunteer community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers. The IETF’s charter is to set the technical standards that run the Internet, focusing on issues such as routing and security. Examples of IETF standards include Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
International Mobile Telecommunications for the Year 2000. A set of ITU specifications for 3G wireless networks that includes five radio access technologies such as CDMA2000 (Multi-Carrier) and WCDMA/ UMTS (Direct Sequence). Visit www.3gtoday.com. See also 3G.
Internet Mode. i-Mode is a proprietary cell phone service based on cHTML technology developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo. i-Mode allows for delivery of Web content and services that can be pushed to wireless handsets. i-Mode services include mobile banking, email, news reporting and other services.
Internet Protocol. IP is the most important of the protocols on which the Internet was based and part of the TCP/IP protocol. See also TCP/IP.
IP Security Protocol. A collection of IP security measures that comprise an optional tunneling protocol. IPsec supports authentication to verify the validity of the originating address in the header of every packet of a packet stream.
Interim Standard 95. A standard for North American cellular systems based on CDMA technology. IS-95A defines what is generally known as cdmaOne, which supports voice and 14.4 Kbps data rates. IS-95B supports data rates up to 64 Kbps. Now known as ANSI 95 A/B. See also cdmaOne. IS-2000 and ANSI.
Interim Standard 136. Known as TDMA and ANSI 136. See also TDMA and ANSI.
Interim Standard 2000. The Interim Standard for CDMA2000, the 3G wireless mobile standard for cellular networks based on CDMA technology. See also CDMA2000.
International Organization for Standardization, chartered by the United Nations. The ISO’s mission is to define and promote the development of various international standards. The ISO is best known for its seven-layer OSI model. Visit www.iso.ch.
International Telecommunications Union. An agency of the United Nations with the goal to establish standardized communications practices. Visit www.itu.int/home.
Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition. The standard Java platform geared towards the development of multi-tier enterprise applications.
Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition. The standard edition of the Java development platform that is geared toward applications on small, standalone or connectable consumer and embedded devices.
Kilobits per second or 1,000 bits per second. Commonly used as a speed for data transmission.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. An IETF standard tunneling protocol for VPNs. See also IETF and VPN.
Local Area Network. A small data network covering a limited area, such as within a building or group of buildings.
Location Based Services. Enables personalized services to be offered to a user based on the user’s particular location. Examples of location based services used in corporate settings include geographic mapping information for real estate agents and asset tracking solutions used by service representatives at logistics and transportation companies.
Megabits per second, or 1 million bits per second. A measurement of data speed.
Megahertz (MHz) is a unit of frequency equal to one million Hertz or cycles per second. Wireless mobile communications within the United States occurs in the 800 MHz and 1900 MHz bands.
A web browser specialized for a phone, smartphone or PDA that is optimized to run in the low-memory and small-screen environment of a handheld device.
Middleware refers to a type of software that connects two otherwise separate applications. Middleware sits between the layers of software to make the layers work with each other, essentially “gluing” together applications across the network. For example, a database access middleware solution would allow a remote user to request data from a corporate database using a form displayed via a Web browser, enabling the Web server to return dynamic Web pages based on the individual user's profile and requests.
Multimedia Messaging Service. MMS allows wireless device users to send multimedia, such as video or digital photos, from one device to another.
Moving Picture Experts Group-3. MPEG-3 is more commonly known as MP3. Both terms are synonymous and refer to the family of digital audio compression standards and file formats developed by the group. MP3 is a standard for high-quality audio streaming and
transmission and the technology compresses digital music by an average ratio of 10:1. This enables digital music to be transmitted and stored efficiently within the constraints of a limited bandwidth network, such as in the context of a mobile environment.
Moving Picture Experts Group-4. MPEG-4 is more commonly known as MP4. Both terms are synonymous and refer to the standard for audio and video streaming and complex media manipulation. Analogous to MP3 technology for audio, MP4 is the technology used for the mobile transmission and storage of images and video clips. See also MP3.
Mobile Switching Center. Provides services and coordination between mobile users in a network and external networks.
Third layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of data communications, sometimes called the packet layer. See also OSI Standards.
A point of connection into a network. In packet-switched networks, it’s one of the many packet switches which form the network’s backbone.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Refers to a wireless communications technology and modulation technique in which available spectrum is divided into multiple RF channels. In OFDM, each channel is independent (orthogonal) of the other channels that can be used to transmit data, allowing data streams to be transmitted simultaneously across multiple frequencies in a parallel fashion. See also Channel.
Commonly referred to as OS or O/S, it is software that manages the basic operations of a computer system. These operations include memory apportionment and the order and method of handling tasks. The OS also controls the flow of information to and from the main processor, as well as data to peripherals. Some examples of various operating systems include UNIX, Windows, Symbian and Palm OS.
A reference model developed by the International Organization for Standardization. The OSI model provides an accepted framework of standards for communication between different systems and vendors. In short, the model organizes the communications process into seven different categories. Layers 1 through 3 deal with network access. Layers 4 through 7 deal with end-to-end communications between the message source and the message destination.
Open Systems Interconnection. Reference model established by the ISO to provide a network design framework to allow equipment from different vendors to be able to communicate.
A digital “package” of data that allows for more efficient use of radio spectrum and routing over a network, such as the Internet or wireless networks. Each packet is assigned a unique number for routing along with the Internet address which identifies the packet’s destination. Packets differ in size and in the amount of bits/bytes that they hold.
Networks that transfer packets of data. Packet-switched networks are “always on,” eliminating the need to dial-in to a network to send or receive data. See also Packet.
Palm OS ®
Palm® operating system for handheld devices, including PDAs and smartphones. Palm licenses its software to leading handset and handheld manufacturers.
A wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device. A PC card is compatible with the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) PC Card standard. PC cards are removable and approximately the size of a credit card. See also PCMCIA.
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. International Association that standardizes credit-card size hardware that can be inserted into a computing device such as a laptop for plug-and-play utility. A Type II PC Card is the most common PCMCIA and is typically used for input/output such as a modem or LAN connection. See also PC Card.
Personal Communications Services. PCS refers to the 1900 MHz cellular frequency band. However, PCS is commonly used as a marketing term to describe an array of two-way digital wireless service offerings in the Americas, regardless of the particular frequency band being used.
Personal Digital Assistant. A portable computing device capable of transmitting data. PDAs are commonly used for text messaging, email, stock quotes, personal computing, calendar and contacts, and a wide range of other applications.
Personal Digital Cellular. The 2G TDMA-based protocol used in Japan, but is incompatible with other wireless networks. PDC services operate in the 800 and 1500 MHz band. See also GSM.
Packet Data Serving Node. Refers to the routers used in CDMA2000 networks which comprise the backbone of the network. See also Node.
Personalized Information Manager. Refers to a type of software used by individuals or groups for keeping track of contacts (including addresses and phone numbers), appointments, project schedules, to-do lists and reminder notes. Also called contact managers. See also Groupware.
Pocket PC ®
A handheld computer that runs a Microsoft Pocket PC Operating System or Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 for the Pocket PC. The typical Pocket PC includes features such as word processing and spreadsheet applications, handwriting recognition and wireless Internet access. See also Windows Mobile.
Persons of Population. Refers to total population coverage according to a wireless service provider’s license. In wireline communications, POP means Point of Presence, which is defined as the connectivity point between two networks.
Plain Old Telephone Service. Refers to the basic service supplying standard single-line telephones, telephone lines and access to the PSTN. See also PSTN.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. A protocol that enables virtual private networking—enabling secure remote access to corporate networks via the Internet. The PPTP specification builds on standards such as PPP and TCP/IP. See also VPN, PPP and TCP/IP.
Pay Per Call. In contrast to flat monthly rates offered by carriers for service provided. PPC is also a commonly used abbreviation for the Pocket PC.
Point-to-Point Protocol. Protocol that allows two peer devices to transport packets over a simple data link.
A protocol refers to a specific set of rules related to data transmission between two devices. Protocols such as TCP/IP set standard procedures that enable data devices to recognize and communicate with each other.
Public Switched Telephone Network. Refers to the local, longdistance and international phone system. In the United States, PSTN refers to the entire collection of interconnected phone companies.
Push-To-Talk.® In two-way radio communications, refers to an instant connection made between two cell phones. PTT requires transmitters to use the same frequency and features “walkie-talkie” like functionality. Nextel’s Direct Connect® service and QChatenabled handsets are examples of PTT technology. See also QChat.
QChat is a software application developed by QUALCOMM. QChat enables communication over 3G CDMA systems with the press of a Push-To-Talk button on a handset. This application creates a call by combining separate point-to-point connections between each IP endpoint at a managing entity known as the QChat Applications Server. The QChat client is deployed as an application on the BREW platform. See also BREW and PTT.
Quality of Service. A measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber.
Radio Frequency. Measured in Hertz, MHz and GHz.
Refers to when a subscriber travels outside of his/her specified home coverage area.
Return On Investment. A financial performance measure to evaluate and quantify the relative attractiveness of a particular project. ROI is typically measured in monetary terms, such as dollars, but can also be measured by benefits that are more difficult to quantify, such as increased customer satisfaction.
Removable User Interface Module. Also known as a CDMA SIM card. Refers to a removable card built into certain CDMA phones, “smart cards” and other devices that makes global roaming possible across CDMA and GSM networks. The SIM can identify the user as well as the services to which the individual subscribes. It can also store data, such as telephone numbers and addresses. See also SIM.
Supply Chain Management. Refers to the electronic link between a company and its suppliers and distributors/customers. SCM solutions typically comprise of integrated software, hardware and networking components. Today many enterprises are utilizing the Internet and private corporate intranets for their SCM solutions.
A “carrier” or “operator” that provides communication services, content and/or subscriptions to telephone, mobile phone and Internet users.
Sales Force Automation. System which allows the salesperson to record account and contact information, send form letters and schedule activities to be performed in the future.
Subscriber Identity Module. A removable card built into all GSM phones, as well as certain “smart cards” and other devices. The SIM can identify the user as well as the services to which the individual subscribes. It can also store data, such as telephone numbers and addresses. A CDMA SIM is referred to as R-UIM. See also R-UIM.
A category of mobile phones that integrates wireless data and voice capabilities on one handset. Using a smartphone, a salesperson might make calls, send emails and access corporate databases remotely via this device. Smartphones are equipped with enhanced software and applications, including operating systems such as the Palm OS, Symbian and Windows Mobile. See also Palm OS, Symbian and Windows Mobile.
Short Messaging Service. SMS is a store-and-forward message service available on many 2G and all 3G wireless networks. It allows users to send and receive short text messages—usually 160 characters or less—to and from wireless handsets.
A method of transmitting a signal by “spreading” it over a broad range of frequencies. This technology allows for reduced interference and increased capacity within a particular radio frequency band. CDMA is based on spread spectrum.
Signaling System 7. The protocol used in public-switched telephone systems for establishing calls and providing services such as 800 numbers, call forwarding, caller ID and number portability.
Secure Sockets Layer. A transport level technology for authentication and data encryption between a Web server and a Web browser. SSL sends data over a secure channel at the connection layer existing in most TCP/IP applications.
Symbian ® OS
Refers to a popular operating system for cell phones licensed by Symbian to leading handset manufacturers. Symbian is owned by a consortium of wireless hardware manufacturers and promotes the development of advanced, open systems for data-enabled phones.
Total Cost of Ownership. A financial measure commonly used by enterprises to calculate total relevant costs of a particular project, such as investing in a SFA solution. TCO goes beyond the actual purchase price or cost of implementation and would include relevant costs such as administration, maintenance, support, software and training.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A communications protocol that has become the de facto standard protocol for the Internet. TCP provides transport functions, ensuring that the total amount of data sent is correctly received. IP provides the routing mechanism. TCP/IP is a routable protocol, which means that all messages contain the address of the destination network.
Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access. TD-SCDMA is one of the three international CDMA standards accepted by the ITU for 3G mobile communications. To date, TD-SCDMA has been promoted for use in China and for unpaired spectrum elsewhere. See also 3G and ITU.
Time Division Multiple Access. A digital wireless communications technique that divides traffic into specific time intervals or slots. Multiple 2G wireless standards use TDMA technology including GSM, PDC and iDEN.
Device, such as a laptop or handset, used to access the network. Also referred to as a mobile terminal or mobile station.
Triple Mode. A combined analog and digital mobile phone that allows for service in multiple frequencies.
The ability to send and receive data via the Internet by way of the paging network. Commonly referred to as interactive paging.
User interface, as in GUI, or graphical user interface.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. UMTS is also known as WCDMA. See also WCDMA.
Ultra Wideband. A wireless technology for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a wide spectrum of frequency bands with very low power for short distances. UWB is sometimes compared to Bluetooth, a standard for connecting handheld wireless devices with other similar devices and with desktop computers. See also Bluetooth.
The technology found on some wireless phones, PCs and other communication devices that enables the phone to respond to spoken commands.
Virtual Private Network. A network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. VPNs use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network. VPNs are an essential component to secure wireless computing for the enterprise. See also Encryption.
Wide Area Network. A geographically dispersed telecommunications network. A WAN may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually refers to a public network.
Wireless Application Protocol. A set of standards that enables a wireless device to browse content from specially-coded Web pages via handheld wireless devices such as phones, pagers and Palm devices.
Wideband CDMA. Recognized by the ITU as a 3G technology that uses 10 MHz of wireless spectrum—a 5 MHz uplink and 5 MHz downlink to the mobile terminal. WCDMA is based on IMT-2000. The European version is referred to as UMTS. Visit www.3gtoday.com. See also IMT-2000 and UMTS.
Wired Equivalency Privacy. An optional feature for Wi-Fi and 802.11b. WEP offers privacy that is on par with the privacy offered by most LAN connections, using an encryption algorithm that scrambles data before any data is transmitted. Most WLANs do not use WEP. See also Wi-Fi, 802.11 and WLAN.
Short for “Wireless Fidelity” and another name for WLAN. Synonymous with the 802.11b wireless Ethernet standard in the 2.4 GHz range. See also 802.11 or WLAN.
Windows Mobile ™
Microsoft’s new global brand for its Pocket PC Operating System. Windows Mobile supports various Pocket PC devices. The rebranded software platform includes new features such as a simplified Wi-Fi connection, Bluetooth capabilities and improved email synchronization. Visit www.microsoft.com/windowsmobile. See also Pocket PC and Smartphone.
Wireless LAN. A local area network that transmits over the air typically in an unlicensed frequency such as the 2.4 GHz band. Wireless access points (base stations) are connected to an Ethernet hub or server and transmit a radio frequency over an area of several feet. Complementary to WWAN. See also 802.11, Hot-Spot and WWAN.
A web site that supports a user with a smartphone or alphanumeric pager. It may offer a variety of features, including the ability to select content that can be pushed to the user’s device.
A computer with a wireless network interface card, also known as an adapter.
A band of frequencies in which wireless signals travel carrying voice and data information.
Wireless Wide Area Network. A radio-based voice or data network that covers an entire metropolitan area. In contrast, a WLAN is generally confined to a building or campus, such as a Wi-Fi Hot Spot. See also WLAN, Wi-Fi and Hot Spot.
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