Chapter 11 PAGANS, CHRISTIANS, AND JEWS The Art of Late Antiquity

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Dura-Europas fell to the Sasanians in the 3rd century CEo The Sasanians became the heirs to which of the following groups? a. b.


Romans Persians Parthians Greeks Parthians Knowledge

Answer: c. 2.

In the Dura painting, Samuel Anointing David, David is depicted with an Imperial attribute indicating his royalty. Which of the following is that attribute? a. b.


purple toga laurel-leaf crown cuirass of Augustus armor of Hadrian purple toga Analysis/Comprehension

Answer: a. 3.

Why is the Christian community house in Dura-Europas a small house? a. b.

d. Answer: 4.

No churches were constructed in Dura-Europas No large dwellings were constructed in Dura-Europas Christians did not enjoy the patronage of the Roman state No shrines or holy structures were allowed in Dura-Europas

Christians did not enjoy the patronage of the Roman state Analysls/Comprehension

It is thought the communal dining room in the Christian community house was upstairs. Which of the following celebrations would likely have been performed in this area? a. b. Baptism marriage between the faithful discussion ofletters of Paul. Eucharist Eucharist Analysis/Comprehension.



Answer; d. 5.

The Roman State persecuted the Christians. Which of the following would account for this persecution? a. b.


Christians refused to pay homage to the State's gods Christians fomented revolt against the Roman state Romans knew the Christians would be their downfall Romans didn't approve of anything originating in Judea Christians refused to pay homage to the State's gods Comprehension/Analysis

Answer: a.


c. Answer: c. nothing specific. Christians their triumph over death. b. in accordance with Roman custom Knowledge After Christianity received acceptance within the Roman Empire.triumph of the Church. Analysis How did one recognize a Christian sarcophagus? a. 8. d. Jonah Jonah Jonah Jonah represented represented represented represented for for for for the the the the Early Early Early Early Christians their triumph over Rome. 9. Peter and Marcellinus. 3 rd century CE Knowledge Why were Christians buried outside the city's walls? a. The Jonah theme revolves around the concept of salvation and was very popular in Early Christian art. just figures to fill the space. c. Which of the following provides the most valid reason for such churches to be constructed at these sites? a. 5th 1st 3rd 6th century century century century CE CE CE CE Answer: c. d. h. Evaluation A man. d. Which of the following . c. Answer: a. They They They They represent represent represent represent the Christian family seeking their heavenly reward. They represent the Christian family seeking their heavenly reward. Christiansthe. b. 10. and at least one child can be seen in the praying position found in the lunette of the Catacomb of Sts. d. d. b.presents the most rational explanation for the placement of these people in the lunette? a. b. 11. Christians the prefiguration of Christ. c. Which of the following provides an explanation for that popularity? a. b. churches were constructed above the catacombs. a woman. the ideal-Christian family: the Christian family who own that section of the catacomb. The name of the owner was always carved on the center panel Only Christians were buried in sarcophagi It was decorated with significant Christian subject matter The Crucifixion was always included as part of the subject matter 352 . Jonah represented for the Early Christians the prefiguration of Christ. c.6. c. d. The pious worshiped openly at the graves of the earliest Christian martyrs These were the only sites available for church construction All churches had to be constructed outside the city's walls The catacombs were the holiest sites The pious worshiped openly at the graves of the earliest Christian martyrs Evaluation Answer: a. in in in in accordance accordance accordance accordance with with with with Christian custom Roman custom papal dictate Peter's ruling Answer: b. What is the earliest datable period for Christian art? a. 7.

In the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. Which of the following represents the allusion to the Crucifixion? a. It adapted classical tradition for a Christian wedding gift 353 . d. Which of the following supports that statement? a. It was decorated with significant Christian subject matter Comprehension/Analysis In the early centuries of Christianity. A small statue has combined a youthful Apollo-like head atop a body that is the mature philosopher-teacher type. Which apostle was one of the original Twelve Apostles and founder of the Christian community in Rome? a. c. among his other accomplishments. Peter and Paul enthroned Christ before Pilate Analysis Answer: b. b. a. 14. 17. Therefore at what point in the Christian's life would baptism be performed? a. Which of the following does this describe? a. T6. d. Peter Christ seated Analysis Answer: c. c. b. Peter. the sculptors illustrated scenes from the life of Christ. portrait of Junius Bassus portrait of Constantine Christ seated St. b. d. Peter Paul John Jesus Christ Peter Knowledge Answer: a. d. 15. Which of the following. c. c. Entry Christ Christ Christ into Jerusalem before Pilate between Sts. baptism was always delayed because it cleansed the Christian of all sin. The Diptych of the Nicomachi and the Symmachi is significant to the art tradition of fourth century Rome. 12. d. at the marriage ceremony at birth when the initiate attained the age of 25 almost at the moment of death almost at the moment of death Analysis/Comprehension Answer: d. a pagan who converted to Christianity. h. Junius Bassus Honorius Constantine Maxentius Constantine Knowledge Answer: c. was a major patron of the city of Rome? In addition tollis-construction program for the city-he-also commissioned the construction of the basilica of St. 13. c.Answer: c. b.

c. c. b. 22. Which of the following would support that? a. Which Roman emperor officially recognized Christianity? a. It is a mosaic rather than a fresco It is full of Greco-Roman illusionistic devices It is a fresco rather than a mosaic It has a landscape included in the depiction It is full of Greco. When did the tradition of placing pictures in manuscripts first begin? a. Which of the following is the substantive explanation for this change? a. c. b. It initiated the tradition of ivory carving The diptych becomes a document acknowledging the marriage of the daughter to Junius Bassus It deliberately sustained the classical tradition It deliberately sustained the classical tradition Analysis IComprehension Answer: d. b. laurel leaf crown Imperial 'purple chariot Imperial armor Imperial purple Analysis Answer: b. d. The artist did not include anecdotal narrative. d. Which of the following attributes was Christ depicted with after Christianity was officially recognized? a.Roman illusionistic devices Analysis Answer: b.b. 18. b. c. Jesus Christ The figure of Jesus Christ is beardless The depiction is a mosaic This depiction is found in the apse The artist did not include anecdotal narrative. d. 21. d. d. DiocIetian Constantine Julian Maxentius Constantine Knowledge Answer: b. The illustrated book had a long history in the ancient world. 20. c. rather he emphasized the central character. b. c. Jesus Christ Evaluation/Analysis Answer: a. rather he emphasized the central character. d. 354 . Republican Rome Etruscan period Classical Greece Pharaonic Egypt Pharaonic Egypt Knowledge Answer: d. The Christ as Good Shepherd from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna is said to be deeply rooted in the classical tradition. 19. The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes from Sant' Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna illustrates the stylistic change which has occurred.

b. Peter's in Rome called? a. c. c. Apollinare NU0¥O Pantheon Pantheon Comprehension/ Analysis- -Answer: d. c. Which of the following is represented on the sarcophagus of Santa Maria Antiqua? a. b. d: Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Tomb of the Julii S. c. 25. Daniel Jonah Matthew Twelve Apostles Jonah Knowledge Answer: b.23. 24. d. 28. Sol Invictus Zeus Hades Caesar Sol Invictus Comprehension/Analysis Answer: a. d. c. 26. Crucifixion unfinished state borrowed Classical motifs d. Which feature from the Santa Maria Antiqua sarcophagus pointed toward the emerging Early Christian style? a. the inclusion of Roman eagles borrowed Classical motifs Analysis Answer: c. atrium narthex nave bema narthex Knowledge Answer: b. d. c.of the Desert Oasis of the Desert Pompeii of the Desert Knowledge Answer: b. 27. b. Pompeii ofthe Desert Capital. b. b. Which of the following scenes was not depicted but only alluded to on the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus? 355 . Christ has taken on the guise of which of the following in the mosaic from the Mausoleum of the Julii? a. b. Which of the following was a reference for Dura-Europos? a. What was the entrance porch of Old St. Which of the following would be considered the predecessor for the Mausoleum of Costanza?' a. d. 29. Rome of the Desert.

Ravenna Milan Dura Europos Ostia Dura Europos Knowledge Answer: c. b. goats representing sinners sheep representing the Faithful a basin of water a chalice sheep representing the Faithful Comprehension/Analysis Answer: b. d. b. d. d. c. 34. c. d. b. Christ as the Good Shepherd appears in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia and uses many iconographic devices. d. What city contained both a synagogueand a Christian community house? a. d. c. Which of the following is one of those devices? a. the lives of the saints the Passion grape harvest and-wine production history of Rome Answer: c. 33. c. b. Peter's Sts.a. Constantine Junius Bassus Honorius Alaric Junius Bassus Knowledge Answer: b. c. Santa Costanza Old St. Which of the following is a basilica? a. 31. Which of the following was the Prefect of Rome who commissioned a sarcophagus acknowledging his conversion to Christianity? a. grape harvest-and wine-production Knowledge 356 . b. Callixtus Old St. b. Which of the following themes represents the interior decorative program of Santa Costanza? a. Peter's Knowledge Answer: b. Peter and Marcellinus St. Crucifixion Parable of the Loaves and Fishes Epiphany Entry into Jerusalem Crucifixion Comprehension/Analysis Answer: a. C". 32. 30.

b. Adam and Eve Christ enthroned the Good Shepherd Christ before Pilate Christ before Pilate Comprehension/Analysis Answer: b. 39. d. d. 37. Which of the following representations was used to symbolize the Crucifixion on the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus? a. The Rossano Gospels is the earliest illuminated manuscript that contains illustrations of which of the following? a. 6th century CE 3rd century CE 2nd century CE I" century CE 357 . c. 36. b. double apse interior timbered ceiling Knowledge Answer: b. c. b. The representation of abearded Christ from the Rossano Gospels clearly indicates this work was made in which of the following centuries? a.35. c. domed interior timbered ceiling groin vault d. 38. d. lives of the martyrs coronation of Peter as Pope New Testament martyrdom of Paul New"Testament Knowledge Answer: c. Which of the following is an architectural element found in Santa Sabina? a. c. c. b. d. Early Christian pictorial convention Roman pictorial-convention Egyptian pictorial convention -Hebrew pictorial convention Rornan pictorial convention Comprehension Answer: b. Who was the first Germanic king ofItaly and conqueror of Ravenna in 476 CE? a. b. The representation ofNahor seen in the scene of Rebecca and Eliezer at the well from the Vienna Genesis uses which of the following conventions? a. d. b. c. Alaric Odoacer Attila the Hun Justinian Odoacer Knowledge Answer: b. 40.

/lial/. Knowledge T'" 44. Who was Galla Placidia? eAl f} 0.. This was a decision-made by both Constantine and Po e Svlvester. Galla Placidia had been captured in the fall of Rome and. painful years of the Imperial Roman Empire.had to wed a Visigoth chieftain. What is the significance of Old St. Knowledge 48.. What is the significance of Dura Europos? Answer: The-city was evacuated in the third-c-cutuTYCE-. emperor of the West.0(\ V ttl I ~f\ ~ 1\0. or so it was believed. It represented the imperial color and a motif favored by the Romans. our attention is focused on Samuel who is larger than the other figures. /?P('le ~ (1_/1 to Vi Answer: She was half-sister to Honorius. second only to the Church-of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem the site ofthe Resurrection. Explain Old St.. How does the Christian community house located in Dura-Europas reflect the state of Christianity within the Roman Empire? Answer: This house is small and secondhand in contrast to the grand temples the Empire supported. Peter's? Answer: Constantine was both Roman emperor and defender of the Christian faith. Upon her brother's death.Answer: a. Comprehension How does Sta. Rome. Analysis 42. How does the painting from Dura Europos reflect Late Antique art? Answer: The important figures are presented as larger than the other characters.\1 ( (J S 43. Knowledge . For example the episode of Samuel anointing David. This allowed archaeological excavations and has formulated the basis of our understanding of the role the various religions played within the Empire. Analyses JI r \10(1. Costanza mirror Imperial Roman. The consequence of birth was immaterial. leaving its various early cult buildings and shrines virtually intact. The purple toga distinguishes David. It was constructed on the spot of Peter's grave. Analysis 47. 358 . The building itself fulfils the words. Honorius had to move the imperial capital from Milan to Ravenna in order to . Peter's relationship and place in Christendom. fell in 410 CE to the Visigoths. In order to keep the peace between his Christian and pagan constituencies he order the construction of churches on the city's outskirts. The traditional 'identificatiorrfor this structure is the tombt)lmaus_QLenm of Constantine's daughter. Peter's was the most magnificent of these Early Christian churches. This was especially important to the converts. itself. What is the Pentateuch? Answer: It is the first five (5) books of Hebrew Scriptures and is the sacred Jewish text or Torah. The Christian appeal centered on the equality of judgment in the afterlife.architecture? Answer: It is a central-plan bujldjng favored by the Romans especially for the construction of imperial mausolea. Without the approval of the Roman state these communities remained small and attracted the most impoverished. Answer: It is one of the most hallowedsites in Christendom. Constantina. Peter was the first bishop of Rome and subsequent generations of popes are also the bishop of Rome. This Church became the visible si n of t y t e Empire.{lefend his "empire" from invasion. she took the reins of imperial power until her death. Old st. They both represent the last. Analysis/Comprehension 45. "thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church".. 6th century CE Analysis/Comprehension SHORT ANSWER 41.

dressed as philosopher and carrying an unopened scroll. Why is the diptych of the Nicomachi and Symmachi significant? Answer: It indicated that powerful Roman families of the senatorial class did not embrace Christianity even after the edict issued by Theodosius. Analysis • Why is the battle of the Milvian Bridge significant? Answer: Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312 CEo Constantine came to believe that the Christian God divinely ordained his victory. Why are catacombs significant? Answer: Most Early Christian art dates from the third and fourth centuries and was found in the catacombs. Here the shepherd is bringing the calf as a sacrifice to the goddess. The city is surrounded by swamps therefore making it easily defended from barbarian invaders. They could not accept the belief of a god becoming ma12. Why did the Romans so fear and hate the Christians? Answer: Their fear and hatred was predicated on the belief system of Christianity. When did the representations of Christ take on Roman Imperial attributes? 359 . He stayed 3 days inside the whale (ketos or sea dragon) and Christ was in his tomb for 3 days. Comprehension 50. In Christian iconography.49. Romans also could not accept a belief structure that would hold anything in higher regard than the State~ This led to persecution and martyrdom for the Christians. This victory helped bring an end to Christian persecution made official later with the Edict of Milan. beardless Christ. Analysis Why is Jonah important in Early Christian religious tradition? Answer: Jonah prefigured Christ. Analysis 53. Athena. Analysis/Comprehension 52. Why is Ravenna important? Answer: It was the last capital of Western Roman Empire. Nevertheless the diptych does illustrate the longevity of pagan themes and certainly-a classical art style. th~hristian burial sites. Analysis 55. Eventually it fell to the barbarians. How does the theme of the "Good Shepherd" reflect the heritage of the pre-Christian world? Answer: The first representation of this theme can be found in Greek Archaic sculpture. How does the Christ seated reflect both Imperial and Christian iconography? Answer: This smail marble statue presents a youthful.a Pacis. Analysis/Comprehension 57. The iconography combines both Christian and Imperial attributes in this one figure-a youthful Apollo-like god and at the same time a wise and elderly philosopher. first to Odoacer.They also hated the Christians for their refusal to pay homage to the official gods of the Imperial state and included in that pantheon of gods were the Caesars or emperors. symbolizing their salvation and redemption through the sacrifice of Christ. The diptych hearkens back to the elegance and stateliness of the processional friezes from the Parthenon and the AI. which banned pagan worship. This belief was foreign and alien to the Romans. The diptych might be commemorating a marriage between the families or memorializing the deaths of two important family members. It is the catacombs which provided the examples of Early Christian art from this period. As a result he came to believe that this god and Christianity was not a threat to the empire. the Calf-Bearer. a Germanic king and then to Theodoric of the Ostrogoths. Finally in the 6th century it became part of the Byzantine hegemony and a Byzantine outpost in the West. Analysis 54. that theme has been transformed into Christ as the sacrifice and the sheep become the faithful.

Analysis. Analysis Evaluate the effect-the Sarcophagus-of-Junius Bassus had as a visual document-representing Christianity. Answers are found throughout the chapter. How did the Early Christian style change art? Answer: The Early Christian style was a re'ection of the classical style in sculpture and amtmg.and 314-318. Allusions were made in a number of works about his death. the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus has a segment in which Christ appears before Pilate. also how do they refle-ct their respective periods? Answer: pages 301. Evaluate the development of sculpture as a disseminator of Christianity: Use examples to SUpPDrtyour essay. AnalysislEvaluation 62. Analysis/Comprehension What features did Early Christian architects take from Roman builders. which was the reward for Christians. and what new techniques did they develop? Discuss specific features from at least three buildings. 302-304. Analysis 66. SAMPLE ESSAY QUESTIONS 61. Why are there very few depictions of the crucifixion in Early Christian art? Answer: This depiction was unknown prior to the 5th century. Answers are found throughout the chapter.3-07=3 T3. AnalysislEvaluation 63. Artists emphasized the divinity of Christ through his life as a teacher and miracle worker and not his suffering and death at the hands of the Romans.Answer: After Christianity became Rome's official religion. Use examples to support your essay. Evaluate the implications that the recognition of Christianity as the state religion had for Early Christian art. the world of salvation. How did he impact the art of fourth century in the Early Christian world? Answer: pages 301. Assess the roles played by the Classical style of Greece and Rome in the development of-Early Christian art. 303.p 360 . Analysis/Evaluation 60. Comprehension 59. It sought to replace the classical style with a non-naturalistic. Comprehension 58. How are they similar. This focused the viewer on the spiritual world. how are they different. Compare the mosaics of Santa Costanza with the mosaics of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Answer: pages 301. Knowledge -65. 305-307. Answer: pages 301. 307-314. Who was Justin Martyr? Answer: He was a 2nd century philosopher who converted to Christianity and wrote in his Apologia the need to suspect idolatry when creating statues dedicated to Christianity. How did the Roman Imperial motifs merge with Christian themes? Cite examples to support your argument. and 314-316. . Use examples to support your essay. IQ__ntal figures on gold backgrounds. Examine the contributions of Constantine. the Roman judge and this refers to his coming crucifixion and death. hieratic aesthetic that feature wafer-thin. 312-313.

1-1-9~ Dura Europos Ravenna Rome =Milan Answer: c. Ravenna b. Rome d. Apollinare Nuovo. Christ seated 73. Community House.Answer: pages 305-307 and 308-309. (Figure 11-11) a. S. squinch 361 . Analysis 70. Santa Sabina. Rome c. Peter's. Rome (Figure 11-8) a. Compare and contrast the images of Christ as the Good Shepherd from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia and Miracle of Loaves and Fishes from Sant' Apollinare Nuovo. Analysis SLIDE IDENTIFICATION 71. Rome c. how do the figures compare as representations of an ideal? What are the differences? Answer: pages 307-309 and Chapter 10 pages 287-289. (Figur-e a. a. Sol Invictus Answer: a. domed ceiling c. (Figure 11-2) a. the Crucifixion c. timbered-ceiling b. c. Compare and contrast the representation of Septimius Severus in his Chariot from his arch and Christ Enthroned (small statue). Analysis 69. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Community House. b. Dura Europos 74. Ravenna b. Christ seated b. Dum Bumpas Answer: c. 75. Good Shepherd d. Santa Costanza. Dura Europos d. Santa Sabina Answer: c. 307-313 and Chapter 10 pages 265-269. How do the representations of Christ as Sol Invictus and the Augustus Primaporta reflect not only their respective periods but also the political values of each period? Answer: pages 301. Synagogue. How does each reflect the synthesis of Classical values? Answer: pages 314-318. St. 72. Rome (Figure 11-6) a. Evaluation 68. Santa Costanza.

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