Vo l u m e 4 5 , N u m b e r 12 , D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 8

316 Muscle Form+Function By Stephen E. Alway, PhD, FACSM 368 Extreme Muscle Enhancement
By Carlon M. Colker, MD, FACN

Research: Training By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

108 Research: Supplements By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD 118 Research: Nutrition By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD 164 Nutrition Performance
Kitchen Pharmaceuticals For Fat Loss? By Robbie Durand, MA

376 The True Victor By Victor Martinez 380 The Predator By Kai Greene 388 Mass With Class
By Branch Warren

170 Supplement Performance
Supplement Research Update By Jose Antonio, PhD, FACSM, FISSN

394 Lee Priest Confirmed! By Lee Priest NEW! 400 Telling It Like It Is By Shawn Ray NEW! 406 Branden Ray: Road To
The USAs By Branden Ray

184 Sports Supplement Review
Dymatize: Elite Liquid Protein By Robbie Durand, MA

346 MuscleTech Research Report

EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH 410 The Big Bad Wolf: 88 Research: Fat Loss By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD TITUS’ PROSECUTOR The People’s Choice 156 Fat Attack The Best Fats For Burning Fat 289 CUTTING EDGE By Dennis Wolf (The Latest Research) By Dan Gwartney, MD RESEARCH! 414 Erik “The House” Fankhouser By Erik Fankhouser


418 National Hero By Evan Centopani 422 The Pro Creator By Hany Rambod 426 Contest Guru By Chad Nicholls 432 Trainer of Champions By Charles Glass


128 Research: Drugs By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD 148 Future Pharmacy By Douglas S. Kalman, PhD, RD, FACN 306 Testosterone Are You Testosterone Deficient?
By Dan Gwartney, MD

350 Anabolic Research Update By William Llewellyn 354 Anabolic Edge By Jose Antonio, PhD 358 The Anabolic Freak By David Palumbo 372 Busted! Legal Q&A By Rick Collins, JD

Research: Health & Performance By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

138 Research: Sex By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD


178 Muscle Growth Update By Robbie, Durand, MA NEW! 322 Bodybuilding Science Omegawave— Never Overtrain
Again? By Robbie Durand, MA

332 No Juice Bodybuilding By Eric Broser NEW! 364 Ask The Doc By Victor Prisk, MD NEW!
MD 22 December 2008




28 32 34 44 54 68
Editor’s Letter By Steve Blechman Mail Room Where Our Readers Rave & Rant What’s Hot! By Mike Yurkovic MD People The Romano Factor By John Romano


ARMED & DANGEROUS! 216 By Gregg Valentino

296 Major Distraction By John Romano 336 Ramblin’ Freak By Gregg Valentino 440 Hot Shoppe By Angela T. Frizalone 444 MD Marketplace By Angela T. Frizalone & Manda Machado 462 The Last Word By John Romano





MD 25


editor’s letter
By Steve Blechman Publisher & Editor-in-Chief

ovember 21st the best amateurs in the country are heading to Atlanta, Georgia with the hope of turning pro at the 2009 NPC Nationals. In honor of the hungry, up-and-coming new guard, featured this month are my top picks for the show. First is MD cover boy Michael Liberatore, MD’s first Cyber Classic champion. Mike is ranked right now as “America’s top Amateur” and is the favorite to take the heavyweight class. Just last year at the 2008 USA, he gave the very promising new IFBB pro Brandon Curry the fight of his life. Michael out-conditioned Curry and showed better balance overall. Many in the audience had Michael beating Brandon…but Curry beat him by one point. This now makes Michael America’s top amateur and the favorite to win the heavyweight division at the Nationals. Michael Liberatore is armed and dangerous, with a great overall package of mass, symmetry, and incredible conditioning. Check out page 216 for the arm blast that


makes this kid rise to the top. “Second to Nunn” is 2008 USA super-heavyweight Champion Ed Nunn— is he the next X-Man?There is no denying this guy will turn heads at the Nationals. He reminds me of Toney Freeman, who also won the Nationals in 2002. Nunn’s X-frame, with massive delts, tight waist, striated pecs and flaring quads is my favorite to win the super-heavyweight class. Nunn has a huge structure, but he needs to put on more overall mass if he is to assure a win at the Nationals and be a future star in the IFBB. See page 232 for more on how he plans to accomplish that. Other super-heavyweights battling for their pro card at the Nationals are Michael Lockett, Trey Brewer (see page 246 for Trey’s “Wheels From Hell, Super Freak Leg Blast”) and BSA, Big Sean Allan, (see page 262 for his exclusive, controversial interview). With all these monsters heading to Atlanta to do battle, this year will sure be memorable! Every year at the Nationals there are favorites, underdogs and dark-horse picks. This

28 MD December 2008

Publisher/Editor-In-Chief Steve Blechman Senior Editor John Romano Managing Editor Angela T. Frizalone Creative Director Alan Dittrich, Jr. Associate Editor Lana Russo Associate Art Director Stephen Kolbasuk

year is no different. On page 278, Flex Wheeler gives a complete rundown of the entire 2008 Nationals hopefuls. On page 289, John Romano interviews Titus prosecutor Robert Daskas. As bodybuilding’s former bad boy settles into the reality that the rest of his life will be spent in prison, find out the truth about how he got there. Daskas plainly and openly discusses the case and tells how Titus’s stories and emphatic pleas of innocence are total bullshit, and just how close Titus came to being sentenced to death for the murder of Melissa James.

Assistant Editor Alan Golnick Contributing Editors Carlon Colker, M.D.,Thomas Fahey Ph.D. Dan Gwartney, M.D. Executive Assistant Michele Gampel Photographers Chief Photographer: Per Bernal Mike Yurkovic, Dan Ray, Bill Comstock Illustrators Bill Hamilton, Fred Harper, Jerry Beck Advertising Advertising Director—Angela T. Frizalone (239) 495-6899 Corporate Office 800-653-1151, 631-751-9696 Circulation Consultants Irwin Billman & Ralph Pericelli

Finally, on page 194, get the scoop on 2008 Olympia coverage by Flex Wheeler. MD is first to print, with all the news, views and opinions on the Super Bowl of bodybuilding and the contest that crowned Dexter Jackson king. The rest of the book is packed to the binder as usual with all the latest news, research and information on building muscle and burning fat by the athletes and industry insiders that know how its done. You get it all right here in America’s number one hardcore bodybuilding bible! See you next month!

To Order a Subscription: (888) 841-8007 Customer Service & Subscription Inquiries: (631) 751-9696; 1-800-653-1151
Advanced Research Press, Inc. reserves the right to reject any advertising at its discretion. MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT (ISSN 0047-8415) is published monthly by Advanced Research Press, 690 Route 25A, Setauket, New York, 11733. Copyright ©2008 by Advanced Research Press. All rights reserved. Copyright under the Universal Copyright Convention and the International Copyright Convention. Copyright reserved under the Pan Am Copyright. Rate: $49.97 per year (USA); $79.97 per two years (USA); foreign: $79.97 per year. Nothing appearing in MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT may be reprinted, either wholly or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. Send editorial submissions to: MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT, 690 Route 25A, Setauket, New York, 11733. Stamped, self-addressed envelope must accompany all submissions, and no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited submissions. All letters, photos, manuscripts, etc. sent to MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT will be considered as intended for publication, and MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT reserves the right to edit and/or comment. Periodical postage paid at Setauket, N.Y. 11733, and at Glasgow, KY 42141. Postmaster: Send address changes to MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT, Box 834, East Setauket, NY 11733-9704. Advertising Office Phone: (239) 495-6899. PRINTED IN USA

Cover photos of Michael Liberatore and Candice Michelle are by Per Bernal

December 2008

MD 29

Awesome Mag
You guys are so on top of the industry; it’s crazy! I was reading another bodybuilding magazine, but ever since I discovered MD, I haven’t picked up another magazine. The photos and the way everything looks is just so much better than anything else I used to read. Every month I find it looks better than the last. I appreciate your honesty when reporting about the industry. It’s all I will read now. Take care. John A., e-mail

Rebel Without A Pause
Great to see Lee Priest back in the pages of MD. His cover [October 2008] kicked ass and was the Lee Priest we’ve come to admire— mean, moody and magnificent. Lee doesn’t kiss ass and he tells it like it is, so he belongs in MD. You guys are no-bullshit and so is Lee. It’s a bodybuilding marriage made in heaven (or hell?) Ralph Magnus, e-mail

Dennis The Menace
Dennis Wolf vs. Jay Cutler? Come on, bro...there is no comparison. If you ask me, Dennis blows Jay away. Dennis is more symmetrical, has no obvious weak body parts and has youth on his side. The new guard of Victor, Dexter and Dennis are ready to flush Jay out. Jay should pack it up before he has to trade his posing trunks in for Depends. Adios, pops! Frank Scott, e-mail

Jay Is The Greatest Mr. O Ever!
What’s this bullshit about Dennis Wolf challenging Jay Cutler for Mr. O? Dennis couldn’t pack Jay’s lunch. Dennis couldn’t fill Jay’s shoes or his shorts. You guys are just dreaming. Jay is the greatest Mr. O ever, a truly honorable representative for the sport of bodybuilding. All the other bozos are just chump change by comparison. Joe Francis, e-mail

Huge Fan
Hello. I wanted to write in and say thanks for such a kick-ass magazine. I turn to MD each month for all the news I need about the industry, scientific research, training… everything. It’s what I really look forward to reading every month and I always tear through it. Keep it up! Rodger, e-mail

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Hot News, Hot Gossip, Hot Photos
Written and Photographed by Mike Yurkovic Sylvia Smith, NPC Figure Athlete, Alabama

Tracy Hess, NPC Bodybuilder, Pennsylvania

Heather Mae French, IFBB Figure Pro, Colorado

If you are an NPC or IFBB athlete and you have some news, gossip or want to be featured as one of the MD “Hot Girls,” contact Mike Yurkovic at

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December 2008

Carole Uhrig, NPC Figure Athlete, Arizona

Candace Lewis, NPC Figure Athlete, Arizona

Nadya Castellas, IFBB Figure Pro, Canada

December 2008

MD 35

Flex Back At The Mecca
I recently did a series of photo shoots with MD’s own Flex Wheeler, who has himself back in pretty awesome-looking shape. We did one of the shoots down at Gold’s Gym Venice, where Flex had not set foot in roughly eight years. There was a whole lot of buzz, as the Gold’s crowd was interested in finding out what was happening with Flex these days and how he looked. Flex has still got the big guns, just these days they are complete with flame tattoos. Flex, who is bodybuilding’s “king of bling,” wanted to show me his custom car rim set. As Flex would say, “Those rims are sick wit’ it, bro!”

Flex Wheeler

Figure Girls Have Guns, Too!
Lee Banks It seems these days on a figure stage, the word flex is a big no-no. Now, I know many figure ladies who love to hit the weights and see their muscles working in the gym. One of my jobs with MD is to take the backstage shots when the athletes are pumping up. When I ask the figure girls for a pose, 99 percent of the time it’s a figure pose...nice, but come on ladies, show me something new! That’s why I love this photo of California girls Melissa Deal and Tina Arabia showing me the guns. That’s right ladies, flex those guns and be proud!

Melissa Deal and Tina Arabia

A Man On The Rise
Backstage at the IFBB North Americans this past Labor Day weekend, I was floored at the sight of Lee Banks pumping up. The dude has a crazy upper body with amazing size, thickness and shape. How do 22-inch arms with a 30-inch waist sound? Lee has an interesting personal life as well, being a child care center director and owner and a Desert Storm war veteran. Lee earned second at the North Americans and by his own words knows he needs to bring up his legs to be in balance with his upper body. Lee is now focused on the 2009 NPC USA next July in Las Vegas.

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Pretty Smile With A Pro Card In Hand
One of the prettiest smiles in figure belongs to Brandie Gardner and now she has even more reasons to smile. Brandie won her IFBB pro card at the IFBB North American Championships in Cleveland, Ohio. Brandie is one half of a dynamic fitness couple, as her husband is IFBB Tampa Pro promoter Tim Gardner. Brandie and Tim now plan to work on adding some muscle and balance to her physique to prepare her for the IFBB stage. Brandie gets joy from her family of four children and loving husband. Sounds like good reasons for a great smile.

Brandie Gardner

LaDawn McDay

Canada Represented Once Again At The Mr. Olympia
It’s been a long time since Canada has had a male athlete make an impact or even compete at the Mr. Olympia. It hasn’t been since 1997 when the freak of freaks, Paul Dillett, took fifth place that Canadian bodybuilders had much to cheer about at the “O.” Dayana Cadeau has been doing Canada proud this decade at the Ms. Olympia and now Fouad Abiad carries the Canadian bodybuilding torch to Las Vegas for the men. Fouad qualified with a third-place finish at the IFBB Europa in Dallas, where he was huge, hard and ripped. Go get yours, Fouad!

Fouad Abiad

Overlooked Now, But Not For Long
I had a chat awhile back with female bodybuilding’s greatest of all time, the lovely Lenda Murray. She told me in her opinion, today’s top female bodybuilders lacked the pure genetic gifts of females in the ‘90s. When I saw the beautiful shape and X-frame of Michigan’s LaDawn McDay at the 2008 North Americans, I saw what is best about female bodybuilding. Nice shapes and lines, with small joints and waist. LaDawn finished sixth in the heavyweight class, which still has me scratching my head as I write this; I had her in the top three. As she continues to add muscle and improve, her body’s genetic gifts will vault her to the top national contest placings. BET ON IT!

Remember to keep up to date on all the 2008 NPC and IFBB contest placings and pics at, where we have it first! December 2008 MD 37





Team MD brings you industry sightings from the 2008 Mr. Olympia, Las Vegas, Nevada

Watch out, Dex!

I’ll be back!

44 MD December 2008

Team MD

Steve and Elyse Blechman at the Team MD Bodybuilding Seminar.

See you at the Nationals!

December 2008

MD 45

Steve Stone, RIP, you will be missed dearly.



Congratulations, Dexter!

Romano Diet.

46 MD December 2008

Told you i would win!

The “O” Henry’s!

December 2008

MD 47




Bigger, Stronger, Faster director Chris Bell with Dave and John

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Romano Jr.

December 2008

MD 49


TheRomano Factor
By John Romano

As always, my loyal online writers have been hard at work raising the bar yet again in reader-submitted work for the 500-word essay contest. To say I am more and more impressed as each month goes by is an understatement. What is even more important is the constant influx of new writers. This month a dude named Bad Chad gets the nod by a rather tall margin with his winning piece called…..

Shut the f**k up; YES YOU CAN...
I am finally sick of hearing people say, “I can’t” and their excuses. It seems there is not a day that goes by that I don’t hear a skinny guy at the gym say that he can’t gain weight or a fat person say they just can’t lose weight. “Shut the fuck up, YES YOU CAN!” The skinny guy says he can eat all he wants but he doesn’t gain weight. Maybe he should try eating more than he wants; shut up, put a fork in your mouth and eat. The fat guy told me he just can’t lose weight. I told him I am doing cardio at 5 a.m. tomorrow, if he wants to join me he should arrive with an empty stomach. I guess since he is single and doesn’t have any kids it must have been work related since he didn’t show. Maybe he should start by taking the fork out of his mouth for a minute or drinking some water tonight instead of a six-pack of beer. I was 149 pounds at 6 feet tall when I started working out. My biceps were the same size as my wrists. I loved the way the working out made me feel, the pump, and I wanted muscles and was determined to get them. So guess what, I started to eat and train like a bodybuilder and I started to look like one. I went from 149 pounds to 177 in eight months. I trained my legs so hard that I couldn’t walk the next day. I had to crawl to the bathroom. People were accusing me of taking steroids yet I didn’t even know what creatine was at the time. I don’t care if one doesn’t care to be in shape. A perfect physique isn’t the top priority of everyone, and that’s fine. Just don’t make excuses and say you can’t because “YES YOU CAN!!!” I am not perfect; I have been one of those people with excuses. I didn’t compete because after I had back surgery, due to three herniated disks, I said, “I can’t get my legs big because I can’t squat.” One day I said: “fuck that.” I trained my legs as hard as I could while being smart and they grew. I stepped on stage and took 2nd place in the light-heavyweight class in my first competition. Have you seen that episode on MTV of that guy who gets plastic surgery, calf implants, because he said his calves wouldn’t grow? Like him, I almost accepted my calves would not grow, but instead I did some research and started trying every single calve workout I could find and guess what, my calves are growing. And those of you who accuse us of taking steroids, you are just jealous, lazy and ignorant. How the hell would you know what is and what isn’t possible naturally since you have never trained and dieted for more than a month in your life? Shut the fuck up, YES YOU CAN!

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THE WAY I SEE IT, is the way Bad Chad sees it. He is totally right! I find myself saying the exact same thing to the people who say they can’t; yes, you can! The matter is simple: if we can do it, they can do it. It’s as simple as that. Actually doing it is a whole other matter.That’s why so many people say they can’t. It just shows you what amazing people we all are!Thanks, Bad Chad, for pointing that out and congrats on a very well-written piece!

Last February, Albany County New York district attorney P David Soares . left the cold, crack-infested streets of his jurisdiction and flew down to Florida, with camera crews and his Albany Times-Union publicists in tow, to take part in a raid (along with federal and state narcotics agents) on several Signature Pharmacies in Central Florida as part of what Soares said was, “A multistate investigation into the illegal sales of steroids over the Internet” he called “Operation Which Doctor” (that’s not a spelling error, but rather a cute double entendre). Soares had said that the pharmacies were “believed to supply a large portion of the national market of the illegal online sale of anabolic steroids, human growth hormone and other controlled substances. Apparently, ” this was of such importance to the public interest that Soares found it reasonable to leave his jurisdiction, fly himself and his media posse to Florida, stay at the swank Swan and Dolphin resort in Orlando, where guest suites routinely fetch upward of $500.00 a night, and charge all of it to the taxpayers of New York. As part of the raid— if you can call arresting legitimate businesspeople who begged to turn themselves in a “raid”— multiple felonies had been brought against Signature’s owners, one of their pharmacists, and two former business managers. The group was arrested and extradited to Albany County to face a total of 31 felony and two misdemeanor charges of criminal diversion of prescription medications and prescriptions, insurance fraud and criminal sale of a controlled substance. Amy Tingley, an attorney who represented the owners of Signature, said that they had been trying for over a month to turn themselves in to authorities after they had learned of the investigation in 2007 , but Soares had refused to discuss the matter with them, and instead, showed up unannounced in Florida with camera crews. “On no less than three occasions they contacted the Albany DA’s office and asked if they could please come to New York and process themselves. They were told they were a target, but were not allowed to come to New York and process themselves, Tingley had said. ” Throughout the case, a bumbling Soares quickly sunk to lower and lower stead, and is still the center of a lot of controversy. At the time of the Florida raid, he had defended his decision to ignore the defendants’ request to turn themselves in, saying that “the element of surprise” is an important law-enforcement tool. Is he serious? Maybe for a meth lab, but a legitimate pharmacy? At least two dozen doctors were also charged with writing prescriptions for drugs without having seen the patient, as required under New York law. But according to the records of the state’s Unified Court System, at the time of the raid, Soares had no legal authority to act as a district attorney, as he was not currently registered to practice law in New York State (or Florida December 2008

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either, for that matter!). Somehow Soares was able to get around that technicality, but to no avail. Eighteen months later, after FOUR separate grand juries, Albany County Judge Stephen Herrick dismissed the indictments against the five Orlando pharmacy operators that Soares had targeted, saying that Soares and his office impaired the integrity of the grand jury proceedings so badly during their four presentations to get an indictment that dismissal is warranted. In his decision, Herrick characterized the case as “unwieldy, complex and riddled with problems” in the manner in which it was presented to all four separate grand juries. He said prosecutors’ instructions to the grand jury were “misleading” when the panel was not told that earlier charges had been thrown out. Herrick wrote, “The court finds that the amorphous quality of the evolving indictments, coupled with the cursory and inadequate instructions in the fourth presentment have impaired the integrity of the Grand Jury proceedings to such a degree that dismissal is warranted. ” Herrick also decreed that Soares can’t represent the case to a Grand Jury or seek new charges against the five. That’s it; four strikes and you’re out. Undaunted, Soares said his office intends to appeal the judge’s dismissal and is “confident” the case will move forward. “We believe with this appeal we’re going to be right back here litigating this matter in a few months, ” Soares said. If I were Soares, I wouldn’t hold my breath. Herrick’s dismissal will not undo the guilty pleas to felony charges by more than a dozen doctors and operators of so-called wellness centers around the country, who had struck deals and agreed to testify against the operators of Signature pharmacy, mostly out of fear. While Soares has maintained that the investigation was intended to target the pharmacies, clinics and the doctors involved and not the patients, according to published reports, numerous pro athletes and celebrities were identified who purchased either steroids, human growth hormone, or both, including New England Patriots all-pro safety Rodney Harrison, Dallas Cowboys quarterback coach Wade Wilson, major league pitcher Paul Byrd, journeyman outfielder Jose Guillen, retired third baseman Matt Williams, pitcher Ismael Valdez, Gary Matthews of the Los Angeles Angels, former Major League baseball star Jose Canseco, former heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield and Danny Bonduce, star of the former TV show “The Partridge Family. ” THE WAY I SEE IT, this guy Soares is a prime example of what is pitifully wrong with the New York state political machine and he must be stopped. First off, the guy’s case against Signature pharmacy (if you can call it a case) has been thrown out of not one, not two, not three, but FOUR cy laws. In 1996, the U.S. Congress enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). It is a rather lengthy and convoluted set of rules and guidelines designed to protect a patient’s rights with respect to health insurance issues and medical record privacy. Under HIPPA, a government agency must seek your permission to even look at your medical file, much less disclose publicly information from your file, including what prescription drugs you might be taking. It is absolutely outrageous that Soares would delve into private medical records seized in his investigation and release to the media the names of high-profile athletes and entertainers who legitimately received prescription medications from

Signature’s drugs haven’t found their way into a schoolyard— for the most part, adults are using them to combat aging! It’s the crack that’s in the schoolyard! But steroids in Florida are much safer to go after and the weather is nicer. And don’t forget, steroids are sexy.
separate grand juries and he still hasn’t gotten the message! Do you have any idea how much it costs to present a case with multiple defendants from another state to a Grand Jury? And after four bungled attempts, he’s still willing to toss more of the taxpayers’ money at an appeal? What’s wrong with this guy? Right in his very own jurisdiction of downtown Albany, street drugs are out of control yet this DA is hell-bent on sending clean-cut, legitimate business owners in Florida to prison for compounding medications, dispensed with a prescription, that, by comparison to the crack he’s ignoring, are safer than Tylenol! Did I mention the fact that the drugs were dispensed with valid prescriptions! Signature’s drugs haven’t found their way into a schoolyard— for the most part, adults are using them to combat aging! It’s the crack that’s in the schoolyard! And it’s over crack that Soares’ constituents are dying. Ah, but steroids in Florida are much safer to go after and the weather is nicer. And don’t forget, steroids are sexy. The next thing that irks me is the fact that Soares is flagrantly and unconscionably flouting patient privaSignature and what those medications were. He even called out Victor Martinez, stating publicly, “If you see Victor, tell him I want to talk to him!” This intentional flouting of HIPPA laws in the name of sensationalizing his case also sets a hypocritical president for the Albany DA. Following is a complicated story about Soares’ disingenuous scheme to cover up disgraced former New York governor Elliot Spitzer’s cover-up. In the end, you’ll see the egg all over Soares’ face and its relevance top the Signature case, so bear with me. As the story goes, former New York Governor Elliot Spitzer— who resigned in disgrace after it was learned he was a client of a prostitution ring under investigation by the federal government— was embroiled in a little affair known as “Troopergate, ” which was the precursor to another executive foible known as the “Dirty Tricks Scandal. It had to do with New ” York State police working under Spitzer’s administration to keep special records of Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno‘s (Spitzer’s political foe) whereabouts when he traveled with police escorts in New York City, and when using the state’s air fleet. The

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cops were ordered to create documents meant to cause political damage to Bruno and release them to the media. A subsequent investigation by the state Attorney General’s office looked into both Bruno’s travel and the Senate leader’s allegation that Spitzer used state police to spy on him.The report cleared Bruno of any misuse of the state’s air fleet, and criticized Spitzer’s office for using state police resources to gather information about Bruno’s travel and releasing the information to the media. Apparently dissatisfied with the Attorney General’s findings, Soares began his own investigation into possible wrongdoing by the Spitzer administration. Soares’ investigation concluded finding “no illegal conduct. To the contrary, we found that the governor, his staff and the New York State Police were acting within their authority in compiling and releasing documents to the media concerning the use of state aircraft. Soares’ approach was ques” tioned by The New York Times, in particular why he conducted certain interviews without putting the subjects under oath or without issuing subpoenas. The New York Post alleged that various Spitzer aides had been directed to lie to investigators by their superiors. Subsequently, The Buffalo News also alleged that “former Gov. Eliot L. Spitzer lied to prosecutors” about his role in Troopergate. Nevertheless, Soares said he would not pursue any criminal charges against the alreadydisgraced ex-governor. ” Sometime later, the New York State Commission on Public Integrity painted a scathing picture of stonewalling and lawlessness at the highest levels of the Spitzer administration and the State Police.The New York Public Interest Research Group said the report revealed the Spitzer administration to be “a combination of the Sopranos, the Keystone Kops and the Watergate burglars. A far cry from the ” picture Soares was painting. According to news sources, Soares responded to the allegations with a scathing and unprecedented letter to the 13 commission members, claiming that the commission’s Executive Director Herbert Teitelbaum acted improperly in trying to obtain confidential testimony given under oath by current and former Spitzer aides from the DA’s investigators. Wah wah wah. Can you believe this guy? On one hand you’ve got Soares running around leaking information contained in private medical records from innocent patients who had their legitimate prescriptions filled by Signature Pharmacy in direct violation of HIPPA laws. Then, he contradicts an Attorney General’s report defending a disgraced governor where it is alleged by not one but two agencies and three newspapers that Spitzer lied, cheated and defrauded his post in using the New York State police to spy on the New York senate majority leader, and release the information to the media. Then Soares goes ballistic, accusing the Executive Director of the state Public Integrity Commission of interfering with Soares’ criminal probe into Spitzer’s “Dirty Tricks Scandal” because he tried to obtain confidential records of Soares’ investigation! Are you kidding me??!! You’d think Soares wouldn’t mind tossing around confidential records the way he does it; not to mention defending a former prostitutepacking governor who did it. The icing on the cake has got to be Soares’ response to criticisms about Albany County taxpayers funding the investigation into Signature Pharmacy and the cost of his showboating in Florida in fancy resorts with reporters and TV crews on his arm. Soares claimed that a portion of the cost would be paid by money forfeited in previous drug investigations. Really? You want to know how much that is? Now you’re really going to laugh. In addition to the felony convictions of six physicians, the sprawling investigation by the state Health Department’s Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement and the Albany County district attorney’s office shut down several wellness centers in Florida, New York and Texas. This resulted in cash seizures and forfeitures of— are you ready for this?— almost a whopping ONE million dollars, which authorities said was the largest on record for the district attorney’s office! Did you get that? A measly million dollars is the largest haul on record for Soares’ office. A county that’s home to the freakin’ capitol of New York with over 300,000 people residing there amid what is referred to as a substantial and growing illicit drug trade…one million dollars. Wow, I’m impressed. The big question is, who pays the rest? Long after Soares has exhausted the vast resources of his whopping financial haul, who gets to finance his folly to make himself famous? Who is going to pay for the next round of grand jury proceedings, assuming there is a judge in New York stupid enough to grant his appeal? And what of his next foray into a realm where neither common sense, the constitution, nor the law would allow? Who gets to pay for Soares’ next trip to a warm location in the dead of winter with his camera crews and newspaper publicists? Who’s going to pick up the tab for his next stay at a swank resort? And if that doesn’t piss you off, what about the lives he’s ruined? What of the doctors, pharmacists, clinic owners and executives who have had their careers ruined and the athletes and celebrities who have had their reputations tarnished in the name of Soares’ out-of-state war on hormones? According to the people who live there, the streets of Albany, NY, are rife with illegal drug trade. Gang violence associated with street drugs is at an all-time high, complete with shootings that routinely send the stray bullets that claim innocent lives. Downtown Albany is a mess.Yet, all someone has to do is receive a box of innocuous hormones in the mail and Albany’s mighty DA can’t get on a plane fast enough to Florida with his press posse and reservations at a swank resort. He’s going after the source, he says, not the users. But what did he get? After four grand juries: nothing. What is he going to get? I hope sued by the people whose private medical records he compromised. But more importantly what do the people of Albany get? Who affects their livelihood, their property values and their safety more, the guy who receives a bottle of testosterone in the mail or the bangers on the corner shooting at each other for drug turf? And whom does the DA decide to go after? Note to the people of Albany: come election time get, rid of this bum!

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December 2008

The Way I See It—Romano Factor

When you think of how many bodybuilders there are in the world and you compare that to how many of us die doing it, the numbers aren’t that many. Even in light of the extremes some of us go to, bodybuilding is a relatively safe pursuit. So, when one of us (especially a young healthy vibrant example with everything going for him) gets pulled into the fold, those of us left shocked want to know why. This week, Dave Palumbo called me to tell me that one of his clients, NPC lightweight champion Joe Pearson, suddenly died while he was walking on the treadmill. WTF?? How did that happen? I mean the guy was only 39, in great shape, good health, nothing was wrong with him! It is these very mysteries that beg to be answered because we’re all standing here in shock. It’s one thing to lose a guy who was jacked to the gills, the color of raw liver and gasping each breath like it was his last. Joe was the exact opposite. In a million years, you wouldn’t think this guy would drop dead, but he did. THE WAY I SEE IT, we should let the person who knew Joe the best tell the story of why he died.The following is excerpted from a letter Joe’s girlfriend, Emily, sent to Dave Palumbo….. Given the phenomenal physique Joe worked so hard to achieve, he defended himself against speculation of substance enhancement often. (After a show, he was usually the first guy to

get pulled and tested. He always passed.) Pearson, 39, was at the top of his game when he collapsed and died at his Kennewick, Wash. gym of sudden heart attack on September 21. With no indications of any health problems, this specimen of good health made his living as an industrial hygienist protecting the safety of people in the workplace. What could explain this untimely tragedy? According to witnesses, Pearson walked for about 4 minutes on a treadmill at StarFit Fitness Club when he fell and apparently struggled to breath until paramedics arrived. His heart stopped beating. Attempts to resuscitate him failed, and he died shortly thereafter at Kennewick General Hospital.The coroner’s preliminary report states that three arteries were clogged with plaque and caused blockages to his heart. No diet, training or supplement regimen could have changed this genetic defect. His heart had to work hard to pump blood through his body, and the autopsy showed an enlarged heart as a result. Whereas the average heart weighs 365 grams, Pearson’s weighed 459 grams at the time of his death. The autopsy also showed he had suffered a previous heart attack that he was apparently unaware of. Previously, Pearson’s family and friends indicated he never complained of shortness of breath or illness….He was more than my boyfriend of two years, for all intents and purposes he was my trainer, my motivator and my best friend. Joe lived a very full life...hunting, fishing, wakeboarding and snowboarding... but it was a love of bodybuilding that so clearly demonstrated his strength of character, body and heart…. Joe was a loving and compassionate man, always willing to help others. He was the strongest person I knew and I miss him so much I ache. But as painful as it will be to walk through the door of the gym we met at almost three years ago and trained at almost every day since, I can hear his voice in my head, “Suck it up and get it done. We’re tough, and we didn’t get bodies like these by sitting around wishing. Eat clean and lift hard. Do your best and listen to your body. Never give up. So tomorrow, my ” dear friend is meeting me in the parking lot, and I’m going to walk through the door of our gym. It was who we were. Out of respect for Joe, I will lift hard, or I will go home. Godspeed, brother.The rest of you, stop what you’re doing right now and go get a physical!

No Bull Radio is proud to announce that we have finally accepted sponsorship of two exciting companies! Moving forward, Dave and I will be trying out and showcasing many new and innovative products soon to be released by each respective company. The great thing is that Dave and I worked hard to solicit two companies that do not produce competing products. We didn’t want to have to choose sides and use one product over another. This way, we can take advantage of both company’s products and report real-world experiences to you! First to step up to the plate was Met-RX founder Dr. Scott Connelly. Dave has known Dr. Connelly for many years, having worked with him at Met-RX back in the day. Their close relationship precedes our deal, as Dave and definitely vouch for the doctor. Dr. Connelly has been a guest on NBR many times and his shows have historically been our most popular. Dr. Connelly was on NBR this month talking about the first of his new product line called Progenics SRG. This is a three-part system consisting of a growth and recovery formula that you mix together as a shake and accompanying capsules taken immediately after your work out. Dr. Connelly’s groundbreaking research into whey protein fractions have resulted in a growth and recovery formula like nothing I’ve ever tried. I took the Progenics after training legs and then trained them again the next day. What I found was that after 24 hours I was not only fully recovered from the previous day’s training, but also slightly stronger! The immediate results from Progenics are northing short of drug-like. I urge you all to try it while it’s still legal! Get yours today at The next company that wants Dave and me on board is ALR Industries. I’ve known the company’s founder Author L. Rea for more years than I care to admit. Something like 15 we last calculated. The ink isn’t dry on our deal yet, but my cupboard is stocked with his whole line of ALR products. I’m loading up now and looking forward to having Author on the show soon so that we can discuss his incredible line of mass-building fare. So stay tuned to NBR Monday nights at 7 P.M. EST on

62 MD

December 2008


By Gregg Valentino
Welcome back, my friends, to the show that never ends. We’re so glad you could attend, come inside! Come inside!…. 24 HOURS A DAY BABE… 7 DAYS A WEEK, BOOYA….YOOOOOO, WHAT’S UP WHAT’S GOOD…FUCK , OFF!!!!…YO, I SAY THAT OUTTA LOVE!!!!!.... OH YEAH BABE, In the land of the witless, the half-wit is king…THE “NO BULL FORUM IS FULL OF KINGS & A ” FEW QUEENS, IF YOU READ BETWEEN THE LINES…We the willing, led by the unknowing, are doing the impossible for the ungrateful. We have done so much for so long that we are now qualified to do anything with nothing…..WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? I’M NOT SURE BUT IT SOUNDED GOOD….ANYWAY, I MUST TELL YA, THINGS ARE GETTING STEAMY ON THE FORUM THANKS TO MY POST ABOUT “WHO IS LOOKING FOR AHH, THE ONLY PROBLEM I HAVE WITH ORALS IS, I’M OUT OF THEM….EVERYONE KNOWS DAVE IS THE PRECONTEST GURU SO HERE IS A QUESTION FROM ONE OF THE MEMBERS WHO COMPETES…QUESTION: DAVE, what would you recommend for a dyazide protocol from Friday after pre-judging to the Saturday finals? ANSWER: 1/2 dyazide on Friday night before bed and another 1/2 dyazide on Saturday morning at 12 noon…SWITCHING CHANNELS FOR A MOMENT…..HERE IS A QUESTION FOR DAVE BY A MEMBER WITH STEROIDRELATED ACNE PROBLEMS…DAVE, I am planning on using accutane at 40mg/day for the first 6 weeks and see how it works before I increase it to 80mg/day. My question is 1. Should I split the dosage? YES…2. Can I take 40mg at once? YES…3. Can I run 40mg stanazolol(orally) with accutane? SURE…..4. Do I need to use Liv.52 with accutane? I wouldn’t in case it interacts with the efficacy of the ACCUTANE. Believe me, having 1-2 alcoholic drinks a night is a hell of a lot more toxic than 40mcg Accutane…. ACNE IS A BIG PROBLEM FOR A LOT OF STEROID USERS, THERE ARE EVEN A FEW PROS WHO ARE WALKING ZIT FARMS…HEY ANOTHER FAMOUS BODYBUILDER, A BODYBUILDING LEGEND TALKS TO THE MEMBERS EVERY DAY…WITH HIS WITTY COMMENTS AND POSTS, SHAWN RAY ANSWERS LOTS OF QUESTIONS….HERE IS A SAMPLE OF A FAMOUS PRO INTERACTING WITH THE MEMBERS…. Q: SHAWN, I’m really interested if you made many friendships with bodybuilders when you were competing. A: I made a few friends but mainly on the amateur side of the sport. Kevin Levrone was the closest, although Flex was in and out of my camp based on his mood. I never had it out for Flex, but loved to stick it to him when I could because he was an emotional guy who didn’t take criticism very well. That said, my friends were the guys I grew up with. I never lived far from where I was born, which helped keep me grounded. I only dealt with most of the pros on an as-needed basis, friendships were built, earned and respected in a non-confrontational, noncombative way. Kevin Levrone and I never really discussed BBing.


Q. How far out of a competition did you make a posing routine? A. 5 weeks Q. How do you feel about doing high reps for leg training? December 2008

68 MD

A. High Reps to me is anything over 20 reps! I routinely performed 12 to 15 reps per set on legs! Q. Should I just stop training my abs in general? A. That’s up to you. I personally trained my abs 3 days a week, 3 exercises for 30 reps per set. Q. Did you practice the vaccum pose or just “have it?” A. I practiced, which is what many of the youngsters fail to do these days and it shows when I watch them pose. Q. Thanks. When practicing the vaccum, did you totally exhale and then suck your stomach in? A. Correct! OK THAT’S ENOUGH, I GOTTA RUN , ROMANO IS IN TOWN AND I’M VERY HUNGRY FOR STEAK….I’LL SEE YOU ALL ON THE BOARDS….UNTIL THEN I JUST WANNA SAY..Everyone is entitled to be stupid but some people here are abusing the privilege…FUCK OFF

Albert Einstein’s THEORY OF RELATIVITY >> “Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute and it seems like an hour….. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. THAT’S relativity. ….SPEAKING ” OF PRETTY GIRLS I WOULDN’T MIND SITTING WITH MY HAND ON THIS PRETTY FORUM MEMBER FOR A MINUTE…OOOPS SHE IS ALREADY TAKEN, DAMN!!! …OH YEAH BABE, AND SHE HAS THAT SEXY DARK GOTH LOOK I DIG SO MUCH…OH YUM!!!!…THIS MONTH I PRESENT YOU THE VERY SEXY … Wendy Hajik …. QUESTION: Hey Wendy, Do you know karate? Cause, your body is really kickin girl…… Name: Wendy Hajik Forum Name: BlackWidowGirl Age: 25 Zodiac Sign: Capricorn Hometown: New Berlin, WI Height: 5’2” Measurements: 35-27-37 Eyes: Brown Off-Season Weight: 132 Competition Weight: 125 Favorite Food: Anything Chocolate Favorite Junk Food: Chocolate-Covered Chocolate Favorite Quote: I would rather be hated for who I am than loved for who I am not... Favorite Makeup: Black eye shadow and black nail polish Favorite Body Part To Train: Legs Your Best Asset (Body part): Legs Future Plans/Goals: Make a living through working out and being in shape. After serving four years as a B-52 jet mechanic in the Air Force, my fitness level had decreased significantly. One random day, however, I got off of the couch and went for a run Forrest Gump-style and found a new addiction. I quickly grew bored of running and realized that chicks really should weight train. I joined a December 2008

speed-training program that included sprint training, plyometrics, agility, and weightlifting three days a week. Two years later and a move from Minot AFB, North Dakota to Dallas, Texas has led me to getting my airframe and powerplant mechanic license, a personal training certification and a brand new path in the sport of bodybuilding. As of right now, my main focus is on the fitness division but I do intend on trying out figure and bodybuilding at some point. I am so new to this and can’t wait to see where it will lead me! There have been so many people who have played integral roles in my journey to my first competition. To Jodi Miller, my posing coach/competition advisor and true friend: Thank you so for all of your help and advice for getting me ready for my first time onstage! To Isaac, my amazing boyfriend/trainer/nutritionist: Thank you so much for believing in me and seeing my potential. I love you always! This fun, new direction my life has taken will finally give me an outlet to focus my true desire for competition GJ! “Every girl should use what Mother Nature gave her before Father Time takes it away. …..THANK YOU WENDY, WEL” COME TO THE MD FAMILY. JUST TO LET YOU KNOW, I’ve just moved you to the top of my “to do” list. ….OH YEAH, BABE…SHE IS A HOTTIE. MD 69
“A WARRIOR DOESN’T PICK HIS BATTLES, A WARRIOR IS TOLD WHERE HIS BATTLES WILL BE. THAT’S WHERE HE GOES AND FIGHTS WITH HONOR”…IF THERE WAS EVER A WARRIOR IN BODYBUILDING, IT’S THIS NEXT GUY NICK SCOTT aka The Beast ON THE MD “NO BULL FORUM… THIS GUY HAS ” GONE THROUGH HELL AND NOW RULES THE STAGE OF LIFE, NOT TO MENTION WHATEVER BODYBUILDING CONTEST HE ENTERS……NICK SCOTT IS LIVING PROOF OF MY FAVORITE Arnold Schwarzenegger QUOTE: “Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide not to surrender, that is strength. ….OH YEAH, BABE. ” Name: Nick Scott Forum Name: The Beast Hometown: Ottawa, Canada Age: 26 Years Bodybuilding: Almost 3 years Goal for the future: To bring more awareness to the sport of wheelchair bodybuilding ing everything? Perspective. At that point, it wasn’t about if my glass was half empty or half full; I am just grateful I have a glass. The type of diet Nick Scott maintains: 1,5004,000 calories; 50% protein; 30% carbs; 20% fat; for contest: 200-400g of protein; 50-150g carbs; 20-50g fat Nick Scott’s type of training is two days on, one day off, then a three days on, one day off split. “I keep my reps between 8-12 and working sets 12-20, depending on which muscle group I’m training. ” WORDS OF WISDOM: I felt like I had lost everything and was helpless. It was when I went back to the gym at school, something snapped in me. I told myself that if I couldn’t do a lot of things that I used to, the one thing that I could do was be stronger than everyone. And that’s when I started bench pressing again. It wasn’t bench pressing that changed my mindset; it was striving toward a goal.

Bodybuilding Achievements:
Back in August of 1998 I was involved in an accident that would forever change my life. The left front tire on my vehicle blew out and rolled my vehicle five-and-ahalf times. I was ejected through the driver’s side window, and eventually collided with my vehicle in mid-air. The outcome of these unfortunate circumstances was a broken back and a damaged spine at T-12 and L-1— requiring titanium rods to be vertically bolted to my spine. I was diagnosed as paraplegic, and was told that it would be physically impossible to ever walk again. That day a part of me died; yet at the same time another part of me was born. What’s the one thing you gain from los2008 Muscle Mayhem, First, Wheelchair, Kansas City, MO 2008 Wheelchair Nationals, Fourth, Heavyweight, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 2007 Rocky Mountain Championship, “BEST MALE POSER” Denver, CO 2007 Rocky Mountain Championship, First, Wheelchair, Denver, CO 2007 Debbie Kruck Classic, Second, Wheelchair, Daytona Beach, FL 2007 Caveman Classic, First, Wheelchair Mixed Pairs, St. Louis, MO *1st Wheelchair Mixed Pair in Bodybuilding History! 2007 Caveman Classic, First, Wheelchair, St. Louis, MO 2007 USA Wheelchair Championship, First, Heavyweight, Metairie, LA 2007 Wheelchair Nationals, Third, Heavyweight, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 2006 Rocky Mountain Championship, First, Wheelchair, Denver, CO 2006 Wheelchair Nationals, Second, Heavyweight, Palm Beach Gardens, FL ***COMPETED AGAINST ABLE BODYBUILDERS AS A WHEELCHAIR BODYBUILDER 2007 Kansas City Gold’s Classic, “BEST MALE POSER,” Overland Park, KS 2007 Kansas City Gold’s Classic, Third Mixed Pairs, Overland Park, KS “When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one that has been opened for us….HEY NICK, IT’S AN HONOR TO HAVE YOU AS PART OF THE MD FAMILY, YOU ARE TRULY AN INSPIRATION…..YOU ROCK!!!!!!!! December 2008

70 MD


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Should You Train to Failure?
Bodybuilders are bombarded with slogans such as, “No pain, no gain,” and “You must burn to grow.” Inspirational films, such as the Rocky Balboa movies, reinforce the concept that you can’t work hard enough and that more is better. This training philosophy accounts for the popularity of “boot camp” workouts and fitness challenges such as the United States Secret Service 10-minute One-Arm Kettlebell Snatch Test that push people to absolute failure. Is failure training necessary for peak fitness and is this type of training safe? Jeffrey Willardson and colleagues from Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, IL found that training to failure was no more effective for building muscle endurance than a program with a fixed number of sets and reps. Muscle tension and time under tension are two critical factors for building muscle mass and strength. Training to failure reduces muscle tension to the point where the extra work is no longer beneficial. Failure training can also be dangerous and even deadly because it can destroy muscle tissue. This condition, called rhabdomyolysis, releases the muscle contents into the bloodstream, which can cause kidney failure. The popularity of failure training has triggered a mini epidemic of rhabdomyolysis in the United States. (International Journal Sports Physiology Performance, 3: 279-293, 2008)

obliques, transversus abdominis). This makes the exercise less effective for targeting the abdominal muscles and puts excessive strain on the spine. Nearly 50 years ago, therapists suggested that bent-knee sit-ups were superior to straight-leg situps because they minimized the activity of the hip flexor muscles. Unfortunately, biomechanical scientists found that both straight-leg and bent-knee sit-ups produced unacceptable loads on the spine. Canadian scientists, led by Chad Workman, found that the Janda sit-up maximized the load on the abdominal muscles while minimizing the activity of the hip flexors. The Janda sit-up: Lie on your back with knees bent and feet off the floor and calf muscles supported by a spotter. Do a standard curl-up, while pushing down against the spotter’s hands and contracting your hamstring and glute muscles. Contracting the hams and glutes (hip extensors) inhibits the hip flexors from contracting— a phenomenon called reciprocal inhibition. The Janda sit-up is an effective way to build the ab muscles, while minimizing the load on the spine. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1563-1569, 2008)

Chronic Weight Training Decreases Short-Term Hormonal Responses To Exercise
Anabolic hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-1 decrease with age. Low levels of these hormones increase the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, decreased muscle and bone mass, prostate cancer and depression. Anabolic hormone loss also impairs metabolic health, promotes obesity and decreases sexual performance. It is a serious public health issue that robs men of their energy levels and quality of life. Intense weight training increases anabolic hormone levels and has been suggested as a way of combating hormone decline in middle-aged men. Brazilian researchers, led by Eduardo Cadore, found that total testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin increased more in untrained men than in trained men following an intense weight-training workout. Aging men with low levels of testosterone and growth hormone can’t count on exercise to boost hormone levels and might require hormone replacement therapy to maintain optimal health. In a recent interview with Muscular Development, Harvard urology professor Dr. Abraham Morgentaler, author of Testosterone for Life (New York: McGraw Hill, 2009) commented, “While exercise and diet can influence testosterone, it is doubtful that lifestyle changes alone will compensate for extremely low levels. I urge my patients to exercise and eat healthy diets because it makes them feel better and enhances overall health.” (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1617-1624, 2008)

Janda Sit-Up Builds Abs With Less Stress On Hip Flexors
Six-pack abs are the bodybuilder’s Holy Grail. A basic challenge for athletes is how to build the abdominal muscles without injuring the back. Many abdominal exercises, such as straight-leg sit-ups, work the hip flexors at the expense of the ab muscles (rectus abdominis, internal and external

78 MD December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Training Volume More Important Than Intensity For Glucose Uptake After Weight Training
Weight training increases muscle mass and strength; it also boosts metabolic health by improving blood sugar regulation. Aerobic and resistance training increase glucose (sugar) uptake capacity following exercise. Poor blood sugar regulation is linked to the Metabolic Syndrome— a group of symptoms that include hypertension (high blood pressure), type 2 diabetes, abdominal fat deposition, abnormal blood fats, inflammation and blood-clotting abnormalities. Glucose uptake during recovery from exercise is vital for restoring glycogen (stored carbohydrate), which prepares the body for future workouts. Paul Luebbers from Emporia State University and colleagues found that training volume influenced glucose uptake during recovery from weight training more than training intensity. They infused small amounts of glucose continuously after high and low intensity weight-training programs of the same volume (total work). The study showed that high and low intensity weight-training programs could improve blood sugar metabolism. People can benefit from many types of weight training; it is an important technique for promoting metabolic health and improving the quality of life. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1094-1100, 2008) a bench press (negatives). Muscles can exert more force eccentrically (lengthening contractions) than concentrically (shortening contractions), so muscle soreness and injury is more common in exercises involving eccentric contractions. Muscles increase in strength and size largely by repairing small injuries to the muscle fibers, and adapting by adding muscle protein so that similar loads are less stressful in the future. Kyle Hackney and co-workers from Wayne State University in Detroit found that creatine kinase (a marker of muscle injury and inflammation) and resting energy expenditure were higher in untrained people than in trained people in the days following an intense weighttraining workout. The program, designed to induce muscle soreness, involved 8 sets of 6 repetitions for eight exercises. The training cadence was 1 second for each concentric contraction and 3 seconds for each eccentric contraction. The study showed the weight-trained people adapted to intense muscle contractions and developed protection against potentially damaging exercise. Conversely, muscle damage and the resulting repair process were greater in untrained people. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1602-1609, 2008) tion to intense exercise that damages muscle tissue. Linda Yamamoto from the University of Connecticut at Storrs and co-workers found that hydration status had no effect on myoglobin or creatine kinase (two markers of muscle damage) following intense weight training (squats, 6 sets of up to 10 reps). The test subjects completed the workout while dehydrated, normally hydrated and overhydrated. The researchers concluded that dehydration did not contribute to muscle damage during intense weight training. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1387-1393, 2008)

Electrical Stimulation Increases Growth Hormone And Causes Muscle Damage
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has fascinated athletes and scientists for more than 100 years. It looks like the lazy man’s dream exercise machine: You attach electrodes to your muscles, sit back, and let the machine do the work. Scores of studies found that while EMS increased muscle strength and size following surgery or injury, it was less effective than traditional volitional exercise for increasing muscle fitness in athletes. Marc Jubeau and colleagues from the University of Bourgogne in Dijon, France found that EMS increased growth hormone, creatine kinase (a marker of muscle damage), and muscle soreness more than a similar amount of volitional exercise. Anabolic hormones and metabolic stress stimulate muscle growth and strength. Electrical muscle stimulation caused changes within the muscles that could enhance training gains. EMS might be a valuable adjunct training method when combined with traditional weight-training exercises. (Journal Applied Physiology, 104: 75-8 81, 2008)

Dehydration Does Not Increase Muscle Damage Following Intense Weight Training
High-volume training programs, such as “boot camp” and high-rep to failure workouts, increase the risk of muscle damage. Extensive muscle injury can lead to rhabdomyolysis that involves leakage of muscle chemicals such as myoglobin and creatine kinase into the bloodstream, which can cause kidney failure. Treatment involves infusing fluids intravenously. It seems reasonable that fluid (hydration) status would influence the reac-

Eccentric Exercise Less Stressful In Trained People
Muscle soreness is most often associated with eccentric exercise— muscle contractions that occur as the fibers lengthen. Examples include walking or running downhill and lowering the weight to the chest during

80 MD December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Fat Loss
The Skinny on the Mediterranean Diet
The Mediterranean diet— high in olive oil, lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables and red wine— promotes longevity and reduces the risk of heart disease, some types of cancer, and blood vessel inflammation. The diet might also combat obesity, but what’s the evidence? A review of literature by Genevieve Buckland from the Catalan Institute of Oncology in Barcelona, Spain and colleagues found 21 studies that examined the link between obesity and the Mediterranean diet. While only half the studies showed that people following the diet were less likely to be obese, no study showed that the Mediterranean diet promoted weight gain. In fact, in long-term studies, people following the diet were 29 percent less likely to become obese. Cross-sectional studies showed a 51 percent reduced risk for becoming overweight or obese. Several intervention studies (i.e., subjects followed the Mediterranean diet to lose weight) showed weight losses of more than 30 pounds. The diet may prevent weight gain because of its low energy density, low glycemic load (lower in simple sugars), and high water content. The diet is low in saturated and trans fats and high in monounsaturated fats, which might have health benefits. (Obesity Reviews, in press, published online June 10, 2008) thinner than the average American. A study by Abu Mourad and co-workers from the University of Crete School of Medicine combined the results of 102 studies on obesity rates in 21 Mediterranean countries (European, Middle Eastern, African) conducted between 1997 and 2007. The study showed that 20 percent of adult males

Obese Young Men Have Erection Problems
Fitness and metabolic health are the keys to good sex because they provide physical and mental benefits. Metabolically fit men can control blood flow to the penis that gives them erections on demand, staying power for prolonged, wild sex and hormone regulation that maximizes desire, instills confidence, but maintains control. A study of young men (aged 20-45) living in Denmark showed that obesity increased the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) by 274 percent. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more (BMI is a measure of the proportion of height to weight). Surprisingly, ED was more prevalent in obese non-smokers than smokers. Obesity was not related to premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation or problems with sexual desire (libido). Abdominal obesity is an important sign of poor metabolic health and sexual dysfunction. Men who have big guts often have insulin resistance, which is a sure sign of poor blood flow control to the penis, reduced testosterone levels, poor physical fitness and a host of health problems that increase the risk of heart attack, stroke and some types of cancer. Diet and exercise are the keys to reducing abdominal fat, improving metabolic health and boosting sexual performance. (Journal Of Sexual Medicine, 5:2053–2060, 2008)

People Living in Mediterranean Countries are Getting Fatter
The Mediterranean diet promotes longevity and prevents heart disease and obesity. However, people living in Mediterranean countries are getting fatter because many are hooked on fast foods and no longer consume traditional diets. However, they’re still

and 25 percent of adult females living in Mediterranean countries were obese, compared to 33 percent of Americans. Only 10 percent of Mediterranean kids were obese compared to 17 percent in the United States. European children living in Mediterranean countries were more obese than kids from Mediterranean countries in Africa or the Middle East. Obesity rates increased alarmingly in the European parts of the Mediterranean and coincided with decreased levels of physical activity. As in America, health experts recommend that people should do more exercise and eat healthier foods. Perhaps they should return to the Mediterranean diet. (Obesity Reviews, 9:389- 399, 2008)

Growth Hormone Amps Up Fat Breakdown During Fasting
Many people go cold turkey by fasting when trying to lose a lot of weight. Anyone who’s ever taken growth hormone supplements knows that the hormone is an incredible fat burner. Researchers from the University of Michigan, led by Alla Sakharova, found that growth hormone plays a central

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

88 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Fat Loss
role in fat burning during fasting. During a two-day fast, growth hormone increased by 400 percent, fat breakdown increased by 100 percent and insulin decreased by 80 percent. They measured the effects of growth hormone on fat breakdown by blocking growth hormone production by about 65 percent with a drug called growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). Preventing growth hormone release during fasting with GHRH wiped out the increased rate of fat breakdown. They concluded that growth hormone plays a limited role in fat turnover when people follow normal feeding schedules, but plays a major role in fat breakdown during fasting. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 93:2755 – 2759, 2008) diets to promote fat loss. These diets might also inhibit IGF-1 production in healthy bodybuilders, which might compromise gains in muscle mass and strength. (Epilepsia, in press; published online August 2008)

Weight Loss Decreases Biologically Active Testosterone
Gains in muscle mass and strength depend on adequate blood levels of testosterone. Studies by Shalender Bhasin (now at Boston University) and colleagues such as Tom Storer showed that muscle mass increased in direct proportion to testosterone levels. A significant portion of testosterone is bound to serum hormonebinding globulin (SHBG) and is unavailable for anabolic activities, such as synthesizing muscle protein. SHBG increases with age, which partially explains why aging men gradually lose muscle mass, even though their total testosterone levels remain within the normal range. A review of literature conducted by scientists from the Laval University Medical Research Center in Quebec, Canada concluded that SHBG increases during weight loss, particularly in obese people. The increases are greater in women than men. One study found that high-protein diets prevent increases in SHBG better than high-carbohydrate diets. However, during weight loss, changes in SHBG are independent of dietary composition. The study showed that these hormone changes are most significant during pronounced weight loss. Bodybuilders should attempt to lose fat gradually so they can maintain higher levels of biologically active free testosterone and preserve muscle mass. (Nutritional Reviews, 66:506 516, 2008)

Ketogenic Diets Suppresses IGF-1 Levels
The body produces ketones, such as acetone, acetoacetate, and betahydroxybutyrate, during low calorie intake and carbohydrate restriction. Low-carbohydrate diets— sometimes called ketogenic diets— are more effective than low-calorie, mixed- or high-carbohydrate diets for short-term weight loss. The brain and nervous system use mainly glucose (blood sugar) as fuel but can also use ketones when carbs are unavailable. Ketones, however, suppress the appetite center in the brain, which might explain why low-carb diets cause rapid weight loss. Ketones cause an improved sense of wellbeing and produce mild euphoria. Ketogenic diets have been used to suppress epileptic seizures since the 1920s. A study from the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden showed that ketogenic diets slowed growth rates and suppressed IGF-1 levels in children with epilepsy. IGF-1 is a powerful anabolic hormone produced mainly in the liver in response to growth hormone release. Many bodybuilders follow ketogenic

Do Dairy Foods Promote Fat Loss?
High calcium and dairy food intake are linked to lower bodyweight and

total fat. This association is highly controversial, but prompted many people to eat more dairy products. Angelo Tremblay and colleagues from Laval University in Quebec, Canada, in a review of literature, concluded that calcium and dairy food intake influence weight loss, particularly during calorie-restricted diets. He made several observations: • Most people do not consume the recommended amount of calcium in their diets. Conversely, high sugar soft drink consumption has increased 300 percent in the last 10 years. • Several large, well-controlled studies showed that low calcium and dairy intake are linked to increased body fat and adults. • Low-calcium intake is an excellent predictor of excess body fat and weight in children. • Low-calcium consumers lose weight when they supplement dairy foods and calcium. • During calorie-restricted diets, consuming dairy foods preserves muscle mass. • Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of the Metabolic Syndrome, which includes symptoms such as high blood pressure, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, inflammation, abnormal blood fats and bloodclotting abnormalities. • Calcium supplements improve blood fat profiles and decrease abdominal fat deposition. • Increased calcium intake promotes fat cell death. • High calcium intake increases levels of uncoupling proteins in cells, which increase the rate that the body burns calories. • High calcium intake increases fat excretion in the feces and increases post-meal fat use. • Inadequate calcium intake promotes hunger. • Dairy products contain high-quality proteins that help suppress appetite. They concluded that we need more long-term studies to determine the role of dairy products in promoting weight control, but that most data support the value of these foods in fighting fat. (Obesity Reviews, 9: 428-445, 2008)

90 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Strength Linked to Longer Life
Get strong if you want to live longer. Most exercise recommendations mention muscle strength as an afterthought. Aerobic exercise strengthens the cardiovascular system, protects the heart and blood vessels from disease, and reduces the risk of heart attack and heart-related sudden death. A 19year long study of 8,762 men age 20 to 80 conducted at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden found that men with the highest levels of strength were less likely to die each year from heart disease, cancer, or any other cause. The men received medical exams and physical fitness tests during the 1980s and their status was reevaluated nearly 20 years later. Greater strength reduced the risk of death from all causes by 32 percent, 50 percent from heart attack and 32 percent from cancer compared to the weakest onethird of the men. Increasing strength might make you live longer and increase the quality of life. Weight training should not be a substitute for aerobic exercise— you should do both. (British Medical Journal, 337: a439 2008) time in some men, they usually caused complications such as bone and muscle loss, erectile dysfunction, loss of sex drive, breast tissue development and abdominal fat deposition. Treatment increased the risk of depression, poor blood sugar regulation, high cholesterol, hypertension (increased resting blood pressure), blood-clotting abnormalities, blood vessel inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Testosterone suppression also increased the risk of death from heart disease. For men suffering from prostate cancer, suppressing testosterone might be like throwing the baby out with the bathwater. (Journal Andrology, 29:534- 539, 2008) below normal body temperature (98.6°F or 37°C). The researchers did not measure the effects of heated car seats on sperm production quality, so it’s difficult to determine their long-term effects. Over the years, researchers have speculated about other practices that might increase scrotal temperature, such as wearing cotton briefs and sitting in hot tubs. The take-home message is don’t let your sack get too hot. (Fertility Sterility, 90: 335-339, 2008)

Sleep Loss Causes Inflammation
Inflammation is the body’s response to injury and cellular disruption. It is linked to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Physicians routinely screen for inflammation with blood tests such as C-reactive protein and nuclear factor (NF)-KB. A study from UCLA found that disturbed sleep, even for a few hours, triggered inflammation in the body’s cells and organs. The scientists found that (NF)-KB levels were lower after a good night’s sleep compared to partial sleep deprivation, in which people stayed awake between 11 p.m. and 3 a.m. Sleep deprivation is linked to a variety of health problems including obesity, heart disease, arthritis, and some cancers. America is a high-stress society in which most people don’t get enough sleep. We could be paying for it with our health. (Biological Psychiatry, 64: 538-540, 2008)

Nasty Side Effects from Blocking Testosterone in Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer treatment often involves blocking testosterone with drugs such as leuprolide (Lupron, Viadur, Eligard), goserelin (Zoladex) and triptorelin (Trelstar). While these drugs often reduce prostate cancer size, their side effects are often worse than the disease itself. A review of literature by Dr. Shehzad Basaria from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine concluded that while the drugs increased survival

Heated Seats Bad For Fertility
The heated car seat is the ultimate symbol of American decadence and opulence. It could be reducing fertility rate of an entire generation of affluent young men. German researchers, led by Dr. Andreas Jung, showed that men using heated seats for 90 minutes experienced an increase in scrotum temperature, which has been linked to decreased sperm count and quality. They also found that sitting in the same spot for prolonged periods raised the temperature of the scrotum. The ideal scrotal temperature is slightly

Weight Training Improves Blood Vessel Health in Aging Men
Healthy blood vessels are essential for preventing heart disease, stroke, diabetes and optimizing sexual performance. Blood vessels secrete a chemical called nitric oxide that regulates blood flow. Aerobic exercise increases blood vessel health and nitric oxide production. Weight training increases muscle mass and

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

98 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

strength, but is linked to increased blood vessel stiffness, which could decrease nitric oxide secretion and impair health. Japanese researchers found that weight-training increased nitric oxide release by nearly 100 percent in 64-year-old men without increasing arterial stiffness. Weight training may be the most important exercise for older adults. It improves metabolic health and increases muscle and bone strength that enhance the quality of life. (British Journal Sports Medicine, 40:867-869, 2006) also impairs metabolic health, promotes obesity, and decreases sexual performance. It is a serious public health issue that robs men of energy levels and quality of life. A study from the New England Research Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on men 30-79 years of age found that low testosterone levels increased the risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a wide variety of racial and ethnic groups. The Metabolic Syndrome is a group of symptoms that include high blood pressure, abnormal blood fats, inflammation, poor blood sugar regulation, abdominal fat deposition and blood clotting abnormalities. Low blood testosterone is an important marker of poor metabolic health and should be a standard measurement in aging men. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 93:34033410, 2008)

New Surgery for Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia is the development of female-like breast tissue in men caused by elevated estrogen levels. A portion of testosterone is converted naturally to estrogens by a process called aromatization. Gynecomastia is common in bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids and in adolescents with surging testosterone levels because a portion of the male hormone is converted to estrogen. The condition is extremely embarrassing and distressing to young men. While liposuction can help some men, serious cases often require extensive breast and skin surgery. In the past, most plastic surgeons used the same procedure they used for female breast cancer patients, which cause scarring and abnormal shaping of the breasts and nipples. Egyptian scientists described a surgery for gynecomastia called the horizontal ellipse method that resulted in minimal scarring and better breast shape and symmetry compared to other surgical methods. The best strategy is to avoid getting gynecomastia in the first place. (Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 32: 795-8 801, 2008)

Does Spinal Manipulation Stimulate Muscle Growth and Repair?
Many bodybuilders see chiropractors to treat back and neck pain. Treatment typically involves spinal manipulation that reduces pressure on sensitive spinal nerves and reduces symptoms. A study from the McTimoney College of Chiropractic in the United Kingdom suggested that spinal manipulation might have benefits beyond changing the positions of spinal bones. Spinal manipulation causes rapid stretching of the muscles in the neck and back. This might increase the activity of the gene regulating IGF-1, a powerful muscle growth factor that promotes muscle growth and repair of muscles and nerves. They provided only circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis, so we need more research before we can say that spinal manipulation influences nerve and muscle metabolism. (Medical Hypotheses, in press; published online in July 2008)

Low Testosterone Linked To Declining Health
Low testosterone (T) levels increase the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, muscle and bone loss, prostate cancer, and depression. It

100 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Cinnamic Acid Improves Blood Sugar Regulation
Some of the simplest foods are sometimes the healthiest. Cinnamon is a popular kitchen spice used to flavor oatmeal, desserts, coffee and hot chocolate. It also promotes insulin metabolism and improves blood sugar control. Its active ingredient is cinnamic acid, which is also found in fruits, vegetables and flowers. Thai researchers found that adding cinnamic acid to cultured pancreatic cells (the pancreas secretes insulin) increased insulin release by as much as 300 percent. In humans, Swedish scientists found that including 6 grams of cinnamon in rice pudding reduced blood sugar and delayed emptying of the pudding from the stomach without affecting hunger. Cinnamon contains antioxidants called phenols that decrease inflammation and promote blood vessel health. Even small doses of cinnamon were helpful. People who ate 1 gram of cinnamon per day— about a half teaspoon— for 40 days showed reduced blood sugar, triglycerides (blood fats), LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol), and total cholesterol. Including cinnamon in the diet might reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Bodybuilders would benefit by sprinkling a teaspoon of cinnamon on their oatmeal at breakfast. (Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56: 7838–7844, 2008; American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 85:1552–1556, 2007) Peter Cisár from the Comenius University School of Medicine in Bratislava, Slovakia and colleagues found that Pycnogenol reduced pain in people suffering from knee arthritis. One hundred people were given 150 milligrams of Pycnogenol or a placebo (fake Pycnogenol) per day for three months. Pain decreased gradually throughout the study without side effects. By the that chemicals in the supplement called catechins, particularly epigallocatechin3-gallate, help enhance metabolic health, fight free radical formation and decrease fat. Green tea extract enhances the health of the endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels), which decreases resistance to blood flow and reduces blood pressure. A study led by Italia Papparella from the University of Padova in Italy showed that GTE reduced blood pressure and prevented heart enlargement in rats by altering free radical metabolism. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals produced naturally during metabolism that are linked to aging, immune system breakdown, heart disease and cancer. Other studies found that GTE slowed cell death in cell cultures and promoted recovery after a heart attack or stroke. An 11-year study of more than 40,000 Japanese adults found that people who drank the largest amount of green tea had reduced death rates from all causes and from cardiovascular disease compared to people who didn’t drink green tea. Green tea extract looks like an excellent supplement that promotes metabolic health and speeds weight loss. (Journal Nutrition, 138: 1596–1601, 2008; American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 87: 778–784, 2008)

Pycnogenol Reduces Knee Arthritis Pain
Pycnogenol is a plant extract from the bark of the maritime pine tree that grows in southwestern France. It suppresses inflammation, strengthens connective tissue and increases nitric oxide secretion— an important chemical for blood flow regulation. Pycnogenol studies show that the supplement might be useful for treating menstrual cramps, erectile dysfunction and muscle cramps.

end of the study, pain decreased by 40 percent; 38 percent of the subjects were able to reduce their dosage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., Advil); 38 percent reported less stiffness and 52 percent reported improved physical function. Pycnogenol appears to be a safe supplement. Side effects include headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, dizziness and allergic reactions. In diabetics, it could theoretically interfere with blood sugar control, but this side effect has not been reported in the scientific literature. Pycnogenol appears to be a useful and safe supplement for bodybuilders. (Phytotherapy Research, 22: 1087–1092, 2008)

Caffeine Boosts Repeated Sprint Performance
Caffeine is an effective supplement for increasing strength and power. It is currently legal in Olympic sports, but restricted in college and high school athletics. Most studies show that caffeine, even in moderate doses, boosts performance in high-intensity and endurance sports, reduces fatigue, improves concentration, and enhances mental alertness. Many bodybuilders take caffeine supplements before workouts to increase training intensity and energy levels. Scientific studies disagree on the effectiveness of caffeine as a performance-enhancing supplement during high-intensity exercise. A British study led by Mark Glaister from St. Mary’s

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

Green Tea Extract Reduces the Load on the Heart
Green tea extract (GTE) is a popular weight-loss supplement that also improves blood vessel health and blood sugar regulation. It is not a magic bullet that instantly improves metabolic health, but it helps. Scientists speculate

108 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

University College showed that caffeine (average of 385 milligrams) increased performance during repeated short sprints (12 X 30-meter sprints repeated at 35-second intervals). Caffeine boosted peak sprint performance by 0.06 seconds compared to a placebo (fake caffeine), an improvement of 1.4 percent. Caffeine also delayed fatigue during the workout by 1.2 percent. Caffeine didn’t make the sprints seem any easier (perceived exertion), but it increased heart rate more than the placebo. Caffeine had only a small effect on repeated sprint performance. However, it could mean the difference between winning and losing. (Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 40: 1835–1840, 2008) effects as anabolic steroids. (The Tan Sheet, August 11, 2008)

CLA Needs D6D to Promote Fat Loss
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a popular supplement with bodybuilders because it cuts abdominal fat and reduces inflammation linked to insulin resistance, diabetes, and poor sexual performance. CLA is a fatty acid found in beef and dairy fats and is also available in higher concentrations in CLA supplements. Most animal studies, but only 50 percent of human studies, found that CLA reduced body fat. We can infer from this that there might be responders and non-responders to the supplement. A University of Nebraska study led by Kimberly Hargrave-Barns showed that CLA-triggered fat loss depends on an enzyme called alpha-6-desaturase (D6D). Genetics and environmental factors influence D6D activity and the capacity of CLA to promote fat loss. These include aging, smoking, insulin resistance, inadequate intake of vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc; poor metabolic health, and high intake of saturated and trans fats. People who are genetically prone to obesity, such as the Pima Indians, also have lower levels of D6D. This study sends an important message: a drug or supplement that works in one person might not work in another. (Obesity, in press; published online July 24, 2008)

CRN Issues DHEA Marketing Guidelines
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is produced naturally in the adrenal glands, gonads, fat and skin. It is eventually converted to androstenedione, testosterone and estrogens. It is a popular anti-aging supplement. The Tanushimaru Study (J Amer Geriatr Soc, 56 (6), 2008) found that low levels of DHEA were linked to reduced lifespan and men with the highest levels lived longer. Unfortunately, DHEA is caught up in the political steroid frenzy that grips many of our politicians (who should have more important things to worry about). Some supplement makers have marketed the supplements as alternatives to anabolic steroids. Several bills were introduced in Congress to limit the sale of the supplement. The Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), a trade association that represents the food supplement industry, issued advertising guidelines to its members that prohibit marketing DHEA as an anabolic supplement and targeting young people under age 18. DHEA does not improve athletic performance or increase testosterone levels in low doses (25 to 100 milligrams). However, it will increase testosterone levels in very high doses (greater than 800 milligrams), but will also increase estrogen levels and have the same side

in Canada, in a review of literature, concluded that the combination of weight training and creatine monohydrate generated satellite cells that had the characteristics of young muscle. The satellite cells are integrated into the old muscle, which reverses many of the effects of aging. Adding conjugated linoleic acid supplements helps decrease body fat and increase lean mass. Creatine supplementation combined with weight training increases muscle nuclei (the genetic centers of cells), which also has the effect of making muscles “younger.” They concluded that the combination of weight training, creatine monohydrate, and CLA has important anti-aging effects, but it is not known how long these changes can be maintained. (Applied Physiology Nutrition Metabolism, 33: 213 – 227, 2008)

Creatine Is Safe For Soccer Players
Creatine is one of the most popular sport supplements on the planet. It increases muscle mass, strength, and performance in some high-intensity sports. Creatine has few reported side effects. High doses (i.e., greater than 20 g per day) cause large increases in blood formaldehyde levels, which can be toxic to the kidneys and the cells lining the blood vessels. Carlos Ohanian from the University of Uruguay and co-workers found that soccer players who took creatine for 56 days experienced no changes in blood or urinary health markers. Fourteen soccer players were assigned to either a creatine or placebo (fake creatine) group. The creatine group took 15 grams per day of creatine for seven days and 3 grams per day for 49 days. Only the creatine group gained weight during the study. Creatine kinase (a marker of muscle damage) increased and uric acid (a marker of amino acid metabolism) decreased in the creatine group, but the changes were more likely due to training than the supplement. Creatine appears to be safe for short-time use, but we still need more detailed research on the long-term safety and effectiveness of this supplement. (British Journal Sports Medicine, 42: 731-735, 2008)

Weight Training, Creatine and CLA Slow the Aging Process
Muscle mass, strength, and muscle cell function decrease with age. Aging causes loss of functional motor units (nerve and muscle cells), abnormal mitochondria (cell energy centers), nerve cell death and DNA destruction. Gradually, muscle cells lose the ability to repair damage, which causes further deterioration in muscle function. Weight training can partially restore lost muscle function in older adults. Mark Tarnopolsky and Adeel Safdar from McMaster University

110 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Weight Training and Creatine Increase Muscle IGF-1
Muscle growth requires muscle tension, anabolic hormones, amino acids and energy. Creatine monohydrate stimulates muscle growth by increasing muscle creatine phosphate (an important energy source), promoting creatine phosphate resynthesis during exercise, optimizing cell water levels, increasing satellite cell activity (important for cell repair and growth) and initiating protein synthesis in the cells. IGF-1 is an important anabolic hormone that is produced mainly in the liver in response to increased growth hormone levels. It is also produced in the muscle cells themselves. A Canadian study from the University of Regina showed that weight training (eight weeks) increased muscle IGF-1 levels by 54 percent and that the addition of creatine (0.2g of creatine monohydrate per kilogram lean mass per day) increased it by an additional 24 percent. Creatine supplements increased muscle creatine levels more in vegetarians than in meat eaters, but the increases in IGF-1 were not influenced by diet. Weight training and creatine monohydrate supplements increase muscle IGF-1 levels, which promote muscle protein synthesis and increase muscle size and strength. (International Journal Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 18: 389-398, 2008) the calcium out of the muscles, so they remained contracted. Calcium is the trigger for muscle contractions. Physically fit people can release and store calcium efficiently, which allows rapid muscle contractions and relaxation. Poor calcium control causes fatigue and decreased muscle strength and power. Japanese researchers, in a study on rats, found that feeding chicken breast extract for five weeks improved muscle calcium metabolism regulation (i.e., Ca2+-ATPase activity) following a 2.5-minute intense sprint exercise. The treated animals showed 15 percent and 45 percent increases in muscle carnosine and anserine levels, which are important for calcium metabolism. It is not known whether these results apply to humans or how much chicken you would have to eat to slow fatigue. Chicken Nuggets are Olympic sprint sensation Usain Bolt’s favorite food; perhaps he’s on to something. (International Journal Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 18: 399-411, 2008)

trol, exercise, reducing salt and alcohol consumption, and eating more fruits and vegetables. Chinese researchers, pooling the results of 12 studies using a statistical method called meta-analysis, found that the consumption of milk peptides reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Milk peptides are groups of amino acids formed during the digestion of milk. Examples include whey and whey isolates. Milk peptides reduced blood pressure best in people with hypertension or pre-hypertension (blood pressure greater than 130/80). The effects of dairy consumption on obesity and blood pressure are extremely controversial and require further study. (Nutrition, 24:933-940, 2008)

Moderate Protein Intake Plus Exercise Promotes Weight Loss
Increased protein intake helps people lose weight, but can you get too much of a good thing? The United States Department of Agriculture recommends that proteins make up 15 percent of the total calorie intake. Increasing protein intake to 40 percent of the total calories promotes weight loss. Chronically high protein intake, however, can have metabolic side effects such as elevated levels of uric acid, which increase the risk of heart disease, kidney disorders and gout. Paul Arciero and colleagues from Skidmore College in New York found that moderate protein intake (25 percent of total calories) and exercise (aer-

Chicken Extract Improves Muscle Control
Tony Soprano whacked Paulie in New Jersey and stuffed him in the trunk of his car. He drove to a secluded area to get rid of the body but found that the corpse was contorted and stiff when he tried to remove it from the trunk. Paulie had gone into rigor mortis because calcium buildup contracted muscles throughout his body. The dead body no longer had the energy to pump

Milk Peptides Lower Blood Pressure
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is one of the leading risk factors of heart attack and stroke. While high blood pressure runs in families, people can decrease the risk through weight con-

118 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

obics plus weights) had similar effects on body composition (weight, body mass index, waist circumference), metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, blood fats, leptin) and muscle growth factors (IGF-1, IGFBP-1). This study showed that moderate-protein diets plus exercise produced the same effects in obese, sedentary people as high-protein diets plus exercise. (Metabolism, 57:757-765, 2008) intensity exercise, including bodybuilders, must restore vital glycogen stores so they can train hard each workout. They should consume carbohydrates during the first 2 hours of recovery from exercise to maximize glycogen replacement. George Brooks from the University of California, Berkeley and Jack Azevedo from California State University, Chico found that the gut absorbs multiple carbohydrates faster than just one. British researchers found that consuming a drink containing fructose and glucose (two forms of carbohydrates) was no more effective for increasing glycogen levels than glucose alone. However, athletes should use fluid replacement beverages that contain a variety of carbohydrate sources because the energy enters the bloodstream faster. The effectiveness of specific fluid replacement beverages varies with the volume and intensity of exercise, genetic differences, and training status. (Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 40: 1789-1794, 2008) • The scientists concluded, “We are just beginning to understand how the properties of nuts influence health even though they have been part of the human diet for thousands of years.” (Journal Nutrition, 138:1734S1764S, 2008)

Green Tea Extract Improves Metabolic Health
Green tea extract (GTE) is a popular weight-loss supplement that might also boost metabolic health by improving blood sugar regulation, preventing obesity and lowering blood pressure. It is not a magic bullet that instantly improves health and vitality, but it helps. Scientists speculate that chemicals in the supplement called catechins, particularly epigallocatechin-3gallate, help enhance metabolism and fight fat. A Rutgers University study using obese mice fed a high-fat diet found that an extract of epigallocatechin-3-gallate promoted weight control, prevented fat accumulation in the liver, and reduced symptoms associated with the metabolic syndrome (i.e., high blood pressure, abdominal fat deposition, abnormal blood fats, insulin resistance and blood-clotting abnormalities). Green tea extract looks like an excellent supplement that promotes metabolic health and speeds weight loss. (Journal Nutrition, 138:1677-1683, 2008)

Soy Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol
Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, even by a few points, reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke. Some studies found that substituting soy protein for animal protein lowered total and LDL cholesterol. Soy increases the activity of liver enzymes that break down cholesterol. In 1999, the FDA approved a claim from soy food manufacturers that a diet containing 25 grams of soy protein per day was good for the heart and lowered cholesterol. A year later, the American Heart Association recommended that people with a high risk of heart attack include soy products in their diets. Unfortunately, there was little solid evidence that soy was good for the heart or that it reduced blood cholesterol. Most studies showing positive effects used few subjects and often had statistical and research design problems. The American Heart Association changed its position in 2006 and concluded that soy protein or isoflavones (estrogen-like chemicals in soy) did not lower LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure or increased HDL (the “good” cholesterol). Australian researchers confirmed this when they found that high soy protein intake had no effect on total or LDL cholesterol. However, substituting soy burgers and soy hot dogs for their high-saturated fat equivalents might reduce saturated fat intake and improve cardiovascular health. Even though soy foods don’t have a direct effect on cholesterol metabolism, they might improve the overall quality of the diet. (WebMD Health News, August 8, 2008; American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 88:298-304, 2008)

Put Nuts In Your Life
Many bodybuilders don’t eat nuts because they are calorie dense and high in fats. Research conducted over the past 10 years shows that nuts should be an important part of your diet. They promote a healthy heart, prevent cancer and improve digestion. A symposium conducted at the University of California, Davis summarized the many important health benefits of using nuts: • While nuts are calorie dense, nut eaters are thinner than the rest of the population. Nuts prevent hunger, are difficult to absorb during digestion, and increase resting energy consumption. • Nuts promote cardiovascular health by reducing cholesterol, oxidative stress, inflammation and blood vessel reactivity. • Frequent nut consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by stabilizing blood sugar regulation. • Nuts decrease the risk of cancer, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

Glucose-Fructose No Better Than Glucose For Restoring Glycogen
Carbohydrates are the main fuels for exercise intensities above 65 percent of maximum effort. Exercise grinds to a halt when we run out of stored carbohydrates. Unfortunately, we have limited carbohydrate stores in the liver and muscles. Athletes involved in high-

120 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

EPO Boosts Brain Function
Endurance athletes such as cyclists sometimes take erythropoietin (EPO) to increase endurance, red blood cell production and oxygen transport capacity. EPO increases the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, which enhances the ability to transport and use oxygen during exercise. Most of the drug scandals in the Tour de France have involved EPO in athletes trying to improve maximal oxygen consumption, but the drug might boost performance in other ways. German scientists found that EPO increased mental performance in mice by enhancing nerve function rather than increasing red blood cell production. They injected mice with EPO every other day for three weeks. Memory improved in the animals even after red blood cell levels returned to normal. EPO improved nerve function in the hippocampus, a part of the brain linked to short-term memory and integration of information from the senses. EPO is more than a blood booster; it might increase athletic performance by improving short-term memory and sensory integration. (BMC Biology, in press; published online September 2008; Science Daily, September 9, 2008) One study showed that Byetta decreased calorie intake by 20 percent. Byetta could have deadly side effects. In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning linking the drug to pancreatitis, a potentially fatal disease. Since then, six cases of pancreatitype 2 diabetics better than long-acting insulin alone. The drug is convenient for patients because they only need twicedaily injections— one before breakfast and a second before dinner. The study found that premixed insulin was more effective than long-acting insulin and blood sugar control pills for regulating hemoglobin A1c— an important marker of long-term blood sugar regulation. Many bodybuilders take insulin to boost muscle mass and strength, but you should be aware of the side effects. Injected insulin is an effective anabolic drug, but it can trigger insulin shock, which can kill you. (Annals Internal Medicine, published online September 15, 2008; Health Day News, September 17, 2008)

Aromatase Inhibitor Increases Testosterone and Decreases Estrogen
The capacity for muscle growth depends on blood levels of testosterone. Young men build muscle better than women and older men because they have higher levels of the hormone. During its metabolism, a portion of testosterone is converted (aromatized) to estrogens. High estrogen levels promote prostate and breast cancer, gynecomastia (development of female-like breast tissue in males) and prevent muscle hypertrophy in men. Anabolic steroids, particularly in high doses, are partially converted to estrogens. Many bodybuilders who take steroids also take drugs such as Arimidex (anastrozole) to prevent aromatization of testosterone to estrogens and its consequences. Blocking aromatization increases the biologically available testosterone and could promote muscle growth. Sherri-Ann Burnett-Bowie and colleagues from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, in a year-long study on men over 60, found that anastrozole increased testosterone levels by 61 percent and the more biologically active free testosterone by more than 100 percent. Estrogen lev-

FDA Issues Warning About Gila Monster Enzyme Byetta
Byetta is becoming a popular drug with bodybuilders because it promotes weight loss and increases insulin secretion (insulin is a highly anabolic hormone). Amylin Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lily sell Byetta (exenatide), an enzyme found in the saliva of gila monsters, to treat type 2 diabetes. When taken before a meal, Byetta increases insulin secretion by the pancreas and speeds the delivery of fuels to the muscles. It also slows the rate that food leaves the stomach, which prevents hunger and promotes satiety (feeling of fullness).

tis have been linked to Byetta— two of the patients died. The FDA announced that it will strengthen its warning regarding Byetta even further. (USA Today, August 19, 2008)

Premixed Insulin Improves Blood Sugar Control
Diabetics can take fast-acting insulin, such as Humalog or Humulin-R, that’s injected shortly before or after a meal, or they can take long-lasting insulin, such as Humulin-N, Humulin-L, Lente, and Humulin-U, that works 24 hours or longer. Rehan Qayyum from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and colleagues, in a review of literature, concluded that premixed insulin containing a mixture of short- and long-acting insulin improved blood sugar control in

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

128 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

els decreased by 25 percent. While the drug normalized testosterone levels, it had no effect on body composition, strength, markers of prostate gland health, blood thickness or blood fats. Arimidex is a popular drug with many bodybuilders, but we have limited objective information on its effects in healthy young men. (Clinical Endocrinology, published online August 12, 2008)

Albuterol Builds Strength In Women But Not Men During Simulated Spaceflight
Albuterol is a beta-2-adrenergic agonist drug (has adrenaline-like effects) used to treat airway spasms in people with asthma. The International Olympic Committee banned it, except for athletes given medical exemption. Albuterol is similar to clenbuterol, which is popular with some bodybuilders because it increases muscle mass. A study led by John Caruso from the University of Tulsa found that albuterol increased ankle extension strength in women but not men involved in a 40-day simulated spaceflight (unilateral limb suspension). British researchers determined that albuterol was anabolic and worked by binding to androgen receptors in muscles. Their experiment measured binding rates to androgen receptors in cell cultures. This study showed that b2-adrenergic agonist drugs work much like testosterone to promote protein synthesis. Another British study showed that albuterol increased quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength but did not promote lean body mass in healthy men. Like most anabolic drugs, albuterol probably works best when combined with weight training. (Aviation Space Environmental Medicine, 79:577-584, 2008; British Journal Sports Medicine, 41: 874-878, 2007)

Growth Hormone Prevents Hardening of the Arteries and Insulin Resistance
Some bodybuilders take growth hormone because it builds muscle and cuts fat. Many older adults call it a modern Fountain of Youth because of its effects on quality of life, skin texture, body composition, sexual performance and strength. Low growth hormone levels in older adults are linked to heart disease, muscle and bone loss, depression and premature death. The Food and Drug Administration has not approved growth hormone as an anti-aging drug. Many physicians fear its possible longterm side effects and want to see the results of large, well-controlled studies before they prescribe it to their patients. A 10 year-long Swedish study of lowdose growth hormone supplementation in older adults showed positive effects on body composition, bone mass and metabolic measurements (J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 92: 1442-1445, 2007). A five-year-long Italian study showed that growth hormone replacement therapy (4-5 micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day) prevented atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and insulin resistance. This study was difficult to interpret because the patients were taking a variety of other drugs, including testosterone and thyroid hormone. However, we are beginning to see promising long-term evidence that growth hormone supplementation is beneficial in older adults. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 93:3416- 3424, 2008)

by promoting specific signaling pathways inside the cells that activate protein synthesis and modifies muscle protein breakdown, remodeling, and repair. It decreases body fat by binding with the adrenaline receptors in fat cells, which promotes fat breakdown and release. Italian researchers found that clenbuterol reacts with nitrites in the gut and forms compounds that could cause cancer. Also, studies in humans and animals showed that clenbuterol caused severe cardiovascular side effects, including heart failure. Clenbuterol builds muscle, but the side effects are potentially deadly, so bodybuilders should leave it alone. (Free Radical Biology Medicine, 45:124-135, 2008)

Tadalafil (Cialis) Increases Testosterone and Cortisol Levels After Exercise
Cialis is a second-generation erectionpromoting drug that followed in the footsteps of Viagra. It works by increasing nitric oxide production, which increases blood flow to the penis. Viagra increases exercise capacity at high altitude (but not sea level) by reducing blood pressure in the lung circulation. Italian researchers from the Departments of Endocrinology and Sport Sciences at the University of Rome, led by Luigi Di Luigi, found that a single dose of Cialis administered before a maximum exercise test increased salivary testosterone and cortisol levels by more than 100 percent. Before purchasing a wheelbarrow load of Cialis, consider the limitations of this study. Salivary testosterone and cortisol measurements are notoriously inaccurate. Also, hormone levels often increase during exercise because plasma volume (liquid part of blood) decreases by about 20 percent. No study has found that Cialis or Viagra improved performance at sea level in healthy people. Claims that these drugs improve exercise performance or promote muscle growth are little more than urban legends. (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93:3510- 3514, 2008)

Clenbuterol Might Trigger Cancer
Clenbuterol is used to treat asthma and is very popular with bodybuilders because it increases muscle growth and cuts fat. It is a beta-2 agonist, which means that it has effects similar to the fight-or-flight hormone adrenaline. It is a popular drug with bodybuilders because it increases muscle mass, cuts fat and boosts energy levels. It builds muscle

130 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Viagra: The Perfect Date Drug
Viagra is the perfect date drug: it promotes erections, prevents heart attack and stroke during sex, and keeps the flowers you gave her fresh for days. Viagra (sildenafil) was originally developed to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina (chest pain). The drug had an unexpected benefit— it promoted erections. Pfizer, the maker of the drug, immediately switched gears and marketed it as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Competition from second-generation ED drugs, such as Cialis and Levitra, led Pfizer to search for new and more novel uses for Viagra. Scientists discovered that it helps treat pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs), improves endurance performance at high altitude, speeds recovery from jet lag (in hamsters), and slows the rate that cut flowers wilt. British researchers found that Viagra might also prevent heart attacks and strokes by preventing blood clots. Viagra makes blood cells called platelets less sticky, which makes blood less likely to clot. Blood clots are the leading causes of heart attacks and strokes. (Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA, 105:13650-13,655, 2008) Proscar, Propecia, Fincar, Finpecia and Finax) block DHT production, which shrink enlarged prostate glands and prevent hair loss. However, several studies reported that up to 15 percent of men treated with these drugs experienced erectile dysfunction (ED). Onder Canguven and colleagues from Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, in a review of literature, concluded that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors did not cause ED, even in men who took the drugs for as long as two years and reduced DHT levels by up to 93 percent. Bodybuilders can safely take these drugs to combat balding without worrying about muscular or sexual sideeffects. (Journal Andrology, 29: 514-523, 2008) of stopping or at least uncovering hanky-panky. (; PRNewswire, September 11, 2008)

This is Your Penis; This is Your Penis on Drugs.
Many recreational drug users take heroin, amphetamines and ecstasy to boost libido and sexual performance. A study from the Department of Urology at the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan showed that male drug users had an increased risk of erectile dysfunction, decreased sexual desire, and delayed ejaculation during sex. The study examined 701 men (average age 35). The risk of erectile dysfunction was nearly five times greater in drug-users than non-drug

Phone Card Helps Catch Cheaters
Hard economic times have led to more affairs. Typically, the cheater will avoid phone calls from their significant other and use caller ID to avoid getting caught. A company called DramaTEL is trying to cash in on the cheating epidemic with a phone card that allows users to alter caller ID displays to any message they want. They claim their product will help catch a cheating spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend; fool those attempting to avoid your calls; and trick your spouse into believing you’re home when you’re not. The device will also change the sound of your voice from a man to a woman (or vice versa). Men and women are more likely to have extramarital affairs when the economy is bad. Hard financial times add stress to a relationship that would not otherwise exist. The resulting dissatisfaction causes people to look elsewhere for emotional support and excitement. Losing a job, falling real estate values, and rising gas and food prices affect the way people feel about each other. Some psychologists call this phenomenon “financial infidelity,” and describe it as a condition where people are unable to adjust their lifestyle to hard economic times. Whatever the reason, the DramaTEL phone card is a high-tech way

Anti-Balding Drugs Don’t Cause ED or Slow Muscle Growth
Many bodybuilders, particularly those who take anabolic steroids, take anti-balding drugs such as Proscar and Propecia. These drugs inhibit the production of dehydrotestosterone (DHT). Do these drugs interfere with muscle growth or have sexual side effects? DHT is a breakdown product of testosterone and is produced in the prostate gland, hair follicles and adrenal glands. While it is a more powerful male hormone than testosterone, it has little effect on skeletal muscle. High levels of DHT trigger hair loss and promote prostate growth in genetically susceptible men. Drugs called 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g., finasteride, marketed as

138 MD

December 2008


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

users of the same age. Drug effects were not consistent. While most heroin users experienced a decreased sex drive, nearly 20 percent reported an increased sex drive. The frequency of both premature and delayed ejaculation was higher in drug-users then non-drug users. As might be expected, lifestyles were very different in drug-users and non-drug users. Drug-users were less likely to be married (27 percent versus 68 percent), more likely to be divorced (17 percent versus 1.5 percent), and more likely to be single with a fixed sexual partner (49 percent versus 21 percent). Nearly all drug-users were smokers (93 percent versus 39 percent). The study showed that recreational drugs will not make you a lion in the bedroom. (Journal Sexual Medicine, in press; published online September 2008) performance in the bedroom. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 5: 2107-2110, 2008)

High Blood Pressure Linked To Erectile Dysfunction
Erection problems are strong indicators of poor metabolic health that increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. In addition to the obvious (i.e., can’t get it up), other markers of poor metabolic health include abdominal obesity, poor blood sugar regulation, abnormal blood fats, inflammation and blood-clotting abnormalities. Italian researchers found that obese men with erectile dysfunction (ED) also had low testosterone levels. Hypertension (high blood pressure) was the most common health problem in obese men with ED. Men over 35 should be concerned about erectile dysfunction because it is a strong indicator of serious health problems that can lead to heart attack, stroke and diabetes. The associated decreases in testosterone can also lead to poor sexual performance, insulin resistance, coronary artery disease, muscle and bone loss, depression and prostate cancer. Men with high blood pressure are particularly susceptible to ED. (Journals Sexual Medicine, in press; published online May 2008)

Funny Films Make You Hard and Increase Testosterone
Having problems getting an erection? Perhaps you should see the latest comedy starring Eddie Murphy, Will Ferrell or Adam Sandler. Hajime Kimata from the Moriguchi-Keijinkai Hospital in Osaka, Japan found that watching humorous films improved erectile capacity in men with an inflammatory skin disease called atopic dermatitis (AD). AD is extremely painful and causes considerable emotional stress. Poor metabolic health is the principal cause of erectile dysfunction in aging men, but stress can also contribute. After watching film comedies for three consecutive days, the men had fewer erection problems, increased testosterone, and decreased estrogen levels for four to seven days. Watching boring documentaries caused no changes in erectile capacity or hormone levels. A positive psychological outlook increases testosterone and improves erectile capacity. Testosterone levels increase after winning athletic contests and decrease after losing. Athletes might benefit from watching humorous films before athletic contests or weight-training workouts. Watching the films might also improve

percent of women said that sex was important to them, more than half confessed that they were the ones who didn’t want sex. Nearly 30 percent of women avoided sex because they were too tired (particularly those with children). Instead, they would rather read a book or take a bubble bath. Among women who had sex regularly, less than half did so because they liked it and 23 percent did it to please their husbands. The survey showed that sexual enjoyment often went south after childbirth. New moms often stopped having sex because they were ashamed of their bodies or were exhausted from family and work responsibilities. On a positive note, most women said that sex was important to them. Guys, you have several options: 1) Don’t get married, 2) suck it up and accept that marital sex will never be like it was when you were dating, or 3) compromise and find out what she needs and what turns her on. ( August 12, 2008)

BlackBerry Fetish
Would you rather diddle with a hot babe or your BlackBerry? While the hot babe might be tempting, more than 33 percent of business executive said that they would choose their PDA over their spouse. However, work is not necessarily their primary motivation. “Porno” and “sex” are the two most popular terms accessed on mobile search engines. Men use their BlackBerry for all kinds of hanky-panky, including text-messaging their girlfriends, chat rooms and watching good old-fashioned porno movies. The fascination with BlackBerrys and other PDAs transcends sex. Tech-centered guys check them before they go to bed at night and when they wake up in the morning. Some men admit checking their PDAs in the middle of sex. More than two-thirds of men claim that PDAs allow them to spend more time with family and friends and enjoy life more. Experts say otherwise. PDAs contribute to social isolation and decreased interpersonal relationships. Watching people have sex on a small screen is not the same as participating in the real thing. (New York Daily News, September 15, 2008)

So, You Got Married To Get Regular Sex??
Robert was crazy about Sally; they had sex like rabbits and she gave him a blowjob three times a week. They decided to take the plunge and both were excited. Robert told his friends, “Just think, I’ll get a blowjob every day after we get married.” Sally said to her friends, “Just think, after we get married I won’t have to give Robert any more blowjobs.” A survey by showed that sexless marriages were extremely common and that many married women hated sex. About 50 percent of women found sex depressing, embarrassing, or a hassle. While 75

140 MD

December 2008

Future Pharmacy
By Douglas S. Kalman, PhD, RD, FACN

True Euphoria?
ave you ever experienced true euphoria? I mean a feeling so different than joy or excitement that energy just wants to burst out of your body? Well, I imagine that some of us have and those of who know that feeling, want to achieve it again. If you are asking what the heck does this have to do with bodybuilding, weightlifting or even fat loss, I will tell you— that mindset, emotional health and clarity all have a direct affect on your ability to achieve success. We can also say that the feeling of euphoria occurs when you accomplish a long, hard-earned, strived-for goal; for some of us, that goal might be to look great entering our first show and yet for others, happiness comes after a hard-fought battle in the gym. The point is that even with nutrition, how you eat can affect your mood and thus how and when you eat may also affect the gains (or losses) that you can achieve as a result of working out and watching how and what you eat. Use food and supplements in a judicious manner to help promote the achievement of your goals— the “how-to” is often found in these pages of MD on a monthly basis. Again, the goal of this column is to help advise you of what is being explored in the research arena (and how you or other loved ones may benefit), as well as to be a source of information to you here and on the MD forums. With that said, let’s review the hot topics of the month!

Help For Smokers
Chances are that if you are into exercise and or sports that you do not smoke. However, so many people smoke that even secondhand smoke at times is hard to avoid. Well, we all know that smoking can cause cancers (more than one type or location) and that being exposed to smoke can also have negative and detrimental effects on one’s health.

Researchers from Natreon have developed a specialized fruit extract that appears to be the real deal in fighting the catastrophic damaging effects of cigarette smoke.
Researchers from Natreon have developed a specialized fruit extract that appears to be the real deal in fighting the catastrophic damaging effects of cigarette smoke. The Phyllanthus emblica (“PE”) fruit is a fruit rich in galloellagitannoids— compounds similar to those found in green tea and that are associated with an improvement of “spiking” effect on metabolism. The tannoids

found in the PE fruit also happen to fight against lipid peroxidation as well as being soluble in water, so it helps protect cells in the body from pro-oxidants and antioxidants on the cellular level to ultimately enhance overall cellular health. The PE product will be commercially known as Capros® and the animal data to date strongly indicates that this specific product has a great reducing effect— thereby allowing the body to better deal with physical or environmental stress. The animal study tested the effects of Capros® against true cigarette smoke and the results are clear; this product is one that reduces the damage that smoke does to healthy cells. The product was found to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative damage) while also stimulating antioxidative enzymes (glutathione, catalase, superoxide dimutase, etc.), thus demonstrating a strong protective effect. The data is impressive, though it needs to be replicated in humans (animal data to date). This is a product that is on store shelves. To date, no one has examined if this product alone (Capros®) or perhaps when combined with other flavonoids or tannins has any fatburning effect…it might….therefore it is one to watch (and consider if you live a lifestyle where you are exposed to smoke). December 2008


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Future Pharmacy
Growth Hormone…Still Hot…And Available
Many that seem to think that they know the effects of exogenous growth hormone in humans often state that the use of it may increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, the way to study if this rumor and potential anti-steroid, antigrowth hormone propaganda is true is to do so in the following way. Take a group of acromegalics (adults who live with a chronic overproduction of growth hormone, thus are abnormally tall and have other telltale signs) and establish their baseline cardiovascular health. Do a data comparison to a normal population. Next, take a group again of acromegalics and now for a fixed amount of time dose them with GH. Thus, these people who have lived their whole life with extra circulating GH now have even more. At this point, you can truly detail if GH given from an exogenous source really causes any undue harm to the heart. In this case, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital are the GH source and are undertaking this study. In fact, these scientists are also seeking to do comparison research in people with normal healthy levels of GH, too, so if this interests you and you may want GH for a year (that is how long the study is) with medical monitoring, this may just be your ticket. Somatotropin is the drug being used in this study and the dosage will be 3 to 6 mcg per kg (for example a 68 kg person, 150 pounds, would get a 204 mcg per day). If you live in the Oregon area, Oregon Health Science Center is testing if low-dose growth hormone affects insulin sensitivity. The reason for this is that it is known that a higher daily GH dose does strongly correlate with worsening insulin resistance. So, Genotropin will be given at a 0.1mg dose daily sub-Q injection (under the skin) for those who qualify. To get in, you essentially have to have evidence of GH deficiency (which in and of itself is not an exact science) with at least one positive test. As long as you are not overly obese (80 pounds or more overweight) and are otherwise essentially healthy, you are a candidate. Dr Kevin C. Yuen as well as David Cook, MD are the lead contacts. product is used from once to twice per day and the study will not have a placebo. Thus all men who get into this study will get a cuttingedge steroid. This research group is defining low testosterone as 300 ng/dl or less for total testosterone. As usual, UCLA is conducting this study (this time Christina Wang, MD is leading the study). MET Pharma is a leading drug development firm being assisted by the well-known DDD Consultancy— and their impact in Europe and other markets is becoming more apparent. Finally, Solvay Pharmaceuticals also recognizes (as the FDA has, in a way) that low testosterone levels occur quite frequently in men who have diabetes. Unfortunately, the effects of low testosterone is an increase in belly fat (abdominal fat) and that too increases your risk for diabetes and heart disease. Thus, the cluster is not ideal. Anyway, the Diabetes Center of the Southwest is looking for male diabetics with low testosterone; the goal is to give AndroGel® for at least six months and measure over time the effects on body composition as well as other health factors. The Center is in Midland Texas; look for Dr. Sandeep Dhindsa, as the study is under his purview. The bodybuilding season is a year-round endeavor to the majority of us who do not compete at the upper level, however for the pros who do and those who are fighting to get their pro card and so on, we are on your side and cheer you on. I always find that your best gains can come when you least expect it. One way to systematically always make gains is to get involved on the MD Forums and the site in general, from the videos to the articles; knowledge is only a click away! References:
NPICenter: “Study shows that Phyllanthus Emblica in Capros® may protect against smoke induced oxidative damage. September 8, 2008. ” NCT00182091 ( NCT00287586 ( NCT00657868 ( NCT00440440 (

How About T?
Testosterone in the media has gotten such a bad rap. From the fear/scare tactics of certain foundations to the outright lies of leaders and more, the result is that progress gets stalled in research as well as for patient and personal use by advocacy groups. Boston University Medical Center and BU itself have some of the foremost and forward-thinking endocrinology groups and they are looking to also define if giving exogenous GH to older men has any affect on heart disease progression. In other words, is it safe from a cardiac standpoint to give older men testosterone for quality-of-life enhancement? As we (men) age, our testosterone levels naturally decline. As this happens, heart disease risk also increases. Normally, one-third of older men have low testosterone levels and it is a fact that male testosterone replacement (TRT) over the short term is safe and can increase quality of life, physical and muscular strength. Solvay Pharmaceuticals is sponsoring this Androgel-using study with a dose of 7.5 grams day, which delivers 75mg of active testosterone. To get the free T, you have to be a male over 60 with testosterone 400 ng/dl or less and otherwise essentially healthy. I believe that from what my friends at Solvay tell me, the study and therapy will last about three years. The study includes all sorts of cool body composition testing, lab testing, cardiac evaluations and more. Look for NCT00287586 to find this study. MET Pharma is currently looking for men with low levels of testosterone and those with normal T levels to test their intranasal testosterone product, Nasobol. The

150 MD

December 2008


By Dan Gwartney, MD

The Best Fats For Fat Burning
here used to be a saying that “fat is fat. Dietitians and cardi” ologists conspired to convince Americans that the growing problem of weight gain was due to “energydense” foods. Of the three macronutrients (fat, carbohydrates and protein), fat has the greatest energy density with 9 calories per gram, as opposed to 4 calories per gram for carbohydrates or protein. While it is true, at the most basic level, that someone consuming 500 grams a day of food will gain much more if it is all fat (4,500 calories) as opposed to sugar (2,000 calories), most people do not base their eating on the total mass (grams) consumed. There are (generally) hedonistic people who eat what they crave; those who mechanically sit down at mealtime and eat what is necessary to get past the social/physical feeding requirement; or compulsive individuals who track total calories, points, carbohydrate grams, etc. [Note: this compulsion can be positive or pathologic depending upon the degree of influence it has on a person’s behavior and psyche.] In typical, extreme fashion, the American public fled low-fat diets to flock toward the Atkins diet, which is the macronutrient antithesis (opposite) of the low-fat diets. During the induction phase of the Atkins diet, clients are directed to eat a minimal amount of carbohydrates (around 20 grams per day) for a period of

The Latest Scientific Research


approximately two weeks. The diet during this time is predominantly fat (by calorie), yet results in dramatic and rapid weight loss for most who follow the restrictions closely; much of the initial weight lost is water that normally is associated with stored glycogen (sugar) or retained due to the metabolic effects of insulin. Long-term weight loss is as good as or better on low-carbohydrate diets 1 as the low-fat diets provide. A number of additional metabolic changes that promote weight loss occur in “low-carb” diets, but that is outside the scope of this article.

triglyceride. To burn fat as a calorie source, the fatty acid is cleaved (separated) from the glycerol molecule by enzymes and broken down in a complex series of reactions in the mitochondria. Fat is a very efficient source of energy, which is why there are so many calories in fat as compared to carbohydrates and protein. However, as alluded to above, fat is not fat. Scientists have discovered a number of fatty acids, but even the most common (palmitic acid, stearic acid, etc.) are not household names. As with celebrity and politics, some fatty acids have gained a limited

In typical, extreme fashion, the American public fled low-fat diets to flock toward the Atkins diet, which is the macronutrient antithesis (opposite) of the low-fat diets.
As it has become clear that dietary fat is not inherently evil and may even promote better health and weight management, the media has explored the macronutrient class in greater depth. Fat is a very non-specific term, referring in the most basic sense to a large group of chemicals that are composed of a string of carbon molecules ending in an acid terminal (fatty acids). The acid-end is like chemical Velcro that attaches to an alcohol group on the molecule glycerol (along with two other fatty acids) in the storage form, called a amount of public awareness due to media exposure. These include essential fatty acids (EFA) and omega-3 fatty acids. Essential fatty acids are used by the body to create hormone-like molecules; these fats cannot be created by the body, but must be consumed in the diet. EFAs include linolenic acid and linoleic acid; many include oleic acid as an essential fatty acid, as humans can only produce marginal amounts on their own and will become deficient in oleic acid if they are deficient in the other essential fatty acids.

156 MD December 2008

Taking A Look At EFAs
Briefly, let’s look at the EFAs, including the conditional EFA oleic acid. These fatty acids fall in the categories of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 (omega 3, 6 and 9 respectively). The omega designation refers to the first double bond (a type of chemical bond between two carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain) found, counting from the end opposite from the acid. Linolenic acid (ALA) is the essential dietary omega-3 fatty acid, found in seed oils and nuts. Flaxseed and hemp are excellent sources of ALA; the acronym ALA refers to the designation alpha linolenic acid, as opposed to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which is an omega-6 fatty acid most commonly found in evening primrose oil. Again, ALA cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in the diet. ALA can be incorporated into the membrane of cells, converted into other fatty acids or used for hormone (eicosanoid) production. ALA converts, in part, to EPA and DHA, the omega-3 2 fatty acids found in fish oil. Linoleic acid (LA) is the essential dietary omega-6 fatty acid, found in seed oils but also prevalent in many 3 other food sources. People rarely high in omega-6, particularly arachidonic acid, is suggested to promote inflammation and increase the risk for 5 related conditions. Oleic acid (OA) is an omega-9 fatty acid. In the diet, olive oil is the most common source for OA, though many seeds and grapeseed oil are other OA-rich foods. OA consumption relates to many health benefits, particularly in the realm of cardiovascular health; OA is believed to be one of the most potent healthpromoting factors in the 6 Mediterranean diet. However, one must be aware also that olive oil, the dietary source of most OA in the diet, contains other components that might also be involve in the beneficial role of olive oil, specifically extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO, as Rachael Ray says) which has a 7 greenish hue in its purest form. As important as the structural (cell membrane incorporation) and precursor (hormone production) roles of these EFAs (including OA as a conditional essential fatty acid) are, one must not lose sight of the fact that these are dietary fats that can be burned as calories or stored as body fat. Previous studies have looked closely at the various fatty acids to see if any are more prone to being burned for calories or 8-10 stored as body fat. When comparing animal to human studies, there is a fair amount of conflicting data, making it difficult to inter10,11 pret the findings. Fortunately, there is a growing body of data in human studies that allows for a more focused interpretation. A recent study used an elegant approach in determining the relative propensity of the EFAs (including OA) to result in fat storage or calorie burning, as well as any effect on the overall metabolism 12 (rate of calorie burning). This study, performed by Dr. Peter Jones and his colleagues at McGill University in Canada, compared the metabolic effect (calorie burning) and endpoint of the three EFAs. Subjects in this study were healthy, young men who were not elite athletes. They were normal weight and had no abnormalities in screening lab work. The subjects arrived for three different test sessions. Prior to each, subjects fasted for 16 hours and arrived to the metabolic lab in a rested condition. Baseline (prior to receiving the test breakfast) measures were recorded to allow the scientists to measure the change in body temperature, metabolic rate and degree of fat versus carbohydrate oxidation (how much fats were burned as calories in comparison to carbohydrates) following the administration of a test breakfast. The subjects underwent three tests, separated by one week each. On each occasion, a standardized breakfast consisted of a vegetable omelet, fried potatoes, a glass of milk and the test oil poured over an English muffin; the macronutrient ratio was verified as being 60 percent fat, 30 percent carbohydrate and 10 percent protein, providing one-third of the subjects’ assessed daily maintenance calorie needs. The test oils were olive (71.3 percent OA), sunflower (69.7 percent LA) and flaxseed (58.8 percent ALA), given in random order. These oils were chosen because they are concentrated sources of OA, LA and ALA respectively.

In the diet, olive oil is the most common source for OA, though many seeds and grapeseed oil are other OA-rich foods.
experience a deficiency in omega-6; rather, they tend to have a relative excess of omega-6 to omega-3. Those interested in learning more are directed to read the dated but very informative book Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill 4 by Udo Erasmus. Like ALA, LA can be incorporated into cell membranes, converted to other fatty acids (such as the previously mentioned GLA) or used to produce hormone-like molecules. The omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids compete for some of the same enzyme pathways, so when the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 in the diet is way off, certain conditions are promoted. A diet excessively

Thermic Effect For Increased Fat Burning
After collecting the data, it was noted that none of the EFAs significantly affected the relative fat-burning for calories, as the same ratio of fat to carbohydrate was used to produce calories in all subjects at baseline as after receiving the test meal. However, there was a significant difference in the rate of total calorie burning in subjects after consuming the OA (olive oil) test breakfast. The olive oil-containing breakfast increased energy expenditure, resulting in a greater total calorie burning, and thus an increase in total fat burning. The subjects remained in a contained observation area, at rest. The increase in energy expenditure was not related to an

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increase in activity but appears to be related to the thermic effect of the olive oil (thermic effect describes the increase in body temperature after eating). Though it has not been measured in humans, rat studies have shown that olive oil consumption increases uncoupling protein content (uncoupling proteins cause calorie-burning reactions to spin-off the energy as heat instead of supply13 ing cellular energy or ATP). It is possible that a diet rich in olive oil may increase the activity of uncoupling proteins in humans as well. Other studies have shown that OA is preferentially burned, as opposed to being stored as body fat, and the results of this experiment would sup14,15 port those findings. However, an interesting finding is that the increased fat-burning does not appear to be limited just to OA, but rather may reflect an increase in total fat and calorie burning by increasing the metabolic rate. To state it more clearly, other fats stored in body fat may be burned more rapidly as well as OA. Though the results did not reach statistical significance, the test subjects experienced an increase in fat-burning and slight decrease in carbohydrate-burning after the OA 12 meal. Endurance athletes in particular may wish to investigate the use of olive oil as a dietary fat source to promote fat-burning during References:
1. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA, 2007 Mar 7;297(9):969-77 . 2. Stark AH, Crawford MA, et al.b Update on alpha-linolenic acid. Nutr Rev, 2008 Jun;66(6):326-32. 3. Basch E, Bent S, et al. Flax and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum): a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Soc Integr Oncol, 2007 Summer;5(3):92-105. 4. Eramus U. Fats that heal, fats that kill. Alive Books, Burnaby, Canada;1993. ISBN-13: 978-0920470381. 5. Mesa Garcia MD, Aguila Garcia CM, et al. Importance of lipids in the nutritional treatment of inflammatory diseases. Nutr Hosp, 2006 May;21 Suppl, 2:28-41, 30-43. 6. Sofi F Cesari F et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and , , health status: meta-analysis. BMJ, 2008 Sep 11;337:a1344. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1344. 7 Fito M, de la Torre R, et al. Olive oil and oxidative stress. Mol . Nutr Food Res, 2007 Oct;51(10):1215-24. 8. Jones PJH, Schoeller DA. Polyunsaturated-saturated ratio of diet fat influences energy substrate utilization in the human. Metab Clin Exp, 1988;37:145-51. 9. Clandinin MT, Wang LCH, et al. Increasing the dietary

marathon-like events. It is important to note that this experiment was short, following the subjects for just a few hours; also, the calorie-burning effect, though statistically significant, was fairly small. It was interesting to note that sunflower oil (LA, omega-6) was very close to showing significant metabolism-boosting in comparison to 12 flaxseed oil (ALA, omega-3). This contrasts somewhat with other studies that have shown that fish oils (omega-3 fatty acids, DHA & EPA) increase weight loss, as ALA is the precursor to DHA and EPA in 16 humans. It may be that the longterm effect of specific fatty acids, such as DHA and EPA, are too slow to show a near-immediate effect. Given that there is evidence of several different types of unsaturated fatty acids affecting the metabolism and fat storage, it is suggestive that the best health effects are seen when a person consumes a variety of different fat sources in a macronutrientbalanced diet; even sacrificing simple sugars and other carbohydrates for EFAs when weight loss is the priority. Dr. Jones and his group provided interesting and valuable data that supports the inclusion of olive oil in the diet for fat-burning as well as health benefits. As always, there remains a number of questions such as: whether it behooves a person

long-term to consume 50+ grams of olive oil with his breakfast; if there may be an optimal timing of consuming oleic acid (e.g., at night to promote calorie and fat-burning during sleep); if the effects are more potent when the olive oil is consumed with a meal or without for those who can stand chugging a couple healthy swallows; if the power of the effect changes when the macronutrient ratio changes (since few people follow a 60 percent fat diet); if the effect persists or the body adapts to the high oleic acid content and downregulates the relevant metabolic pathways; if the lean and the obese respond similarly; if purified oleic acid provides the same effect as olive oil; etc. As part of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil has proven its health benefits; the results of this study certainly support its inclusion in anyone’s diet. Whether or not olive oil may aid in noticeable weight loss and fat-burning absent any calorie restriction remains to be seen. As effervescent and inspiring as she is, Rachael Ray, the Food Channel® champion of EVOO (extra-virgin olive oil) certainly is not known for her chiseled or athletic physique. However, one cannot deny her beauty, (my nephew thinks she’s a “hottie”) and that she is healthy, happy and most certainly prosperous.

polyuynsaturated fat content alters whole-body utilization of 16:0 and 10:0. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;61:1052-7 . 10. Takeuchi H, Matsuo T, et al. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower diet, a safflower diet or a linseed oil diet. J Nutr, 1995;125:920-5. 11. Mead JF Slaton WH, et al. Metabolism of the essential fatty , acid. II. The metabolism of stearate, oleate, and linoleate by fat-deficient and normal mice. J Biol Chem, 1956;218:401-7 . 12. Jones PJH, Jew S, et al. The effect of dietary oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on fat oxidation and energy expenditure in healthy men. Metab Clin Exp, 2008;57:1198-203. 13. Rodriguez VM, Portillo MP et al. Olive oil feeding up-regu, lates uncoupling protein genes in rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002;75:213-20. 14. Jones PJH, Pencharz PB, et al. Whole body oxidation of dietary fatty acids: implications for energy utilization. Am J Cin Nutr, 1985;42:769-77 . 15. Forsgren L. Expiratory pattern of 14CO2 in man after feeding 14C-labelled fatty acids. Ark Kemi, 1969;30:355-60. 16. Thorsdottir I, Tomasson H, et al. Randomized trial of weightloss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes, (Lond) 2007 Oct;31(10):1560-6.

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nutrition performance
By Robbie Durand, MA

Kitchen Pharmaceuticals for Fat Loss
if the acute appetite-suppressing effects of an egg breakfast espite wide-ranging efforts to encourage Americans led to greater weight loss if extended over several weeks. to lose weight, the number of United States adults The study had overweight subjects eat a breakfast that conwho are obese is increasing. Obesity causes many sisted of two eggs or a bagel of equal calories for five days health problems directly or indirectly, including type II diaa week in conjunction with a low-calorie diet. At the end of betes, hypertension, many cancers, heart disease, stroke eight weeks, in comparison to the bagel group, the egg and emotional problems. If the trends of the past three group showed a 61 percent greater reduction in BMI, a 65 decades continue, it’s possible that every American adult percent greater weight loss, a 34 percent greater reduction could be overweight by 2048. The figure might sound in waist circumference and a 16 percent greater reduction in impossible, but two-thirds of the population is already overpercent body fat.They found that eggs enhanced weight weight.The new projections are based on government survey data collected between the 1970s and 2004. If the trends loss by reducing hunger, which led to overall greater compliance to the low-calorie diet. Their cholesterol must have of those years continue, the researchers estimate that 86 shot through the roof from eating all percent of American adults will be overweight by 2030, with an obesity rate of If the trends those eggs! In this study, subjects consumed two eggs five times per week. 51 percent. By 2048, American adults of the past Given that one egg contains 213mg of could be at least mildly overweight. three decades cholesterol, this averages out to an Americans have abandoned diet and continue, additional cholesterol intake of 304mg have adopted the quick-fix methods of per day. However, at the end of two weight loss such as gastric banding, it’s possible months, changes in plasma total, Meridia (chemical preparation that stimthat every HDL and LDL cholesterol and ulates the central nervous system. It is American triglycerides did not differ signifiknown to inhibit the re-uptake of particucantly between the groups. Next lar brain chemicals like serotonin and adult could dopamine) and Xenical (a lipase be overweight time your doctor tells you to quit eating eggs to reduce cholesterol, give him or inhibitor; works in the intestinal tract by 2048. her a smack and tell the doc to read us! and causes excess fat to be excreted instead of digested). Weight-loss medications can be modestly effective, and enhance weight loss Wal JV, Gupta A, Khosla P Dhurandhar NV. Egg breakfast , by 8 percent to 10 percent, but medication does not work enhances weight loss. Int J Obes, (Lond). 2008 Aug 5. for everyone. Fear not! Several foods have recently been found to enhance weight loss and you don’t need a preEggs and Lean Canadian scription or have to deal with unwanted side effects. Bacon at Breakfast Helps

EGGS Enhances Weight Loss
A decrease in appetite is associated with increased intake of high protein-containing foods. A previous study reported that compared to an isocaloric bagel breakfast of equal weight, an egg breakfast had a greater satiating effect (reduced appetite), which translated into a lower caloric intake at lunch.The decrease in energy consumption lasted for at least 24 hours after the egg breakfast. Researchers at Pennington Biomedical Research Center wanted to find out

Reduce Appetite During the Day!
Americans typically consume a relatively small amount of protein at breakfast…only about 15 percent of their total daily protein intake. Additionally, consumer research by the International Food Information Council shows that 92 percent of Americans cite breakfast as the most important meal of the day, however less than half (46 percent) eat breakfast seven days per week. In a new study published in the British Journal of Nutrition, researchers from Purdue

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Burn More Fat by Drinking Water
Previous research has suggested that drinking water may increase energy expenditure and promote fat utilization, but no long-term studies have been conducted. Hot off the press, in the journal of Obesity this month, researchers reported that drinking water is associated with enhanced weight loss that was independent of diet and physical activity. Previously, in the Stanford A to Z Weight Loss Study, researchers enrolled 311 women and examined the effect of different types of diets (Atkins, Zone, LEARN program and the Ornish Diet) to determine which was the most effective for weight loss. The study was rigorously controlled and patients met regularly with dietitians; researchers went back and examined the data and reanalyzed the impact of water intake and weight loss. The study subjects were divided into two groups, those who drank less than 1 liter of water a day and those that drank more than 1 liter. After the data was analyzed, researchers found that no matter what diet the women were on, an increase in drinking water to >1 liter a day was associated with ~2 kg, or 5 pound, weight loss over 12 months. Weight loss attributable to drinking water was independent of sociodemographic variables, baseline status, changes in food composition, energy intake from food, and physical activity. Interestingly, noncaloric beverages (teas, coffees, diet drinks, noncalorie sweeteners, etc.) were not comparable to drinking water, despite similar calorie content. This is the first study to suggest that long-term drinking of water— not noncaloric drinks— results in enhanced weight loss. Perhaps water should be placed in the weight-loss section of the supermarket!
Stookey JD, Constant F, Popkin BM, Gardner CD. Drinking Water Is Associated With Weight Loss in Overweight Dieting Women Independent of Diet and Activity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Sep 11.

University reported that eating a highprotein breakfast has a greater effect on appetite compared to other times of the day. The researchers placed subjects on a calorie-restricted diet for three days and assigned them to a normal-protein or high-protein meal (eggs and lean Canadian bacon) given at breakfast, lunch and dinner. The high-protein breakfast led to greater overall (15 hours) fullness compared to lunch or dinner.The initial and sustained feelings of fullness following protein consumption at breakfast suggests that the timing of protein intake differentially influences satiety during calorie restriction. This study adds to a growing body of research on the benefits of eating highquality protein at breakfast and how it contributes to weight loss.
Margaret A. B. Veldhorst, Arie G. Nieuwenhuizen, Ananda HochstenbachWaelen, Klaas R. Westerterp, Marielle P K. J. . Engelen, Robert-Jan M. Brummer, Nicolaas E. P Deutz and Margret S. Westerterp. Plantenga. Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times. British Journal of Nutrition. Published online by Cambridge University Press 02 Sep 2008.

biological effects of the oils and the metabolism of olive oil is that it is preferentially incorporated into triglycerides, which are a ready source of energy. In addition, another plausible molecular mechanism is offered by animal studies, which have reported that rats fed a diet rich in olive oil compared with one rich in sunflower oil experienced an upregulation of “uncoupling proteins”— a protein that allows heat production by uncoupling respiration from adenosine triphosphate synthesis, which is an important component of energy expenditure. The bottom line is that consuming olive oil with a meal will result in enhanced calories burned.
Jones PJ, Jew S, AbuMweis S. The effect of dietary oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on fat oxidation and energy expenditure in healthy men. Metabolism, 2008 Sep;57(9):1198-203.

Capsaicin Increases Heat Production Through Uncoupling Proteins In Muscle
Chili peppers can do more than just make you feel hot; the active chemical in peppers can directly induce thermogenesis, the process by which cells convert energy into heat, according to a new study. Capsaicin is the chemical in chili peppers that contributes to their spiciness; Capsaicin stimulates a receptor found in sensory neurons, creating the heat. Many fat-loss supplements have a capsaicin extract added to them because there is a lot of science validating its effect on fat metabolism. A new study has found that capsaicin can create “heat” in a more direct manner by altering the activity of a muscle protein called SERCA. SERCA, which stands for Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase, rapidly clears calcium and ensures muscle relaxation. Normally, muscle contraction initiates following the release of a wave of calcium ions from a compartment called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); SERCA then actively pumps the calcium back into the SR (using ATP energy), causing muscle relaxation and renewing the cycle. Capsaicin, however, can attach

Olive Oil Increases Resting Energy Expenditure
If you’re not adding some olive oil to your chicken or salads, you are missing out on enhanced fat loss. Olive oil is metabolized differently from other fats, as olive oil is more rapidly converted for energy use compared with other fats such as vegetable oils. Researchers at McGill University in Canada administered three types of fats at breakfast and monitored energy expenditure and fat oxidation.The breakfast meal consisted of 60 percent fat, 30 percent carbohydrates and 10 percent protein.The fat which consisted of an oil that was poured on an English muffin was either olive oil, sunflower oil or flaxseed oil. At the end of the study, olive oil increased resting energy expenditure compared to the other fats. A plausible, biological mechanism to explain the different

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to SERCA and “uncouple” this pumping activity; that is, the protein still burns ATP energy, but doesn’t use it to pump calcium. Instead, all the ATP energy is given off as heat. This uncoupling, known as thermogenesis, is one important method of thermogenesis and causes subsequent reactions like redness and sweating. These findings further explain how capsaicin intake can increase metabolism and body temperature.
Yasser A. Mahmmoud. Capsaicin Stimulates Uncoupled ATP Hydrolysis by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2008; 283 (31): 21418.

and an additional, less well-established estimate of 10 percent via increased energy expenditure.
Mattes RD, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD. Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults. J Nutr, 2008 Sep;138(9):1741S-1745S.

CLA Inhibits Fat Loss Through Delta 6Desaturase
Americans have drastically reduced their consumption of the most prevalent sources of CLA (beef, whole milk, eggs and cheese) to reduce overall fat and cholesterol. Light and low-fat versions of dairy products are mostly devoid of CLA. Another factor reducing how much CLA we eat today is that cows make CLA from linoleic acid, which is found in grasses, but occurs in low levels in the type of mixed-grain feed now used by most cattle farmers. Other sources of CLA include turkey, chicken and vegetable oils.To get the most beneficial effects of CLA, supplementation is warranted. Delta 6-desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme for converting alpha-linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid) into longer essential fatty acid metabolites, (eicosapentaenoic acid and gammalinolenic acid). Delta 6-desaturase decreases with age, magnesium deficiency and also is inhibited by trans fatty acids. In the journal Obesity, mice were fed diets with or without CLA and inhibitors of delta 6desaturase. CLA caused a loss of body fat and depressed the individual fat pad weights and total body fat percent compared to the control group. The body fat loss was blocked by the delta 6-desaturase inhibitor.The researchers concluded that inhibition of delta 6-desaturase prevented CLA from being able to cause a body fat loss. Therefore, a desaturated metabolite of CLA appears to be involved in the CLA anti-obesity effect.
Hargrave-Barnes KM, Azain MJ, Miner JL. Conjugated Linoleic Acid-induced Fat Loss Dependence on Delta6-desaturase or Cyclooxygenase. Obesity, (Silver Spring). 2008.

Nuts Contribute To Weight Loss
Nuts in general are a high-fat, energy-dense food and are therefore a potential threat for contributing to positive energy balance. However, contrary to the fact that they are energy dense, based on the evidence from epidemiological and controlled clinical studies, nut consumption is not associated with higher bodyweight. In fact, the epidemiological evidence indicates consistently that nut consumers have a lower BMI than nonconsumers. In the Journal of Nutrition this month, researchers examined the physiological role in which nuts led to weight loss. The primary evidence suggests that nuts have a high satiety value. The consumption of nuts (peanuts, almonds, and chestnuts have been tested to date) leads to sharp reductions in appetite. It’s not the fatty acids in the nuts, as comparisons of peanut, olive and safflower oils did not reveal marked differences in appetite, so fatty acid saturation does not exert a dominating role. Studies suggest that nut consumption increases fecal fat loss (increased dietary fat excretion) and also increase resting energy expenditure. Based on the review article, the current best estimates are that 55 percent to 75 percent of the energy contributed by nuts is offset by dietary compensation, another 10 percent to 15 percent by fecal loss

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Supplement Performance
By Jose Antonio, PhD


Supplement Performance
WPH Beats WPI!
Just as we know that not all carbs or fats are treated the same by your body, we also know that proteins are unique in their own right. Casein, the slow protein, and whey, the fast protein, are perhaps the most popular among supplement users. But to add a twist to this little tale, we know there is a difference between whey protein isolate and hydrolysate. In fact, there’s evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and are useful for accelerating recovery from exerciseinduced muscle damage. And that it does it better than whey protein isolate! The potential for a hydrolysate (HD) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was tested by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In this study, 28 sedentary males had muscle soreness (MS), serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma TNF-alpha and PIT assessed at baseline and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of their knee extensors. Participants then consumed 250ml of flavored water (FW), or FW containing 25g WPI or 25g WPI(HD). PIT or force output decreased 23 percent following ECC, remained suppressed in FW and WPI, but recovered fully in WPI (HD) by 6 hours! Thus, in the head-to-head match-up, WPI gets its butt whooped by the hydrolysate in assisting athletes to recover from fatiguing eccentric exercise.

Augment Testosterone
Maintaining endogenous testosterone (T) levels as men age may slow the symptoms of sarcopenia, andropause and decline in physical performance. Dang, after reading that, it makes you want to slap a few dozen patches of testosterone patches on

There’s evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and are useful for accelerating recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage.
your epidermis. Also, drugs inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase (5AR) can produce increased blood levels of T and decreased levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). But the bad part is that symptoms of gynecomastia (fat deposits on the chest) have been reported due to the aromatase (AER) enzyme converting excess T to estradiol (ES). So what’s the solution? Let’s check this out. The carotenoid astaxanthin (AX) from Haematococcus pluvialis, Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE)

from Serenoa repens (Alphastat(R)), have been reported to have inhibitory effects on both 5AR and AER in-vitro. So, 42 healthy males ages 37 to 70 were divided into two groups of 21 and given either 800mg/day or 2,000mg/day of Alphastat(R) for 14 days. Blood samples were collected on days zero, three, seven and 14 and assayed for T, DHT and ES. Bodyweight and blood pressure data were collected prior to blood collection. Both dose groups showed significant increases in T and decreases in DHT within three days of treatment with Alphastat(R). But the effect was not dose-dependent and that 800mg/per day is equally effective as 2,000mg/day for increasing T and lowering DHT. Blood levels of ES however, decreased significantly in the 2,000mg/day dose group, but not in the 800mg/day dose group, indicating a dose-dependant decrease in E levels. So, it looks like the 2,000mg dosage is best for both increasing T and decreasing both DHT and E levels.

Muscle Builder And AntiInflammatory
Besides increasing muscle fiber size, activating satellite cells, improving strength, power and endurance and enhancing mental function, you now can add this to the list of the many great things creatine does. And that is…it’s an anti-inflammatory. For instance, scientists examined the effect of creatine supplementation upon

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plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These included the following: Interleukin (IL) 1 beta and IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), Interferon alpha (INF alpha) and Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) after a half-Iron Man competition. Eleven triathletes, each with at least three years experience of participation in this sport, were randomly divided between the control and experimental groups. During five days prior to competition, the control group consumed carbohydrate (20g per day), whereas the experimental group received creatine (20g per day) in a double-blind trial. Twenty-four and 48 hours after competition, plasma levels of TNF-alpha, INF alpha, IL-1 beta and PGE(2) were significantly increased in both groups. But the increases in these were much less in those who supplemented with creatine. So, creatine is not just for the strength-power athlete. It is extremely useful for the endurance athlete as well. Interestingly, fish oil is another supplement that acts as an antiinflammatory agent. improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming to what is seen in the normal adult rat. Therefore, nutritional supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing performance and accelerating high-energy phosphate recovery after exhaustive exertion. Thus, not only are the amino acids, especially the essential amino acids, important for building muscle mass and promoting recovery in athletes, this power potion has application in the elderly as well. It makes sense that all individuals, regardless of age, consume the EAAs in conjunction with heavy resistance training.

Salidroside is one of the active components of Rhodiola Rosea. According to Wikipedia, Rhodiola rosea (aka Golden Root, Roseroot) is a plant in the Crassulaceae family that grows in cold regions of the world (e.g. Arctic, the mountains of Central Asia, the Rocky Mountains, etc.). In this study, Salidroside was found to dose-dependently stimulate glucose uptake in differentiated L6 rat myoblast cells. L6 rat myoblast cells are basically muscle cells grown in a Petri dish. Thus, salidroside, according to the investigators, may be further developed as a potential compound for anti-diabetic therapy. Or, alternatively, because it stimulates glucose uptake, it can be an ideal post-workout supplement (when combined with carbs and protein/EAAs) in that it can stimulate the uptake of these nutrients.

Long-Term EAA Supplementation
Sarcopenia is an age-related degenerative process described by a decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and a progressive loss of muscle mass. What happens if you supplement long-term with amino acids? To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male rats were divided into three groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent (old) control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent-treated group and underwent one month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. What they found was fascinating. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30 percent reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50 percent reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats. Long-term supplementation with mixed AAs significantly

Did you know the French had banned Red Bull for ages because they thought it might pose a public risk to health, despite the friggin’ fact that billions of cans are consumed each year? I wonder if the French are thinking of banning cigarettes, too. I hear that kills at least a few people each year. Oddly enough, one of the

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insane reasons for preventing the sale of this energy drink in the land of wine, cheese and cigarette smoking is the presence of taurine. Taurine? Yes, as silly as it sounds, this amino acid seems to scare the “French” out of French fries. Or is it freedom fries? Bizarre. In fact, there is data that looked at the effect of the dietary amino acid taurine on the liver function of chronic hepatitis patients. Yes, folks with liver problems! In the taurine treatment group, each patient took 2g taurine three times a day for three months, and then stopped treatment for one month. Patients taking placebo without taurine for four months served as a control group. They found that the amino acid taurine can lessen liver injury for chronic hepatitis patients. So, taurine is clearly not the problem. The problem is what then? Drum roll, please! It is the lack of scientific thought given by the French. Unfortunately, we see the same thing here at times (i.e., the FDA). Ashenden, have attacked Coyle’s findings in the pages of the journal, claiming to have found ‘additional deviations from the published methodology’ after accessing Coyle’s raw data. “The magnitude of this error warrants recalculation of the entire data set, but raw data from the remaining test sessions are not available from the author, the researchers ” wrote. “In conclusion, all of the published delta efficiency values are wrong. Thus there exists no credible evidence to support Coyle’s conclusion that Armstrong’s muscle efficiency improved. So MAYBE it wasn’t ” just the bike and Lance’s superman efficiency. Maybe it was all those carbs he was eating…yeah…that’s the ticket. Carbs. Jose Antonio, PhD, is vice president of the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He has a PhD in muscle physiology and is chief executive of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. References:
Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, Denichilo MO, Rowney MK. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle forcegenerating capacity following eccentric exercise. J Sci Med Sport, 2008. Angwafor F 3rd, Anderson ML. An open , label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2008;5:12. Bassit RA, Curi R, Costa Rosa LF Creatine . supplementation reduces plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a halfIron Man competition. Amino Acids, 2008;35:425-31. Chen Scarabelli C, McCauley RB, Yuan Z, et al. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion. Am J Cardiol, 2008;101:42E-48E. Li HB, Ge YK, Zheng XX, Zhang L. Salidroside stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Eur J Pharmacol, 2008;588:165-9. Hu YH, Lin CL, Huang YW, Liu PE, Hwang DF . Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients. Amino Acids, 2008;35:469-73.

Ooops…Maybe It Wasn’t Just The Bike
In what amounts to a major mea culpa: “University of Texas kinesiology researcher Edward Coyle, who has defended Armstrong from persistent doping accusations by arguing that the cyclist’s cancer and therapy produced an exceptional physiological advantage, has been taken to task by his scientific peers. Now Coyle has made a qualified and technical admission that some of the data he used in a 2005 study of Armstrong’s physical makeup was not appropriately referenced. In ” this report from the Daily News ( ore_sports/2008/09/09/2008-09-09_scientist_my_research_on_lance_armstron g-1.html), many in the sporting world had cited Dr. Coyle’s research (2005 study), which basically stated that Armstrong’s amazing performance on that two-wheel contraption is the result of superb efficiency. However, researchers from Kangaroo-land believed otherwise. “Four Australian researchers, including Michael

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MuscleGrowth Update

By Robbie Durand, MA

Nutrient Timing Of Whey Protein And Creatine Increases Muscle Growth
hat’s so special about when we eat?To the average person who is not exercising, it does not really matter when you consume nutrients. While nutrient timing isn’t critical to the average person, it’s essential to the bodybuilder looking to increase muscle mass. Muscle anabolism due to exercise and nutrient intake is influenced by various factors, such as the type of protein. For example, milk protein ingestion following resistance exercise results in greater amino acid uptake by muscle than ingestion of soy 8 protein. Others have documented that a rapidly absorbed protein such as whey is going to lead to a greater insulin and amino acid response than milk casein. Examining the science of nutrient timing in detail, it becomes clear that it’s not just the type or the amount of food you eat that counts, but when you consume it in relation to exercise. For example, researchers investigated the relationship between acute and 24-hour changes in muscle protein metabolism in volunteers over a 24hour period under two conditions: (i) while resting and (ii) when they performed resistance exercise and ingested EAAs (essential amino acids). EAA ingestion and exercise increased 24hour muscle protein synthesis and improved nitrogen balance over 24 hours. More importantly, the difference between rest and exercise was identical whether measured over 3 hours or 24 hours. These results support the contention that acute changes in protein synthesis after resistance exercise represent small changes that occur over longer time periods, resulting in 7 changes in muscle mass. Deposition of muscle protein following each bout of exercise is small and the accumulation of these small changes gradually increases muscle mass over a period of training. This gradual accumulation of new proteins may explain why changes in muscle mass with training are generally not measurable until after several weeks of training. important to emphasize that you don’t need a whole lot of protein either; researchers have noticed measurable changes with as little as 15 grams of protein before exercise. Shortly after resistance exercise, if you have not consumed protein pre-exercise, your body is in a catabolic state in the absence of a good nutritional strategy, and this phase can remain catabolic until amino acids are ingested. Many people like to wait till they get home to eat after exercise and some people (after intense exercise) may have a blunted appetite, which causes them to not eat. New research suggests that having a whey protein shake may be the most anabolic supplement you can take. Interestingly, although the cells are primed for muscle building, a previous study reported that taking a whey protein shake before and immediately after exercise resulted in greater increases in muscle mass compared to a group who consumed whey protein in the morning and right 1 before bed. Another study reported that waiting as little as 2 hours to consume a protein shake resulted in blunted muscle hypertrophy and 2 reduced strength gains. An anabolic phase occurs immediately after the workout and lasts about an hour or two. New research suggests that taking a small dose of whey protein (15 grams) both before and after exercise may be the optimal anabolic nutrient timing for muscle growth.

The Windows Of Anabolic Muscle Growth
Many people neglect that pre-exercise nutrition is just as important as post-exercise nutrition. Previously, it was reported that ingestion of 6 grams of essential amino acids before exercise resulted in greater muscle protein synthesis than when the amino acids were given after exercise.The author suggested that the greater rate of protein synthesis was due to increased amino acid delivery to muscle from exerciseinduced increases in muscle blood 9 flow. Another study reported that when protein supplementation was consumed immediately before exercise over a period of 14 weeks, it resulted in greater hypertrophy of the knee extensors than consuming the same protein 10 after the resistance training session. It’s

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Sports Supplement Product Review
By Robbie Durand, MA




Elite Liquid Protein
re you ready for your protein “to go?” In the past, protein “to go” has been limited to protein bars, which melt and have less-than-pleasant aftertastes. Additionally, the average protein bar contains 250-300 calories per bar and has added sugars. DYMATIZE’s: Elite® Liquid Protein has created a revolutionary new concentrated liquid protein that is only 180 calories and contains no added sugars or fat. Elite® Liquid Protein is more bioavailable than other forms of proteins. Elite® Liquid Protein contains a unique protein structure called polypeptides and is not a denatured protein (denatuaration is when protein molecules are broken down from heat or acid processing. Most protein bars use this process in the manufacturing process of protein, which limits protein bioavailibility). Elite® Liquid Protein "bioavailable" makes it superior to any protein bar on the market. Elite® Liquid Protein contains whey protein isolate/casein isolate and comes in a convenient, portable 3 oz. container that contains a whopping 45 grams of protein per container. Elite® Liquid Protein is protected in a super strong container and is heat stable, with no need for refrigeration. Elite® Liquid Protein also contains glutamine for added anticatabolic support. No shaking, no mixing, no blenders needed with DYMATIZE®: Elite® Liquid Protein, which has the equivalent protein amount of more than seven eggs in about 3 ounces!

Liquid Protein Flavors from Dymatize
Dymatize is known internationally for protein product selection and flavors. The difference between this liquid protein and others on the market is the unique flavors available. There are five delicious flavors such as Fruit Punch, Tropical Splash and Blue Hawaiian; to please the dessert taste buds, Vanilla Frosting and Chocolate Cheesecake will be available this fall.

Nutrient Timing of Protein Increases Muscle Mass
It seems that in order to receive the optimal anabolic effects of protein supplements, research suggests that protein must be consumed both before and after exercise for optimal anabolic gains. Don’t wait until you get home to eat, never miss an anabolic window again with Elite® Liquid Protein. One study reported that when a protein supplement was consumed both pre and post-exercise, it resulted in greater gains in muscle mass than when protein was consumed at other times of the day.1 An exciting new study released in the Journal of Amino Acids reported that protein timing altered anabolic gene expression and enhanced muscle mass in men. In the study, subjects were randomized to

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either receive a protein shake both immediately before and after exercise or a placebo. The men performed resistance training for 21 weeks and had strength and muscle mass analyzed at the end of the study. The group who consumed the protein before and after exercise had greater gains in muscle mass and strength compared to the placebo group.2 This means you can train with optimal intensity, but gains will suffer if you don’t have a fast delivery protein like Elite® Liquid Protein before and after exercise. That does not mean you can’t take Elite® Liquid Protein between meals, as recent data also suggest that protein supplementation between regular meals may provide an additive effect on stimulating protein synthesis due to a more frequent stimulation of muscle protein synthesis.3

Elite® Liquid Protein Also Contains Glutamine for Muscle Recovery
Muscle cell concentrations of glutamine are far higher than blood levels. Glutamine can also increase tissue glutathione levels and enhance antioxidant capacity. The use of glutamine seems to be especially warranted during high-intensity exercise and stress-related conditions such as dieting.4 A 2006 study reported that glutamine can reduce myostatin levels and prevent muscle atrophy.7 The concentrations of plasma glutamine decrease as a function of exercise intensity.6 Depletion of glutamine is associated with overtraining and catabolic breakdown of muscle tissue. Overtraining will result in less gains, but also higher disease rates, infections and a poor immune system, due to the heavy demands placed on the energy reserves of the body. Glutamine is also important for reducing ammonia. Ammonia is a metabolite that has been proposed as a physiological marker of prolonged intense exercise and its appearance in blood is positively correlated with exercise intensity. Moreover, ammonia can be toxic to both muscles and the central nervous system, resulting in fatigue.5 A recent study reported that glutamine supplementation reduced the increases in ammonia levels in response to intense exercise.6 The addition of glutamine to Elite® Liquid Protein protects against overtraining and can enhance performance. Dymatize® Elite® Liquid Protein is the ultimate singleserve, anytime, anywhere protein. The most concentrated form of protein available. Nothing to mix and no bulky containers. Just pure, concentrated protein in a ready-to-drink liquid. Calorie-efficient and delicious. The price? Just right— about $3 per bottle or buy a six-pack to get you through the week. • 45g Protein • Zero Carbohydrates • Zero Sugar • Zero Fat • Zero Lactose • Easy to Digest • 6 Bottles per Box

For more information about Dymatize® products visit References:
1. Hayes A, Cribb PJ. Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2008 Jan;11(1):40-4. Review. 2. Hulmi JJ, Kovanen V, Selänne H, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, Mero AA. Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expression. Amino Acids, 2008 3. Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Aarsland A, et al. Exogenous amino acids stimulate human muscle anabolism without interfering with the response to mixed meal ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2005; 288:E761-E767 . 4. Rohde T, MacLean D, Pedersen B. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998;30:856-62. 5. Banister E, Cameron J. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia: peripheral and central effects. Int J Sports Med, 1990;11:129-42. 6. Bassini-Cameron A, Monteiro A, Gomes A, Werneck-de-Castro JP Cameron L. Glutamine protects against increases in blood , ammonia in football players in an exercise intensity-dependent way. Br J Sports Med, 2008 Apr;42(4):260-6. 7 Salehian B, Mahabadi V, Bilas J, Taylor WE, Ma K. The effect of . glutamine on prevention of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with myostatin suppression. Metabolism, 2006 Sep;55(9):1239-47 .

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194 MD December 2008

By Flex Wheeler, Photography by Per Bernal

In 2007 Jay Cutler barely escaped the clutches of Victor Martinez, who many, including yours truly, considered to be the rightful Mr. Olympia. But Victor was out with an injury. So were Kai Greene and a rejuvenated Branch Warren. That left the field wide open. Dexter Jackson, a man who hasn’t seen the south side of the top four in any contest he’s entered since 2003, was the obvious front running challenger (and outside of Ronnie, the only man to beat Jay since 2000). Earlier in the year he recaptured his beloved Arnold Classic for the third time with his best ever form to date; bigger, harder, and with significant improvements. Dexter feels this is his best chance to capture the only trophy that’s eluded him in his long and brilliant career. He’s hungry like never before. A Man on Fire. Then there’s Phil Heath. The Gift received his O qualification in his rookie year by way of winning his first two contests. But he felt he wasn’t ready and skipped it. Then he got fourth in a tough as nails lineup at the ’07 Arnold Classic. He skipped it again. Opinion was divided between, “smart move, he should take the time to pack on quality muscle MD 195

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so he can stand with the big boys, and “why doesn’t he test ” himself against the best like the other greats before him?” After winning his third contest in as many years and placing second to Jackson at the Arnold, it was time to break that Olympia seal. So now we get the pleasure of seeing Heath in the Olympia lineup. Will his gifts open on a stage of this magnitude? Dennis Wolf, the future of bodybuilding and breakout sensation of last year’s show (who was never compared to Cutler), took a full year off so that when the comparison did come, he’d show the world the future was here and he was ready to take his title now. Toney Freeman, suffering a losing streak since late 2006, recaptured some of his previous winning form with victories at Europa and Tampa. The confidence was back in the X-Man’s eye. Dennis James, who hasn’t been in the lineup since 2006 is back for another run, intent on being a top tier athlete once again. And Silvio Samuel, competing only 4 times this year, wants to charge up that ladder and improve on his 7th place Olympia debut of last year. People, we have the makings of one year-ending blow out bash. So without further preamble…let’s get bumping!

For the first time in 14 years, the curtain at this Olympia rises without the mammoth-sized shadow of one Ronnie Coleman. No more “light weight baby!” or “yeah buddy!” booming across the stage. He’s left a legacy that will never be duplicated. Big Brubba wasn’t onstage but his presence was felt all over Olympia weekend.

The lineup looks good. Everyone came to play. The first and last callouts are usually the key to the show. The athletes step out numerically, so the order has no real significance. Toney Freeman…surprise, and a nice one at that. The X-Man has never looked better. What a time to bring your all-time best! Phil Heath…expected. Bigger and drier than the Nevada desert. He looks dangerous. Dexter Jackson…of course. Also bigger though not as crisp as earlier in the year (and this is what threw me, at first—more on this later). Still a huge threat with his nearly flawless physique. Jay is off. He’s big but he’s nowhere near as hard as he needs to be. The door is open. Toney was obviously holding back in Atlanta so he could peak tonight (wise play Dave). Dexter and Jay battled hard with Phil on the outside looking to move in. But the absence of Wolf was the most telling aspect. For the next callout, Dexter and Jay (numbers 1 & 2?) left the lineup, making way for Silvio (most shredded man in the show), Melvin (sharper than he was in Atlanta), and Wolf (finally! to the deafening approval of the crowd). Silvio impressed me with his conditioning, which was absolutely shocking. I foresee a top spot. The Wolf-Heath matchup was a prediction of things to come. Only one year separates these two (29 and 28 respectively), perhaps the most promising young athletes of the future. Wolf looks huge! The biggest guy in the show. Still can’t believe he wasn’t in the first callout. But Phil brought his A-game and he’s not backing down. The kid is really showing me something. He’s got my December 2008

full attention. If this is a sign of things to come, then we’re in for quite a treat for years to come.

The 3rd callout. Toney and Phil are replaced by Dexter and Jay. Wolf’s in the middle, between them. The crowd’s going nuts. Dennis is beating Jay on almost every pose. Off to the side though, Dexter is staking his claim. The added size is impressive, but did it come at a price? Initially I thought he wasn’t quite as dry as I’ve come to expect from a man with a vise-grip on the conditioning department. He was almost too full. But then Dexter started getting harder and drier. The Blade was sharpening and cutting down his foes. He has things the others don’t. His intricate details, flowing lines, perfect symmetry and added mass were slicing Wolf and Cutler’s size advantage in two. Inside, I felt the first stirrings of hope. But this is the Olympia, where size is always rewarded, so I didn’t let myself get carried away. Obviously, Dexter and Jay were battling for the top spot. But in my world, it would have been Dexter and Dennis, followed by Phil and Toney in a neck and neck race for 3rd with Silvio edging out Melvin for 6th. Obviously my opinion differed vastly from the judges. But hey, that’s just my opinion. Let’s get back to the moment. Phil is closing the gap on Dexter, but Dexter’s still holding him off and pushing Jay more than anybody—even more than Victor did last year. Dexter had only 2 callouts! I have him ahead of Jay at this point. I can’t get a handle here as it looks like Dennis and Toney are duking it out for fourth (???) with Melvin and Silvio right on their heels. Based on

the final callout, top 6 looks to be: Dennis Wolf Toney Freeman Phil Heath Dexter Jackson Jay Cutler Silvio or Melvin The judges got me baffled, which means they’re doing their job right. Some had Dexter winning. Others put Wolf at the head of the pack. There was a case made for Toney, too. I’ve never heard so many varied opinions in one night. To me, that’s the hallmark of a great show. Here’s how the chips fell. No more bets please! MD 197

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5 ‘6” 235
I’m still buzzing from the emotion of the moment. The whole place literally lit up! What a great night for Dexter and a fantastic night for bodybuilding as a whole. To have a man that doesn’t weigh 270 pounds as the newest Mr. Olympia does wonders for the sport. Has Dexter ushered in a new era? Only time will tell. For now, let’s enjoy this wonderful moment. Dexter has always had the complete ensemble. This night he brought a significantly bigger version of it, especially through the arms, delts and back. The gamble paid off—big time! His legs had good sweep and front thigh separation was up (usually a critical point). His side chest was spectacular, with perfect shape and evenly distributed mass. From this angle it looked as if the skin from his legs had been removed. His front double biceps had more impact and his abs & thighs were razor sharp. From the rear he was carrying a little more weight and early on Friday, he lacked the inhuman crispness he showed at the Arnold. But as I said, that oversight took care of itself the longer he stayed onstage. He remains one of the most consistently conditioned guys in the world. Great thickness with more width to his back than I’ve ever seen. Tight waist with brick abs and the sickest striated, traps pouring out of his ears most-muscular on the stage. Dexter knew he had the better package and that gave him the confidence to go right after Jay all night. On a personal note, the pride and happiness I feel for Dexter are beyond words. I’ve known this guy since the ’99 Grand Prix in England (he doesn’t even resemble that man any more). We’ve always been close and to see him win it in this fashion was an amazing thrill. I was honestly surprised. I knew the judges would bring it down to Dexter and Jay. Of the two, Dexter was clearly superior. But with the way these things go, I still didn’t think it would fall his way. When they announced his name, I flew off my seat (like everyone else in the arena), cleared the blockade like a hurdler and ran to the front of the stage. I’m honored that he mentioned my name in his highly emotional victory speech. At his VIP party, I gave him a big hug and told him what his victory means to people like me, Shawn, and Kevin. It was almost like we were winning it, too. I’m happy for you Dex! Arnold Classic and Olympia Champion! What a fabulous year. You’ve worked hard all your life and you deserve every bit of it! Congratulations Dexter Jackson, 2008 Mr. Olympia! December 2008

JAY CUTLER —2nd Place
5 ‘9” 270
Jay was off, no two ways about it. Although his legs were flared and covered with criss-cross striations, his upper body, though huge, lacked the clear separation you expect in a Mr. Olympia. But when he turned around, the true extent of the circumstances were undeniable. His back was holding water. His rear double biceps showed minimal separation and depth. His lumbar region was marred by folds of loose skin. His glutes and hamstrings lacked their customary details. From the side, he was thick but again, his lower extremities were devoid of all the fissures and cracks evident on the competition. His arms and delts were fuller and rounder than they’ve been in years and like a true champion, he was full of confidence, commanding respect the moment he stepped onstage. No one is more dedicated than Jay but he just didn’t have an Olympia caliber physique, at least not this day. Even though he lost his crown, nothing will take away the fact that Jay Cutler is a great bodybuilder. He’s accomplished magnificent things in his career. He was the uncrowned champion in 2001. He was the rightful champion in 2006. Tonight, like the true class act that he is, he was fully gracious in defeat, acknowledging that Dexter was the better man on this occasion. I feel for him, having lost the very thing he’s devoted his entire life to. But I’m sure he’ll be back. He’s a warrior in body, mind, and spirit.

5 ‘9” 240
The Gift sure lived up to his billing as a future Mr. Olympia. I’m stunned speechless. How can this guy keep improving at such a rapid rate? And I’m talking major, jaws dropped to the floor, no question about it improvements! Bigger than ever with a degree of conditioning right on par with Silvio. One of the roundest guys in the sport. The best guns in the show with thick, flared thighs riddled with crazy deep separation. Chest has nice thickness but still needs more width. His back is coming up too, though it’s not quite at the level he needs to leapfrog past the top tier guys (which won’t be too long if he keeps up this pace). Still, his delts, guns, quads, hams, glutes, and calves are stellar material. Winning lines and symmetry, too. Showed marvelous detail in quarter turns. Pushed Dexter and Jay hard. Could have been one spot higher and nobody would have complained— least of all, me! Absolutely ecstatic with third; great seeing such youthful enthusiasm. He’ll be hard to keep at bay with his combination of size, shape, and conditioning.

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5 ‘11” 270
The Big Bad! Made necessary improvements to his weak areas. Added mass and detail to his lower back, increased his hamstring drop and packed more meat onto his already gargantuan delts while keeping his itsy-bitsy waist exactly the same. True his lats don’t insert at the waist, but their width and thickness can’t be denied. Add stripped glutes and hams to that picture and you have quite an imposing image. He was the biggest guy in the lineup and his conditioning was right in the top percentile. He owned the most muscular, front lat spread, and rear double biceps. I appreciated his attention to the mandatories in prejudging. He hit his poses, recontracted—not an easy thing to do—and hit them again, squeezing every fiber. It showed his hunger, confidence and maturity. His evening routine was cut from the Ed Corney classic style of posing, which when coupled with his immense dimensions, makes for a very dramatic presentation. Keep bringing it like this Dennis and very soon you will be the last man standing. Wolf won the Fan’s Choice Award for the second year in a row! The Fan’s Choice online voting took place live during the Olympia webcast.

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6 ‘2” 290
X-Man Version 2.8! The best Toney I’ve ever seen. Big, hard, full, and shredded. Newfound back density brought his rear double biceps and rear lat spread to life. Superb Xframe with round, mellon delts, tight waist, and probably the best tall man wheels of all time. His teardrops are spilling over his knees and his outer quads are touching his competitors. And the separation! Hamstrings are hanging low with excellent detail. Major guns and beautiful shape and symmetry married in perfect harmony with loads of muscle. Toney looks great standing relaxed and hitting his shots. What’s more, he’s very impressive in the transition between poses. His side chest and front double biceps were among the best in the show. The X-Man’s night routine sent chills racing down my spine. What a performance. I’d lay down money to see it! Nobody would have argued if he was higher.

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5 ‘8” 245
The Marvelous One looked good early on but then started to fade. He was hard from the front, as evinced in his double biceps and side chest shots, but from the rear he continues to be plagued by a lack of conditioning. And that’s too bad because he has terrific shape and lines. If he could just pull the water from his problem areas, we’d see just how marvelous he could truly be.

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5 ‘7” 225
El Matador! This cat’s taking the bull by the horns. The round mound of muscle was bigger and more conditioned than I’ve ever seen. When you can lay claim to being the most conditioned guy in a lineup that includes Dexter Jackson and Phil Heath, you’ve done something special. I told you fools Silvio wasn’t playing. Thighs separated like nobody’s business. Great front double biceps with that tiny waist and flaring quads. Perfect symmetry from every angle, particularly the front lat spread (beautiful shot!) and rear double biceps. He brought up his back thickness and carved his serratus and abs all the way down to his spine. The reduced schedule paid off big time for Silvio, who brought his best package to date. Should have been higher. My heart bleeds for him. Silvio, I can only tell you what I told Dexter seven years ago: Keep coming in tight and sliced to ribbons. Play your game. You will be rewarded.

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5 ‘8” 245
DJ where have you been? Wherever it was you went off to, it’s good to have you back where you belong. DJ came down a ways from his usual 260-ish to a more streamlined 240-ish look and it paid huge dividends for him. His waist was tighter and his legs were in better balance with that expansive upper body. See? Sometimes it’s best to forgo the excess. His delts and pecs were as wide and thick as ever. Amazing upper body hardness and front thigh separation. Terrifying side chest! His glutes were in shape and his back was soooo wide. The best DJ I’ve seen in a long time! He got much appreciation from his peers who took the time to congratulate and welcome him back.

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5 ‘9” 235
First timer and a great showing at that. Moe’s got guns to spare and nice, thick, sweeping quads. I’d like to see more upper pec mass and lat width. His conditioning was good. Nice proportion and lines. Back double biceps jumps to life.

5 ‘8” 240
The Freakin’ Rican! A little lighter than normal but it served him well. When Gustavo opts to forgo the size game, his waist gets tighter, improving his aesthetic qualities. But he sacrificed in other areas, mainly his front thighs, which were markedly down and this cost him points. Guns were loaded as always but his chest seemed a bit shallow. Powerful from the side though he lacked his usual crisp lines. Rear double biceps still carrying loads of dense beef, but lack of dryness hurt him. It was a tough line up and this clearly wasn’t the best we’ve seen from Gustavo.

In a way, a finish like this redeems the sport on several levels. The incumbent does have an advantage (even if you disagree, like I do, there’s no disputing it has played a significant factor in the past). So to have it come down to the wire and go to the better man based solely on what was brought to the table at the moment gives me great consolation. Maybe the days of one guy holding the title for years and years are over. I have no problem with that if it’s truly warranted, but that’s rarely been the case. Dexter’s physique toppling Jay’s—the proverbial apples and oranges—makes a statement louder than Saturday night’s standing ovation. The aesthetic component of the sport like tight waists, impeccable symmetry, and pleasing lines are finding their way back to the center of bodybuilding. Size at all costs is no longer a guarantee for victory. It’s the combination of everything: size, shape, symmetry, and conditioning. The total package. A return to the very ideals of bodybuilding. Balance has been restored to the bodybuilding universe. Congratulations to Mr. Olympia Dexter Jackson (feels great to write that!), Ms. Olympia Iris Kyle, Fitness Olympia Champion Jen Hendershott, and Figure Olympia Champion Jennifer Gates. Dennis Wolf was the overwhelming People’s Champion based on crowd reception alone. Thanks also to AMI for resurrecting the German Grand Prix in 2009. Thank you to All-American EFX ( Had a blast at the booth! Thank you to Steve Blechman for the support and respect he has for this sport. Steve brought a small city of people to cover the Super Bowl of bodybuilding because that’s how much he cares. As usual, I had a rip roaring good time covering all the festivities for you. On behalf of Steve, Dave Palumbo, Shawn Ray, John Romano, Per Bernal, and the rest of Team MD, God Bless you all. We’ll do it again next year!

RIP Olympia Weekend started with a tragedy, when chief expeditor and NPC Vice Chair Steven Stone passed away during the show. Steve was a true gentleman that loved bodybuilding and was loved by all who had the pleasure of knowing this dear soul. He was one of those down to earth guys that you just know you’re lucky to meet as soon as you shake his hand. He never had a bad word to say about anyone and I’ve never, in all my years in the sport, ever heard anybody say a negative thing about the man. Bodybuilding stages will seem a little emptier without Steve setting up behind the scenes with his solid direction, ensuring everything runs like it’s supposed to. He will be missed by his many friends, colleagues, and especially his family. My heart goes out to those who knew and loved him best. You will be missed but never forgotten.

1. Dexter Jackson 2. Jay Cutler 3. Phil Heath 4. Dennis Wolf 5. Toney Freeman 6. Melvin Anthony 7 Silvio Samuel . 8. Dennis James 9. Moe Elmoussawi 10. Gustavo Badell 11. Darrem Charles 12. Johnnie Jackson 13. Craig Richardson 14. Ronny Rockel 15. David Henry 16. Kevin English 17 Leo Ingram . 17 Sergey Shelestov . 17 Fouad Abiad . 202 & Under 1. David Henry 2. Kevin English 3. James Lewis Roc Shabazz Jeffrey Long Richard Jackson Jaroslav Horvath Ray Arde George Farah Charles Dixon Eric Castagnet Curtis Bryant Jason Arntz Nathaniel Wonsley

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Michael Liberatore’s Big Guns Are Aimed At The Nationals
By Ron Harris, Photography by Per Bernal

He’s ranked right now as “America’s Top Amateur, having lost the ” 2008 USA heavyweight title by a scant one point to overall champ Brandon Curry. There’s a very good chance that just a couple weeks after you read this, Michael Liberatore will take that weight division at the Nationals and we’ll have to come up with something else to call him. “The Liberator” is out, seeing as that name is already taken by patented furniture wedges designed specifically for facilitating certain, more enjoyable positions of sexual intercourse. But Michael doesn’t really need a catchy nickname, anyway. His physique does the talking. More than a couple pundits have compared his package of size, shape, symmetry and condition to IFBB Hall of Famer Lee Labrada, something you don’t hear very often about a heavyweight. The only points on his physique right now that need to come up are his chest MD 217

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and arms, and it’s not that they are weak. They only appear to need more mass because his shoulders and arms are so phenomenal. It’s Liberatore’s arms we focus on this month. These are the type of arms most of wish we had— fully developed and thick from the shoulders all the way to the wrist, chiseled with deep separations and encircled with a powerful network of snake-like veins. Normally when the subject of these articles has been blessed with such a freaky body part, there’s little to gain aside from the inspiration the photos provide. Michael was an exception, as I guarantee you that by the time you finish reading this, you’ll have a few ideas you’ll want to try in the gym right away.

It’s True, Michael Was First In Line When They Were Giving Out Arm Genetics
A lot of kids mess around and hit half-ass biceps poses, but few actually have something there to flex. Michael can remember being only 4 or 5 years old and having an arm shot that other kids envied and adults were a bit shocked at. “It’s not like I had huge arms when I was that young, but they always had good shape to them and I was always naturally lean for whatever reason. When he start” ed training at the age of 14, Liberatore stood only 5’3” and was a scrappy 115 pounds. Yet already, his arms were 15 inches, a measurement that you’d expect from someone significantly heavier. Speaking of measurements, that’s one topic Michael feels bodybuilders put far too much emphasis on. “It’s a visual sport, and I’ve yet to see a judge get up onstage with a tape measure, he says drolly. “Besides, shape and deep ” cuts can give the illusion of a bigger arm. And something like a high peak can give you a bigger number, even if the overall arm isn’t that large. This begs the question then, ” just how big are Liberatore’s arms? “I really don’t know, he ” says. “I’m sure they are over 20, probably a bit over 21, but I don’t get caught up in measurements. Doesn’t everybody

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just say their arms are 22 inches anyway?” When he was starting out, it was the arms of Arnold and Lee Priest that inspired him and fortunately, he possessed the requisite genetics to build biceps and triceps that are in that elite league. “They always grew easily, he admits. In high ” school, he followed the standard formula of doing three basic exercises each for biceps and triceps, for 3 sets of 10. Barbell curls, preacher curls and dumbbell curls were his staples for biceps, while tri’s got mostly skull-crushers, dips and overhead extensions with a dumbbell.

Making Freaky Arms Freakier
In the early days, Michael would pair back with biceps and triceps would typically be done with chest. Once he got more serious about bodybuilding and started competing a few years ago, Liberatore decided arms needed their own day, for several reasons. Number one, even though his arms are pretty damn good, he knows they could be better. “Look at almost any established pro who has done very well, and he has gigantic arms, he ” declares. “Lee Priest is a good example of someone I can relate to because he gets criticized for his chest and back not being as impressive as his arms. But that doesn’t stop him from blasting his arms hard, and you can’t deny that his amazing arms haven’t been an advantage onstage. ” Michael also points out a couple pros who have average arms with otherwise fantastic physiques, and suffered when compared alongside guys with huge arms. “Milos is one man who looked almost perfect, but his relative lack of development in the arms held him back, he says. ” “Bill Wilmore is a more current example. That guy has a tremendous back, and a super-thick chest, but his arms just don’t match. I am sure that if his arms were also as impressive as the rest of him, he’d be doing even better as a pro than he has so far. ” Another reason Liberatore trains arms on their own day is that he prefers to focus on just one body part completely, and get out of the gym in 1 hour or less. And finally, it allows maximum energy and intensity to be applied to training them, something he confesses was missing until recently. “Until last year, I really wasn’t putting much effort into my arms just because they were so dominant. But now that I am knocking on the door of a pro card and will hopefully be up against the pros before too long, that’s not gonna cut it. I can’t afford to do anything half-ass. ”

“If something is producing results, keep it, if not, scrap it and keep trying new techniques and exercises. There are bound to be certain exercises, rep tempos, rep ranges and so on that will work better for you than others. Trial and error like this takes time, but it’s the only guaranteed way to discover your individual keys to growth.”

What About The Rest Of Us Genetically Average Slobs?
Ask a lot of pros who were gifted with mega-cannons for arms without doing anything special for them what he would recommend for an average guy with stubborn arms, and you’ll often get total befuddlement in response. “Train them, will be their brilliant pearl of wisdom. It just ” doesn’t register to some of the genetic freaks while there are those of us out in the real world who do train the shit

out of our arms, yet don’t have a whole lot to show for it. Liberatore is far more in touch with reality. “Not everyone can build exceptionally big arms, he says. “Just like not ” everyone can build huge calves. But I do think that no matter what your genetics are like, you should still be able to build up your arms quite a bit bigger than they were when you started. ” What’s the solution for truly stubborn biceps and triceps? “There is no one magic formula or workout that will do the trick for everybody. You really have to keep trying things until you start to figure out what works best for you. Stick with a particular exercise or routine for about four to six weeks, and gauge your progress. If something

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is producing results, keep it, if not, scrap it and keep trying new techniques and exercises. There are bound to be certain exercises, rep tempos, rep ranges and so on that will work better for you than others. Trial and error like this takes time, but it’s the only guaranteed way to discover your individual keys to growth. ”

What About A Pump?
One factor that gets argued about frequently is the pump. Does it really contribute to muscle growth, or is it just a nice little ego boost for us to check out in the mirror? “I do believe a pump is one ingredient of muscle growth, and it’s one of the main reasons I don’t do very

low reps on anything, Michael explains. “When a muscle ” is pumped, it stretches out the fascia tissue that surrounds it, which many experts feel is critical; it makes room for the growing muscle. There’s also a big psychological element to a pump. When you see yourself looking pumped and vascular, it makes you want to train harder. It’s like something to aim for. If your arms are an inch or more bigger when they’re pumped, that’s what they could look like all the time if you can put that mass on. ” Liberatore admits that he gets pumped pretty easily in general. “I recently moved, and a couple of my friends were laughing because just about anything I did that day was giving me a pump, and it’s like that all the time, even MD 221

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on no carbs. This sounds great to most of us, but it can ” actually impede Michael’s training. “A lot of times when I’m doing any type of curl, my biceps and forearms get so pumped that it’s painful and I can’t even use a full range of motion anymore, he shares. “I’ll have to go and do a ” couple sets of calves or something until the pump subsides a little bit. Now, it’s finally time to take a look at ” some of the exercises America’s top amateur bodybuilder uses to work his massive guns.

Barbell Curls
Surprisingly, barbell curls with a straight bar are an exercise Liberatore has only recently started doing after avoiding them for the past six or seven years. “They would give me forearm splints, just excruciating

pain, he notes. “But now that I’ve decided to really hit ” my arms a lot harder, I knew I had to do them. Dave Palumbo told me to try using wrist wraps, and that did cut down most of that weird pain. Michael feels that ” not everyone can use the straight bar for curls without pain, and I concur. I read something a couple years back that made a lot of sense. If you face a mirror with your arms hanging straight down and your palms forward, look at your arms. If they are indeed perfectly vertical, you’ll never have a problem with the straight bar. If they are angled away from your body, you’re probably better off using an EZ-curl bar or dumbbells. “I just feel I need to do them now because I need a different type of stimulation than what my biceps are accustomed to, ” Liberatore adds.

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does curls on both the ubiquitous plate-loading Hammer Strength preacher curl machine and another far less common gem from the Nautilus Nitro line. “You sit in the machine and your arms are elevated, and you work each arm individually, he ” says. “I really feel those, but at the same time there are other curl machines that I find worthless and don’t feel at all. ” It all comes down to what hits the muscle just right and the mind-muscle connection. “If you find a machine or two that get the job done right, don’t shy away from using it just because you read somewhere that some pro doesn’t like anything but free weights, he ” advises. “He’s not you and you’re not him. ”

Cable Curls
Liberatore also includes cables in his arm-training arsenal, as they provide a feel and tension uniquely different from either free weights or machines. He will do curls with one or two arms, often as a finishing movement for the bi’s. The only variation you won’t see him do is the “front double biceps” cable curl from dual overhead pulleys in the cable crossover station. “I don’t feel a thing from them, ” he states. “Most often I like one-arm cable curls, because I can isolate the muscle completely. ”

Cable Pushdowns
Cables play an even more frequent role in Liberatore’s triceps training. He usually warms up with at least 2 sets of cable pushdowns and then launches into 3 or more heavier work sets. “I just think it’s a good idea to warm the whole area up and get a good pump going before you start using barbells and dumbbells, he notes. At ” some workouts he uses a V-bar, at other times a rope. Toward the end of the triceps workout, he often comes back to the cable stack for one-arm pushdowns with a

Machine Curls
“Should I be like all the other guys and say I only use free weights and everything else is for sissies?” That’s what Michael asked me when I inquired about his choice of training tools. Of course I would only want him to say that if it were true, and it’s not. “You have to have free weights in your routine as your bread-and-butter movements, but there are a lot of machines I like, too. He often ”

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hammer grip. “In the pictures I took with Per, I had a rope on there, but most of the time I just take off any attachment and use the cable itself. Obviously you can’t go very heavy like that, but at that point you don’t need to. ”

“If you find a machine or two that get the job done right, don’t shy away from using it just because you read somewhere that some pro doesn’t like anything but free weights,” he advises. “He’s not you and you’re not him.”

Overhead Extensions
To target the long head of the tri’s, Michael always includes some form of overhead extension. He may choose the seated cable version shown here, or a heavy dumbbell. “It’s all about getting that good stretch at the bottom, he observes. “Make sure ” to lower into the stretch slowly and never bounce back out if it too fast, he advises. “You might ” be able to get more reps that way, but you’re putting yourself at risk of a triceps tear. ”

Weighted dips have been a core movement in Liberatore’s triceps training for his entire career. He sometimes goes up to three 45-pound plates, but finds that he pays for it in the form of elbow pain. Most of the time he sticks with two. He also has a secret technique that he picked up from his own background as a gymnast. “If you look at nearly all high-level gymnasts, they have great triceps, he begins. “They ” don’t get that from skull-crushers or even doing dips; it comes from so many hours and hours on the parallel bars, supporting themselves in that top position. To ” mimic this, Liberatore often finishes each set of dips with an isometric hold in that top position at the end, with only a very slight bend in his elbows. “You could also do your sets of dips, then finish by trying to hold that position for as long as you can, 1 minute, 2, or 3— you’ll be amazed at how sore your triceps will get. And don’t be too surprised if they start growing again, too. ” MD 225

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Target: Atlanta and A Pro Card
After taking some time off from training after his runner-up finish at the USA, during which he also got married, Michael is right on track and feeling good about the upcoming NPC Nationals. “I know anything can happen, but I will bring my best package ever. That’s all I can do, and Training Split maybe it will be Sunday: Legs good enough to Monday: Arms get that pro card. ” Tuesday: Shoulders Certainly his arms Wednesday: OFF will be a strong Thursday: Back Friday: Chest point onstage as Saturday: OFF he faces off against the best heavyweights America has to offer. Maybe you will be able to build arms like his, and maybe not. But you can do the best you can with what you were given, and most of the time the results of long-term effort and dedication to your arm training are better than you or anyone else expected.

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Changing Muscle Shape— Dream On
We still hear nonsense about particular exercises or techniques being able to give you a better biceps peak or even a double split to your biceps, but Michael doesn’t buy it. “You either have those things or you don’t, and once you build the biceps up you’ll know for sure,” he tells us. “Levrone and Sergio never had much of a peak, but they still had great arms. Ronnie, Robby Robinson and Boyer Coe all had that crazy double split to their biceps, but it wasn’t from anything special they did in the gym. I remember Lee Priest talking one time about how he kept trying to exaggerate the twist at the end of alternate dumbbell curls for that split, and finally gave up. I’d say his biceps are still pretty decent, wouldn’t you?”

Contest History
2004 Illinois State 2005 Kentucky State 2006 Pittsburgh Championships 2007 Arnold Amateur 2007 MD Cyber Classic 2007 IFBB North American 2008 Junior Nationals 2008 USA Championships Third, Middleweights Light-Heavyweight winner Heavyweight and Overall Second, Heavyweight Winner Third, Heavyweight Heavyweight winner Second, Heavyweights

Liberatore’s Arm Workout*
Barbell Curls Nautilus Nitro Biceps Curls Hammer Strength Preacher Curls Hammer Dumbbell Curls Cable Curls Pushdowns (warm-up) Pushdowns (work sets) Skull-Crushers Weighted Dips 3-5 x 10-15 3-5 x 10-15 3-5 x 10-15 3 x 10-15 3 x 10-15 2 x 20 3-5 x 10-15 3-5 x 10-15 3-5 x 10-15 (plus isometric holds near lockout) 3-5 x 10-15

One-Arm Cable Pushdowns

*The number of sets depend on how many different exercises he does on a given day. If it’s around 10 as seen here, he would normally only do 3 work sets. If he opts for fewer exercises, he will do 4 or 5 sets of each.

Liberatore’s VPX Supplement Stack
NO Shotgun pre-workout NO SyntheSize post-workout Meltdown (for cranking up fat-loss) Zero Carb (protein supplement) Redline Xtreme (when he needs additional energy)

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By Ron Harris, Photography by Per Bernal

Super-Heavies— Not Always Super
Since the NPC instituted the super-heavyweight class 10 years ago in response to the need to give the “smaller” guys in the 205-225 range a fighting chance against the 250-plus-pound monsters, a curious truth became evident at the USA and Nationals. Aside from occasional standouts like Dennis James, Quincy Taylor, Melvin Anthony, Orville Burke, Desmond Miller, and most recently Evan Centopani, the super-heavyweights usually weren’t so super. In fact, for many in the audience, the class soon came to be expected as an anticlimactic letdown at the end of every show, and has remained so. Though initially conceived as a weight division to encompass the true freaks, instead it often draws tall guys with no legs, guys with mass, yet lacking shape or definition, and always at least a few competitors who clearly should have dieted down to the heavyweight limit of 225 1/4 yet were obviously hoping for an easier chance to win compared to the always-tough heavyweights. But like I said, occasionally the super-heavyweight winner is a man with all the makings of a future star in the IFBB. Toney Freeman certainly proved that, cata-

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pulting to the A-list a couple years after winning the Nationals in 2002. Now we have another tall “X-Man” on the scene who could follow in Big Toney’s footsteps. His name is Edward “Bigg Show” Nunn. He may have missed his pro card at the recent USA, but you would be a fool to bet against him to win his class at the Nationals coming right up in Atlanta. At 6’1” and 246 pounds, he’s got what most tall bodybuilders don’t: the X-frame, a tiny waist and plenty of mass in both the arms and legs. Never heard of the guy? Oh, you will; don’t worry.

From The Deep End Of The Gene Pool
Ed’s first inspiration to want muscles came from seeing the compact yet powerful physique of his dad, Eddie. “My dad is about 5’7” and was maybe 185 pounds when I was a kid, but the man was jacked, he ” tells us. “And he didn’t even lift weights. He would do stuff like lift full trash barrels for reps, and I would be alongside him curling glass soda bottles. Clearly, Ed ” didn’t get his height from dad’s side. Mother Matoka’s brothers were all between 6’3” and 6’6” and ranged in weight from 250 to 350 pounds. Big legs also ran in mom’s family, which would be a boon to Ed later on. In his younger years, Ed excelled in football and track in his native Indiana, running the 100-meter in 10.7 sec-

onds in high school. “Even then, I was about 200 pounds and people at the track meets always chuckled when they saw me and assumed I would be slow, until they saw me run. It would freak them out that such a big, husky kid could beat all these smaller, lighter kids. ” Despite his athletic pursuits, the idea of getting bigger muscles was always on his mind, and since the age of 14, he’d been working out with a set of cement weights his mom had bought him for a birthday. “I would set it all up under a tree in the backyard in the warm weather, and bring it inside once it got cold. He ” played football for a junior college in Iowa, and the team’s strength coordinator had him doing plenty of power cleans, bench presses and squats. “He wouldn’t let us do really heavy weights for just a couple reps on the squat, Ed explains. “We had to do higher reps and ” go deep, no little half-reps. Looking back, that did a lot for my leg development, too. ”

Training Split
Sunday: Monday: Tuesday: Wednesday: Thursday: Friday: Saturday: Back width day or OFF if needed Quads, calves and abs Chest and triceps OFF Back and biceps Glutes, hams, and biceps Delts, traps, and abs

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Contest History
2002 Indiana Championships 2002 Midwest Championships 2003 Indiana Championships 2004 Ohio Championships 2007 Anderson GNC Championships 2007 Kentucky Show of Strength 2007 Indiana Championships 2007 IFBB North American 2007 NPC Nationals 2008 Indiana Championships 2008 USA Championships Third, Heavyweight Second, Heavyweight Fourth, Heavyweight Fifth, Super-Heavyweight Fourth, Super-Heavyweight Super-Heavyweight and Overall Second, Super-Heavyweight Sixth, Super-Heavyweight Fifth, Super-Heavyweight Super-Heavyweight and Overall Super-Heavyweight winner

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Becoming The Bigg Show
Ed may never have become a full-fledged bodybuilder had he not met a pair of bodybuilder twins at his off-campus gym toward the end of his studies. Noting his impressive build at about 215 pounds, they asked if he had competed yet in any bodybuilding shows. “No; I’m a football player, he told them. They encouraged Nunn to take advan” tage of what were clearly gifted genetics, and guided him through all the basics of training and eating, bodybuilderstyle. He would have competed soon after that, but life happened, as it often does. Though Ed had planned to continue on at college, he soon had a baby to help support. He took his degree in criminal justice and became a corrections officer on the way to joining the police department. Before he started at the police academy, the local General Motors plant began hiring and Ed couldn’t turn down the money, which was substantially more than what local police earned. Nearly seven years later, GM shut down most of its United States plants and moved them to Mexico, and Ed took a buyout that let him make the transition to a career in personal training, his current occupation. 3/4 Deadlifts Chin-Ups (2 sets wide, 2 close, 2 reverse) Reverse-Grip Pulldowns Pullovers Climbing His T-Bar Rows Barbell Rows Way Up The Lat Pulldowns (to front and back) Ranks Dumbbell Rows Ed began competing in *All exercises done for 4 sets of 8-10 reps unless otherwise indicated, 2002, not really knowing not including warm-ups. what he was doing. Dieting mostly on tuna and whey protein shakes, he found himself losing precious lean muscle and coming in too flat every time. “I used to eat tuna four times a day, he reveals. “I would mix it up with mustard, sugar-free relish ” and hot sauce and stuff it in a whole-wheat pita pocket. If I never eat tuna fish again, it would be too soon. It ” wasn’t until he met his current girlfriend, Miki Morales, that he started to turn things around. “Miki did a lot of research and came to the conclusion that I simply wasn’t eating enough calories, he explains. “I began eating a ” pound of red meat every 2 hours along with either rice or potatoes, and I started making much better gains. Ed ” took a hiatus from contests during 2005 and 2006 and returned with far more quality mass. “I didn’t want to go to the national level until my physique was ready, he states. “If I’m gonna go to all the trouble of dieting, I want ” MD 237

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Measurements and Top Lifts:
Arms: Chest: Waist: Legs: Calves: Neck: Deadlift: Squat: Dumbbell Curls: 22” 52” 32” 31” 20” 19” 700 lbs 600 lbs 100 lbs

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to be up in the top placings. His strategy paid off, as ” his first crack at the Nationals saw him make top five in Evan Centopani’s class. Ed put his focus from then on into improving his back, chest, delts, and calves, and this translated into 17 pounds of new mass at the USA in those areas. “I really went to work on my back, hitting it twice a week with different workouts for thickness and width (see SIDEBAR), he relates. ” “There’s still a lot of room for improvement back there, but that’s understandable with a frame as large as mine is. Honestly, I think I would make a pretty good pro at about 270 pounds or so— that’s the goal. ”

Look Who’s In His Corner. . .
In addition to his girlfriend and the guys who sponsored his eggs and fish for the USA and Nationals, Fred Spinks and Al Montano, Ed gained a powerful advantage soon after the USA in the form of MD’s own Pro Creator, Hany Rambod. “I met him at the USA and already I can say I find Hany very easy to work with, because we’re on the same page on a lot of subjects, ” Ed says. “One thing I will be sure to bring to the Nationals with his help is that crisp, dry condition that you almost never see with the big guys. Too many of these guys put their focus on being as massive as possiMD 239

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ble, but they are missing the big picture. The total package is what wins, and condition is a huge element of that. If you look at the athletes Hany has worked with and helped turn pro, you see that he has been very consistent with bringing people into shows in the best condition of their careers. I’m still over nine weeks out right now and my glutes are pretty much in. I won’t make any predictions of course, but I have a great feeling about the Nationals. The ” best part is that Ed holds no grudge about being passed over for a pro card at the USA. “I feel blessed to have done

so well at my first shot at the USA, and I can take pride in knowing I gave it my all and looked the best I could have. But my true best is yet to come. Muscle Asylum Project ” apparently felt the same way about Ed’s potential, as they recently signed him to a contract.

The Shape Of Things To Come
Comparing Ed Nunn to Toney Freeman may seem presumptuous, considering that as of this writing, Ed is still an amateur and Toney currently has five pro wins under his belt.

Weighty Issues
Until just a couple years ago, Ed used to let his bodyweight climb up to over 300 pounds in the off-season. That’s not too uncommon these days, especially for a man over 6 feet. But what is uncommon is that eventually he made a decision to stay leaner. “It’s not that I was uncomfortable at that weight physically,” he says. “I just got sick of having to kill myself with cardio to get in shape when it was time to compete because I needed to drop 50 pounds.” Sharing the bodybuilder’s universal hatred of cardio, Nunn adds, “Being so heavy with all that fat also stretches the skin out and makes it harder to get that tight, shrink-wrapped look once you’re in condition.” Since 2006, Ed has maintained a weight of around 280 in the off-season. “My abs are in at that weight, and I see plenty of vascularity. As long as I eat clean all week, I find I can have a couple treats over the weekend and it doesn’t hurt me much. I have a pretty fast metabolism for someone my size, I think. But staying leaner is definitely something that’s made my contest diets a lot easier. And best of all, I don’t have to do a ton of cardio when it’s time to get in shape. I can get by most of the time with two 15-20 minute sessions a day instead of 45 like the old days.”

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Name: Nickname: Date of birth: Place of birth: Marital status: Children: Height: Off-Season Weight: Contest Weight: Academic Background: Hobbies: Personal Motto: Favorite Music: Favorite Films: Favorite Colors: Favorite Authors: Favorite Foods: Least Favorite Foods: Website:

Edward S. Nunn Bigg Show June 6, 1971 Anderson, Indiana Single Antonio, 19, Matoka, 13, Skyla, 9 6’1” 280 lbs 245 lbs Associates Degree, Criminal Law; ACE-Certified Trainer Working on old cars, motorcycles and electronics “Never give up, never stop fighting for what you want!“ R&B, jazz, hip-hop, rap, rock “300;” “Gladiator;” “Scarface;” “Shawshank Redemption” red, black, pearl Stephen King, Dean Koontz steak and sweet potatoes and a big salad fast-food restaurants

But the similarities are easy to see…X-frame, stature and both are even from Indiana. And with all due respect to Toney, I think Ed is better now than Toney was when he turned pro and even has him beat on a couple body parts already. Nunn gained nearly 20 pounds between the ‘07 Nationals and the ‘08 USA, a time span of only eight months. Can you picture him with another 15 pounds and the same small waist? “That’s one thing I won’t let happen is to get a big old belly, ” he laughs. There is a photo on the home page of Ed’s website showing him at 260, winning this year’s Indiana state show. I thought it was a Photoshop job at first, but it’s simply what he looks like without cutting his sodium and water. The overall shape and fullness are what you would expect to see in the top five at a pro show. So with that going for him in addition to his teaming up with The Pro Creator for the Nationals, chances are excellent that this new X-Man, the new guy who goes by the nickname of Bigg Show, will be second to Nunn in Atlanta. ■ December 2008

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By Ron Harris, Photography by Per Bernal Shadenfreude: Pleasure derived from the misfortune of others. When 22-year-old Trey Brewer walked away from his first outing at the national level this June with fifth place at the Junior Nationals from what was supposed to be an easy win on the way to nabbing his pro card the following month at the USA Championships, a whole lot of haters out there were overjoyed. I bet more than a few were jumping up and down and pumping

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their fists like they had just won the Powerball, or a week in Jamaica with the girls of Vivid Video to co-star in “Gang Bang in Paradise, Volume 14. “That ought ” to take him down a notch from his high horse, they smirked. ” Who does this kid think he is, anyway? Cover of MD at age 21 before he’s even competed beyond the regional level? Sweet contract with one of the very top companies in the world, BSN, who puts him in a zillion full-page ads in all the magazines and makes him out to be the Second Coming of Arnold?Talking about how he’s gonna be Mr. Olympia someday. But the haters really should be ashamed of themselves. Trey didn’t put himself on any magazine covers or in any ads. He wasn’t the one who saw so much potential to warrant an endorsement contract that most pros would kill for. And Trey Brewer certainly never made any predictions of his future greatness or claimed he would win any particular show he was entering. It’s so easy to judge a book by its cover and assume Trey as an arrogant, swaggering jerk. But guess what? I’ve been in contact with this youngster on and off going on two years now, and he’s actually humble, polite and very respectful. He’s the total opposite of the shit-talking loudmouth who some may presume him to be. Trey is just a quiet, hardworking kid from Georgia who was gifted with extraordinary genetics for bodybuilding that he’s trying to make the most out of.

What The Hell Happened At The Junior Nationals?
Most likely, the trouble all began in 2007 when Trey’s , off-season weight climbed all the way up to just under 330 pounds at 5’10” As anybody with eyes could see from his . appearance, a lot of that extra weight was indeed muscle, but there was clearly a large amount of fat and water to go along with it. No big deal. Plenty of guys over the years had shown that carrying excess weight in the off-season wasn’t necessarily a hindrance. Lee Priest, for example, used to look like the Pillsbury Doughboy most of the year, but would show up shredded on contest day. But not everyone’s body and metabolism works like this. For most people, having that much weight to lose necessitates an exceedingly long and drawn-out diet, with enough cardio to wear out even your gym’s spandex-wearing aerobics bunnies. “I dieted for 19 weeks, Trey tells us. “I was also ” doing two 45-60 minute sessions on the StairClimber every day. Also, on the advice of his trainer, he upped his ”

reps from the heavy 10-12 range he’d been using for years to a more moderate 20-25 reps per set on just about everything. The logic there was that Trey already had plenty of size, so it was time to carve in some detail. And as for the mighty thighs he was known for, he stopped doing anything for them five months out from the show to intentionally downsize them. After all, critics were constantly saying they were too big for his upper body, anyway. Unfortunately, the entire plan backfired on Brewer. “I was 249 at the Junior Nationals, he laments, the disap” pointment is impossible to ignore in his voice. “I lost a lot of muscle, and I wasn’t even in the condition I wanted to be in. It was definitely not the way I pictured myself looking at my first national show. Perhaps the worst part was that ” due to his flat appearance, the true improvements he had made to his chest, back and arms were hardly noticeable. As for his legs, they were really down in size. They had gone from freaky to just plain big, but nothing special. All that’s in the past now. His legs are well on their way back to their former greatness. I remember seeing shots of Trey

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posing on the beach in Los Angeles after he won the Excalibur in December 2006, where it appeared some clever computer geek had morphed his quads to make them look absolutely ridiculous in their size and fullness, almost like two vein-riddled blimps. But those pictures were authentic. It was only hard to believe because you rarely see a human being with legs like this.

Meant To Have Monster Wheels
Some guys are cursed with chicken legs and have to fight to ever have quads worthy of being seen in shorts. Then there are the Trey Brewers of the world. The earliest foundation for his wheels came from playing soccer and running track as a kid, where bursts of speed blasted away at his abundant fast-twitch muscle fibers. The real magic began to happen when Trey began weight training as an adjunct to his football in high school. “I played fullback and blocking back, and the coach had us doing a ton of squats and power-cleans, he recalls. His legs responded quite well, ” though Brewer didn’t really notice they were growing. “It wasn’t until I was out on the field in the uniform with the tights on that people started making comments about how huge my thighs were. Eventually those ” thighs grew to be somewhere between 33 and 34 inches in circumference; Trey isn’t sure exactly. “I knew they were big enough by then, so there was never a need to bust out the tape measure. Here’s what Trey does for ” those immense columns of muscle he calls legs. As always, I won’t bullshit you and insinuate that following his workout will give you wheels like his, but his program of hard work on the basics will turn any pair of chicken legs into some meaty drumsticks.

Leg Extensions
Trey used to consider leg extensions nothing more than the preliminary warm-up before he could get into the “real” leg workout with squats, but lately he’s changed his thinking. “Instead of just rushing through extensions and not really putting much into them, now I get a really good squeeze at the top and try to go progressively heavier set by set. The ” pump resulting from the increased blood flow has paid unexpected dividends at the squat rack. “Now I get a much better pump and feeling in the quads when I squat, for sure. ”

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Ah, but here is the true star of Trey Brewer’s leg workout, the one that deserves the lion’s share of the credit for his enormous quads. You just don’t get thighs like his without a whole lot of heavy squats. Trey has gone as heavy as 675 pounds for 10 reps. If any of you want to plug that into some nerdy formula to ascertain his projected maximum single, go nuts. Trey competed in a few bench press meets as a teenager, but was never interested in testing his absolute strength on squats. “Even back

when I was in ninth grade, I was squatting like a bodybuilder— deep reps, shoulder-width stance and never for less than 8 or 10 reps. These days he still works up to six ” plates for 10-12 reps, but he’s careful to take time and gradually build up to that weight. “I start off with one plate and just keep adding one more each set until I get to that, he ” explains. Trey does use a belt and knee wraps, but the belt typically doesn’t come into use until he gets to 405, with the wraps often not making an appearance until the last 2 heaviest sets.

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Front Squats
One fairly recent addition to Brewer’s leg routine over the past year has been front squats. “I noticed that a lot of pros did front squats, but the one who impressed me the most was Jay Cutler, he says. “Jay has some of the best quad ” separation in the sport, and he attributes some of that to this exercise. Since Trey started doing ” front squats, he claims to see noticeable improvement in this area himself.

Hack Squats
Prior to this, The Phenom usually did hack squats on leg day. He will occasionally rotate them back in, but he feels that doing both hacks and front squats in addition to squats, leg presses, leg extensions and lunges is a bit much, even for a workhorse like him. “I still think it’s a very good exercise, particularly for anybody who wants to get more outer sweep to the quads. ”

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Leg Presses
After two types of barbell squats, Trey finds the perfect heavy compound movement to finish with is the leg press. “Your back is totally supported, and you don’t have to worry about balancing anything, he states. “You can just ”

concentrate on pushing the weight and working the quads to death. Understandably, the weights a man the size of Trey ” can handle on the leg press for sets of 10 are substantial. “Sometimes I feel like just putting all the plates on and taking them off at the end are a whole other exercise, he laughs. ”

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Thanks to eight-time Mr. Olympia Ronnie Coleman, “parking lot lunges” have become a universal fixture, at least in the lexicon of this generation of bodybuilders, even if we don’t all do them. “I like the idea of actually going somewhere when I do lunges better than standing in one spot, Trey explains. “Seeing where you need to ” end up gives you a better goal than just counting reps. He doesn’t ” descend so low that the trailing knee scrapes the ground when he

Training Split
Monday: Tuesday: Wednesday: Thursday: Friday: Saturday: Sunday: Back Legs Chest Arms Shoulders OFF (may do some arms) OFF

Trey’s Leg Workout
Leg Extensions Squats Leg Presses Parking Lot Lunges Lying Leg Curls Seated Leg Curls Stiff-Leg Deadlifts 4 x 10-15* 4-5 x 10-15 4 x 10-15 4 trips across gym parking lot and back 4-5 x 10-15* 4 x 12 4 x 10-15

steps, because that would mean skinning his knees on asphalt.

Lying Leg Curls
Trey usually does both lying leg curls and seated leg curls in each workout, and eschews the common practice of high reps. “I’ve always responded well to going heavy on hams just like I do on quads, he declares. “The hams have a ” lot of fast-twitch muscle in them, so high reps MD 255

*The final set for both leg extensions and lying leg curls is usually a drop set that amounts to a total of 20-25 reps.

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wouldn’t make sense, anyway. Those of you who ” watched the Olympics probably noted the fantastic hamstring development of both the male and female sprinters, which often eclipsed what you see on many bodybuilders. Short, intense “sets” in the form of their brief bursts of power on the track are responsible, which is why anyone wanting bigger hams would be foolish to waste time doing endless sets of high reps.

Stiff-Leg Deadlifts
Finally, Brewer nails his hams with heavy stiff-legs, working up to 405 pounds in the off-season. The style he chooses would more accurately be called “Romanian deadlifts, as this variation involves keeping the knees ” slightly bent at all times and having the bar travel very close to the body. With Romanian deads, you don’t need to lower the bar to your shoelaces for a full stretch. Typically that occurs right around mid-shin level.

How ‘Bout Them Calves?
Trey wasn’t sure how big his thighs were, and he really had no idea what his calves measure. “I don’t even think they’re big, to be honest, he deadpans in his ”

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baritone Georgia drawl. “They’re pretty…they have nice shape and good cuts, but I don’t think I have big calves. I ” guess by those standards, nobody with the exception of Mike Matarrazzo and Erik Fankhouser has truly big calves! Brewer trains them two or three times a week, and the formula is simple. “I alternate between standing calf raises, seated calf raises and calf raises on the leg press. I’ll do one of those exercises for 4 sets of 10-12 reps, and I hit calves two or three times a week. ”

“I’m Bringing The Freak Back”

What can we expect from Trey Brewer in Atlanta for the NPC Nationals? He is determined to bring the freak back. Since the Juniors, he’s been training heavier and cut back on his cardio so he can display the rugged thickness he’s known for. As for other lessons learned, he now understands the perils of getting so heavy. “I’ll never go up to 2005 Georgia State 320 or 330 again, he shares. “295 is going to ” 2005 Teenage Nationals be my off-season max, so I won’t ever have 2006 Excalibur so much to lose again. He’s also very confi” 2008 Junior Nationals dent about the team he’s working with now.

“Ropeman (Tyrone Felder, former training partner of Lee Haney) is handling my training, and I have Johnny Stewart helping me on the diet. I’d also like to take the opportunity to thank my fans, family and friends, and definitely BSN, for all the support and encouragement they have given me. Look for him to show up at the ” Nationals around 260 or more, with far superior condition over anything we’ve seen from him before. And oh yeah…he’s been training his legs hard and heavy again, too, so don’t be too surprised if his are the biggest in the show. The hype over “The Phenom” may have died down a little since the Junior Nationals fiasco, but Trey is far from finished. At 22 and having only competed in four contests, he’s just getting warmed up. I

Complete Contest History
Second, Teenage Second, Men’s Super-Heavyweight Third, Heavyweight Super-Heavyweight and Overall Champion Fifth, Super-Heavyweight

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By Ron Harris Photography by Per Bernal f you subscribe to the adage “bigger is better” when it comes to bodybuilding, you have to be a fan of Big Sean Allan, or “BSA” as he’s become known. Standing 6’4” Sean , competes these days around 285 and has been as heavy as 352 pounds in the off-season. His claimed measurements sound like they belong on a comic-book character rather than a fleshand-blood human being: 68-inch chest, 25-inch arms, 23-inch calves, and— wait for it— a 32inch waist on contest day. BSA’s career has had almost as many ups and downs as the stock market since he first stepped onstage over a decade ago. He actually became infamous several years ago by standing up at the Mr. Olympia press conference and informing the top men in the world that he planned on being onstage with them soon.


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In a sport where the line between confidence and arrogance is forever blurred, BSA was marked by many as a delusional egomaniac. Yet this year, Sean shut up more than a few haters by handily winning the Overall at the Junior Nationals, the same contest previously won by stars like Lee Haney, Rich Gaspari, Phil Heath and Evan Centopani. Despite a disappointing showing at the USA in July, Big Sean is now preparing to end his year on a very high note by finally getting his pro card at the Nationals. I think that once you get to know this muscular giant, you’ll realize there’s a lot more to him than meets the eye. I know I came away from the interview with newfound respect for this man who’s been working hard and battling it out on amateur stages for a very long time, and I think you will, too. RH: What was your approximate height and weight when you first began training? BSA: I began weight training in the ninth grade when I was 13. I was always considered a big kid as far as height is concerned. I was already 6 feet as a freshman in high school and my bodyweight was about 140 pounds. Next to everyone my age or in my class, I always stood out. As a child growing up they gave me the nickname “Monster!” RH: Which bodybuilders would you say were your biggest influences/motivation back then? BSA: My biggest influence in bodybuilding when I began my career in 1999 was Arnold, as many people compared my physique to his. Then as I got more involved in the sport, I always looked up to the taller bodybuilders over 6 feet like Paul Dillett, Gunter and Lou Ferrigno. Those were always the guys I respected and admired for being so tall and being able to pack on so much muscle. That’s not an easy task for us tall bodybuilders. It’s one of the few times being very tall works against you. RH: I know you’ve been criticized over the years for being top-heavy. Have legs always been your biggest challenge? BSA: I wouldn’t say legs are my biggest challenge, because every body part on a taller bodybuilder is hard to

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build compared to the shorter athletes. The range of motion is so much deeper with longer limbs. As far as legs are concerned, when a taller athlete like myself has to squat, there’s no such thing as a partial rep. We have to go deep and to the floor and that’s a long way to go when you’re 6’4”! Many people feel that my legs are small for the simple fact that my upper body just responded faster than my lower. But to say I don’t have legs is a false statement. I have shape, size and symmetry, the total package. RH: For such a big man, how have you managed to keep such a tiny waist? BSA: You are what you put in your body. Many people don’t know what it means to eat in proportions. They tend to eat and eat and eat, but the stomach can only hold but so much before it begins to get stretched out and distended. Also I have a very fast metabolism and a very busy lifestyle. My MD 265

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waistline has been a very important body part for me over the years and I have never come in any show with a bloated-looking stomach. RH: Were you inspired to see the success of 6’2” Toney Freeman, being a rather tall man yourself? BSA: I have always respected Toney Freeman since he turned pro and began winning shows and getting the credit us taller athletes deserve. It was motivating to see another athlete over 6 feet doing well and finally winning shows. We are always considered freaks offstage, but come contest time, we always lose to a much shorter or lighter bodybuilder. So I give him props for what he has waited so long for and hope to be on that pro stage right along with him in the very near future. It also gives the younger bodybuilder over 6 feet who has dreams of being Mr. Olympia some hope. RH: You talk about having a mixed heritage that was conducive

for good genetics in bodybuilding. What are your various ethnic or national backgrounds? BSA: That did play a minor role. My mother is Irish and my dad is African American. I wouldn’t say bodybuilding success is all genetics because in anything in life, you get back what you put in. I busted my ass for many years to build what I have built and accomplished in my life. Nothing was handed to me. Going from a 140-pound freshman in high school to a 280-pound beast competing for a pro card as a young adult speaks for itself. That’s not just genetics, that’s hard work and dedication. But I do thank my parents for making me who I am today, mainly my mom. I grew up in a single-parent home. RH: I know you’re a dad. How old are your kids now, and what type of activities do you enjoy doing with them? Do your kids live with you? BSA: I have three kids by the names

of Deshaun, Jasmine and Shawna. Currently I am divorced and have full custody of my two older kids. Deshaun is 13 and a freshman in high school. He is a great athlete and an even better student. He plays football, wrestles, and lifts weights five days a week. Jasmine is right behind him; she is 12 and in the eighth grade. She can be whatever she decides she wants to be, but right now she is just trying to find out what her main sport will be. I don’t push my kids to be like me…I want them to be better. Whatever they have a passion for I will back them up and support them in any way I can because kids are the future. My youngest daughter Shawna is 4 and she is just a kid living a kid’s life. She resides with her mother, but visits and stays with me on the weekends. So I’ve got my hands full! I love my kids. There is no love in the world like the love you get from your kids. RH: I heard that. How long have you aspired to be a pro,

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and what would achieving that goal mean to you? BSA: I’ve been chasing my dream of turning pro for 10 years. It’s been a long road with many bumps and bruises along the way. But I learned to realize that nothing happens overnight, and good things come to those who wait. Never quit or let anyone stop you from accomplishing a lifelong dream. You control your destiny. My day will come. Until then, I will continue striving to be the best Big Sean I can be. With or without a pro card I am still Big Sean Allan, and can’t nobody take that away from me. I got my health, my family and many people who admire and believe in my God-given abilities. RH: Why do you think that your confidence and belief in yourself has sometimes been mistaken for arrogance? BSA: Many people judge a book by its cover without knowing anything about me. They see the outside, but they don’t know what Big Sean has to offer on the inside. There’s a lot more to know about me other than bodybuilding. I’m a father and a great one at that. The many people who know Big Sean know I’m a good person and treat others the way they treat me. I’m not cocky or arrogant, but I am very confident. That will never change. If people have a problem with that, it speaks of their own lack of confidence. RH: You swept the Atlantic States and Junior Nationals and you were a favorite going into the USA, but you didn’t make top five. What happened there? BSA: At the USA, I wasn’t at my best. There’s no excuse. I had just finished winning two shows. After I won the overall at the Junior Nationals, my nutritionist, big Dave Palumbo, and me sat down in my hotel room and had a victory dinner. I ate everything I could order from room service and we dis-

cussed what would be our next show to attack for that pro card. The USA was three weeks away and I honestly was so tired and drained I didn’t want to do it. I was doing photo shoots nonstop, traveling all over the country and I had been dieting for 24 weeks at that point. So I told Dave, let’s wait until Nationals. I had talked to both Steve Weinberger and Jim Manion and both felt the North Americans would be my

best bet. It would also give me a little break so I could rest and recover. Dave felt that we could hold the peak for the USA and possibly turn pro if I could hold the same condition as I did at the Junior Nationals. But my body just couldn’t do it and I took a very disappointing ninth place. Bottom line, I was simply tired, stressed and drained at the USA. I certainly had good momentum going in with that win at the

“The many people who know Big Sean know I’m a good person and treat others the way they treat me. I’m not cocky or arrogant, but I am very confident. That will never change. If people have a problem with that, it speaks of their own lack of confidence.” —Big Sean Allan
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RH: So after all that, what made you to keep on going and do this year’s Nationals? BSA: Back home in New Jersey, I spoke with my ex-girlfriend, who had helped me prepare for the first two shows. Two weeks before the Atlantic States, I decided I didn’t want to put her through the hell of the last couple weeks and would do the shows on my own. I couldn’t see her anymore. It wasn’t easy and she was hurt, but she accepted it because she knew how badly I wanted to win after not having competed for two years. I had also been planning on relocating to LA after the USA, but I chose to stay here on the East Coast. We got back together, and she reminded me that I’m not getting any younger. I just turned 37 in June. So I really should give it one last all-out effort for 2008 at the Nationals. RH: Last question, Big Sean. This will be your sixth time competing at the Nationals and the best you’ve ever done at that show has been eighth. Why do you feel this time is going to be very different? BSA: I feel I have a very good chance this time, especially since I won the Junior Nationals in June. I’m confident that if I bring that same crisp condition to the Nationals, I can win my pro card in Atlanta. I am training for this show with Branden Ray, and it’s the first time I’ve ever had a training partner going into a show. I always trained with my son or my wife. We push each other to the max. He’s striving for the same goal, to turn pro. We’re using Hany Rambod’s FST-7 training program. I have the best nutritionist in the sport guiding me now. All I have to do is remain focused and take it one day at a time. It should be interesting. See you all in Atlanta! ■

Sean Allan Contest History
Juniors, but my body would not respond the way we wanted it to. It happens. We’re not machines. RH: So, were you kicking yourself in the ass for doing the USA after that? BSA: I was upset, sure. The thought of winning back-to-back overalls, being a favorite going into the show and then falling flat on my face…it was a tough pill to swallow. I hate losing. After the USA prejudging, I didn’t even want to go back for the night show, but I’m a man and I wanted to show everyone I could accept the good with the bad. I went up and did my couple poses they let the rest of the top 15 that didn’t make top five do, then went and sat in the audience. It hurt. I had a bit of downtime the following week in between photo shoots in LA, and reflected on things. I found all the positives. All in all, it had already been a great year for me and I was getting closer to my goal. All the bad feelings really melted away when I got back to the airport in Jersey and my kids were waiting for me with big smiles. 1997 Muscle Beach Classic NJ 1997 NABF Atlantic Naturals 1997 Natural Eastern Classic 1998 Physique, ‘98 NJ 1998 NJ Suburban 1998 Natural Eastern Classic 1998 NABBA USA 1999 Eastern USA 1999 NY Metropolitan 1999 Junior USA 1999 NPC Nationals 2000 Junior USA 2000 NPC Nationals 2001 IFBB North American 2002 Junior Nationals 2003 USA Championships 2003 NPC Nationals 2004 NPC Nationals 2005 IFBB North American 2005 NPC Nationals 2006 PDI Night of Champions 2008 Atlantic States 2008 Junior Nationals 2008 USA Championships Third Place First Place First Place Second Place First Place First Place Third, Tall Class Third Place Second Place Super-Heavyweight Winner 10th, Super-Heavyweight Third, Super-Heavyweight 13th, Super-Heavyweight Eighth, Super-Heavyweight Super-Heavyweight Winner Did not place Eighth, Super-Heavyweight Did not place 12th, Super-Heavyweight 12th, Super-Heavyweight Seventh Place Super-Heavyweight and Overall Super-Heavyweight and Overall Ninth, Super-Heavyweight

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Interview By Ron Harris, Photography by Per Bernal


t was getting to the point where I was expecting to see Michael Lockett’s face on the side of a freaking milk carton. Never has someone on such a fast track to the pros so completely dropped off the radar. The guy wins the overall at Team Universe in 2006 after just two years of training, then goes on to win the super-heavyweights and overall at the 2007 Junior Nationals at 5’9” 244 pounds…drug-free. And then, , gone! Nobody has a clue where he is or what he’s doing. Recently we tracked him down and learned he is headed to Atlanta to make good on his early promise and turn pro. Here’s what’s been going on with one of the national level’s biggest mysteries. RH: First off, where the hell have you been? You won the Junior Nationals in June of 2007 and were supposed to do the USA this year, but it’s like you dropped off the face of the earth. ML: Not exactly, but close. I worked the Kemistry booth at the Olympia last year, and soon after that my new girlfriend decided we should move to Las Vegas. I figured it would be good for my career, much closer to the West Coast than Ohio, and plus you have guys like Jay and Gustavo there now. I love the weather out there, too— beats the winters in Akron! But once I got there I really lost focus on bodybuilding. It’s wasn’t the casinos or strip clubs or anything like that, it was really the trials and tribulations of my relationship. It didn’t work out. She’s a beau-

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Never had steroids, never will. God gave me these genetics for a reason and it would be blasphemy for me to throw that amazing gift away and start using drugs. People can think or believe whatever they want.—Michael Lockett

tiful woman, but we just weren’t meant to be together. She went back to Ethiopia after a few months, and I went to Jamaica to go get my head straight and get the love and support I needed at that time from my family. RH: Your family? You have family in Jamaica? ML: Oh yeah, that’s where I’m from. I came to the USA when I was 7 years old. So all in all, I stopped training completely for about four or five months after a few months of not really having any focus or drive in the gym anyway. But now I’m back in Akron, and I’ve been training hard again since the beginning of August. RH: Well there’s one unsolved mystery we can close the file on. As we speak, the Nationals is still over two months away. What are you looking like now? What’s your weight, and what improvements do you think you’ve made since you won the Junior Nationals? Or have you been able to make any, given what’s been going on? ML: I’m up to 250 right now, and I will keep growing up until the day of the show. I think I could be close to 260 even after I drop my water. I’m thicker overall, but you’ll see the biggest improvements in my quads and my back. It’s still hard for me to flare out my lats the way they say I

need to, but I’m working on it. I’ve still been training for less than four years now. RH: I have to ask, because the readers will want to know: are you still natural? ML: Absolutely. Never had steroids, never will. God gave me these genetics for a reason and it would be blasphemy for me to throw that amazing gift away and start using drugs. People can think or believe whatever they want. I don’t claim to look this way because I train harder or eat better than every other natural bodybuilder out there. I do work hard, but I give all the credit to my Creator. RH: Then I will go on record as saying that in my opinion, you might just be the greatest natural bodybuilder of all time along with Mike Ashley. ML: Thank you. RH: Last time we spoke, you didn’t train calves, you did nothing for abs, and you didn’t do any cardio. Is that still the case, or have you started doing any of those? ML: Still none of that, though I have been thinking about maybe starting to do a little bit for abs. I’m not sure I need to, though. I have a nice, cut-up eight-pack all the time without doing a single crunch or leg raise. Cardio just

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makes me lose muscle. RH: One thing that really got a lot of people upset were your nutritional habits. Namely, you claimed to only eat a couple solid meals a day and to eat a whole package of Twizzlers licorice, KFC, and soda on a regular basis. You were only getting something like 50 grams of protein a day on average. Has your nutrition improved since then? ML: (laughs) No, I don’t eat candy or KFC anymore. I eat much healthier now and my protein intake has increased by about triple or more. RH: So you eat every 2 hours now like most bodybuilders, six or seven meals a day? ML: No way, that’s ridiculous! At the most, I eat four

times a day. My body just doesn’t crave food. I don’t get hungry very often. And the way I eat works fine for me. I’m not saying the way I eat would be right for everybody. Maybe other bodybuilders really do need all that food. I just know that I don’t. RH: Oh boy, the boards are going to have fun with all this, I am sure. Are you working with anyone on your diet for the Nationals? ML: No, I’ve always done it on my own and I don’t see a need to change that. I know my body and I know what I need to do to get in shape. RH: Do you still stay very naturally lean year-round? ML: I walk around in contest shape or close to it 24/7 That’s just my genetics. My waist is 28 inch. es at 250 pounds, which is another gift from God. So getting ready for a contest is not a big producMD 273

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tion for me the way it is for everybody else. RH: Have you kept up with any of your boxing training? ML: No, that’s in my past. I can still fight if I had to of course, but my focus now is on being the best bodybuilder I can be. RH: You will be at the Nationals in a few weeks as a super-heavyweight. Some of the best supers from the USA, including the winner Ed Nunn, will also be on stage with you. What did you think of the supers at the recent USA? ML: I wasn’t too impressed. Don’t get me wrong, Ed has a very good physique, but I didn’t see any deep cuts in his quads, hams, or glutes. I think I can beat him. He was the best man in that class on that day, so I don’t want to sound like I’m putting him down. RH: Assuming you win at least your class if not the Overall and turn pro, are you going to disappear again, or will we see you on an IFBB stage pretty soon after? ML: I would compete as soon as possible. My goal would be to get an invite to the 2009 Arnold Classic. I’m from Ohio, and I’ve been to the show a few times. I actually worked the expo booth for Schiek Sports three years in a row. I don’t know whether I would be top five or top 10 or whatever, but I definitely want to get out there and start working my way up. RH: And what are you, like 25 years old? 26? ML: 25. I think I could compete as a pro until I’m at least 40, God willing. Being natural, I don’t have to worry about any long-term health problems from drugs. I’m young, healthy and strong. RH: Time is on your side. Anybody you want to thank before we go? ML: I’d like to thank my fans, Steve Blechman, my mother, father, brothers and sisters, and also John Schiek of Schiek Sports. Also my good friends Bill Lawrence and Demetrius Muhamad. Keep an eye out for me at the Nationals, because I’m coming to win. ■

Mike Lockett Contest History
2005 NPC Natural Ohio 2005 NPC Nationals 2006 NPC Natural Ohio 2006 NPC Team Universe 2006 IFBB World Amateur 2007 NPC Junior Nationals Second, Junior Men Second, Light-Heavyweight No place, Super-Heavyweights Heavyweight and Overall Champion Heavyweight and Overall Champion 12th, Super-Heavyweights Super-Heavyweight and Overall

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You feel it in the air, don’t you? Yeah, you know what it is? It’s the anticipation for the last big show of the season. The best amateurs in the country are all headed to Atlanta, GA, with hopes of turning pro the only thing on their minds. Every year, there are favorites, underdogs and dark horse picks. Some are veterans, while others are newcomers to the struggle. Only one thing holds true for every-

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By Flex Wheeler, Photography by Per Bernal and Bill Comstock

one: It’s the last chance of the year. And believe me it’s a long, slow wait until the beginning of 2009 (bodybuilding is practically dead from midNovember to February). Before it’s over and the curtain drops, there will be a handful of athletes standing proud as the newest pros in the IFBB. Here are some of those favorites, underdogs and dark horse picks.



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2008—USA Championships Super-Heavyweight (First) 2007—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Super-Heavyweight (Fifth) North American Super-Heavyweight (Sixth) • Ultra-wide X-frame • Tight waist • Massive, round, peaked biceps This beast is sure to turn heads no matter where he goes. Titanic, flaring quads that anchor a spectacular Xframe topped off by wide, massive delts. The side chest is a good shot, with his expansive, striated pecs taking center stage. His lat spread is quite impressive, too. I would like to see more separation in those quads. Huge structure notwithstanding, his upper body still lags behind. He needs a lot more meat to his back. His almost-striated glutes will have to be harder to contend at this level.

2007—Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Figure & Fitness Championships Overall Winner, Super-Heavyweight (First) 2006—Team Universe Bodybuilding Championships Overall Winner, Heavyweight (First) • • • • Great delt mass and width Tight waist Impressive in quarter-turns Excellent overall size and roundness

What a freak! Michael caused a near riot when he won the Junior Nationals last year. Since then, he’s been biding his time, waiting to emerge in spectacular fashion. He’s got great pecs, as evinced by a head-turning side chest shot and side triceps shot. He’s proven that he can get into top condition, courtesy of his striated glutes and all-over hardness. He will need to improve that back, adding width, lumbar thickness and deeper separation. His front thighs need more clarity as well. Biceps could use a bit more peak and fullness. His chest and delts look great in the front lat spread, but if he can add lat width, he’ll be hard to beat.

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2008—Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Super-Heavyweight (Fifth) 2006—Excalibur Overall Winner Super-Heavyweight (First) 2005—Teen Nationals Heavyweight (Third) • Freaky pro-caliber wheels • Imposing thickness Trey had a very disappointing Junior Nationals, but keep in mind that this kid is only 23 years old, with all of three contests under his inexperienced belt. Obviously, I’d like to see

improvements to his chest and back. He was clearly over-dieted earlier in the year. He needs to come in strong and that means going with his God-given strength: freaky size! This kid is an animal. He’s not gonna wow the judges with a pretty physique, but he sure as hell can scare them with his full, dense, gargantuan proportions. Bring those legs back up, even it means sacrificing some upper body impact. He will have to be in good enough condition while retaining his fullness, something we have yet to see. Clearly a work in progress that will only improve with time.

• Another massive X-frame • Huge guns, delts and chest • Great lat width We’re sure not lacking in the gigantor department this year. Sean was overwhelming at the Junior Nationals. He slipped up at the USAs, but I look for him to come in just as hard, if not harder than before. He’ll need that, as the competition at this level is so much greater. As expected, he’s got a great most-muscular (sensational split chest) and front double biceps with those delts, guns and pecs. He needs to beef up that back and really bring up the quads, glutes and hams— not an easy task for someone of his height (but Paul Dillett did it, so it’s not unheard of). BSA, you know I got you…don’t let me down or I’m gonna break you off!!

2008—USA Championships Super-Heavyweight (Ninth) Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Overall Super-Heavyweight (First) Atlantic State Championships Overall Super-Heavyweight (First) 2006—PDI Night of Champions (Seventh) 2005—National Bodybuilding and Fitness Championships Super-Heavyweight (11th) North American Championships Super-Heavyweight (12th) 2004—National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Super-Heavyweight (15th) 2003—National Bodybuilding Championship Super-Heavyweight (eighth) USA Bodybuilding Championships Super-Heavyweight (16th)

2002—National Bodybuilding Championships Super-Heavyweight Junior National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Super-Heavyweight (First) 2001—IFBB North American Bodybuilding Championships Super-Heavyweight (eighth) 2000—National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships

Super-Heavyweight (13th) Junior USA Bodybuilding Championships Super-Heavyweight (Third) 1999—National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Super-Heavyweight (10th) Junior USA Bodybuilding Championships Super-Heavyweight (First) MD 281

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2008—North American Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Super-Heavyweight (First) USA Championships Super-Heavyweight (Second) 2007—North American Super-Heavyweight (Third) USA Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Heavyweight (Fourth) 2006—North American Championships Heavyweight (First) 2005—North American Championships Heavyweight (12th) 2004—North American Bodybuilding Championships Heavyweight (Sixth) 2003—National Bodybuilding Championship Heavyweight (16th)

2000—Junior National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Heavyweight (First) 1991—Teen National Bodybuilding Championships Light-Heavyweight (Fourth) • Powerful build • Great front double biceps With such thickness, it’s no wonder that the quarterturns are his strong point. Arms are very full and round. His back, while thick, needs to show deeper separation for full effect. I don’t know if it’s possible to tighten his waist at this point, but if he could pull it off, it would greatly improve his taper. Nice striated pecs in the front lat spread. Has to be harder than we’ve seen him in the past if he is to challenge in this field.

2008—USA Championships Heavyweight (Second) Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Heavyweight (First) 2007—North American Heavyweight (Third) Arnold Amateur Heavyweight (Second) • Excellent overall package • Great lines and symmetry • Top-notch conditioning

MD’s first Cyber Classic champion has been on a righteous tear! And he’s done it with stellar conditioning! Mike’s been one of the hardest guys at every show he’s entered. His side chest and side triceps poses are great. The leg separation in his front double biceps is amazing. Of course, he’s got the requisite stripped glutes and hams. His upper back shows good thickness, but give me a little more meat in the lower region. Overall, he just needs quality size, which is sure to come with time. He’s been one of the best surprises of this amateur season.

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2008—North American Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Heavyweight (Third) 2007—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (Fifth) North American Heavyweight (Second) 2006—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (Eighth) 2005—National Bodybuilding and Fitness Championships Heavyweight (Third) USA Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Light-Heavyweight (Seventh) 2004—IFBB North American Bodybuilding Championships Light-Heavyweight (Second) USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (15th) 2003—National Bodybuilding Championships Heavyweight (Fourth) USA Bodybuilding Championships Heavyweight (Third) 2002—National Bodybuilding Championships Heavyweight 2001—National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Heavyweight (Third) USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (Ninth) 2000—USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (16th) 1999—USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (12th) 1998—USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (Seventh) 1996—National Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Heavyweight (Fifth) 1995—USA Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Light-Heavyweight (12th)

• Excellent shape and symmetry • Great roundness In addition to wide pecs and split peaked biceps, this cat is sporting great width to his legs in the quarter-turns. And those legs are super separated too. He needs more meat to his back, especially for the front double biceps and abs and thigh. I’d like to see greater sweep to his frontal quads, too. He’s definitely got the conditioning down.

2008—USA Championships Heavyweight (Ninth) Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Heavyweight (Second) 2007—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Super-Heavyweight (16th) Europa Super Show 210 (16th), 210 & under (Ninth) 2006—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Heavyweight (16th) Eastern USA Championships Heavyweight (Sixth) • Densely packed • Massive wheels and alien calves Jeff’s another short guy with swollen thickness. Overflowing front lat spread needs a little more separation to really drop the judges’ jaws. The same goes for his rear double biceps. He’s got sick arms and huge, cross-striated thighs in the front double biceps. The perfect complement to his combination of roundness and fullness would be more crispness. Conditioning is the key for Jeff, even if he has to sacrifice a little size.

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2008—USA Championships Heavyweight (Fourth) 2007—Arnold Amateur Heavyweight (First) • Tight joints and full bellies • Classically shaped arms with nice peaks and sweeps • Small waist • Flaring quads • Great symmetry and lines This guy has potential written all over him. He’s shown a nice blend of size and conditioning to go along with that great shape. Massive delts and traps make up for a slightly weak chest, particularly in the front lat spread and most-muscular. His front double biceps is sure to be one of the best in the lineup. His back just needs more depth. Better thickness for the quarter-turns would aid him greatly.

2007—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Light-Heavyweight (Second) USA Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Light-Heavyweight (First) 2006—USA NPC Bodybuilding & Figure Championships Light-Heavyweight (Second) 2005—North American Championships Light-Heavyweight (Fifth) 2004—NPC Collegiate National Bodybuilding Championships Overall Winner Light-Heavyweight (First) • Pro-caliber wheels • Great mass, separation, shape, striated glutes I spent some time with Peter out in Venice, CA. I think he’s a great guy and I wish him all the best. After a disappointing loss to a sensational Charles Dixon at last year’s Nationals, odds are he’ll be in Atlanta ready to bump with anybody standing between him and that elusive pro card. His greatest weapon in that quest will be those massive, cut-to-ribbons legs with great sweep and lower thickness from every angle, which he’ll need to offset his somewhat narrow clavicles. He must bring his back up to challenge for the top spot.

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2008—Junior Nationals Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Light-Heavyweight (First) Junior USA Light-Heavyweight • Cross-striated quads from hell • Tight waist • Small joints and billowing muscles This kid’s physique is hollering Potential! He hasn’t been in a lot of shows, but that’s sure to change. At this stage, he’s in need of overall mass, particularly to his torso. I see big things happening for him.

2007—National Bodybuilding & Fitness Championships Middleweight (Second) Junior USA Bodybuilding, Figure & Fitness Championships Middleweight (First) New York Metropolitan Bodybuilding, Fitness & Figure Championships Middleweight (First) • Nice proportions • Round, peaked biceps • Stripped glutes Impressive side chest, very wide and full. I like Guy in the quarter-turns, with his great leg detail and hanging hams (which you don’t see too often at this weight). Check out his thigh rods! Give me a bigger back, Guy. With the level of muscularity and hardness he achieves, it’s just a matter of holding enough size and fullness. I’m still waiting for him to bring that WOW factor to the table.

Good luck to everyone! May you all fulfill your dreams!




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“I can’t imagine what the future holds for Craig Titus, but whatever it is, he is not going to have an easy time of it.” — Dan Duchaine

BY JOHN ROMANO By now, Craig Titus, former IFBB pro bodybuilder and industry bad boy, who has now graduated to the auspicious post of convicted murderer, kidnapper and arsonist, is getting used to the confinement he will occupy for pretty much the rest of his natural life. The sensational murder that rocked our little world involving one of its most prominent couples and their red Jaguar found burning in the Nevada desert with the body of their live-in assistant in the trunk is fading from the news while the grief-stricken family of their victim tries to find the closure to deal with such a vile affront to their family. Knowing Craig as I do, he’s only thinking about himself right now and how, or even if, he is going to survive for probably the next 30-35 years locked up in a Nevada state prison. All the glitz and glamour of his former life as a bodybuilding rock star— the houses, the cars, the guest appearances, the drug-fueled, sex-crazed parties that sought the very depth of depravity— is all gone. So is the money, endorsement contracts, their friends, their fame, their well-equipped home gym, and the life he and his fitness-star wife could have lived together if Craig wasn’t such an arrogant, selfish, controlling, lying, out-of-control asshole. The fading memories of his brief championship physique, all the hotties he banged, all the drugs he consumed, and all the trophies he won, will have to be enough to carry Craig through the decades to come. Because other than that, as they say in the joint, he’s got nothing coming. His wife, Kelly Ryan, will soon find her way to freedom and in the years to come will probably find the sensible life which her manipulative, self destructive, controlling, sad excuse for a husband deprived her. With any luck, the dark cloud Craig cast over her will fade and she will find happiness with a real man who will adore her for the sweetheart that is underneath what Craig perverted. And perhaps after months or years of therapy, “Craig Titus” will fade to a mere disappointing footnote to her life…at least, one can hope. For one of the most visible and vocal members of our community, it doesn’t get more pathetic than that. How does one of our industry’s biggest names crash and burn so severely? How does a guy with so much going for him end up losing everything and end up sitting in prison until he is a very old man? What exactly happened in the Las Vegas home of Craig Titus and Kelly Ryan from about 2:00 p.m. on December 13, 2005 MD 289

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to the wee hours of the next morning? Unfortunately, the long answer to these questions will remain unanswered, as those who know the answers are either dead or in denial. The bottom line is that one of the names ubiquitous in our little world is now nothing but a number in a Nevada state pen. One of our own is going to spend pretty much the rest of his life (at least most of it) in prison for a brutal murder he committed with his bare hands. While the fact that it is Craig Titus, for those of us who knew him, it’s really not a huge surprise. But we still want to know why. The simple answer is that Clark County Deputy DA Robert Daskas, lead prosecutor in the Titus case had enough evidence against Craig to convince him that rather than dragging his wife with him through a trial they would surely lose, and both be sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole, he ought to just admit to killing Melissa James and “In Nevada, in order to take the plea deal. That way Kelly gets ask for the death penalty, the case has to a chance of having some kind of life be presented to a and Craig gets what Death Penalty Review he would have gotcommittee in order to ten anyway, because if they approve the case for such a prosecution. I’m went to trial there not at liberty to discuss was no way in hell he would ever win specifics, but it was an acquittal. definitely a topic of dis- Unfortunately, cussion.” while the end was justified, this was — Robert Daskas far from a simple case. Just like Craig did everything else, this was also done the hard way. In just the two-and-a-half years that Craig spent in the county lock-up, he has had a YouTube video produced of a rather humiliating cell extraction that left his pale, out-of-shape ass naked in an infirmary; lost the job he had in the kitchen due to his inability to follow rules; spent much of the time in the hole; and was alleged to be involved in both an escape attempt (which facilitated the now-famous extraction) as well as a scheme to allegedly have killed three witnesses in his case. Even in jail, Craig lives up to his reputation.

Going Out With A Bang; Talking To The Prosecutor
The last time I saw Craig was at an event in Chicago in early November of 2005, about a month before the murder. Craig looked gaunt, pale, very small and he wreaked of cigarettes. He looked as bad as he smelled. I only spoke to him for a few minutes. He was having trouble completing thoughts and really wasn’t making much sense, as his conversation meandered between his plans of starting a new fitness federation, how he was going to dismantle the IFBB and a new clothing line he had coming out called “Ice Gear.” I just remember him not looking at all like a bodybuilder and wondered what his fans would think seeing him like that, with a pack of Titus, when he was smokes in his pocket, arrested. promoting a clothing line named after crystal meth. I remember thinking as I left him: “Damn! That boy is wrapped up in something and whatever it is it has a big appetite!” I subsequently got a phone call from Craig on December 12, a day before the murder. He left this crazy rap message he made up on my answering service telling me how he wanted to do an exclusive interview with me promoting his new fitness federation while at the same time leveling scathing accusations of impropriety against the IFBB, the NPC, their president and his son. The only catch was that we had to pay him handsomely for it. I listened to that message over and over again to figure out what it said much the way you’d have to listen to “Jumping Jack Flash” to figure out what the hell Mick was saying. Two days later when I heard that Kelly’s Jag was found burned in the desert and there was a body in the trunk, I sort of felt like that thing that had them wrapped up had eaten them down to their bones. Once Craig and Kelly disappeared on their cross-country odyssey and were later found in a beauty salon near Boston while Kelly was having her toes done, I was sure of it. Craig and Kelly were going to go out in a fireball brighter than the one they lit off in the desert. They were going out just like they lived. Robert Daskas is no stranger to bodybuilding. In fact, he told me that he used to read my columns in college! But when he first got the case and he heard it involved a local bodybuilder his first thought was that it was Jay Cutler! “Nothing against Jay,” said Daskas, “I just didn’t know who Craig Titus was until I saw a picture of him.” I was interested to know what his initial reaction was to Craig. “What usually happens in cases like this is the

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cops do a preliminary investigation,” Daskas began. “They gather evidence and submit it to our office to see if we will prosecute it. In this case, I was involved a day or so after the body was found. Since the suspects were on the run and there would be extradition issues, I had gotten involved right away. My first interaction with Craig was shortly after he and Kelly arrived back in Las Vegas at the initial court appearance.” “Was there anything that struck you in particular?” I asked. “I remember Craig being led into the courtroom and put over into what we call the cheap seats; the area where prisoners without bail sit dressed in their jumpsuits. I remember him looking over at Kelly and mouthing to Kelly, ‘Don’t say nothing.’ I could immediately see his controlling nature and that he had to be in charge. I also thought he was incredibly arrogant. But with every subsequent court appearance, I saw that arrogance fade as it became more and more apparent that he was not in control of what was happening to him.” “Speaking of things happening to him, in true Titus fashion, it would have appeared that Craig was being misunderstood,” I said. “Did his story about him and Kelly finding Melissa already dead of an overdose hold any water?” “Not even an ounce,” Daskas replied. “By the evidence gathered by cops and DA’s office, we knew this first story was bogus. If you remember, Titus stated that Melissa must have snuck back into their home after she left and stolen their car. Well, the surveillance video of them in their car outside of WalMart that same night pretty much negated that story. The other damning revelation was the actual time of death. Craig said they found Melissa dead at about 2:00 a.m., but the autopsy put the actual time of death about 12 hours before that. “At autopsy, Melissa James had what appeared to be chicken and

rice in her stomach. Now, Craig said that he picked up Melissa at the La Quinta hotel at about noon and they went to Kentucky Fried Chicken, where they serve chicken and rice. If she had stayed alive for more than 2 hours after that meal, it wouldn’t still be in her stomach. Certainly not 12 hours later. Their taser was first fired at 2:30 p.m. and forensics puts her time of death between 2 and 3 p.m. Not at 2:00 a.m. of an overdose. Now, certainly Melissa could have had another meal of chicken and rice after the first, but according to Craig she was doing all kinds of drugs, shooting heroin, doing coke, morphine, etc., enough to overdose. Whatever, it’s not conceivable she stopped doing that to eat. Every story they told had holes in it.” I wanted to know the impression he got of Titus as the case went on. “He was someone who consistently tried to manipulate the system to his advantage,” Daskas said. “It was no surprise to me that he had problems in jail. This is a guy who wants to make his own rules. But as he eventually found out, he doesn’t make the rules and if he doesn’t abide by those in place he is going to have a very hard time.” I didn’t find that at all surprising. “Didn’t his alleged murder-forhire escapade also evince Craig’s deranged moxie? I mean, he allegedly wanted to have killed three witnesses in his case! Why didn’t you guys go after him for that?” “That’s a good question,” Daskas replied. “The primary reason not to charge him with murder-for-hire is that we didn’t feel we had enough evidence to convince a jury beyond any reasonable doubt that Titus was involved in this. That’s not to say I didn’t believe he was involved in it. I listened to every single conversation Titus had on the phone, both coming and going, for two-and-ahalf years. I think I know him pretty well and I know what I believe. But, what I believe and what we can MD 291

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prove are sometimes two different things. Beyond that, he was already on the hook for the murder. Since the evidence against him was so overwhelming, it was just less important that we add the murder-for-hire charge. There was no doubt in my mind we were going to put him away for that, so there was no sense wasting resources to add more time to what we felt would already be a life sentence.” “But,” I wondered, “wouldn’t the addition of a murder-for-hire charge aggravate the whole case to death penalty statues? I mean, you already had other aggravating circumstances to begin with: kidnapping and arson.” Daskas sighed, “Whether or not we were going to seek the death penalty in this case was a close call. You’re right; we did have aggravating circumstances. In Nevada, in order to ask for the death penalty, the case has to be presented to a Death Penalty Review committee in order to approve the case for such a prosecution. I’m not at liberty to discuss specifics, but it

Craig and Kelly while in court.

was definitely a topic of discussion. In order for the committee to approve the case, we would have to prove to a jury that things happened definitively. But because we had co-defendants and we didn’t know the exact chronology of events, we had to settle for what we got. I’m not suggesting he didn’t deserve it. It was something that certainly crossed our minds.” Although Daskas wouldn’t come right out and say how close Craig came to being charged in a capital case, I could tell by how he answered the question that it was a lot closer than anyone probably thought. But in the grand scheme of things, 55 years vs. life vs. death doesn’t seem to make much difference. The reality is Craig is more than likely going to die in prison. The plea deal seemed his last act of chivalry. “Was pleading guilty the only way Craig was going to keep from drag-

ging Kelly down with him?” “Well, that almost backfired on him, too,” Daskas said. Titus said he was willing to sacrifice his freedom for his wife, and on a Friday admitted his guilt in court in front of judge Jackie Glass. Then, the following Monday, in an interview on Channel 3 News, Titus denied the claims that he murdered Melissa James. He said the plea deal was the only way to spare his wife a lengthy prison sentence. Titus told News 3, “I never said I killed Melissa James. I said I would plead guilty if you give my wife an opportunity to have a life.” Ryan pleaded guilty to arson, and entered an Alford plea to battery with a deadly weapon. The Alford plea means Ryan won’t admit guilt, but admits there is enough evidence to convict her. “Well that really pissed off the judge,” said Daskas. “Before she sentenced Craig, Judge Glass read him the riot act. ‘You pleaded guilty to murder, then I turn on the TV and you’re saying you really didn’t commit murder, but said so to get Kelly off?’ She gave him the chance to back out and Titus said, ‘No, I committed murder.” Craig’s final sentence of 21-55 years seemed to upset the defense, who were anticipating the lower end of the range to be 17 years. In the grand scheme of things, that four years seems to amount to throwing a deck chair off the Titanic, but it does seem to be a bone of contention for the defense. “Whether or not Craig’s antics caused the judge to increase his sentence, I don’t know,” commented Daskas. “But he didn’t do himself any favors. Titus was supposed to show remorse and accept responsibility, but went on TV and didn’t do that. That extra four years has given his defense cause to file a motion to modify or withdraw his plea. Titus’ lawyer said it was his understanding that the judge was going to impose a sentence of 17 to 55 years. Because she didn’t and instead sentenced him to 21 to 55, they are asking the judge either modify the sentence or withdraw the plea and go to trial. I think Titus should be careful what he wishes for. If he goes to trial he will be looking at life without the possibility of parole. I expect the judge to deny motion.”

What Happened That Afternoon?
God, this is insane! I know I saw Craig falling out of favor with the world, but murder? “I have to know, as I’m sure our readers want to know; what exactly did Craig do? What really happened that afternoon?” Daskas took a deep breath. “That’s a good question, John. And as the saying goes, the only people who know are either dead or aren’t talking. What we do know is that Titus’ story about finding Melissa dead of a drug overdoes was impossible based on the evidence we found in the house, in the car and at autopsy, and, of course, by Craig’s admission. We would never have prosecuted him for murder unless we were sure we could

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prove to a jury beyond any reasonable doubt that he did commit the murder and the judge went to great lengths to make sure Craig was not pleading guilty to a crime he did not commit. Craig knows what he did and he’s going to have the rest of his life to think about it.” “Will he really?” I wondered. “Just how much time will Craig really do? Twenty-one to 55 years seems kind of vague.” “What we wanted for Craig was a life sentence,” said Daskas. “The way the judge imposed sentencing, I strongly believe that’s what he got.” I think it’s interesting how the DA arrives at that opinion. Speaking from experience, many times sentences are rendered for multiple counts or multiple charges of crimes that are served concurrently. For example, in my case, I was convicted of wire fraud, mail fraud, and transporting the fruits of those frauds across state lines. Each of those charges carried a different sentence, however, the judge ordered that I serve those sentences concurrently, or at the same time. In Craig’s case, his sentences must be served consecutively…one following the other. It will look something like this: Craig was sentenced to three separate crimes: second-degree murder, kidnapping and arson. The first count, second-degree murder, carries a sentence range of not less than 10 years and a maximum of 25 years. He must serve this sentence first before he can start serving his sentence on count two, kidnapping. This carries a minimum term of five years and a maximum of 15. Once he makes parole on that charge, then he can start serving his last bit for arson, which carries a minimum term of six years and a maximum 15 years. The mechanics of what Craig is facing play out something like this: Once he is segregated and arrives at his new home, the Nevada Department of Corrections will determine which sentence he will serve first. Let’s say it’s the murder charge. First off, he gets credit for time served, two-and-a-half years. Then he starts picking away at the remaining sevenand-a-half years to satisfy the minimum end of his sentencing range of 10 years. In 1995, the state of Nevada adopted a truth in sentencing act, which virtually eliminated time off for good behavior for serious felonies. Craig will have to do at least the bottom end of the sentencing range for each of his crimes before he is eligible for parole. According to Daskas, it is unlikely Craig will get parole after 10 years on his first count. The parole board will take into account not only the crime itself, but also any prior convictions (of which Craig has at least one), as well as his behavior in prison. Other factors that might be considered are whether or not the parole board feels that Craig would be a threat to society and if he has shown remorse. The fact that he

pled guilty on a Friday and then went on the news the following Monday stating that he really didn’t commit the murder (but just said he did) not only pissed off the judge, but also shows the parole board a willing lack of remorse. It is entirely possible that Craig will serve 12-15 years— perhaps even more— of his first sentence before he gets paroled and starts serving his second sentence. Once his parole term has expired on the first charge and he has served at least the minimum on the second charge, Craig can ask the parole board for another hearing. Whether they grant him one will still be determined based on the same factors as the first. Once he finally gets paroled on his second charge, he can start pecking away at the last one. From the criminal attorneys I spoke with familiar with Craig and this case, the opinion between them is that Craig will probably serve 30- 35 years before he is finally paroled from prison and sees the light of day. That is, if he lives that long.

What Craig Has To Look Forward To
Craig is 43 years old. Life expectancy in prison is not what it is on the outside. Add to that the abuse Craig put on his body for all the years of hard living and drug use, and the fact that his character does not lead anyone to believe he will be a model prisoner, and it is quite possible that long before the ripe-old age of 75, we will hear that Craig is being carried out of the pen, feet first. Some people have said that I’m being hard on Craig in reporting the truth about him being such a scumbag…that his family has suffered and that enumerating his exploits is in bad taste. To that I have to say: tough shit. Perhaps Craig should have thought of his family before he decided to snuff out the life of an innocent young girl. There isn’t a shred of benevolence attached to that man, so don’t expect any condolence from me. In this life you reap what you sow. As far as I’m concerned Craig should be on death row right now, so, really, he didn’t get such a bad deal. I’ll always remember those prophetic words from my good friend Dan Duchaine that are quoted at the start of this article. How true was his prophecy. Perhaps it will take those 30-35 years for Craig to understand that he has no one to blame but himself. But, I doubt it. Daskas has come to know Craig well since he met him two-and-a-half years ago and he shares some of my sentiments. “If I were to make a prediction,” he began, “I would say that his time in prison will end like his career…and that is tragically. He might be a target in prison because of his celebrity and he has a tough time following rules. So don’t be surprised if five or 10 years down the line we hear of his involvement in something tragic. I don’t think we have heard the last of Craig Titus.” Neither do I and I don’t think it’s going to take five to 10 years. ■ December 2008

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Candice Michelle
Defining Beauty
Normally, I reserve this column for current members of our community: fitness, figure and bodybuilding. But every once in a while, someone comes a long from somewhere else who still embodies the qualities of our world while existing in a parallel word. In this case, that would be the WWE. Meet Candice Michelle. Actress, model, Playboy cover girl (April ‘06); she was the WWE eye candy who never thought she’d be a contender in the ring, but was the first WWE girl ever to come from a diva search to become WWE women’s champion. And now— on to her most auspicious accomplishment as one of MD’s most devastating Major Distractions. JR: OK, Candice; let’s roll up our sleeves and get this thing going like we always do. What are your stats? CM: I’m 5’7”, 123 pounds, 34C25-35. Libra, born September 30th! JR: Now, my mother always said to stay away from girls with two first names. CM: Ha ha! Yeah, you should! Always listen to your mother! JR: You live in Los Angeles now. Is that where you’re from? CM: No; I’m originally from Milwaukee, WI. I came to Los Angeles when I was 19 after starting to model in Wisconsin. You can imagine there aren’t too many modeling jobs in Milwaukee. My agency took me to New York for a modeling contest and they signed me! JR: Would you rather be anywhere else? CM: No! I don’t think I would ever live anywhere else! I love Los Angeles! JR: If you could have a second

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Photo and concept by Per Bernal Written by John Romano

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home anyplace in the world, where would it be? CM: Oh, I don’t know. Maybe the Bahamas, or maybe Cabo San Lucas. Someplace you can actually swim in the water. JR: You look hot enough to spell the word with two Ts, but I’m thinking if push comes to shove, you’d be having anybody’s lunch. Am I right? CM: Um, yeah, that’s true! I like to get what I want. And I’ll work my ass off to get it! I’ve been an athlete all my life and I’m very competitive. Just tell me I can’t do something and that makes me want to do it all that much more. JR: I have to ask you about the WWE. What’s it like? CM: It’s incredible! But, I have to tell you that I just returned to the ring three weeks ago. Almost 10 months ago I was fighting for my title that I lost to Beth Phoenix. I was coming off the top rope going for a cross-body and I landed on my collarbone; I got knocked out! And when I woke up in the ambulance, my collarbone was broken. This was live on TV! You can still see it on YouTube. I came back too early because I wanted to be a part of WrestleMania. I was going for a drop-kick and I landed wrong and broke my collarbone in four places!! We had about 4 minutes left in the match and I finished it AND won it!! But that was the last time I wrestled in front of my fans for a long time. Now I’m bionic!! I have a plate and seven pins in there. I have a slogan with the WWE; it’s called “defining beauty.” I’ve learned in this business and in life that beauty is defined from within. I’ve had my nose broken and my collarbone broken in the ring and to come back after all that— to face your fears headon— in front of your fans; it’s your personality and your passion that defines your beauty. It’s not how many times you fall, but rather how gracefully you get up. JR: Is TV, movies, acting— whatever— things you want to pursue? CM: That’s where I come from, so yeah. But for now I’ve been very fortunate to find my passion with the WWE. Right now, my focus is on getting the title back from Beth Phoenix! JR: What did you do before you became a famous WWE girl?

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CM: When I first got to LA, I was a waitress like everyone else. I was a Hooters girl once. I think I’m the only girl who likes to go to Hooters more than a guy! I just love the food there. JR: Tell me something you want people to know about you. CM: I’d like people to know how blessed I am for having so many wonderful fans. I remember moving from Wisconsin and how hard it was. Now when I see someone who is so excited to see me or get my autograph, I just really appreciate that. Like my new tattoo I have on my back. It’s a shooting star going up my spine. I’m into alignment; my stars are aligned with love and gratitude. JR: Do you think your look is intimidating? CM: I think it can be to some people. But if you catch a glimpse of my smile, you’ll know it’s not true. I’m the biggest flirt…no one can touch me in the WWE in that category. I’m also the quirkiest and just love to have fun. I’m so not intimidating. Just coming up and saying hi will go a lot further than try-

ing to plan a way to meet me. JR: What does a guy have to do to get your attention? And don’t say, “Be yourself;” “Make me laugh,” and all that crap. Anybody can do that. What’s it really take to get you to go, “Hmmmmm?” CM: Well, as cliché as you just said, it’s sad that no one actually tries to be themselves. You always get the guy who has some stupid line. Just smile. I love eye contact. A little flirtatiousness. THAT will win me over. JR: Got that, fellas? What made you get into this whole WWE thing? CM: I watched wrestling religiously growing up. I didn’t have a Barbie doll. I had a Hulk Hogan doll! I just loved it. But I never knew you could be a wrestler. When I moved to LA, the diva contest came up and I thought I was perfect for it. So I went out and I lost! I couldn’t believe it. I was perfect for it. Then I got a call a month later to see if I wanted a contract as eye candy, not a wrestler, per se. Nobody thought I could be a wrestler. But remember: don’t tell me I can’t!

JR: From where does your inspiration come? CM: A lot from my mom. She was a single mom for a while. She passed away six years ago from a sudden massive heart attack. I went through a really hard time losing her because she was everything to me. I feel her with me all the time now. She taught me to believe in myself. Even when I moved away, she didn’t discourage me. I don’t know if I would be willing to let my daughter do that! I wanted to go with my dream and she totally supported me. JR: What’s the best part of being in the WWE? CM: Without a doubt, the fans! We have the most loyal and dedicated fans you’ll ever see. They wait in the snow and the rain and will wait for hours for an autograph. They are just

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incredible. Even with all the traveling we do, you forget about all the aches and pains and bruises when you see them and it just motivates you to give them the best show you can. JR: What’s the worst? CM: Being away from my family and friends so much. I live, breathe and eat the WWE, but I do sacrifice some of my home life for it. JR: Do you have any good weirdo experiences? CM: I’ve had so many weirdo experiences I could write a book! It’s all a blur. I really can’t remember just one incident. There are so many; I should write them down. There is always something new and crazy around the corner. JR: What about regrets? Have you ever done anything and afterward said, “What was I thinking?” CM: There are lots of things I’ve done where I’ve wondered what I was thinking, but I wouldn’t call them regrets. These experiences made me who I am. I learned from them. I think they make me interesting. I’ve always been the underdog and being the underdog, I’m about overcoming all that! JR: So since you understand the underdog, does that mean that you would consider being on No Bull Radio with Dave Palumbo and me?

CM: Oh heck, yeah! If you can handle me! I’ve always been known for my controversial issues. JR: Do you have a website? CM: Of course: It’s in bad need of an update, but you can get a lot of me on JR: What makes it a good day for you? CM: Waking up! JR: What’s the future look like for Candice Michelle? CM: The future is bright! I feel like I’m growing and can’t wait to experience everything life has to offer. JR: Any shout-outs? CM: Well, not really a shoutout, but since this is your December issue I want to mention something we do. One of the really amazing things the WWE does is a tribute to the troops every December. We go over to Iraq and put on a whole show for our troops. We go as close to the front lines as we possibly can and meet as many of the soldiers as we can. It’s just an amazing experience because we bring a little piece of home with us and they really appreciate what we bring them as much as we appreciate what they do for us. ■

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Hair & Make-up by Tamara Ogden Clothing by: Hey Baby and BeachBunny Swimwear

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By Dan Gwartney, MD

Are You Testosterone Deficient?
n a cloudy day, time moves less clearly than it does on a sunny day. Harken back to the summer days of youth, before the responsibilities of a job or family required one to pay attention to the passage of time. It wasn’t until the streetlights went on that one realized the sun had set and night had covered the neighborhood in a cloak of darkness. The activity on the streets settle as children are called in, even the dogs and squirrels sought shelter as they prepare for their nocturnal slumber. A man’s physiology undergoes a similar change as time passes, though on a much grander scale. In decades, rather than hours, the “sunshine” of youthfulness passes gradually as the “darkness” of aging suppresses many activities in the body. Among the many documented changes that occur with aging is a clear decline in the concentration of testosterone. Testosterone is a naturally occurring hormone that is responsible, either directly or through one of its metabolites— dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2)— for promoting anabolic processes in many tissues, as well as initiating and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is often referred to as the male sex hormone, but it is short-sighted to pigeon-hole testosterone to a single set of processes. Testosterone obviously promotes muscle mass and sexual/reproductive function, but also affects bone density, red blood cell mass, hair growth patterns, organ function, fat cell metabolism, stem cell differentiation, etc.

Testosterone’s Role
Testosterone is not a static presence in the blood. Its “normal” concentration varies among age groups, races, individuals; even in the same person, it not only varies from season to season, but hour to hour! If a man’s serum (blood) testosterone concentration were plotted on a graph, it would have as many ups and downs as the stock market has shown these past months. To complicate matters further, the effects of testosterone are not dependent solely upon the concentration of testosterone in the blood (serum), but also on androgen receptor density, structure, converting enzymes, co-factors (both activators and suppressors), genotype, nutritional status, nongenomic receptors, etc. Even when restricting the evaluation of a man’s androgen status to serum testosterone measures, there remain a number of variables, including: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); albumin; total versus free versus bioavailable; E2; DHEA; etc. To be fair, few people understand the greater scope of testosterone’s roles and action in human physiology. Certainly, there has been no call by academics, professional journals, the popular media or even the public to pursue, let alone fund, investigations into the role of testosterone and its benefits to society and individuals. This would contrast too sharply with the emotion-laden reactionary messages about the ethical violations of doping and challenges of high-risk

youths abusing anabolic steroids that are so effective in gaining media attention and political backing. Looking at testosterone objectively, one must admit that the illicit (illegal) distribution and use of testosterone and related anabolic steroids (collectively called AAS) is problematic. Despite the fact that most users are socially responsible adult men who report surprisingly moderate use, regulations need to be in place to prevent and punish illicit trafficking of AAS. Failure to do so results in the administration of abusive levels by uninformed and unsupervised users, administration of the drug(s) to unsuitable candidates who may have overt or covert contraindications (obvious or undetected reasons to not be given access to AAS; i.e., pregnant women; adolescents who have not reached final height; persons with personality disorders, psychoses or neuroses; those with hormone sensitive tumors; etc.); introduction of adulterated products (drugs that do not contain the stated amount of a drug or contaminated with other drugs/chemicals), etc. Yet, the steps taken in 1990 and 2004, in addition to the policies followed by licensure boards and protocols suggested by professional agencies have been overly restrictive, serving only to foster the “black market. The policy of prohibition is a ” failed social experiment, as was shown with the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the production, sale or possession of alcohol (ethanol), st later repealed by the 21 Amendment. December 2008

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The current state of affairs among physicians is a strong hesitancy to be involved in male hormone replacement therapy aside of treating obvious and extreme deficiency. This article addresses testosterone deficiency in men who entered adulthood with a normal testosterone status. Conservative professional societies have published “treatment guidelines, dictating when androgen ” replacement therapy is appropriate in their consensus opinion. Licensing boards, malpractice attorneys and professional liability insurance carriers rely upon these societies, trusting them to provide authoritative standards of professional practice. law. In the Catholic religion, St. Thomas is referred to in measuring sins of omission as being less heinous than sins of commission, as leaving out a good is less wicked than taking up an evil. Absolutely, medical professionals need to consider carefully the potential risks and benefits of providing or withholding any intervention. Yet, to consider it nobler or truer to the ideals and ethics of the profession to avoid harm at the expense of not providing benefits or protection from future harm is illogical and in the opinion of many, wrong. The challenge is to have the skill and knowledge to be able to properly assess the risk-to-benefit ratio. Unfortunately, reporting bias and political pressure has retarded the growth in testosterone-related fields. This includes the propagation of inaccuracies that are treated as gospel in clinical medicine; reiteration of adverse effects present in cases of extreme abuse or with use by unsuitable candidates (adolescents or women without expressed indications); association with sports doping; and reports of criminal arrests in cases of illicit trafficking. Testosterone therapy should never be approached cavalierly, as there are risks associated with testosterone treatment, as there is with any drug treatment. As noted above, some of the risks are overstated or incorrect: testosterone does not cause prostate cancer, clog the arteries or cause liver cancer. Testosterone can cause baldness, gynecomastia (breast development in males) and testicular atrophy (ball shrinkage). Baldness (related to the testosterone metabolite DHT) and gynecomastia (related to the testosterone metabolite E2) occur frequently in nonusers as seen in men suffering from androgenetic alopecia (male-pattern balding) and teenagers with “bitch tit. AAS users can see an ” acceleration in hair loss; gynecomastia is relatively uncommon in AAS users now as effective aromatase inhibitors and estrogen receptor antagonists are available. Gynecomastia can also be seen in testosterone deficiency, particularly in association with obesity. Testicular atrophy is a physiologic response, as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis shuts down the testes during periods of testosterone excess. This is referred to as the negative-feedback system. This will also suppress sperm production, a factor useful in male contraceptives under development. Testicular atrophy is seen in some cases of untreated testosterone deficiency as well. Many questioned whether there is any benefit to replacing or supplementing testosterone. After all, men have been aging for centuries without treatment. To ignore the benefits of testosterone is sexist and dangerous. The single “reason” for using testosterone in the eyes of the public, including most physicians, is vanity. Men use testosterone (or other AAS) just to get bigger muscles or to perform like a 20-year-old sexual super-stud. Clearly, vanity plays a role in the decision for many men, but having desirous effect does not make testosterone therapy frivolous or illegitimate. Vanity accounts for a great deal of medicine. The fields of dermatology and cosmetic surgery, cosmetic dentistry, bariatric medicine and a number of others focus on matters of image. The “industry” recognizes this, as clinics are detouring from diagnostic or therapeutic health care to provide cosmetic services. Skin & Aging posted an article titled “Bumped by Botox?” which described the increase in patient wait times to be seen for psoriasis or mole screening in favor of the lucrative Botox or dermal filler appointments at many dermatology clinics. Plastic surgery associations list the most common procedures year-to-year and nose jobs and breast enhancement are always at or near the top. Toothpaste doesn’t advertise fighting cavities; it “freshens breath” or “whitens teeth. ” Pharmaceutical companies are desperate to find the next weight loss drug while their stock price is supported by Viagra-like drugs. But is the need for androgen-optimism among health care professional limited just to appeasing the vanity demands of American consumers (as

A Growing Body Of Evidence
Yet, dissension exists within the ranks of physicians and scientists. The long-held position that testosterone and all related AAS are inherently dangerous to the psyche and physical health of men is challenged by a growing body of evidence. In fact, in specific examples, the dogmatic antiandrogen tact may be in direct violation of one of the principal precepts of medicine, Primum non nocere: First, do no harm. For some reason, do no harm is interpreted to say it is better to not do anything and avoid providing benefit or avoiding harm than to act, even with the best intentions and reasonable certainty, out of fear/concern of being responsible for a harmful or undesired outcome. Perhaps this is based in part upon biblical teachings. In religion, there are lessons of the sins of commission and sins of omission. Sins of commission are acts that violate the edicts of one’s God or Gods. Sins of commission (i.e., robbery, murder, working on the Sabbath) are considered to be acts of rebellion, transgressions against the commandments. Sins of omission are inactions, behavior that does not take place but should according to the laws of the church. Sins of omission (not tithing, not attending confession, etc.) are viewed as failures to live according to the standards of God’s

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is the case with so many other drugs and OTCs)? Absolutely not! Testosterone deficiency is little understood because of the trivialization and inaccuracies that have plagued the field of men’s health. Those who follow the professional literature regularly note surveys and studies that demonstrate that testosterone concentrations are negatively correlated with overall mortality risk; cardiovascular disease and mortality; cognitive loss; falls; metabolic syndrome and a host of other disease states. There is clear evidence that man is healthiest when his testosterone concentration is in the mid- to upper-limits of the physiologic range. It is possible that extending the concentration to the slightly supraphysiologic (above normal) range may increase the benefits seen with testosterone therapy, but it is clear that the risk of adverse effects increase as well. It would appear from published clinical studies that younger men are more tolerant of higher concentrations; men of all ages appear to be able to tolerate doses of up to 300mg/week testosterone enanthate without serious short- to mid-term health consequences. Older men may develop “thick blood, as testosterone stimu” lates the production of red blood cells. This can be easily monitored with a simple blood test (hematocrit). Several men in their 50s and beyond who are on prescription testosterone manage the issue by donating blood regularly; it is an elegant solution that provides a benefit to society. If one can accept the argument that testosterone’s risk has been overstated and the benefits understated, and is concerned about avoiding the risk of morbidity and mortality that are associated with testosterone deficiency, how does one find out if he is testosterone deficient? There are a constellation of symptoms and signs associated with testosterone deficiency. Some are more strongly associated, others less so; these are listed below. However, these findings are nonspecific, as they can reflect other conditions. Thus, most clinicians perform a directed history and physical, along with ordering lab work, to rule out other possible causes and support the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency. Please note the term being used to address the condition in question is testosterone deficiency syndrome. Other terms used have confused the issue somewhat, such as andropause and ADAM (aging deficiency of the aging male). These terms imply that signs and symptoms of testosterone deficiency only occur in conjunction with aging. Testosterone deficiency is rarely looked, in fact, The Endocrine Society recommends against screening for the condition. Nonetheless, it is being reported that testosterone deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes and other common, chronic conditions. Many athletes may also be at risk of a deficiency in testosterone, in addition to other endocrine hormones, due to repeated head trauma. Boxers, martial artists, soccer players, etc. have demonstrated pituitary hormone deficiency, including secondary hypogonadism, as reported in the literature. New concerns are being raised about endocrine disruptors polluting our drinking water or food supply, such as bisphenol A, the estrogen-like chemical present in many plastic products, including water and beverage bottles. medically directed treatment, this level of deficiency must be present on two blood tests, drawn one to two weeks apart. Frankly, this is absurd for a number of reasons. First, this level is so deficient that it places a man at risk for several conditions of poor health and increases the risk of early death. What is particularly concerning is that even of the men who would qualify for treatment based upon these restrictive guidelines, approximately 90 percent are not diagnosed or receiving treatment! Undoubtedly, this is a direct effect of the recommendations against screening for testosterone deficiency. These guidelines have not been revised with the findings that American men are seeing a consistent and dramatic decline in testosterone concentration with each generation. Many argue against the definition of testosterone deficiency, stating it is unwisely restrictive. Further, others argue against mandating the specified lab profile. Remember, testosterone’s actions are the result of a myriad of factors. Normal total testosterone concentration in a lab test may not reveal low free testosterone, receptor mutations, etc. There is an axiom in medicine that says, “Treat the patient, not the labs. Teaching ” hospitals lecture on the dry facts involved with patient care, but also mentor the aspiring physicians on the “art” of medicine. Men showing signs of testosterone deficiency can present with “normal” testosterone concentrations by lab. This is referred to as “relative testosterone deficiency” and illustrates the need for individually assessing each patient. One longitudinal study demonstrated the broad inter-individual range of “normal” testosterone among men, as well as the value of tracking testosterone concentrations long-term to determine the relevance of a single measure in each person. Testosterone deficiency is not a condition that will ever have its own televised marathon; celebrity spokesmen will not weep on late-night infomercials and former child actors will not advertise home meters for Medicare beneficiaries. Men’s health

Are You A Candidate?
If a man experiences signs and symptoms of testosterone deficiency, and other relevant causes have been ruled out, is he immediately a candidate for HRT? Unfortunately, the conservative leadership appears reluctant to offer therapy to a man despite the benefits offered and risks that can be averted. Current practice guidelines only recommend testosterone HRT if a man’s total testosterone if greater than 2.5 standard deviations from the mean. This is a statistical measure, but if one assumes that total testosterone concentrations follow a normal distribution (a bell-shaped curve for those familiar with that term), only the bottom 1 percent of men would qualify. Making it even more difficult to obtain

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is a field of medicine that has been and will continue to be neglected. Women have long been able to receive hormone-replacement therapy for signs of “menopause” that occur as early as the late 30s in some. Granted, there has been some controversy relating to women’s HRT, but it appears that the risks and benefits are balanced in general; also, it appears that women tolerate HRT better if they start closer to the onset of symptoms rather than waiting until they begin to suffer from bone loss, etc. Cosmetic procedures account for a large part of many practices; some carry a not insignificant risk of infection, nerve injury, even death. Low, even low-normal testosterone concentration is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality; failing to address this may actually be adding to the already strained health care system. Many safe forms of testosterone replacement are available, including long-acting esters, transdermals and oral (Andriol). While the advent of SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) may offer a treatment alternative, these will be expensive and unproven. Testosterone has been used safely in many practices for years and would be affordable, even if the medically necessary treatment were not covered under a person’s insurance. The market for testosterone replacement is enormous. One estimate, using data from the Hypogonadism in Males study, claims that nearly 14 million men in the U.S. are testosterone deficient. One can only wonder if the most effective treatment (testosterone) were protected under patent, if pharmaceutical companies would exercise their potent lobbying powers to push for less stringent guidelines. Unfortunately, there is no strong advocate for men’s health. As testosterone concentrations decline, over time and with each successive generation, American men are destined to continue to suffer from the sins of omission of this nation’s leaders and caregivers. One is reminded of the first stanza of T.S. Eliot’s poem, The Hollow Men: We are the hollow men We are the stuffed men Leaning together Headpiece filled with straw. Alas! Our dried voices, when We whisper together Are quiet and meaningless As wind in dry grass Or rats’ feet over broken glass In our dry cellar Shape without form, shade without colour, Paralysed force, gesture without motion; Those who have crossed With direct eyes, to death’s other Kingdom Remember us— if at all— not as lost Violent souls, but only As the hollow men The stuffed men.

Signs and Symptoms of Testosterone Deficiency:
Strongly Suggestive • Low count or absent sperm • Reduced sexual desire (libido) and activity • Decreased spontaneous erections • Breast discomfort, gynecomastia • Loss of body (axillary and pubic) hair • Reduced need to shave • Testicular atrophy • Loss of height, easily broken bones • Low bone mineral density (osteoporosis) • Reduction in muscle strength and mass • Hot flushes, sweats (similar to a woman’s hot flash) Weakly Suggestive • Loss of energy, motivation, initiative • Lessened aggression, self-confidence • Depressed mood, feeling “blue” • Memory and concentration problems • Sleep disturbance, fatigue, sleepiness • Mild anemia (low red blood cell count) • Increase in body fat or BMI • Exercise intolerance, poor work performance * Many of these symptoms will not manifest until testosterone reaches critically low concentration

Testosterone Deficiency— Current Laboratory Criteria:
• Total testosterone < 10.4 nmol/L (>2.5 SD below mean) • Total testosterone guidelines range from 6.94-13.88 nmol/L • Bioavailable testosterone < 3.30 nmol/L (under age 70) • Free testosterone < 0.18 nmol/L

Physiologic Testosterone Laboratory Values
• Total testosterone • Bioavailable testosterone • Free testosterone References:
1. Raynor MC, Carson CC, et al. Androgen deficiency in the aging male: a guide to diagnosis and testosterone replacement therapy. Can J Urol, 2007 Dec;14 Suppl 1:63-8. 2. Gruenewald DA, Matsumoto AM. Testosterone supplementation therapy for older men: potential benefits and risks. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003 Jan;51(1):101-15. 3. Plymate SR, Tenover JS, et al. Circadian variation in testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated non-sex hormone-binding globulin bound testosterone in healthy young and elderly men. J Androl, 1989 Sep-Oct;10(5):366-71. 4. Charlier TD, Harada N, et al. Targeting steroid receptor coactivator-1 expression with locked nucleic acids antisense reveals different thresholds for the hormonal regulation of male sexual behavior in relation to aromatase activity and protein expression. Behav Brain Res, 2006 Sep 25;172(2):333-43. 5. Pelletier G. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and sex-

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steroid receptors in human prostate. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 Apr;22(2):223-8. 6. Goutou M, Sakka C, et al. AR CAG repeat length is not associated with serum gonadal steroids and lipid levels in healthy men. Int J Androl, 2008 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print] 7. Leifke E, Gorenoi V, et al. Age-related changes of serum sex hormones, insulinlike growth factor-1 and sex-hormone binding globulin levels in men: cross-sectional data from a healthy male cohort. Clin Endocrinol, (Oxf) 2000 Dec;53(6):68995. 8. Cohen J, Collins R, et al. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2007 Oct 11;4:12. 9. Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, et al. Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006 Jun;91(6):1995-2010. 10. Delany, Joseph. “Omission. The ” Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. Available online at htm, accessed September 23, 2008. 11. Morgantaler A. Guilt by association: a historical perspective on Huggins, testosterone therapy, and prostate cancer. J Sex Med, 2008 Aug;5(8):1834-40. 12. Debing E, Peeters E, et al. Men with atherosclerotic stenosis of the carotid artery have lower testosterone levels compared with controls. Int Angiol, 2008 Apr;27(2):135-41. 13. Bain J. The many faces of testosterone. Clin Interv Aging, 2007;2(4):567-76. 14. Ellis JA, Sinclair R, et al. Androgenetic alopecia: pathogenesis and potential for therapy. Expert Rev Mol Med, 2002 Nov 19;4(22):1-11. 15. Lazala C, Saenger P Pubertal . gynecomastia. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2002 May;15(5):553-60. 16. Scott MJ 3rd, Scott AM. Effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids on the pilosebaceous unit. Cutis, 1992 Aug;50(2):113-6. 17. Narula HS, Carlson HE. Gynecomastia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2007 Jun;36(2):497-519. 18. Ersoz H, Onde ME, et al. Causes of gynaecomastia in young adult males and factors associated with idiopathic gynaecomastia. Int J Androl, 2002 Oct;25(5):3126. 19. Amory JK, Bremner WJ. Regulation of testicular function in men: implications for male hormonal contraceptive development. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2003 Jun;85(2-5):357-61. 20. Meyer E. Patient wait times: bumped by botox? Skin & Aging, 2007;15:42-44. 21. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Top 5 Surgical Cosmetic Procedures in 2007. Available online at tics/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/ getfile.cfm&PageID=29288, accessed September 23, 2008. 22. Khaw KT, Dowsett M, et al. Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in men: European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk (EPICNorfolk) Prospective Population Study. Circulation, 2007 Dec 4;116(23):2694-701. 23. Choi BG, McLaughlin MA. Why men’s hearts break: cardiovascular effects of sex steroids. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2007 Jun;36(2):365-77. 24. Jones RD, Nettleship JE, et al. Testosterone and atherosclerosis in aging men: purported association and clinical implications. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 2005;5(3):141-54. 25. Beauchet O. Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship. Eur J Endocrinol, 2006 Dec;155(6):773-81. 26. Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, et al. Older men are as responsive as young men to the anabolic effects of graded doses of testosterone on the skeletal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005 Feb;90(2):678-88. 27. Coviello AD, Kaplan B, et al. Effects of graded doses of testosterone on erythropoiesis in healthy young and older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 Mar;93(3):914-9. 28. Chandel A, Dhindsa S, et al. Testosterone concentrations in young patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2008 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print] 29. Loves S, Ruinemans-Koerts J, et al. Letrozole once a week normalizes serum testosterone in obesity-related male hypogonadism. Eur J Endocrinol, 2008 May;158(5):741-7. 30. Kelestimur F Tanriverdi F et al. , , Boxing as a sport activity associated with isolated GH deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest, 2004 Dec;27(11):RC28-32. 31. Kelestimur F Chronic trauma in . sports as a cause of hypopituitarism. Pituitary, 2005;8(3-4):259-62. 32. Ives JC, Alderman M, et al. Hypopituitarism after multiple concussions: a retrospective case study in an adolescent male. J Athl Train, 2007 JulSep;42(3):431-9. 33. Bonefeld-Jorgensen EC, Long M, et al. Endocrine-disrupting potential of bisphenol A, bisphenol A dimethacrylate, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-n-octylphenol in vitro: new data and a brief review. Environ Health Perspect, 2007 Dec;115 Suppl 1:69-76. 34. Vermeulen A. Androgen replacement therapy in the aging male – a critical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001;86:2380-90. 35. Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Low serum testosterone and mortality in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 Jan;93(1):68-75. 36. Araulo AB, O’Donnell AB, et al. Prevalence and incidence of androgen deficiency in middle-aged and older men: estimates from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004 Dec;89(12):5920-6. 37. Travison TG, Araulo AB, et al. A population-level decline in serum testosterone levels in American men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007 Jan;92(1):196-202. 38. Tan RS. Andropause: introducing the concept of ‘relative hypogonadism’ in aging males. Int J Impot Res, 2002 Aug;14(4):319. 39. Parkhill T. Global menopause summit concludes HRT is safe for healthy women entering menopause. Available online at 08-05/ims-gms051508.php, accessed September 23, 2008. 40. Lehnhardt M, Homann HH, et al. Major and lethal complications of liposuction: a review of 72 cases in Germany between 1998 and 2002. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2008 Jun;121(6):396e-403e. 41. Mulligan T, Frick MF et al. , Prevalence of hypogonadism in males aged at least 45 years: the HIM study. Int J Clin Pract, 2006 Jul;60(7):762-9.

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muscleform &function Carving Unreal Quad Separation With Barbell Lunges
By Stephen E. Alway, PhD, FACSM, Illustrations by William P Hamilton, CMI .
utstanding quadriceps separation demands freakish thigh mass that dives into deep canyons etched on either side of the muscle bellies. When it comes to top thighs, it is hard not to think about the mass and cross-striations of a shredded Jay Cutler, or the size and shape of a ripped-to-the-bone Ronnie Coleman. This kind of thigh development initially relies on regular back squats and leg presses to build great mass builders. However, as good of a mass builder as these exercises are, they simply do not get the job done when it comes to developing thigh separation and cuts. Achieving those deep separations requires exercises that build mass by targeting each of the bellies under near-constant tension and this means some specialization work for the middle and the lower quadriceps. You probably are drawn to thinking about leg extensions for ripping your thigh mass. However, if you are willing to handle the work, the barbell lunge is an alternative and intensive way to blast a bulky thigh into strips of carved, sharp and lean mass. As a byproduct, lunges will greatly improve your quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteal power and endurance and this will come in pretty handy when you start your heavy squat sessions for adding even greater overall mass. To do lunges properly, you must rise above the crowd who is satisfied with a few sets of leg extensions to tighten the quadriceps. Lunges are only for the serious lifter who is willing to push well through the pain barrier into the valley of unbelievable thighs. Three sets of these will take your thighs to new contours, valleys and grooves that you did not know existed.

Muscles Activated By Lunges
The hip and hamstring muscles are affected strongly, but the greatest challenge will be felt in the anterior quadri-

ceps muscle group. The quadriceps femoris (“quads”) is a group of four muscles that covers the anterior and lateral parts of the femur bone of the thigh. The three vasti muscles take their origin from the respective part of the femur; the vastus lateralis muscle from the lateral part of the femur; the vastus medialis muscle from the medial part of the femur; and the vastus intermedius muscle from the central, anterior part of the femur. As a result, the vastus lateralis muscle is positioned on the lateral (outer) part of

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the thigh; the vastus medialis covers the medial (inner) part of the thigh. The vastus intermedius is located intermediate and deep to the vastus lateralis and the vastus medialis muscles. The tendon from the vastus lateralis muscle combines with the tendons from the other two vasti muscles and the tendon of the rectus femoris to form the quadriceps tendon. The quadriceps tendon attaches to the patella (kneecap) and continues inferiorly (toward the foot) from the patella, where it is called the patellar ligament. The patellar ligament inserts into the tibial tuberosity, a bumpy portion on the tibia bone of the lower leg. The rectus femoris muscle is the fourth muscle in the quadriceps group. Unlike the vasti muscles, it begins on the hipbones at the iliac crest and above the socket where the head of the femur sits (acetabulum) in the hip. Its fibers run straight down from the hip to the knee. The tendon of the rectus femoris joins the tendons from the three vastus muscles to attach to the patella. Together, the three vasti and the rectus femoris form the only real manner that we have for extending the leg at the knee. The rectus femoris is much weaker when the hip is flexed (e.g., seated position such as doing leg extensions). Three hamstring muscles sit on the posterior side of the thigh. The biceps femoris muscle has a long and a short head. The long head of the biceps femoris begins on the posterior part of the ischial bone of the hip. You literally sit on these bones when you are in a chair. The short head of the biceps femoris begins along the lateral side of femur bone of the thigh. Both heads of the biceps femoris come together to attach to a single tendon that connects to the small lateral bone of the lower leg called the fibula. The semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles make up the medial (inside) hamstring muscles. The semitendinosus muscle attaches to the ischial bone of the hip and it becomes a cord-like tendon as it approaches the knee. The semimembranosus muscle is about half (“semi”) membrane (“membranous) and half muscle. It begins on the ischial tuberosity and with the semitendinosus; it crosses to the medial side of the knee to attach on the tibia bone of the lower leg. The gluteus maximus muscle is the largest and thickest hip muscle and it contains the strongest and largest muscle fibers in the body. The upper attachment of the gluteus maximus is on the major bones of the hip and the lower attachment is on the posterior side of the femur bone of the thigh below the hip joint. This muscle pulls the thigh posteriorly (backward) during the push phase of lunges. and some moderate biking before doing lunges. Although the exercise can be done with dumbbells, you should not find it difficult to keep your balance with the barbell version of this exercise. 1. Place a barbell on a squat rack. Start with a light weight until you get the feel for the movement. Position your body in the same manner as though you were doing squats. Start with the bar across the top of your trapezius under the shoulders, in the same way as if you were to do a squat. 2. Straighten your knees and stand up vertically, so that the weight is taken on your shoulders.

Lunges, like knee extensions, can be tough on the knees, so you should carefully warm them up with stretches

Lunge (start)

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3. Take a full step backward, away from the squat rack. 4. Start with both feet about shoulder-width apart. One leg will act as an anchor (e.g., the left leg). The other leg (e.g., the right leg) will be your lunge leg for the first repetition. 5. Take a step forward toward the squat rack with the lunge leg. This should be a good stride length (approximately a 3-foot stride), but it should not be so close to the squat rack that you will hit it at any point in your movement. 6. Bend the knee on the front (lunge) leg until the knee angle reaches 90 degrees. The thigh should be about parallel to the floor in the down position. At the same time as the knee from the lead leg is going forward, the thigh of the rear anchor leg should come down to almost kiss the floor. Keep your back vertical to the floor and your eyes looking forward (do not look down at the floor). 7. Step back to the starting position, then lunge forward with the other leg. Alternate between left and right legs. Start with 15 repetitions each leg (30 total steps). At the end of the set, take a step forward and return the barbell to the squat rack. You can work up to 25 repetitions per leg, but should not need more than that. Take particular care as you are nearing the end of your set and you are fatiguing, as this is a time when your balance could be compromised. You also need to make sure that you do not bend over from the waist, as this will excessively increase activation of the gluteal muscles, not to mention increasing the chance of losing your balance. The musculature of your middle and lower back and calves will also be activated during lunges. This provides an added bonus for increasing your body’s metabolism to maximize your ripped-to-shreds training goals. A deep lunge and greater stride will provide a superior stretch and will improve activation of all of the affected muscles. However, you must work into this slowly. You should stretch your hamstrings, calves and quadriceps prior to beginning the exercise. Be careful that you do not bend forward from the waist during the lunge. If you find yourself leaning forward, you are likely using too much weight and/or your stride is too short. It is not necessary to use squat-like resistance on lunges to get the job done. This is more a factor of sustaining constant tension throughout the range of motion than moving superhuman weights. If you thought that leg extensions were the only way to thigh cuts, you will be surprised how quickly lunges will etch striations and separations across the mass that you have accumulated in your underpinnings. Lunges are not ideal for building mass, but they are excellent for refining and adding muscle density. Once you get serious about your lunges, you will begin to see a radical transformation in the power, shape and separations in your anterior thigh and hamstrings. Your thighs will take on an all-new muscle quality with unreal, mind-blowing thigh separations with valleys and peaks erupting across your lower quadriceps. You will have enough power to blow your competition right off the stage. References:
1. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA and Carp KC. Electromyographic analysis of core trunk, hip, and thigh muscles during 9 rehabilitation exercises. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 37: 754-762, 2007 . 2. Escamilla RF Zheng N, Macleod TD, , Edwards WB, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, III and Imamura R. Patellofemoral compressive force and stress during the forward and side lunges with and without a stride. Clin Biomech, (Bristol, Avon) 23: 1026-1037 2008. , 3. Farrokhi S, Pollard CD, Souza RB, Chen YJ, Reischl S and Powers CM. Trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 38: 403-409, 2008. 4. Cronin J, McNair PJ, Marshall RN. Lunge performance and its determinants. J Sports Sci, 21, 49-57 2003. , 5. Hefzy MS, al Khazim, M and Harrison, L. Co-activation of the hamstrings and quadriceps during the lunge exercise. Biomed Sci Instrum, 33, 360-365, 1997 . 6. Petrella JK, Kim JS, Mayhew DL, Cross JM and Bamman MM. Potent myofiber hypertrophy during resistance training in humans is associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear addition: a cluster analysis. J Appl Physiol, 104: 1736-1742, 2008.

Lunge (finish)

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bodybuilding science

By Robbie Durand, MA

OMEGAWAVE: A Revolutionary Way To Monitor Overtraining
“I came to practice feeling good and ready to work out. Before stepping on the field my coach told me to go light today, because my Omegawave assessments didn’t look too good. Since I didn’t feel any different than the day before, I doubted the system was correct. That same night I came down with fever and barely got any sleep. Our medical staff was prepared for my illness and got me healthy in time for the next game. That’s how I learned to trust Omegawave. ” -Omegawave athlete testimonial The term “stress” was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to describe the physiological responses of laboratory animals. Selye later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. Hans Selye researched the effects of stress on rats and other animals by exposing them to unpleasant stimuli. He found that all animals presented a very similar series of reactions, broken into three stages. He describes this universal response to the stressors as the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).The GAS is broken down into three phases: 1.) Alarm- this is the first stage. When the stressor is identified, the body’s stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage, adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fight-or-flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol. 2.) Resistance- this is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. 3.) Exhaustion- this is the third stage. In the final stage in the GAS model, all the body’s resources are eventually

depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate, etc.). If stage three is extended, long-term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired, resulting in decompensation. Stress is a way of life for all athletes and the stress response is important for all athletes. Athletes walk a very fine line between training at the optimal level and then training too hard and too long and pushing themselves into a catabolic state of overtraining. MD has a diverse range of readers: hardcore bodybuilders, powerlifters, natural lifters, strongmen, and just the hardcore lifter who has adopted the IRON WAY OF LIFE. Although we all have diverse backgrounds, one thing common to us all in the goal to be bigger, stronger and faster is...OVERTRAINING— THIS IS THE ENEMY!

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It was estimated that 65 percent of national and international elite runners suffer from the overtraining syndrome at least once in their career, but recreational athletes are also 1 affected. In a study of 257 elite athletes who were members of British national teams and/or Olympic squads in a variety of sports over a 12-month training season, 38 cases (15 percent) of athletes were classified as overtrained and in 50 percent of these cases, a state of overtraining was said to have developed in the three-month competition phase. The incidence rate was slightly higher in male (17 percent) as 10 opposed to female athletes (11 percent). Overtraining in the past has been assessed by questionnaires, performance measurements and blood work: Some of the more common markers for measuring overtraining are: • Decreased performance (strength, power, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance) • A decrease in explosive power and reaction speed has 13 been shown to occur with overtraining. • Decreased training tolerance and increased recovery requirements. strength with reduced testosterone levels. The overtraining syndrome has been divided into a sympathetic (arousal response or fight-or-flight) and a parasympathetic (rest and repose response) manifestation, and it was hypothesized that the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include alterations of the endocrine (increased cortisol, decreased testosterone, increased catecholamines) and autonomous nervous system (reduced hunger, increased blood pressure). It is thought that the sympathetic form is dominant in the early stages of overtraining. In more severe, advanced stages of overtraining, the sympathetic system is inhibited, resulting in marked dominance of the parasympa12,13 thetic system. For example, seven middle distance runners were examined in response to undertaking three weeks of heavy training, followed by a relatively restful week. The results showed a significant and progressive decrease in parasympathetic indices (by 41 percent) during the three weeks of heavy training. This was followed by a 46 percent increase in parasympathetic response during the 8 rest week. This suggests that during intense training your sympathetic response will increase; the key to successful training is to not exhaust your sympathetic system. Many athletes experience nervousness and irritability during overtraining due to increased plasma catecholamine 4,5 concentrations at rest and many athletes have difficulty sleeping due to enhanced catecholamine secretion. The monitoring of overtraining in the past has been limited to blood work and subjective feeling states. If you look at the non-invasive markers of overtraining, they include muscle soreness, joint pains, and altered heart rate and blood pressure responses. Anyone who has worked out hard gets sore and joint pains come with lifting heavy weights, so that really does not give hardcore athletes a whole lot of information. How many times have you just felt tired and didn’t want to go train? Are you overtrained or just being a pansy ass? New research is looking for accurate and reliable noninvasive markers of overtraining that does not require blood work or questionnaires based of feelings.

Physiological Measurements:
• Altered resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure and respiration patterns • Chronic fatigue • Sleep and eating disorders • Muscle soreness and damage • Joint aches and pains

• Increased serum cortisol and SHBG • Decreased serum total and free testosterone, testosterone/cortisol ratio • Decreased muscle glycogen • Negative nitrogen balance • Decreased serum IGF-1

Physiological Responses to Overtraining
Overtraining can cause performance gains, strength, and muscle mass to decrease. Interestingly, many athletes who are diagnosed with overtraining have many similarities to 14 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. For example, researchers have found that chronic fatigue patients and overtrained athletes have abnormalities due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. Although chronic fatigue syndrome and overtraining have never been studied together, similar abnormalities are present. For example, both chronic fatigue syndrome and overtraining slightly alter resting levels of cortisol; ACTH and other HPA axisassociated hormones are found. Also, more importantly to bodybuilders and strength athletes is a decreased serum total and free testosterone level coincident with a decrease in performance following intensive training. A decrease in the testosterone:cortisol ratio of approximately 30 percent has been suggested as an indicator of a state of overtrain12 ing. Don’t expect to make much gain in muscle mass or

The Omegawave- A Revolutionary New Noninvasive Way to Gauge Overtraining
A revolutionary new portable non-invasive monitoring system has recently been advocated to monitor individual stress response to exercise. No blood work or no psychological assessments for mood, just a few electrodes and that’s it! Not all people respond to training systems alike; one person can make great gains in strength in mass while others can overtrain.The Omegawave monitors overtraining by the use of what’s called Heart Rate Variability (HRV), which refers to the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate. The normal variability in heart rate is due to the synergistic action of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (the sympathetic and parasympathetic).Thus, the study of HRV is a powerful, objective and noninvasive tool to explore the dynamic interactions between physiological, mental, emotional and behavioral processes. HRV appears

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to be sensitive and responsive to acute stress. For example, researchers monitored cyclists HRV during the Tour of Spain; they found that the changes in HRV are directly related to volume and intensity of exercise, as athletes who showed the greatest cumulative physical exertion also showed the largest decrease in HRV (increased sympathetic 9 activation). Under laboratory conditions, mental load (including making complex decisions, and public speech tasks) have been shown to lower HRV, indicating increased sympathetic activation. A low HRV is indicative of increased sympathetic tone and arousal. As a marker of cumulative wear and tear, HRV has also been shown to decline with the aging process. By contrast, regular physical activity (which slows down the aging process) has been shown to raise HRV, presumably by increasing parasympathetic tone. As mentioned previously, overtraining is associated with prolonged stress and too much sympathetic dominance, which leads to a decrease in HRV. Omegawave systems monitor the function of multiple biological systems and provide a comprehensive picture of changes in athletes, as they respond to training, life choices and emotional stress. The assessments are noninvasive, mostly done at rest, and can be performed anywhere in as little as 2 minutes. As a result, the athlete can be tested as often as desired. Omegawave gives you the most comprehensive, relevant physiological data immediately so you can know an athlete’s functional state at any given moment. Anytime, anywhere, Omegawave helps you identify each player’s readiness and limiting factors so you can steer your training regimen. associated with increased sympathetic tone while advanced overtraining shuts down the sympathetic system and is associated with parasympathetic dominance. Here is a case study of advanced overtraining: One study examined HRV responses of a cross-country skier; he was training 20 hours a week and reported severe fatigue. His hemoglobin, white blood cells, ferritin and cortisol were in the normal range but luteinizing hormone was reduced and below normal when overtrained. When a HRV study was performed, they found marked parasympathetic activity (severe overtraining), which returned to normal when he took time off and 7 recuperated. These studies suggest that HRV is an accurate indicator of stress occurring in the athlete.

HRV and Testosterone
Overtraining is associated with increased sympathetic arousal and reduced testosterone. What about the ability of a HRV to detect low testosterone levels? Surprisingly, there are not that many studies investigating the correlation between HRV and testosterone. Before I get slaughtered for writing this, there are not many studies that have examined the correlation between the two, but here are the few studies. In the journal of Psychoneuroendocrinology, researchers investigated the effects of HRV and how it related to testosterone levels in…professional orchestra players? What the hell? OK. Evidently, professional orchestra players take their job pretty seriously and many orchestra players have high blood pressure due to enormous concentration during practice. So the research study compared two groups of professional orchestra groups during the symphony season, but one group was in chaos because evidently one of the main musicians had passed out three times at different concerts!This caused apprehension and further increased the stress levels of the men in the orchestra.The psychologists examined blood testosterone levels and HRV among the two groups. At the end of the study, the group that had “crisis” had reduced testosterone levels and increased sympathetic tone (reduced HRV), whereas the other group had no changes in testosterone or HRV.The “crisis” group reported feelings of “apprehension” and “unpredictability” during the season. The man who kept on fainting went to a cardiologist and had a heart condition that caused him to receive a heart pacemaker to regulate his heart rate but this resolved his fainting problem.The group went through the symphony season successfully without issues; the researchers reexamined the musicians who were in former crisis and shockingly the group was more confident, had higher testosterone levels and normal HRV.15 The awesome finding was that: HRV was a good predictor stress and testosterone levels! Before I get my column revoked for such a pansy research study, the readers of MD want hardcore training studies, not some pansy orchestra players research...So here you go! Another study examined HRV and testosterone in response to an Army Ranger training course; 23 young males prepared themselves for HELL WEEK, which consists of five days of combat, night fighting, marching about 15 miles a day with a 20-pound backpack on top, 2 to 3 hours of sleep, and on top of that they had limited food.

Studies on Overtraining and HRV
Several studies have used athletes to do what readers of MD would never try to do intentionally…they forced them to overtrain for research! For example, one study had 10 healthy male and female athletes perform 40 minutes of running and 80 minutes of cycling a day for two weeks to prepare for a triathlon, followed by four days of complete rest. At the end of two weeks, subjects had increased heart rate during the training camp, which recovered after three to four days of rest; the response clearly indicates an increased sympathetic activation due to increased training. A reduction in HRV was also detected, which indicates a shift toward an increase in the sympathetic activity due to 1 increased training amount. The investigation indicates an increased sympathetic activity paralleled with a reduced parasympathetic activity during periods of intensified training. Interestingly, this agrees with the assumption of an increased sympathetic activity in the first days or weeks 3 during the development of an overtraining syndrome. A similar study examining HRV took sedentary men and had them train for two months (five days a week) followed by 1 month of deliberate overtraining followed by weeks of recovery. During the one month of intense overtraining, HRV demonstrated a progressive decrease in the autonomic nervous system, demonstrating a predominance of the 6 sympathetic nervous system during overtraining. As mentioned previously, early forms of overtraining are

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At the end of the study, testosterone dropped a whopping 30 percent, but when HRV was measured, interestingly the rangers showed signs of parasympathetic dominance, 17 which was indicative of severe overtraining and stress. More research needs to be conducted on HRV and testosterone levels, but so far there is some interesting research to suggest that you can use HRV to detect drops in testosterone levels and overall anabolic level. effective your supplements are helping with muscle recuperation. Bodybuilders can save time and money by monitoring their recuperation status with Omegawave.

Benefits of the Omegawave Evaluation:
1. Optimize training while preventing overtraining. 2. Prevent injuries now and in the future. 3. With quick, regular testing (e.g. daily, weekly, before or after proactive), we see a dynamic picture of how each athlete, as an individual, is adapting to his or her training regimen. 4. The understanding of each athlete’s adaptation response can be used to optimize training, prevent ove training and orchestrate peak performance. 5. Adjust the training plan blueprint based on the results from regular testing. For more information about Omegawave, go to: References:
1. Baumert M, Brechtel L, Lock J, Hermsdorf M, Wolff R, Baier V, Voss A. Heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity in overtrained athletes. Clin J Sport Med, 2006 Sep;16(5):412-7 . 2. Urhausen A, Gabriel H, Kindermann W. Impaired pituitary hormonal response to exhaustive exercise in overtrained endurance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998;30:407–414. 3. Lehmann M, Foster C, Dickhuth H, et al. Autonomic imbalance hypothesis and overtraining syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998;30: 1140–1145. 4. Lehmann M, Gastmann U, Peterson K, et al. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume vs intensity in experienced middle and long-distance runners. Brit J Sports Med, 1992;26:233–242. 5. Lehmann M, SchneeW, Scheu R, et al. Decreased noctural catecholamine excretion: parameter for an overtraining syndrome in athletes? Int J Sports Med, 1992;13:236–242. 6. Pichot V, Busso T, Roche F Garet M, Costes F Duverney D, Lacour , , JR, Barthélémy JC. Autonomic adaptations to intensive and overload training periods: a laboratory study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002 Oct;34(10):1660-6. 7 Hedelin R, Wiklund U, Bjerle P Henriksson-Larsén K. Cardiac auto. , nomic imbalance in an overtrained athlete. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000 Sep;32(9):1531-3. 8. Pichot V, Roche F Gaspoz JM, et al. Relation between heart rate , variability and training load in middle-distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000;32:1729–36. 9. Earnest CP Jurca R, Church TS, Chicharro JL, Hoyos J, Lucia A. , Relation between physical exertion and heart rate variability characteristics in professional cyclists during the Tour of Spain. Br J Sports Med, 2004 Oct;38(5):568-75. 10. Koutedakis Y, Sharp NC. Seasonal variations of injury and overtraining in elite athletes. Clin J Sport Med, 1998; 8 (1):18-21. 11. Flynn MG, Pizza FX, Boone Jr JB, et al. Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons. Int J Sports Med, 1994; 15 (1): 21-6 12. Urhausen A, Gabriel HH, Kindermann W. Impaired pituitary hormonal response to exhaustive exercise in overtrained ena durance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998; 30 (3): 407-14 13. Nederhof E, Lemmink KA, Visscher C, Meeusen R, Mulder T. Psychomotor speed: possibly a new marker for overtraining syndrome. Sports Med, 2006;36(10):817-28. 14. Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Diagnosis of overtraining: what tools do we have? Sports Med, 2002; 32 (2): 95-102. 15. Theorell T, Liljeholm-Johansson Y, Björk H, Ericson M. Saliva testosterone and heart rate variability in the professional symphony orchestra after “public faintings” of an orchestra member. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2007 Jul;32(6):660-8. 16. Jouanin JC, Dussault C, Pérès M, Satabin P Piérard C, Guézennec , CY. Analysis of heart rate variability after a ranger training course. Mil Med, 2004 Aug;169(8):583-7 .

Omegawave: A Multi-System Approach to Detect Overtraining
Although HRV has been used as a marker for overtrai ing, the Omegawave looks at multiple systems: • Is the athlete’s heart (heart regulation) ready to support high-intensity loads, low-intensity loads, or is it overstressed, sluggish, or mal-adapting to previous training? • Which energy systems (aerobic, anaerobic, or alactic) need development? Which are ready for work and which are in need of further recovery? • Is the athlete’s central nervous system functioning nomally? Are the athlete’s cardiopulmonary, detoxification, and hormonal systems being properly regulated or are they hypo or hyper functioning? The Omegawave is an assessment tool which provides a comprehensive “inside look” at the athlete’s cardiac regulatory systems, energy metabolism systems, central nervous system, gas exchange and cardiopulmonary system, detoxification system, and hormonal system. These physiological systems impact the athlete’s strength, endurance, explosiveness, reactions...and ultimately success. They say that no training program is an exact fit for everyone. Omegawave has been used by leading high-performance centers, wellness clubs, and spas. Going beyond conventional heart rate, body composition, flexibility, and strength measurements, personal trainers and fitness professionals gather much more thorough assessments of their clients’ functional states with Omegawave. They can determine: • Current functional state and overall client health • Client’s readiness for particular activities • Client’s general stress level • How to customize the client’s training plan • Whether the plan is working or needs adjustment • If the client is getting adequate recovery One of the more interesting findings about the Omegawave that I discovered was that several top-ranked athletes were using Omegawave to compare recuperation techniques. For example, I talked to an Omegawave company representative who told me that an elite, top-ranked athlete had purchased a high-altitude chamber for training effects and a hyperbaric chamber costing several thousands of dollars for recuperation. When he started using the Omegawave, he found that the high-altitude chamber was disrupting his cardiac system while the hyperbaric chamber was in fact increasing his recuperation. Omegawave also evaluates the effectiveness of different recuperation techniques. You can also you Omegawave to determine how

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NOJUICE Bodybuilding
By Eric Broser

For Natural Bodybuilding
Part IX

Dream And Dream Big!

his is perhaps the most important of all the commandments I have written about thus far! Please listen up…don’t ever set limits, as this is one of the surest roads to failure for a natural bodybuilder. Do not let anyone tell you what you can or cannot accomplish. Ignore the meatheads who claim you will get nowhere unless you take drugs. Laugh at the loudmouths who spew nonsense like, “you can only get huge and ripped with steroids, GH, T3 and clen!” Bullshit! Your body is only limited by where your mind is willing to take you! Do you realize that people defy the “laws” of science and reason every single day? There was a time when nobody Eric Broser thought Roger Maris’ home run record would ever be broken, but it has…and more than once! The 4-minute mile was once considered insurmountable, but now it is commonplace! An 800-pound bench press was a fantasy just a few years ago, and now there are men who can rep with it! If you can conceive it and believe it, you can achieve it. Think about it…then be about it! Those who are afraid to dream are bound by the limits that their mind sets for them. Dreamers see beyond what is and seek out what can be. You are the writer, producer, and director of your life…so go ahead and dream my friends, and dream BIG! Always look to raise the bar…and once you do, leap right over it and don’t look back! Natural Diet Dilemma: Zero Carb vs. Low Carb Part I Lately there has been a lot of discussion, controversy


and disagreement amongst bodybuilders, trainers, nutritionists and coaches within our industry regarding whether natural bodybuilders should use a zero-carb or low-carb approach to dieting when seeking both a ripped and maximally muscular physique (like when prepping for competition). As a pro natural bodybuilder myself who has prepared for about 20 competitions, as well as one who has coached both “enhanced” and drug-free lifters for hundreds more, I have a very definite opinion on this matter…based on experience and science. Simply put…natural bodybuilders have different requirements than those who utilize performance-enhancing drugs. About this, I have no doubt! While I certainly would agree that a properly implemented, zero-carb diet does work wonders for most of my “enhanced” brothers in iron, there are very definite and compelling reasons why the majority (nothing in bodybuilding is universal) of naturals should stay away from this approach. As bodybuilders, our goal when getting ready for competition is not just to strip off as much body fat as humanly possible, but also to retain as much muscle mass as we can in the process. I know I don’t want to step onstage looking like an underwear model! Do you? Didn’t think so. And that is the major disadvantage of a zero-carb diet for drug-free athletes— the inevitable loss of muscle size! But why does this occur? It’s just simple physiology, really…hormones, signaling molecules, and how they are affected when zero carbs are ingested! That said, let’s get a little more specific about why zero-carb diets (for naturals) are not the Holy Grail, but likely will lead you to fail. December 2008

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Reason #1: Without any carbs, there will be no insulin! Insulin is a protein-peptide hormone that is released by the pancreas in response to the ingestion of food, with the greatest release occurring by way of the consumption of carbohydrates. Insulin promotes a dramatic, muscle-building effect through its ability to drive amino acids, glucose, creatine, etc. directly into muscle cells and by inhibiting muscle degradation. The powerful anti-catabolic properties of insulin are most important first thing in the morning and right after intense training, when an optimum hormonal environment is necessary to build/maintain muscle mass. If you do not elevate your insulin levels at these two critical times, you will fail to optimally transport vital nutrients into starving muscle cells, and will perhaps even rob them of amino acids already stored. Result? Muscle loss! Reason # 2: Without any insulin, you will secret more cortisol! Cortisol is a natural hormone of the adrenal glands and is the primary glucocorticoid. It is released in greater amounts in times of stress (training is a major stress), and possesses many qualities essential to life. However, in too large amounts, cortisol is the enemy of a bodybuilder (yeah, this sucker wears both a white and black hat)! Excess cortisol can directly result in a loss of lean mass by reducing the utilization of amino acids for protein formation in muscle cells. Cortisol can also lead to a redistribution (and increase) of body fat, causing a larger amount of storage to occur in the abdominal region. In addition, too much of this devilish little hormone can cause both sodium retention and potassium excretion. Less muscle…more bloat…and a bigger waistline? No thank you! Reason # 3: With more cortisol, there will be decreased thyroid function! It has been known for quite some time that one of the downfalls of a lengthy zero-carb diet is the negative effect it can have on thyroid activity. One of the possible mechanisms behind this, once again, is increased cortisol secretion. Not only does excess cortisol directly inhibit TSH, or thyroid stimulating hormone, but it may also suppress 5’ deiodinase, an enzyme that converts the less active thyroid hormone T4 into the far more powerful T3! The result is a decreased metabolic rate, which of course can make it harder to burn fat. This is why so many drug-free, zero-carb dieters often hit a plateau halfway through their diet. Not good! Reason # 4: More cortisol = less GH! I find this effect particularly interesting because strong proponents of the zero-carb diet often claim that one of its benefits is increased GH output, leading to higher levels of the anabolic monster, IGF-1. However, you should be aware of another nasty tidbit about cortisol…it increases the output of the GH antagonist, somatostatin! So, there goes that theory right out the window! Less GH = less IGF-1, which in turn = decreased muscle retention while dieting. Man, cortisol is one bad motherfuc%er! Next month, I will continue my discussion on the downfalls of zero-carb diets for natural bodybuilders, as well as present my thoughts on a better, more effective alternative. Until then, stay up to date on all the latest bodybuilding, fitness, and figure news, info and gossip at the most hardcore forums on the net:!

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By Gregg Valentino DISCLAIMER:

The following is uncensored/ unedited and in no way reflects the opinions of the staff of Muscular Development. Who the hell knows what this guy might say... he’s a mental freak. This article is for entertainment purposes only.

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ANSWERED, “My Dad keeps complaining that I never listen to him… or something like that.”….OH WHATEVER!!! YEAH, I LOVE MY KIDS BUT THEY LIVE BY A CREED >>“If you can’t be a good example, be a terrible warning.”…..MY SWEET LITTLE DAUGHTER GINA ALWAYS TELLS ME, “Dad, in a sea of retards, you are the Poseidon.” (HOW MUCH YOU WANNA BET A FEW MOMOs & PINHEADS READING THIS HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THAT MEANS?) ….ANYWAY, SO I’M NOW BROKE, WHICH MEANS NO SEX FROM MERCEDES TILL I GET PAID IN 2 WEEKS….KEEP IN MIND, I COULD NOT RELEASE THE HOSTAGES (MEANS JERK OFF, YA FRIGGIN’ MOMOS ..LET MY LITTLE TADPOLES GO FREE). I JUST COULDN’T DO IT, BECAUSE I WAS ON VACATION WITH MY KIDS …AND YO, THEN WHEN I GOT BACK HOME, JUST BECAUSE I SPENT ALL MY MONEY ON THE KIDS I GOT NO ASS FROM MY GIRL MERCEDES SIMPLY BECAUSE I’M BROKE… IT’S JUST NOT FAIR…I TOLD HER, “You’re so damn sexy when you neuter me that way, Mercedes.” YO, THAT BITCH MILKS ME LIKE I’M A COW…..NO MONEY > NO SEX!!! ONE DAY I’M GONNA GROW SOME BALLS AND TELL THAT BITCH, “Roses are red, the sun is gold. Get on your knees, and do as you’re told.” OH YEAH BABE….. “Sometimes I think the only way I can make Mercedes scream in bed is whenever I bust a nut, I’ll wipe my dick off on her bed sheets or pillows cases.”…OOOPS BEEN THERE, DONE THAT!!!


December 2008 July–2004

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As a bodybuilder, I realize that taking a multivitamin every day is a good idea. But, is there any advantage to using a multi when it comes to building muscle and strength that I’m not aware of? Just by raising this question, you’re way ahead of your competition. Your body does, in fact, utilize a wide variety of micronutrients that are used to create the foundation for building muscle and strength at the cellular level. It’s also true that in order for muscle growth to occur, you need an advanced muscle-building compound that targets the biochemical and intramuscular pathways that initiate explosive muscle growth and strength. One obstacle that bodybuilders face in their quest to build more muscle is free radicals. You see, due to the effects of intense training, these molecules can cause microscopic damage to the cells all over your body, even muscles. However, there is a perfect micronutrient multivitamin that takes care of your micronutrient demands, made even more powerful with a key musclebuilding ingredient that can actually target intramuscular processes to quickly drive up muscle growth and strength at the same time! It’s Anabolic VITAKIC™ – The World’s Most Hardcore Musclebuilding Micronutrient Multivitamin Complex. And it’s the latest advancement in muscle-building science from Team MuscleTech™ headquarters! Designed specifically for serious bodybuilders, renowned Team MuscleTech™ researchers not only equipped Anabolic VITAKIC with multiple key micronutrients that

By Team MuscleTech Research and Development

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protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals, but they also engineered the formula with a potent anabolic agent proven to drastically drive up muscle growth and strength! What’s more, Anabolic VITAKIC is the only anabolic micronutrient multivitamin formula to utilize Nanoparticulation Technology. Powered by this novel technology, a precise portion of Anabolic VITAKIC’s proven key anabolic driver is shuttled to your muscles, fast! Always on the leading edge of scientific advancements for bodybuilding supplements, Anabolic VITAKIC is just one of many innovative supplements to come out of our doors. In fact, our researchers from Team MuscleTech are the same group that developed Cell-Tech™ Hardcore and ® Nitro-Tech Hardcore. Team MuscleTech is always developing new and innovative ways to synergistically use advanced technologies to keep your body anabolic. Don’t take our word for it, though; give these cuttingedge supplements a try for yourself and see the difference in your training when you use the most advanced supplements available – ® MuscleTech supplements!


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Anabolic ResearchUpdate
By William LIewellyn

Warning: Opinions expressed in this column do not necessarily reflect the views of this magazine’s publisher or its editorial staff. MD does not condone any form of illegal drug use for bodybuilding or for any recreational purpose. MD also does not condone abuse of legal drugs for any purpose.

Ending the Designer Steroid Loophole
is that time again. At the time of this writing, the Olympics are in full swing, and the media outlets around the world are searching for stories about anabolic steroids and sports doping to grab the attention of the public. My phone usually rings a bit more frequently during the Olympics, as I am often seen as a “go to” person for a few words or sound bites about steroids. At a time like this, the questions are usually focused on the limitations of sports testing for steroids and other drugs. In my experience, reporters love writing inflammatory stories about how rampant and unstoppable the “doping problem” is. This week, I had two conversations in particular that stood out. The focus went beyond current testing, to a talk about what is on the horizon for sports doping. Is there really any end to the use of designer steroids? This month, I thought it would be well on topic to expand on this, and take a look at one new technology that might actually stop athletes from using designer steroids. lem. Present testing for anabolic steroids at an athletic event is compound based. This means that the investigators need to search out particular banned substances in the urine in order to perform their doping controls. If a steroid is unknown to the testers, such as a designer steroid that is a unique chemical variant of a known steroid, present testing methods will likely not identify it. In fact, even if they believe they know a particular new designer steroid is being used, doping officials need to know what that drug will break down into in the body and what it will look like in the urine before they can effectively test for it. Simply put, the present technology is highly limited when it comes to new steroids. The new methods proposed by the researchers in Cologne could come to replace compound-based testing at athletic events with a much more accurate option for detecting drug cheats. The system involves a detailed profiling of urinary steroids, not to identify specific designer steroids, but to identify changes in the natural hormone profile that would indicate doping. The system works by measuring 15 endogenous hormones. A database entry is created for each athlete so these hormones can be tracked at each competition and test, and results compared across testing periods to determine changes in the natural profile. If a drug such as a designer steroid is administered, the compound itself may be unknown to testing officials, and therefore would go unseen, but the impact the use of this drug would have on your natural hormone profile would be very visible.

Detecting a Designer Steroid
The system works like this. Your body does not produce steroids in an isolated fashion. Hormones are part of a very complex chain of interactions, with changes in one marker often being reflected in changes to many other markers. For example, testosterone doesn’t start in the body as testosterone, but as cholesterol. From here it is converted to pregnenolone, and from there, a variety of other steroid precursors. And after being formed, the testosterone itself will break down into a variety of other compounds in the urine. All of these different steps of metabolism are affected by each other. The use of exogenous (external) hormones would cause the body to diminish its own hormone production. The result would be a noticeable change in the urinary excretion profile. Even if the designer steroid itself were not known or tested for, officials would know by the urinary profile that some type of steroid hormone was being taken, against organization rules.

Enter Profile Testing
Scientists at the Center for Preventative Doping Research in Cologne, Germany are recommending that Olympic drug-testing laboratories and officials examine a new method of steroid testing that could eliminate the designer steroid prob-

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Testosterone/ Epitestosterone
What about something tricky like testosterone? This is historically a difficult drug to test for, as it is a hormone already present in the human body. It belongs there, so officials can only try to identify an excess of testosterone. Current first-line testing protocols look at the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone in the urine, the latter being an inactive hormone usually made in the body in a 1:1 ratio with testosterone. If there is too much testosterone for epitestosterone, the sample is flagged. But this can be countered if the athlete also takes epitestosterone, which can artificially maintain the T/E ratio. In East Germany, Jenepharm used to make an epitestosterone propionate drug for this specific purpose. The new method of testing proposed by the Center for Preventative Doping Research would identify this doping technique by noticing the changes in urinary 17alpha-diols, 17-epi-Bdiol and 17-epi-Adiol. Even if a 1:1 T/E ratio were artificially maintained, doping would be apparent to the officials. that can be countered by the athletes with the use of another (not tested) blocking agent. Once again, these new testing methods may outsmart this doping cheats, as the suppressed urinary excretion of steroids will be quickly and easily identified, even if the blocking agent is unknown to officials.

Table 1 – Proposed Markers of Doping
Testosterone Epitestosterone Dihydrotestosterone Androsterone Etiocholanolone Dehydroepiandrosterone 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol androstenedione 6alpha-OH-androstenedione 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17alpha-diol 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17alpha-diol 3alpha,5-cyclo-5alpha-androstan-6beta-ol-17-one 5alpha-androstanedione 5beta-androstanedione

From the perspective of a drugtesting official, indeed this new technology looks extremely promising to say the least. For the first time since drug testing began, the Olympics and other sports organizations may be able to abandon its compound-based testing approach, which is very limited in efficacy once you introduce the issue of designer steroids. This would be replaced with a testing method that would essentially show if an athlete is taking steroids, even if it cannot identify what steroid is being taken. This method also relies on urine and not blood, so a more invasive approach need not be taken. There are still a number of issues that need to be worked out, mainly on assuring that natural variances in hormone levels are never inadvertently mistaken for doping. So it is too early for anyone to say that designer steroids are dead men walking. Still, athletes using designer steroids definitely have big cause for concern. If this technology pans out, it may be in the very near future that we see the designer steroid-testing loophole eliminated, once and for all.

Blocking Agents
Blocking agents (also called masking agents) are also on the radar for this new testing method. For those who may not be familiar, many years ago, the drug probenecid was being used by athletes to mask their doping efforts. Probenecid is an inhibitor of renal tubular transport, which means that the drug can block the resorption of uric acid. But the blocking action of this drug also causes it to lower the urinary excretion of certain compounds. Steroids are strongly affected, and this type of drug can thus be used to drastically lower the concentration of steroids in the urine. If efficiently diluted, the result could be a passed doping test even if anabolic steroids were taken. To date, testing officials have countered the use of this masking agent by testing for probenecid itself. While effective, this is another “stop-gap” measure

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By Jose Antonio, PhD

Speed, Horses, Testosterone And Other News
Speed Demon Marion Jones Released From Prison
According to a news report ( /tsnstory.html?id=6521015), “Disgraced former Olympic track and field star Marion Jones was released from a federal prison in Texas Friday after serving a six-month sentence. Jones was sentenced to the sixmonth term for lying to federal prosecutors about her steroid use and her knowledge of a check-fraud scam involving her ex-boyfriend, former sprinter Tim Montgomery. And to ” think this woman was at one point the FASTEST woman on earth! I am of course waiting for “equal justice” for the ENTIRE country of the former East Germany in having their medals rescinded, since all athletes were doped up via the direction of the state sporting officials. Mmm…we know that ain’t gonna happen. And in more bizarre news, can you believe that a governor of a state actually gives a hooey about whether horses are given steroids.? Read on… Governor Steve Beshear. When I read this, I said to myself, “So that’s the kind of stuff politicians waste taxpayers’ dollars on!” Bizarre. “This is a historic day in Kentucky racing, ” Beshear said in a statement. “This action demonstrates our commitment to ensuring the integrity of racing and the safety of its competitors. ” (Originally published at Why is there this “all or nothing” principle with steroids? Why does the state government feel compelled to regulate this? Like any drug or supplements, the dosage you give determines whether it helps, hurts or has a neutral effect. To test for steroids in horses is a waste of money. Plain and simple. other parameters of sexual function including erectile function were unaffected by the treatment. Well heck, ain’t that like alcohol? Desire goes up, but function doesn’t always follow…well, one out of two ain’t bad.

Just Say No To Diets?
Trying to get lean? Don’t try to lose too much weight, or else your T levels may drop precipitously!To investigate this, 18 elite wrestlers were studied with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after two to three weeks of weight loss. In order to establish the degree of dehydration and hormonal status, blood samples were collected to obtain blood chemistry, electrolytes and endocrinological parameters after both DXA measurements. The mean weight loss was 8 percent and they also found a huge drop in serum testosterone (63 percent drop) and luteinizing hormone concentrations. A reduced bodyweight correlated with decreased serum testosterone concentration.These science types suggest that, “Even shortterm weight reduction may have marked effects on body composition, blood chemistry and hormonal parameters. It may constitute a possible health risk at least in a growing adolescent athlete. So don’t go hog-wild ” trying to get ripped that you end up dropping levels of T! For instance, we know that in aging men, low testosterone levels are associated with a December 2008

T and E
Let’s face it.Testosterone is key to male sexuality. For instance, a total of 60 men aged 55 years or older in good general health with total testosterone (TT) levels <15 nM, and with symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency, were randomized in a double-blind protocol to transdermal testosterone patches or placebo for 12 months. Nice— 12 months of free androgens! Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function at weeks zero, 26 and 52. In men receiving testosterone, TT levels increased by 30 percent and luteinizing hormone decreased by 50 percent. Relative to placebo, testosterone therapy improved sexual desire; however,

A Horse Is A Horse, Of Course Of Course
Yep, it is now true that testing for anabolic steroids in racehorses in Kentucky will begin with the start of the Keeneland fall meet under emergency regulations signed by

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potentially atherogenic lipid profile including high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol.

Police and T values!
Now this is rather interesting. We know how stress can affect our minds and bodies. Well, this study examined if occupational exposure to chemical, physical and psycho-social urban stressors could cause alterations in plasma-free testosterone (T) levels and related diseases in female traffic police vs. control group. They did this research on a sample of 468 female municipal police employees (209 traffic police and 259 controls). They matched the subjects by age, working life, menstrual cycle day, BMI, drinking habit, cigarette smoking habit, liquor and soy intake in diet and habitual consumption of Italian coffee.Yes, they even got the Italian coffee in there! Wow…thorough scientists they were. After doing all of this, they ended up with a cool comparison between 96 female traffic police and 96 controls. What did they find? Get this; T mean levels were significantly higher in female traffic police compared to controls. An increase in mental health disorders was found in traffic police compared to controls, but the difference was not significant. So really no difference, eh?Therefore, the increase in T plasma levels observed in traffic police vs. controls can be due to a chronic working exposure to low doses of environmental chemical urban stressor. Or how about this…because police are often subjected to bizarre and aggressive behavior, it may make sense that having high T levels serve as defense mechanism that will help you handle this type of stress-filled occupation!

effects of testosterone are possibly mediated by the amygdale, an almond-shaped group of nerve cells in the brain. For those of you who slept through biology, the amygdale plays a role in the memory of emotions. Scientists thus investigated whether the age-related decline in androgen levels is associated with reduced amygdala activity, and whether exogenous testosterone can restore amygdala activity. Healthy, young and middle-aged women participated in this study. Androgen levels were found to be lower in middle-aged than young women, which was associated with decreased amygdala reactivity. Endogenous testosterone levels correlated positively with amygdala reactivity across the young and middle-aged women. The middle-aged women received a single nasal dose of testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover manner, which rapidly increased amygdala reactivity to a level comparable to the young women. So here’s an interesting example of how a hormone-like testosterone can impact behavior in not just men, but in the fairer sex. Jose Antonio, PhD, is vice president of the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He has a PhD in muscle physiology and is chief executive of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. References:
Allan CA, Forbes EA, Strauss BJ, McLachlan RI. Testosterone therapy increases sexual desire in ageing men with lownormal testosterone levels and symptoms of androgen deficiency. Int J Impot Res, JulAug 2008;20(4):396-401. Karila TA, Sarkkinen P Marttinen M, , Seppala T, Mero A, Tallroth K. Rapid Weight Loss Decreases Serum Testosterone. Int J Sports Med, May 30 2008. Makinen JI, Perheentupa A, Irjala K, et al. Endogenous testosterone and serum lipids in middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis, Apr 2008;197(2):688-693. Tomei G, Ciarrocca M, Fiore P et al. , Exposure to urban stressor and effects on free testosterone in female workers. Sci Total Environ, Mar 25 2008;392(2-3):198-202. van Wingen GA, Zylicz SA, Pieters S, et al. Testosterone Increases Amygdala Reactivity in Middle-Aged Women to a Young Adulthood Level. Neuropsychopharmacology, Jan 30 2008.

The Amygdala… Huh?
By now you know that the big T does impact mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age (boo-hoo), which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. I thought wacky moods were genetic! Aw, moving on.These

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December 2008


The Anabolic Freak
By Dave Palumbo, Editor-in-Chief,

Warning: Opinions expressed in this column do not necessarily reflect the views of this magazine’s publisher or its editorial staff. MD does not condone any form of illegal drug use for bodybuilding or for any recreational purpose. MD also does not condone abuse of legal drugs for any purpose.

Q: Dave, I want to compete in my first bodybuilding competition. How do you suggest I go about picking a contest prep coach? A: While there are many socalled contest gurus out there, the truth of the matter is that very few self-proclaimed “experts” are truly qualified to guide physique athletes through an entire contest preparation program. While many of these coaches have bluffed their way through with a few lucky success stories, many of them are not consistent in their results. The reason is usually due to a lack of knowledge in the areas of general physiology and biochemistry. Think about it, who would you rather hire to remove your appendix— a gastroenterologist or an emergency room assistant who holds the clamps during surgical procedures? Of course you’ll choose the surgeon, because not only does he understand the nature of the surgery, he also has an intimate knowledge of all the abdominal organs and surrounding structures and, if need be, he can easily correct any unforeseen prob-

lems that may arise. The same holds true with contest prep coaches. If I were choosing one, I’d want the person to have a thorough understanding of muscle physiology, endocrinology, biochemistry, and potential pathology. This way, if something unforeseen arises, this person will have the skills to make the necessary changes and quickly resolve the problem. Stay far away from coaches who can’t explain why they’re having you eat certain foods, taking particular supplements, and training with various levels of intensity. “Because I said so” should be the answer that makes you run for the hills. A well-explained, scientific answer that you find easy to understand is a sure sign that you found the right person to guide you to the promised land of physique perfection! Q: Would there be any benefit to frequently cycle your offseason and ketogenic diet? For example, I could do your offseason diet for four weeks followed by two weeks of the keto diet (with cardio). Would I be able to continually take advantage of that post-diet anabolic rebound if I were to do something like this? A: I’ll answer your question with a question of my own: Would you like to walk up three steps and down two on your journey to the top of a staircase? The mythical “post-contest rebound” only truly occurs after 12-16 weeks of hard dieting. This is why competitors December 2008

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who are somewhat smooth onstage don’t garnish the benefits of this rebound. Most people just get fat! However, when your body fat goes down to 3 percent and your glutes and jaw muscles are cross-striated, you know you’re gonna get a significant anabolic growth spurt when you start hyper-feeding your body. To answer your question, if you’re not looking to grow very much and you’re looking to stay lean, this cyclical off-season/precontest way of eating will work wonders. Q: Dave, what do you do with your clients following a competition if they have another contest three or four weeks later? Also, assuming the person used Dyazide to dry out, do you have your athletes training again on Sunday or Monday or do you have them take time off to restore mineral and water balance? A: I send my clients right back to the gym on Sunday if their next show is one or two weeks away. If it’s four or more weeks later, I’ll give them off until Monday. Either way, I make sure that each athlete is well hydrated when they go back to the gym. This usually means I’ll make sure that they consume at least half a gallon of water and plenty of salt on Saturday night (after the show). For safety purposes, I instruct them not to lift too heavy or do anything foolish that would risk injury for the first two days back in the gym. Q: What do you think about Dan Duchaine’s view about captopril being able to target alpha receptors for fat loss? A: Captopril is blood pressure medication know as an ACE inhibitor. ACE (angiotensis-converting enzymes) inhibitors work by inhibiting the enzyme that converts angiotensin-1 to angiotensin-2. Since angiotensin-2 ultimately gets converted into the hormone aldosterone (whose job it is to tell the kidneys to reabsorb sodium and water), the blockade of aldosterone production ultimately lowers blood pressure (less fluid in the blood December 2008

vessels). From all my research, Captopril has no effect, whatsoever, on alpha-2 receptors. While Captopril is useless for fat-loss purposes, the original Steroid Guru Dan Duchaine was one of the first to suggest the use of yohimbine (a true alpha-2 blocking agent) as a fat burner. He pointed to research that showed that estrogen-dependent fat deposits had an extremely large population of alpha-2 receptors on them. He then postulated that if yohimbine were somehow topically applied or locally injected into these fatty tissues, there would be a targeted amount of fat loss in those areas preferentially. Nowadays, many nutritional companies sell oral fat-burning formulas that contain high levels of yohimbine in hopes that it will aid in fat loss. The problem is that the oral dose of yohimbine necessary to instigate significant fat loss is way too high and has way too many central nervous system side effects to make it a viable option for use. Given these scientific facts, it’ll be interesting to see if any supplement companies are innovative enough to synthesize a highly penetrating, effective, yohimbine cream sometime in the future. Q: Dave, I’m completely confused as to how all the hormones interact in the body. What’s the exact relationship between testosterone, estrogen, DHT, DHEA, prolactin, aldosterone, and cortisol? What can I take to maximize testosterone and minimize estrogen? A: When trying to assess what’s going on in the body, it’s a huge mistake to lump all the endocrine hormones into one category. Let’s first deal with testosterone and all its derivatives. In the male body, testosterone that’s produced in the testicles or that’s exogenously injected has 3 fates. (1) It can be aromatized into estrogen (a feminizing hormone that causes water retention, gynecomastia, and fat deposition in the lower body) (2) It can be reduced into DHT or dihydrotestosterone (which can cause prostate enlargement, acne, and hairloss) (3) It can remain as testos-

terone. As bodybuilders, we want to maximize the amount of testosterone that stays as actual testosterone. This is why we take aromatase inhibitors and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors to reduce the amount of estrogen and DHT, respectively. When certain 19nortestosterone-based steroids such as Deca Durabolin or trenbolone acetate are injected, the hormone prolactin can increase. Elevated prolactin levels can lead to gynecomastia (with nipple discharge) and impotence. This last effect is probably due to the fact that following orgasm, men have a huge spike in serum prolactin levels. This peak is what causes the long refractory period— inability to get an erection— following orgasm. Usually drugs like Dostinex (cabergoline) are taken (.5mg every three days) to block chronic elevations in prolactin. Not only does this block the prolactin-induced gyno from occurring, it also acts as an aphrodisiac of sorts since refractory periods follow orgasm are now virtually non-existent. When we hear the terms adrenal fatigue or adrenal hormones, this refers to any of the steroidal hormones that are being produced from the adrenal glands (that sit on top of the kidneys). DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is an adrenal androgen. Not to be confused with DHT, this hormone’s job is to build muscle (in women), modulate the immune system, and maintain an optimal metabolic rate. On the other hand, cortisol is a catabolic hormone that’s released during times of stress in the body. This hormone functionally breaks down lean muscle, raises blood sugar, and suppresses immune system function. For all these reasons, it’s important for the hard-training athlete to keep cortisol levels as low as possible. Finally, aldosterone is important for proper sodium and water balance in the body. When sodium levels are low, aldosterone levels increase. This hormone, then, instructs the kidney tubules to reabsorb more sodium and water. This additional intravascular fluid effectively raises blood pressure and restores electrolyte MD 359

balance to the body. Remember, when assessing what hormone functionally do in your body, don’t assume that they’re all related. Group all the major “players” into distinct categories that relate to where they’re produced and then try to establish where the problems lie. Q: I was watching an “In the Trenches” video with Dennis Wolf the other day and I noticed he was complaining about his calves being very stubborn body parts. While you were interviewing him, you gave him some advice for bringing up this hard-to-build body part. Can repeat what you suggested that he do? A: The calves are made up of two distinct muscle groups— the soleus and gastrocnemius. In order to stimulate both muscles you need to perform two different exercises. Seated calf raises (legs bent at 90 degrees) predominantly work the soleus muscle, while standing (straight leg) calf raises work the Name: Keith Williams Age: 35 Height: 5’10” Weight: Off-season: (289 pounds) Precontest: (245 pounds) gastrocnemius. My observation is that multiple-set calf training quickly results in the exhaustion of the soles of your feet; therefore, by the time you get to your heaviest (muscle-building) set, you can’t even feel the contraction in your calves. It’s like you’re training your feet more than your calves. A simple way to short circuit this common pitfall is to do your heaviest set (using good form) as your one and only set. One set for calves? That’s right! Do one set of standing calf raises for 15 reps using the heaviest weight you can properly handle, and then rest for 3 minutes. Next, perform one set of seated calves for 15 reps with the heaviest weight you can handle. Follow this 1-set, 2exercise, routine two times per week and the muscle gains will be nothing short of miraculous! Q: Whenever I hear you talk about eating good fats (omega3, 6, 9), you always say they have anabolic properties. I’ve read some articles you’ve written where you said that fat is necessary to build muscle. I’m really confused; how does eating fat help with the musclebuilding process? A: I’ll keep this answer as short and succinct as possible. We all know that protein is required to help build and repair muscle; however, that’s only about two-thirds of the story. If you remember back to high school biology when your teacher drew a picture of a cell on the blackboard and explained that the cell membrane— the outer edge of the cell— was a fatty semipermeable membrane that protected the internal contents of the cell, then you might also understand what happens when these cells are broken down while weight training at the gym. Because the entire muscle cells is torn apart by heavy/hardcore weight training, the internal protein component as well as the fatty cell membrane— comprised of essential fatty acids— needs to be replenished. Without the proper ingestion of these essential raw materials—protein and fats—the cells won’t be efficiently

Anabolic Freak of the Month: Keith Williams

Contest Highlights: 2004 NPC Iron Man MN, Heavyweight, Second Place 2005 NPC Gopher State Classic MN, Heavyweight, First Place 2005 NPC Junior Nationals, Super-Heavyweight, Third Place 2006 NPC Junior Nationals, Heavyweight, Third Place 2006 NPC Mr. MN/ Mr. Midwest Super-Heavyweight, First Place and Overall 2006 NPC USA Championships, Super-Heavyweight, 10th Place 2007 NPC Junior Nationals, Super-Heavyweight, Fourth Place 2007 NPC Southern States, Super
Heavyweight, Third Place

2007 NPC USA Championships, Super-Heavyweight, Eighth Place 2008 NPC Junior Nationals Super Heavyweight, 2nd Place

2008 NPC Flex Wheeler Classic, Super-Heavyweight, First Place and Overall 2008 NPC USA Championships, Super-Heavyweight, Eighth Place 2008 NPC North American Championships, Super-Heavyweight, Fourth Place Current Job: Personal trainer Keith Williams was born and raised in South Central Los Angeles. His mother was a drug addict and his father was not even a part of his life. In fact, according to Keith, from the age of 13 on he raised himself on the mean streets of Compton— one of most dangerous inner city/inner suburban areas in the U.S. As far back as Big Keith can remember, he constantly told his friends, “I’m not gonna wind up as a statistic.” He was right; sports saved him! Keith was a two-time all-American in football and a three-time state track champion in the 110 high hurdles and 300 IM hurdles at Escondido High School. However, in 1992, while still in high school, a drunk driver smashed into Keith’s car and shattered several of his vertebrae and broke his jaw. The doctors said he’d never walk again, but Williams refused to accept that fate. After two years of intense rehab, Williams was back to playing football and running track at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota. While he was no longer able to jump the hurdles, he concentrated on sprinting and in 1996, the unknown Williams won the 60-meter dash (6.56) at the USA Indoor Track and Field Championships in Atlanta, Georgia outsprinting the likes of Carl Lewis, Dennis Mitchell, John Drummond and Donavan Powell. Nike endorsement contracts followed shortly thereafter and Williams found himself as an alternate on the 1996 U.S. Olympic Team (4x100 meter relay). Following the Atlanta Olympics, Williams December 2008

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didn’t see the big money in track so he focused on his other love— football— and in 1997, the Denver Broncos (NFL) drafted him. After playing for several seasons as a backup running back and kick returner, Williams retired and took an interest in bodybuilding. Working as a personal trainer, he saw the potential to take his physique to another level. Always one to take on a new challenge, he enlisted the help of the only IFBB pro he could find in Minnesota— Christine Bongiovanni. With Chris’s help, Keith started moving up the ranks of the local NPC, winning the Gopher State Classic in 2005 and the Mr. Minnesota in 2006. After enlisting my help this past year, Big Keith tackled the national scene in a big way when he placed a solid second behind Big Sean Allan in the super heavyweight class at the 2008 NPC Junior repaired. For a hard-training bodybuilder, this is a serious problem. If we examine the fact that some bodybuilders think that fats are optional in their diet or that it’s just some wacky theory that Dave Palumbo is proposing, we’ll soon see that this is a very problematic issue for those looking to maximize growth and repair of muscle. These fats are called essential fatty acids (EFAs) for a reason. They’re essential to the diet. I hate to sound too caustic but anyone who ignores this fact is a moron! I’m sure there are plenty of people who insist that they put on tons of muscle without eating a single gram of fat in their diet; however, what these same people don’t realize is that they’re getting most of their essential fats, indirectly, from all the protein they’re eating. The reason Dorian Yates used to eat 600 grams of protein per day was because he unknowingly was getting his essential fats from all the fish, chicken, and meats he was consuming. Wouldn’t it be much simpler, and less toxic to the body, to eat less protein and more essential fats? Think about this fact the next time you plan out your mass building or body fat-shedding diet. Nationals. He followed that up with a controversial 4 (many thought he should have won the class) at the 2008 IFBB North American Championships. And, two weeks prior to this, he added the prestigious title of NPC Flex Wheeler Classic Overall Champion to his resume, as well. Moving forward, Big Keith hopes to put all the doubters and naysayers to rest, once again, when he rolls into the 2009 NPC USA Championships— a bigger and more complete bodybuilder— looking for the overall victory and chance to compete as an IFBB pro (his third professional sport). When looking back at all the obstacles he’s overcome so far— no parents, growing up in the roughest neighborhood in the U.S., and surviving a life-threatening car accident— you have to believe that there’s simply no way that Keith Williams can possibly fail! Become a certified personal trainer from the convenience of your own home. I, personally, wrote the information-packed 100-page manual and I guarantee it’s the most comprehensive diet, supplement, and training manual available. By popular demand, a paper copy version is now also available for $39.99. Check out the web address above. eight years, Robert concentrated on building mass on his physique using heavy compound movements. During that time, in 1991, Robert won a powerlifting competition at Solano State Prison with a 405 bench, 515 squat and 585 deadlift. However, in 1998, the weights were removed from all California State Prisons. This was a huge mental blow to Robert and his lifting buddies. Not one to give up so easily, he committed himself to his goals and he started incorporating calisthenics, cardiovascular training, and yoga. Today, at the age of 45, the 6’3” , 230lb, Dixon has a physique that most people would die for and he’s looking forward to the day he’s released so that he may give back some of the knowledge and experience to disadvantaged and troubled youths. Best of luck, Big Rob! Dave Palumbo P .O. Box 1122 Seaford, NY 11783 To purchase my book, Perfect Prison Physique, please send a $25 money order to the above address or order online at December 2008

Prison Bodies
When Robert Dixon Jr. of the California Medical Facility in Vacaville, CA came to prison 25 years ago at the age of 21, he had no idea what would become of his life while serving out a life sentence. According to Dixon, “I felt determined to overcome the agony of my failure by recreating myself. One ” morning in 1985, while lying on his rack, he heard loud clanging noises coming from outside. When he looked up, he saw the other inmates lifting weights outside in the “iron pile. He was hooked! For the next ”

My Personal Training Certification Course, S.M.A.R.T., is now available online at

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Are there any pharmaceutical treatments for muscle injuries on the horizon? There certainly are. Research at the University of Pittsburgh has been looking at muscle injuries from a multifaceted approach. We understand the process of muscle injury at a complex level. Let me explain a little. When a muscle is injured either by strain (most common), contusion, laceration or ischemia, it undergoes distinct phases of healing. First, the damaged muscle degenerates. As the injured muscle fibers are torn, they begin to degenerate. This happens in concert with the inflammatory process. Inflammatory cells infiltrate the injured area and begin clearing the damaged myofibers while releasing many growth factors and cytokines that activate the next phase, regeneration. The growth factors released during the inflammatory phase, such as IGF-1 and TGFb-1, stimulate resting precursor cells for muscle growth and scar formation, respectively. During this process, there is a fine balance between scar tissue formation from fibroblasts and formation of new myofibers from myoblasts. Myostatin is a TGFb-1-like protein that when present, encourages the formation of scar tissue while inhibiting myoblast proliferation and differentiation into new myofibers. All muscle injuries, if severe enough, will result in the final phase of fibrosis or scar formation. When scar forms in muscle, it deforms the shape of the muscle belly, reduces its strength, and increases the risk of re-injury. Thus, it is beneficial to limit scar tissue formation.

By Victor Prisk, MD

The typical treatment of muscle injuries involves the use of physical modalities such as ice, heat, ultrasound, e-stim, compression and early motion/physical therapy. Pharmacological treatments for muscle injury include controlling the inflammation with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other agents to limit pain. However, many studies have detailed the benefits of the inflammatory process in promoting muscle regeneration and lessening recovery time and re-injury rates. Again, the inflammatory process is critical in bringing essential growth factors, cytokines, and prostanoids to the area of injury.

If we shouldn’t limit the inflammatory process for the sake of growth factors, how do we improve healing? There are a few other approaches. First, we can stimulate regeneration through increases in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. This can be done through enhancing the inflammatory process or adding growth factors. Our lab has shown that using a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, which limits inflammation, reduces myoblast proliferation and increases TGFb-1 for the formation of scar. On the flipside, the addition of prostanoids such as prostaglandin F2a can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and growth. Second, we can inhibit the formation of scar tissue. Finally, we can break down scar tissue that has already formed. Multiple studies at the University of Pittsburgh Growth and Development laboratory have been performed to look at agents that can stimulate the regenerative process. Although many growth factors can stimulate myoblast growth and differentiation, IGF-1 is particularly well-suited at this task. IGF-1 therapy may be a great solution to muscle injury if administered early in the process, because it encourages the proliferation of myoblasts. However, as the healing process progresses, fibroblasts begin to accumulate and IGF-1 may stimulate these scar-forming cells as well. There are many agents being evaluated for improvement in muscle healing that have the ability to inhibit muscle fibrosis and thus shift the balance toward myofiber regeneration. Groundbreaking studies in our lab have shown that TGFb-1 is a major contributor to the formation of scar tissue in skeletal muscle. Other labs are also suggesting that myostatin, a TGF super-family protein, contributes to the formation of muscle fibrosis. There are a number of inhibitors of TGFb-1 that have been evaluated in our laboratory. First of all, decorin, a leucine-rich proteoglycan, is an inhibitor of TGFb-1 and myostatin. Its injection into damaged muscle increases myofiber regeneration and reduces scar formation. Secondly, suramin, an anti-parasitic drug, inhibits TGFb-1 and myostatin, while causing a significant increase in muscle regeneration. Of note, there are very few studies showing any improvement in recovery of strength. Another agent that can significantly improve muscle healing is an angiotensin (AII) receptor blocker. These medications are typically prescribed for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure). Studies have shown that angiotensin receptor blockade has the ability to limit the production of TGFb-1 in many different organ systems. Our research has shown that the AII receptor blocker, losartan or Cozaar, has the ability to limit skeletal muscle fibrosis and improve regeneration in a dose-dependant manner. This is, of course, with the risk of lowering blood pressure. There are other ways in which one can stimulate muscle repair but have more conflicting studies. Nandrolone, cortisone and physical modalities like ultrasound and e-stim December 2008

364 MD

AskTheDoc— Injury & rehabilitation
Don’t wait any longer! Do not may enhance healing but have conignore this pain or you may be having flicting results on the long-term funcan emergent repair of your tendon, tionality of the muscle after healing. too. The first thing you should do is Once scar tissue has set in, it is very visit your orthopaedic surgeon. He or difficult to remove. This can be done she can order an MRI to look at the surgically, with a high chance of recurquality of the tendon. If you have mild rence or chemically in experimental tendinosis, you can likely get by with models. Metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes have been utilized, activity modification and physical therapy. If there is moderate tendinosis, but are often unpredictable in their you may consider physical therapy in scope of action. The best bet is to treat combination with either extracorporethese injuries early and avoid scarring. al shock wave therapy, platelet-rich Other agents such as the selective plasma injections, or a Topaz tendon androgen receptor modulators and debridement. If the insertion has myostatin inhibitors have outstanding severe tendinopathy or is partially potential for improvement in muscle torn, you should consider repair with healing. As I mentioned above, myoheavy suture to augment the insertion statin-inhibiting drugs already exist, into the kneecap. but they are not without side effects. The rehabilitation becomes more For instance, suramin is quite a toxic difficult with advancing disease. anti-protozoal drug. It has the potenAlso, is becomes much more difficult tial for a fatal idiosyncratic reaction in for me, the surgeon, to repair a ten1/20,000 patients. It can cause neurodon that has had years of degeneralogical symptoms, renal failure, rashtion than one that has minimal es, relative adrenal insufficiency and change. In severe cases, tendon anemia. The risk of agranulocytosis grafts and other augmentation meth(loss of protective white blood cells) ods may be needed for an adequate can result in a condition as dangerous repair. Surgical repair has a rehab of as AIDS with severe, life-threatening three to six months. So, again, don’t infections. The use of Cozaar without delay! monitoring can result in an unsafe fall in blood pressure and thus a stroke. Keep your eyes and What’s Up ears open. There are with Dr. many drugs on the horiPrisk? zon with the potential for Please check out improving muscle regenmy new website, eration. But, more! importantly, you should Congratulations to act fast when you susmy fiancée, Jennifer tain a severe muscle Toth, on her secinjury to have it repaired ond-place finish at or medically treated. the NPC Team I read your article on Victor Martinez’s patellar tendon rupture. It made me wonder if I am at risk, because I have had pain for many months in my patellar tendon just below the kneecap. What should I do?

Universe and Figure National Championships. She is now an IFBB professional. She is also a dietitian and would love to help you with your contest prep. She can be contacted at


366 MD December 2008



he gym is like a Broadway show. Characters are everywhere. That’s certainly one thing that has not changed in all my years of training. It’s a place filled with people from every walk of life. Old and young, athletes, juiceheads, hot babes, fat chicks, the insane, the inane, the idiots, the preachers and the gurus. Add to them the butchers, bakers, bankers, construction workers, cops, candlestick makers and everything in between all cohabit the gym. While the characters are surprisingly no different to me than they were some 30 years ago, the atmosphere is a far departure from the old days. Back then, people would interact. You’d develop some great friendships while learning enormous tolerance for the inequities of others. The gym was a palpable palette. It was part of your life and the people there would color your existence. In my younger days, Gregg Valentino and I were kind of joined at the hip. He was a cross between a best friend, a crazy older brother, a training mentor and “Uncle Fester” on steroids. Back then we’d train our asses off up in Yorktown Heights, New York. It was a great place to lift. While the equipment was OK, it was the characters who made the experience complete. I’ve written about them in the past and their memories are as alive to me today as they were decades ago. Each day brought something new. It was like living some kind of hilarious soap opera that you just couldn’t predict what would go down next…all the while, you couldn’t get

Broken Highways & The Training Matrix
enough of it. All this was interlaced with our own hardcore East Coast version of heavy training. During my West Coast stint, I spent my days in or around the gym. Back when I trained at Gold’s Gym in Venice Beach, it was as though I lived to train. We all used to do these crazy doublesplit routines, where we’d be in there training morning and again at night. We’d eat and sun during the day. We’d take in the beach, tan and try to emulate our “Pumping Iron” heroes like Arnold, Eddie, Franco and Robbie. The gym was a place to congregate. It was a place to meet people, pick up girls and laugh with your buddies. Interacting with others was as much a part of the bodybuilding experience as the lifting itself. But there was and still is a darker side to both the East Coast and the West Coast “So-Cal” bodybuilding dreams. In reality, they were desperate times filled with rampant steroid and recreational drug abuse. Money was scarce and dealing was commonplace, as were other crimes. By my estimation, Venice Beach was and still is bleak. Though I cherish my sunny memories, the truth is that on the darker side, it was a wasteland of broken dreams. Littering the gym were guys and gals who had themselves convinced they were just 1 rep away from fame and fortune. In reality, things couldn’t have been further from the truth. But you could never convince them otherwise. Some of those pathetic souls are still in there, looking worse than ever, penniless, but unable to stop travelling

Extreme Muscle Enhancement

By Carlon M. Colker, MD, FACN

their broken highway. Of course every once in awhile, if you weren’t oblivious to it all, someone would actually wiggle through and make it to the big time. I remember I used to th train at a gym on 17 Street in New York City call Johnny Lats. I remember this guy named “Vin” who used to train there regularly. I’d usually see him hitting it around the same time as me. A local bouncer, Vin was a tall kid with a good build, but not huge. He always used to tell me he wanted arms like mine and seemed friendly enough. So, if we were hitting the same thing on a given day, we hooked up for a few lifts. The guy was a self-described “starving actor, ” very modest and almost down on himself half the time. I used to try and encourage him, but after awhile, I took to not asking him how things were going in his quest for stardom, because it seemed to depress him. So we stuck to training and other small talk. If I were more oblivious to things, I never would have come to know that the guy ended up in Hollywood under the name Vin Diesel. But for better or worse, while the characters remain, the times change, thus making the characters more difficult to appreciate. These days some things are radically different. For one, I’m different. I have a family to support and something called a day job. Unthinkable in the old paradigm! I don’t live to train anymore. Now bodybuilding training was and is such an intricate part of who and what I am that it has become an integrated part of my hard-wiring. I’m a busy

368 MD

December 2008

ExtremeMuscle Enhancement
physician but I still need that 1 hour a day, five days a week to call my own. After that, I can deal with all the bullshit life throws. But every once in a while, I try and step back and take stock of the changes. Is it just me who changed? Things are different now. People are generally self-absorbed. We are in our own world, a world intentionally not easily accessible to others. We go into the gym, do our thing and leave. The best example I can think of to illustrate my point is that almost everyone in the gym wears headphones and rocks to the beat of his own private rhythms. I can’t deny doing it myself. I have to admit that having my headphones in creates a kind of barrier to others so I can do what I have to do and get in and out without being interrupted. It’s as though it emanates a silent visual signal to all around that, while I might meet their eyes with a congenial smile, engaging in any words is strictly prohibited. The barrier is significant, because pushing it any further and mouthing a question with the intention of me removing my headphones to engage would be seemingly reserved for only the most obnoxious. We all know that this move can usually be quickly rebuffed, even while politely smiling by only partially removing the headphones. In other words, the closer your headphones remain to your ears, the stronger the signal is to the protagonist that you just want to be left alone and don’t want any role in his or her play. Of course the harshest push back occurs when the polite smile is replaced by a look of impatient annoyance coupled with only removing a single side of your headphones while keeping it inches from reinsertion. When I think about it, I can’t help but wonder what is wrong with me and everyone around me? Why is the gym scene so different? What’s with all of this pushing of others away? The answer is that these are selfish times, when people can craft their own introverted universe through the click of a mouse on their search engine. They can “friend” you on Facebook, or not. We can delve deep into a particular subject of personal entertainment at the exclusion of others. From pottery to pornography, take your pick and avoid all else. Cable and satellite TV has literally hundreds of channels. Don’t like something? Skip it. Hate the commercials? Use TIVO. The point here is that we have evolved into a culture of people who have little tolerance for others and virtually no patience. As such, it doesn’t lend itself to proper social interaction in which you get to take in all the good, bad, and ugly. I tried an experiment the other day. For the first time in a few years I trained without my headset. I have to admit that it was weird at first. Looking around, everyone was in their own world listening to their tunes. I took notice of the cacophony of overhead music selected by the high-school girl manning the desk. I smiled knowing that this shit just wouldn’t go over in the old days. The fact is that if you played that kind of bubblegum crap back then and didn’t change it to something you could lift heavy to, some gorilla would rip a speaker out of the ceiling in protest. But then again, what was the difference now anyway? No one but she was listening to it. As I looked around there must have been 30 people in the gym. With half of those people zoning on cardio and the other half lifting weights, it struck me that not a single conversation was going on. Then it hit me. It was as if all of us were part of some kind of matrix and I was momentarily playing the part of Neo in stepping out of it to experience the true reality. It’s a pity to say, but it sucked. Neo, I’m not. So I put my headphones back on and quickly dove my ass back into the training matrix. Dr. Colker’s book, Extreme Muscle Enhancement: Bodybuilding’s Most Powerful Techniques is available by

calling 1-800-310-1555 or ordering the book on-line at December 2008

370 MD

Busted! LegalQ&A
By Rick Collins, JD

Is Medical Marijuana Legal?
I live in California, where marijuana for medical purposes was legalized. So why do the Feds keep raiding medical marijuana facilities? Shortly after taking office in 1969, President Nixon declared a national “War on Drugs. Marijuana has always been a target. ” Many Americans don’t realize that Congress placed marijuana in Schedule I— the most severe classification for any controlled substance, higher even than cocaine and anabolic steroids. While media outlets are portraying steroids as America’s drug scourge du jour, steroids are only classified as Schedule III controlled substances— a federal classification which permits them to be prescribed by doctors for acceptable medical purposes. The Schedule I federal classification of marijuana prevents the use of cannabis for any medical reason. California and 11 other states have legalized marijuana for medical reasons in direct conflict with federal law. As such, the Department of Justice has implemented a policy of raiding medical cannabis facilities under the premise that compliance with state laws doesn’t immunize them against prosecution for violating the federal law. They justify the policy in part on a 1999 Institute of Medicine study, which concluded that smoking marijuana is not recommended for the treatment of any disease condition, and that there are more effective medications currently available for relevant conditions. The DEA argues that marijuana is a “dangerous, addictive drug” and the “gateway” to other drug abuse, and that the argument about compassion and care for people with serious illnesses is just a cover for broader drug use legalization. The American Medical Association agrees with continued Schedule I status for marijuana. On the other hand, proponents of medical marijuana argue that marijuana has been shown to be effective in reducing the nausea induced by cancer chemotherapy, stimulating appetite in AIDS patients, and reducing intraocular pressure in people with glaucoma. Additionally, they cite evidence that marijuana reduces muscle spasticity in patients with neurological disorders. The scientific and medical debate will surely continue for years to come, but the legal debate reached the Supreme Court in 2005. In Gonzales v. Raich, the Court held that the federal Commerce Clause includes the power to prohibit the local cultivation and use of marijuana, even if that cultivation and use is in

compliance with California’s Compassionate Use Act. In effect, the DEA properly seized and destroyed the cannabis plants of California residents who used doctor-recommended marijuana for serious medical conditions. Raich largely put the legal issue to rest until just this August, when a federal judge in San Jose issued a first-of-itskind Constitutional ruling denying a Bush Administration request to dismiss a lawsuit by Santa Cruz city and county officials and the Wo/Men’s Alliance for Medical Marijuana, which was raided by federal agents in 2002.The plaintiffs allege that the Feds have “pursued a policy of threatening and utilizing arrests, forfeitures, criminal prosecutions and other punitive means, all with the purpose of rendering California’s medical marijuana laws impossible to implement and with the intent of coercing California and its political subdivisions to enact legisth lation recriminalizing medical marijuana. Under the 10 ” Amendment, Congress may not simply commandeer the legislative process of the States by directly compelling them to enact and enforce a federal regulatory program.The court held that if a concerted effort by the Feds to subvert and sabotage state medical marijuana laws could be proven, it could estabth lish a violation of the 10 Amendment. We’ll have to see how this new ruling plays out in the courts. Meanwhile, as the Presidential election nears, political activists are pointing out that an Obama Administration would likely curtail DEA raids on medical cannabis (even though VP candidate Joe Biden was the prime architect of the “War on Steroids”) while a McCain Administration would almost surely continue the current policy. For now, medical marijuana remains a violation of federal law. And although recent research shows that 42 percent of Americans (including many politicians) have tried smoking marijuana, making it an enormously more popular illegal drug than anabolic steroids, the government nonetheless regards it as among the most serious of drug threats.
Rick Collins, JD, CSCS [] is the lawyer that members of the bodybuilding community and nutritional supplement industry turn to when they need legal help or representation. [© Rick Collins, 2008. All rights reserved. For informational purposes only, not to be construed as legal or medical advice.]


372 MD

December 2008


By Victor Martinez
Victor, I was wondering if you recommend training to failure. Some bodybuilders never go to failure, while others do forced reps and even negatives. What do you recommend? Intensity is a prerequisite for muscular growth and there’s no greater way to turn up the heat than going to failure and beyond. However, over time, it can lead to overtraining and stagnation— especially if you’re going past failure with forced reps and negatives. The Dorian stuff is best used sporadically. I do it every couple of workouts, but never if I feel I haven’t recovered from the previous training session. What do you think you need to improve? I wanted to know what your goals are for next year. My goals are to be better than I was at my last show. That’s the goal of every competitive athlete. Even if you don’t compete, you should always strive to be better than you were six months ago. Don’t just train with the hopes of getting bigger. Be specific. Set a goal you have to work for. It shouldn’t be so easy that it doesn’t require any real effort to achieve, but it shouldn’t be unattainable, like winning the Olympia when you’ve never competed in your life. Pick a time frame, say four to six months, take pictures and measurements, and then try to improve on them. As for my goals, I’m not looking to add 20 pounds of new muscle. It’s more along the lines of fine-tuning. At this point, it’s all about quality, not quantity; just a little more flare to my thighs and more roundedness to my delts, while keeping my waist tight for that all-important X-frame. I am 5’7” 172 pounds and I’ve been , training for four years. I’m curious, when you first started out were you a smaller version of what you are today minus all the mass? What I mean by that is did you have the same detail and shape without the size? I’m always interested in seeing pictures of bodybuilders when they were beginners. I can’t believe how much they change once they get big. I think all bodybuilders are basically mini versions of what they’ll look like in the future. You can’t change the inherent shape of the muscles or their insertion points. All that is predetermined before you even touch a weight. What we alter is the size and density of the muscle, which enhances its natural shape. I’ve seen pictures of Haney, Dorian and Ronnie at the beginning and other than the 100-plus pounds of new muscle (at least it seems like that much, although in Ronnie’s case it’s probably an accurate estimate), they had the same build they had when they were winning the Olympia. If you look very closely, you’ll notice that the basic shape was there. You could see Ronnie’s baseball biceps, Haney’s round pecs and Dorian’s low lats. It may not seem like it at first, but trust me, it’s already in place. The rest is just what they added over the years until they had the finished product. As for details, just like mass, they come with time. The more work you put in, the better the end result.


376 MD December 2008

When I was a teenager, I ate 2 pounds of potatoes with tons of salt. Why did I do such a stupid thing? One day I had a bunch of salt and woke up all puffy. I figured it wasn’t a bad thing since it made me look bigger, so like most youngsters will do, I went overboard, thinking it would turn me into a hulking beast overnight. I was so tired from all the sodium and fluid, I actually passed out. And no, it didn’t bring me closer to the Mr. Olympia title.

One of the worst pitfalls of bodybuilding is thinking you know everything. Nobody knows it all. Nobody! There’s always something new to learn, no matter what level you’re at. It’s what keeps the sport progressing. If our base of knowledge stopped in the 50s or 60s, we’d never have gone past Steve Reeves. Look where we are today. Every champion of each successive era has made improvements over his predecessors. We never thought you could get better than Arnold, until Lee Haney came along. And you couldn’t get any bigger than Haney, right? Wrong. Dorian proved it was possible to take it further. And just when it looked like we hit the ceiling with Dorian, Ronnie came and blew the damn roof off. The champions of yesterday were great, but they wouldn’t be able to stand on the regional level today. You have to stay hungry for knowledge to keep moving forward. If you don’t because you think you know it all, you’re just gonna get left behind. December 2008

Visualization is a simple tool I’ve used to great effect since the beginning of my career (I got the idea from an article I read years ago). In the beginning, I saw, in my mind, what I wanted to look like. At first the image lacked detail, kind of fuzzy and undefined, like the picture you get on an old TV (the kind where you change channels by turning the knob). But the more I kept working at it, the clearer it got. Suddenly, it was like watching a flat plasma screen. I could literally see each muscle in high def. The peak on the biceps, the teardrops over the knees, the traps flowing into the deltoids…these images were ingrained in my brain. I used it while training, seeing the muscles growing with each rep. I even set aside time outside the gym specifically for this purpose. I visualized exactly what I would look like, down to the finest detail. It was

the last thing I saw before going to bed at night. And I knew it was possible because it was I, not somebody else, like the big guy at the local gym. This was Victor Martinez after busting his ass in the gym, eating all the right food, and getting plenty of rest to grow. It gave me something concrete to shoot for. Today, I can’t even imagine training if I didn’t “see” myself onstage at the next show. Use it!

I start my official assault on the Arnold in October. The knee is feeling better every day. The strength is coming back and I’m getting full flexion on it. The pumps are returning, too (is there anything sweeter than a skin-splitting pump?). I feel absolutely no apprehension during training. At this point, with all the work I’ve been doing on it, I’m more worried about the good knee, LOL. It’s gonna feel good to get back in it! MD 377


The Predator
Should I squat all the way down or just go to parallel? Some say yes and others say never go past parallel. I’m totally confused. Since you have some of the best legs in the sport right now, I want to know what you recommend. There’s only one way to squat: down in the bucket! If my coach ever caught me doing anything less than a full squat, I’d never hear the end of it. If you want full development, you have to use a full range of motion. Luckily, I’ve been doing full squats since I can remember. It took me endless hours of practice to get it right, but the results were well worth the effort. The only time that would not apply is if you’re nursing an injury. In the case of that unfortunate event, seek proper medical attention and advice. Otherwise, take it all the way down!

By Kai Greene

It’s my first week back in the gym and the experience has been an eye opener. After the smoke cleared and the dust settled, I was left staring at the ceiling, needing assistance just to sit up. It’s amazing how everyday mundane details, like getting out of bed, take on a whole new meaning when you’re unable to do something as simple as contracting your abs. Laughing was a luxury that I couldn’t afford to indulge in. Even sneezing was out of the question! So going to the gym for squats and deadlifts was a fullblown fantasy. All this from a mere 2-inch scar (I have newfound respect for mothers who’ve undergone a C-section). It felt like a truck had driven through me. It was hard to identify with the person I was prior to the surgery. Yet, the human body has amazing resiliency. Initially, I thought recovery would take much longer, but I’m happy to say that it hasn’t. For the most part, I’m capable of everything I was before, minus the strength, of course. That will come with time. I’m just thrilled doing all the things I couldn’t do while mending, like sitting up, laughing, sneezing and just going to the gym. I was cleared for light training at around week four, but another competitor who went through a similar procedure suggested I exercise caution and give it another week. It’s only natural that we rush back to the very thing that we hold so dear, but I’m glad I took his advice because that first week back wasn’t all that easy. I found myself distracted by the injury. I pulled back for fear of re-injury. Training with a mental block like that can get frustrating. The running conversation with my body was, “Should I push forward or pull back?” Doctors, trainers, colleagues, and

friends can advise against overdoing it, but when it’s your body at stake, it’s hard to know where to draw the line. Today, with the initial week under my belt, I don’t have to obsess on it. I’m no longer asking, “Is that too much?” My confidence is back…I’m back!

My prep for the Arnold Classic began the moment I got the dates for the surgery. Being laid up in bed itself was part of the preparation process; I had to heal so I could train. It was my only job at the moment. All of this contributes to 2009. Just keep in mind, Rome wasn’t built in a day.


380 MD

December 2008

Believe it or not, I miss contest dieting! Yes, you heard me right. I’ll say it again for you nonbelievers, I MISS CONTEST DIETING! Right after my surgery I was eating only 1 MEAL a day. That’s suicide for a bodybuilder, but I had no appetite. My level of activity is essentially zilch so there’s really no caloric expenditure, hence no appetite. Truth be told, my body’s probably thankful for the break, especially my kidneys. All that protein takes a toll. But that doesn’t ease the psychological trauma of not eating around the clock. So you can see why I’m fantasizing about all those wonderful diet foods.

Some people are under the misconception that preparing for a show starts the moment you begin dieting but in reality, it’s far more involved. For example, when Jay Cutler won his first Olympia in 2006, yes, it was a result of the training and dieting he did prior to the show, but when you look at the big picture, it’s clear that his real preparation began many moons in the past. That one victory was the culmination of over 20 years of dedication to a single craft. It was a result of the time and sacrifices he made when he was a teenager training in anonymity at a local gym in Massachusetts. It’s the result of the preparation that went into capturing his pro card at the Nationals. It’s the result of the disappointment he suffered in his many losses to Ronnie Coleman. When you see a bodybuilder stand victorious as a show, realize that it’s symbolic of years and years of devotion to their craft.

If you find yourself doubting your own abilities, keep these few things in mind. They helped me when it seemed like there was nothing but darkness ahead. • Change cannot occur in reality unless you’re able to change the way you perceive yourself in your head. There was a time when winning the New York Pro was impossible to conceive. It wasn’t until I believed I could do it in my mind that it happened in reality. • When we aspire toward a goal that seems off the beaten path, there’s a level of discomfort and uncertainty because let’s face it, it’s always easier to follow than lead. After all, when you attempt something different, people raise their eyebrows. Even loved ones can say something that may spark doubt. Do not let yourself be contaminated by other’s ideas of what is best for you. Be in control of your own mind. From the cradle to the grave, there are influences all around you, so safeguard yourself against such negativity. Cast aside the shackles of destructive thinking. Letting such thoughts seep into your mind will create doubt and sabotage your best efforts. • Life is not tomorrow; life isn’t what happens next week or a year from now. It doesn’t start the moment you turn pro or win the Olympia. Life is now. It’s happening at this very moment. Everything you’ve done and everything you’re doing for the future makes you who you are in the present. The past is what it was and the future isn’t set in stone. All I really have is the present, the now. By examining my past and working in the present, I can create my future. My destiny is in my own hands. December 2008 MD 381

KAI GREENE—The Predator
If anything in this world holds a special place in my heart, it’s got to be the Team Universe. It’s where I embarked upon my career and holds nothing but positive memories. Walking around, talking to people and watching the athletes pursue their dreams was highly motivational. It’s good to be a part of something. Congratulations to Tim March, Cassandra Floyd, Sherlyn Roy, and Nita Marquez on their victories and pro cards.

Kevin Levrone: Very underrated as he had great sweep and fullness, plus great calves. Jay Cutler: I first saw him at the Teen Nationals in ’99 (Branch Warren won that show). I’d never seen a teen or full-grown man much less, with legs so out of this world. They were unbelievably thick, flared out, and cross-striated. In fact, there was a time when all he had were legs. Dorian Yates: Legs had an odd shape to them but his calves were unreal. Rich Gaspari: Didn’t have crazy hamstrings, but his quads were separated from the knees all the way up to his hips like nobody’s business. And who can forget the following leg monsters: Paul DeMayo Jean Pierre Fux Bertil Fox Phill Hill Paul Dillett Matt Mendenhall Tom Prince Victor Richards Tim Belfort John Sherman JJ Marsh Frank Hillebrand

As a kid on leg day, I thought of these champions to help motivate me to reach my goals. Tom Platz: A true pioneer; up until that time, legs like that simply didn’t exist. He opened up a whole new world of possibilities. Shawn Ray: I recall an ESPN “American Muscle” clip where he’s walking on a lake tossing pebbles in the water. It was a revelation for three reasons. 1. From the side, his quads were going in one direction and his hamstrings in the other. I didn’t know it was possible for a leg to have such dimensions. 2. I could identify with Shawn because he was shorter (unlike Arnold at over 6 feet). 3. It was OK for a man to wear spandex.

382 MD

December 2008


Got the cast off yesterday and boy, do I feel good. Only three weeks and almost no atrophy! I firmly believe that training the right side of the body had a big hand in that. It’ll be another three weeks before I can train the triceps, so I’ll keep doing what I’ve been doing.
Chest Pec Deck Delts Front and Side Raises Back Dumbbell Rows One-Arm Lat Pulls One-Arm Hammer Strength Biceps Dumbbell Curls Dumbbell Preachers Triceps Cable Extensions Dumbbell Extensions Legs Leg Extensions Smith Squats Leg Presses Lying Leg Curls Seated Leg Curls Calves Standing Calf Raises Seated Calf Raises

By Branch Warren

Everything was one-handed of course— with the exception of my left biceps and shoulders, which saw very light action— and nowhere near heavy. I’ve already started rehabbing the arm with passive motion for about 1 1/2 hours every day. The pain isn’t bad at all compared with my previous injury. I should be tearing it up by the end of October. Believe it or not, I’ve been on my diet the whole time. Since I can’t be as active, it’s important to eat clean. I still have guest appearances I want to do later in the year, so no blowing up like a balloon.

My Mother: Taught me morals and values. She is the source of my inner strength. She’s the strongest person I know and the glue who holds our family together. The things she instilled in me when I was a kid made me the man I am today. Every time I’m faced with adversity, I thank her for giving me the strength and courage to meet it head on. My Wife Trish Made me a better man. When you have something in your life besides yourself to fight for, it makes you a better person. We’ve known each other for years and there’s no other person I can imagine sharing my life with. She makes everything better. Brian Dobson: I wouldn’t be here without him. He’s one of those people who helps others without even being asked. He’s a bigger influence on my career than he realizes. He saw something in me— something I wasn’t even aware of— from the very beginning. He took me under his wing and taught me things I use time and time again to keep moving in the right direction.

December 2008


I read your leg workout online and it seems that you do high reps. Is that better for legs? I want to know because my legs aren’t exactly standouts, so I was wondering if I should do the same. I’ve done both high and low reps for legs from day one. That’s just the way it was at Metroflex. It worked so I never questioned it. Part of that was a sadistic contest I’d have with my training partners. We went hog wild on legs because that took the most guts. We did endless reps, crazy shit like over 50-100. The goal was to see who would quit first. There was plenty of puking in the parking lot during and after the session. After one of those crazy workouts, I’d be sore for an entire week. Apart from such insanity, legs respond well to high reps because they’re used to a greater workload than just about any other muscle on your body. They’re the strongest muscles we have, for both power and endurance, so it makes sense to train them heavy and with high reps to exhaust all the fibers. All the greatest legs in bodybuilding have done their fair share of heavy weight, low-rep and high-rep training (this seems to be true in other sports too, if you’ve ever seen cyclers or speed skaters). Sucks about the injury. I know you’ll come back better. I saw the video interview on MD online and you said you were gonna train one side of your body. Wouldn’t that lead to an imbalance? I’m thinking it would be better to lay off completely. Good luck on a speedy recovery! It would over a prolonged period of time, but for shorter periods it’s actually beneficial. By keeping the nervous system charged, you indirectly stimulate the inactive side of your body. Plus, I’m not going heavy. It’s just enough to keep the blood flowing. You won’t add size but it will at least keep the atrophy to a minimum, which is the main goal. Besides, psychologically, I just couldn’t bear it. I need to be in there doing something!

His name’s Maximus and he’s already 80 pounds at just 7 months old. You may be thinking, “What the @#$??!!” Relax, he’s an American Bulldog. I take him walking whenever Trish runs at the track. He gets along fine with our other family member, Olympia (Shih Tzu-Bichon mix). Even though they fight like brother and sister, he’s real gentle with her (which is good, as she weighs a whopping 8 pounds!).

December 2008

MD 389

One of my favorite places to grab a cheat meal is Steak n’ Shake. If you’re in the mood for a good, greasy, sloppy burger, look no further. I get two or three double cheeseburgers with bacon and all that other good stuff piled on, plus a thick vanilla shake. I like In-N-Out too, but we don’t have ‘em here in Texas. Trish’s favorite is Taco Bell. That’s some nasty shit! I haven’t had that crap in over eight years and I’m not planning on breaking that streak anytime soon.

Give me New York-style pizza any day of the week. Lots of sauce and cheese. You can’t go wrong with double cheese, mushroom, pepperoni, beef and olives.

One pitfall I’d like to see young athletes avoid is becoming too selfabsorbed. On the surface, bodybuilding is a selfish sport. It’s all about my training, my eating, and my recuperation. But in reality, nobody can do it all by themselves. It takes the support of others to make it. Becoming selfabsorbed to the point where it hurts your relationships is counterproductive to real success. There’s more to all this than just you and bodybuilding. It’s the people in your life that matter. Thank you to all the people who sent me their prayers and good thoughts. I got hundreds of e-mails wishing me a speedy return. Positive energy like that makes a big difference when you’re facing a tough situation. The support I receive on a daily basis gives me the strength to face any obstacle. If it weren’t for the fans I wouldn’t have a career. Hell, we wouldn’t have a sport! A big, heaping serving of gratitude to MuscleTech for being in my corner to support me through this. I can say with all honesty that they’re one of the best companies I’ve ever been with. T Be on the lookout for the Ghast Clothing ad, CHECK OU which should be out by the time you read this. usculardevelopmen m E COMPLET

390 MD

December 2008


Biceps Injury Update
As I write this in early September, my biceps is doing OK. I really should clarify something. It’s not my biceps that was hurt; it’s actually the tendon that holds the biceps up near the front delt— that tendon snapped. There’s a little pain now and then, but I’m working around it as best I can. Surgery was presented to me as an option right away. But if I get the operation, they will have to put a screw through a bone to reattach it, then I would have to have that arm in a sling for two months while the whole thing heals up. The rehab with a physical therapist following the surgery would take about

By Lee Priest

three months, I was told. If I did all that, there is absolutely no way I would be able to compete again until the late spring shows in May. I’ve been away from the stage long enough already, so waiting a few more months to compete is ridiculous. I need to compete in the early spring shows, so no surgery for me at this time. It’s an option I might consider again once I have done a couple contests, but until then I am holding off on it. I am already doing some light back and biceps training again and slowly adding weight, week by week. I’m feeling it out and being very careful not to overdo anything.

Not A Hop, Skip And A Jump
Just so you get an idea of what the traveling situation is and don’t think I’m a big baby, listen to what it takes for me to get to Las Vegas. It’s a 14-hour flight from Sydney to LAX. But, I have to fly to Sydney first which is an hour flight for me. I need to be there an hour before, then another 2 hours before the flight that leaves Sydney. Then…the 14 hours to LAX, then LAX to Las Vegas. With airport waiting, flights and layovers, I would say it’s about 24 hours total to get from here to there. Plus, when you get there it’s still the same day because of the time change (Sydney is 17 hours ahead of PST). So I leave home Wednesday at 11 a.m. to get to the USA at 8 a.m. Then I’m up all day. So normally I go about 48 hours without sleep in this situation, as I have never been able to sleep well on planes. Who do you know who looks and feels great after that?

McCain Or Obama?
Who would I vote for if I was still in the USA and had become a citizen (never did)? Neither! All these politicians are so full of shit. They have all these great speeches and commercials and promise this and that. They will cut taxes, fix the economy, fix health care, education, Social Security, blah blah fucking blah. Once they get into office it’s a different story. Let’s not even talk about the money wasted on campaigning. They could all get on talk shows and news shows for free to spread their message. But they waste tens of millions of dollars on TV ads, rallies, dinners, etc. They hold fundraisers to get more money to keep campaigning. And what do a lot of the ads do? They just bash the other guy and try to make him look like a terrible person. Meanwhile, the money spent on all these campaigns could easily accomplish many of the promises these bastards make about education and health care that they never keep! Why not tell the truth? Why not just be who you really are instead of creating this godlike image of yourself as a savior for America? They all have massive

teams of speechwriters and public relations people. If these candidates can’t just be themselves and talk from the heart, why should you even listen to a carefully crafted word they say? America needs someone who really speaks for them, not some rich upper-class tool who is out of touch with the real country out there beyond his mansion walls. I still laugh when I think about Bush telling us it was OK to fly again after 9/11. Yeah, easy for you to say. You fly on Air Force One and have the best security mankind can offer. Politics is just fucked up in general. Whatever happened to “We the People?” In the old days, when people were fed up with the way things were going, they would stand together and there would be a revolution. Now people simply complain and don’t do a damn thing. What if everyone decided to stop buying gas? Do you think they would still be able to charge four bucks a gallon for it then? You don’t like high taxes? What if everyone stopped paying taxes? They couldn’t go after the whole country. Like they said in the movie “V for Vendetta”— the people should not fear the government. The government should fear the people.


394 MD

December 2008

A 202 Class At The Mr. Olympia?
Now that the 202 class is starting to catch on, there have been some discussions about whether it might be possible to bring back weight classes at the Mr. Olympia like they had for a few years in the ‘70s (remember Arnold and Franco going for the overall at the end of “Pumping Iron?”). I think it’s a silly idea. If you’re going to have an overall comparison and winner anyway, why bother having separate classes? The smaller guy will be more ripped, have better lines, and be more complete…and get beat by a big guy who is lacking symmetry, definition and sometimes whole body parts. But he still wins because he’s bigger. We’ve seen it many times now. There was an era where men under 200 pounds could be Mr. Olympia. Franco won twice, Zane won three times, and Dickerson and Bannout each won the O against much bigger, heavier men. Sadly, those days are over. That’s “progress” for ya! I’m glad to see the 202 as a separate entity, because it gives the smaller guys a real chance to be seen and to compete on a fair level. And you might see me in one of those lineups in a few months.

The Beijing Olympics: About As Drug-Free As Rock Stars In The ‘70s
I watched a lot of the Olympics toward the end of the summer. I don’t have a favorite event, but I thought that Phelps guy is one hell of a swimmer. When you watch him it looks like they have sped up the tape or something! I was not surprised at all at the controversy over the Jamaican sprinters allegedly being on steroids. In my estimation, they were all using. Those of us who have been around a while and know what’s going on can see with our own eyes the difference between athletes who do and don’t use steroids. I find it an insult to my intelligence (not that I am a genius) when these team doctors try and come up with ridiculous explanations. I remember one Olympics where all the Chinese swimmers failed and they had been trying to make us believe it was some silkworm poop that made their team suddenly dominate the world. The Jamaicans were talking about wild yams. If I had to guess, I would say that at least 70 percent of all the athletes in this most recent Olympics were using. But who cares? If it were only a few people, they would be cheaters. If everyone is using drugs, then no one is really cheating. I think it would be interesting to have an Olympics where all the men and women were truly drug-free for life. I doubt the ratings would be very high, and you sure as hell wouldn’t be seeing records being broken like crazy the way they seem to these days. So the fans are hypocrites. You can’t say you want the athletes to be clean and still want to see performances that are only attainable with chemical assistance. It reminds me of the time they tested the Mr. Olympia for steroids back in 1990. People had been demanding that the IFBB test the guys, then what did they do? They all bitched about how crappy the guys looked that year! Idiots, you can’t have it both ways.

December 2008

MD 395

LEE PRIEST—Confirmed!
My Comeback— Sorry Yankees, But This One’s For Oz!
A lot of people want me to make the Arnold Classic my big comeback show. I agree that it would be nice. It’s a show I have always enjoyed being part of, and it’s just as big as the Mr. Olympia as far as a lot of people in the industry are concerned. But I am definitely doing the Australian Grand Prix, which is just a week later. For me to make the long trip over to Ohio and then come back here to Australia would suck. Being on a plane for that long is miserable, and almost everybody ends up holding water and being exhausted. Right now the plan is to start here in Australia and then travel from then on. As I have also said before, I have had a very loyal following in Australia for many years and they haven’t seen much of me. Making this show my comeback is also my way of saying thanks for standing by me all this time.

My Vow Of Chastity!
For those of you who read that column a couple of months ago about my sexcapades and think I must live the life of a porn star, prepare to be disappointed. I haven’t even been on one date since I moved back here in late June. After my last girlfriend Cammie, I haven’t even felt like dating. “Yeah, but you must be hooking up, right?” you ask. Nope. Having sex just to have sex isn’t fun for me. Maybe when I was younger it was. Shit, listen to me, I sound like an old man and I just turned 36 in July! Don’t get me wrong. I still look around and I might flirt with women here and there, but I can’t be bothered to get into all

that…sex and relationships and all the crap that comes along with it, at least not right now. I’ve had plenty of opportunities and I still find women very enticing (sorry for any of my gay fans who were starting to get their hopes up, as I am still playing for the same team as always). I’m still getting settled in here and trying to focus on getting my career back to where it was a couple years ago when I was a top-level man in the IFBB. When I feel like dating again, I will let you all know— especially if you happen to be a beautiful woman in my area! For now, the Priest remains chaste and pure.

My New Gig With BodyRipped
I will start doing appearances for my new sponsor Body Ripped this month here in Australia. So far I love their product line. The protein tastes great. I use Tri Power before workouts and definitely feel the difference. Muscleplex Reloaded is excellent to have during and after workouts. Go to to check them out. And I believe that soon you will be able to buy them in the USA, too.

How The Holden Maloo Is Holdin’ Up
I am also loving the Holden Maloo sport truck that Body Ripped gave me. I’m not even thinking about my next vehicle, which is rare for me. Although I wouldn’t mind having an Aston Martin DB9 or DB8. Christmas is coming, you know…maybe Santa will be feeling generous! Gas is about $1.49-$1.69 a liter here. There are roughly four liters in a gallon; all I know is that it costs me between $92-$106 to fill up the tank in the Maloo. So trust me, gas prices suck everywhere these days.

396 MD

December 2008

LEE PRIEST—Confirmed!
Is it true that having sex makes you weaker, at least temporarily? Athletes in boxing and football were told to abstain before big fights or games. Should bodybuilders abstain from having sex before training, or before a contest? No, that’s such a bunch of shit. I bet the guy who thought that gem up was some loser who couldn’t get laid and was trying to keep jocks from having sex. I can personally say that I have had sex just before working out many times and I felt fine. I was just as strong as always. Remember that your mind is the most powerful factor in anything you do. So if you have it in your head that having sex makes you weak, I guarantee you will have a shitty workout after getting down and dirty. That being said, sometimes after sex you do just want to relax and lie there. There’s that old cliché about women wanting to cuddle and talk right after climaxing while guys just want to roll over and go to sleep, which is based in biological fact. Ejaculating does have a muscle-relaxant effect on men. I find that if I get up and have a quick shower before heading to the gym, I get my energy and alertness right back and I’m ready to train. I think the best time to have sex would be right before competing. You would be all pumped and vascular, and you wouldn’t be nervous because shooting that big load just took all your stress away. I have thought about working it so that I could fuck right before going onstage, but there’s usually no practical way to do it at a contest with all the people running about and shouting out names and orders. Finally, I think it’s only fair to say that I could see one real benefit of abstaining from sex. It would definitely increase your aggression, which would come in handy for anyone who has a tough time generating proper intensity during workouts. If you’ve ever been to a nightclub when it closes, nobody is as hostile and aggressive as all the single young guys, horny and sexually frustrated because they failed to hook up. Those are the assholes starting fights in the parking lot. At least this is what I have heard. I have never been into the nightclub scene, even though I have had friends who were. Not having sex could possibly offer an advantage if you need to be angrier (again, not me…I don’t need to be enraged to train hard), but having sex will not detract from your workouts.
Got a question for Lee, preferably a really stupid one? E-mail it to him at and you could see it answered right here in MD!

398 MD

December 2008



By Shawn Ray

Turning Muscles Into Money
o you climb up the ranks of the bodybuilding ladder from the local, city, state and national level of the national physique committee to find yourself on the receiving end of an International Federation of Body Building pro card. Now what? Far too often, have I seen amateur bodybuilders coming up the ranks of the NPC with fire in their eyes to take the big league by storm only to fade out when the going gets tough and the callouts stop coming. Famously, their next move is to get a real job or basically throw in the towel due to lack of funds to proceed. Many questions begin to pop into the mind of the new professional on the scene that weren’t there a year ago. One minute the athlete is the toast of the town and champion of the NPC; the next year he is a like a pace car on the racetrack taking up space in the IFBB. Some soon realize things can only get worse, while others may feel they were born for moments such as these. Personally speaking, I walked down this road as well. I was a former California state champion and later received my pro card by way of winning the overall NPC National title and was supposed to barnstorm the pro ranks and pick up where I’d left off as an amateur. Sadly, that wasn’t the case at all. In May of 1988, I would walk into my pro debut in New York City at the Night of Champions for a rematch against the heavyweight class winner I’d beaten months prior (Phil Hill) to test my wares against seasoned pro veterans like Bob Paris, Albert Beckles and Robby Robinson. Now remember, I won the Nationals and was plastered on the pages and covers of numerous magazines and had a pro contract with Joe Weider for a massive amount of money: $12,000 per/year or $1,000 per/month! I was the toast of the town, face of the future and the “golden boy” of sorts on paper, but all that would be put to the test when I hit the stage. When the curtain came down, I found myself in fourth place, barely qualifying for the Mr. Olympia later in September to be held in Los Angeles. I was suddenly a man on an island, failing to live up to the “HYPE. As a per” son, I felt like a failure, I’d let everyone down, got beat by guys I was supposed to beat and worse yet, I didn’t have the answers as to why I wasn’t peaked like I had been many times in the past. More questions than answers made me want to disappear and throw in the towel. I was a college student barely making enough money to pay for my car and apartment, but I knew to keep things going and turn things around I would have to test the waters again to see if there was something I could salvage from this beating. After recovering from my New York

400 MD

December 2008

Shawn Ray—Telling It Like It Is
meltdown, I met with the “Master Blaster” Joe Weider at his office in Woodland Hills, California. A meeting that would change my perspective of what it was I was actually embarking on in the world of professional bodybuilding as a business. I remember like it was yesterday. I came back with a check for $2,000 after the Night of Champions and noticed that combined with my monthly check of $1,000 I’d made $3,000 for the month of May, which meant I’d have some spare change to eat out, buy some new clothes and pay a few bills that month, but Joe saw it differently. I was asked one question by the Master Blaster. He said, “Shawn, what do you want out of this sport? Fortune, fame, publicity, what?” Well, heck, I didn’t know what I wanted. I was 22 years old sitting across from an icon in our industry. I felt like I’d already died and gone to heaven! “This, Joe, I said. ” “This is what I’d dreamt about when I began my career, sitting across the table from you one day in your office and talking to you. Tell me what I need to do to get the maximum out of my efforts in the sport. ” Joe, ever the wise one, turned to me and said, “Shawn, why didn’t you win in New York?” I remember rambling on about moving out on my own, going to college and traveling the world making appearances I’d never had to do before I won the Nationals, which left me with little time to peak like I usually did in the past. Joe looked at me and said, “Out of all the guys I have seen and sponsored the last few years, Shawn, you’re the one with the most potential to make good money and have a great career!” OK, I thought to myself, can you call my parents and repeat that to them, because they think I’m crazy! The consummate businessman, Joe reiterated to me that I would probably lose more shows than I’d win as a professional because of my overall size, however, I had a “look” the world would fall in love with, which would help make me decent money from this business if I didn’t ruin my physique by trying to look like someone other than Shawn Ray. WOW! Well that’s easy, I recall thinking. He reminded me that no one polarizes toward a loser. Huh? The attraction to a professional bodybuilder is whether or not the bodybuilder has more than just a great body, he said. Very few professional bodybuilders have it all— the ability to win and lose while keeping the sport in perspective, knowing that on any given day one or the other will happen. Joe reminded me it’s what happens after the contest that separates a bodybuilder from a champion! Within 1 hour I was standing in front of one of Joe’s photographers in a studio getting lessons on posing, captured on film for later review and analysis. “Shawn, Joe said, “if you’re ” smart which I know you are, you will realize that if you do everything it takes to win and don’t, there is nothing to be sad about, nothing to regret and nothing to be embarrassed over. All of these things constantly get in the way of the business side of a bodybuilder’s career and inhibits him from capitalizing on his hard work and the effort it takes to chisel the body into a work of art. Some guys train for months and years to get into great shape, then when things don’t go their way onstage they walk off and eat everything in sight for about a week or two and then realize they didn’t take pictures when they were at their best, they didn’t answer their phones when it was time to take pictures before or after the contest, then they’d simply would wallow in selfpity because they didn’t win onstage. We are going to make sure this doesn’t happen with you. ” Several months later, I’d go on to compete in my first Mr. Olympia, where I landed in 13th place out of 20 of the world’s best-built men, one day rd after my 23 birthday. I didn’t have the time to properly correct the changes in my physique to be as competitive as I’d hoped to be due to my pre-booked travel schedule leading into the show. The one thing I did manage to do that year was beat a few cagey veterans of the pro stage: Robby Robinson, Albert Beckles, Eduardo Kawak! However, that would be but a small victory of sorts while in the grand scheme of things, the business side of what I was about was just beginning to take flight. I spent the next two weeks in front of cameras, taking photos for every magazine possible to get my name and face out there. This proved to be invaluable, like Joe had forecast for me earlier. Unbeknownst to me at the time, all the photos I was taking here in the United States were being sent out to all the countries around the world, making me a celebrity! The fallout from these pictures coming to light thrust my persona into one of great demand worldwide! By January of 1989, I was jet-setting across the globe, guest-posing and doing seminars for the beloved fans of our sport and bringing back bucket loads of money from the appearance fees, photo and poster sales, T-shirts and autograph signing sessions; it was crazy! My training articles were being published and revered by fitness enthusiasts as well as future hopefuls coming up in our industry and what seemed like overnight, I was brokering deals with equipment companies, gym franchises, clothing manufacturers, television commentary, product endorsements— you name it! I was no longer living paycheck to paycheck. I was having problems finding tax write-offs instead. When things slowed down a bit and it was time to get back to the business of bodybuilding, I realized I would have to put up or shut up onstage to not only redeem myself in the eyes of my fans, but also prove to myself that I belonged with the best of the best! I made the pilgrimage back to Weider Wonderland a changed person, from a boy to a fullgrown man. Upon meeting Mr. Weider this time, he greeted me like one of his children coming home from college. He was very proud of me and what had transpired since our last meeting; the diversity of photos taken and the demand that was created for more fantastic photos was overwhelming. I never thought that one photo could last a lifetime…even when the show was over. Joe pressed upon me the need to be as prepared as I could be every time I stepped onstage, leaving nothing to chance in my preparation. “Don’t chance the dollar bill, he would ” emphasize to me. “The money will come from what you put out in the gym and what you manage to do with December 2008

402 MD

Shawn Ray— Telling It Like It Is
yourself as a product. Bingo! It was ” the word “product” that I would remember the rest of my career and I would sell it every time I got the chance to so that my efforts onstage would be rewarded in some fashion off of it. Never again in my 14-year career would I finish out of the top five of the Mr. Olympia contest! I made certain that before anything else in my life as a professional bodybuilder that the business of training, proper rest and nutrition would come first above all else so as to be the best I could be, making it virtually impossible for me to feel bad about myself or my efforts onstage ever again. I approached each contest I entered as one I knew deep in my heart that I could win because of my preparation. Regardless of the outcome, my efforts in the process of getting to the stage would bring me great satisfaction knowing there would be nothing else I could add or subtract from to make me better on contest day. When the dust cleared year after year, I’d look around to see that decade after decade I was snuffing out bigger guys. I took on all comers with the attitude that if you didn’t beat me in the gym and preparation, you won’t beat me here onstage simply because you’re bigger than me. Nine times out of 10, I was David against Goliath and I’d have it no other way. I carried the banner for the smaller guys, representing hundreds of thousands of dreams of individuals who longed to be where I was. I carried the torch for smaller, symmetrical guys in an industry full of mass monsters. In the end, I came to realize that the only battle I could control winning was the one waged in the daily grind in the gym. Pushing my body to limits I never knew existed in hopes of cashing in down the road, I paid a heavy price with regard to sacrificing the simple pleasures of being a socialite. No surfing, skiing, hanging out with the boys or serious girlfriends. It would be me against me, day after day, year after year pursuing the impossible dream of winning a Sandow trophy of which, in the sport’s 43-year history of the Mr. Olympia, only 11 men have managed to win at least once. In hindsight, I remember Joe trying to explain to me the importance of building relationships, capitalizing on being responsible, available and being on time to meetings and such. He impressed upon me the idea of becoming my own man, developing myself into a businessman, becoming all things to everybody. Creating opportunity is as important as being a great athlete. With those words I developed myself into a producer of videos/DVDs, contest promoter, master of ceremonies, color commentator, seminar arranger…all while being a professional competitor! Looking back, it is easy to see why Joe Weider became the entrepreneur he was. His early influence has helped me understand the business of cashing in on bodybuilding and retiring into the IFBB Hall of Fame. The road I have traveled down has led me here to Muscular Development. Steve Blechman, clearly a visionary in our sport, has embraced what I have contributed to the industry and allowed me the platform to give back and share with his readers. The similarities between the two are eerie from the standpoint that both men are self-made firecrackers and icons in the sport, with a passion beyond explanation for the athletes and the sport’s well-being. My career, my travels and experience both on and off the stage were set up for this place and time here at MD. As a living testament to following up on a dream of climbing the ladder of success, embracing the fruits of my labor, I encourage everyone to look beyond the stage and their performance on it by understanding the value of a good photo and the importance of being a good sport. The doors that close to you onstage in defeat will be the ones waiting for you to open again when you handle the business of bodybuilding in the gym! Don’t let the contest results determine how high you can soar. When the dust settles, the winds of change will take you places down the road you don’t even see at the moment. As a gladiator centuries ago once said, “What we do in life, echos in eternity!” Dreams don’t end on the stage; it’s where they begin. Strength & Honor, Shawn December 2008

404 MD

By Branden Ray

Road tothe USAs
My mission has already begun this off-season. I’ve been hitting back twice a week to really bring it up, specifically my traps and rhomboids. My coach wants me to focus on developing what he calls a “turtle back. A perfect exam” ple of this was when I was backstage and noticed the back developments of heavyweight Lee Banks and middleweight Scott Turner. Their backs were what LonnieTeper would describe as “filthy!” Then I noticed the back development of David Henry while doing my photo shoot at Gold’s on Flamingo. Every single muscle was etched out to precision. I got the blueprint of my back workout from the “Pro Creator, who ” advised me to train back after a rest day so that I can hit it hard. His program is INTENSE and definitely will have you walking out of the gym sore. There’s no greater feeling than waking up the next morning still feeling a pump from the day before.This was going to be an incredible off-season, where I’m already seeing results. One of the main reasons is because I’m being pushed like never before by my new training partner, Big Sean Allan (BSA)! Sean and I had a mutual respect for each other going into the USAs. When I met him it was like a saying that we use back on the streets in Brooklyn: “real recognizes real. We both recog” nized that we share a common goal and set it off by training legs together in our very first workout. It’s good to have a training partner who can push you beyond your limits. I passed out on the floor after a set of heavy squats in the rack and BSA motivated me to get up in his own way: “Get up and stop acting like a bitch!” He quickly gained respect in the gym in DC. Can you believe that someone was actually bold enough to test a 6’4” 300-pound BSA? One day, during our chest workout, this metrosexuallooking guy with streaks in his hair, orange swimming trunks and flip-flops (yes, flip-flops in the gym!) tried to push BSA, but Sean showed in the end how focused he is. We just wrapped up 4 sets of incline presses and were moving on to our second movement of incline dumbbell flyes. There was only a flat bench available, however, our metro, fake-me-out bodybuilder had the adjustable incline bench lowered for flat bench skull-crushers. It only made sense that he would switch with us since we needed the only incline bench left, but after I asked nicely, he replied, “NO!” OK, so I try to explain to him that Sean is prepping for a competition but he didn’t want to hear it, because he didn’t want to ruin his superset of chest and tri’s (dumbass). I was trying my best to keep my cool.Then BSA walks over and the guy says, “What, just because you’re big I’m supposed to be scared?” I saw that guy’s life flash before me. However, a mature BSA didn’t shift the furniture in his mouth despite the punk trying to provoke him to. He left it alone and when the guy saw that we were ignoring him, he moved on. I wanted to see the k.o. but was happy that my dude left it alone. He said that he’s too focused to do anything dumb. On that note, look out super-heavies in ATL!


406 MD

December 2008

Where’s Lockett?
As I read the message boards online, I always see one common question, “Where’s Michael Lockett?” I’ll answer that question for the curious. Michael Lockett spent a little time in Jamaica with his extended family and is now back in the States, hungry to get back on the stage. In fact, he will be moving to DC soon to tear up the gym with BSA and me. Now, is he natural? He is an extremely gifted athlete (he was a boxer before bodybuilding), and is extremely devoted to his religion. Every conversation that I have with Mike, I remind him that the only reason why people hate is because 1) they can’t fathom how any individual can achieve what they work so hard for so effortlessly and 2) because of that, some develop a little jealousy. He’s actually oblivious to what’s on the boards and that’s a good thing. So often I see malicious Internet attacks on my fellow bodybuilders. Everyone is entitled to his opinion, and we do subject ourselves to both positive and negative criticism the moment we walk onstage. However, the pride that one feels within when you reach the goal of completing a diet, the knowledge gained with every win or loss, and the camaraderie and respect won by your fellow competitors backstage far outweigh any negative thing said on the Internet. I was taught at a young age that the happiness within is the happiness that counts the most in the end. December 2008

My Most Embarrassing Moment……..
So Romano [John] comes backstage and is taking pics of me right before I walked out at the USAs. The incredible Kim Klein is lining us up. I can hear the crowd and man, I was pumped. From the side of the stage,

I can see Dexter Jackson sitting right beside Jim Manion. This is it. I waited a whole year for this. I walked up the three steps to the stage and all of a sudden my number falls off…and rolls to the back of the stage. I try to play it cool but in my mind I was like: WTF? I glanced from the corner of my eyes and can see Flex Wheeler and Shawn Ray’s eyes following my number that’s rolling away. Doh! I tried to play it cool and snatched it up like Jeter starting a 6-4-3 double play and put it on as fast as I could. I ended up poking myself several times. By the time I finished mandatories, blood was dripping from my waist and down my leg. I’ll never forget that moment because when I put my leg back for my rear double biceps, it felt like someone threw a dart at my ass…not good.

The Schmo And The Bodybuilder
Being a new blood in this sport, I’ve realized that I was a little wet behind the ears when it came to the “schmoeism” that exists in this industry. I have received some requests that were um, a little over the top. I don’t mind doing photo shoots at all, especially with Per Bernal. Per has an uncanny expertise in lighting and shading that gives the most hardcore shot of an incredible bodybuilder like Branch Warren an artistic and aesthetic appeal. However, you have some “photographers” who have ulterior motives. Warning to all my fellow new bloods in the sport: do your homework on a photographer. There are many incredible photographers, but there are others who look to exploit the bodybuilder to satisfy a fetish. Bodybuilding doesn’t last forever. You can go from being a hardcore competitor to the governor of California. Anything is possible. The last thing that you want to do is ruin your future with some bad pics and a couple $100 in your pocket. This is a niche sport that an individual can capitalize on, but it’s not worth selling your soul. With the amount of incredible young talent out there (including myself…I had to throw that in there), we will make sure that this sport and lifestyle receive the respect that it deserves. MD 407


The Big Bad WOLF
By Dennis Wolf

High Protein = Wrecked Kidneys?
Is 330 grams of protein a day for a 210-pound person too much? I was advised that if I continue eating such a high-protein diet, in the long run I would damage my kidneys…although I do drink a gallon of water a day. What do you think? I have had people try to tell me that I was hurting my kidneys by eating so much protein many times. Even doctors have said this. Yet every time I go and have my blood work done, my tests show that my kidneys are functioning perfectly well. If you ever ask anyone for evidence about a high-protein diet being dangerous to the kidneys, they won’t have any. The only people who have to worry about problems like this are those who already suffer from some type of kidney disease, because they have impaired renal function. So let’s forget about that and talk about how much protein you should be eating as a bodybuilder. I feel that it’s best to have periods of very hard training that last about 12-16 weeks, then back off and take it a little easier for four to six weeks. You still train during the easy phase, but you don’t go as heavy and you don’t push the intensity all the way up. This lets the body fully heal and recover so you can go back into the more intense period and gain more muscle. When you are in the intense phase, your protein should be about 1.5 grams per pound. For you, that would be 315 grams, so you are pretty close now. I don’t think you need to go any higher than that, especially if you are eating at least a moderate amount of complex carbohydrates. Carbs are protein-sparing. When you are taking it a little easier, back off on the protein too and go down to a gram per pound, or 210 for you. You should probably back off a little on the carbs, too, or else you might find yourself gaining unwanted body fat. Big fan of yours here in England. I am 20 years old, 5’8” and 175 pounds, with very low body fat. I have been training for a year and have already gained 20 pounds, so I am very excited about getting bigger and bigger. I was wondering if you could advise me on a basic mass-gaining routine, with the simple goal being hypertrophy. I am also wondering

whether I should get my strength to a 300-pound bench press, 400-pound squat and 500-pound deadlift on a powerlifting-type of routine before I train like a bodybuilder. Out of curiosity, at what age did you achieve those numbers and was it on a bodybuilding routine or did you train more like a powerlifter when you were younger? I would not say that I trained like a powerlifter when I was starting out, although getting stronger was definitely something I was constantly trying to accomplish. I don’t think that when you train for pure strength and do super heavy weights for just a couple reps, you can gain much mass, only strength. Another thing to consider about having to hit those numbers you mentioned is that most people are much stronger on one or two of those three powerlifts than they are the other. So maybe you can bench press 300 right now, but it takes you three more years to get a 400-pound squat and a 500-pound deadlift…or, what if you are just really bad at one, like the deadlift, and it takes you 10 years to be able to pull 500? That whole time, you can’t train like a bodybuilder yet! It’s just silly if you stop and think about it. I would get on a good, basic bodybuilding routine where you just pick a different exercise for each muscle group, such as the flat barbell bench press or incline dumbbell press for chest, and do 4 sets of 8 reps. Do the same thing with smaller muscle groups like the biceps, but only do 3 sets. I would train each muscle group every four to six days like this for about a year before starting to make your routines more complicated. As long as you use all basic movements (no machines or cables yet) and rotate them around, this type of routine will work very well. Also, make certain you take at least two full rest days off from weights a week. For your training to pay off with muscle gain, you also must eat plenty of good calories. At your size, I think you should aim for about 3,000 calories a day with around 225 grams of protein, 300 grams of carbs and 40 grams of healthy fats. I bet you will grow very well if you follow this advice. December 2008


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Am I Giant-Set Junkie?
There is some wrong information going around that I train all the time in giant-set style like Milos Sarcev has a lot of top pros do at his gym in Fullerton, California. The truth is that I only did this for two weeks right before the 2007 Mr. Olympia. It was definitely something different for my muscles and I think it gave me a nice little kick in that short time. But I would NEVER train like this all the time. I couldn’t build size using all giant sets, so I do my own workout, which is pretty much all heavy straight sets. Here is an example of what I did with Milos for back: Lat pulldowns to the neck Lat pulldowns to the chest Chin-ups Narrow-grip lat pulldowns Seated cable rows Pulldowns behind the back December 2008

I would do this circuit four times, getting about 10-12 reps on each set. No breaks in between the exercises. After a very short rest and drinking a shake, I would do this giant set: Deadlifts Barbell rows One-arm dumbbell rows T-bar rows (free-standing) T-bar rows (the one with the pad on your chest) Hammer Strength puldowns Reverse-grip barbell rows This was also done four times. I can tell you that I got amazing pumps, but the weights I was using were not very heavy at all, especially by the time I was doing the circuit for the third or fourth time. You can try this type of workout every once in a while for something new, but it’s not what I would recommend to anybody whose main goal is adding muscle mass. MD 411

Dennis Wolf— The People’s Choice
Recap Beijing
I watched a lot of the Summer Olympics from Beijing. It’s always fun to watch the very best athletes in the world in their chosen sport. My favorite events were the 100- and 200-meter runs, basketball and the weightlifting. Those guys are so strong for their size! Of course, it’s a totally different type of lifting that they do, all power and speed. I caught a few of the swimming races where the USA’s Michael Phelps won. I think that man must have a seal or a shark in his family tree somewhere. While I was watching, I was thinking how cool it would be for bodybuilding to be in the Olympics, but it would never happen. If Ben Weider couldn’t get us in there after trying for 50 years, nobody can.

Jay Retiring To Make Little Mr. Olympias?
I read in one magazine that supposedly Jay Cutler will retire after this year because his wife wants to start a family. One day we all have to make the decision to leave the sport, and he has definitely had an incredibly successful career since he turned pro 12 years ago. If he does leave, that would mean next year would be my biggest chance to win the Mr. Olympia yet. My wife and I talk about having a child together one day (she already has a daughter, that’s my step-daughter), but now is not a good time. I am just too busy travelling all the time. If and when I have a child, I want to be there every day for him or her like a good dad should. It’s great to be out making money to support your kid so he or she can have nice things, but nothing takes the place of simply spending time together and showing your love. At least, that’s what I think.

Stupid Conversations I Have With People
Q. How much can you lift? A. What do you mean? I do many different exercises and I lift different amounts for them all. Q. Um, you know, the bench press. A. About 150 pounds. Q. Really, that’s all? My wife’s nephew can do more than that! A. That’s in each hand, 12 times, after I have done over 400 pounds on an incline bench for 10 reps. Q. Oh, I guess that’s a lot. But I think that kid does more. He’s one of the strongest on his high school football team. A Hopefully I won’t have to compete against him at next year’s Mr. Olympia, then. la Cvelopm TE muscuFOrde OMPLERAGE! R VE


Got a question for Dennis? E-mail it to him at and you could see it answered right here in MD!

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December 2008


Erik “The House” Fankhouser
House, now that the bodybuilding season is over and it is starting to get colder outside, how is the off-season diet going and how big is The House going to get this year? It is about that time of the year again; I can smell it in the air. Yes, it is time to get huge again. I got to put on my winter coat for the cold weather. That is what the off-season is all about. Getting big and moving big weight. I get very strong in the off-season. I don’t know if it is the cold air that makes me stronger or the carbs. At the good old Body Shop in Yorkville, Ohio, it is cold and training is going great. This off-season, I am focusing on moving big weights. I have never focused on this before. For the most part, I am a volume guy, with little rest between sets. This season, I am going to give myself longer rest time and a lower number of total sets per workout, but each set is as heavy as can be and intense. I am also focusing on eating better this off-season. I am going to make sure I eat even if I don’t feel like it. I want to be over the three bills mark. Here is how my offseason diet and supplements look as of now. Thanks, bro. I always like to hear that I motivate some cats to train hard. Leg day is my favorite day and I look forward to training legs.Yes I’ve got some good wheels, but I have put time in on them. Even if I am having a shitty day, legs day can and will make me feel better. I am currently doing a few different leg workouts. I like to change them up week-to-week so I can stimulate growth. Here it is with the K.I.S.S method (stands for: Keep It Simple, Stupid).

By Erik Fankhouser

Workout #1: Heavy
This heavy workout is pretty basic, but it works the core of any leg with workout with heavy squats. So we can have big slabs of meat hanging off those sweeps. Rest time between sets in this workout is around 90 seconds. This is what it looks like. Free-Weight Squats: 10, 8, 8, 6, 10 (all sets are working sets) Lying Leg Curls: 10, 8, 8, 6, 10 Barbell Lunges: 10, 8, 8, 6, 10 Leg Extensions: 10, 8, 8, 6, 10 Straight-Leg Deadlifts: 10, 8, 8, 6, 10 Calf Raises (on the leg press): 50 straight, 50 with toes in, 50 with toes out, 50 straight

Meal and Supplement Plan During Off-Season:
Meal 1: 10 whole eggs; 1 cup of oats and peanut butter Meal 2: 4 scoops Real Gains by Universal Nutrition; 1 cup oats; and peanut butter Meal 3: 10 ounces chicken; 1 cup rice Meal 4: 4 scoops Real Gains by Universal Nutrition; 1 cup oats; and peanut butter Meal 5: 10 ounces beef; 1 cup rice Meal 6: 60-gram shake IsoWhey and peanut butter Animal Pak 2x/day: One with breakfast; one with last meal Animal Flex 1x/day: One with second meal
NT-1 2x/day: One with third meal and one with 30 minutes before bed

Workout #2: Pre-Exhaust With Failure
One of my favorite workouts with legs. I do this workout for a few reasons; it lets me go heavy on the core exercises, but they are done at the end when you are tired, so it just feels different. When you do this, you can use lighter weight but it still feels like a ton. Rest time is 90 seconds between sets; each set is done to failure with form. When form is lost, you are done. Also, weight can be lowered each set since we are going to failure on most exercises. Reps should be around 8-15. Leg Curls: A few warm-up sets then 4 sets to failure Leg Extensions: 4 sets to failure Lunges (with dumbbells): 4 sets to failure Straight-Leg Deadlifts: 4 sets to failure Front Squats: 4 sets to failure Standing Calf Raises (with bar): 4 sets to failure

ZMA 1x/day: One 30 minutes before bed Storm 2x/day: One preworkout; one post-workout Shock Therapy 1x/day: One preworkout Animal Pump 1x/day: One preworkout Animal Nitro 2x/day: Pre/post-workout Intra-Aid 1x/day: During workout Torrent 1x/day: Post-workout My man, I have been watching you train like a total freak for some time now. I always get motivated when I see some of your training videos online. What are you doing for those crazy legs you walk around on?


Workout #3: Faster And Higher, With Reps
This workout will give you a real burn deep in the muscle and yes, the feeling of puking. Rest time is 60 seconds between sets and reps will be higher to get you ready for that heavy workout next week. During this workout, my December 2008

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reps are faster on the positive part of the lift using some of the fast muscle fibers. Still slow on the negative. The first exercise I call “centuries;” this is a great exercise. This exercise is very easy, but needs some explaining. On the plate-loaded leg press machine, start out with one 45-pound plate on each side; do 10 reps, put one more plate on each side and do 20 reps, three plates on each side for 30 reps,

four plates on each side for 40 reps, five plates on each side for 50 reps, etc.— all the way up to 10 plates each side for 100 reps. This is the goal, but I don’t know anyone who has done it yet. Remember, only 60 seconds with rest between sets. I have seen a few people get up to 70, but not 80 yet. Here is the workout: Centuries Leg Press: As far as you can go! Leg Extensions: 12, 15, 15, 12 Step-Ups (with dumbbells): 10, 12, 12, 10 Leg Curls: 12, 15, 15, 12 Glute-Ham Machine, 3 to failure Seated Calf Raises: 4 sets of failure; around 50 each I am going to give it to you straight. I am having a killer off-season. My weight is up around 270 right

now and I will be inching closer to that 300-pound mark. I am leaving no stone unturned this year. I don’t know my future or what this sport has in mind for me, but I am in it for the long haul. My rookie season as a IFBB pro was a great one. I placed in the top 15 out of 55 pros at the Europa, and best of all won the fan favorite and best wheels awards. Not too many rookies can say at their first show that they won the fan fave award. I also got to write for this great magazine and be sponsored by the best supplement company ever: Universal Nutrition/Animal. I also promoted my first show; that was a big success. At that show, we doubled the athletes and it was a record for that show also. I am looking forward to promoting more shows and making the sport better for the athletes. I

December 2008

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Eric Fankhouser— North American Champion


also wanted to congratulate my boy, Flex Lewis, and Shina Lewis on getting hitched. Heather and I were both in the wedding and we could not have asked for two better friends. Also, my little man is not so little now; he just turned 4 and is getting huge. He wakes up and does 10 push-ups and then does 10 sit-ups before he goes to bed each night. I just wanted to thank all my friends and family for following me this past year; it was a blast and hope we have many more. Thanks to my mom and dad, Dee and Rick Fankhouser, for sticking with me and passing the word of Team

Fankhouser to all of your students at your schools. Also, thanks to Heather’s family for keeping her head on straight when I was dieting for my show. Thanks to Big Al Delatore for talking shit to me at the gym to keep me motivated. I mean it, Al; thanks…you’re the man. Thanks to my wife and son for bringing me back into the real world when my head starts to go crazy. Also thanks to Universal Nutrition/Animal and all the forum members; let’s keep the ABCs rolling strong. The next time I step onstage, I will shock people and the potential will not be potential— it will be reality. December 2008

416 MD


By Evan Centopani

When is the best time to eat before training (1 hour, 2 hours)? An hour before is perfect. I get to the gym around noon, eat 70 grams of protein from chicken, a cup and a half of white rice, and 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Before that, I’ve already had a shake. This has been working fine for years. Ideally, you want at least one meal before training. I don’t recommend training on an empty stomach (unless all you’re doing is cardio). If you overtrain, will this stop your gains and prevent you from being your best? I do about 32 sets for shoulders because they don’t seem to be growing as well as other body parts. If something’s not growing, you’re either overtraining or undertraining. Delts are an easy body part to overdo. They’re not a large muscle group and you can’t help but hit them indirectly whenever you train chest and back; 32 sets sounds excessive, so odds are that you’re overtraining…30 sets would take me quite awhile to recover from. We all have different recuperative capacities, but that kind of volume puts a great deal of strain on your nervous system, too. If you’re in the gym for 2 hours, your body has to send out transmitters to tell your muscles to contract that whole time. That’s a lot of transmitting. The rest of your body will suffer as well. Nowhere else is the adage “less is more” more applicable than bodybuilding. Train with intensity. Annihilate them— which doesn’t take 30 sets— and then let them rest and grow. First, I recommend taking a week off to let your nervous system recuperate. Sometimes when I skip arms or delts for a week, they look bigger and fuller. That’s a clear case that they’ve been overtrained.

The competition is hardly ever who you think it’s gonna be. There’s always the possibility of an unknown blasting the favorites, but at this point you have to see who’s been in it and who’s been generating noise at the other shows.

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Doing the color commentary with Erik Fankhouser for the North American was a blast. Erik is one cool-ass dude. Thank you to his wife for sitting between us and handling the typing duties. I like doing the play-by-play, but at the same time, it’s also tough, as I’m friends with a lot of the competitors. At the Masters Nationals, the guy who won his class was breaking my balls because I said the runner-up had more potential than him. It was all in fun but I can see where it could get a little touchy. That’s the thing with our sport. I don’t see how you can put yourself out there any more than bodybuilders do. The only thing separating us from a crowd of thousands is a thin layer of oil, Pro Tan and skimpy posing trunks. Talk about letting it all hang out! Me, I only get irritated if the criticism is overly negative. At that point, it’s obvious that the critic doesn’t give a shit about you. They only want someone to bash and that day you happened to walk out the door with a target painted on your back.

Luckily, I haven’t experienced too much of that— not that I know of. But as a professional athlete who makes a living on my appearance, I’m subject to it like anybody else. I have no problem being picked apart. If you can handle the praise, you sure as hell can handle the criticism. That’s the nature of bodybuilding. Most times it’s stuff that I’m already thinking of. I have a pretty good feel for what I need to do. If I need a critique, I’ll seek out the judges’ opinions. After all, they’re the ones assessing my physique. I’ll ask Steve Weinberger, Jim Manion or Dave; people I trust. It does me no good to take the advice of someone looking to blow smoke up my ass or some guy with a personal vendetta against me. There’s also a flipside to this coin: anytime you ask someone’s opinion, you may feel obligated to take it. Decline and you run the risk of offending that person. If you value his or her opinion and plan on following it, go ahead. If you just wanna hear what you wanna hear, don’t even bother going down that road.

Steven Frazier and Ed Nunn are heavy favorites. They’re both big boys with size, conditioning and symmetry. Stephen’s made phenomenal improvements. If he does his homework, he could be tough to beat. Sean Allan will be up there too. He’s as big as a freaking triple-decker, with the advantage of good symmetry. If he brings his Atlantic States and Jr. Nationals conditioning, anything could happen. Trey [Brewer] has the potential to be a phenom. No one knows what he’s been up to, but given his genetic gifts, he has a chance to make dramatic improvements since his last showing. It should be an exciting class.

Michael Liberatore has looked great every show this year. He has the potential to take a giant stride forward. I don’t know if he needs to improve anything at the moment other than adding a little more overall size. Crazy conditioning! I’d like to see him get that pro card. Mark Alvisi looked great at the USAs. He just needs a little bit more size. Lee Banks should be in contention, too.

I’ve heard a lot of talk about Darrell Terrell vs. Chulsey Graham. Chulsey has great arms but his back width is lacking. Darrell’s more complete, but Chulsey is a big light-heavy. December 2008 MD 419

Evan Centopani— National Hero

The New York Pro is all the way in May, but I’m so hungry for it— it feels like it’s right around the corner. Training’s insane! I’m stronger than ever. I’m packing on some serious size before starting my diet in January. With all the eating in store ‘till the end of the year, I’m sure I’ll be looking forward to that diet. That’s the screwy thing about bodybuilding: we’re either starving or sick of eating. I can’t wait to make my pro debut. Right off the bat, I know I won’t match some of these guys for pure size, but we’re focusing heavily on fullness, an absolute requisite for the pros. It’s an area that I haven’t really been satisfied with in the past but with a better balance of conditioning and fullness, I’m confident that I’ll show a vastly improved package for my first pro show. Thank you to Universal and Muscular Development for their continued support in allowing me to be the best bodybuilder I can be. Thanks to all you CHE muscularde CK OUT guys on the MD forum for being cool as always. And a FOR huge thanks to my girlfriend Erica. I’m proud to have you m CONTE COMPLETE ST CO VERAG in my life. E!

420 MD December 2008

By Hany Rambod

Preloaded and Reloaded!
One of your clients goes to my gym and I saw him training legs the other day. I always pay attention to whatever he’s doing to see what I can pick up and use for myself. I’ve seen him using the FST system for a while now and -7 normally he does the “7” sets at the end of a body part. This time, he did his 7s on leg extensions at the very beginning of the workout. I think I recall you mentioning this variation on the FST sys-7 tem before, but I don’t understand the rationale for doing 7s in the beginning. What gives? What you saw was one of two variations my clients have been using as specialization routines for stubborn body parts. I call these the “FST-7 Preloaded” and “FST-7 Reloaded” concepts. What you witnessed was the FST-7 Preloaded version, which has a bit of the pre-exhaust element to it. In the case of the workout you watched, the athlete would begin with 7 sets of leg extensions for roughly 10-12 reps each, with only 30-45 seconds rest in between each set. What this does is “prime the pump” for the heavier sets to follow. The next two exercises are front squats and leg presses, each done in a high-intensity style. After sufficient warm-ups, 2 work sets of 8-12 reps, as heavy as possible, are performed. Normally, the quads would not receive any significant pump from sets such as these. Many bodybuilders would feel the more powerful glutes and hip flexor muscles working instead. But the initial 7 sets on leg extensions served to pump up the quadriceps and pre-stretch the fascia, so that the heavy sets of front squats and leg presses would deliver a far more significant pump than usual. Then, to really make sure that the quads are hammered into new growth, we finish with a final set of 7s on hack squats. This technique is fairly new, but so far the results are very encouraging. Another advanced version is the FST-7 Reloaded concept. In this variation, two heavy exercises are performed for straight sets, and the workout ends with two series of 7s done back-to-back. In the example of quads, an athlete may start with two or three exercises such as leg extensions, squats, and perhaps walking lunges; then finish with leg presses and hack squats for their 7s. Both of the methods discussed above would be ideal for a person who needs to improve the fullness and sweep of his or her quadriceps, yet is unable to squat heavy due to preexisting problems with the lower back or knees. Another common muscle group the Reloaded version is used on is the upper chest. I might have a client do heavy sets with incline dumbbell presses, incline dumbbell flyes, and the flat Hammer Strength bench press machine and finish with both the pec deck and cable flyes done for 7 sets each. Again, I must emphasize that these are advanced techniques and both make a deep impact on the body’s ability to recover. You must not attempt to use them for every single body part at the same time or I guarantee you that you’ll overtrain. I also want to add that even when used sparingly as I suggest, special attention must be paid to optimizing recovery with proper rest, nutrition, and supplementation. If you fail to respect your body’s recovery needs, this or any other type of training system will not deliver the results you want. You and several other nutritionists have recommended eating tilapia fish as a low-fat, lowcalorie source of protein when dieting to lose fat. In the November issue of MD, I read that tilapia is high in concentrations of arachidonic acid, which a recent study said caused inflammation linked to heart disease, blood vessel damage and cell aging. I have a few pounds of tilapia in my freezer right now. Should I toss it in the garbage? I wouldn’t be so hasty if I were you. Realize that this is simply one study, and the odds are that another study

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could come along soon saying something completely different. Another aspect of this study that makes me a little skeptical is that there is no indication as to what amounts of arachidonic acid might be considered dangerous. It might turn out that you would need to eat several pounds of tilapia every day for months to be at any risk. Arachidonic acid is the main ingredient of at least two top-selling supplements I know of, and the inflammation described is actually the catalyst for muscle growth that bodybuilders see when using them. Keep in mind that many studies have also linked the consumption of beef to a wide assortment of health problems such as heart disease and several types of cancer. Yet beef continues to be a valuable part of many bodybuilders’ diets, particularly in the offseason when muscle growth is the goal. It’s likely that many of the negative consequences of eating beef can be counteracted by a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and a diet high in fiber and antioxidants. As I have said here many times, I don’t believe in absolutes such as “you should never eat beef, or “you ” should never eat tilapia. Anything ” taken to extremes can be dangerous. That being said, I doubt that eating tilapia a few times a week is going to put a hard-training bodybuilder who eats a healthy diet in serious jeopardy. Keep watching the studies. If anything conclusive proving that tilapia was indeed so harmful, chances are good that it would be banned for sale by the FDA, or at the very least would have to carry some type of warning for consumers. I’m following a very low-carb diet and wanted to know if I could still benefit from the FST -7 training system. Would it work for me, or would it be a waste of time? This really all depends on your supplementation. If you are using products that help you stay full and allow you to continue getting good pumps even on a diet very low in carbohydrates, then FST-7 would definitely produce results for you. Examples of such types of supplements include specific amino acids, nitric oxidebased products, and more advanced derivatives of creatine. These tend to be pricier than the old generic monohydrate, but it’s one of those cases where you get what you pay for. I plan to discuss how to integrate your supplementation program with FST-7 both in terms of maximizing the pump and recovery in a column very soon. Getting back to your original question now. If you can’t get a pump due to dietary and/or supplementation issues, you won’t stretch the muscle fascia and therefore won’t reap the benefits in terms of muscle growth that you would otherwise. However, you’ll still see good calorie-burning benefits from the fast pace that the sets of seven with minimal rest provide. What’s going on with your website? I tried to check it out in mid-September but all I saw was one of those “coming soon” type pages. What’s going on? When will your site be up and what will be on it? As I mentioned last month, I have actually had the domain rights to my site for quite some time and had planned on launching it well over a year ago. But as much as I wanted to proceed, I was simply too busy consulting for supplement companies and wrapped up in other projects. I’m happy to report that by the time you read this, the sites and, which are one and the same, will be live. There will be several major features on the site. First, you’ll be able to inquire about my services for contest prep, off-season training and seminars. There will also be a section showing my most notable clients of the present and past. There will also be archives with dozens of my past articles and columns. Possibly the most exciting part of my site will be the forums. By simply registering and creating a free user account, you’ll be part of an online community to share ideas and information about FST-7 and other types of training programs. Users will be able to post their own blogs and create their own profiles and photo galleries. Other forums may focus on gossip, but the forums on aren’t going to be about making fun of people or speculating about who’s dating whom. Instead, it’s going to be about exchanging ideas and information and sharing experiences and results so we can all learn more. Whether you’re a young guy trying to get to 180 pounds for the first time or an older veteran lifter looking for ways to train around injuries, it’s all going to be about helping each other out so everybody wins. I’ll be posting on the forums, of course, and you never know who else might stop by. And best of all, access to everything on my site is 100 percent free, including the archives. Hany, I want to start training in the FST style, but I really don’t -7 know how to put a good workout routine together. Can you send me some sample workouts for the standard FST system, plus the -7 hybrid variations? This is an example of a typical email I get at least once a day. My new site will have all of these. More importantly, members will keep online training logs and offer feedback and opinions on all the techniques they try. That’s important because “real-world” applications are often more useful to serve as examples. You may see someone with the same goals as you who has tried several different variations and has rated the effectiveness of each. This could save you some trial and error on your own, even though we are all individuals. Basically, the advantage will be that you’ll have access to a large amount of different FST-7 programs that many individuals with varying needs and goals will post. This will ensure that you’ll always have a resource should you ever need ideas or inspiration. And of course, we invite you to participate so that others can also learn and get ideas from you and your experiences as well.
Got a question for Hany you would like to see answered here? E-mail him at Due to the high volume of e-mail he receives and limited editorial space, only selected questions will be answered and used.

424 MD December 2008


The Contest GURU
Once again reaching into my mailbag, I found of couple of interesting questions that may sound like the same old cookie-cutter questions, but my answers put a new twist on two staple parts of bodybuilding— nutrition and off-season weight gain— and my take on the best type of off-season dieting and how to employ it to anyone’s arsenal. Over the last couple of years, I have really watched your athletes and have taken great interest in your work. One specific thing I have noticed is that they all stay very, very lean in the off-season, yet are still able to make mindblowing gains. I’ve watched Victor Martinez over the last couple of years and the progress he has made in the off-season while working with you, as well as watching my favorite bodybuilder (Dennis Wolf) reach a new level of incredible muscularity in the very short time you have been working with him. I’m just wondering what your off-season weight/size gain theories are. For me, the off-season is something I take very seriously and something I feel some don’t take seriously enough. During the off-season, all of the groundwork leading up to the “end-result” physique on the contest stage is done…almost like the homework leading up to the final exam, if you will. With regard to my athletes, although all of my off-season programs differ depending upon the needs of each athlete, some things remain a constant across the board in all programs; here are some of the keys to the success of my athletes: 1. First and foremost: mindset: You must go into your off-season training with the mindset that even though the pressure of a contest is over for the time being, you make all of your solid gains and improvements during the off-season that will dictate your overall physique and appearance come showtime. So each day, remind yourself that the off-season is just as important as the precontest diet phase. 2. Consistency in your training all year long: It is important to take necessary breaks to rest, recuperate and repair after a show; however, when you are ready to get back to the gym, it’s GAME TIME! Consistency and regularity in the gym…hit your workouts just as you do when you are getting ready for the show. 3.Treat your off-season diet with as much care and effort as you do during contest time: I cannot stress enough how important it is to get your meals in on a regular time schedule even during the off-season. Don’t skip meals!!! 4. Have your cake, but eat clean, too: If you followed a contest diet all year-round, you would get nowhere fast in terms of size and strength gains…so go ahead, eat your pizza, burgers, cakes and pies, but in MODERATION! These will all help you gain weight— but don’t just eat junk. Your body is a fine-tuned machine so feed it the right way. Eating too many junk foods or doing nothing but eating crap throughout your entire workout will do nothing more than slap on a bunch of misplaced, disproportioned weight, make you tired and sluggish and hinder your health, not to mention the weight you gain will more than likely quickly disappear as soon as you begin your contest diet, leaving you with little-to-no real improvements. So now you want to know: How do I incorporate this type of off-season diet into my plan and how will I know what amounts and what types of foods and fats to eat? The one thing you will have to figure out for yourself is what type of ratios are right for you; how much proteins in the off-season and how many extra carbs…how many extra fats? This is probably the most important aspect of off-season dieting. We all know the stories of guys who eat KFC and McDonald’s every meal, every day of their off-season…and while these athletes have put on some quality size, they also put on tremendous amounts of unnecessary and unhealthy pounds of fat along with the size. Though I don’t adhere to that particular type of offseason, I will tell you that if you have a fast metabolism (sure, in moderation you can have junk foods here and there) you still need to make certain you are ingesting a solid diet of good proteins, fats and carbohydrates. For this purpose, I’m talking about the average person who has a good metabolism, but still needs to remain on a strict diet to get into shape. For the athletes with a normal metabolism, I would suggest a 60 percent to 40 percent ratio with regard to good foods and bad foods during the off-season— meaning you need to stay within an eating range of 60 percent good, clean whole foods and 40 percent higher carbs and fats, adding in the fun junk foods within the 40 percent margin here and there. With this type of a “good food/bad food” ratio to your off-season your splurges are controlled, the types of bad foods and amounts of bad foods are controlled and this plays a big role in keeping your system healthy as well. So now that you “hypothetically” have found that this 60/40 ratio will work for you, how do you incorporate this on a daily basis and when and where do you throw in the bad foods along with the good foods? What I like to do with this type of food ratio is have an athlete eat pretty clean Monday through Friday (only adding in the higher fats and carbs in the form of clean whole foods such as nuts, peanut butter, grains, pastas, fruits and the like), then throwing in a junk food meal here and there. For instance on Monday, I’ll have the athlete eat very clean, trying to cleanse the body from any “cheat meals” eaten during the weekend, then on Tuesday, for most the day he will still eat his clean proteins and carbs, but maybe for supper he will have a portion of pasta and sauce and maybe some bread to go with it, maybe a little dessert. Then he will just rotate eating clean for a day or two with adding one meal here or there, consisting of a December 2008

426 MD

normal-sized portion of a higher fat meal and a small dessert such as with a spaghetti meal…and keep on like this until the weekend. During the weekend, I allow this time as a splurge portion. On the weekends, we do a role reversal in terms of the types of foods— the majority of the foods on the weekend can be the more junkie, higher fat “cheat” types of foods and desserts and then usually I have meal 1 and the last meal of the diet stay very clean, then the Monday-Friday cleaner eating regimen begins again. No matter what type of metabolism my athletes may have or what type of ratio they follow, I still help the athletes stick to a consistent meal plan during the week and on the weekend. I find that by keeping the splurges controlled and on a time schedule, the athletes are satisfied by getting to eat the foods they like and they are able to put on a good amount of weight and stay lean because they aren’t going haywire with their splurges. In terms of how many meals you should eat during the offseason…for my contest diets, athletes eat anywhere from five to six meals daily. During the off-season, they still eat around five or six meals a day, but I will also throw in a couple of good snacks during their Monday-Friday meal schedule to add extra calories, good fats and carbs. I will be participating in a show in about 16 weeks. I just wonder if you know of a certain tanning accelerator or an accelerating moisturizer that you would recommend for contest tanning. I’ve read several articles from a couple of the main tanning product companies that advise you to apply “their” moisturizing products on your skin prior to applying your competition tan to condition your skin and ensure a streak-free tan; however, I know they are trying to sell product and the one time I did try this, I looked like I had been wrestling in chocolate pudding. Some companies have even gone as far as to claim the best way to have the best tan is to go through a strict moisturizing regimen beginning about a month out of a show. I’m confused and need help. Skin care: no matter if you are a competitive bodybuilder or just the average person, skin care should be a major priority— not just to look good, but for the health of your skin. Over and over, I see competitors spend thousands of dollars on food, supplements, gym memberships, etc. to make their bodies look incredible, yet I don’t know how many of the athletes neglect their skin. No matter if you are a beginning amateur or a top-level pro, having clear, smooth skin always counts toward your score when judging your “overall package” and appearance. Though I am a HUGE advocate of taking care of your skin and employing a good, daily skin care regimen into your program and I have been very outspoken on this subject, when it comes to the final weeks prior to the show, moisturizing is a big NO NO and can actually be detrimental to your tan. When looking at your skin from a competitive standpoint, getting rid of excess water from the body and dermis layers of the skin is a priority. That is the main concern with moisturizing…what does moisturizing do? It brings moisture “fluid” into the dermis layer of the skin as well as plumps the skin for conditioning purposes; this will not only keep you from ridding your body of excess water that could be creating a blurry, filmy look to your skin and muscle, but the plumping effects of moisturizer will also have a tendency to make the skin look thicker and this could hide deep separation and intricate detail that is crucial when assessing an athlete’s conditioning. To my athletes, I recommend not using any moisturizers prior to a show. How long before should you stop? Actually that depends on the person…for instance: does he have thicker skin naturally? Does he have a watery physique? Does he have a problem with conditioning and separation? These are all questions that need to be considered when figuring out how far out you should stop with moisturizing. At a minimum, I would suggest stopping all moisturizing at four weeks out; this includes moisturizers, lotions, tanning accelerators— anything that will put moisture back into the skin. You just December 2008

428 MD

Off-Season— Weekday Sample Diet Meal 1: *Protein shake with 90 grams of pure whey isolate *Mix in 1 cup dry oats Meal 2: *10-12 oz. lean steak *4-5 pancakes with syrup Meal 3: *10-12 oz. boneless, skinless chicken breast *12-15 oz. mashed potatoes *1 slice whole-wheat bread Meal 4: *10-12 oz. boneless, skinless turkey breast *10 oz. sweet potato; may add Molly McButter, Splenda, cinnamon Meal 5: *large bowl of spaghetti and meatballs *large dinner salad (any kind of dressing) *2 pieces of bread Meal 6: *protein shake with 90 grams of pure whey isolate *add fruit, peanut butter or low-fat frozen yogurt Or *seven-egg omelet made with vegetables, mushrooms, steak and cheese SNACK BEFORE BED IF NEEDED: *Large bowl of cereal or large bowl of low-fat frozen yogurt or two peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches

your skin dries out, a good exfoliant (without conditioning moisturizers) will help the body shed the dead, excess skin cells. By following this— whether you use ProTan or the airbrush-style tanning— you will ensure that your base coat and all ensuing coats will go on evenly and smoothly. After the show knock yourself out! Exfoliate your competition tan away and slather on the moisturizer as heavily as you like! Good luck! Thank you to everyone who continues to send their questions in each month! I’ll continue to get to as many as I possibly can, as well as give you updates on all my athletes in the upcoming months. In the next column, I’ll address the dates for all of the shows Kim and I promote for the 2009 NPC season, as we have already had many e-mails and calls regarding our show information for next year…so please keep searching the column for updated show schedules and information. Or, you can always go to to find this and more contest info… Here is a sample off-season meal plan with the type of “good/bad” ratio I was speaking of to show you a template of how to utilize this style of off-season dieting: As far as what to shy away from…below are just a few of the many mistakes I have seen athletes make in their off-seasons. I feel a large mistake that most athletes make is that the off-season is treated more as a rest and recuperation season— eating what they want— paying more attention to feeding their stomachs and their cravings rather than paying attention to eating to build and eating to fuel the physique. On the flip side, many are inconsistent with their meals and rather than eating on a strict timetable such as in the precontest phase, they skip meals or let too much time go between eating meals. All of these elements work against making solid, muscular gains. Not taking your off-season seriously, in my opinion, is one of the primary mistakes that keeps an athlete from not only making gains year after year, but in turn hinders them from ever hitting their true potential and can hurt their overall placements and standings in the sport. December 2008

need to figure out which skin type you are and that will dictate how long you need to stop. For most, four weeks is a good standard, but some can get away with two or three weeks out, while others may need to stop six weeks out; it all depends on your skin and how it responds to moisturizing. By stopping the moisturizing, your contest tan will go on more evenly and dry better. When the skin is as dry as possible, the tan will adhere to the skin more easily and the first coat (your base coat) will go on very well and set the tone for how the rest of your tan will look. One suggestion I can make to assist with the final weeks prep after going “sans moisturizer” is to get a good exfoliant. When

430 MD


Trainer of Champions of Champions

I recently read an article that talked about how overhead presses are much more effective when you use free weights as opposed to machines and furthermore, that doing your shoulder presses standing rather than seated is far more effective at stimulating growth in the delts. The writer claimed that the act of having to keep the weight balanced and stable forces the shoulders to work much harder. Plus, you can’t cheat by leaning back. As a man who has put many a bodybuilder through many a shoulder workout, what do you think? I do think overhead presses can be very productive when done from a standing position, but we need to get one thing straight. Not only is it possible to cheat, but in fact, the overhead press with a barbell was discontinued as a competitive lift in the Olympics in 1972 entirely because all the lifters were cheating by leaning back to an exaggerated degree. Leaning back like this is treacherous. It means that the lower back is put into an extreme arch under a very heavy load, which you should recognize as a surefire way to suffer a devastating injury to that area. But if you do the lift without leaning back, you find that you can’t handle anywhere near the amount of weight. Using dumbbells would be a superior choice, since you don’t even have to lean back to get your head out of the way and can maintain a vertical posture. The reason I like to have bodybuilders do their presses most often in a seated position with back support is that greater loads are possible, and that builds more mass. For example, you might be able to handle 80-pound dumbbells for 10 reps seated. Standing, I doubt you would be able to use 50s. The disparity increases with a barbell. Most guys who can press 225 to the front sitting down can’t manage much more than 135 or 155 pounds standing— unless they start leaning back. I always make sure my clients don’t lean back and arch while doing presses. If they can’t do it on their own, we take a big weight belt and strap them in securely. You’ll notice that most Hammer Strength pressing machines for shoulders and chest have seat belts built in for that same purpose. A very slight arch is fine in overhead pressing, but anything beyond that is dangerous and counterproductive. The more you lean back and shift your hips forward, the less your shoulders are activated as your upper chest takes over. I always choose a bench with a set vertical back rather than an adjustable bench that would allow for a slight incline (again, too much upper chest involvement). Try to understand that even though I am advocating seated presses rather than standing and one big reason is for the greater loads you can use, I still don’t ever recommend using poor form simply to use a heavier weight. One other way to press that I highly recommend is to use the Hammer Strength behind-neck press, but do it facing into the machine with your hips back a few inches from the back support. This shifts the emphasis squarely on the front and side delts. So when it comes to standing presses, go ahead and do them occasionally with dumbbells, maybe every third or fourth workout. Otherwise, remain seated! December 2008


432 MD

Charles Glass—Trainer of Champs
“The Bodybuilding Wizard” is my favorite column in MD, which is by far the most informative magazine I’ve ever read on the subject of physical development. My questions are pertaining to cardio and balancing fat loss with muscle gain. In addition to trying to build muscle mass, I’m also trying to lose more body fat, which makes building muscle mass a slow process because my calorie and carb intake is very restricted (I still get about 250 grams of protein per day, mostly from whey protein shakes). I also do a lot of cardio. I’m currently 6’2” 244 pounds, 31 years old, and I , know that when weight training, you’re supposed to switch up your routine so your body doesn’t adapt. Only recently I’ve been told that the same is applied to cardio. I have spinal stenosis in my lower back and neurogenic claudication, which means that my cardio is restricted to either the stationary bike, or walking on the treadmill at a steep incline. I do the incline treadmill for 30 minutes five times a week after my weight training and almost never do the bike because (according to the calorie meter) it only burns about half the calories as the treadmill. If the calorie meter on the treadmill says I burn 550 calories from 30 minutes of cardio, am I actually burning less than that after doing the same cardio routine for a couple of months because I’ve adapted to it? If that’s the case, should I start doing the bike for a while, even though I’m burning less calories? Are those calorie meters on the cardio machines even accurate at all? It’s impossible for the calorie meters to ever be 100 percent accurate, because typically the only data they ask of you is your weight and age. Obviously, you could have two people of the same age and weight with radically different body compositions and metabolic rates. That being said, one thing you can take heart in is that at least the machine is consistent. That is, if you use the same machine one day and burned 500 calories and 550 the next time, you did in fact expend more overall calories the second time. Whether that’s actually 520 or 570 isn’t too important in the big picture. Even though the stationary bike does burn less calories, you should throw it in there once or twice a week for variety. Your bodyweight is supported already, so you should be able to work a little harder pumping your legs. You can get more variety out of the treadmill by selecting programs that change the speed and angle at various points in the workout rather than always staying on a high incline. I would also bump that 30 minutes up to 45, and add in a sixth day of cardio on one of your off days from weights for 60 minutes. Now this next part may seem crazy, but hear me out. One of the reasons you are having difficulty in both gaining muscle mass and losing fat is that you are getting nearly all your protein from whey protein shakes. Whey definitely has a value. It’s exactly what you want right after training because it digests very rapidly, so the amino acids can get right to the muscles. For that very same reason, it’s not a good choice at most other times. What you want is a more sustained-release protein source that also makes your digestive system work and thus raises your metabolic rate. The name of this wonder supplement is— food! Try to eat solid protein sources at least three times a day, like chicken or turkey breast, a white fish like tilapia, egg whites, and lean cuts of red meat. Make these changes and I am very confident that your body will soon begin to take on a leaner, more muscular appearance. I often hear bodybuilders say that diet amounts to up to 80 percent or more of the muscle mass that they put on. This statement implies that weight training plays only a minimal role in muscle gain and could be avoided. I do not believe this personally, of course; it is just the semantic conclusion of the above statement. In other words, if diet is 80 percent of the equation, then a bodybuilder who only eats properly but does not lift a single weight or exercises in any other manner would look 80 percent of what he/she would have looked like had he also exercised. Thus, is it possible to build muscle and increase strength without any weight training, but solely through diet? I think you already know that without the stimulation of weight training, there can be no muscle growth. Muscles grow bigger and stronger as an adaptation response to being trained under resistance. It’s silly to ascribe these specific percentages to anything, because they are all important. If anything, though, the only factor that would still produce some type of results assuming that at least a person was eating a couple times a day, would be the training. The gains wouldn’t come for very long and would cease unless the person made an effort to take in nutritious food at regular intervals every day to support muscle recovery and growth. But you need to train hard, eat well and rest to gain muscle. If any of those three main factors are sorely lacking, you can’t expect to make any meaningful gains in lean muscle mass or strength.

Gunter Making A Comeback?
Rumors have been going around lately that my client and good friend Gunter Schlierkamp will soon be making a comeback. Sorry to put a damper on this one, but he just left for Germany to do another movie. Right now, acting is still his main priority. That doesn’t mean you won’t see him onstage again. He wasn’t one of those guys who left the sport because he was injured or his placings were steadily dropping. Gunter is healthy, and was top six in the Mr. Olympia for four years in a row. The last time he competed, at the 2006 Olympia, he was still in the top 10. When the time comes and he wants to get back in the game, I’ll be ready to train him again.

434 MD

December 2008

Charles Glass—Trainer of Champs
Flexsolate Straps— Study Proves They Work!
I’ve mentioned the Flexsolate hands-free straps here before, because I have had my clients using them for a couple years now. Recently, a study performed at North Idaho Physical Therapy in Hayden, Idaho found that using these straps for lat pulldowns and seated rows increased muscle fiber activity in the lats by 50 percent for the pulldowns and a stunning 90 percent in the rows, as opposed to using bare hands. If back has been a problem area for you, it’s definitely a training tool to look into. You can get the straps at and they also send a free DVD showing how to use them correctly.

Sensational Silvio
I’m always proud of my clients when they work hard, but right now I really got to give it up for Silvio. My man is on a roll and only getting better. I have never seen someone who’s able to stay in shape so consistently all year long and still put on muscle. He just did a photo shoot with my white H2 Hummer. The Hummer has 24-inch rims and custom doors that open up and back at a 45-degree angle like a Lamborghini. I’m actually thinking about having them redone so they open straight up like the old DeLoreans…that’s the car that was a time machine in the “Back to the Future” movies. Anyway, I know I give Silvio props pretty often here, but it’s only because the guy deserves it.

Exercise Of The Month: Hybrid Dumbbell Row/Deadlift
I am known for coming up with some unique exercises and variations on standard exercises that can spur new gains. A lot of times, all I really do is think of a way to hit a muscle from a slightly different angle than what it’s accustomed to. One of my favorites for back is a dumbbell movement that’s really a hybrid of bent rows and deadlifts. You start the movement like a bent row, but as you pull the ‘bells up and back, you let your chest come up so that you are near a standing position, but still bent. It hits the inner back directly, which is an area many bodybuilders sorely need to thicken up. Give it a try at your next back workout, but be sure to start light and work on getting the form and the feeling right. Got a question for Charles? E-mail it to him at and you could see it answered right here in MD!

436 MD

December 2008

By Angela T. Frizalone

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440 MD December 2008

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December 2008

MD 441


By John Romano

t’s 3:00 am and I just arrived back home from Vegas. I, along with the rest of the MD road crew, have been running around like crazy since Thursday when we landed, doing what we do to bring you the awesome coverage we do. I’ve probably gotten a total of 10 hours of sleep in the last four days. I’m dead tired and hungry as a cave man in winter and I have to get up in 3 hours to drive to my mom’s to pick up my son, but I just can’t go to sleep yet. I’m so jacked from the incredible weekend we had that I have to say something now about it. Well, also because the press deadline is tomorrow…. First of all, I have to send my condolences to NPC Vice Chairman Steve Stone’s family. We all lost an incredible friend and one of the nicest guys you’ll ever meet when he was suddenly taken from us on Friday morning. I had just talked to him to get the competitor list so Dave and I could do the women’s prejudging play-by-play. We chatted for a minute; he told me he had a headache all morning and was talking Tylenol. I told him it was probably the heat. He agreed with me, handed me the list, we shook hands and that was it. Twenty minutes later, he was gone. To say something like that shakes you up is an understatement. My prayers go out to his family. The weekend itself turned out differently than I had ever expected. Not only did the required MD staff get the press credentials they needed, but Dave Palumbo and I were also given press passes, putting to rest once and for all our perceived redheaded stepchild status. The boss of all bosses and Robin Chang also began a dialogue that will hopefully see the two camps working together moving forward, and the feud that has plagued our industry looks like it might be coming to an end. Quite frankly, NOTHING would make me happier. Speaking of Robin Chang, the man has outdone himself yet again. This was by far the best Olympia ever since leaving the Mandalay Bay. I really felt this year that there was no denying the Olympia was in Vegas. From the LCD TV billboards showing Olympia footage on the Stratosphere and outside the Orleans, to the little TV ad signs on the slot machines in the Orleans casino, to the other various media, you couldn’t help but know the Olympia was in Vegas and that the show was going to be hot. The Orleans was like Olympia Village. I’m not saying it’s the most swank place in town, but since the Mandalay is out, there is not other venue in town to hold it until the new complex on the strip is done in 2011. Maybe by then the show venue and the expo can be contained in one location and things can get a little less troublesome as far as logistics go, but still, this year the show and the expo both rocked. Speaking of the expo, the place was laid out pretty well. The signage was off the chain and everything looked first class, right down to the life-sized cardboard cutouts of all the competitors scattered around the expo and immediately upon walking in. Robin Chang must have presided over an army to get this job done the way it was executed and I can’t say enough how much better this year was than years past. Great job! The big news is, of course, that Romano has to eat his words. Not only for the press pass thing, but also because I went on record implying that Jay was going to win no matter what. Well, as you all know by now, that’s not what happened. And I can’t tell you how good it was for bodybuilding that the audience got to see who they thought was the best man onstage win the show. Clearly Jay was outdone by Dexter Jackson and I couldn’t be happier that it turned out that way. If they had just given it to Jay again, the way he looked, the show would have lost whatever credibility it was still holding onto after the travesty that befell Iast year when the best guy on stage didn’t win. I think that the judges might finally be getting the message that “bad judging” is an excuse we are no longer willing to accept— not when no one in the entire world will agree with them. It was clear to everyone that Jay Cutler was not deserving of the win and the right thing happened. That’s what this sport needed and I can pretty much assure you the proof will be in the droves of people who come out next year for what promises to be one of the most hotly contested Olympias in history. For everyone who had anything to do with this year’s show being such a rousing success, you have my utmost respect and thanks!

462 MD

December 2008

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