A Manual of Abhidhamma

(Abhidhammattha Sangaha)
By Narada Maha Thera




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Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.


A Manual of Abhidhamma

Abhidhammattha Saïgaha
of Bhadanta Anuruddhàcariya Edited In The Original Pàli Text With English Translation And Explanatory Notes By Nàrada Mahà Thera, Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society, 123, off Jalan Berhala, 50470 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Publication of the Buddhist Missionary Society, First edition 1956 Second revised edition 1968 Third revised edition 1975 Fourth revised edition 1979 © All rights reserved Fifth Edition published by the Buddhist Missionary Society. ISBN 967–9920–42–9 (1987)

About this book
Abhidhamma is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha, sometimes referred to as the ultimate teaching (paramattha desanà). In it, man is described as a psycho-physical being consisting of both mind and matter, and it gives a microscopic analysis of the human being. Abhidhamma explains the process of birth and death in detail. In addition to defining consciousness, it also analyses and classifies thoughts mainly from an ethical standpoint. Various types of consciousness are also set forth in detail, as they arise through the six sense-doors. Modern psychology has begun to acknowledge that it comes within the scope of Abhidhamma for the reason that it deals with the mind, with thoughts, thought-processes, and mental states. Buddhism has, from the very beginning, taught psychology without a psyche. Abhidhamma also helps the student of Buddhism to fully comprehend the Anatta (No-Soul) doctrine which forms the crux of Buddhism. To a person who reads this book in a superficial manner, Abhidhamma appears as dry as dust, but to the wise truth-seekers, it is an indispensable guide as well as an intellectual treat. The reader who reads this book with deep thinking cannot fail to find it with plenty of food for thought and which will help him tremendously to increase his wisdom so essential for leading an ideal Buddhist way of life, and the realization of Ultimate Truth, Nibbàna.

The Author, the late Venerable Nàrada Mahà Thera, was a well-known Buddhist Missionary from Sri Lanka who had written many valuable Buddhist publications, among which is “A Manual of Buddhism”, a grasp of which is imperative prior to the reader commencing his study of “A Manual of Abhidhamma”.

ISBN: 967–9920–59–3

Cover design by Chong Hong Choo




About this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

Chapter One — Consciousness
Introductory Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four Classes of Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immoral Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rootless Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘Beautiful’ Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form-Sphere Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jhàna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formless Sphere Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supramundane Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Realisation of Nibbàna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagrams, I, 51; II–V, 90–92; VI–VIII, 93 16 21 25 27 44 55 62 65 75 80 83

Chapter Two — Mental States
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Fifty-Two Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Combination of Mental States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Immoral Mental States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 ‘Beautiful’ Mental States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Supramundane Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Sublime Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Immoral Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Rootless Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Chapter Three — Miscellaneous Section
Feeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Javana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Doors of Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Higher Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 179 185 192 196 201 209 215 220 223

Chapter Four — Analysis of Thought-Processes
Five Sense-Door Thought-Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thought Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mind-Door Thought-Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appanà Thought-Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure of Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure of Javana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nirodhasamàpatti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section on Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 235 243 245 251 256 258 259 262 263

Chapter Five — Process-Freed Chapter
Four Kinds of Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Celestial Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Fourfold Rebirth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Four-Fold Kamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immoral Kamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moral Kamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Various Types of Kamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure with regard to Decease and Rebirth . . . . . . . Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Death Nimittas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Stream of Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagrams, X, 313–314; XI, 315; XII, 316

284 285 286 289 290 302 305 308 311

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

Chapter Six — Analysis of Matter
Introductory Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enumeration of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Arising of Material Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grouping of Material Qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Arising of Material Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nibbana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram XIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 324 335 341 348 351 353 359

Chapter Seven — Abhidhamma Categories
Introductory Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immoral Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixed Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

363 363 369 372

Factors of Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram XV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthesis of the Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

381 388 391 392

Chapter Eight — The Compendium of Relations
Introductory Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Law of Dependent Arising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Law of Causal Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relations of Mind and Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pa¤¤atti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 398 413 414 426

Chapter Nine — Mental Culture
Introductory Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compendium of Calm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stages of Mental Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signs of Mental Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Råpa Jhànas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aråpa Jhànas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supernormal Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Different Kinds of Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emancipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Path of Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attainments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

434 434 436 437 438 439 439 441 458 460 471 472 475 484 485

Abhidhamma, as the term implies, is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha. It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine. The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Piñaka, is the conventional teaching (vohàra desanà), and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching (paramattha desanà). In the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute this complex machinery of man, are microscopically analysed. Chief events connected with the process of birth and death are explained in detail. Intricate points of the Dhamma are clarified. The Path of Emancipation is set forth in clear terms. Modern Psychology, limited as it is, comes within the scope of Abhidhamma inasmuch as it deals with the mind, with thoughts, thought-processes, and mental states, but it does not admit of a psyche or a soul. Buddhism teaches a psychology without a psyche. It one were to read the Abhidhamma as a modern textbook on psychology, one would be disappointed. No attempt has here been made to solve all the problems that confront a modern psychologist. Consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analysed and classified chiefly from an ethical standpoint All mental states are enumerated. The composition of each type of consciousness is set forth in detail. The description of

properties of matter. Bhavaïga and Javana thought-moments. relationship of mind and matter. the crux of Buddhism. That consciousness flows like a stream. Abhidhamma discusses the second factor of man-matter or råpa. The advent of death. are described. Giving a wealth of details about mind. are of special interest to a research student in psychology.thought-processes that arise through the five sense doors and the mind-door is extremely interesting. a view propounded by some modern psychologists like William James. material forces. which are explained only in the Abhidhamma. It must be added that an Abhidhamma student can fully comprehend the Anattà (No-soul) doctrine. x . Such a clear exposition of thought-processes cannot be found in any other psychological treatise. source of matter. the evidentially verifiable doctrine of Kamma and Rebirth are fully explained. Fundamental units of matter. becomes extremely clear to one who understands the Abhidhamma. In the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha there is a brief exposition of the Law of Dependent Origination. and which have no parallel in modern psychology. which is important both from a philosophical and an ethical standpoint. followed by a descriptive account of the Causal Relations which finds no parallel in any other philosophy. process of rebirth in various planes without anything to pass from one life to another.

It should be made clear that Abhidhamma does not attempt to give a systematised knowledge of mind and matter. an Indian monk of Kanjeevaram (Kà¤cipura). together with commentaries and sub-commentaries. a general knowledge of Abhidhamma may easily be acquired. As Mrs.” In Abhidhamma all irrelevant problems that interest students and scholars. the authorship of which is attributed to venerable Anuruddha Thera. have to be read and re-read patiently and critically. Abhidhamma deals with “(1) What we find (a) within us (b) around us and of (2) what we aspire to find. Nibbàna. Based on that philosophy an ethical system has been evolved to realise the ultimate goal. To be a master of Abhidhamma all the seven books. It investigates these two composite factors of socalled being to help the understanding of things as they truly are. gives an epitome of the entire Abhidhamma Piñaka. but having no relation to one’s Deliverance. The Abhidhammattha Saïgaha. It is still the most fitting introduction to Abhidhamma. Rhys Davids rightly says. To the wise truth-seekers. Abhidhamma is not a subject of fleeting interest designed for the superficial reader.A physicist should not delve into Abhidhamma to get a thorough knowledge of physics. By mastering this book. Abhidhamma is an indisxi . A philosophy has been developed on these lines. are deliberately set aside.

“Is Abhidhamma absolutely essential to realise Nibbàna. based on the experience of those who have understood and realised. It deals with realities and a practical way of noble living. who lost her dear and near ones. Seek thyself. The Dhamma is not apart from oneself.pensable guide and an intellectual treat. The four Noble Truths that form the foundation of the Buddha’s teaching are dependent on this onefathom body. Abhidhamma must appear as dry as dust.’ or even to comprehend things as they truly are?” Undoubtedly Abhidhamma is extremely helpful to comprehend fully the word of the Buddha and realise Nibbàna. But one cannot positively assert that Abhidhamma is absolutely necessary to gain one’s Deliverance. Look within. realise Nibbàna. to the superficial. Understanding or realisation is purely personal (sandiññhika). Did not sorrow-afflicted Pañàcàrà. However. as it presents a key to open the door of reality. Without a knowledge of the Abhidhamma one at times finds it difficult to understand the real significance of some profound teachings of the Buddha. Lo. To develop Insight (Vipassanà) Abhidhamma is certainly very useful. the truth will unfold itself. reflecting on the disapxii . It may be questioned. Here there is food for thought to original thinkers and to earnest students who wish to increase their wisdom and lead an ideal Buddhist life. the summum bonum of ‘Buddhism.

by comprehending the impermanent nature of a clean handkerchief which he was handling. Abhidhamma is not a teaching of the Buddha. etc. as a mark of gratitude to His mother who was born in a celestial plane. The principal topics (màtikà) of the advanced teaching such as moral states (kusalà dhammà). on hearing half a stanza relating to cause and effect? To some a fallen withered leaf had alone been sufficient to attain Pacceka Buddhahood. realise Nibbàna. were taught by the Buddha to Venerable Sàriputta Thera. immoral states (akusalà dhamma) andindeterminate states (abyàkatà dhammà). According to some scholars. gazing at the sun? Did not Upatissa. a slight indication is sufficient to discover great truths. To profound thinkers. but is a later elaboration of scholastic monks.pearance of water that washed her feet? Did not Cåëapanthaka. later Venerable Sàriputta Thera. Commentators state that the Buddha. who subsequently elaborated them in the six books (Kathàxiii . attain Arahantship. It was mindfulness on respiration (ànàpàna sati) that acted as the basis for the Bodhisatta to attain Buddhahood. Tradition. preached the Abhidhamma to His mother Deva and others continuously for three months. who could not memorise a verse even for four months. attributes the nucleus of the Abhidhamma to the Buddha Himself. however..

intellect. will. it has to be admitted that he or they had intellectual genius comparable only to that of the Buddha. Sometimes readers will come across unusual words xiv . the etymology has been given in many instances. There are many technical terms. too. It is very difficult to suggest an appropriate English equivalent for Abhidhamma. To avoid any misunderstanding. volition. due to preconceived views. have judiciously been retained wherever the English renderings seem to be inadequate. To convey the correct meaning implied by the Pàli terms. Readers should try to understand in what sense these technical terms are employed in Abhidhamma. in Abhidhamma which cannot be rendered into English so as to convey their exact connotation. At times Pàli technical terms have been used in preference to English renderings so that the reader may be acquainted with them and not get confused with English terminology. This is evident from the intricate and subtle Paññhàna Pakaraõa which minutely describes the various causal relations. Whoever the great author or authors of the Abhidhamma may have been. Pàli words. though at times cumbersome to those not acquainted with the language. perception are used in a specific sense in Western Philosophy. Some English equivalents such as consciousness.vatthu being excluded) that comprise the Abhidhamma Piñaka.

and so forth. volitional activities. In preparing this translation. Rhys Davids and the Compendium of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha Saïgaha) by Mr. 5. Nàrada 11. functionals. Liberty has been taken to quote them wherever necessary with due acknowledgement. Shwe Zan Aung proved extremely helpful to me. My grateful thanks are due to the Buddhist Publication Society.such as corruption. Buddhist Psychology by Mrs. Their exct meaning should be clearly understood. resultants. xv . Kandy for volunteering to publish this second revised edition. defilements. 1968/2512. which are of great significance from an Abhidhamma standpoint.

Here the Pàli term is used in the sense of doctrine or teaching. sublime.” The prefix “abhi” is used in the sense of preponderant great. Abhidhammattha-Saïgaha is the name of the book. excellent. 2. Abhidhamma.Abhidhammattha—Saïgaha A Manual of Abhidhamma Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa Chapter I (Citta-Saïgaha-Vibhàgo) Different Types Of Consciousness Introductory Verse 1. Dhamma is a multisignificant term. do I respectfully salute. derived from the root dhar. Sammasambuddhamatulam —sasaddhammaganuttamam Abhivadiya bhasissam —Abhidhammatthasaïgaham 1. to support. The Fully Enlightened Peerless One. Saïgaha means “a compendium. etc. Notes:— 1. literally. According to the Atthasàlinã. and shall speak concisely of things contained in the Abhidhamma. to hold. distinct. with the Sublime Doctrine and the Noble Order. means “Higher Doctrine” Attha here means “things”. 16 .

and Ven. Dhammasaïganã. greater exceeding— or “visiññha”—distinguished. Kathàvatthu. See Mrs. Buddhist Psychology (Dhammasaïganã translation). Puggalapa¤¤atti. In the Sutta Piñaka and Vinaya Piñaka the Buddha has used conventional terms such as man. viz:— (i) — (Citta) Consciousness. distinct. 17 . or because it exceeds the teachings of the Sutta Piñaka and Vinaya Piñaka. See The Expositor.2 i. on the contrary. As a distinction is made with regard to the method of treatment it is called Abhidhamma.1 3.” This book is divided into four chapters. Dhammasaïganãganã 3—“Classification of Dhammas. and so on. p. 3. or because it is conducive to one’s Deliverance. In the Abhidhamma Piñaka. everything is microscopically analysed and abstract terms are used. chiefly owing to the preponderance of the teachings. Dhammasaïganã Vibhanga¤ ca — Kathàvatthu ca Puggalaü Dhàtu-YamakaPaññhànaü-Abhidhammo’ ti vuccati. being. Dhàtukathà. Yamaka and Paññhàna. 3. (ii) — (Råpa) Matter. it is called Abhidhamma. animal. Abhidhamma means the Higher Doctrine because it enables one to achieve one’s Deliverance. Rhys Davids.“abhi” signifies either ‘atireka”—higher. Thus. and owing to the excellent analytical method of treatment. 1. special. sublime. (iii) — (Nikkhepa) Summary. The Abhidhamma Piñaka consists of seven treatises— namely. (iv) — (Atthuddhàra) Elucidation. Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka. part i. 2. Nyanatiloka. Vibhaïga.

The 22 Tika Màtikàs (Triplets) and the 100 Duka-Màtikàs (Couplets). Pañisambhidà (Analytical Knowledge). consists of 8. and a Catechism (Pa¤hapucchaka).e. are the most important.” There are eighteen divisions in this book. Sikkhàpada (Precepts). Vibhaïga—“Divisions. Sammappadhàna (Supreme Efforts). 4. Satipaññhàna (Foundations of Mindfulness). Paccayàkàra (Causal Genesis). âyatana (Sense-spheres) and Dhàtu (Elements). One Bhànavàra. The first three divisions.000 letters). In extent the book exceeds thirteen bhànavàras 4 (recitals). and Dhammahadaya (Essence of Truth). i. Bhànavàra = 250 verses: 1 verse = 4 lines:. more than 104. ii. Bojjhaïga (Factors of Wisdom). Appama¤¤à (Illimitables). 18 . Most of these divisions consist of three parts— Suttanta explanation. Indriya (Controlling Faculties). The other chapters deal with Sacca (Truths). 1 line = 8 letters. Magga (Paths). Khuddakavatthu (Minor Subjects). which deal with Khandha (Aggregates). which comprise the quintessence of the Abhidhamma.000 letters.000 letters. therefore. Iddhipàda (Means of Accomplishments). Jhàna (Ecstasies or Absorptions). Abhidhamma explanation. The major part of the book is devoted to the explanation of the first triplet— Kusalà Dhammà. ¥àõa (Wisdom). Akusalà Dhammà and Abyàkatà Dhammà.. In this treatise there are thirty-five Bhànavàras (280. are explained in this book.

The Atthasàlinã Commentary states that it contains one thousand Suttas: five hundred orthodox and five hundred heterodox.” The authorship of this treatise is ascribed to venerable Moggalliputta Tissa Thera. This book deals with 216 controversies and is divided into 23 chapters. it deals with various types of individuals. 19 . It was he who presided at the third Conference held at Pàñaliputta (Patna) in the 3rd century B. Puggalapa¤¤atti—“Designation of Individuals.” In the method of exposition this book resembles the Aïguttara Nikàya of the Sutta Piñaka. etc. or dissociated from. There are ten chapters in this book. The first chapter deals with single individuals. This work of his was included in the Abhidhamma Piñaka at that Conference. who flourished in the time of King Dhammàsoka. Instead of dealing with various Dhammas. In extent it exceeds five Bhànavàras (40. There are fourteen chapters in this work. iv. v.000 letters). associated with.” This book discusses whether Dhammas are included or not included in. Aggregates (Khandha). Kathàvatthu—“Points of Controversy. and Elements (Dhàtu). Bases (âyatana). In extent it is about the size of the Dãgha Nikàya.iii. the second with pairs. Dhàtukathà—“Discussion with reference to Elements. In extent it exceeds six Bhànavàras (48.000 letters).C. the third with groups of three.

which deals with roots. âyatana (Bases). and which comprise the essence of the Abhidhamma Piñaka. In extent it contains 120 Bhànavàras (960. Anusaya (Latent Dispositions). or condition (paccaya). Khandha (Aggregates). Throughout the book a question and its converse are found grouped together. The term Paññhàna is composed of the prefix “pa”. Dhàtu (Elements). and Indriya (Controlling Faculties). 20 . Yamaka—“The Book of Pairs.” It is so called owing to its method of treatment. One who patiently reads this treatise cannot but admire the profound wisdom and penetrative insight of the Buddha. already mentioned in the Dhammasaïganã. relation. Måla (Roots). It is so called because it deals with the 24 modes of causal relations 5 and the Triplets (Tika) and Couplets (Duka).vi. Citta (Consciousness).000 letters). Dhamma. various. Sacca (Truths). 5. runs as follows: Are all wholesome Dhammas wholesome roots? And are all wholesome roots wholesome Dhammas? This book is divided into ten chapters—namely. and “ñhàna”. Saïkhàra (Conditioned Things). the first pair of the first chapter of the book. vii. There is no doubt of the fact that to produce such an elaborate and learned treatise one must certainly be an intellectual genius. These will be explained in a subsequent chapter.” This is the most important and the most voluminous book of the Abhidhamma Piñaka. For instance. Paññhàna—“The Book of Causal Relations.

Nyanatiloka. § 2. could be gauged by the words of the Atthasàlinã which states: “And while He contemplated the contents of the Dhammasaïganã His body did not emit rays. mental states. Note:— 4. Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka. pp. and similarly with the contemplation of the next five books. and iv. of presentation. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 21 . 193.” 6 _______ Abhidhammatthà (Subject—Matter) § 2. and so on. iii. matter. and the introductory discourse of the Expositor. Relations. ii. when coming to the Great Book. But. Apparent reality is ordinary conventional truth (sammuti-sacca). Ultimate reality is abstract truth (paramattha-sacca). also known as “Mahà Pakaraõa”. For a detailed exposition of these seven books see Rev. In an ultimate sense the categories of Abhidhamma. 5–21. 135. Realities—There are two realities—apparent and ultimate. consciousness. 6. He began to contemplate the 24 universal causal relations of condition. part i. Tattha vutt’ àbhidhammatthà —catudhà paramatthato Citttaü cetasikaü råpaü —Nibbànam’ iti sabbathà. His omniscience certainly found its opportunity therein. and the Editor’s Foreword to the Tikapaññhàna Text. are fourfold in all:— i. the Great Book. See also Buddhist Psychology pp. Nibbàna. mentioned therein.The importance attached to this treatise.

being. therefore. but in the laboratory he would say H2O. elements (Dhàtu). Here He employs the analytical method and uses abstract terms such as aggregates (Khandha). etc. etc. Paramattha. Both these objects could be analysed and reduced into fundamental material forces and qualities. In the same way the Buddha in the Sutta Piñaka resorts to conventional usage such as man. For ordinary purposes a scientist would use the term water. in Abhidhamma. yet the distinctive characteristics of these Råpa are identically the same whether they are found in a vessel or a vase. which. the smooth surface of the table we set is apparent reality. are termed Råpa Paramatthas. bases (âyatana). They preserve their identity in 22 . in other words. Although the term immutable is used here it should not be. self. In an ultimate sense the apparent surface consists of forces and qualities or.For instance. Abstract reality may be suggested as the closest equivalent. means immutable or abstract thing. A brass vessel. but in the Abhidhamma Piñaka He adopts a different mode of expression. They are also subject to change. It is a compound formed of parama and attha. understood that all paramatthas are eternal or permanent. for example. abstract (nibbaññita). woman. Parama is explained as immutable (aviparãta). attha means thing. The word paramattha is of great significance in Abhidhamma. vibrations. is not Paramattha.. It changes every moment and may be transmuted into a vase.

According to Abhidhamma “Råpa” connotes both fundamental units of matter and material changes as well. The Supramundane Nibbàna 23 . The so-called being is mundane. Another is “Sa¤¤à” (perception). As such Abhidhamma enumerates 28 species of matter. The former is composed of Nàma and Råpa. It is not used in the sense of meaning here. One of these is “Vedanà” (feeling). The second chapter of this book deals with such mental states (Cetasikas) which are 52 in number. Sa¤¤à (perception). The remaining 50 are collectively called “Saïkhàra”. and matter are Mundane (Lokiya). These four embrace everything that is mundane or supramundane. There are four such Paramatthas or abstract realities. Consciousness. These will be dealt with in a subsequent chapter.whatever combination they are found—hence the commentarial interpretation of Parama as immutable or real. Vedanà (feeling). mental states (with the exception of 8 types of supramundane consciousness and their adjuncts). (mental states). Attha exactly corresponds to the English multi-significant term “thing”. Saïkhàra (mental states) and Vi¤¤àõa (consciousness). “Nàma” denotes both consciousness and mental states. The receptacle of these mental properties is “Vi¤¤àõa” (consciousness). According to the above analysis the so-called being is composed of five Groups or Aggregates (Pa¤cakkhandha):— Råpa (matter). Nibbàna is supramundane. which is the subject-matter of this present chapter. and Nibbàna is Supramundane (Lokuttara).

immutable. Vi¤¤àõa are all used as synonymous terms in Abhidhamma. Cittuppàda. When it is divided into five aggregates (Pa¤cakkhandha). According to the commentary Citta is that which is aware of (cinteti = vijànàti) an object. Mana. There is no reason why such a distinction should be made between Citta and Vi¤¤àõa. “The Grammarian’s definition of the term Citta (mind) is àrammaõaü cinteti’ti cittaü (thought = thinking of an object). Vi¤¤àõa is used. It is not that which thinks of an object as the term implies. Ceta. Mr. since there is no agent like a soul. They deal with what is within us and around us. 24 . When the so-called being is divided into its two constituent parts. Mind is then ordinarily defined as that which is conscious of an object. From an Abhidhamma standpoint Citta may better be defined as the awareness of an object. In isolated cases. Nàma (mind) is used.is the only absolute reality. 234. Here the word cinteti is used in its most comprehensive sense of vijànàti (to know). 7. Hence from the Abhidhamma standpoint no distinction is made between mind and consciousness. which is the summum bonum of Buddhism. 2. Besides. Consciousness may therefore be tentatively defined as the relation between àrammaõika (subject) and àrammaõa (object). and abstract things. The first Paramattha or reality is Citta. both terms Citta and Mana are frequently used. to think. Aung writes in his introduction to the Compendium. p. they are irreducible. From this definition we get our definition of Vi¤¤àõa (consciousness). Nàma.7 It is derived from the root “citi”. in the ordinary sense of mind. The other three are called realities in that they are things that exist (vijjamàna dhammà).” See Compendium p. The term Citta is invariably employed while referring to different classes of consciousness. Citta.

or that which pertains to the senses and their corresponding objects. odour. ii. Tattha Cittani tavà catubbidham hoti:— i. sound. Avacara means that which moves about or that which frequents. Notes:— 5. By “Kàma” is also meant the eleven different kinds of sentient existence—namely. (Catubbidha-Cittàni) The Four Classes of Consciousness § 3. As a 25 . iv. (ii) Consciousness pertaining to the Form-Sphere. and (iv) Supramundane consciousness. _______ § 3. “Kamàvacara”. Råpàvacaraü. iii. Kàmàvacaraü. (iii) Consciousness pertaining to the Formless-Sphere. taste. first. Lokuttaraü c’àti. and contact. human realm (Manussaloka). Aråpàvacaraü. Kàma is either subjective sensual craving or sensuous objects such as forms. therefore. (i) Consciousness pertaining to the Sensuous-Sphere. is fourfold— namely. means that which mostly moves about in the sentient realm. and the six celestial realms (Sagga). the four states of misery (Apàya). consciousness. Of them.The other three Paramatthas will be dealt with in their due places.

6. only the mind exists in these planes. Råpalokas are planes where those who develop Råpajhànas are born. It is the supramundane consciousness that enables one to transcend this world of mind-body. Aråpavacara respectively mean either that which pertains to Råpa and Aråpa Jhànas (ecstasies) or that which mostly moves about in the Råpa and Aråpa planes. They are found in other spheres of life as well when objects of sense are perceived by the mind. or that which transcends. under exceptional circumstances. beyond. water. By the power of meditation.—material objects of concentration such as earth. A question now arises—‘Why are these distinguished as Råpalokas when there are subtle material bodies (Råpa) in heavenly planes too?’ The commentarial explanation is that because beings are born in these planes by developing Jhànas based mainly on Råpa Kasiõas. Loka + Uttara = Lokuttara. Råpàvacara. but by will-power. Ordinarily both mind and body are inseparable. “Uttara” means above. these types of consciousness arise mostly in the aforesaid sentient existence. they could be separated. The first three classes of consciousness are called Lokiya (mundane). fire. Aråpalokas are planes without material bodies. 7. 26 . just as it is possible to suspend a piece of iron in air by some magnetic force.rule. Here “Loka” means the five aggregates. etc.

6. Upekkhàsahagataü. Somanassa-sahagataü. Akusala Cittàni) a. sasaïkhàrikam ekan’ ti. asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 8. Somanassa-sahagataü. diññhigatavippayuttaü. diññhigatavippayuttaü. Immoral Consciousness _______ § 4. diññhigatavippayuttaü diññhigatavippayuttaü diññhigatasampayuttaü diññhigatasampayuttaü. Upekkhàsahagataü. 4. Upekkhàsahagataü. 27 . asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 7. diññhigatasampayuttaü. 5. Upekkhàsahagataü. diññhigatasampayuttaü. Tattha katamaü Kàmàvacaraü? 1 2. sasa¤khàrikam ekaü. sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 3. imàni aññha’pi Lobhasahagatacittàni nàma.(Kàmàvacara-Cittàni) Consciousness Pertaining to the Sensuous Sphere _______ (a. Somanassa-sahagataü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü.

accompanied 28 . accompanied by pleasure. and connected with wrong view. and disconnected with wrong view. Amongst them what is Kàmàvacara? _______ (Consciousness Rooted in Attachment) 1. Domanassasahagataü.9. pañighasampayuttaü. Upekkhàsahagataü. 4. unprompted. _______ Aññhadhà lobhamålàni—dosamålàni ca dvidhà Mohamålàni ca dve’ ti—dvàdasàkusalà siyuü. 10. unprompted. One consciousness. Icce’vaü sabbathà’ pi dvàdasàkusala-cittàni samattàni. One consciousness. accompanied by pleasure. asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Domanassasahagataü. unprompted. 2. accompanied by pleasure. accompanied by pleasure. 5. prompted. _______ 11. One consciousness. pañighasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekan’ ti imàni dve’pi Pañighasampayuttacittàni nàma. _______ § 4. 3. One consciousness. One consciousness. and connected with wrong view. prompted. vicikicchàsampayuttam ekaü 12. Upekkhàsahagataü uddhaccasampayuttam ekan’ ti imàni dve’ pi Momåhacittàni nàma. and disconnected with wrong view.

8. accompanied by indifference. and connected with restlessness. the twelve types of Immoral Consciousness. 12. in all. accompanied by displeasure. These eight types of consciousness are rooted in Attachment. accompanied by indifference. accompanied by indifference. These two types of consciousness are connected with Illwill. _______ Thus end. _______ (Consciousness Rooted in Delusion or Ignorance) 11. and connected with illwill. These two types of consciousness are rooted in sheer Ignorance. prompted. prompted. One consciousness. and disconnected with wrong view. 10. prompted. and connected with wrong view. One consciousness. 7. One consciousness. One consciousness. One consciousness. 29 . and connected with doubts. unprompted. and connected with illwill. One consciousness.by indifference. unprompted. _______ (Consciousness Rooted in Illwill or Aversion) _______ 9. One consciousness. accompanied by indifference. accompanied by displeasure. accompanied by indifference. and disconnected with wrong view. and connected with wrong view. 6.

It should be understood that both Kamma and Vipàka are purely mental. Notes:— Four Classes of Consciousness 8. two in Illwill. Kusala. Thus there are twelve types of Immoral Consciousness. aversion or illwill (pañigha). because they are rooted in non-attachment or generosity (alobha). “inoperative” or “functional”. With respect to its nature it divides itself into four classes. The fourth type of consciousness is called Kiriya which. Kiriya— In the previous section consciousness was broadly classified under four divisions according to the planes in which it is experienced. are termed Kamma. Those types of consciousness that arise as the inevitable results of these Kusala and Akusala Cittas are called Vipàka (resultant) Cittas.(Summary) Eight are rooted in Attachment. Some types of consciousness are immoral (Akusala). because they spring from attachment (lobha). Akusala. 30 . and ignorance (moha). is rendered by “karmically ineffective”. Both Kusala and Akusala Cittas constitute what. the latter are wholesome as they produce desirable effects (iññha vipàka). for want of a better term. in Pàli. Vipàka. and wisdom (amoha). The former are unwholesome as they produce undesirable effects (aniññha vipàka). Opposed to them are the moral types of consciousness (Kusala). and two in Ignorance. goodwill (adosa).

may Lobha.9. lubh. there arises. as a rule. and to contact. ordinarily there is aversion. Alobha does not merely √ √ √ √ 31 . dosa. moha is common to all evil. stupidity. to be displeased. In Pàli such aversion is termed dosa or pañigha. against. It is ‘moha’ that clouds an object and blinds the mind. intense delusion. Lobha and dosa do not arise alone. Pañigha is is derived from ‘gha’ (han). or attach itself. In the case of an undesirable object. Diametrically opposed to the above three roots are the roots of Kusala. to cling. In the case of a desirable object of sense. does arise singly—hence the designation ‘momåha’. Craving is also used as an equivalent of lobha. Three Roots (Måla) Lobha. They not only indicate the absence of certain evil conditions. clinging or attachment. It is deluMoha is derived from sion. Illwill. Moha. Some scholars prefer ‘greed’. According to the Abhidhamma. Dosa dus. and moha are the three roots of evil. but always in combination with moha. muh. Their opposites are the roots of good. from be rendered by ‘attachment’ or ‘clinging’. to strike. hatred are also suggested as equivalents of ‘pañigha’. derived from ‘pañi’. but also signify the presence of certain positive good conditions. bewilderment. to delude. Sometimes ‘moha’ is rendered by ignorance. on the other hand.

With ‘dukkha’ (physical pain) and ‘sukha’ (physical happiness) there are altogether five kinds of feelings.. and ‘mana’. and one accompanied by happiness. and ‘kha’ to bear.. Indifference is used here in this particular sense. 10. mind) means bad-mindedness. sensation. and ‘mana’. but also wisdom or knowledge (¤àõa or pa¤¤à). but also goodwill. or loving-kindness (mettà). Both these sensations are physical. pain. Vedanà or Feeling Feeling or. and ‘upekkhà’ (indifferent. equanimity or neither pleasurable nor displeasurable).e. or to endure. a displeasurable feeling.. is that which is difficult to be endured. bad. Chiefly there are three kinds of feelings—namely. Dukkha (du. or benevolence. Literally. as some prefer to say. the term means good-mindedness. Somanassa is an abstract noun formed of ‘su’.e. happiness. Adosa does not merely mean non-anger or non-hatred. easy. Similarly ‘domanassa’ (‘du’. According to Abhidhamma there is only one type of consciousness accompanied by pain. but also generosity. good. is a mental state common to all types of consciousness. difficult). neutral. Sukha is composed of ‘su’. but not in the sense of callousness. ‘somanassa’ (pleasurable). a pleasurable feeling. The third feeling is neutral. mind.mean non-attachment. Two are connected with a displeasurable feel32 . i. Amoha does not merely mean non-delusion. i.e. What is easily endured is ‘sukha’ i. ‘domanassa’ (displeasurable).

See Upekkhà. when qualified by ‘micchà’. to perceive. belief. to prepare. domanassa. Like Dhamma. to see. Note. Diññhi— ‘dis’. Saïkhàra also is a multisignificant term. When qualified by ‘sammà’. to accomplish. well and to do. it refers to all the mental states. When used as one of the five ‘aggregates’ (Pancakkhandha). the Abhidhamma. Somanassa. and upekkhà are purely mental. 12.ing. etc. 33 . except √ √ 8. This is the reason why there is no upekkhà in the case of touch which. Sukha and dukkha are purely physical. arranging. opinion. it means right view or right belief. it means wrong view or wrong belief. Literally. according to Abhidhamma. must be either happy or painful. Saïkhàrika— This is purely a technical term used in a specific sense in ‘kar’. Here the term is used without any qualification in the sense of wrong view. preparing. 42. It is This term is derived from usually translated as view. it means accomplishing. Of the 89 types of consciousness. in the remaining 85 are found either a pleasurable feeling or a neutral feeling. Its precise meaning is to be understood according to the context. It is formed of ‘saü’.8 11.

devoid + cikicchà. In the Paticca-Samuppàda it is applied to all moral and immoral activities. or induced by oneself or by another. one does an act. scepticism. with effort) is that which is prompted. good and bad thoughts. then it is asaïkhàrika. Vicikicchà is the inability to decide anything definitely that it is as such. √ 9. Sa-saïkhàrika (lit.vedana and sa¤¤à. or any premeditation. induced by another.. It means that which is devoid of the remedy of knowledge. sorrow. inquiring. 34 . Buddhaghosa—Majjhima Nikàya Commentary. without effort) is that which is thus unaffected. to be vexed. it is invariably applied to all conditioned things. seeking. to strain. on the contrary. instigated. If. Commentary gives two interpretations. ii) Vi. etc. then it is sa-saïkhàrika. but done spontaneously. If. for instance.. It is vexation due to perplexed thinking. and a = un. Both these interpretations indicate a perplexed or undecided frame of mind. Vicikicchà— This is an ethico-religious term.9 (i) Vici = vicinanto. When sankhàra is used to signify that which is subject to change. to tire. In this particular instance the term is used with ‘sa’ = co—. Doubt. or after much deliberation or premeditation on one’s part. one does it instantly without any external or internal inducement. perplexity.. remedy (of knowledge). ‘kicch. ‘Asaïkhàrika’ (lit. 13.

and si. and get excited. destroys evil or contemptible things is kusala. to destroy. Uddhacca— dhu. + 10. 50. it means ‘over-excitement’ or ‘rousing up’. to tremble. ku. 35 . bad. Atthasàlinã gives the etymological meaning of Kusala as follows 10:— (i) ku. That which shakes off. 14. bad. Kusala is that which cuts off vice. to This is formed of u = over. A confused restless states of mind is meant here. See The Expositor. to lie. 15.indecision are used as the closest English equivalents. Nor is blind faith advocated in Buddhism. √ √ √ √ (iii) a. That which lies contemptibly is kusa. p. to tremble. mental distraction or confusion. Akusala is the direct opposite of Kusala. Literally. (ii) Kusa + Kusa is from ku. to shake. + sal. Atthàsalini explains uddhacca as disquietude. Kusala and Akusala— This section deals with Akusala types of consciousness. It is the antithesis of one-pointedness. evil. bad. to cut. vice. √ su. lu. to reduce. Reasoning or investigation for the sake of understanding the truth is not discouraged in Buddhism. part i.

‘clever’ (cheka).11 _______ With regard to the connotation of the term the Atthasàlinã states12:— “The word kusala means ‘of good health’ (àrogya). That which cuts off (evil) by wisdom is kusala. softness.That which reduces or eradicates evil is kusa. and the heat of passions. so derived. 50. Kusala is wholesome in the sense of being free from physical and mental sickness through passions. Kusala is faultless in the sense of being free from the fault of passions.” With the exception of ‘clever’ all the other three meanings are applicable to kusala. Here sukhavipaka does not necessarily mean pleasurable feeling. fitness. part i. Kusa. knowledge or wisdom. Kusa. ‘productive of happy results’ (sukha vipàka). See Buddhist Psychology. 36 . etc. + lu. to take. It is used in the sense of physical and mental buoyancy. the evil of passions. √ √ (iv) Kusa grass cuts a part of the hand with both edges. Even so kusala cuts off both sections of passion those that have arisen and those that have not arisen. 12. See The Expositor. 11. to cut. la. b. + That which is grasped by wisdom is kusala. lxxxii. ‘faultless’ (anavajja). Atthasàlinã further states that kusala is used in the sense of having accomplished with wisdom (kosallasambhåtaññhena. kosallaü vuccati pa¤¤à). p. so derived.

Here Kiriya is used in the sense of ineffective action. even so kusala and akusala actions produce their due desirable and undesirable effects. How are we to assess whether an action is kusala or akusala? What is the criterion of morality?13 In short what is connected with the three roots of evil is akusala. p. Good deeds of Buddhas and Arahants are called Kiriya because Kamma is not accumulated by them as they have gone beyond both good and evil. In Abhidhamma Vipàka and Kiriya are collectively called Abyàkata (Indeterminate) that which does not man13. See my Buddha-Dhamma. They are called Vipàka.’ Akusala would therefore mean unwholesome or immoral. Kamma is causally effective. right and wrong respectively. Kiriya or Kriyà.Judging from the various meanings attached to the term. What is connected with the three roots of good is kusala. literally. 98. 17. Kusala and akusala correspond to good and bad. means action. As a seed sown on fertile soil germinates and fructifies itself sooner or later. Kiriya is causally ineffective. Some scholars prefer ‘skilful. 37 . kusala may be interpreted as wholesome or moral. according to its own intrinsic nature.

viewing no evil thereby. The former is Abyàkata. With joy a boy instantly steals an apple. _______ Illustrative examples for the twelve different types of immoral consciousness. Illwill 9. With hatred one murders another after premeditation. 1. Prompted by a friend. a boy joyfully steals an apple. The remaining four types of consciousness are similar to the above with the difference that the stealing is done with a neutral feeling. 3. 8. With hatred one murders another without any premeditation. 6. 7.ifest itself in the way of an effect. 5. 10. the latter. Attachment 18. 4. because it is an effect in itself. 38 . 2. because it does not produce an effect. The same illustration serves for the third and fourth types of consciousness with the difference that the stealing is done without any false view. viewing no evil thereby.

If such an action is 39 . for instance. What about vivisection? A scientist may vivisect without the least compunction. Does one experience illwill when one kills a wounded animal with the object of putting an end to its suffering? Moved by compassion. one. Prompted by whatever motive. His chief motive may be scientific investigation for consequent alleviation of suffering. Could it be the third type of consciousness rooted in “lobha”? An adult who kills for sport does experience the 9th or 10th type of consciousness. He is only playing with it. there is the thought of killing. Yet.19. Where there is displeasure there is illwill in a subtle or gross way. because there is a certain kind of aversion towards the object. as a rule. yet there is illwill at the moment of killing. Killing:—According to Abhidhamma killing is invariably done with illwill or aversion. Suppose. who cannot discriminate between right and wrong. one may do so. There is ill-feeling at the moment of killing. Where there is illwill (pañigha) there is displeasure (domanassa). a little child. Now. smilingly kills an ant. He does not know that he is committing the evil of killing. fondling the object. does he cherish any illwill towards the ant? Is there any hatred or ill-feeling in his case? It is difficult to say so. kills with a thought of illwill. What type of consciousness does he experience at that moment? It cannot be the 9th and 10th types because he innocently does it with joy.

morally justifiable. because it is an unwelcome event. 12. who was a Sotàpanna Saint. A person doubts the existence of the Buddha. There is no doubt a subtle kind of aversion over the unpleasant news. on the passing away of the Buddha. because they have eradicated pañigha or dosa (hatred or illwill. When. A person is distracted in mind. unable to concentrate on an object. Ignorance 11. the answer will become clear. for instance.) Great was the lamentation of venerable ânanda. practised perfect equanimity without shedding a tear. 20. does one harbour illwill at that time? If one reflects on the meaning of the term pañigha. Anàgàmãs and Arahants never feel sorry nor grieve. 40 . but Arahants and Anàgàmãs like venerable Kassapa and Anuruddha. owing to his stupidity. It is the same in the case of a person who weeps over the death of a dear one. could one object to the wholesale destruction of patients suffering from acute chronic incurable diseases? It was stated above that there is illwill where there is displeasure. one feels sorry for having failed in an examination. or the efficacy of the Dhamma.

Thought—(8) Covetousness (abhijjhà). There are ten kinds of evil committed through deed. Word—(4) Lying (musàvàda). (b) Denying both the cause and the result (Ahetuka) and (c) Denying Kamma (Akiriya-Diññhi):— These constitute wrong views. 14. (3) Sexual Misconduct (kàmesumicchàcàra). (2) Stealing (adinnàdàna). (5) Slandering (pisuõavàcà).As these two types of consciousness are feeble. and (10) False view (micchàdiññhi). due to stupidity or dullness of mind. (6) Harsh speech (pharusavàcà). Stealing is generally done with the first eight types of consciousness. The ten kinds of akusala (evil) in relation to the twelve types of immoral consciousness. Sexual misconduct is committed with the first eight types of consciousness. (9) Hatred (vyàpàda). Deed—(1) Killing (pàõàtipàta).14 All these Akusalas are committed by the aforementioned twelve types of Akusala consciousness. (a) Denying the result of Kamma (Natthika-diññhi). but neutral. 21. the accompanied feeling is neither pleasurable nor displeasurable. 41 . word and thought. (7) Vain talk (samphappalàpa). Killing is generally done by the 9th and 10th types of consciousness.

6th. because he has only attenuated the two Fetters—Kàmaràga (Sense-desire) and Pañigha (Hatred). See Expositor part 1. 2nd. 2nd. Vain talk may spring from the first ten types of consciousness. pp. False views spring from the 1st. An Anàgàmi (Never-Returner). 5th. and 6th. who has attained the third stage of Sainthood. 15 22. Lying may be uttered with the first ten types of consciousness. Eradication of the Akusala Cittas by the four classes of Aryan disciples. 128–135. An Arahant does not give rise to any of the twelve 15. 5th. and 11th types of consciousness as he has destroyed the two Fetters (Saüyojana)—Sakkàyadiññhi (Self-illusion) and Vicikicchà (Doubts). eradicates the above two types of consciousness as he has completely destroyed the said two Fetters. and so is slandering. who has attained the second stage of Sainthood. Covetousness springs from the first eight types of consciousness. A Sotàpanna (Stream-Winner) eradicates the 1st. In such a case there is the possibility of stealing with the 9th and 10th types of consciousness.Theft may be committed with a hateful thought too. A Sakadàgàmi (Once-Returner). 42 . Harsh speech is uttered with the 9th and 10th types of consciousness. Hatred springs from the 9th and 10th types of consciousness. weakens the potentiality of the 9th and 10th types of consciousness.

is eradicated by a Sotàpanna). Imàni satta’pi Akusala Vipàka Cittàni nàma. (13) Upekkhàsahagataü Sampañicchanacittaü. (6) Upekkhàsahagataü Sampañicchanacittaü. Råparàga (Attachment to Råpa Jhànas and Form-Spheres). (3) Ghàõavi¤¤àõaü. one of the ten Fetters. (5) Dukkhasahagataü.Akusala Cittas as he has eradicated the remaining five Fetters too—namely. tatha (2) Sotavi¤¤aõaü. (11) Jivhàvi¤¤àõaü. tathà (9) Sotavi¤¤àõaü. Màna (Conceit). Aråparàga (Attachment to Aråpa Jhànas and Formless-Spheres). (7) Upekkhàsahagataü Santãraõacitta¤ c’àti. (10) Ghàõavi¤¤àõaü. 43 . (12) Sukhasahagataü Kàyavi¤¤àõaü. (4) Jivhàvi¤¤àõaü. Kàyavi¤¤ànaü. ________ (Kusala Vipàk’àhetuka Cittàni) _______ (8) Upekkhàsahagataü kusalavipàkaü Cakkhuvi¤¤àõaü. _______ (Ahetuka Cittàni—18) _______ (Akusala Vipàka Cittàni) _______ § 5 (1) Upekkhàsahagataü Cakkhuvi¤¤àõaü. not mentioned above. Uddhacca (Restlessness) and Avijjà (Not-knowingness or Ignorance). (Sãlabbata Paràmàsa—Indulgence in wrongful rites and ceremonies. (14) Somanassasahagataü Santãraõacittaü.

(5) Body-consciousness. These seven are the immoral resultant types of consciousness. (3) Nose-consciousness. accompanied by indifference. Imàni atñha’ pi Kusalavipàkàhetukacittàni nàma. (4) Tongue-consciousness. tathà (17) Manodvàràvajjanacittaü. Imàni tãõi’ pi Ahetuka—Kiriya Cittàni nàma. Icc’evaü sabbathà’ pi aññhàrasàhetukacittàni samattàni. (1) Eye-consciousness. _______ (18 Types Of Rootless Consciousness) _______ (Immoral Resultant Consciousness without Roots) _______ § 5. _______ 44 . _______ (Ahetuka Kiriya Cittàni) _______ (16) Upekkhàsahagataü Pa¤cadvàràvajjanacittaü. (6) Receiving consciousness.(15) Upekkhàsahagataü Santãraõacittaü c’àti. accompanied by pain. accompanied by indifference. Sattàkusalapàkàni—pu¤¤àpàkàni aññhadhà Kriyàcittàni tãõã’ ti—aññhàrasa Ahetukà. (7) Investigating consciousness. accompanied by indifference. So are (2) Ear-consciousness. (18) Somanassasahagataü Hasituppàdacãtta¤ c’àti.

These three are the functional types of consciousness without Hetu. (13) Receiving consciousness. (12) Bodyconsciousness. Moral resultants are eightfold. (15) Investigating consciousness. Three are functionals. So are (9) Ear-consciousness. _______ (Functional Consciousness without Roots) (16) Five Sense-door adverting consciousness. _______ 45 . accompanied by pleasure. the eighteen types of consciousness without Hetu. These eight are the moral resultant types of consciousness without Hetu. Thus end. (10) Noseconsciousness. accompanied by indifference. (14) Investigating consciousness. accompanied by indifference. So is (17) Mind-door adverting consciousness. accompanied by indifference. accompanied by indifference. (18) Smile-producing consciousness. accompanied by happiness. _______ (Summary) _______ Seven are immoral resultants. (11) Tongue-consciousness. Ahetukas are eighteen.(Moral Resultant Consciousness without Roots) (8) Moral resultant Eye-consciousness. accompanied by pleasure. in all.

Notes:— 23. Paccaya is an aiding condition (upakàraka dhamma). They are so called because they are dependent on the five senses. in the Abhidhamma.— ‘what cause. It must be understood that even Ahetuka Cittas are not devoid of an efficient cause (nibbattaka hetu). 24. etc. In the Abhidhamma both Hetu and Paccaya are differentiated and are used in specific senses. the two Sampañicchaõa cittas and Pa¤cadvàràvajjana citta as ‘Mano Dhàtu’ (mind-element). The aforesaid eighteen classes of consciousness are called ‘A-hetuka’ because they are devoid of ‘concomitant Hetus’ (sampayuttaka hetu). As they are comparatively weak they are accompanied by neutral feeling. It should be noted that. with Roots. The remaining 71 classes of consciousness are called Sa-hetuka. these five pairs of consciousness are sometimes referred to as ‘Dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõa’. In the Suttas we often come across such phrases as ‘ko hetu ko paccayo’. Paccaya is like water. Dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõa—Five pairs of moral and immoral resultant coõsciousness are enumerated here. In two there is only one Root. Hetu is usually rendered by ‘causal condition’. The term Hetu is applied to the six roots explained above. with the exception of bodyconsciousness which is accompanied by either pain or happiness. what reason’. 46 . manure. Like the root of a tree is Hetu. in sixty-nine there are two or three Roots.

47 . accompanied by pleasure.the rest (76) as ‘Mano Vi¤¤àõa Dhàtu’ (mind-consciousness element). There are thirteen classes of consciousness by which one may smile according to the type of the person. and Anàgàmãs may smile with one of the two Akusala Cittas. accompanied by pleasure. Santãraõa is that which investigates an object. It is this Manodvàràvajjana citta that performs the function of Votthapana (deciding) which will be dealt with later. Sakadàgàmãs. 25. Smiling is caused by a pleasurable feeling. Pa¤cadvàràvajjana and Manodvàràvajjana are the only two moments of Kiriya Cittas experienced by those who are not Arahants. An ordinary worldling (puthujjana) may laugh with either one of the four types of Cittas rooted in attachment. or one of the four Kusala Cittas. That moment of consciousness which turns towards one of the five sense-objects is called the Pa¤cadvàràvajjana. or with one of the four Kusala Cittas. Sampañicchana is that moment of consciousness which accepts or receives an object. accompanied by pleasure. 26. Sotàpannas. Hasituppàda is a Citta peculiar to Arahants. disconnected with false view. All the other Kiriya Cittas are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahants. Manodvàràvajjana is that moment of consciousness which turns the mind towards a mental object.

and arms. Of these. (2) Hasita:— a smite consisting in the slight movements of the lips just enough to reveal the tips of the teeth. shoulders. which may or may not be accompanied by vocal expression (vacãvi¤¤atti). (5) Apahasita:— laughter accompanied by the shedding of tears. (4) Upahasita:— laughter accompanied by the movement of the head. See p. 55. See p. 48 .Arahants aõd Pacceka Buddhas may smile with one of the four Sobhana Kiriya Cittas16 or Hasituppàda. and the last two by the lower classes of beings. and (6) Atihasita:— an outburst of laughter accompanied by the forward and backward movements of the entire body from head to foot. (3) Vihasita:— laughter giving out a light sound. Laughter is thus a form of bodily expression (kàyavi¤¤atti). The Compendium of Philosophy states: “ There are six classes of laughter recognised in Buddhist works. (1) Sita:— a smile manifesting itself in expresslon and countenance. the first two classes are indulged in by cultured persons. Sammà Sambuddhas smile with one of the two Sobhana Kiriya Cittas. There is nothing but mere mirth in the Hasituppàda consciousness. accompanied by wisdom and pleasure. 38.” 17 16. 17. the next two by the average man.

At this stage the natural flow is checked and is turned towards the object. This flow of Bhavaïga is interrupted when objects enter the mind. We always experience such a passive state when our minds do not respond to external objects. This sense operation is followed by a moment of reception of the object so seen (Sampañicchana). receives objects from within and without. Thought-Process— The subject. if the object is a form (råpa). This consciousness depends on the five objects of sense. Kamma is performed at this stage. e. Immediately after there arises the psychologically most important stage— Impulsion or Javana. 19.27. in other words. Discrimination is exercised at this stage. Thereupon the sense-door consciousness (Pa¤cadvàràvajjana) arises and ceases. but yet knows no more about it. if viewed rightly (yoniso manasikàra). the 18. in a state of Bhavaïga. Freewill plays its part here. Then the Bhavaïga consciousness vibrates for one thought-moment and passes away. the consciousness. Next comes the investigating faculty (Santãraõa) 19 or a momentary examination of the object so received. i. 49 . After this comes that stage of representative cognition termed the determining consciousness (Votthapana). p. or. See Diagram I.. It is at this stage that an action is judged whether moral or immoral. Immediately after there arises and ceases the eye-consciousness18 (Cakkhu Vi¤¤àõa). When a person is in a state of profound sleep his mind is said to be vacant. 51.

20 The three kinds of Bhavaïga consciousness are Vipàka. functions as the Votthapana consciousness. This Javana stage usually lasts for seven thought-moments. or. Vipàka. if viewed wrongly (ayoniso manasikàra).Javana becomes moral. 50 . Pa¤cadvàràvajjana is a Kriyà Citta. mentioned above. or one of the eight Sobhana Vipàka Cittas. a Kriyà Citta.21 20. in a particular thought-process there arise various thought-moments which may be Kamma. The seven Javana thoughtmoments constitute Kamma. it becomes immoral. 27–30. The Manodvàràvajjana (mind-door consciousness). 21. See Compendium of Philosophy—Introductory Essay — pp. lasting for two thought-moments—thus completing one thought-process at the expiration of seventeen thoughtmoments. accompanied by indifference. The Tadàlambana is a Vipàka Citta which is one of the three Santãraõa Cittas or one of the eight Sobhana Vipàka Cittas. described in section 6. Thus. In the case of an Arahant this Javana is neither moral nor immoral. at times of death. five. Pa¤ca-Vi¤¤àõa is one of the ten moral and immoral Vipàka Cittas. One can use one’s freewill at this stage. Sampañicchana and Santãraõa are also Vipàka Cittas. A detailed exposition of this subject will appear in chapter IV. They are either one of the two Santãraõa Cittas. or Kriyà. The whole process which happens in an infinitesimal part of time ends with the registering consciousness (Tadàlambana). but merely functional (Kiriya).

Thought-Process— According to Abhidhamma when an object is presented to the mind through one of the five doors a thought process runs as follows:— Diagram I 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Registering Consciousness Tadàlambana Votthapana Determining Consciousness Santãraõa Investigating Consciousness Sampañicchana Receiving Consciousness Pa¤ca Vi¤¤àõa Sense-Consciousness Dvàràvajjana Sense-door Consciousness Bhavaïgupaccheda Arrest Bhavaïga Bhavaïga Calana Vibrating Bhavaïga Atãta Bhavaïga Past Bhavaïga 51 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Impulsion Javana .

(Sobhana Cittàni) § 6. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü nàõasampayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 6. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. 5. 3. 2. _______ 52 . 7. Pàpàhetukamuttàni — Sobhanàni’ti vuccare Ek’ånasaññhicittàni — ath’ekanavutã’pi và _______ (Aññha Kàmàvacara Kusala Cittàni) _______ 1. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam’ ekan’ ti Imàni aññha’ pi sahetuka kàmàvacarakusalacittàni nàma. 8. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. 4.

14. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. 53 . Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤ànasampayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü._______ (Aññha Kàmàvacara Vipàka Cittàni) _______ 9. 12. 16. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 10. 11. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. _______ (Aññha Kàmàvacara Kriyà Cittàni) _______ 17. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. 15. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekan’ ti Imàm aññha’ pi sahetuka kàmàvacara-vipàkacittàni nàma. 13.

Icce’ vaü sabbathà’pi sàhetuka—kàmàvacara— kusala-vipàka-kriyà cittàni samattàni. 24.18. _______ 54 . 19. Upekkhà-sahagatam ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü asaïkhàrikam ekaü. _______ Vedanà-¤àõa-saïkhàra Sahetå-kàmàvacara Kàme tevãsapàkàni Ekàdasa kriyà c’àti — — — — bhedena catuvisati pu¤¤apàkakriyà matà. Upekkhà-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekan’ ti. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttam asaïkhàrikam ekaü. Imàni aññha’pi sahetukakàmàvacara-kriyàcittàni nàma. 22. 21. 20. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõavippayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekaü. pu¤¤à’ pu¤¤àni vãsati catupa¤¤àsa sabbathà. 23. Upekkhà-sahagatam ¤àõasampayuttaü asaïkharikam ekaü. Somanassa-sahagataü ¤àõasampayuttaü sasaïkhàrikam ekam.

2. 6. 8. dissociated with knowledge. They number either fifty-nine or ninety-one. unprompted. with Roots. One consciousness. p. accompanied by indifference. accompanied by indifference. Excluding those that are evil and without Hetu. 3. 32. the rest are called “Beautiful”. One consciousness. 7. dissociated with knowledge. prompted. dissociated with knowledge. associated with knowledge. One consciousness. prompted. (Eight Types of Moral Consciousness) 1.22 associated with knowledge. unprompted. 4. accompanied by pleasure. prompted. One consciousness. associated with knowledge. These are the eight types of moral consciousness. of the sensuous sphere. unprompted. See note 10. 5. accompanied by pleasure. One consciousness. Here upekkhà may be Equanimity too. accompanied by pleasure. dissociated with knowledge. One consciousness. prompted. 55 . accompanied by indifference. 22. One consciousness. One consciousness. accompanied by indifference. associated with knowledge. accompanied by pleasure._______ 24 Types of “Beautiful” Consciousness of the Sensuous Sphere _______ § 6. unprompted.

prompted. One consciousness. 18. unprompted. 11. dissociated with knowledge. associated with knowledge. unprompted. of the sensuous sphere. One consciousness. prompted. One consciousness. _________ (Eight types of Functional Consciousness) 17. unprompted. accompanied by pleasure. accompanied by indifference. accompanied by indifference. One consciousness. associated with knowledge. accompanied by pleasure. 14. accompanied by pleasure. One consciousness. accompanied by indifference. One consciousness. One consciousness. One consciousness. 15. accompanied by pleasure. unprompted. One consciousness. unprompted. dissociated with knowledge. accompanied by indifference. associated with knowledge. with Hetus. 10. 13. accompanied by pleasure. 16. prompted. These are the eight types of Resultant Consciousness. dissociated with knowledge. prompted._______ (Eight types of Resultant Consciousness) 9. associated with knowledge. associated with knowledge. 12. dissociated with knowledge. One consciousness. associated with knowledge. prompted. 56 . accompanied by pleasure.

One consciousness. associated with knowledge. prompted accompanied by indifference. and functional types of consciousness of the sensuous sphere. prompted. accompanied by indifference. prompted. with Hetus. One consciousness. accompanied by indifference. functional types of consciousness. the moral. dissociated with knowledge. _______ (Summary) The moral. fifty-four in all. One consciousness. These are the eight types of Functional Consciousness. with Roots. One consciousness. 24. One consciousness. with Hetus.19. dissociated with knowledge. knowledge. and inducement. accompanied by indifference. 22. One consciousness. 21. of the sensuous sphere. accompanied by pleasure. associated with knowledge. 23. should be understood as twenty-four. unprompted. dissociated with knowledge. resultant. unprompted. which differ according to feeling. of the sensuous sphere. accompanied by pleasure. in all. In the sensuous sphere twenty-three are “Resultant” twenty “Moral” and “Immoral”. _______ Thus end. resultant. and eleven are “Functional”. unprompted. dissociated with knowledge. _______ 57 . 20.

58 . reason. It is opposed to moha (ignorance. with Roots. Fifty-nine or Ninety-one: Kàmàvacara Råpàvacara Aråpàvacara Lokuttara — 24 — 15 — 12 — 8 When the eight Lokuttara Cittas are developed by means of each of the five Kusala Råpa Jhànas. 32. Evil or bad is a better rendering than sin which has a Christian outlook. and knowledge. ¥àõa is that which understands the reality (comy).Notes:— 28. opposed to the Ahetukas of the foregoing section. 31. twelve with three good Hetus—generosity. loving-kindness. Pàpa is that which leads to misery. Then 24 + 15 + 12 + 40 = 91. Comy. Of the twenty-four Kàmàvacara Sobhana Cittas. and are connected with blameless roots such as generosity. Hetuka— All the Cittas that are to be described hereafter. delusion. 29. as will be explained at the end of this chapter. Here ¤àõa is synonymous with wisdom. 30. loving-kindness. are called Sahetukas. or stupidity). Sobhana—so called because they yield good qualities. or knowledge. and knowledge (amoha). twelve are connected with two good Roots—generosity (alobha) and loving-kindness (adosa). they total 40.

33. Their corresponding effects are the eight resultant Cittas. 59 . Asaïkhàrika—unprompted—23 According to the commentary one does a good act on the spur of the moment without any particular inducement either from within or without. they experience the eight Kriyà Cittas which possess no reproductive energy. and as a result of having performed similar actions in the past. whereas in the case of twelve Akusala Cittas there are only seven Ahetuka Vipàka Cittas. instead of the usual Kusala Cittas. Illustrations for the first eight Kusala Cittas:— 1. The eight Ahetuka Vipàka Cittas are also the due effects of these Kusala Cittas. 35. 23. When they do any good act. One understandingly gives something to a beg- See n.. owing to physical and mental fitness. therefore. All good acts are done by one of these first eight Cittas. etc. The Buddhas and Arahants also experience all these twenty-three types of Vipàka Cittas as they are bound to reap the good and bad effects of their past actions till they die. since they have eradicated all fetters that bind oneself to existence. But they do not experience the first eight Kusala Cittas as they do not accumulate fresh Kamma that has any reproductive power.33. Ordinary persons and even Holy Ones of the first three grades of Saintship do not experience these eight Cittas. climate. 12 p. due to good food. 34. It. follows that there are sixteen Vipàka Cittas corresponding to eight Kusala Cittas.

joyfully salutes a monk. after deliberation. 3. (Råpàvacara Kusala Cittani—5) Vitakka—Vicàra—Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà— sahitaü Pañhamajjhàna—Kusalacittaü. Upekkh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Pa¤camajjhàna— Kusalacitta¤ c’àti. 2. Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Catutthajjhàna— Kusalacittaü. substituting indifference for joy. as taught by another. 2. 60 . The remaining four types should be understood in the same way. One understandingly gives something to a beggar with joy. 4. Vicàra—Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Dutiyajjhàna—Kusalacittaü. 4. or being induced by another.gar at once with joy. Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Tatiyajjhàna— Kusalacittaü. without understanding the meaning. joyfully salutes a monk at once. Imàni pa¤ca’ pi Råpàvacara—Kusalacittàni nàma. 1. without any understanding. as instructed by the mother. A child. 5. without any understanding. 3. A child. A person joyfully repeats a Sacred Text. _______ (Råpàvacara Cittàni—5) _______ 7. Joyfully a person automatically recites a Sacred Text without understanding the meaning.

Imàni pa¤ca’ pi Råpàvacara—Kriyàcittàni nàma. 3. Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Catutthajjhàna— Kriyàcittaü. Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Tatiyajjhàna— Vipàkacittaü. 5. 4. Vicàra—Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Dutiyajjhàna—Vipàkacittaü. 2. 3. Vitakka—Vicàra—Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà— sahitaü Pañhamajjhàna—Vipàkacittaü. Imàni pa¤ca’ pi Råpàvacara—Vipàkacittàni nàma. 5. (Råpàvacara Kriyà Cittàni—5) 1. Upekkh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Pa¤camajjhàna— Kriyàcitta¤ c’àti. 4. 2. Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Catutthajjhàna— Vipàkacittaü. 61 . Upekkh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Pa¤camajjhàna— Vipàkacitta¤ c’àti._______ (Råpàvacara Vipàka Cittàni)—5) 1. Vitakka—Vicàra—Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà sahitaü Pañhamajjhàna—Kriyàcittaü. Pãti-Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Tatiyajjhàna— Kriyàcittaü. Vicàra-Pãti—Sukh ’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Dutiyajjhàna—Kriyàcittaü.

and one-pointedness. happiness. joy. Fifth Jhàna moral consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness. happiness. 5. Third Jhàna moral consciousness together with joy. Second Jhàna moral consciousness together with sustained application. First Jhàna moral consciousness together with initial application. happiness. 62 . sustained application. joy. _______ (Form-Sphere Resultant Consciousness—5) 1. 4. happiness. Pa¤cadhà jhànabhedena Pu¤¤apàkakriyàbhedà _______ — råpàvacaramànasaü — taü pa¤cadasadhà bhave. (Form-Sphere Consciousness—15) §7 (Form-Sphere Moral Consciousness—5) 1.Icc’evaü sabbathà’pi paõõarasa Råpàvacara Kusala— Vipàka—Kriyàcittàni samattàni. First Jhàna Resultant consciousness together with initial application. and one-pointedness. sustained application. Fourth Jhàna moral consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness. 3. and one-pointedness. joy. and one-pointedness. 2. These are the five types of Form-Sphere Moral consciousness.

joy. These are the five types of Form-Sphere Functional consciousness. happiness. 63 . Fourth Jhàna Functional consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness. 5. First Jhàna Functional consciousness together with initial application. happiness. Fifth Jhàna Functional consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness. 5. 4. Third Jhàna Resultant consciousness together with joy.2. happiness and one-pointedness. happiness. These are the five types of Jhàna Resultant consciousness. sustained application. Second Jhàna Functional consciousness together with sustained application. Second Jhàna Resultant consciousness together with sustained application. Fourth Jhàna Resultant consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness. and one-pointedness. joy. Fifth Jhàna Resultant consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness. (Form-Sphere Functional Consciousness—5) 1. and onepointedness. 2. 4. joy. Third Jhàna Functional consciousness together with joy. and one-pointedness. 3. and onepointedness. 3. happiness.

but are interested in higher spiritual progress. Form-Sphere (Råpaloka). Samatha. and FormlessSphere (Aråpaloka). the fifteen types of Form-Sphere Moral. and the six celestial realms (Devaloka) constitute the Kàmaloka. Even in the human realm it is they who retire to solitude and engage themselves in meditation. human realm (Manussa). It is so called because sensedesires play a predominant part in this sphere. which. Råpàvacara— There are three planes of existence — namely. The more evolved persons. The remaining seven are called Sugati (good states). or tranquillity is gained by developing the Jhà64 .Thus end. Such meditation (Bhàvanà) is of two kinds—Samatha (concentration) and Vipassanà (insight). must naturally be born in congenial places in harmony with their lofty aspirations. Sensuous Sphere (Kàmaloka). The four states of misery are called Duggati (evil states). The four states of misery (Apàya). (Summary) Form-Sphere consciousness is fivefold according to different Jhànas. Resultant and Functional types. The good are born in these states of sensuous bliss. who seek no delight in ordinary sense-desires. Resultant. That becomes fifteenfold according to Moral. Evil-doers are born in such states. means calm. Notes:— 36. in all. and Functional consciousness.

and inseparable. Five are Kriyà cittas. It is Vipassanà that leads to Enlightenment. which one can develop in this life itself. Five are Kusalas. Aråpaloka is so called because no trace of matter is held to be found in it.” That which frequents the Råpa Sphere is Råpàvacara. in that place of existence. to be still met with. to think. With the aid of Jhànas one could develop higher psychic powers (Abhi¤¤à). The Compendium of Philosophy states that “Råpaloka is so called because the subtle residuum of matter is said. 37. Beings born in celestial realms and Form-Spheres are supposed to possess very subtle material forms. interdependent. But by will-power there is a possibility for the mind to be separated from the body and vice versa temporarily. Jhàna—Saüskrt Dhyàna— The Pàli term is derived from the root “jhe”.nas. As a rule. There are fifteen cittas pertaining to it. Those who develop Jhànas are born after death in higher Form-Spheres (Råpaloka) and Formless-Spheres (Aråpaloka). both mind and body are interrelated. In the Formless-Spheres there is no body but only mind. Vipassanà is seeing things as they truly are. Five are their corresponding Vipàkas which are experienced after death in the Råpa-Sphere. which are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahants either in this life or by Arahants in the Råpa-Sphere. Ven65 .

If there be not enough clay of the dawn colour. When he does this for some time—perhaps weeks. A circle of about one span and four inches in diameter is made and the surface is covered with dawn-coloured clay and smoothed well. or months. This hypnotic circle is known as the Parikamma Nimitta. he may put in some other kind of clay beneath. By Jhàna is meant wilful concentration on an object. The purpose is to gain the one-pointedness of the mind. This object is called Parikamma Nimitta—preliminary object. the aspirant selects an object that appeals most to his temperament. This visual66 . Now he places this object about two and half cubits away from him and concentrates on it.erable Buddhaghosa explains Jhàna as follows:—“ârammaõ’ upanijjhànato paccanãkajhàpanato và jhànaü”. On this visualised image (Uggaha nimitta) he concentrates continuously until it develops into a conceptualised image (Pañibhàga nimitta). A stage is ultimately reached when he is able to visualise the object even with closed eyes. As an illustration let us take the Pathavi Kasiõa. enumerated in the 9th chapter of this book. Of the forty objects of concentration. Jhàna is so called because it thinks closely of an object or because it burns those adverse things (hindrances—Nãvaraõas). He now intently concentrates on this object until he becomes so wholly absorbed in it that all adventitious thoughts get ipso facto excluded from the mind. saying mentally or inaudibly—Pañhavi or earth. or years—he would be able to close his eyes and visualise the object.

Gotrabhå. Parikamma. such as sense-desire (Kàmacchanda).” The latter possesses neither colour nor form. until it develops into a conceptualised image which is called Pañibhàga Nimitta. The difference between the first visualised image and the conceptualised image is that in the former the fault of the device appears. Anuloma.ised object is called Uggaha Nimitta. As he is about to gain Appanà Samàdhi a thought process runs as follows: Bhavaïga. Upacàra.” As he continually concentrates on this abstract concept he is said to be in possession of “proximate concentration” (Upacàra samàdhi) and the innate five Hindrances to progress (Nãvaraõa). which is an exact mental replica of the object. This is followed by the Javana process 67 . hatred (Pañigha). enjoying the calmness and serenity of a one-pointed mind. Then he concentrates on this visualised image. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ When the stream of consciousness is arrested. and is born of perception. sloth and torpor (Thãna-Middha).) and doubts (Vicikicchà) are temporarily inhibited. there arises the Mind-door consciousness taking for its object the Patibhàga Nimitta. restlessness and brooding (Uddhacca-Kukkucca. while the latter is clear of all such defects and is like a “well-burnished conch shell. Eventually he gains “ecstatic concentration” (Appanà Samàdhi) and becomes enwrapt in Jhàna. Manodvàràvajjana. Appanà. “It is just a mode of appearance.

which. and is termed the First Råpa Jhàna. It is at the Anuloma or “adaptation” thought-moment that the mind qualifies itself for the final Appanà. They are experienced in the Formsphere itself and not in the Kàma-sphere. This consciousness lasts for one thought-moment and then subsides into the Bhavaïga state. Sukha. Gotrabhå means that which subdues (bhå) the Kàma-lineage (Gotra). This consciousness belongs to the Råpa-plane. starts with either Parikamma or Upacàra. Pãti. This is followed by Gotrabhå. because it is close to the Appanà Samàdhi. third. otherwise it is a Kusala. con68 . The aspirant continues his concentration and develops in the foregoing manner the second. and fifth Jhànas. the thought-moment that transcends the Kàma-plane. The five Jhàna Vipàkas are the corresponding Resultants of the five Morals. Immediately after this transitional stage of Gotrabhå there arises only for a duration of one moment the Appanà thought-moment that leads to ecstatic concentration. The five factors. fourth. as the case may be. Vitakka. Parikamma is the preliminary or initial thoughtmoment. It is so called because it arises in conformity with Appanà. All the thought-moments of this Javana process up to the Gotrabhå moment are Kàmàvacara thoughts. Upacàra means proximate. Ekaggatà collectively found in the Appanà consciousness. In the case of an Arahant it is a Kriyà citta. Kusala and Kiriyà Jhànas could be experienced in the Kàma-sphere continuously even for a whole day. Vicàra.

even so Vitakka directs the mind towards the object. becomes either moral or immoral. A developed form of this Vitakka is found in the first Jhàna consciousness. while in the fifth even happiness is abandoned and is substituted by equanimity. The Vitakka of the Pathconsciousness directs the mental states towards Nibbàna and destroys Micchà (wrong or evil) Vitakka such as thoughts of sense-desire (Kàma). when associated with a Kusala or Akusala Citta. Just as a king’s favourite would conduct a villager to the palace. in the fourth the first three are eliminated. and thoughts of cruelty (Vihiüsà). In the second Jhàna the first factor is eliminated. Vitakka is an unmoral mental state which. Vitakka—is derived from “vi” + think. Here it is used in a technical sense. A still more developed form of Vitakka is found in the Path-consciousness (Magga Citta) as Sammà-Saïkappa (Right thoughts). In that case the second Jhàna consists of three constituents as both Vitakka and Vicàra are eliminated at once. It is that which directs the concomitant states towards the object. Generally the term is used in the sense of thinking or reflection. as mentioned in the Visuddhimagga.stitute what is technically known as jhàna. in the third the first two are eliminated. “takk”. The Vitakka of the Jhàna con69 √ . to 38. thoughts of hatred (Vyàpàda). Sometimes these five Jhànas are treated as four. (ârammanaü vitakketi sampayuttadhamme abhiniropetã’ ti vitakko).

It is. Its usual equivalent is investigation. so to say. the second Jhàna is obtained by eliminating both Vitakka and Vicàra at the same time. Vicàra is derived from “vi” + move or wander. 70 . Pãti is zest. Like the first two Jhàna factors. (Pãti) is also a mental state found in both moral and immoral consciousness. It temporarily inhibits doubts (Vicikicchà). or pleasurable interest. When four Jhànas are taken into account instead of the five. Here it is used in the sense of sustained application of the mind on the object. Vitakka is like the flying of a bee towards a flower. √ √ There are five kinds of Pãti: 1. It is “pã”.sciousness temporarily inhibits sloth and torpor (ThinaMiddha) one of the five Hindrances (Nãvaraõa). Through continued practice the second Jhàna is obtained by eliminating Vitakka. its precursor. 40. illwill or aversion. As Jhàna factors they are correlates. It is not a derived from kind of feeling (Vedanà) like Sukha. to delight. According to the commentary Vicàra is that which moves around the object. “car”. Khuddaka Pãti. Creating an interest in the object is its characteristic. Pãti inhibits Vyàpàda. joy. Vicàra is like its buzzing around it. to please. to 39. Examination of the object is its characteristic. the thrill of joy that causes ‘the flesh to creep’.

so is Pãti the precursor of Sukha. Okkantika Pãti. It is like a king that enjoys a delicious dish. It is a kind of pleasant feeling. But it is a joy disconnected with material pleasures. the flood of joy like the breakers on a seashore. suffusing joy. transporting joy which enables one to float in the air just as a lump of cotton carried by the wind. The enjoyment of the desired object is its characteristic. Ubbega Pãti. Sukha is bliss or happiness. is Sukha. As Vitakka is the precursor of Vicàra. instantaneous joy like a flash of lightning. 4. This mental Sukha which should be differentiated from Ahetuka Kàyika (physical) happiness is identical with Somanassa. while Sukha enables one to enjoy the object. which pervades the whole body like a full blown bladder or like a flood that overflows small tanks and ponds. There is no feeling in experiencing the bliss of Nibbàna. Pãti creates an interest in the object. It is opposed to Uddhacca and Kukkucca (restlessness and brooding). Pharaõa Pãti. Like drinking water and bathing therein. is Pãti. Like the sight of an oasis to a weary traveller. 5. This pleasurable feeling is the inevitable outcome of renouncing them (Niràmisa Sukha). 3.2. Khanika Pãti. 41. Nibbànic bliss is yet far more subtle than Jhànic bliss. The total 71 .

release from suffering (Dukkhåpasama) is itself Nibbànic bliss. the Yogi eliminates it as he did the other three Jhàna factors. there may arise that neutral feeling. and also a subtle form of Upekkhà that views the object with deliberate impartiality and discriminative knowledge. in particular. In the Kàmàvacara Sobhanas. It is viewing an object with a balanced mind. Realising that pleasurable feeling is also gross. as in the case of one hearing the Dhamma without any pleasurable interest. Upekkhà found in the Akusalas and Ahetukas is just neutral feeling without the least trace of any discriminative knowledge. Atthasàlinã states:—“This is impartiality (majjhattaü) in connection with the object. too. The Jhàna Upekkhà has been developed by a strong willpower. Upekkhà of the Jhàna consciousness. It is comparable to the “ease” of an invalid who is perfectly cured of a disease. Upekkhà—literally. is of ethical and psychological importance. It certainly is not the ordinary kind of Upekkhà. and develops the more subtle and peaceful Upekkhà. As he 72 . means seeing (ikkhati) impartially (upa = yuttito). It is a bliss of relief.” This explanation applies strictly to Upekkhà found in Sobhana consciousness accompanied by wisdom. as in the case of a wise person who hears the Dhamma with a critical and impartial mind. generally found in the Akusala consciousness which comes naturally to an evil-doer. and implies a discriminative knowledge (paricchindanakaü ¤àõaü). 42. On the attainment of the fifth Jhàna breathing ceases.

Brahmavihàrupekkhà and Saïkhàrupekkhà may be included in both intellectual and ethical Upekkhà. Excluding Kàyavi¤¤àõa. even-mindedness. and sometimes in the two Sobhana Kusala Cittas. Both neutral feeling (Upekkhà Vedanà) and equanimity that correspond to the one Pàli term Upekkhà are found in the fifth Jhàna. The second is neither attachment õor aversion with respect to all conditioned things. This Upekkhà is a highly refined form of the ordinary tatramajjhattatà. found in the six Akusala Cittas. In the Pàli phrase—Upekkhà satipàrisuddhi—purity of mindfulness which comes of equanimity—it is the tatramajjhattatà that is referred to. 14. 66. he is immune to pain too. latent in all types of Sobhana consciousness. 24. (4) ethical Upekkhà. especially in the fifth Jhàna. one of the moral mental states. 25. Thus there appear to be four kinds of Upekkhà. viz:— (1) just neutral feeling. accompanied by knowledge.25 The first is equanimity amidst all vicissitudes of life. found mostly in the two Sobhana Kriyà Cittas. pp. 229–232. found in all the Sobhana Cittas. See Compendium of Philosophy.has transcended both pain and pleasure by will-power. accompanied by knowledge. 73 . In the fifth Jhàna this tatramajjhattatà is singled out and becomes highly refined. This is latent in the first four Jhànas too. (2) sensitive passive neutral feeling (Anubhavana Upekkhà) found in the eight Ahetuka sense-door consciousness (dvipa¤ca-vi¤¤àõa)24 (3) intellectual Upekkhà.

(3) âki¤ca¤¤àyatanakusalacittaü. See the Path of Purity — Vol..Visuddhimagga enumerates ten kinds of Upekkhà. 43. Imàni cattàri’pi Aråpàvacarakusalacittàni nàma. (10) Vi¤¤aõa¤càyatana74 . (2) Vi¤¤aõa¤càyatanakusalacittaü. II pp. This is a mental state common to all Jhànas. _______ (Aråpàvacara Cittàni—12) _______ § 8. 184–186. Imàni cattàri’pi Aråpàvacaravipàkacittàni nàma. _______ (Aråpàvacara Kriyà Cittàni—4) _______ (9) âkàsàna¤càyatanakriyàcittaü. By Sammà Samàdhi (Right Concentration). is meant this Ekaggatà found in the Path-consciousness. Ekaggatà (eka + agga + tà) lit. (6) Vi¤¤aõa¤càyatanavipàkacittaü. (7) âki¤ca¤¤àyatanavipàkacittaü. one-pointedness. Ekaggatà temporarily inhibits sensual desires. (8) N’evasa¤¤à-n’àsa¤¤àyatanavipakacitta¤ c’àti. (Aråpàvacara Kusala Cittàni—4) _______ (1) âkàsana¤càyatanakusalacittaü. (4) N’evasa¤¤à-n’àsa¤¤àyatanakusalacitta¤ c’àti. _______ (Aråpàvacara Vipàka Cittàni—4) _______ (5) âkàsàna¤càyatanavipàkacittaü.

These are the four types of Aråpajhàna Moral consciousness. âkàsa + ana¤ca = àkàsàna¤ca + âyatana is used here in the sense of abode (adhiññhànaññhena). 28. 75 .27 (3) Moral Jhana consciousness dwelling on “Nothingness”. (11) âki¤ca¤¤àyatanakriyàcittaü. âlambanappabhedhena — catudhà’ruppamànasaü Pu¤¤apàkakriyàbhedà — puna dvàdasadhà ñhitaü.28 (4) Moral Jhàna consciousness wherein “Perception neither is nor is not”. Vi¤¤àõa¤càyatana—Vi¤¤àõa + ananta + ya = Vi¤¤àõanantya = Vi¤¤àõa¤ca. Ananta+ya = anantya = ana¤aca = end-less-ness. âki¤ca¤¤àyatana—Aki¤canassa bhàvo = aki¤ca¤¤aü. Imàni cattàri’pi Aråpàvacarakriyàcittàni nàma. Icc’ evaü sabbathà’pi dvàdasa Aråpàvacara—Kusala— Vipàka—Kriyàcittàni samattàni.kriyàcittaü. _______ (Formless-sphere Consciousness—12) _______ 8. (12) N’evasa¤¤à-n’àsa¤¤àyatanakriyàcitta¤ c’àti. âkàsàna¤càyatana = âkàsa+ananta+àyatana. 27. (Formless-Sphere Moral Consciousness—4) _______ (1) Moral Jhàna consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Space”. 26.26 (2) Moral Jhàna consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Consciousness”.

29 76 . Thus end._______ (Formless-sphere Resultant Consciousness—4) _______ (5) Resultant Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Space. (11) Functional Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on “Nothingness”.” (10) Functional Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Consciousness”. _______ (Formless-Sphere Functional Consciousness—4) _______ (9) Functional Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Space. the twelve types of Aråpa Jhàna Moral. Resultant. (7) Resultant Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on “Nothingness”.” These are four types of Aråpajhàna Resultant consciousness. and Functional consciousness.” (6) Resultant Jhàna-consciousness dwelling on the “Infinity of Consciousness”.” These are the four types of Aråpajhàna Functional Consciousness. (8) Resultant Jhàna-consciousness wherein “Perception neither is nor is not. in all. (12) Functional Jhana-consciousness wherein “Perception neither is nor is not.

Now he sees nothing but this light pervading everywhere. As in the case of the Råpa Jhànas a thought-process runs as follows:— Manodvàràvajjana. means ‘great-gone-to’. This developed space is not a reality but a mere concept. 29. i. issues from the Kasiõa object. literally. Upacàra. Aråpa Jhana— The Yogi who has developed the Råpa Jhànas and who wishes to develop the Aråpa Jhànas now concentrates on the Pañibhàga Nimitta mentioned in the previous section. developed. like a fire fly. a faint light. e. As he does so. Both Råpa and Aråpa Cittas are collectively termed “Mahaggata” which.. On this concept he concentrates thinking “âkàso ananto”. The Aråpa Jhàna thought-moment occurs only for a moment. Anuloma. 77 . differing according to the objects. Resultant. Parikamma thoughtmoment may or may not occur. and then the consciousness lapses into Bhavaïga consciousness.Artipajhàna consciousness is twelvefold. Parikamma. Again they stand at twelve according to Moral. In Pàli this space is called Kasiõugghàñimàkàsa (space issuing forth from the Kasiõa object). ‘Infinite is space’. He wills it to expand until it covers the whole space. Gotrabhå âkàsàna¤càyatana. _______ Notes:— 44. and Functional types. until he develops the first Aråpa Jhàna— âkàsàna¤càyatana.

Although the term “Sa¤¤à” is used here. The four Kriya Jhànas are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahants.” To develop the third Aråpa Jhàna—“âki¤ca¤¤àyatana” — the Yogi takes for his object the first Aråpa Jhàna consciousness and thinks — “Natthi ki¤ci”.’ The fourth Aråpa Jhàna consciousness is developed by taking the third Aråpa Jhàna consciousness as the object. As he concentrates thus on the third consciousness he develops the fourth Jhàna. (feeling) and Sankhàrà. differ according to the objects of concentration. They are the concept of the infinity of space and the concept of nothingness. The second and the fourth Jhàna consciousness have for their objects the first and the third Jhàna consciousness respectively. until he develops the second Aråpa Jhàna—“Vi¤¤àõa¤càyatana. These four Aråpa Jhànas. The five Råpa Jhànas differ according to the Jhàna factors. 78 . on the other hand. ‘There is nothing whatever. ‘Infinite is Consciousness’. The third Aråpa Jhàna is so subtle and refined that one cannot definitely say whether there is a consciousness or not.Again he concentrates on the first Aråpa Jhàna thinking ‘Vi¤¤àõaü anantam’. Vedanà. In all these twelve Jhàna Cittas are found the two Jhàna factors—Upekkhà and Ekaggatà—equanimity and one-pointedness that constitute the fifth Råpa Jhàna. The first and the third have two concepts (Pa¤¤atti). (mental states) are also included therein. These four Aråpa Jhànas have their corresponding effects in the Aråpa spheres.

_______ Dvàdasàkusalàn’evaü — kusalàn’ ekavãsati Chattiüs’ eva vipàkàni — kriyàcittàni vãsati. Imàm cattàri’pi Lokuttaravipàkacittàni nàma. Anàgàmimaggacittaü. Arahattamaggacitta¤ c’àti._______ (Lokuttara Cittàni—8) _______ _______ 9. Arahattaphalacitta¤ c’àti. (Lokuttara Vipàka Cittàni—4) _______ (5) (6) (7) (8) Sotàpattiphalacittaü. Catupa¤¤àsadhà kàme— råpe_paõõaras’ ãraye Cittàni dvàdas’ àruppe — aññhadhà’nuttare tathà _______ 79 . Sakadàgàmimaggacittaü. Anàgàmiphalacittaü. Catumaggapphedhena—catudhà kusalaü tathà Pàkaü tassa phalattà’ti—aññhadhà nuttaraü mataü. Sakadàgàmiphalacittaü. (1) (2) (3) (4) (Lokuttara Kusala Cittàni—4) Sotàpattimaggacittaü. _______ Imam cattàri’pi Lokuttarakusalacittàni nàma. Icce’vaü sabbathà’pi aññha Lokuttara—Kusala Vipàka-Cittàni samattàni.

Sakadàgàmi Path-consciousness. _______ (Summary) Thus the “immorals” are twelve. being their fruits. These are the four types of Supramundane Moral consciousness. the “Morals” are twenty-one. Sakadàgàmi Fruit-consciousness Anàgàmi Fruit-consciousness Arahatta Fruit-consciousness. in all. are fifty-four types 80 . the “Resultants” are thirty-six. _______ (Resultant Supramundane Consciousness—4) _______ (5) (6) (7) (8) Sotàpatti Fruit-consciousness. Differing according to the four Paths. Anàgàmi Path-consciousness.(Supramundane Consciousness—4) _______ _______ §9 (1) (2) (3) (4) (Moral Supramundane Consciousness—4) Sotàpatti Path-consciousness. they say. Thus end. the Moral Consciousness is fourfold. These are the four types of Supramundane Moral and Resultant consciousness. In the Sensuous Sphere. So are the Resultants. Arahatta Path-consciousness. the eight types of Supramundane Moral and Resultant consciousness. the “Functionals” are twenty. The Supramundane should be understood as eightfold.

in the Form-Sphere are fifteen. (3) Pãti—sukh’ ekaggatà-sahitaü Tatiyajjhàna Sotàpattimaggacittaü. Ittham’ekåna navuti—ppabhedhaü pana mànasaü Ekavãsasataü v’àtha—vibhajanti vicakkhanà. (4) Sukh’ ekaggatà-sahitaü Catutthajjhàna Sotàpattimaggacitaü. Arahattamaggacitta¤ c’àti samavãsati. maggacittàni. (5) Upekkh’ekaggatà—sahitaü Pa¤camajjhàna Sotàpattimaggacitta¤ c’àti. Anàgàmimagga. 2.of consciousness. Jhànaïgayogabhedhena — katv’ekekan to pa¤cadhà Vuccatà’nuttaraü cittaü — cattàëisavidhanti ca. (2) Vicàra-pãti-sukh’ ekaggatà-sahitaü Dutiyajjhàna—Sotàpattimaggacittaü. Imàni pa¤ca pi Sotàpattimaggacittàni nàma. _______ (Ekavisasatàni Cittàni—121) _______ § 10. in the Formless-Sphere are twelve. Tathà phalacittàni c’àti samacattàëãsa Lokuttaracittàni bhavantã’ ti. in the Supramundane are eight. Katham’ekåna navutividhaü cittaü ekavãsasataü hoti? (1) Vitakka-vicàra-pãti-sukh’ ekaggatà-sahitaü Pañhamajjhàna—Sotàpattimaggacittaü. 81 . _______ 1. Tathà Sakadàgàmimagga. Yathà ca råpàvacaraü — gayhatà’nuttaraü tathà Pañhamàdijhànabhede — àruppa¤cà’pi pa¤came.

Iti Abhidhammatthasangahe Cittasaïgahavibhàgo nàma pañhamo paricchedo.3. which thus number eighty-nine. Sattatiüsavidhaü pu¤¤aü — dvipa¤¤àsavidhaü tathà Pàkam’iccàhu cittàni — ekavãsasataü budhà’ti. The Fifth Jhàna Sotàpatti Path—consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness. The Fourth Jhàna Sotàpatti Path-consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness. happiness. happiness. joy. _______ (121 Types Of Consciousness) _______ § 10. How does consciousness which is analysed into eighty-nine become one hundred and twenty-one? 1. 4. 4. The Third Jhàna Sotàpatti Path-consciousness together with joy. and one-pointedness. Ekàdasavidhaü tasmà — pañhamàdikam’ ãritaü Jhànam’ ekekam’ ante tu — tevãsatividhaü bhave. and one-pointedness. These different classes of consciousness. the wise divide into one hundred and twenty-one. The First Jhàna Sotàpatti Path-consciousness together with initial application. sustained application. joy. 82 . 3. These are the five types of Sotàpatti Path-consciousness. The second Jhàna Sotàpatti Path-consciousness together with sustained application. 5. happiness. 2. and one-pointedness.

becomes 40. _______ 45. The Realisation of Nibbàna. _______ (Summary) 1. Thus there are forty types of supramundane consciousness. The Formless-Sphere consciousness is included in the fifth Jhàna. the fifth) totals twenty-three.. thus the wise say that there are one hundred and twentyone types of consciousness. the supramundane consciousness.e.So are the Sakadàgàmi Path-consciousness. and Arahatta Path-consciousness. As the Form-Sphere consciousness is treated as first Jhàna consciousness and so on. they say. Similarly there are twenty classes of Fruit-consciousness. even so is the supramundane consciousness. it is said. discovers 83 . on due examination. The last Jhàna (i. 4. making exactly twenty classes of consciousness. Anàgàmi Pathconsciousness. Thirty-seven are Morals. 2. With his one-pointed mind he scrutinises his self and. fifty-two are Resultants. Thus ends the first chapter of the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha which deals with the Analysis of the Consciousness. Dividing each (supramundane) consciousness into five kinds according to different Jhàna factors. 3. Thus the Jhànas beginning from the first amount to eleven. The Yogi who wishes to realise Nibbàna tries to understand things as they truly are.

and that this existence is due to past ignorance (avijjà). is conditioned by causes past or present. subject to suffering (Dukkha). On account of these five causes this personality has arisen and as the past activities have conditioned the present. freed from the false notion of an identical substance of mind and matter. himself not excluded. he attempts to investigate the cause of this “Ego-personality”. Meditating thus. and future (Kankhàvitaraõavisuddhi). present. craving (taõhà). He realises that everything worldly. Kamma. Wherever he turns his eyes. and physical food (àhàra) of the present life. What is transient is therefore subject to suffering and where change and sor84 . Neither in a celestial plane nor on earth does he find any genuine happiness. attachment (upàdàna). Having thus gained a correct view of the real nature of his self.that his so-called “Ego-personality” is nothing but a mere composition of mind and matter—the former consisting of fleeting mental states that arise as a result of the senses coming into contact with the sense-stimuli. he transcends all doubts with regard to the past. for every form of pleasure is only a prelude to pain. he sees nought but these three characteristics standing out in bold relief. so the present will condition the future. and devoid of an immortal soul (Anattà). a continuous undivided movement. Thereupon he contemplates that all conditioned things are transient (Anicca). and the latter of forces and qualities that manifest themselves in multifarious phenomena. He realises that life is a mere flowing.

a day comes when. he witnesses an aura emanating from his body (Obhàsa). a source of danger. Therefore he turns his attention to the contemplation of the dissolution of things (Bhanga ¤àõa). because change is more conspicuous than becoming. As he is thus absorbed in meditation. and Insight extraordinarily keen. He becomes even-minded and strenuous. are in a state of constant flux. Soon the realisation comes that these new developments are only obstacles to moral progress and he cultivates the ‘Purity of Knowledge’ with regard to the ‘Path’ and ‘Non-Path’ (Maggàmagga¤àõadassana Visuddhi). Mistaking this advanced state of moral progress for Sainthood. and quietude. To him then comes the knowledge that all dissolving things are fearful (Bhaya ¤àõa). he resumes his meditation on the arising (Udaya ¤àõa) and passing away (Vaya ¤àõa) of conditioned things. chiefly owing to the presence of the aura. happiness. Perceiving the right path. he develops a liking to this mental state.row prevail there cannot be a permanent ego. The whole world appears to him like a pit of burning embers. to his surprise. His religious fervour increases. Subsequently he reflects on the wretchedness and vanity (âdãnava ¤aõa) of the fearful world and feeling dis85 . and mindfulness becomes perfect. which constitute his personality. not remaining for two consecutive moments the same. He experiences an unprecedented pleasure. Of these two characteristics the latter becomes more impressed in his mind. He perceives that both mind and matter.

his ultimate goal. and thereafter becomes completely indifferent to all conditioned things— having neither attachment nor aversion for any worldly object (Saïkhàrupekkhà ¤àõa). These nine kinds of insight. Vaya. 86 .gusted with it (Nibbidà ¤àõa). Pañisankhà and Saïkhàrupekkhà ¤àõas are collectively called “Pañipadà ¥àõadassana Visuddhi”—Purity of Knowledge and Vision as regards the Practice. Reaching this point of mental culture. he meditates again on the three characteristics (Pañisankhà ¤àõa). and intently keeps on developing insight in that particular direction.30 A Javana thought-process then runs as follows:— 1 2 3 4 5 6.7 + + + + + ++ Parikamma Upacàra Anuloma Gotrabhå Magga Phala When there is no Parikamma thought-moment. there arise three Phala thought-moments. Nibbidà. he realises Nibbàna. 545. Bhanga. Bhaya. Insight found in this Supramundane PathConsciousness is known as ¥àõadassana Visuddhi— 30. See The Buddha and His Teachings—p. âdãnava. wishes to escape therefrom (Mu¤citukamyatà ¤àõa). Mu¤citukamyatà. for the first time. in the case of an individual with keen Insight. until that glorious day when. With this object in view. he takes for his object of special endeavour one of the three characteristics that appeals to him most. viz:— Udaya.

and perfecting his Insight becomes a Sakadàgàmi. Self-illusion (Sakkàya diññhi). It is interesting to note that the pilgrim who has attained the second 87 . too. Doubts (Vicikicchà). In his subsequent birth he may or may not be aware of the fact that he is a Sotàpanna. He eliminates three Fetters—namely.Purity of Knowledge and Vision. he is reborn seven times at the most. (Once-Returner). but the Gotrabhå thought-moment is termed “Vodàna” (pure) as the individual is purified. He is no more a worldling (Puthujjana) but an Ariya. Nevertheless. In this case. by attenuating two other Fetters— namely. the Aryan pilgrim makes rapid progress. He gains implicit confidence in the Buddha. Summoning up fresh courage as a result of this distant glimpse of Nibbàna. and would never violate any of the five Precepts. Sense-desire (Kàmaràga) and illwill (Pañigha). a Javana thought-process runs as above. When the spiritual pilgrim realises Nibbàna for the first time. A Sakadàgàmi is reborn on earth only once in case he does not attain Arahantship in that life itself. Dhamma and the Sangha. and Adherence to Wrongful Rites and Ceremonies (Sãlabbata Paràmàsa). he possesses the characteristics peculiar to such a Saint. for he is destined to Enlightenment. As he has not eradicated all the Fetters that bind him to existence. He is moreover absolved from states of woe. and in the case of the other two advanced stages of Sainthood. he is called a Sotàpanna—one who has entered the Stream that leads to Nibbàna for the first time.

There he attains Arahantship and lives till the end of his life. or in a subsequent life. After death he is reborn in the “Pure Abodes” (Suddhàvàsa) environment reserved for Anàgàmis and Arahants. Thereafter he neither returns to this world nor does he seek birth in celestial realms. It will be noted that the Fetters have to be eradicated in four stages. that he completely discards the above two Fetters. 88 .stage of Sainthood can only weaken these two powerful fetters with which he is bound from a beginningless past. and destroying the remaining five Fetters— namely. encouraged by the unprecedented success of his endeavours. the final stage of Sainthood. makes his final advance. Anàgàmi (State of a Never-Returner). The Fruit (Phala) thought-moment immediately follows. It is by attaining the third stage of Sainthood. or at any time till one attains Parinibbàna. Restlessness (Uddhacca). attains Arahantship. Attachment to Form-Sphere (Råparàga). since he has rooted out the desire for sensual pleasures. whereas in the case of Lokiya Cittas effects may take place in this life. In the Supramundane classes of consciousness the effect of the Kusala Cittas is instantaneous hence it is called Akàlika (of immediate fruit). Occasionally he may be disturbed by thoughts of lust and anger to a slight extent. Attachment to Formless-Sphere (Aråpa ràga). Now the earnest pilgrim. and Ignorance (Avijjà). Conceit (Màna). The Path (Magga) thought-moment occurs only once.

Here Loka means the Pa¤cupàdanakkhandha. Lokuttara therefore means that which transcends the world of Aggregates of Attachment. For the four stages there are forty classes of consciousness. As the First Jhàna was made the basis to realise Nibbàna this Lokuttara Kusala thought is called— Vitakka—Vicàra—Pãti—Suk’Ekaggatà—sahitaü Pañhamajjhàna—Sotàpattimagga—cittaü. and soullessness of those mental states in that particular consciousness and ultimately realises Nibbàna. Now. In the same manner the other four Jhànas are made the bases to realise Nibbàna. This Magga thought-moment is immediately followed by the Phala thought-moment.In the Mundane consciousness Kamma is predominant. 89 . The Fruits are called Lokuttara because they have transcended the world of Aggregates of Attachment. Forty Types of Lokuttara Cittas:— One who has attained the First Jhàna emerges from it and meditates on the impermanence. sorrowfulness. This definition strictly applies to the Four Paths. while in the Supramundane Pa¤¤à or wisdom is predominant. 46. Uttara means that which transcends. These eight Cittas are called Lokuttara. the five Aggregates of Attachment. for each stage there are five Paths and five Fruits according to the different Jhànas. Hence the four Kusala Lokuttara Cittas are not treated as Kamma.

Diagram II Citta — 89 54 Kàmàvacara Råpàvacara Akusala 12 Lobha 8 Patigha 2 Moha 2 Ahetuka 18 Sobhana 24 (mahaggata) Aråpàvacara Lokuttara 15 12 8 Kusala 4 Kriyà 3 Vipàka 5 Kriyà 5 Magga 4 Phala 4 90 Akusala Vipaka 7 Kusala Vipaka 8 Kusala 4 Kusala 8 Vipaka 8 Kriyà 8 Vipàka 4 Kriyà 4 54 + 15 + 12 + 8 = 89 .

4 12 + 21 + 36 + 20 = 89 12 + 37 + 52 + 20 = 121 . 4 L. 11 K. 4 or 20 R. 5 A.Diagram III Citta — 89 or 121 Akusala 12 Kusala 21 or 37 Vipàka 36 or 52 Kriyà — 20 Kàmàvacara 8 Råpàvacara 5 Aråpàvacara 4 Lokuttara 4 or 20 K. 23 R. 5 A.

Abbreviations— S—Somanassa. Nv—¥àõavippayutta.. L—Lokuttara. p. K—Kàmàvacara. S—Sasaïkhàrika. p. p. m. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 92 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 10 .. A—Asaïkhàrika. M—Magga. R—Råpàvacara. P—Phala. Sotàpatti Sakadàgami Anàgami Arahatta .. . p. A—Aråpàvacara. m. J—Jhàna. Dv—Diññhigatavippayutta. p. m. Ds—Diññhigatasampayutta. U—Upekkhà. m. . D—Domanassa. Ns—¥àõasampayutta.. . Diagram IV Jhàna Råpàvacara — 15 — K V K 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Jhànas—67 Aråpàvacara — 12 — K V K 4 4 4 Lokuttara — 40 — K V 20 20 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 11 11 11 11 11 First Second Third Fourth Fifth Diagram V 4 4 4 Lokuttara—40 1st J 2nd J 3rd J 4th J 5th J { { { { { m.

4 4 4 Ns. U. 4 1 Sa. . 4 2 2 D. 1 1 D.. 4 4 4 Nv. 4 Dv..... 4 1 Diagram VII Ahetuka—18 S. Lobha Dosa Moha . 4 4 4 U.. . 4 A.. . Kusala Vipàka Kriyà . . U.. ..Diagram VI Akusala—12 S. 4 4 4 Sa. 4 4 4 93 . Akusala V Kusala V Kriyà . 6 6 2 1 Sukha Dukkha 1 Diagram VIII Kàmàvacara Sobhana—24 S. 4 Ds. 4 4 4 A. .

These 13 become moral or immoral according to the type of consciousness in which they occur. There are 7 concomitants common to every consciousness. when compared with Asobhanas (Evil. (Good). are common to all types of moral consciousness. They are termed Pakiõõakas (Particulars. A¤¤a means ‘other’. There are 6 others that may or may not arise in each and every consciousness. In this chapter all the 52 mental states are enumerated and classified. 52 mental states arise in varying degree.) All these 13 are designated A¤¤asamànas. samàna means ‘common’. 14 19 6 concomitants are invariably found in every type of immoral consciousness. Thus these fifty-two (7 + 6 + 14 + 19 + 6 = 52) are found in the respective types of consciousness in different proportions. a rather peculiar technical term. Sobhanas. Every type of consciousness is micro94 .) are called A¤¤a—‘other’ being of the opposite category. So are the Asobhanas in contradistinction to Sobhanas. enumerated in the first chapter. other moral concomitants occur as occasion arises.Chapter 2 Introduction In the 89 types of consciousness.

Diññhigata-sampayutta — Connected with misbelief.scopically analysed. on the contrary. The 7 Universals and all the Particulars are found in it. At the outset. and the accompanying mental states are given in detail. This consciousness. Somanassà-sahagata — Accompanied by pleasure. To an impatient lay reader this chapter will appear rather dry and uninteresting. a student of chemistry may find the numerous chemical formulae somewhat perplexing. let us analyse the first immoral type of consciousness. rooted in attachment. he will intelligently grasp the meaning of the text. He will then find this chapter most illuminating. for instance. But he finds the subject interesting and edifying. For example. and instead of wasting time in memorising numbers. To a critical and intelligent reader it will. will show that the Vedanà or feeling is ‘Pleasure’. he should compare his results with the original text. Later. serve as an intellectual treat. In like manner a student of Abhidhamma who reads this chapter should first try to analyse and examine carefully every type of consciousness and see for himself the mental states thereof according to his own reasoning. Asaõkhàrika — Unprompted. is also described. 95 . when he seriously attempts to analyse and examine the various substances with different tests. The type of consciousness in which each mental state occurs. when analysed.

such as Moha (delusion). (fearlessness). Both of them. are like two lions that cannot live together in one cave. and Kukkucca (brooding) cannot arise. Macchariya (avarice). we see that the first immoral consciousness consists of 19 mental states. on analysis. Issà (envy). They are found only in hateful consciousness. say the commentators. The other types of consciousness should be similarly analysed. Dosa (hatred). Conceit does not arise in lobha consciousness. Diññhi — misbelief must arise.The 4 Immoral mental states common to all immorals. while Màna is concerned with egoism. Diññhi is connected with wrong view. Anottappa. What about the remaining ten? Lobha — attachment must arise. and Uddhacca (restlessness) must arise in it. Total— 7 + 6 + 4 + 2 = 19. Thãna and Middha—(sloth and torpor) do not arise because this is an unprompted consciousness. together with misbelief. Ahirika (shamelessness). 96 . because these four are akin to aversion. No Sobhanas—(beautiful) occur in an immoral consciousness. Thus. Màna — conceit cannot arise.

Ekuppàda–nirodhà ca — ekàlambanavatthukà Cetoyuttà dvipa¤¤àsa — dhammà cetasikà matà. are known as Cetasiks (mental states). Cetasika = Ceta + s + ika That which is associated with the mind or consciousness is Cetasika. that have the same object and basis as consciousness. that arise and perish together with consciousness. (Saüskrt—Caitasika or Caitti).Chapter II _______ Cetasika—Mental States _______ (Definition) § 1. Notes:— 1. (ii) that which perishes together with it. Readers will note that the author has not given here a logical definition according to genus and species. Definition— Cetasika is (i) that which arises together with consciousness. (iii) that which has an identical object with it. 97 . The fifty-two states that are associated with consciousness. Instead he speaks of four characteristic properties of a Cetasika. _______ § 1. (iv) that which has a common basis with it.

another is Sa¤¤à (perception).The commentator cites reasons for attributing these four properties. Kàyavi¤¤atti (mode of action) and Vacã Vi¤¤atti (mode of speech). Ekaggatà. The remaining fifty are collectively called Saïkhàrà. such as Vi¤¤àtti Råpa31 (Modes of Intimation) that arise and perish simultaneously with the consciousness. Vedanà. 4. 5. No consciousness exists apart from its concomitants. 98 . (i) l. 3. 6. Jãvitindriyaü. Cetanà. The whole group of feelings is called Vedanàkkhandha. But there are some material qualities. According to Abhidhamma. Both consciousness and its respective co-adjuncts arise and perish simultaneously. One of them is Vedanà (feeling). 2. Phasso. Cetanà (volition) is the most important of them. Manasikàro c’àti satt’ime Cetasikà Sabbacittasàdhàranà nàma. mind or consciousness is accompanied by fifty-two mental states (cetasikas). That which possesses these three characteristics must necessarily be endowed with the fourth—a common basis. 31. 7. So are Sa¤¤àkkhandha and Saïkhàrakkhandha. _______ Dvipa¤¤àsa Cetasikà _______ (Sabbacittasàdhàraõà—7) _______ Katham? § 2. Sa¤¤à. To exclude them the third property of having a common object has been attributed.

Anottappaü. 6. 11. Vicàro. (13) _______ (Akusala—14) _______ § 4. 4. 14. Uddhaccaü 5. Kàyalahutà. 15. Tatramajjhattatà. 6. 6. (iv) 1. 11. Diññhi. Màno. 8. 14. 5. 7. Pãti. Middhaü. Cittalahutà. _______ 99 . Hiri. 2. Cittujjukatà._______ (Pakiõõakà—6) _______ § 3. Kàyujjukatà. 4. 7. Ahirikaü. Ottappaü. Adoso. 2. _______ (Sobhanasàdhàraõà—19) _______ § 5. Kàyapàgu¤¤atà. Vitakko. 2. Kàyapassaddhi. Sati. Viriyaü. 9. Kukkuccaü. Issà. Lobho. Moho. Adhimokkho. 3. 10. Cittapassaddhi. 3. 8. c’àti ek’ånavãsat’ime Cetasikà Sobhanasàdhàraõà nama. Chando c’àti cha ime Cetasikà Pakiõõakà nàma. 4. 5. Kàyamudutà 13. Kàyakamma¤¤atà. 10. (iii) 1. 16. Thãnaü. 3. 12. 17. 13. (ii) 1. Eva’mete Cetasikà A¤¤asamànà’ ti veditabbà. Cittamudutà. 18. Alobho. Macchariyaü. 9. 19. 12. Cittapàgu¤¤atà. Vicikicchà c’àti cuddas’ime Cetasikà Akusalà nàma. Cittakamma¤¤atà. Saddhà. Doso.

Nyànatiloka suggests impression. 33. _______ § 9. 2. These ‘Universal’ cetasikas are invariably found in every consciousness. Sammàkammanto. How? (i) 1. 6.(Viratiyo—3) _______ § 6. _______ 52 Kinds Of Mental States _______ (Universals 32 —7) _______ § 2. Ven. Sammàvàcà. 3. 100 . 3. Mudità pana Appama¤¤ayo nàmà’ti sabbathà’pi— _______ (Pa¤¤indriya—1) _______ § 8. Feeling. Psychic life. 5. or sense-impression or consciousnessimpression. (vi) 1. Sammà àjãvo c’àti tisso Viratiyo nàma. (vii) Pa¤¤indriyena saddhiü pa¤cavãsat’ime Cetasikà Sobhanà’ti veditabbà. Perception. Contact. One-Pointedness. Ettàvatà ca— Teras’ a¤¤asamànà ca — cuddasàkusalà tathà Sobhanà pa¤cavãsà’ti — dvipa¤¤àsa pavuccare. _______ (Appama¤¤à—2) _______ § 7. Karuõà. 4. 7.33 2. 2. 32. Volition. (v) 1. Attention.

(iv) 1. Conation. 4. 3. 9. Non-attachment. Doubt. Confidence. 5. These six mental states are teamed Particulars. Fearlessness (of consequences. 6. Decision. 14. 34. or to commit wrong). Sloth. Delusion. 12. 10. Worry. 6. 101 . 2. Avarice. These fourteen mental states are termed ‘Immorals’. Sustained Application. Thus these (thirteen) mental states should be understood as ‘common to each other’ (a¤¤asamàna35). Torpor. common. Mindfulness. 3. (Moral) Shame. 5. 6. (Moral) Dread. 2. Attachment. Goodwill. 7. 35. 4. _______ (Beautiful—19) _______ § 5. Unlike the Universals these cetasikas are found only in certain classes of consciousness. When the good types of consciousness are taken into account the evil are regarded as a¤¤a. _______ (Immorals—14) _______ § 4. Shamelessness. Conceit. Initial Application. 4. Misbelief. (iii) 1. Hatred. _______ (Particulars 34—6) _______ § 3. 3. Effort. 13. 11. Jealousy. a¤¤a = another. 8. (ii) 1.These seven mental states are common to every consciousness. Joy. A technical term applied collectively to all the 13 cetasikas which may be either moral or immoral according to the type of consciousness in which they are found. and vice versa. 5. 2. Restlessness. samàna.

9. 10. 17. Lightness of mind. Pliancy of mental states. Tranquillity of mind. 13. (vi) 1. 16. 18. Right Action. 15. Right Speech. Appreciative or Sympathetic Joy. _______ (Abstinences—3) _______ § 6. Proficiency of mental states. Lightness of mental states. These three are termed ‘Abstinences.’ _______ (Illimitables—2) _______ § 7. Right Livelihood. 3.7.’ 102 . Proficiency of mind. 2. 12. Tranquillity of mental states. (v) 1. Compassion. _______ (Wisdom—1) _______ § 8. Adaptability of mind. 14. These nineteen mental states are termed ‘Common to Beautiful’. 19. 11. Adaptability of mental states. 2. Pliancy of mind. Equanimity. 8. Rectitude of mind. These are termed ‘Illimitables’. Rectitude of mental states. (vii) With the Faculty of Wisdom these twenty-five mental states are in every way to be understood as ‘Beautiful.

It has touching (phusana) as its salient characteristic (lakkhana). See The Expositor. Similarly fourteen are common to Immorals. respective sense. consciousness. Thus:— Thirteen are common to each other. impact (saïghaññana) as its function (rasa). Twenty-five are ‘Beautiful’. object and consciousness) as its manifestation (sannipàta paccupaññhàna). _______ Notes:— phas. For instance. 37. Phassa 36 — Derived from For any sense-impression to occur. pp. and the object which has entered the avenue (of awareness) as proximate cause (padaññhàna). coinciding (of the physical basis. three things are essential—namely. p.Summary § 9. Part 1. one sees an object with the consciousness through the eye as its instrument. even so is contact to the coexistent mental concomitants. 2. to contact. 103 . Like a pillar which acts as a strong support to the rest of the structure.” √ 36. Ibid. “Contact means ‘it touches’ (phusatã’ti). 142–145. 145. Thus fifty-two have been enumerated. “It should not be understood that mere collision is contact” 37 (Na saïgatimatto eva Phasso). and the object. When an object presents itself to the consciousness through one of the six senses there arises the mental state—contact.

perceives by perception. 6. volition and contact: there are consciousness and contact. Contact is just mentioned first in the order of teaching. too. cetanàya ceteti). Vedanà—Derived from Feeling is a more appropriate rendering for Vedanà 104 √ . p. perception. consciousness experiences by feeling. 3. and as the sine qua non of all the allied states. In the order of teaching. contact is mentioned first. Nor is the sequence of words among the remaining states of any special significance. The reason is not because contact is a strong support. it is not valid to say that ‘this’ arises first. sa¤¤àya sa¤jànàti. vedanàya vediyati. “Touching by contact.Contact is mentioned first because it precedes all other mental states. The Atthasàlinã states— “For of states. initial application of mind. arisen in one conscious moment. Contact conditions Feeling. volition.) vid. Rhys Davids — Buddhist Psychology. perception and contact. But strictly speaking. conditioning them much as the roof-tree of a storeyed house supports all the other combinations of material.” “Contact is given priority of place. however. there is no reason for the sequence because all these mental states are coexistent. wills by volition—(Phassena phusitvà.” According to PañiccaSamuppàda. ‘that’ afterwards. to experience. as standing for the inception of the thought.” (Mrs. feeling. but it was also permissible to bring it in thus:— There are feeling and contact.

but it is the happiness of relief from suffering. Pain and pleasure pertain to body as well. to know. feeling is an essential property of every consciousness.than sensation. it is feeling that experiences an object when it comes in contact with the senses. Nibbànic bliss is certainly the highest happiness (Sukha). or neutral. painful. To avoid unnecessary confusion. to know. it is best to understand the specific meaning used in this particular connection as a universal mental state. The latter is compared to the remaining mental states that constitute a thought-complex. The chief characteristic of Sa¤¤à is the cognition of an object by way of a mark as blue etc. ¤à. Sa¤¤à—Saü + Latin cognoscere. Strictly speaking. (Compare 4. It is Sa¤¤à that 105 √ . It may be pleasurable. But physical feeling is not of ethical importance.) The meaning of this term widely varies according to the context. It should be understood here that Nibbànic bliss is not connected with feeling. It is not the enjoyment of a pleasurable object. Like contact. According to the commentators feeling is like a master who enjoys a dish prepared by a cook. It is this feeling that experiences the desirable or undesirable fruits of an action done in this or in a previous birth. Besides this mental state there is no soul or any other agent to experience the result of the action.

Could it be that memory is due to this Sa¤¤à? Sa¤¤à. discerns its value and its utility. on the occasion of sensory stimulation. according to a modern Dictionary of Philosophy. Descartes. but is not aware of its chemical composition. to the wild animal’s discernment in the scarecrow of the work of man. Pa¤¤à is like the analytical knowledge of a chemist who knows all its chemical properties in every detail. to the treasurer’s specifying certain articles of jewelry by the ticket on each.” Perception is not used here in the sense employed by early modern philosophers such as Bacon. and Leibniz.” Sa¤¤à. Vi¤¤àõa is comparable to the ordinary man’s knowledge of the rupee.enables one to recognise an object that has once been perceived by the mind through the senses. houses. Spinoza. therefore. “ is the apprehension of ordinary senseobjects. A man. As one of the five Khandhas (Aggregates) Sa¤¤à is used in the sense of perception. chairs. utterly ignorant of its monetary value. Sa¤¤à is like the mere perception of a rupee coin by a child.. Vi¤¤àõa and Pa¤¤à should be differentiated from one another. roundness and size it merely recognises the coin as a rupee. etc. By its whiteness. “Perception”. for instance. means simple sense-perception. “Its procedure is likened to the carpenter’s recognition of certain kinds of wood by the mark he had made on each. 106 . such as trees.

e. 236). (Compendium. acts in getting the object. Cetanà is that which plays a predominant part in all actions. or like a carpenter who fulfils his duties and regulates the work of others as well. “Cetanà acts on its concomitants. to think. Cetanà is that which arrives at action in conditioning the conditioned. i. Cetanà— Both Cetanà and Citta are derived from the same root cit.5. The most significant mental state in the Mundane Consciousness (Lokiya) is this Cetanà. Like a chief disciple. while in the Supra- √ 107 . moral and immoral. p. (Saïkhatàbhisaïkharaõe và byàpàraü àpajjatã’ti cetanà). According to the Atthasàlinã and Vibhàvini Tãkà Cetanà is that which co-ordinates the mental states associated with itself on the object of consciousness. and acts on accomplishing the task. A further explanation has been offered.. while in Cetanà it is used in the sense of co-ordination (abhisandhàna) and accumulation (àyåhana). so does Cetanà fulfil its own function and regulate the function of other concomitants associated with itself. (Attanà sampayutta-dhamme àrammaõe abhisandahati). Shwe Zan Aung says that according to Ledi Sayadaw. determines action”. the Burmese Abhidhamma scholar. In the case of Citta—mind or consciousness—the root assumes the meaning of discernment (vijànana).

there is no Kamma. or focussing the mind on one object. Hence Cetanà in the supramundane consciousness does not constitute Kamma. It is like a firmly fixed pillar that cannot be shaken by the wind. Supramundane thoughts. wisdom or insight. Mundane thoughts tend to accumulate Kamma. tend to eradicate Kamma. with Cetanà as the foremost. it is of no moral significance as it lacks accumulative power. Hence where there is no Cetanà. on the other hand. Although Cetanà is found in Vipàka types of consciousness too. is regarded as Kamma. It is like a steady lamp-flame in a windless place. Cetanà in every moral and immoral type of mundane consciousness. In the Pa¤cakkhandha. on the contrary. it determines its inevitable consequences. This mental state prevents its adjuncts from dissipation and fixes them on one object. 108 . Ekaggatà— Eka + agga + tà = One-pointedness. excluding Vedanà and Sa¤¤à. It is like water that binds together several substances to form one concrete compound. From an ethical standpoint. It is this Cetanà that is alluded to as Saïkhàra and (Kamma) Bhava in the Pañicca-Samuppàda. or concentration on one object. 6. by Saïkhàrakkhandha are meant the fifty mental states.mundane it is Pa¤¤à. From a psychological standpoint Cetanà determines the activities of the mental states associated with it.

As lotuses are sustained by water. One Råpa-Jãvitindriya lasts for seventeen thoughtmoments. or concentrated consciousness. There is a certain kind of Råpa-Jãvitindriya in plant life. an infant is sustained by a nurse. 109 . it is Jãvitindriya that infuses life into Cetanà and other concomitants. Seventeen Nàma-Jãvitindriyas arise and perish during the brief life of one Råpa-Jãvitindriya. Råpa-Jãvitindriya in men and animals is differentiated from that which exists in plants because the former is conditioned by past Kamma. 241.) 7. psychic life (NàmaJãvitindriya) and physical life (Råpa-Jãvitindriya). Jãvitindriya— Jãvita = life. When it is developed and cultivated it is designated Samàdhi.” (Compendium. focussed. selected. while material phenomena are vitalized by physical life. But. Mental States are vitalized by psychic life. It is called Jãvita because it sustains its co-associates. It is called Indriya because it controls its co-associates. Although Cetanà determines the activities of all mental states. Jãvitindriya is twofold—namely. “It is the germ of all attentive. + Indriya = controlling faculty or principle. so are mental states and material phenomena sustained by Jãvitindriya.This one-pointedness is one of the five Jhàna factors. p.

8. even so Jãvitindriya depends on mind and matter. Manasikàra should be distinguished from Vitakka which is to follow. See ch. Immediately after. 110 . Hence death is regarded as the destruction of this Jãvitindriya. due to the power of Kamma. Mind without Manasikàra is like a rudderless ship. another Nàma-Jãvitindriya arises in the subsequent birth at the moment of conception. It is like the rudder of a ship. They are the Råpa–Jãvitindriyas of the ‘body decad’ (kàyadasaka) ‘sex-decad’ (bhàvadasaka) and ‘seat-decad’ (vatthudasaka).Both Nàma-Jãvitindriya and Råpa-Jãvitindriya arise at the moment of conception. The former directs its concomitants to the object. They simultaneously perish at the moment of decease. VI. while the latter applies or throws (pakkhipanto viya) them 38.38 Just as a boatman depends on the boat and the boat depends on the boatman. Simultaneous with the arising of the one Nàma-Jãvitindriya there arise three Råpa-Jãvitindriyas in the case of a human being. and mind and matter depend on Jãvitindriya. which is indispensable to take her directly to her destination. Manasikàra— The literal meaning of the term is ‘making in the mind’ Turning the mind towards the object is the chief characteristic of Manasikàra. Manasikàra is also compared to a charioteer that sits with close attention on two well-trained horses (mind and object) as regards their rhythmical movements.

whether mundane or supramundane? Hence they are designated Sabbacittasàdhàranà. relative or friend. reasoning etc. As someone ascends to the king’s palace depending on a king’s favourite. likewise consciousness ascends to the object depending on Vitakka (Atthasàlinã. ideas. As a mental state it is mere spontaneous attention. to think. as in attention. thoughts. In the Abhidhamma it is used in a specific technical sense. In Manasikàra. although the Pàli term does not fully connote the meaning attached to the English word from a strictly philosophical standpoint. ‘Lifting’ of the concomitants to the object (abhiniropaõa) is its chief characteristic. It is difficult to suggest a suitable rendering for this Pàli term which assumes different meanings in the Suttas and Abhidhamma. 114). p. 9. In the Sutta Piñaka it has been employed in the sense of notions.on the object. Attention is the closest equivalent to Manasikàra. Vi + Vitakka— takk. To Sa¤¤à may be attributed this vividness to some extent. there is no peculiar vividness or clarity. Could Manasikàra also be an aid to memory. as it is common to all types of consciousness. Vitakka is like a favourite courtier that introduces a villager (mind) into the presence of a king (object). Vitakka may well be defined as the application of the 111 √ .

A villager. It is this developed Appanà-Vitakka that is known as Samàdhi or concentration. needs the introduction of a favourite courtier. Vitakka Carita means one of a discursive temperament. who visits the king’s palace for the first time. however. In the subsequent Jhànas Vitakka is. Vitakka is used in entirely a different sense when used in connection with the temperaments of individuals. as stated above. When it is developed and cultivated it becomes the foremost factor of the First Jhàna. Different values are attached to Vitakka when it is used in different connections. inhibited.concomitants on the object. Manasikàra. is the directing of the concomitants to the object. owing to the habitual association with the object.) 112 . The distinguishing characteristics of these two Cetasikas should be clearly understood. For his subsequent visits no such introduction is necessary as he is acquainted with the place. Then it is termed Appanà because the mind is steadfastly fixed on the object. As an ordinary particular (pakiõõaka) mental state it is simply called Vitakka. When Vitakka is present in the Supramundane Path Consciousness (Lokuttara Magga Citta) it is termed Sammà Saïkappa (Right Thoughts) because it eliminates wrong thoughts and applies the mind to Nibbàna. (See Ch. The ordinary Vitakka simply throws the mind to the surface of the object. for instance. note 38. 1.

Vicàra too is employed in a technical sense in Abhidhamma. So far the renderings for Vitakka and Vicàra are initial and sustained application respectively. like its reverberation is Vicàra. (imam’ evà’ti sanniññhànakaraõaü). Like a bee alighting on a lotus is Vitakka. Both terms should be distinguished. like its gyrating around the lotus is Vicàra. Like Vitakka. to wander. Adhimokkha— muc. and is opposed to Vicikicchà—doubt or indecision. Vicàra is also a Jhàna factor. Literally. Like the flappings of a bird about to fly is Vitakka. 1. Vicàra— car. Vicàra is the continued exercise of the mind on the object. (See Ch. like its planning movements in the sky is Vicàra. It makes the decision—‘Just this one’.10. Like the beating of a drum or bell is Vitakka.) Vi + 11. Examination (anumajjana) is its chief characteristic. It inhibits Vicikicchà (Doubt or Indecision). Adhimokkha releases the mind on to the object. to release. note 39. the term means Adhi + ‘release-on-to’. 113 √ √ . Its chief characteristic is decision or choosing.

114 √ . Derived from Vãra is one who strenuously carries on his work uninterruptedly. Vi is substituted for aj. It is also compared to a steady pillar owing to its unwavering state. Viriya is regarded as a controlling factor (Indriya) because it overcomes idleness. 12. kammaü). It has the characteristic of supporting (upatthambana) upholding (paggahaõa). Viriya— aj.It is compared to a judge that decides a case. As an old house is supported by new pillars even so concomitants are aided and supported by Viriya. Viriya is sublimated as one of the seven factors of Enlightenment (Bojjhaïga). Or. to go + ãr. it is that which is effected or carried out methodically (Vidhinà ãrayitabbaü pavattetabbaü và). sustaining (ussahana). It is this Viriya that appears as Four Modes of Supreme Efforts (Sammappadhàna). Just as a strong reinforcement would help an army to hold on instead of retreating. Viriya serves as one of the four means of accomplishing one’s ends (Iddhipàda). (Aññhaïgika– Magga) as Sammà Vàyàma (Right Effort). It is also regarded as one of the five powers (Bala) because it cannot be shaken by its opposite idleness. Finally it has been elevated to one of the eight members of the Noble Path. even so Viriya upholds or uplifts its concomitants. It is defined as the state or action of energetic persons (Vãrànaü bhàvo.

Atthasàlinã states that Viriya should be regarded as the root of all achievements. energy are suggested as best equivalents. Effort. Pãti signifies an interest in the object. Chanda— chad. 18. This is ethically unmoral. that serves as one of the four dominant influences (Adhipati). Of them it is Kattukamyatà Chanda. the mere wish-to-do. 13. 1. (i) Kàmacchanda which is sensual craving. Derived from The chief characteristic of Chanda is the wish-to-do (kattukamyatà). Shwe Zan Aung says—“The effort of conation or will is due to Viriya. It is like the stretching of the hand to grasp an object. to wish. There are three kinds of Chandas—namely. one of the Five Hindrances (Nãvaraõa).) 115 √ . (iii) Dhammacchanda. note 40. 14. It is this Dhammacchanda that impelled Prince Siddhartha to renounce Royal pleasures. Pãti—See Ch. Chanda constitutes the intention with respect to object. This is ethically immoral.” (Compendium—p. righteous wish. exertion. meaning attached to this particular mental state. This unmoral Chanda should be distinguished from immoral Lobha which is clinging to an object. (ii) Kattukamyatà Chanda.

to be stupefied. One who has hiri recoils from evil just as a cock’s feather shrinks in front of fire. but a moth. 116 √ √ . The chief characteristic of Moha is confusion with regard to the nature of an object. Na + ava + Ottappa is fear to do evil. Moha— muh. The state of such a person is ahirikkariü = ahirikaü. 15. Ahirika— An abstract noun formed of “a” + hirika. He who is not ashamed of doing evil is ahiriko. would commit any evil without the least compunction.. Derived from Moha is one of the three roots of evil and is common to all immoral types of consciousness. to be deluded. A person who is afraid of fire would not touch it. fear of the consequences. 17. One who has no Hiri. It is opposed to Pa¤¤à— wisdom. i.Buddhists have this Dhammacchanda for the realisation of Nibbàna. It is not a kind of craving. Anottappa is its opposite and is compared to a moth that is singed by fire. Moha clouds one’s knowledge with regard to Kamma and its consequences and the four noble Truths. Anottappa— tapp. to be tormented.e. 16. unaware of the consequences.

would get burnt. ottappaü springs from without.’ Hiri has its source within. Both these terms—Hiri and Ottappa—are found in conjunction. and the other smeared with filth. just as sati represents its intellectual side. Hiri should be differentiated from ordinary shyness and Ottappa from ordinary fear of any individual. ottappaü. for instance. Fear is regarded as one of the ten armies of Màra. Rhys Davids on Hiri and Ottappa clearly depicts the difference between these relative mental constituents:— “Hiri and Ottappaü. there is a piece of iron. for Buddhism is not based on the fear of the unknown. influenced by society (lokàdhipati). Hiri is compared to the former and Ottappa to the latter. and the other end through fear. The former is 117 . Suppose. The former is established on shame. present points of considerable ethical interest. the latter on dread. even a God. The following note by Mrs. Hiri is autonomous (attàdhipati). heteronomous. as analysed by Buddhaghosa. In the same way a person without Ottappa would commit evil and suffer in states of woe. one end of which is heated. Hiri arises from within. A Buddhist is not expected to be afraid of any individual. the latter to ‘anguish (ubbego) over evil-doing. Taken together they give us the emotional and conative aspect of the modern notion of conscience. and Ottappa from without. The former term ‘is equivalent to shame (lajjà).attracted by fire. The filthy end one would not touch owing to disgust.

one having hiri will think ‘Only mean folk (fishers etc.) children. as said the Buddha. It is the unsettled 118 √ .’ and hence one refrains. the blame of others.’ and refrains. viz. age. The external source of ottappaü is. Uddhacca— Dhu.) are thus explained: “In Hiri one reflects on the worth of one’s birth. The subjective source of hiri is fourfold. the idea of what is due to one’s birth. his own best master. Thus. In a supplementary paragraph the ‘marks’ (consistency etc. poor wretches. the latter by discernment of the danger and fearsomeness of error.” (Buddhist Psychology. and one’s fellow-students.marked by consistency. If a man has hiri. would do such an act. It is compared to the disturbed state of a heap of ashes when hit with a stone. chastisement. 18. In Ottappaü one feels dread at selfreproach. To one who is sensitive by way of ottappaü. to shake off.. Hiri and Ottappa are regarded as the two dominant factors that rule the world. one’s estate. U = up. 20). the masters of the faith are the best guides”. and education. to waver. one’s teacher. p. worth. No civilized society can exist without them. and retribution in another life. the blind and ignorant. above. the idea that ‘the body of the faithful will blame you. he is. + Uddhutassa bhàvo Uddhuccaü = Uddhaccaü = state of throwing up.

These four. 20. Sammà Diññhi or Amoha is used as the antithesis of Moha. 21. In some rare instances Uddhacca is used in the sense of puffed-up state of mind. When the Pàli term Diññhi is used alone. Lobha—See Ch. viz. 19. Diññhi—See Ch. and the rest is false’. 1. the latter deals with one’s views. Anottappa. it is employed in the sense of Micchà Diññhi—wrong belief. Moha. to think. note 9. The latter discerns the object as it is. unqualifyingly. As a rule Uddhacca is differentiated from Màna because both of them are treated as Saüyojanas (Fetters).. 1. The difference between Moha and Diññhi should be noted. Diññhi is opposed to ¥àõa. 1. corresponding to conceit. such as as ‘this indeed is truth. Màna—Derived from √ man. wisdom. Here it is not used in that sense. and is opposed to collectedness (vupasama). 119 . As one of the five Hindrances it is the antithesis of Sukha. note 11. The former rejects the real nature and views wrongly. 22. happiness. Uddhacca—that head the list of Immoral Cetasikas—are common to all Immoral types of consciousness. Dosa—See Ch. note 9.state of mind. The former clouds the object. Ahirika.

As such it is objective. 25. but to myself.’ (Mà idaü acchariyaü a¤¤esaü hotu. Kukkucca— Kukatassa bhàvo = kukkuccaü = the state of having done amiss. to be envious. It has the characteristic of grieving over the evil that is done and the good that is not done. Contrary to Issà.23. 24. mayham’eva hotu). this is subjective. Macchariya— Maccharassa bhàvo = the state of an avaricious person. It has the characteristic of envying others’ success and prosperity. Remorse over the evil that is done is Kukkucca. and so is remorse over the good that is not done. Commentary gives another explanation:— ‘Let not this wonder be to others. Dhammasaïganã explains:— “What is worry?” 120 √ . and so is good that is not done. Both Issà and Macchariya are regarded as the friends of Dosa because each of them arises with it. Issà—Derived from i + su. The chief characteristic of Macchariya is the concealment of one’s prosperity. to be jealous. According to the commentary evil that is done is ku + kata.

Thãna is explained as Citta—gela¤¤aü. + na. it is repentance which is not commended. and is commended. one of the Sobhana cetasikas. Both Thãna and Middha are always used in conjunction. They are inhibited 121 √ √ .) Kukkucca is one of the five Hindrances and is used together with Uddhacca. to be inert.” (Buddhist Psychology — p. fidgeting. consciousness of what is immoral in something that is moral. adaptability of the mind. and are one of the five Hindrances. middh. over-scrupulousness. According to Abhidhamma. to be incapable. According to Vinaya. consciousness of what is unlawful in something that is lawful. It pertains to past things only. mental sacrificing—this is what is called worry. Kukkucca is healthy doubt with regard to rules. Middha—Derived from active. 26. It is opposed to Viriya. As such It is the antithesis of Cittakamma¤¤atà.“Consciousness of what is lawful in something that is unlawful. the. to be in27. 313. on the contrary. consciousness of what is moral in something that is immoral—all this sort of worry. It is the shrinking state of the mind like a cock’s feather before fire. sickness of the mind. remorse of conscience. Thãna—Derived from Thena = thàna = thãna. This is the morbid state of the mental factors. to shrink.

a shrouding. but is applied to the body of mental factors. note 13. perception. unwieldiness of sense. 311. initial application. adhering and cohering. Vicikicchà—See Ch. torpor that which is sleep. a stiffening. does not mean doubts with regard to the Buddha..” 122 . and the remaining fifty mental factors).by Vitakka. that is. unwieldiness of intellect. too. Hence Middha is the antithesis of Kàyakamma¤¤atà. Vedanà. pp. Middha is explained as the Kàya-gela¤¤a. cleaving to. Dhamma. is opposed to Viriya. somnolence this is called torpor. clinging. sickness of the mental body. Both Thãna And Middha are explained in the Dhammasaïganã as follows: “What is stolidity (Thãna)? “That which is indisposition. one of the Jhàna factors. Adaptability of mental factors. Sa¤¤a and Saïkhàrà (feeling. a rigidity of the intellect—this is called stolidity. Here body is not used in the sense of material form. stickiness. Where there are Thãna and Middha there is no Viriya.. viz. Middha. barricading within. slumbering. as a Hindrance.” (Buddhist Psychology. Sangha. enveloping. 1. 312. sleep. Vicikicchà.) 28. etc. stolidity. “What is torpor (Middha)? “That which is indisposition. Majjhima Nikàya commentary states — “it is so called because it is incapable of deciding that it is as such. drowsiness.

to establish. when thrown into water. This Saddhà is not blind faith. This particular gem. to put. √ √ 123 . But that is not Saddhà. Purification (sampasàdana) of its mental associates is its chief characteristic. well. Atthasàlinã raises this very question and provides an answer which is rather unsatisfactory and inadequate. One might question whether a non-Buddhist could also possess this Saddhà. Saddhà is well-established confidence in the Buddha. Saddhà—Saü. dah. His answer is:— “They do. + to place. It is compared to the water purifying gem of the universal monarch. According to Pàli.” If Saddhà is limited only to Buddhists. It is confidence based on knowledge. In the same way Saddhà purifies the mind of its stains.(Idam’ev’idanti nicchetuü asamatthabhàvato’ti vicikicchà). “Do men of false opinions not believe in their own teachers?” questions Venerable Buddhaghosa. causes mud and water-weeds to subside. what shall we say when a non-Buddhist places his faith or confidence in his teacher? Surely his mind also gets purified to some extent when he thinks of his particular religious teacher. 29. Saüskrt Sraddhà is composed of Srat = faith + dhà to establish. The water is consequently purified. and the Sangha. it is a mere acquiescence in words (Vacanasampañicchanamattameva). Dhamma.

faith as a faculty and as a power:” (Buddhist Psychology. It has to be developed. It is this Sati that is regarded as one of the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path. Unlike pumpkins and pots that float on water. 30. p. Sati does not exactly correspond to the Western conception of memory. to remember. Its chief characteristic is ‘not floating away’ (apilàpana). instead of restricting to the Triple Gem? Dhammasaïganã explains Saddhà as follows:— “The faith which on that occasion is trusting in. faith. In such a case there is no occasion for a nonBuddhist to experience a moral consciousness.Could it be Diññhi-false view? Then it is immoral (Akusala).) Saddhà is also apprehension intuitively of experience or knowledge gathered in past births. It should be noted that this particular Sati is not 124 . Would it not be more correct to say that Saddhà is mere confidence or faith. the sense of assurance. Sati plunges into the object of thought. Sati tends to present before oneself good things without allowing them to be forgotten. Sati—Derived from √ sar. In the Satipaññhàna Sutta are described in detail various methods to develop this Sati. the professing confidence in. 14. Mindfulness is a better equivalent for Sati. When it is highly developed one acquires the power of remembering past births.

38. the mindfulness which is remembering. in which he closely follows and enlarges on the account in Mil. right mindfulness”. Hardy went so far as to render it by ‘conscience’. 16).) Dhammasaïganã explains Sati as follows:— “The mindfulness which on that occasion is recollecting. It takes the psychological process or representative functioning (without bringing out the distinction between bare memory and judgment). Rhys Davids says:— “Buddhaghosa’s comment on Sati. and presents the same under an ethical aspect. shows that the traditional conception of that aspect of consciousness had much in common with the Western modern theory of conscience or moral sense. bearing in mind the opposite of superficiality and of obliviousness. Sati appears under the metaphor of an inward mentor. p. discriminating between good and bad and prompting choice.” (Buddhist Psychology. 16. mindfulness as faculty: mindfulness as power.found in immoral types of consciousness. The former is quite unmystical of the subject of Sati. Hiri & Ottappa—See Ahirika and Anottappa 125 . What is found in immoral consciousness is Micchà Sati (wrong mindfulness. Mrs.) 31. calling back to mind. 37. but this slurs over the interesting divergencies between Eastern and Western thought. p. Commenting on Sati. (Buddhist Psychology.

32. Alobha— This is opposed to Lobha (See Ch. 1, note 9). Dàna or generosity is implied thereby. This is a positive virtue involving active altruism. It is one of the three roots of good. Like a drop of water that runs off a lotus leaf without adhering to it, non-adhesion to an object is its chief characteristic. 33. Adosa— This is opposed to Dosa (See Ch. 1. note 9). It is not mere absence of hatred or aversion, but is a positive virtue. Adosa is synoymous with Mettà, Loving-kindness, which is one of the four Illimitables. Readers will note that in enumerating the Illimitables only two are mentioned, viz.—Karuõà and Mudità. The reason being that Mettà is implied by this Adosa; and Upekkhà, by Tatramajjhattatà, equanimity. Adosa is also one of the three roots of good. Like an agreeable friend, absence of churlishness or coarseness (caõóikka) is its chief characteristic. 34. Three Roots of Good:— Alobha, Adosa and Amoha are the three roots of good. Amoha is not mentioned amongst the nineteen Beautiful Cetasikas because it is implied by Pa¤¤à-wisdom. Atthasàlinã gives a vivid description of these three virtues as follows:

“Of these three, Alobha has the characteristic of nonadhesion of the mind to an object, or of not sticking like a drop of water on a lotus leaf. Its function is non-appropriation like an emancipated Bhikkhu (Arahant). Its manifestation is detachment like a man fallen in filth. “Adosa has the characteristic of non-churlishness or non-resentment like an agreeable friend. Its function is the suppression of annoyance or feverishness like sandal wood. Its manifestation is loveliness like the full moon. The characteristic, function, etc., of Amoha have been explained in connection with the term Pa¤¤indriya (Faculty of Wisdom). Of these three, again, Alobha is opposed to the taint of selfishness, Adosa to that of impurity (dussãlya), Amoha to the non-development of moral conditions. “Alobha is the cause of generosity, Adosa of morality, Amoha of meditation. “Through Alobha what is in excess is not taken, for the greedy take what is in excess. Through Adosa what is not less is taken, for the hateful take what is less. Through Amoha what is unperverted is taken, for the deluded take what is perverted. Through Alobha, one regards a manifest fault as such and admits it, but the greedy conceal it. Through Adosa one regards a manifest virtue as such and admits it, but the hateful efface it. Through Amoha, one regards what really is as such and admits it, but the deluded regard what is false as true, and what is true as false. “Through Alobha there is no sorrow arising from separation of the beloved, for affection is the intrinsic nature

of the greedy as well as the inability to bear the separation from the beloved. Through Adosa there arises no sorrow from association with the unbeloved since disagreeableness is the intrinsic nature of the hateful as well as the inability to bear the association with the unbeloved. Through Amoha there arises no sorrow from not getting what one desires, for it is the intrinsic nature of the deluded to think— ‘From where could it be got?’ etc. “Through Alobha there arises no sorrow from rebirth, since the former is opposed to craving and the latter is the root of craving. Through Adosa there arises no sorrow from decay, since the intensely hateful become quickly aged. Through Amoha there is no sorrow from death, for a bewildered death is painful. There is no such death for the undeluded. “There is harmonious living to the lay people through Alobha, to the recluses through Amoha, and to all through Adosa. “In particular through Alobha there is no rebirth in the plane of Petas, since beings are generally born amongst Petas through craving. Alobha is the antithesis of craving. Through Adosa there is no rebirth in the Niraya (Woeful State). Through hate, which is of a churlish nature, beings are born in woeful states resembling hatred. Adosa is the antithesis of hatred, Through Amoha there is no rebirth in the animal plane. Due to utter delusion through ignorance, beings, are born amongst animals. Amoha is the antithesis of ignorance.

“Of them Alobha dissuades attraction from lust; Adosa from recoiling through hate; Amoha from stolid indifference through ignorance. “Moreover through these three there arise respectively these three notions—those of renunciation, nonanger, and harmlessness; and those of loathsomeness, immeasurableness, and fundamental elements (Dhàtu). “Through Alobha the extreme of indulgence in sensual pleasures is inhibited. through Adosa that of selfmortification. Through Amoha there is training according to the Middle Path. “Similarly through Alobha the bodily bond of covetousness (Abhijjhà Kàyagantha) is destroyed, through Adosa that of illwill, and through Amoha the remaining two. “The first two states of mindfulness are accomplished by the power of the first two, and the last two by the power of the third. “Herein Alobha is conducive to health, for the unattached person does not resort to what is attractive but suitable—hence health ensues. Adosa is conducive to, youthfulness, for the unhateful person remains young for a long time, being not burnt by the fire of anger which causes wrinkles and grey hair. Amoha is conducive to longevity of life, for the undeluded person, distinguishing between what is agreeable and disagreeable, avoids the latter and adopts the former and lives long. “Alobha is conducive to the acquisition of wealth, for by generosity wealth is obtained. Adosa is conducive to the

acquisition of friends, for by loving-kindness friends are won and are not lost. “Amoha is conducive to personal achievements, for the undeluded person, doing only what is beneficial to himself, regulates his own self. “Alobha is conducive to divine life, Adosa to Brahma life, and Amoha to Aryan life. “Through Alobha one is at peace with his acquisition of wealth amongst beings and things belonging to one’s party, for through their destruction there is no grief caused to him by excessive attachment. Through Adosa amongst those belonging to other parties he is happy, for the inimical person is devoid of the feeling of illwill even amongst the hostile. Through Amoha he is happy amongst those who belong to a neutral party, for the undeluded person is devoid of all attachment. “Through Alobha there is insight into impermanence, for the greedy person does not see impermanence in things that are impermanent, owing to his desire for enjoyment. Through Adosa there is insight into suffering, for one with a loving disposition has abandoned that grasping, the cause of vexation, and sees things as sorrowful. Through Amoha there is insight into soullessness, for the undeluded person is skilful in understanding things as they truly are. He sees the guideless fivefold group as guideless. “As insight into impermanence and so on is brought about by these three states, so are these states brought about by insight into impermanence and so on.

“Through insight into impermanence there is Alobha; through insight into sorrow, Adosa; through insight into soullessness, Amoha. “Who indeed knowing well that this is impermanent would develop a desire for it? Who indeed perceiving ill in things would develop another ill caused by exceedingly violent anger? Who indeed realising the emptiness of a soul would again fall into utter delusion? (Atthasàlinã — pp. 137–139. See The Expositor Vol. i, pp. 167–170.) 35. Tatramajjhattatà— Lit., tatra = there, i.e., with respect to objects; majhattatà = middleness, that is, equipoise. Impartial view of objects is its chief characteristic. It is compared to a charioteer who views equally a pair of well-trained horses. Tatramajjhattatà and Upekkhà (equanimity) are sometimes used as synonymous terms. It is this Tatramajjhattatà that is regarded as Upekkhà of the four Illimitables. Hence Upekkhà does not occur amongst the Illimitables. It is this Tatramajjhattatà that is raised to the dignity of a Bojjhaïga, one of the seven factors of Enlightenment. Tatramajjhattatà has also to be distinguished from hedonic Upekkhà or indifference. At times both these mental states simultaneously arise in the same consciousness, e.g., in all Upekkhàsahagata Kusala Cittas. This Tatramajjhattatà is regarded both as an intellec131

tual and ethical Upekkhà. (See Ch. 1. note 42.) 36. Kàya Passaddhi & Citta–Passaddhi— sambh, to calm, to be Passaddhi is composed of pa + tranquil. Pa + sambh + ti = passadhti = passaddhi. Passaddhi is tranquillity, calmness, quietude, serenity. The chief characteristic of Passaddhi is the suppression or the allaying of feverishness of passions (Kilesadaratha-våpasama). It is like the cool shade of a tree to a person affected by the sun’s heat. Passaddhi is opposed to Uddhacca, restlessness, or excitement. When highly developed it becomes a factor of Enlightenment (Bojjhaïga). This tranquillity is twofold, viz., tranquillity of Kàya and Citta. Here Kàya is not used in the sense of material body. It is the body of psychic factors—namely, Vedanà (feeling), Sa¤¤à) (perception), and Saïkhàrà (mental states). It should be understood that Kàya is used in the same sense in the subsequent cetasikas. Citta connotes the whole consciousness. The difference therefore lies between psychic factors and consciousness as a whole. The same explanation applies to the other pairs as well. 37. Kàya–Lahutà & Citta–Lahutà— Derived from Laghu, light, quick. (Skt. Laghutà). Lahutà is bouyancy or lightness. Suppression of the heaviness of the mind and mental factors is its chief characteristic. It is like the laying down of a heavy burden. It is opposed to Thãna

and Middha—sloth and torpor—which cause heaviness and rigidity in mental factors and consciousness. 38. Kàya–Mudutà & Citta–Mudutà— The chief characteristic of Mudutà is the suppression of stiffness and resistance. It removes stiffness and becomes pliable in receiving objects. It is compared to a skin that is well moulded by applying oil, water, etc. It. is opposed to false views and conceit (Diññhi and Màna) which cause stiffness. 39. Kàya–Kamma¤¤atà & Citta–Kamma¤¤atà— Kamma + nya + tà = Kammanyatà = Kamma¤¤atà. Lit., workableness or serviceableness. Its chief characteristic is the supression of unserviceableness or unworkableness of consciousness and its factors. It is like a heated metal made fit for any use. It is opposed to all the remaining Hindrances. Atthasàlinã states that these two allied concomitants produce serenity (Pasàda) in propitious things, and are adaptable like pure gold, for beneficial works. 40. Kaya–Pàgu¤¤atà & Citta–Pàgu¤¤atà— This is proficiency or skilfulness. Its chief characteristic is the suppression of sickness of mind and its concomitants. It is opposed to such passions as faithlessness etc. 41. Kàyujjukatà & Cittujjukatà— This is straightness or rectitude, and is opposed to crook133

edness, deception and craftiness. Its chief characteristic is straightness. 42. All these 19 concomitants are common to all types of moral consciousness, unlike the immoral concomitants which do not arise in an immoral consciousness in toto. No moral consciousness arises without all of them. Along with this ‘Beautiful’ group some other moral concomitants may arise according to the type of Consciousness. 43. Virati— ram, to delight in. Virati is refraining from, Vi + delighting in, i.e., abstinence. According to the Atthasàlinã there are there kinds of Virati—namely, Sampatta-Virati, Samàdàna-Virati, and Samuccheda-Virati. Sampatta-Virati is abstaining from evil as occasion arises considering one’s birth, age, education, etc. Samàdàna-Virati is abstaining from evil in accordance with one’s observances. For example, a Buddhist would abstain from killing, stealing, etc., as he observes the precepts not to kill etc. Samuccheda-Virati is the abstinence of an Ariyan Disciple by completely eradicating all the roots of evil. In the case of the former two, violation of good principles is possible; but in the case of Arahants it is not, because they have destroyed all passions. Here are enumerated three Abstinences pertaining to wrong speech, wrong actions, and wrong livelihood.

weapons. Mudità. Mettà. Sammà-Diññhi and Sammà Sankhappa which constitute Pa¤¤à (Wisdom) are implied by Pa¤¤indriya and Vitakka-Cetasikas respectively.. lit. Sammà Vàcà deals with abstinence from false speech (Musàvàda). Sammà âjiva deals with abstinence from selling poison. and Upekkhà are these four Illimitables.called Brahma vicara—Sublime Modes of Living. 135 . slandering (Pisunavàcà). these three mental concomitants collectively arise only in the Supramundane consciousness (Lokuttara Citta). Sammà Vàyàma. and they constitute Sila (Morality). slaves and animals for slaughter. and sexual misconduct (Kàmesu Micchàcàra). Sammà Sati. harsh speech (Pharusavàcà) and frivolous talk (Sampapphalàpa). and Sammà Samàdhi which constitute Samàdhi (Concentration) are implied by Viriya. Apràmànya). Appama¤¤à— As the object of these virtues is the infinite number of beings. intoxicants. 44. stealing (Adinnàdàna). and Ekaggatà Cetasikas respectively. illimitable (Skt. They are also. In other cases they arise separately because there are three Cetanàs. Karåõà. Sati.Strictly speaking. Sammà Kammanta deals with abstinence from killing (Pànàtipàta). they are called Appama¤¤à. These three when present in the Lokuttara Citta are regarded as Factors of the Path (Magganga).

The direct enemy of Mettà is hatred or illwill (Kodha). Benevolent attitude is its chief characteristic. or friendly disposition is Mettà. Karuõà embraces sorrow-afflicted beings. It discards cruelty. Mettà is not carnal love or affection. It discards illwill. Mettà embraces all beings without exception. The culmination of Mettà is the identification of oneself with all beings (Sabbattatà). Hence only two are mentioned here. 45. Mettà is the sincere wish for the good and welfare of all. to make + uõà. That which dissipates the sufferings of others is Karuõà. to do. loving-kindness are suggested as the best renderings. 46. to soften. Goodwill. That which makes the hearts of the good quiver when others are afflicted with sorrow is Karuõà. The wish for the removal of sufferings of others is its chief characteristic. That which softens the mind. 136 . Mettà— mid. benevolence. Karuõà— √ √ Kar. its indirect enemy is affection (Pema). state of a friend. Its direct enemy is wickedness (Hiüsà) and its indirect enemy is grief (Domanassa).As explained above Mettà and Upekkhà are represented by Adosa and Tatramajjhattatà. According Derived from to Saüskrt mitrasya bhàvah = Maitri. to love.

1.. Its direct enemy is passion (Ràga). pleasure and pain and all such similar opposite pairs. Derived from It is not mere sympathy but appreciative joy. Impartial attitude is its chief characteristic. Mudità— mud. 137 √ √ . (See ch. It discards dislike (Arati). to see. justly + Upekkhà is to view impartially. to view. The following illuminating note by Mrs. Upekkhà embraces all good and bad ones. loved and unloved ones.47.e. Upekkhà— ikkh. Upa = impartially. to look. 42). agreeable and disagreeable things. Here Upekkhà does not mean mere neutral feeling. It is this Upekkhà that is elevated to a Bojjhaïga factor. but a sterling virtue is implied thereby. and its indirect enemy is unintelligent indifference. conveys only one aspect of Upekkhà. neither with attachment nor with aversion. 48. Mudità embraces prosperous beings. too. Its direct enemy is jealousy and its indirect enemy is exultation (Pahàsa). Equanimity is the closest equivalent. and is the congratulatory attitude of a person. That term. Attachment and aversion are eliminated by Upekkhà. notes 10. Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in others’ prosperity (Anumodanà). 49. It is the balanced state of mind. i. to be pleased. Rhys Davids on these four virtues is well worth reading.

‘Eastern Monachism’. and on their emancipating efficacy. Clinging (Sinehasambhavo) is the Vipatti of love.E. aversion (Arati). together with their false manifestation (Vipatti). “The commentator has not a little to say in the present work. cruelty (Vihesa). the characteristics of each are fully set forth. And there is a condition of disinterestedness (Upekkhà) which is prompted by ignorance. p. M. i. xi 201. and not by that insight into the karma of mankind which can avail to calm the passions. n. on but a restricted number of beings. on the nature and mutual relations of the ‘Abodes’ (pp.“On these four great exercises. however.B. First. Tears and the like are less truly characteristic of pity (Karuõà) than is the bearing and relieving the woes of others.)…. as being less directly assailed by it than its 138 . and passion (Ràga)—and shows how each virtue has also a second vice opposed to it. see Rhys Davids. 38. 243 et seq. 193–195). The object of thought (ârammaõa) in this connexion will be ‘limited’ if the student dwells in love etc. ix. S. and of Hardy. “He next designates the four antisocial attitudes which are to be extirpated by these ethical disciplines taken in order—illwill (Vyàpàda). the essential mark of which is the carrying on of beneficent conduct etc. Laughter and the like are less genuine expressions of sympathy (Mudità) than is appreciation of what others have achieved. Buddhaghosa again refers to the reader to his Visuddhi Magga for a more detailed commentary (vide chap... ‘infinite’ if his heart embraces vast numbers.. This he terms its near enemy.

Love and vengeful conduct cannot coexist. for the maintenance of the gifts displayed by the youth as Mudità. is the self-pity pining for one has not got or has lost—a low. for the recovery of the sick child as Karuõa. Lastly. more insidious than cruelty. that when Hardy. lies in wait to stifle appreciation of the good fortune of others. with a foreigner’s want of Mudità. the latter resembling an enemy who has to lurk afar in the jungle and the hills. calumniates the Bud139 . profane melancholy. Cit. 249) of the mother and the four children. And the corresponding worldly happiness in what one has. love is threatened by lust.ethical opposite. by the way. and finally with their other technical appellation of Appama¤¤à or infinitudes. being unable to transcend external things. while her care not to hinder the career of her grown-up son is as Upekkhà. Her desire for the growth of the infant is as Mettà. and the importance of observing method in their cultivation. But where love and its object have too much in common. Again the near enemy to pity. or in consequence of obliviousness as to what one has lost.. To prevail in this respect. there is the unintelligent indifference of the worldling who has not triumphed over limitations nor mastered cause and effect. On this side let love be guarded well. “It may be remarked. let love be developed fearlessly. “The remainder of his remarks are occupied with the necessary sequence in the four Abodes. In this connexion he repeats the touching illustration given in Hardy (op.

. 250) as one who thinks about the virtues of solidarity without practising them. Pa¤¤à. in his zeal for material forms of charity. When purified by Samàdhi Pa¤¤à assumes the honourable role of Abhi¤¤à (Higher 140 . Pa¤¤à. Its chief characteristic is understanding as it really is or irresistible understanding.. 65–67). and the importance of which the Western. pp. examination).” (Buddhist Psychology. As one of the four means of accomplishing one’s ends (Iddhipàda) it assumes the name of Vãmàüsà (lit. literally. Pa¤¤indriya— Pa = rightly. is also meant this Pa¤¤à. one of the three moral roots. does not even now appreciate at its real value. and Amoha are used as interchangeable terms. means right knowing. In types of consciousness connected with knowledge (¥àõa-sampayutta) the reference is to this Pa¤¤à. it is called a controlling faculty (Indriya). By Amoha.dhist mendicant (p. he quite forgets that these exercises are but preparations of the will for that ministering to the intellectual needs of others to which the recluse’s life was largely devoted. In Abhidhamma ¥àõa. And Buddhism did not believe in giving the rein to good impulses unregulated by intellectual control. to know. penetrative knowledge (Yathàsabhàva — pañivedho và akkhalita — pativedho). ¤à. i. As Pa¤¤à dominates in understanding the real nature and as it overcomes ignorance. 50.e.

e. in the strictest sense of the term. science. Highly developed Pa¤¤à is elevated to the state of a Bojjhaïga—Dhammavicaya (Investigation of the Truth) and Magga¤ga—Sammà Diññhi. wisdom. The main difficulty in choice lay in determining whether. psychological and precise or transcendental and—passez-moi le mot—having precise vagueness. Both knowledge and wisdom are employed here according to the context. I have tried in turn reason. or for the aggregate product of certain mental functioning. understanding and knowledge. and Anattà. and are. (sorrow). but none of them exactly corresponds to the Pàli term. represent Pa¤¤à. i. with one implication or another. to the Buddhist. Rhys David’s comment on this important term is interesting. is seeing things as they truly are. When all the allusions to Pa¤¤à in the Sutta Pitaka have been collated. according as the sense to be conveyed is popular and vague. or for both. in the light of Anicca (impermanence). The culmination of Pa¤¤à is the Omniscience of a Buddha. used in the literature of philosophy with varying shades of connotation. knowledge. Pa¤¤à. Dukkha. insight. (soullessness). All of these have been.Knowledge).. Pa¤¤à stood for mental function. a final trans141 . Mrs. intellect. intelligence—all convey some aspects of Pa¤¤à. Right View. “And each of them might. Reason. intellect. insight. She writes:— “To fit the term Pa¤¤à with its approximate European equivalent is one of the cruces of Buddhist philosophy.

i. He describes it as adequate to discern not only what these can. or science. or philosophy. Nevertheless. Here it must suffice to quote two. and to choose wisdom.lation becomes possible. viz. into one’s own past lives. the cosmic Eye. then. or knowledge. Buddhaghosa also(Visuddhi Magga Ch. i.) distinguishes Pa¤¤à from Sa¤¤à and Vi¤¤àna. intellect.. xiv. Hence I think it best to reject such terms as reason. 17–18). and the elimination of all vitiating tendencies. And in Gotama’s reply. Only they must be understood in this connexion as implying the body of learning as assimilated and applied by the intellect of a given individual. 142 . he who has Pa¤¤à (Pa¤¤avà) is declared in virtue thereof to understand (Pajànàti) the nature of the phenomenon of pain or ill (the Four Noble Truths). M. pain and non-substantiality) respectively. 292. and understanding.. it might be called intellect ‘at a higher power’. all those terms are described in terms of intellectual process. but also the path. In D. it is clear that the term did not stand for bare mental process of a certain degree of complexity. the power of Iddhi. insight into the nature of impermanence. insight into other minds. senseobjects and the Three Marks (impermanence. 124 Gotama asks: what is this Pa¤¤à? and himself sets out its content as consisting in certain intellectual attainments. the mental image of one’s self.” (Buddhist Psychology. viz.. the cosmic Ear. For him. but that it also implied mental process as cultivated in accordance with a certain system of concepts objectively valid for all Buddhist adepts. pp. the Jhànas.

143 . The fourteen are linked only with the Immorals. only with the Beautiful. e. Cittuppàdo—Lit. 39. Cetasikas—mental states. (b) Vicàro pana tesu c’eva ekàdasasu dutiyajjhànacittesu c’àti chasaññhi cittesu jàyati... Pakiõõakesu pana:— (a) Vitakko tàva dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõa vajjitakàmàvacaracittesu c’eva ekàdasasu pañhamajjhànacittesu cà’ti pa¤capaõõàsacittesu uppajjati. _______ § 3. § 4. Here the compound term applies to consciousness alone. Cittaviyutta—Lit. Kathaü? Sabbacittasàdhàraõà tàva satta cetasikà sabbesu’pi ek’ånanavuti-cittuppàdesu labbhanti. 40. The combination of each of these thought-adjuncts in different types of consciousness will hereafter be dealt with accordingly.. The (six) Particulars are linked accordingly. inseparable from consciousness i._______ Different Combinations of Mental States § 3 Tesaü cittàviyuttànaü 39 — yathàyogam’ito paraü Cittuppàdesu 40 paccekaü — sampayogo pavuccati Satta sabbattha yujjanti — Yathàyogaü pakiõõakà Cuddasà’kusalesv’eva — sobhanesv’eva sobhanà. Seven are linked with every type of consciousness. the (nineteen) Beautiful. in other cases both to consciousness and its adjuncts. genesis of consciousness.

§ 4. Vitakka does not by nature occur in the ten types of moral and immoral resultant sense-consciousness. (44 + 11= 55) 41. (d) Viriyaü pa¤cadvàràvajjana—dvipa¤cavi¤¤aõa— sampañicchana—santãraõa—vajjitacittesu. Te pana cittuppàdà yathàkkamaü:— Chasaññhi pa¤capa¤¤àsa — ekàdasa ca soëasa Sattati vãsati c’eva — pakiõõakavivajjità Pa¤capa¤¤àsa chasaññhiññhasattati tisattati Ekapa¤¤àsa c’ekåna — sattati sapakiõõakà. (e) Pãti domanass’upekkhàsahagata—kàyavi¤¤àõacatutthajjhàna—vajjitacittesu. In all types of Kàmàvacara consciousness. In what way? In the first place. to wit. Among the “Particular” mental states:— (a) “Initial Application” 41 arises in fifty-five types of consciousness. It has been eliminated in the Higher Jhànas by means of concentration. Also in the eleven types of first Jhàna consciousness. § 5. 144 .(c) Adhimokkho dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõavicikicchàvajjitacittesu. i. (f) Chando ahetuka—momåhavajjitacittesu labbhati. excluding the twice fivefold sense-consciousness. the seven mental states common to every consciousness are found in all the eighty-nine types of consciousness. (54 – 10 = 44) ii.

sixteen. fifty-five. and some to 89. At the end of the section the definite number of Cittas in which the Particulars are not found and found is given. sixty-nine are with the Particulars. Fifty-five. eleven. seventy-eight. It should be noted that some numbers refer to the total of 121. (55 + 11 = 66) (c) “Decision” arises in all types of consciousness. Body-consciousness—viz. body-consciousness. excluding the sense-door directing consciousness. 43. twice fivefold sense-consciousness. (89 – 16 = 73) (e) “Joy” arises in all types of consciousness.42 and the fourth Jhàna consciousness. seventy. excluding those accompanied by displeasure. and twenty without the Particulars.. excluding the twice fivefold sense-consciousness and consciousness. 145 . and investigating consciousness. (89 – 20 = 69) § 5. sixty-six. accompanied by “Doubt” (89 – 11 = 78) (d) “Effort” arises in all types of consciousness. receiving consciousness. that which is accompanied by pain and that by bliss (Dukkha and Sukha). and indifference (equanimity). fifty-one.(b) “Sustained Application” arises in sixty-six types of consciousness. (121 – (2 + 55 + 2 + 11) = 51) (f) “Conation” arises in all types of consciousness. seventy-three.43 _______ 42. to wit: In those fifty-five and in the eleven types of second Jhàna consciousness. excluding the Ahetukas and the two modes of consciousness accompanied by delusion. Those types of consciousness in order are:— Sixty-six.

Macchariyaü. Issà. because the evil-doer is not aware of the evil consequences. § 7.(Akusala Cetasikà) _______ § 6. (a) Akusalesu pana Moho. There is a certain amount of restlessness of the mind when an evil is committed. With it are associated shamelessness to commit the evil and disregard for the effects that follow. (a) Of the Immoral mental states these four 44 44. Ahirikaü. (f) Thãnaü. (d) Màno catusu diññhigatavippayuttesu. Sabbàpu¤¤esu cattàro—lobhamåle tayo gatà Dosamålesu cattàro—sasaïkhàre dvayaü tathà Vicikicchà vicikicchàcitte c’àti catuddasa Dvàdasàkusalesv’eva—sampayujjanti pa¤cadhà _______ _______ Immoral Mental States § 6. (c) Diññhi catusu diññhigatasampayuttesu. Anottapaü. 146 . Sabbesu’pi dvàdasàkusalesu labbhanti. (e) Doso. (g) Vicikicchà vicikicchàsahagatacittey’eva labbhatã’ti. Middhaü pa¤casu sasaïkharikacittesu. (b) Lobho aññhasu lobhasahagatesv’eva labbhati. Kukkuccaü ca dvãsu pañighacittesu. Uddhaccaü c’àti cattàro’me cetasikà sabbàkusalasàdhàraõà nàma. The root of every evil is Moha (ignorance).

As Diññhi gives rise to the conception of “my” and “mine” connected with oneself. Avarice. (d) Conceit 46 is found in the four types of consciousness dissociated with wrong view. both Diññhi and Màna do not arise simultaneously in one particular consciousness. 48. They lack the urge. They appear only in types of prompted consciousness. (Moral) Fearlessness. (c) Misbelief 45 is found in the four types of consciousness accompanied by wrong view. (f) Sloth and Torpor 48 are found in the five types of prompted consciousness. As such they cannot arise in types of consciousness that are unprompted (Asankharika) which are naturally keen and active. Nevertheless. Commentaries compare them to two fearless lions that cannot live in one den. Màna too originates with the “I”–conception connected with oneself. and Worry 47 are found in the two types of consciousness accompanied by illwill. it occurs in the consciousness rooted in attachment. These four cannot arise in consciousness rooted in attachment because there is some form of aversion in them instead of any kind of clinging. 147 . As such it also is present only in types of consciousness rooted in attachment. (Moral) Shamelessness. But it does not follow that Màna is ever present in them. Delusion.— namely. and Restlessness are common to every Immoral consciousness. (b) Attachment is found only in the eight types of consciousness rooted in attachment. Even Macchariya is a kind of aversion to other’s vying with oneself. _______ 45. Màna may arise in those four types of consciousness dissociated with Diññhi. Thina and Middha are by nature opposed to adaptability. 47. (g) Doubt is found only in the type of consciousness accompanied by doubt. 46. Jealousy. Where there is Diññhi there is no Màna. (e) Hatred.

Ek’ånavãsati dhammà jàyant’ekånasaññhisu Tayo soëasacittesu aññhavisatiyaü dvayaü 148 . four in those rooted in illwill. (d) Pa¤¤à pana dvàdasasu ¤àõasampayuttakàmàvacaracittesu c’eva sabbesu pa¤catiüsamahaggatalokuttaracittesu c’àti sattacattàëãsa cittesu sampayogaü gacchatã’ti. Four are found in all Immorals. (c) Appama¤¤ayo pana dvàdasasu pa¤camajjhànavajjitamahaggatacittesu c’eva Kàmàvacarakusalesu ca sahetukakàmàvacarakiriyàcittesu c’àti aññhavisaticittesv’ eva kadàci nànà hutvà jàyanti. (b) Viratiyo pana tisso’pi Lokuttaracittesu sabbathà’pi niyatà ekato’va labbhanti. § 9.(Summary) § 7. _______ (Sobhana Cetasikà) _______ § 8. and so are two in the prompted. Upekkhàsahagatesu pan’ettha Karunà Mudità na santi’ti keci vadanti. Doubt is found in the consciousness accompanied by doubt. (a) Sobhanesu pana sobhanasàdhàraõà tàva ek’åna vãsati cetasikà sabbesu pi ek’ånasaññhisobhanacittesu saüvijjanti. three in those rooted in attachment. Lokiyesu pana Kàmàvacarakusalesv’ eva kadàci sandissanti visuü visuü. Thus the fourteen are conjoined only with the twelve Immorals in five ways.

say that Compassion and Appreciative Joy are not present in the types of consciousness accompanied by Upekkhà (Equanimity or Indifference). all the thirty-five Sublime and Supramundane consciousness. But in the mundane Sense-sphere Moral types of consciousness they are at times present severally. at first. however. the twelve Sublime types of consciousness. (8 + 8 = 16) (c) The Illimitables arise at times differently in twenty-eight types of consciousness—namely. the twelve kinds of Sense-sphere consciousness accompanied by wisdom. 149 . the nineteen mental states common to the Beautiful are found in all the fiftynine types of Beautiful consciousness.Pa¤¤à pakàsità sattacattàëãsavidhesu’pi Sampayuttà catuddhv’evaü sobhanesv’ eva sobhanà _______ (Beautiful Mental States) _______ § 8. (a) Of the Beautiful. excluding the fifth Jhànas. two in twenty-eight types of consciousness. (12 + 8 + 8 = 28) (d) Wisdom goes into combination with fortyseven types of consciousness—namely. Nineteen states arise in fifty-nine. (b) The three Abstinences are definitely obtained all at once in all places in the Supramundane types of consciousness. the eight Moral types and the eight Sahetuka Functional types of Sense-sphere consciousness. Some. three in sixteen. (12 + 35 = 47) § 9.

_______ (Cetasikaràsi Saïgaho) _______ § 10. (d) Catutthajjhànikacittesu Vitakka-Vicàra-Pãtivajjà.Wisdom is declared to be in forty-seven types. (c) Tatiyajjhànikacittesu Vitakka-Vicàravajjà. Thus they are combined in four ways. Sattavãsatyapu¤¤amhi—dvàdasàhetuke’ti ca Yathàsambhavayogena—pa¤cadhà tattha saïgaho. Katham? (a) Lokuttaresu tàva aññhasu pañhamajjhànikacittesu A¤¤asamànà terasa cetasãkà Appama¤¤àvajjità tevãsati Sobhanacetasikà c’àti chattiüsa dhammà saïgahaü gacchanti. Beautiful are only in the Beautiful. 150 . _______ (Lokuttara—Cittàni) _______ § 11. (b) Tathà Dutiyajjhànikacittesu Vitakkavajjà. Issà-Macchera-Kukkucca—Viratã Karuõàdayo Nànà kadàci Màno ca—Thãna-Middhaü tathà saha Yathà vuttànusàrena—sesà niyatayogino Saïgaha¤ ca pavakkhàmi—tesaü’ dàni yathàrahaü. (e) Pa¤camajjhànikacittesu’pi Upekkhàsahagatà teeva saïgayhanti’ti sabbathà’ pi aññhasu Lokuttaracittesu Pa¤camajjhànavasena pa¤cadhà’va saïgaho hotã ‘ti. Chattiüsànuttare dhammà—pa¤catiüsa mahaggate Aññhatiüsà’pi labbhanti—Kàmàvacarasobhane.

Twenty-seven in the Demeritorious. Thirty-six factors arise in the Supramundane. So are Sloth and Torpor in combination. thirteen A¤¤asamànas. 151 . Avarice. twelve in the Rootless. thirtyfive in the Sublime. excluding the two Illimitables 49 (13 + 23 = 36) 49. Appreciative Joy. and Conceit arise separately and occasionally. are fixed adjuncts. Now I shall speak of their combination accordingly.Chattiüsa pa¤catimsa ca—catuttiüsa yathàkkamaü Tettiüsadvayam iccevaü—pa¤cadhànuttare ñhità. The remaining factors. while the Lokuttara consciousness has Nibbàna for its object. How? (a) At first in the eight types of Supramundane first Jhàna types of consciousness thirty-six factors enter into combination namely. According to the way they arise their combination therein is fivefold. Because their objects are living beings. thirty-eight in the Kàmàvacara Beautiful. Jealousy. Worry. and twentythree Beautiful mental factors. apart from those mentioned above (52 – 11 = 41). _______ Supramundane Consciousness _______ § 11. Abstinences (three) Compassion. _______ Contents of Different Types of Consciousness _______ § 10.

and Kukkucca must arise in a consciousness connected with aversion. They may or not arise in those types of consciousness to which they are allied. Aniyatayogi and Niyatayogi— Of the 52 types of mental states eleven are called Aniyatayogi—unfixed adjuncts. and Joy. Thus in five ways they arise in the Supramundane. For instance. _______ Notes: 52. thirtyfour.50 (c) In the Third. and Happiness. One of the three must arise at one particular 50. Sustained Application. Macchariya. (d) In the Fourth (all those) excluding Initial Application. and thirty-three in the last two. Sustained Application. Thus in every way fivefold is the synthesis of mental factors arising in the eight types of Supramundane consciousness according to the five Jhànas. all those excluding Initial Application. 152 . thirty-five. They arise in different kinds of consciousness separately because their particular objects differ. Respectively there are thirty-six. Vitakka is eliminated in the 2nd Jhàna. Issà. excluding Initial Application. Joy. The elimination of other factors In the remaining Jhànas should be similarly understood.(b) Similarly in the Supramundane Second Jhàna consciousness all the above. (all those) excluding Initial Application and Sustained Application. (e) In the Fifth Jhàna type of consciousness which is accompanied by Equanimity.

The remaining 41 types are called Niyatayogi — fixed adjuncts. So are the Three Abstinences. They cannot arise in the Råpàvacara and Aråpàvacara. as they constitute three of eight factors of the Noble Path. they do not arise in them. and livelihood. does not arise there. In the Råpàvacara and Aråpàvacara planes they do not occur because the need for moral purification. Abstinences— These three are collectively found only in the Supramundane consciousness. Sloth and Torpor. Conceit. because the corresponding evils are completely eradicated by them. They invariably arise in those types of consciousness allied to them. As such they arise separately only in the eight types of moral consciousness according to the abstinence from the particular evil. 53. 153 . Since Kriyà-cittas are experienced only by Arahants. These Abstinences appear in full force only in the Lokuttara-cittas. They deal with three forms of refraining from committing evil through word. As Kàmàvacara-Vipàka-cittas are merely effects they cannot arise in them. In the Kàmàvacarakusalacittas there is only a temporary inhibition of evil. the function of these abstinences.moment. two Illimitables. nor in the Kàmàvacara Vipàka and Kriyà Cittas. Besides they are not bound to be present in such a consciousness. deed. All the three do not occur simultaneously.

Karuõà—Mudità pan’ettha paccekam’eva yojetabbà. (e) Pa¤camajjhànikacittesu pana paõõarasasu Appama¤¤àyo na labbhantã’ti sabbathà’pi sattavãsati — Mahaggata cittesu pa¤cakajjhànavasena pa¤cadhà’va saïgaho hotã’ti. They do not occur in the fifth Jhàna as it is accompanied by Upekkhà—neutral feeling. (c) Tatiyajjhànikacittesu Vitakka Vicàravajjà. Tathà (b) Dutiyajjhànikacittesu Vitakkavajjà. In the eight Kiriya Cittas. The other two have already been dealt with in their respective places. they arise because the Arahants also radiate thoughts of Karunà and Mudità towards all beings. It should be noted that the objects of these Illimitables are beings.Vicàra . which the Arahants experience.Pãtivajjà. Illimitables— Of the four only two are mentioned here. They are not present only in the Path and Fruit consciousness. Therefore they cannot arise in the Supramundane consciousness which has for its object Nibbàna. In the Aråpacittas also they do not arise as they also are connected with Upekkhà. This does not mean that Arahants and other Aryans do not possess these virtues. _______ (Mahaggata—Cittàni) § 12. (d) Catutthajjhànikacittesu Vitakka . 154 . Mahaggatesu pana (a) tãsu Pañhamajjhànika-cittesu tàva a¤¤asamànà terasa cetasikà Viratittayavajjità dvàvãsati Sobhanacetasikà c’àti pa¤catiüsa dhammà saïgahaü gacchanti.54.

52 (b) Similarly in the Second Jhàna consciousness Initial Application is excluded. 3 Fifth Jhànas and 12 Aråpa Jhànas. The Jhàna factors of the Aråpa Jhànas are identical. and twenty-two Beautiful mental factors.51 (13 + 22 = 35) Here Compassion and Appreciative Joy should be combined separately. (c) In the Third Jhàna consciousness Initial Application and Sustained Application are excluded. 52. i. and Joy are excluded. 155 . thirty-four. (e) In the fifteen 53 (types of) Fifth Jhàna consciousness the Illimitables are not obtained. In all the twenty-seven types of Sublime consciousness the combination is fivefold according to the five kinds of Jhànas. (a) At first in the three (types of) Sublime First Jhàna consciousness thirty-five factors go into combination—namely. thirty-two. They are found only in the Lokuttara Cittas and the Kàmàvacara Kusala Cittas. thirteen A¤¤asamànà mental factors. 53. Illimitables do not occur in them because they are accompanied by Upekkhà. (Sublime Consciousness) § 12.. There are respectively thirty-five. and thirty. thirtythree. 51. Because they do not arise simultaneously as their objects vary. Fivefold is the combination in the Sublime. excluding the three Abstinences.e. Sustained Application. (d) In the Fourth Jhàna consciousness Initial Application.Pa¤catiüsa catuttiüsa—tettiüsa ca yathàkkamaü Dvattiüsa c’eva tiüseti—pa¤cadhà’va Mahaggate.

§ 15. Te eva saïgayhanti._______ Kàmàvacara—Sobhana—Cittàni _______ § 14. (iv) catutthadvaye ¤àõapãtivajjità. Tath’eva catusu’pi dukesu catudhà’ va saïgayhanti. Tathà vipàkesu ca Appama¤¤à-Virativajjità. (ii) Tathà dutiyadvaye ¤àõavajjità. Aññhatiüsa sattatiüsa — dvayaü chattiüsakaü subhe Pa¤catiüsa catuttiüsa — dvayaü tettiüsakaü kriye Tettiüsa pàke dvattiüsa — dvayekatiüsakaü bhave Sahetåkàmàvacara — pu¤¤apàkakriyà mane 156 . Kiriyacittesu’pi Virativajjità. Te eva saïgayhantã’ti sabbathà’pi catuvãsati kàmàvacarasobhanacittesu dukavasena dvàsadhà’va saïgaho hotã’ti. (i) Kàmàvacara-sobhanesu pana kusalesu tàva pathamadvaye A¤¤asamànà terasa cetasikà pa¤cavãsati Sobhanacetasikà c’àti aññhatiüsadhammà saïgahaü gacchanti. (iii) tatiyadvaye ¤àõasampayuttà pãtivajjità. Appama¤¤à Viratiyo pan’ettha pa¤ca’pi paccekam’eva yojetabbà.

accompanied by pleasure.57 Likewise in the four couplets they are 54. _______ Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness _______ § 14. (i) At first. 55. Joy is excluded. associated with Wisdom. in the first two (types of) Sense-Sphere Beautiful consciousness 54 thirty-eight states go into combination—namely. (iii) in the third couplet. They arise at different moments of conscious experience. Because the Arahants have completely eradicated the Abstinences. (iv) in the fourth couplet Wisdom and Joy 56 are excluded. (13 + 25 = 38) The two Illimitables and the three Abstinences should be fitted in severally 55— (ii) Similarly in the second couplet all of them arise excluding Wisdom.§ 16. 57. Because they are not fixed adjuncts.. i. Na vijjant’ettha virati — kriyàsu ca mahaggate Anuttare appama¤¤à — kàmapàke dvayaü tathà Anuttare jhànadhammà — appama¤¤à ca majjhime Viratã ¤àõapãti ca — parittesu visesakà. e. 157 . and associated with wisdom. thirteen Miscellaneous and twenty-five Beautiful mental states. 56. Being accompanied by Upekkhà. In the Functional consciousness the three Abstinences are excluded. Somanassasahagata ¥àõasampayutta Asaïkhàrika and Sasaïkhàrika Citta—Prompted and unprompted consciousness.

while the Resultants are restricted to lesser objects. thirty-one (in the fourth pair). 158 . i. Similarly in the Resultant consciousness they all arise except the Illimitables and the Abstinences. twice 59 thirty-seven (in the second and third pairs). § 15. In the Functional thirty-five (in the first pair). thirty-three (in the fourth pair). Hence they do not arise in a resultant consciousness. Because no occasion arises for such evil to spring up. Illimitables do not arise because they have limitless beings as the objects.61 58. In the Supramundane Fruit consciousness they however arise because it is like a reflection of the Path consciousness. The Abstinences are absolutely moral. With respect to Sense-Sphere consciousness with roots—Moral. 60. thirty-seven in each of the second and third couplets. § 16.60 So are Illimitables in the Supramundane and the two (Illimitables and Abstinences) in the Sense-Resultants.58 Thus in all the twenty-four types of Sense-Sphere Beautiful types of consciousness the combination is twelve-fold according to pairs. 61. twice thirty-two (in the second and third pairs). N. in the Råpàvacara Aråpàvacara planes.. 54.e. Resultant.e. In the Resultant thirty-three (in the first pair). Herein the Abstinences are not present in the Functional and Sublime consciousness. 59. and thirty-six (in the fourth pair). 154. See p.combined in four ways. twice thirtyfour (in the second and third pairs).. i. and Functional—here arise in the Moral (first pair) thirty-eight.

Morals differ from Resultants and Functionals on account of Abstinences. Morals and Functionals differ from Resultants on account of Illimitables. and Joy. (v) Pa¤came pañighasampayutte asaïkhàrike doso issà macchariyaü kukkucca¤c’ àti catåhi saddhiü pãtivajjità te eva vãsati dhammà saïgayhanti. Kàmàvacara. 63. Ca in the text includes Jhàna factors. (vi) Sasaïkhàrikapa¤cake’ pi tath’eva thãnamiddhena visesetvà yojetabbà. 159 . Issàmacchariya-kukkuccàni pan’ettha paccekam’eva yojetabbàni. in the Small. 62.63 the Illimitables (and Jhanà factors 64 ). 64. differs with respect to Jhàna factors. (i) Akusalesu pana lobhamålesu tàva pañha— me asaïkhàrike a¤¤asamànà terasa cetasikà akusalasàdhàranà cattàro c’àti sattarasa lobhadiññhãhi saddhiü ekånavãsati dhammà saïgahaü gacchanti. Respective couplets differ on account of Wisdom and Joy.66 _______ Akusala Cittàni _______ § 17.62 in the Middle.In the Highest the jhanà factors are distinctive. (iii) Tatiye tath’eva pãtivajjità lobha-diññhihi saha aññhàrasa. The supramundane consciousness. (ii) Tath’eva dutiye asaïkhàrike lobhamànena.65 the Abstinences. 65. (iv) Catutthe tath’eva lobha-mànena. Wisdom. Råpàvacara and Aråpàvacara. 66. when classified according to five Jhànas.

Somanassa sahagata diññhigata sampayutta asaïkhàrika citta— Unprompted consciousness.. in the first unprompted consciousness 67 nineteen mental states enter into combination—namely.(vii) Chanda-pãtivajjità pana a¤¤asamànà ekàdasa akusalasàdhàraõà cattàro c’àti paõõarasa dhammà uddhaccasahagate sampayujjanti (viii) Vicikicchàsahagatacitte ca adhimokkha virahità vicikicchà sahagatà tath’eva paõõarasadhammà samupalabbhantã’ ti sabbathà’pi dvàdasàkusalacittuppàdesu paccekaü yojiyamànà’ pi gaõanavasena sattadhà’va saïgahità bhavantã’ti.e. § 18. 160 . making seventeen. in immoral consciousness. Conceit and misbelief do not coexist.. (13 + 4 + 2 = 19) 67. _______ Immoral Consciousness _______ § 17. accompanied by pleasure. Ekånavãsaññhàrasa — vãsekavãsa vãsati Dvàvãsa paõõarase’ti — sattadhà kusale ñhità. i.e. the unprompted consciousness not connected with misbelief. together with attachment and conceit. (13 + 4 + 2 = 19) (ii) Similarly in the second unprompted consciousness 68 the same seventeen. to begin with. i. the four common immoral concomitants. thirteen unmoral concomitants. together with attachment and misbelief. (i) Now. 68. connected with misbelief. Sàdhàraõà ca cattàro — samànà ca dasà pare Cuddasete pavuccanti — sabbàkusalayogino.

(iii) Similarly in the third unprompted consciousness there are eighteen concomitants. 20. (11 + 4 = 15) (viii) In the type of consciousness connected with perplexity fifteen states are similarly obtained together with perplexity. eleven A¤¤asamànas excluding conation 73 and joy. There is no Chanda. 161 . Adhimokkha. Sloth and torpor are present only in the immoral prompted consciousness. i.74 (10 + 4 + 1 = 15) 69. 71. 72. 74. Of them jealousy. the mental factor that dominates in deciding cannot exist in a perplexed mind. Being unfixed mental adjuncts (Aniyatayogino). as restlessness is predominant here. the unprompted consciousness accompanied by Upekkhà Joy does not coexist with indifference.69(12 + 4 + 2 = 18) (iv) Similarly in the fourth (there are eighteen) with attachment and conceit. and the four immoral Universals. They are the four types of prompted consciousness rooted in attachment and the one rooted in aversion.. the will-to-do. 21. (12 + 4 + 2 = 18) (v) In the fifth unprompted consciousness connected with aversion the above twenty concomitants. 22) (vii) In the type of consciousness connected with restlessness fifteen mental states occur—namely. together with attachment and misbelief but excluding joy. 70 are combined together with hatred. jealousy. avarice and worry. Joy does not coexist with aversion and grief.71 (12 + 4 + 4 = 20) (vi) In the five types 72 of prompted consciousness the above concomitants should similarly be combined with this difference that sloth and torpor are included. 20. excluding joy. 70. but devoid of decision. Their objects differ and they arise severally. 73.e. (21. avarice and worry should be combined separately.

e. i. (vi) 5th Sasaïkhàrika Citta = 22. fifteen. twenty. Dvipa¤cavi¤¤aõe pakiõõakavajjità te y’eva saïgayhanti’—ti sabbathà’ pi aññhàrasasu ahetukesu gaõanavasena catudhà’va saïgaho hotã’ti. Thus they divide themselves into seven classes according to numbering.. twenty. and ten unmorals. twenty-two. (i) 1st and 2nd Asaïkhàrika Citta = 19. 76. Sukhasantãraõe chanda-viriya-vajjità. Piti. _______ Ahetuka Cittàni _______ § 19. 162 . (iii) 5th Asaïkhàrika Citta = 20. Those fourteen mental states—namely.75 § 17. (ii) 3rd and 4th Asaïkhàrika Citta = 18.—thus they stand in seven ways in the immoral consciousness. excluding Chanda. Ahetukesu pana hasanacitte tàva chanda vajjità A¤¤asamànà dvàdasa dhammà saïgahaü gacchanti. Manodhàtuttikàhetukapañisandhiyugale chanda-pãti-viriya-vajjità. (vii) Moha Citta = 15. 75. twenty-one. and Adhimokha from the 13 A¤¤asamànas.76 are said to be associated with all the immoral types of consciousness. (v) 3rd and 4th Sasaïkhàrika Citta = 20. the four immoral universals. eighteen. (iv) 1st and 2nd Sasaïkhàrika Citta = 21. Nineteen.Thus in all the twelve types of immoral consciousness synthesis becomes sevenfold when reckoned according to their different combinations. Tathà votthapane chanda-pãti-vajjità.

163 .79 accompanied by pleasure. See Ch. all but conation and effort. (7 + 5 = 12) (ii) Likewise they occur in the Determining 78 consciousness. excluding conation and joy. 79.§ 20. in the consciousness of aesthetic pleasure. 48. 1. 78. p. enter into combination.77 to begin with. _______ Rootless Consciousness _______ § 19. (i) With respect to Rootless. Dvàdasekàdasa dasa satta cà’ti catubbidho Aññhàrasàhetukesu cittuppàdesu saïgaho. (7 + 4 = 11) 77. it is a passive resultant consciousness. (7 + 4 = 11) (iii) In the Investigating consciousness. It lacks both will and effort. excluding conation. Itthaü cittàviyuttànaü sampayoga¤ ca saïgahaü ¥atvà bhedaü yathàyogaü cittena samamuddise’ti. In the consciousness connected with laughter there is no wish-to-do. twelve unmoral mental states. Although Santãraõa means investigating. Ahetukesu sabbattha satta sesà yathàrahaü Iti vitthàrato vuttà tettiüsavidha saïgaho. It is the Manodvàràvajjana—mind-door consciousness—that assumes the name Votthapana—Determining.

83 80. i. In all the rootless the seven (Universals) occur. iv. eleven. This pair is also accompanied by Upekkhà. § 20. by the Kusala Ahetuka Santãraõa. The two Santãraõas accompanied by Upekkhà—both moral and immoral resultants are known as the Ahetuka Pañisandhi-yugala—the pair of rootless relinking types of consciousness. They are mere passive types of resultant consciousness. Therefore they lack both effort and will. 12 in Kàmàvacara. Conception in woeful states is obtained by the Akusala Ahetuka Santãraõa. Namely. 81. 164 . and effort. etc. the mere faculty of apprehension (Manamatta’ meva dhàtu). Twelve. 7 in Akusala. 5 in Anuttara. 4 in Ahetuka. 5 in Mahaggata. too. (7 + 3 = 10) (v) In the two types of fivefold senseconsciousness 82 all enter into combination except the Particulars. Like the Santãraõa these two are resultants and are passive. The rest (Particulars) arise accordingly. numerically considered. v. It comprises the Pa¤cadvàràvajjana—sense-door consciousness. deaf. Thus in detail the groupings are told in thirty-three ways. iii. (7) Thus in all the eighteen types of rootless consciousness the mental states. and amongst human beings as congenitally blind. ii. 82. ten. constitute four groups. The remaining seventy-six types of consciousness are termed Mano vi¤¤àõadhàtu. In the Pa¤cadvàràvajjana. 83. seven—thus their grouping with respect to the eighteen rootless types of consciousness is fourfold. Manodhàtu—lit. Both Sampañicchanas are accompanied by Upekkhà which does not coexist with Pãti.. all except conation. joy. as in Manodvàràvajjana effort and will are lacking.. = 33. as they excel others in apprehension. and the two Sampañicchanas—recipient consciousness. The ten types of sense-consciousness are called dvipa¤ca vi¤¤ànadhàtu.(iv) In the Manodhàtu triplet 80 and in the pair of rootless relinking 81 types of consciousness.

etc. for example.—Universals are eighty-ninefold because they are present in all the types of consciousness. Phassa of the Particulars is fifty-fivefold because it arises in fifty-five types of consciousness. let one explain their union with the consciousness accordingly.Understanding thus the combinations and synthesis of the mental adjuncts. In this chapter are explained in what types of consciousness the respective mental states are present and what types of mental states occur in each type of consciousness. 165 . The author concludes the chapter advising the readers to explain the union of these mental states with each consciousness accordingly as.84 84.

means a genesis of Citta. according to feeling. (1) Now their classification. Notes: 1. The conjoined consciousness and mental states that arise accordingly are fifty-three. taking the mind (2) as a whole. The 52 mental states are treated separately as they possess different characteristics. Sampayuttà yathàyogam — te paõõàsa sabhàvato Cittacetasikà dhammà — tesaü’dàni yathàrahaü. 166 .Chapter III _______ Pakiõõakà—Saïgaha—Vibhàgo _______ 1. Here the term means consciousness itself (cittam’eva cittuppàdo). roots. In other instances it implies the collection of mental states together with the consciousness (a¤¤attha pana dhammasamåho). is dealt with in a fitting manner. function. (1 + 52 = 53) 2. and bases. _______ _______ (Miscellaneous Section) § 1. Vedanà hetuto kiccadvàràlambanavatthuto Cittuppàdavasen’eva — saïgaho nàma nãyate. literally. doors. Cittuppàda. All the 89 classes of consciousness are collectively treated as one in that they possess the characteristic of awareness of an object. objects.

Sukhaü dukkham-upekkhà’ti tividhà tattha vedanà Somanassaü domanassam iti bhedena pa¤cadhà. Tattha sukhasahagataü kusalavipàkaü kàyavi¤¤àõaü ekam’eva. Sukham’ek’attha dukkha¤ ca domanassaü dvaye ñhitaü Dvàsaññhisu somanassaü pa¤capaõõàsaketarà. dvàdasa kàmàvacarasobhanàni. § 6. § 7. Somanassa-sahagatha-cittàni pana lobhamålàni cattàri. Tathà dukkhasahagataü akusalavipàkaü kàyavi¤¤àõaü. § 5. Tattha vedanàsaïgahe tàva vedanà:—sukhaü dukkhaü. adukkbamasukhaü’ ti. Sesàni sabbàni’pi pa¤capaõõàsa upekkhàsahagata-cittàn’ evà’ti. sukhasantãraõa—hasanàni ca dve’ ti aññhàrasa kàmàvacara cittàni c’eva. Sukhaü. § 4. dukkhaü. pañhamadutiyatatiya-catutthajjhànai saïkhàtàni catucattàëãsa Mahaggata-Lokuttaracittàni c’àti dvàsaññhividhàni bhavanti. Domanassa-sahagata cittàni pana dve pañighacittàn’eva. § 3.(Vedanà—Saïgaho) _______ § 2. upekkhà’ti ca bhedena pana pa¤cadhà hoti. somanassaü. domanassaü. § 8. 167 .

Together with pleasure and displeasure it is fivefold. Only the two types of consciousness connected with aversion are accompanied by displeasure (7). such as four rooted in attachment. § 8. the two types of investigating and smiling consciousness. All the remaining fifty-five types of consciousness are accompanied by indifference or equanimity (8). and fourth Jhànas. displeasure. second. therein. 168 . pain. twelve types of Sense-Sphere Beautiful consciousness. third. Or. § 3. § 5. happiness. (12 + 32) § 6. There are sixty-two kinds of consciousness accompanied by pleasure (5)—namely: (a) the eighteen types of Sense-Sphere consciousness. Of them.(i. happiness. and indifference. is threefold—namely. painful. § 7. In the summary of feeling (3) there are at first three kinds:— pleasurable (4). it is fivefold— namely. pleasure. Similarly immoral resultant body-consciousness is the only one accompanied by pain. and indifference or equanimity. and that which is neither pleasurable nor painful. (b) forty-four types (6) of Sublime and Supramundane consciousness pertaining to the first. pain. Feeling. Summary of Feeling) _______ § 2. § 4. again. moral resultant body-consciousness is the only one accompanied by happiness.

or the way in which a conscious subject is modified by the presence of an object. 86. 108. As such feeling plays a very important part in the life of man. promotes life. p. and the remaining (indifference or equanimity) in fifty-five. pain impairs it. is not an appropriate rendering for Vedanà. 289. Feeling is defined as “a conscious. Sometimes the freewill of a person determines the mode of feeling independent of the nature of the object.. The sight of an enemy.” 86 Vedanà modifies the stream of consciousness and serves both as a life-promoting and life-destroying force. Ibid. would normally be a 85. Dictionary of Philosophy—p. therefore. Experiencing the taste of an object is the function of Vedanà (anubhavana rasa).” 85 Sensation is explained as “the content of sensuous intuition. for example. Feeling is its characteristic (vedayita-lakkhana). subjective impression which does not involve cognition or representation of an object. Particular likes and dislikes depend on the desirability and the undesirability of the external object. for example. displeasure in two. Pleasure. and is born of contact. 169 . Sensation. pleasure in sixty-two.Happiness and pain are found in one. Generally they are mechanistic.. _______ Notes: 3.. Vedanà is a significant mental state which is common to all types of consciousness.

An understanding recluse would find happiness in renouncing them and leading a life of voluntary poverty in perfect solitude. for instance. 170 . what is hell to one may be heaven to another. Yes. We ourselves create them. extend his loving-kindness towards him and experience some kind of pleasure. Likewise a similar feeling may arise in the heart of a bigoted Buddhist at the sight of a religious teacher of an alien faith. The ascetic Khantivàdi. would be highly prized by an average person. O Bhikkhus. what is heaven to one may be hell to another. then. and they are more or less mind-made. on the other hand. A bigoted non-Buddhist. Such a solitary life. two kinds of feeling—pain and happiness”. maybe poison to another. “There are. but a right-understanding person would. a sensualist may view as hell. says the Buddha. but He kept smiling and returned love unto him. What is meat and drink to one. for instance. at the sight of a Buddha.source of displeasure. Material pleasures. how can there be a third which is neither pain nor happiness? The commentary states that blameless neutral feeling is included in happiness and the blameworthy in pain. Once a certain brahman poured a torrent of abuse on the Buddha. His feeling will be one of displeasure. Socrates. wished him long life instead of cursing him. may even. harbour a thought of hatred. drank that cup of poison with joy and faced a happy death. Well. who was brutally tortured by a drunkard king. on the contrary.

Here sukha means conditioning state of pleasure. happiness (sukha). O Bhikkhus. From another standpoint considering all forms of feeling as purely mental. Here sukha means freedom from troubles. is it. Here sukha means root of pleasure. all that is pain. “They know not sukha who do not see Nandana”.Again. form is sukha. It is because of the changeable nature of all conditioned things. O Bhikkhus. O Mahàli.” Here sukha means cause of pleasure. In the expression: “Sukha is non-attachment in this world”. “Not easy. Here sukha means object of pleasure. “These states constitute a sukha life in this very world”. ‘Nibbàna’. “Merit. there are only three kinds— namely. pain (dukkha). Atthasàlinã explains them as follows:— The term sukha means ‘pleasurable feeling’ (sukkhavedanà). falls and descends on sukha”. In the expression: “By eliminating sukha” — sukha means pleasurable feeling. etc. ‘cause of happiness’ (sukhahetu). ‘root of happiness’ (sukha-måla). 171 . ‘conditioning state of pleasure’ (sukhapaccayatthàna). to attain to heavenly sukha by description”. ‘free from troubles’ (abyàpajjhà). and neutral (adukkhamasukha). In the expression: “Since. ‘pleasurable object’ (sukhàrammaõa). is a synonym for sukha. the Buddha has stated that whatever is felt in this world.

“By eliminating dukkha”—here dukkha means painful feeling.” In this particular connection the term dukkha is used in the sense of painful feeling.“Nibbàna is supreme sukha”.’ etc. “It is not easy. to realise the pain of woeful states by description”—here dukkha means “conditioning states of pain. 172 .’ ‘conditioning state of pain. falls and descends on pain”—here dukkha means object of dukkha. The release from suffering is itself Nibbànic bliss. “Birth too is dukkha”—here dukkha means basis of pain. Here sukha means Nibbàna. In this particular connection the term sukha is used in the sense of pleasurable feeling. Nibbàna is stated to be supreme bliss (sukha). “Since. O Bhikkhus. The term dukkha means ‘painful feeling’. form is dukkha. O Mahali. ‘object of pain. From these quotations the reader can understand in what different senses the term sukha is used in the texts.’ ‘cause of pain. This does not mean that there is a pleasurable feeling in Nibbàna although the term sukha is used. In the Dhammacakka Sutta the Buddha enumerates eight divisions of dukkha—namely. ‘basis of pain’. Nibbàna is a bliss of relief. “Accumulation of evil is dukkha” — here dukkha means cause of pain.

Birth is suffering. upekkhà means simple neutral feeling which has no ethical value. in brief the Five Aggregates are suffering. domanassa (displeasure) upàyàsa (despair) are suffering. 8. which has a wider connotation. The Pàli term upekkhà. All these are the causes of dukkha. 7. decay is suffering. Adukkha-m-asukha strictly applies in this connection. and upàyàsa are mental. is more frequently used to denote this kind of neutral feeling. Soka. while dukkha and parideva are physical. 5. parideva (lamentation). Adukkha—m—asukha is that which is neither pain nor happiness. such as a sense-impression. domanassa. It is a neutral feeling.1. when one does not obtain what one desires there is suffering. In an ahetuka resultant consciousness. All these five are included in vyàdhi which embraces both physical and mental disharmony. 6. separation from the beloved is suffering. disease is suffering. Upekkhà latent in a kama vacara 173 . 3. Practically there is no marked difference between the two formulas. 2. association with the unpleasant is suffering. Instead of vyàdhi (disease) He says soka (grief). This corresponds to both stolid indifference and Stoic indifference. When He addresses only men He speaks of twelve. When the Buddha addresses Devas and men He speaks of eight kinds of dukkha. death is suffering. dukkha (pain). 4. In an immoral type of consciousness upekkhà assumes the role of stolid indifference because it is prompted by ignorance.

In these cases one experiences the aforesaid two types of consciousness respectively. disinterestedness. According to a still wider. Upekkhà in the jhàna consciousness is perfect equanimity born of concentration. Of all the 89 types of consciousness only two are associated with either sukha or dukkha. simple neutral feeling. 174 . effects of good and evil Kamma. Somanassa (mental pleasure). A soft touch. A pin prick. All feelings. are mental because vedanà is a cetasika. and perfect equanimity. Both these are the resultant types of consciousness. yields happiness. from an ultimate standpoint. It is both ethical and intellectual. Dukkha (physical pain). Upekkhà (indifference. and the other is body-consciousness associated with pain. on the contrary. But a differentiation has been made with regard to sukha and dukkha. One is the bodyconsciousness associated with happiness. Stoic indifference. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Sukha (physical happiness). Domanassa (mental displeasure). classification vedanà is fivefold—namely. unbiassed feeling.Sobhana Citta (Beautiful types of consciousness pertaining to the Sense-Sphere) may be any of the following states— simple indifference (not stolid because there is no ignorance). yields pain. equanimity. for instance. feeling).

heat. and tasting. both sets of which are secondary qualities of body. pañhavi. but a hammer striking cotton wool imparts its check to the anvil also. the other four senses are accompanied by hedonic indifference. Just as cotton wool on the anvil does not affect the latter. is not strong enough to produce physical pain or pleasure. cohesion. But in the case of touch there is contact with one or other. Aung provides an answer in his introductory essay to the Compendium:— “The sense of touch alone is accompanied by the positive hedonic elements of pain and pleasure. pressure—vàyo) and this is strong enough to affect those primary qualities in the percipient’s own body. because the impact between the sentient surface (pasàda råpa) and the respective objects of other senses. and motion)— àpo. smelling. The consequent feeling is neither 175 . In the case of seeing. In the case of touch the impact is strong. hearing. tejo. This exceptional distinction is assigned to the sense of touch. or all the three primary qualities (locality—pañhavi. temperature—tejo.Now a question arises—Why only the bodyconsciousness is associated with happiness and pain? Why not the other sense-impressions? Mr. 14). is excluded being intangible—forcibly and directly strike against the essentials of the body. there is a bare impact. Consequently there is either pain or happiness. and vàyo (extension.” (Compendium of Philosophy p. The “essentials”.

These five kinds of feeling could be reduced to three. This intricate point should be clearly understood. dukkha sukha dukkha dukkha (Upekkhà is merged in sukha. Although these sense-impressions may be sukha. upekkhà. the three to two. sukha+somanassa . and the two to one as follows: i. and sukha is ultimately merged in dukkha). 176 . iv. upekkhà. dukkha. Similarly at the sight of the Buddha a right-understanding person would automatically experience an eye-consciousness associated with indifference (upekkhàsahagata cakkhu-vi¤¤àõa). but his javana thought would be moral. iii. dukkha + domanassa sukha. The innate feeling would be pleasure (somanassa). For instance. He would have experienced perfect equanimity.pain nor happiness. The immanent feeling in the stream of consciousness would have been upekkhà. but His javana thought-process conditioned thereby would not necessarily be associated with displeasure. Somanassa (good-mindedness) and domanassa (bad-mindedness) are purely mental. the Buddha experienced a bodyconsciousness associated with pain when a rock splinter struck His foot. or upekkhà the javana thought-processes conditioned thereby may not necessarily be associated with a similar feeling. Unaffected by the pain. ii.

5. Readers will note that pleasurable types of consciousness exceed all others. So should dukkha—physical pain—be differentiated from domanassa—mental displeasure. and thirty-two Lokuttara Jhànas. When we sit on a comfortable seat we experience a body-consciousness accompanied by happiness. Here dukkha is not used in the sense of painful feeling but in the sense of oppression or impeding (pãëana). When the Buddha. There is only one consciousness accompanied by sukha. four Vipàka Jhànas. Sukha—physical happiness should be differentiated from somanassa—mental pleasure.4. This was the result of a past evil action of His. As such during a lifetime a person experiences more happy moments than painful ones. 6. Similarly there is only one accompanied by dukkha. (4 + 4 + 4 + 32 = 44) 7. This does not contradict the statement that life is sorrow (dukkha). given in the Dhammacakka Sutta will make the matter clear. for instance. Four Kriyà Jhànas. They are the four Kusala Jhànas. A careful reading of the description of dukkha. This is the result of a past good action. All forms of physical pain and happiness are the inevitable results of our own Kamma. was injured by Devadatta Thera He experienced a body-consciousness accompanied by pain. There is displeasure only in the two types of 177 . Both of them are the effects of good and bad actions respectively.

Dvàdasa ¤àõasampayutta—kàmàvacara sobhanàni c’eva pa¤catiüsamahaggatalokuttara cittàni c’àti sattacattàëisa tihetukacittàni. Ahetukas. See Ch. 8 Lokuttaras = 55. Tattha pa¤cadvàràvajjaõadvipa¤cavi¤¤àõasampañicchana-santãraõa-votthapanahasana-vasena aññhàrasàhetukacittàni nàma. in a gross or subtle form. _______ (ii. 6 Akusalas. Hetu Saïgaho) _______ § 4. 3 Råpa Jhànas. 8. p. Sesàni dasa akusalacittàni c’eva ¤àõavippayuttàni dvàdasa kàmàvacarasobhanàni c’àti dvàvãsati dvihetukacittàni. Sesàni sabbàni’pi ekasattati cittàni sahetukàn’ eva. 12 Aråpa Jhànas. Viz. Lobho doso ca moho ca hetå akusalà tayo Alobhàdosàmoho ca kusalàbyàkatà tathà 178 .consciousness connected with pañigha or aversion. 1. 32. 10.. We experience displeasure when we get angry. Tattha’pi dve momåhacittàni ekahetukàni. 12 Sobhanas. § 5. 14. Is there aversion where there is displeasure? Yes. Hetusaïgahe hetu nàma lobho doso moho alobho adoso amoho c’àtichabbidhà bhavanti. n.

receiving. delusion or ignorance. § 5. non-attachment or generosity. Therein eighteen types of consciousness are without roots (10)—namely. The twelve Sense-Sphere Beautiful types (15) of consciousness. Similarly non-attachment. Attachment. and ignorance are the three immoral roots. associated with wisdom and the thirty-five Sublime and Supramundane types of consciousness totalling forty-seven—are with three roots. investigating. non-anger or good will and wisdom. five-door apprehending. Of them the two types of consciousness (12) associated with ignorance have only one root. 179 . and wisdom are moral and indeterminate (16). The remaining ten immoral types (13) of consciousness and the twelve (14) Sense-Sphere Beautiful types of consciousness. goodwill. and smiling.Ahetukaññhàras’eka hetukà dve dvàvãsati Dvihetukà matà satta cattàëãsa tihetukà. attachment. hatred. All the remaining seventy-one (11) types of consciousness are with roots. hatred. In the summary of roots (9) there are six—namely. _______ (ii. dissociated with wisdom—thus totalling twenty-two—are with two roots. determining. the twice fivefold sense-impressions. Summary of Roots) _______ § 4.

are the causes (hetu). the conditions (paccaya) for the manifestation of Form-Group (Råpakkhandha). For a detailed exposition of hetu see Dhammasaïghani Hetu-gocchakaü. pp. Paccaya hetu. Hetu is compared to the roots of a tree. the root cause or the root condition. 180 . and forty-seven with three roots. water and soil that aid its growth. three immoral hetus and three unmoral (abyàkata) Hetus. N. causal condition or instrumental “The four Great Essentials (Mahàbhåta). cause. Buddhist Psychology. an aiding factor (upakàraka dhamma). 9.” Here hetu is used in the sense of causal relation (paccayahetu). 1. Here hetu is used is the sense of root. Notes: 9. There is a subtle distinction between hetu and paccaya.It should be understood that eighteen are without roots. ii. two with one root. and paccaya to manure. The former signifies root (måla). i. 274–287. the latter. twenty-two with two roots. Sections 1053–1083. See Ch. According to the Aññhasàlini there are four kinds of hetu. Hetu hetu. There are three moral hetus. O Bhikkhus.

even so ignorance is the common cause of volitional activities. i. iii.. iv. Ignorance is the cause (hetu). Here hetu is used as the general cause. 89 – 18 = 71. chief cause or condition. Sàdhàraõa-hetu. the common cause or condition. 1. Uttama—hetu. It should also be noted that at times both hetu and paccaya are used as synonymous terms. Just as the essence of both earth and water is the common cause of both sweetness and bitterness. pp. eight of moral actions. Seven of them are the resultants of immoral actions.e. 10.This distinction should be clearly understood. All the Ahetuka Cittas are devoid of all roots. 181 . 11. 62–67. Here it means the chief cause. They are regarded as unmoral. in this particular instance it is used in the specific sense of root. Hence they are neither moral nor immoral. condition (paccaya) of volitional activities (saïkhàrà). A desirable object acts as the chief (uttama) cause in producing a good result and an undesirable one in producing a bad result. See Ch. Though hetu assumes different shades of meaning in the Text. and three are merely funcñionals.

and the 8 types of Lokuttara consciousness (15 + 12 + 8 = 35) are always associated with the three moral roots. which is delusion. It should be noted that moha is common to all immoral thoughts. Namely. 14. 15. Both doubt and restlessness are regarded as two Fetters. These two roots coexist in moral thoughts. The remaining twelve Kàmàvacara Sobhana Cittas. Similarly the 15 types of Råpàvacara consciousness. Being potentially weak. accompanied by wisdom. 182 . Those twelve Kàmàvacara Sobhana Cittas (mentioned in the first chapter) dissociated with ¤àõa or wisdom are conditioned by the two roots—alobha (nonattachment) and adosa (goodwill or loving-kindness). 12 types of Aråpàvacara consciousness.12. 13. The first eight immoral types of consciousness are connected with lobha (attachment) and moha (delusion) and the second two with dosa (aversion) and moha. These are the only two types of consciousness that have one root. the consciousness accompanied by doubt (vicikicchà) and the other accompanied by restlessness (uddhacca). and the second by the Fourth Path of Sainthood. restlessness is powerless in determining a future birth. the first of which is eradicated by the First Path. are conditioned by all the three moral roots.

Råpa (material form) is also regarded as an abyàkata because it does not reproduce any resultant consciousness in itself. Ahetuka—rootless types of consciousness = 18 Ekahetuka—types of consciousness with one root = 2 Dvihetuka " " " two roots immoral = 10 moral = 12 Tihetuka " " " three roots Beautiful = 12 Sublime = 27 Supramundane = ___ 8 89 ___ 183 . the Lokuttara Cittas.It should not be understood that evil thoughts conditioned by immoral roots do not arise in the Råpaloka and the Aråpaloka. Unlike the other Kusala Cittas. though associated with the three moral roots. Abyàkata. The term is applied to both Vipàka (resultants) and Kriyà (Functionals). means that which is not manifested. lack procreative power. 16. literally. Vipàka is a result in itself and is not productive of another result. The point here stressed is that no immoral roots are found in the higher types of consciousness. Kriyà does not produce any effect.

âvajjanakiccàni pana dve. Tãni santãraõakiccàni. Tesu pana dve upekkhàsahagatasantãraõacittàni pañisandhi-bhavaïga-cuti-tadàrammaõasantãraõa-vasena pa¤ca kiccàni nàma. Aññhamahàvipàkàni c’eva santãraõattaya¤c’ àti ekàdasa tadàlambanakiccàni. Kicca—Saïgaho) _______ § 6. Manodvàràvajjanam’eva pa¤cadvàre votthapanakiccaü sàdheti.(iii. Kicca-saïgahe kiccàni nàma pañisandhibhavangàvajjanadassana–savana–ghàyanasàyana–phusana–sampaticchana–santãraõavotthapana–javana–tadàlambana–cutivasena cuddasavidhàni bhavanti. âvajjanadvaya-vajjitàni kusalàkusalakriyà cittàni pa¤capaõõàsa javanakiccàni. Tathà dassana– savana-ghàyana-sàyana-phusana-sampañicchanakiccàni ca. 184 . Tattha dve upekkhàsahagatasantãraõàni c’eva aññha mahàvipàkàni ca nava råpàråpa– vipàkàni c’àti ekånavãsati cittàni pañisandhi– bhavaïga–cutikiccàni nàma. Pañisandhibhavaïgàvajjanapa¤càvi¤¤àõaññhànàdivasena pana tesaü dasadhà ñhàna– bhedo veditabbo.

decease (27). investigating (23). 1. 8. 11. apprehending (20) 4. smelling. life-continuum. tasting. retention (26). receiving (22). Sesàni pana sabbàni’pi javana-manodhàtuttika -pa¤ca-vi¤¤àõàni yathàsambhavam’ eka kiccàni’ti. Javana (25). Tathà votthapana¤ ca votthapanàvajjanavasena. 12. 13. 5. In the summary of functions (17) there are fourteen kinds — namely. and 14. Mahàggatavipàkàni nava pañisandhibhavaïga-cutivasena tikiccàni. relinking (18) 2.Mahàvipàkàni aññha pañisandhi-bhavaïga cuti-tadàrammaõa-vasena catukiccàni. 6. (19) 3. _______ (iii. Somanassa-sahagataü santãraõaü-tadàlambanavasena dukiccaü. Their classification (28) should be understood as ten185 . hearing. Summary of Functlons) _______ § 6. contacting (21) 9. 7. § 7. Pañisandhàdayo nàma kiccabhedena cuddasa Dasadhà ñhànabhedena cittuppàdà pakàsità Aññhasaññhi tathà dye ca navaññhadve yañhàkkamaü Ekadviticatupa¤cakiccaññhànàni niddise. seeing. determining (24). 10.

and 3. and functional consciousness perform the function of javana. The mind-door consciousness performs the function of determining (36) in the five sense-door (thought-process). 2. eight great resultants (30). life-continuum. 4. and decease. hearing. accompanied by indifference. relinking. nine Form-Sphere and Formless Sphere resultants (31). (totalling eleven) (39). life-continuum. Similarly two (33) perform the functions of seeing. Three (35) perform the function of investigating. perform five functions such as relinking.fold — namely. and receiving (34). 2. 3. and investigating. two types of investigating consciousness accompanied by indifference (29). smelling. 186 . contacting. With the exception of two apprehending types of consciousness (37) the fifñy-five (38) types of immoral. 1. Of them nineteen types of consciousness perform the functions of relinking. perform the function of retention. moral. Of them the two types of investigating consciousness. apprehending. retention. (2 + 8 + 9 = 19) Two perform the function of apprehending (32). They are:— 1. The eight great resultanñs and the three types of investigating consciousness. fivefold sense-impressions and so forth. life-continuum. decease. tasting.

The eight great resultants perform four functions such as relinking. It is stated those that perform one function are sixtyeight. The investigating consciousness. life-continuum. two functions. Kicca or Function. In this section the different functions of all the 89 types of consciousness are explained in detail. and five functions. Similarly the determining consciousness (41) perform two functions such as determining and apprehending. four functions. The nine Sublime resultants perform three functions such as relinking. two. 187 . two respectively. Each consciousness performs a particular function. In the first chapter consciousness was classified chiefly according to the nature (jàti) and planes or states (bhåmi). and ten according to classification. and five sense-impressions— perform only one function as they arise. eight. decease. life-continuum. accompanied by pleasure. _______ § 7. three functions. All the remaining types of consciousness—javana of three mind-elements (42). The types of consciousness are declared to be fourteen according to functions such as relinking and so forth. and retention. perform two functions such as investigating and retention. nine. and decease (40). Notes: 17.

Bhavaõga. or indispensable cause or condition of existence. is conditioned by the powerful thought one experiences at the dying moment. and of cuti. There are fourteen specific functions performed by them all. means re-linking. Bhava + aïga = factor of life. No consciousness arises without an object. and is regarded as the source of the present life stream. are identical with those of pañisandhi. When a person is fast asleep and is in a dreamless state he experiences a kind of consciousness which is more or less passive than active. literally. Pañisandhi. This pañisandhi citta. Each thought-moment hangs on to some kind of object. 18. It is so called because it links the past with the present. The type of consciousness one experiences at the moment of conception is termed pañisandhi citta. either mental or physical. It is similar to the consciousness 188 .Some types of consciousness perform several functions. also termed ‘rebirth-consciousness’. No two thought-moments coexist. in various capacities. which later arises an infinite number of times during one’s lifetime. 19. under different circumstances. which arises only once at the final moment of death. In the course of one particular life there is only one pañisandhi citta. One experiences only one thought-moment at any particular time. The mental contents of bhavaïga.

one experiences at the initial moment of conception and at the final moment of death. âung compare bhavaïga to “Leibniz’s state of obscure perception. According to the Dictionary of Philosophy sub-consciousness is “a compartment of the mind alleged by certain psychologists and philosophers to exist below the threshold of consciousness. not amounting to consciousness. Hence bhavaïga becomes an indispensable condition of life. Arising and perishing every moment it flows on like a stream not remaining the same for two consecutive moments. Mrs.” One cannot agree because bhavaïga is a type of consciousness. According to Abhidhamma no two types of consciousness coexist. static (ñhiti) and cessation (bhaïga). the bhavaïga consciousness is arrested and another type of consciousness appropriate to the object perceived arises. This type of consciousness is in Abhidhamma termed bhavaïga.” In the opiõion of Western philosophers subconsciousness and consciousness coexist. Nor is bhavaïga a sub-plane. When an object enters this stream through the sensedoors. in dreamless sleep. Not only in a dreamless state but also in our waking state we experience bhavaïga thought-moments more than any other types of consciousness. The Compendium further states that “bhavaïga de189 . Like any other consciousness it also consists of three aspects—genesis (uppàda). Some identify bhavaïga with sub-consciousness. Rhys Davids and Mr. There is no obscure perception here.

notes a functional state (or moment) of sub-consciousness. or more accurately existence free from working consciousness. This certainly is not the Buddhist conception. 190 . 88. p. though objectively it is sometimes taken to mean Nirvana. Indian Philosophy.’ Indian Philosophy. W. p. Life continuum 89 has been suggested as the closest English equivalent. there is a bhavaïga consciousness. Cp. Whenever the mind does not receive a fresh external object. “In it the mind and the sense are both said to be inactive.87 The Dictionary of Philosophy explains “subliminal (sub. 87. 89. Radhakrishnan says …Bhavaïga is sub-conscious existence. Sometimes it acts as a buffer between two thought-processes. Susupti or deep sleep mentioned in the Upanishads. There does not seem to be any place for bhavaïga in Western Psychology. too. Myer’s ‘subliminal consciousness’”. under + limen.88 Immediately after a thought-process. Strictly speaking. Hence it is called vãthimutta— process-freed.” Radhakrishnan. 408…. it does not correspond to subliminal consciousness either. 266. Bhavaïga is so called because it is an essential condition for continued subjective existence. 258. one experiences a bhavaïga consciousness. the threshold) as allegedly unconscious mental processes especially sensations which lie below the threshold of consciousness”. Thus it corresponds to F. p. Bhavaïga occurs in the waking consciousness too immediately after a ‘Citta-Vithi (thought-process) Bhavaïga is never identified with Nibbàna. Bhavaïga is sub-conscious existence when subjectively viewed. As such it is the sub-conscious state of mind—‘below the threshold’ of consciousness—by which we conceive continuous subjective existence as possible.

1. When the bhavaïga is arrested a thoughtmoment arises adverting the consciousness towards the object. In the sense-door thought-process. tadàrammana and cuti. 20. votthapana and àvajjana.According to the Vibhàvini Tãkà bhavaïga arises between. The original bhavaïga thought-moment perishes. and sometimes between v. arises one of the five sense-impressions. Subsequently another thought-moment arises and is called the bhavaïgaupaccheda (arresting bhavaïga). If it is a physical object. iii. âvajjana—opening or turning towards. 27. javana and cuti. Then the flow is checked. tadàrammana and àvajjana. javana and àvajjana. 191 . i. (bhavaïga vibration). Owing to the rapidity of the flow of bhavaïga an external object does not immediately give rise to a thought-process. after the àvajjana moment. and vi. pañisandhi (relinking) and àvajjana (apprehending). See Ch. In the case of a mental object it is termed mind-door cognition (manodvàràvajjana). ii. and bhavaïga and javana. When an object enters the bhavaïga stream of consciousness the thought-moment that immediately follows is called bhavaïga-calana. the thought-moment is termed five-door cognition (pa¤cadvàràvajjana). âvajjana arises between bhavaïga and pa¤cavi¤¤àõa (sense-impressions). N. iv. Before the actual transition of the bhavaïga it vibrates for one moment.

Pa¤cavi¤¤àõa (sense-impressions) arise between five-door cognition’s (pa¤cadvàràvajjana) and receiving consciousness (sampañicohana). Ordinarily the term is employed in the sense of swift. 23. ñhà. tasting.. Discrimination. to run swiftly. 22. means swift swan. This is another important technical term which should be clearly understood. for example. investigation and bhavaïga. hearing. javana192 . There is no special class of consciousness called votthapana. determines the thought-process either for good or evil. 24. Javana derived from √ √ ju. investigation and javana. Seeing. This is the gateway to a moral or immoral thought-process. Santãraõa arises between receiving-consciousness and determining consciousness (votthapana). and contacting are collectively termed pa¤cavi¤¤àõa. rightly or wrongly employed at this stage. It is at this moment that the nature of the object is fully determined.21. thorough settling down. Sampañicchana arises tween five senseimpressions and investigating consciousness (santãraõa). and ii. to rest. Manodvàràvajjana (mind-door consciousness) performs the function of determining. smelling. 25. lit. to stand. Javanahaüsa. Votthapana = Vi + ava + to fix. Votthapana arises between i.

Irrespective of the desirability or the undesirability of the object presented to the mind. but the potential force differs. harbour a thought of love towards him. A wise and forbearing person might. one meets an enemy. By self is no evil done. It is at this psychological stage that good or evil is actually done. By self is one purified. When the consciousness perceives a vivid object usually seven moments of javana arise in the particular thought-process.” 193 . In the case of death or when the Buddha performs the Twin Psychic Phenomenon (Yamaka Pàñihàriya) only five thought-moments arise. This javana stage is the most important from an ethical standpoint. In the Abhidhamma it is used in a purely technical sense. In the Supramundane javana process the Path-consciousness arises only for one moment. If. The mental states occurring in all these thoughtmoments are similar. on the contrary. hanging on to an identical object. one can make the javana process good or bad. It is so called because in the course of a thought-process it runs consecutively for seven thought-moments or five. By self is one defiled. 165)— “By self is evil done. a thought of hatred will arise almost automatically.pa¤¤à means swift understanding. for instance. Here Javana means running. This is the reason why the Buddha has stated in the Dhammapada (V.

environment. Of the normal seven javana thought-moments. Its Kammic effect may operate in the immediately subsequent life (Upapajjavedaniya). generate either good or bad thoughts. It is called the Diññhadhammavedaniya Kamma. because the sustaining power is being spent.. Note the term used is Phala (fruit). 90. If it does not operate. condition our thoughts. exercising one’s own freewill. If it does not. The last is the second weakest. but not Vipàka.True indeed that circumstances. 194 . The Kammic effect of this thought-moment may operate in this present life itself. In the Lokuttara Javana process the Path-Consciousness is immediately followed by the FruitConsciousness. The effects of the remaining five may operate at any time till one attains Parinibbàna (Aparàpariyavedaniya). There is also the possibility to overcome those external forces and. Apart from them there are the Phala 90 and Kriyà Javanas. In the Kriyà Javanas. They condition the future existence (upapattibhava). it also becomes ineffective. etc. habitual tendencies. A foreign element may be instrumental. it becomes ineffective (ahosi). the respective Cetanàs lack Kamma creative power. It should be understood that moral and immoral javanas (kusalàkusala) refer to the active side of life (kammabhava). the first is the weakest potentially as it lacks any previous sustaining force. but we ourselves are directly responsible for our own actions. Then the freewill is subordinated to the mechanistic course of events. which are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahants.

Impulse is less satisfactory than even apperception. when central function is about to become efferent activity or ‘innervation’. distinguished between perception (the inner state as representing outer things) and apperception (the inner state as reflectively aware of itself). and am content to throw apperception overboard for a better term. 42–45. who introduced the term. 249. “Apperception” is suggested by some.It is extremely difficult to suggest a suitable rendering for Javana. And its dominant interest for European psychologists is the fusion of intellect and will in Buddhist Psychology “ (Compendium of Philosophy.” p. pp. The Dictionary of Philosophy defines apperception as “the introspective or reflective apprehension by the mind of its own inner states. As Mrs. In Kant. Rhys Davids says: “I have spent many hours over Javana. Teachers in Ceylon associate it with the word ‘dynamic’. Commenting on Javana Mrs. or for Javana. 15. 249). apperception denotes the unity of self-consciousness pertaining to either the empirical ego (empirical apperception) or to the pure ego (transcendental apperception). p. Leibniz. See Compendium of Philosophy. 195 . Rhys Davids suggests it is wise to retain the Pàli term. It suffices to remember that it is the mental aspect or parallel of that moment in nerve-process. untranslated and as easy to pronounce as our own ‘javelin’.

Pañisandhi. arise having for their object the same as that of the Javana. They are the entrance and exit of a particular life. 26. (v) manodvàràvajjaõa and cuti. Cuti is derived from released. Tadàlambana or Tadàrammaõa. Immediately after the Javana process two thought-moments or none at all. (ii) votthapana and bhavaïga. As pañisandhi is the initial thought-moment of life so is cuti the final thought-moment. cu. (iii) votthapana and cuti. means ‘that object’. to depart. Death occurs immediately after the cuti consciousness. Cuti functions as a mere passing away from life. Hence they are called tadàlambana. yet the 196 √ . After the tadàlambanas again the stream of consciousness lapses into bhavaïga. bhavaïga and cuti of one particular life are similar in that they possess the same object and identical mental co-adjuncts. to be 27. (iv) manodvàràvajjana and bhavaïga. the physical body disintegrates and the flow of consciousness temporarily ceases.According to the Vibhàvini Tãkà Javana occurs between (i) votthapana and tadàrammana. Tadàlambana occurs between (i) javana and bhavaïga and (ii) javana and cuti. with death. Though. literally.

Namely. are born with one of these eight as their pañisandhi citta. or occasion. (ii) tadà rammaõa and pañisandhi. The pa¤cavi¤¤àõa or the five sense-impressions are collectively treated as one since their functions are identical. dumb. have for their pañisandhi citta the kusala vipàka upekkhà-sahagata santãraõa. All these ten pertain to the Kàmaloka. One is akusala (immoral) and the other is kusala (moral). All human beings. Cuti occurs between (i) javana and pañisandhi. station. place. lit. 30. Though deformity is due to an evil Kamma. Bhavaïga and cuti of that particular life are identical with this pañisandhi citta. who are not congenitally deformed. they are tenfold. and in peta and asura realms takes place with upekkhàsahagata santãraõa (akusala vipàka). Death is only a prelude to birth. 28. Though there are fourteen functions yet. 197 . yet the birth as a human is due to a good Kamma. òhàna. 29. Rebirth (pañisandhi) in the animal kingdom. according to the functioning place or occasion. Those human beings. the Kàmàvacara kusala vipàka. deaf. etc. who are congenitally blind.lifestream is not annihilated as the Kammic force that propels it remains... and (iii) bhavaïga and pañisandhi.

Namely. and the latter when it perceives a physical object. 35. Lokuttara (supramundane) Phalas are not taken into consideration because they do not produce any rebirth. It should not be understood that at the moment of rebirth there is any investigation. accompanied by indifference. 33. Namely. bhavaïga and cuti. mentioned among the 18 ahetuka cittas. therefore. This class of 198 . The former occurs when the mind perceives a mental object. Namely. One consciousness performs only one function at a particular time. 34. the five Råpàvacara vipàka and the four Aråpàvacara vipàka. Namely. Namely. the ten types of moral and immoral resultant sense-impressions (kusala-akusala vipàka pa¤cavi¤¤àõa). Nineteen classes of consciousness.31. the two types of receiving consciousness. It is the first two that function as pañisandhi. bhavaïga and cuti. mentioned among the ahetukas. the two accompanied by indifference. the manodvàràvajjana (mind-door cognition) and the pa¤cadvàràvajjana (sense-door cognition). and one accompanied by pleasure. 32. perform the triple functions of pañisandhi.

performs the dual functions of investigating and retention. The investigating consciousness. The Vipàkas (resultants) of Kàma. 37. Råpa and Aråpa lokas are not regarded as Javanas. 39. When they perform ñhe function of retention (tadalambana). 199 . there is no investigating function. There is no special consciousness known as votthapana. occurs as a tadàlambana when the object presented to the consciousness is desirable. The investigating consciousness. As they do not enjoy the taste of the object they do not perform the function of Javana. accompanied by pleasure. performs the function of Javana.consciousness only serves as a rebirth-consciousness connecting the past and present births. The term used is not Vipàka but Phala. smiling consciousness. These eleven are vipaka cittas (resultants). Namely. two of the Ahetuka Kriyà Cittas. the manodvàràvajjana and the pa¤cadvàràvajjana. accompanied by pleasure. The remaining Kriyà Citta. It is the manodvàràvajjana that serves this function in the five-door thought-process. Namely. 12 immoral + (8 + 5 + 4 + 4) 21 morals + 4 Lokuttara Phalas (Fruits) + (1 + 8 + 5 + 4) 18 functionals = 55. The Supramundane Paths and Fruits which occur in the Javana process are regarded as Javanas though they exist only for a moment. 36. 38.

42. are termed mano-vi¤¤àõa dhàtu. Tattha cakkhum’ eva cakkhudvàraü. Sabbathà’ pi pa¤cadvàre catupa¤¤àsa cittàü kàmàvacaràn’ evà’ ti veditabbàni. All the remaining classes of consciousness. Tattha pa¤cadvàràvajjana-cakkhuvi¤¤àõasampañicchana-santãraõa-votthapana-kàmàvacarajavana-tadàlambanavasena cha cattàëãsa cittàni cakhudvàre yathàrahaü uppajjanti. _______ (iv. Dvàrasaïgahe dvàràni nàma càkkhudvàraü sotadvàraü ghàõadvàraü jivhàdvàraü kàyadvàraü manodvàra¤ c’ àti chabbidhàni bhavanti. Manodvàraü pana bhavaïgaü pavuccati. Manodvàre pana manodvàràvajjana200 . Dvàra—Saïgaho) _________ § 8. Tathà pa¤cadvàràvajjana-sotavi¤¤àõàdivasena sotadvàràdãsu’ pi chacattàëãs’eva bhavanti. 41. excluding the ten sense-impressions (dvipa¤ca-vi¤¤àõa). Manodhàtu is applied to the two classes of receiving consciousness (sampañicchana) and five-door cognition (pa¤cadvàràvajjana). Manodvàràvajjana. tathà sotàdayo sotadvàràdãni. In their respective planes.40.

eye-door (44). Summary of Doors) _______ § 8. Upekkhàsahagata santãraõa-mahàvipàkàni chadvàrikàni c’ eva dvàravimuttàni ca. _______ (iv. nose-door. Sukhasantãraõa votthapana-kàmàvacarajava nàni chadvàrikacittàni. Mahaggatavipàkàü dvàravimuttàn’ evà’ ti. ear-door. 201 . and mind-door (45). Ekadvàrikacittàni pa¤cadvàrikàni ca Chadvàrika vimuttàni vimuttàni ca sabbathà. Chattiüsati tathà tãni ekatiüsa yathàkkamaü Dasadhà navadhà c’àti pa¤cadhà paridãpaye. § 9. tongue-door. Ekånavãsati pañisandhi-bhavaïga-cutivasena dvàravimuttàni. Tesu pana dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõàni c’eva mahaggata-lokuttarajavanàni c’àti chattiüsa yathàraham’ ekadvàrikacittàni nàma. Manodhàtuttikaü pana pa¤cadvàrikaü.pa¤capa¤¤àsajavana-tadàlambanavasena sattasaññhicittàni bhavanti. body-door. there are six kinds — namely. In the summary of doors (43).

retention. and so forth. determining. eye-consciousness. Sense-sphere javana. It should be understood that in every way in the five doors there are fifty-four types of Kàmàvacara consciousness (48). and retention (50). Of them forty-six (46) types of consciousness arise accordingly (47) in the eye-door: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ( f) (g) five-door apprehending. earconsciousness. fifty-five javanas (49). 202 . and decease are without doors (51).Therein the eye itself is the eye-door. Of those (that arise through doors) thirty-six ñypes of consciousness (52) such as twice fivefold senseimpressions and the sublime and supramundane javanas (53) are with one door accordingly. bhavaïga. But bhavaïga is called the mind-door. Likewise in the ear-door and others forty-six types of consciousness arise such as five-door apprehending. receiving. Nineteen types of consciousness such as relinking. and so for the ear-door and others. investigating. In the mind-door sixty-seven types of consciousness arise such as mind-door apprehending.

See Compendium of Philosophy. _______ Notes:— 43. thirty-one through six. By Cakkhudvàra or eye-door is meant the sensory surface of the eye. to go. accompanied by indifference. ten through six without a door. 45. The other doors should be similarly understood. two and ar. 4. ear and other organs of sense act as doors for objects to enter. and the great Resultants arise either through the six doors or without a door (57). N. and the Kàma-sphere javanas arise through six doors. derived from du. The Sublime Resultants do arise without a door (58).The three mind-elements (54) arise through five doors. In five ways they are shown. § 9. The five physical senses and the mind are regarded as the six doors through which objects gain entrance. nine wholly free from a door respectively. p. Pleasurable investigation (55). Investigation. Thirty-six (59) types of consciousness arise through one door. 85. three through five. Dvàra or door. to enter. Eye. √ 44. is that which serves both as an entrance and an exit. determining (56). Manodvàra—Mind-door It was explained earlier that when an object enters the mind the bhavaïga consciousness first vibrates for a 203 .

(f) 29 (akusala = 12 + kusala = 8 + ahetuka kriyà hasituppàda = 1 + sobhana kriyà = 8). The bhavaïgupaccheda (bhavaïga arrest) thought-moment that immediately precedes the mind-door apprehending consciousness is known as the mind-door (manodvàra). 46. 1 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 29 + 8 = 46. The commentary sums up 46 as follows:— (a) 1. (e) 1. 204 . (b) 2 (akusala and kusala vipàka cakkhu vi¤¤àõa). In the case of a mental object it is the manodvàràvajjana— mind-door consciousness. (g) 8 (sobhana vipàka — the other three being included in santãraõa). (d) 3 (akusala vipàka = 1. 46. (c) 2 (akusala and kusala vipàka sampañicchana).moment and is then arrested. (The bhavaïga with the àvajjana is known as minddoor). Forty-six types of consciousness arise through the eye-door with material form as the object (råpàlambana). Subsequently àvajjana or apprehending thought-moment arises. An equal number arises in the remaining four physical doors with their respective objects. Abhidhammàvatàra states— S’àvajjanaü bhavangantu manodvàranti vuccati. kusala vipàka santãraõa = 2). In the case of a physical object it is one of the five sense-impressions.

as attentiveness is right or wrong. Namely. attention. 3 santãraõas and 8 sobhana vipàkas. door-freed. 49. Dvàra-vimutta. (12 + 1 + 16 + 10 + 8 + 8 = 55). the plane of existence. the second to bhavaïgupaccheda. Vibhàvinã Tãkà explains that they are so called because (i) they do not arise in any of the sense-doors such as eye etc. and the third to all bhavaïgas and cuti. bhavaïga and cuti of a particular life are similar because their objects and their co-adjuncts are identical although their functions differ. and (iii) they exist without receiving any new external object (pertaining to the present life). yathàrahaü— That is. (ii) bhavaïga itself is the mind-door. All types of Kàmàvacara consciousness arise through these five doors. 51. “according as the object is desirable or not. Accordingly. 12 akusalas + 1 ahetuka kriyà + 16 sobhana kusala and kriyà + 10 Råpàvacara kusala and kriyà + 8 Aråpàvacara kusala and kriyà + 8 Lokuttara Magga and Phala. Namely.. Mr. as passion-freed individuals or not” (Vibhàvini Tãkà). 205 . Aung says “Ledi Sayadaw explains the same by ‘According to the object. 50. etc.’.47. the subject.” 48. It was stated earlier that pañisandhi. The first reason applies to cuti and pañisandhi.

91 Taking one of these three as the object. flesh. All the 26 Sublime and Supramundane javanas arise through the mind-door. One recollects the deed as if being renewed. It may also be (iii) characteristic symbol of the place in which one is bound to be reborn (gatinimitta). 52. Strictly speaking. Or it may be (ii) any symbol (Kammanimitta) which was conspicuous during the performance of the action. the rebirth-consciousness takes place in the future existence. Readers should note that at times all these three types 91. They arise iõ their respective doors such as eye.. it is a recurring of the consciousness which one has experienced while performing the action. Hence it was stated above that they do not take any new external object. Aung says in the Compendium — “These have for their object either the past efficient action itself. etc. 53. ear. Referring to the object of the pañisandhi citta Mr. such as fire.At the moment of death a thought-process that conditions the future existence occurs. 54. or a symbol of that past action (Kamma nimitta). 26. or a sign of the tendencies (gati-nimitta) that are determined by the force of that past action”—p. The object of this thought-process may be (i) a Kamma (action) which one has performed in the course of one’s life. 206 . etc. celestial mansions. The object of the bhavaïga and cuti of that particular existence is similar to that of the pañisandhi. Here gati-nimitta means a sign or symbol of the place in which he is to be born. The two sampañicchanas and pa¤cadvàravajjana arise only through the five physical sense-doors.

This is the manodvàràvajjana which functions purely as a mind-door apprehending consciousness and as a determining consciousness in a thought-process which arises through any of the five physical doors. When they function as pañisandhi. It occurs through the mind-door as a tadàlambana. Hence they are door-freed. âlambanasaïgahe àlambanàni nàma råpàrammaõaü saddàrammaõaü gandhàrammaõaü rasàrammaõaü phoññhabbàramma207 . 57. Pleasurable investigation arises through the five physical doors when the object presented is desirable.of consciousness are collectively termed manodhàtuttika (three mind-elements). 58. 55. They are:— dvipa¤ca vi¤¤àna (sense-impression) Råpàvacara kusala and kriyà Aråpavàcara kusala and kriyà Lokuttara Magga and Phala _______ = 10 = 10 = 8 = ___ 8 36 (v. bhavaïga and cuti they are door-freed. Alambana Saïgaho) _______ § 10. 59. bhavaïga and cuti in their respective planes. The nine Råpàvacara and Aråpàvacara vipàka cittas arise as pañisandhi. 56.

208 .õaü dhammàrammaõaü c’àti chabbidhàni bhavanti. citta. nibbàna. pa¤¤attivasena chaddhà saïgayhanti. Manodvàrikacittànaü pana chabbidham’ pi paccuppannam’ atãtaü anàgataü kàlavãmutta¤ ca yathàraham’ àlambanaü hoti. Manodhàtuttikaü pana råpàdipa¤càlambanaü. Tàni ca paccuppannàni y’eva. Dvàravimuttàna¤ ca pana pañisandhibhavaïga-cuti saïkhàtànaü chabbidham pi yathàsambhavaü yebhuyyena bhavantare chadvàragahitaü paccuppannam’ atãtaü pa¤¤attibhåtaü và kammaü kammanimittaü gatinimittasammataü àlambanaü hoti. Tathà saddàdayo saddàrammaõàdãni. Dhammàrammaõaü pana pasàda. Sesàni kàmàvacaravipàkàni hasancitta¤c’ àti sabbathà’ pi kàmàvacaràlambanàn’ eva. Ta¤ ca paccuppannam’ eva. Tattha råpam’eva råpàrammaõaü. sukhumaråpa. Tathà sotadvàrikacittàdãnam’ pi saddàdãni. cetasika. Tattha cakkhudvàrikacittànaü sabbesampi råpam’ eva àrammaõaü. Tesu cakkhuvi¤¤àõàdãni yathàkkamaü råpàdiekekàlambanàn’ eva.

¥àõasampayuttakàmàvacarakusalàni c’ eva pa¤caüajjhànasaïkhàtamabhi¤¤àkusala¤c’ àti arahattamaggaphalavajjitasabbàlambanàni. ¥àõasampayuttakàmàvacarakriyà c’ eva kriyàbhi¤¤àvotthapana¤c’ àti sabbathà’ pi sabbàlambanàni.Akusalàni c’ eva ¤àõavippayuttajavanàni c’àti lokuttaravajjitasabbàlambanàni. Sesàni mahaggatacittàni pana sabbàni’ pi pa¤¤àttàlambanàni. Lokuttaracittàni nibbànàlambanànã’ ti. visible object (61). âruppesu dutiyacatutthàni mahaggatàlambanàni. and cognizable object (66). _______ (v. odorous object (63). Pa¤cavãsa parittamhi cha cittàni mahaggate Ekavãsati vohàre aññha nibbànagocare Vãsànuttaramuttamhi aggamaggaphalujjhite Pa¤ca sabbattha chacceti sattadhà tattha saïgaho. § 11. In the summary of objects (60) there are six kinds— namely. Likewise sound and so forth are the audible objects etc. tangible object (65). sapid object (64). But cognizable 209 . Therein form itself is visible object. Summary of Objects) _______ § 10. audible object (62).

That too pertains only to the present (73). or ‘sign of destiny. But the six kinds of objects of the mind-door consciousness are accordingly (75) present. mostly (77) through the six doors. To all types of eye-door consciousness visible form itself is the object. as their single object. They are (technically) known as Kamma. future. and concepts (72). life-continuum. or they are concepts. p. ‘sign of Karma’. They have usually been grasped (as object) in the immediately preceding existence by way of the six doors. (76) To the ‘door-freed’ such as relinking.92 Of them eye-consciousness and so forth have respectively form and so forth. Aung translates this passages as follows:… “Further. ‘a symbol of Kamma’. consciousness (69). The remaining Sense-sphere Resultants and the smiling consciousness have wholly Sense-sphere objects. past. Likewise sounds and so forth of the ear-door consciousness and so forth also pertain to the present (74). are also of six kinds according to circumstances. pertaining to the immediately preceding life. or a symbol of the state of rebirth. But the three mind-elements have five objects such as form and so forth. 92. 120. bhavaïga.’” Compendium of Philosophy. the objects of those ‘door-freed’ classes of consciousness which are called rebirth. They are grasped. mental states (70). And they are (technically) known as ‘Karma’. and re-decease cognitions. 210 . and -decease any of the aforesaid six becomes objects as they arise. they are objects of things either present or past. Nibbàna (7I). Mr. as past or present object or as concepts.object is sixfold:—sensitive (parts of organs) (67) subtle matter (68). and independent of time.

The Sense-sphere Morals and the super-intellect (79) consciousness.The Immorals and the javanas. super-intellect Functional consciousness (80) and the determining consciousness (81) have in all cases all kinds of objects (82). twenty-one (88) with concepts (89). Sevenfold is their grouping. (83) Amongst the Aråpa consciousness the second and fourth have Sublime objects. to . associated with knowledge. § 11. have all objects except the Supramundane objects (78). and six (92) with all. 211 √ ram. to adhere. known as the fifth jhàna. Twenty-five (85) types of consciousness are connected with lower objects. to delight. five (91) in all except with the Highest Path and Fruit. _______ Notes: 60. eight with Nibbàna. six (87) with the Sublime. dissociated with knowledge. The Supramundane types of consciousness have Nibbàna as their object. have all objects except the Path and Fruit of Arahantship. Twenty (90) are connected with all objects except the Supramundane objects. ârammanam or âlambanam— ârammanam is derived from a + attach. All the remaining Sublime types of consciousness have concepts (84) as objects. The Sense-sphere Functionals.

to perish. It is the embodiment of colour. In its generic sense it means ‘that which changes its colour owing to cold. or sphere of colour (vaõõàyatana). That on which the subject hangs. “Råpa is that which manifests itself by assuming a difference in colour. Abhidhamma enumerates 28 kinds of råpa. It should be understood that according to Abhidhamma råpa springs from four sources—namely. which will be descriptively dealt with in a special chapter. which may be classified as physical and mental. to change. and food (àhàra). is ârammaõa or âlambana. Kamma. 61. etc. seasonal phenomena (utu). It means an object. √ lamb.’ (sãtuõhàdivasena vaõõavikàramàpajjatã’ ti råpaü). mind (citta). heat. Sadda or (sound) arises from the friction of elements of extension (pañhavi dhàtu). or adheres to. Here the term is used in its specific sense of object of sight. 62. Each sense has its corresponding object. There are four 212 √ . Råpa is derived from rup. Råpa is the abode. or delights in.” (vaõõavikàraü àpajjamànaü råpayati hadayaï-gatabhàvaü pakàsetã’ ti råpaü). According to Abhidhamma there are six kinds of objects. The Vibhàvinã Tãkà states.âlambanaü is derived from à + to hang upon. field. that which expresses the state of having penetrated into the heart. range.

for example. 63. Sounds are either articulate (vyakta) or inarticulate (avyakta). It springs from all the four sources. It springs from both mind (citta) and seasonal phenomena (utu). 64. Rasa (taste) is diffused in all the elements. the element of cohesion in water. One element may preponderate over the other as. They are always inter-dependent and inter-related. gandh. which constitute a tangible object. collide with the sensory surface of the body there arises either pain or pleasure according to the desir213 √ . When these three elements. Gandha (odour) is derived from to express (såcane). and the element of motion in air. Only the sapidity that exists in them is regarded as rasa. It is not mere contact.material elements (bhåta råpa)—namely. the element of heat in fire. When an element of extension collides with a similar element there arises sound. 65. These are the fundamental units of matter. Phoññhabbàrammaõa—tangible object. the element of extension predominates in earth. With the exception of the element of cohesion all the remaining three elements are regarded as tangible. the element of extension (pañhavi). and the element of motion (vàyo). the element of heat (tejo). because the former cannot be felt by the body. the element of cohesion (àpo).

ability or undesirability of the object. all the 89 types of consciousness. The physical objects of (i) sight. Dhamma embraces both mental and physical phenomena. 67. The remaining 16 which will be described in the chapter on råpa belong to the subtle group. and the five pasàda råpas belong to the gross group. (vi) heat. while the sensory surface of the body pervades the whole system. 66. (iii) scent. tongue the sensory surfaces are located in particular spots. (ii) hearing. They are sometimes collectively treated as one object as they all possess the identical characteristic of awareness. (vii) and motion). ear. They are termed subtle as there is no collition on their part. In the case of other objects there results only upekkhà—neutral feeling. In the case of eye. 70. (iv) taste. Namely. Dhammàrammaõa includes all objects of consciousness. The sensory surfaces of all the five organs are known as pasàda. the 52 mental properties. There are five kinds of pasàda råpa corresponding to the five sense-organs. 68. Namely. nose. 69. Sukhuma råpas— Of the 28 kinds of råpa 16 are classed as sukhum (subtle) and 12 as odàrika (gross). and touch (which includes the element of (v) extension. 214 .

In the view of some commentators there is no intermediate ñhiti stage but only the stages of arising and passing away. the latter means the object or idea conveyed thereby. = Future is that which has not yet reached both states (tadubhayam’ pi na àgatà sampattà). On the other hand what space is to matter.71. Each thought-moment is followed by another. it is a mere concept which does not exist in an absolute sense. table. This is a supramundane object which is perceived by the eight kinds of Supramundane consciousness. The former means a name or term such as chair. and bhaïga (dissolution or cessation). Pa¤¤atti is that which is made manifest. Present is that which on account of this and that reason enters. exists above the moments of genesis etc. What is time? Strictly speaking. (taü taü kàraõaü pañicca uppàdàdikkhaõaü uddhaü pannà. goes. According to Abhidhamma each consciousness consists of three phases—uppàda (genesis). etc. and future (anàgata).. Time is thus the 215 . gatà. and cessation (attano sabhàvaü uppàdàdikkhaõaü và atãtà atikkantà atãtà). nàma pa¤¤atti and attha pa¤¤atti. 72. 73. ñhiti (development). pavattà = paccuppannà). time is to mind. present (paccuppanna). Conventionally we speak of past (atãta). Past is defined as that which has gone beyond its own state or the moments of genesis. development. It is twofold—namely.

In another sense the so-called present is the transitional stage from the future to the past. Accordingly—yathàrahaü. with respect to sense-sphere javana. And it does not exist by nature. We live only for one thought-moment and that slips into the irrevocable past. Atthasàlinã states that time is a concept derived from this or that phenomenon. 74. being the time duration for one thought-process. In one sense there is only the eternal now. So pan’ esa sabhàvato avijjamànattà pa¤¤attimattako eva). it is merely a concept. The fundamental unit of time is the duration of a thought-moment. Matter.sine qua non of the succession of mental states. which also constantly changes.e. Higher Intellect (abhi¤¤à) and other Sublime javanas. Future has not come. 75. Past is gone. endures only for seventeen thought-moments. i. (Taü taü upàdàya pa¤¤atto kàlo nàma. 216 . Commentators say that the rapidity of these fleeting thought-moments is such that within the brief duration of a flash of lightning there may be billions of thoughtmoments. The Dictionary of Philosophy defines time “as the general medium in which all events take place in succession or appear to take place in succession”. All sense-objects belong to the present.

. as a present or past object. This is technically known as ‘Kamma’. The objects of the smiling consciousness are past. arises now as a fresh consciousness. and future. Divine Ear are developed. or future. 217 . are present. It is timeless. When a person is about to die he sometimes recollects a good or bad action he has performed during his lifetime. As Nibbàna is eternal it does not belong to the past. past. present. are past. future. it is a dhammàrammaõa grasped through the mind-door. and independent of time. So is pa¤¤atti. and cuti classes of consciousness of the subsequent life is this dhammàrammaõa. present. with the exception of smiling consciousness. At times it may be a sign or symbol associated with the good or bad action. The objects of the javanas. 76. The moral or immoral consciousness. future. This difficult passage needs some explanation. The object of the pañisandhi. Being a thought.The six kinds of objects of the Sense-sphere javanas. and is past. experienced at the particular moment. by means of which the Higher Intellect such as Divine Eye. bhavaõga. It may be one of the five physical objects viewed through one of the six doors. present. The objects of sublime javanas may be either timeless or past. independent of time. and independent of time.

It. viewed through one of the six doors.Suppose. follows that the object of the aforesaid three classes of consciousness of the following life becomes this Kamma nimitta. perceived through one of the six-doors. or a gati-nimitta. a kamma-nimitta. let us think that a dying butcher hears the groans of cattle he has killed. for instance. therefore. this is a past råpàrammaõa perceived through the mind-door. In this case the present audible word grasped through the ear becomes the object. let us think that a dying physician sees through his mental eye the patients he has treated. therefore.. This is regarded as present object grasped through the mind-door. It should be noted that the pañisandhi. flesh. In the case of all råpàvacara pañisandhi etc. The past audible object is presented to the person through the mind-door. and cuti thought-moments of the Sense-sphere have for their objects a kamma. be past or present. therefore. and is perceived through the mind-door. present in point of time. In some cases some symbol of the place in which he is to be reborn such as fire. celestial mansions. the object is always a past kamma-nimitta which is a concept 218 .. in the immediately preceding life. etc. Or again. Gati-nimitta is. may appear to the dying person. one hears the Dhamma at the dying moment. Now. Again. Kamma-nimitta may. bhavaïga. a visual object.

78.. and the concept ‘natthi ki¤ci’—‘there is nothing’. manyfolk or one who is born again and again).... those who undergo a training). The object of the second and fourth aråpa jhàna pañisandhi etc. 77. These two concepts are regarded as kamma-nimittas perceived through the mind-door. in the case of the third. is a past mental object which serves as the kamma-nimitta perceived through the mind-door. and the fourth with the third as the object. who no more undergo any training. The term ‘yebhuyyena’ (mostly) is used to indicate the rebirth of one born in the asa¤¤a plane where there is no consciousness. The object of the first and third Aråpa pañisandhi etc. Those who have attained the Final stage of Sainthood (Arahantship) are called asekhas. As was explained in the first chapter the second aråpa consciousness was developed by taking the first aråpa consciousness as the object. Those who have attained the first three stages of Sainthood are called sekhas (lit. The commentary states that by the power of Kamma some object such as a kamma nimitta presents itself to the pañisandhi consciousness.(pa¤¤atti) such as a kasiõa symbol. 219 . is also a past concept (pa¤¤atti) such as ‘ananto àkàso’ ‘infinite is space’ in the case of the first. In Buddhism an ordinary worldling is called a puthujjana (lit. perceived through the mind-door.

82. Sense-sphere objects. but worldly thoughts of an Arahant they can. 220 .The sekhas cannot comprehend the Path and Fruit consciousness of an Arahant because they have not attained that superior state. Abhi¤¤à are the five kinds of Higher Knowledge. It is only an Arahant who can comprehend the Path and Fruit consciousness of an Arahant. A detailed account of abhi¤¤a will appear in a latter chapter. To develop these five abhi¤¤as one must possess the fifth jhàna. This is the manodvàràvajjana which occurs before every javana process. 79. 81. Similarly the worldlings cannot comprehend the supramundane consciousness of the sekha Saints. These two classes of consciousness are experienced only by Arahants. Reading the thoughts of others (paracittavijànana) and Psychic Powers (iddhividha ¤àõa). Divine Ear (dibba-sota). Sublime objects. They are Divine Eye (dibbacakkhu). Hence there is nothing that is beyond the scope of this consciousness. 80. Namely. Reminiscence of past births (pubbenivàsànussati ¤àõa). Not even with this developed Sublime consciousness can a worldling or a sekha comprehend the Path and Fruit consciousness of an Arahant.

84. 221 √ . to break. 86. 83. Namely. the object of the first aråpa consciousness is the concept ‘ananto àkàso’ ‘infinite is space’. Resultant. dà. Vohàra here refers to concepts such as kasiõas etc. Paritta. 89. Resultant. An explanation of these appears in the first chapter. 85. means lower or inferior. This refers to Sensesphere objects. that of the third is the concept ‘natthi ki¤ci’ ‘there is nothing’. 15 Råpa jhànas and Moral. derived from pari + to shorten. and Functional 2nd and 4th aråpa cittas (vi¤¤àõà¤càyatana and n’eva sa¤¤à n’àsa¤¤àyatana). All the råpa jhànas have concepts such as kasiõas as their’ objects..Supramundane objects. and Functional 1st and 3rd aråpa jhànas (àkàsàna¤càyatana and àki¤ca¤¤àyatana) 15 + 6 = 21. the Moral. while that of the fourth is the third. 23 Sense-sphere Resultants + 1 sensedoor consciousness + 1 smiling consciousness = 25. e. and concepts (pa¤¤atti). 88. The object of the second aråpa consciousness is the first aråpa consciousness. Namely. i. Namely. 87.

Namely. dissociated with knowledge. 91. They are the 4 Sense-sphere Functionals. Pa¤cadvàràvajjanasampañicchaõasaïkhàtà pana manodhàtu ca hadayaü nissày’ eva pavattanti. Tàni kàmaloke sabbàni’ pi labbhanti. 5th Functional råpa jhàna. Tathà avasesà pana manovi¤¤àõadhàtu-saïkhàtà ca santãraõamahàvipàkapañighadvayapañhamamaggahasanaråpàvacaravasena hadayaü nissày’ eva pavattanti. Aråpaloke pana sabbàni’ pi na saüvijjanti.90. _______ (vi. 222 . Råpaloke pana ghàõàdittayaü natthi. They are the 4 Sense-sphere Morals associated with knowledge and the 5th Moral råpa jhàna (abhi¤¤à kusala citta). and mind-door apprehending (manodvàràvajjana). Vatthu—Saïgaho) _______ § 12. 92. Tattha pa¤cavi¤¤àõadhàtuyo yathàkkamaü ekantena pa¤cappasàdavatthåni nissày’ eva pavattanti. Vatthusaïgahe vatthåni nàma cakkhu sota ghàõa jivhà kàya hadayavatthu c’àti chabbidhàni bhavanti. the 12 Immorals and 8 Sense-sphere Morals and Functionals.

âruppavipàkavasena hadayaü anissày’ evà ti. In the Formless-sphere no base (96) exists. the two (101) accompanied by aversion. Likewise the remaining mindconscious-element (99) comprising the (100) investigating consciousness. nose. Tecattàëãsa nissàya dve cattàlãsa jàyare Nissàya ca anissàya pàkà’ ruppà anissità’ ti. ear. the great Resultants. body. too.Avasesà kusalàkusalakriyànuttaravasena pana nissàya và anissàya. the five-door adverting consciousness and the (two types of) receiving consciousness—rest in dependence on the heart (98). tongue. eye. Therein the five elements of sense-impressions lie entirely dependent on the five sensory parts (97) of the organs as their respective bases. and heart. there are six kinds— namely. Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe Pakiõõakasaïgahavibhàgo nàma Tatiyo Paricchedo. the first Path (102) conscious223 . § 13. _______ (vi. and body—are not found (95). All these. In the summary of bases (93). But the mind-element— namely. tongue. Summary of Bases) ________ § 12. Chavatthå nissità kàme satta råpe catubbidhà Ti vatthå nissitàruppe dhàtvekà nissità matà. But in the Form-sphere three bases—nose. (94) are found in the Sense-sphere.

ness. The Formlesssphere Resultants are independent of the heart-base. In its 93. rest in dependence on the heart (105). are either dependent on. in the Formless-sphere the one single (110) mindelement is not dependent on any. Functional. Immoral. field. the heart-base. (10 + 3 + 3 + 8 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 15 = 43). or Supramundane. Referring to the three objects of worship. that is. or independent of. object. In its secondary sense it means a cause or condition. or thing. Forty-three arise dependent on a base. in the Form-sphere four (108) are dependent on three (109) bases. Vatthu is also applied to something that exists. 224 √ . (103) and Form-sphere (104) consciousness. Vatthu is derived from primary sense it means a garden. _______ Thus ends the third chapter in the Compendium of Abhidhamma. smiling consciousness. § 13. _______ Notes: vas. a substance. to dwell. The remaining classes of consciousness (106) whether Moral. entitled the miscellaneous treatment. Forty-two arise with or without a base. or avenue. It should be known that in the Sense-sphere seven elements (107) are dependent on the six bases. The Formless Resultants arise without any base.

but not their sensory faculties as beings in these higher planes have temporarily inhibited the desire for sensual pleasures (kàmaràga) They possess eye and ear so that they may utilise them for good purposes. The indeclinable particle ‘pi’ (too) in the text indicates that there is an exception in the case of those who are born blind. the eye-consciousness depends on the sensory surface of the eye but not on the physical organ or ‘eye of flesh’ The other sense-impressions also depend on their respective sensory surfaces.the Buddha says “Uddesikaü ti avatthukaü”. Here avatthuka means objectless. For instance. etc. Being devoid of all forms of matter. The heart-base also exists because it is the seat of consciousness. Vatthu is the seat of sense-organs. sense of sight and 225 . dumb. There are six seats or physical bases corresponding to the six senses. deaf. without a thing or substance. Mind alone exists even without the seat of consciousness by the power of meditation. 96. The sensory surfaces (pasàda) of these five organs should be understood as follows:— “Cakkhu. 97. 95. The organs exist. 94. These will be fully described in the chapter on Råpa. which stands for vision.

it only perceives the basis (or seat—vatthu) of the eye And this ball of flesh.eye. inherent. colour. exuding by superfluity of the liquid. the white disc surrounding it (note that the iris is either not distinguished or is itself the 226 . Placed in the midst and in the front of the black disc of the composite eye. “Eye”. the liquid. by the brain within and by the eyelashes without. When ‘the world’. A ball of flesh fixed in a cavity. The last four have their source in karma. taste. red by superfluity of blood. seeing an obvious extended white object fancies it perceives the eye. and not as the physical or ‘eye of flesh’ (maüsa cakkhu). derived from the four great principles—this is the visual sense (pasàda-cakkhu). the six attributes dependent on them. body-sensibility (kàyappasàdo). It is white by superfluity of humour. viz. vitality. nature. quivering by superfluity of the gaseous. and contains the solid. inflamed by superfluity of the lambent. sap of life.. of which the following is the substance: First the aggregate organism (sasambhàracakkhu). The commentary gives an account of the eye. black by superfluity of bile. But that sentient organ (pasàdo) which is there bound. is always in the present work to be understood as the seeing faculty or visual sense. There are fourteen constituents: the four elements. black and red. bound by the socket-bone beneath and by the bone of the eyebrow above. the lambent and the gaseous. bound to the brain by nerve-fibres. rigid by superfluity of the solid. by the angles of the eye at the sides. is white. form (sanñhànaü). and the visual sentient organ. however. odour. and collocation (sambhavo).

‘black disc’) and in the circle of vision. aided by the four elements. 310) Jivhàppasàda— “This is situated above the middle of the aggregate gustatory organism. dressing. taste. is in shape like a little finger-stall (anguliveñhana). For as it has been said by the Commander of the Doctrine (Sàriputta): ‘The visual sense by which he beholds forms It small and delicate. and well furnished fine reddish hairs. in size the measure of a louse’s head—stands duly constituting itself the door of the seat of visual cognitions etc.” (Asl.” (Asl. Sotappasàda— “This. it permeates the seven ocular membranes as sprinkled oil will permeate seven cotton wicks. in appearance like a goat’s hoof. sustaining. bathing. 227 . And so it stands.” (Asl. 310). smell. moving (samudãraõaü)—like an infant prince and four nurses. comparable to a louse’s head. situated within the cavity of the aggregate organism of the ear. and fanning him—maintained by nutriment both physical (utu) and mental. feeling. maturing. in appearance like the upper side of the leaf of a lotus. protected by the (normal) span of life invested with colour. in the region where the forms of adjacent bodies come to appear. and to forth. 310) Ghàõappasàda— “This is situated inside the cavity of the aggregate nasal organism.

It was this cardiac theory that prevailed in the Buddha’s time. and Compendium of Philosophy. In the Paññhàna. Aung’s opinion is that the Buddha did not want to reject the popular theory. and this was evidently supported by the Upanishads. pp. 98. The Buddha could have adopted this popular theory. Hadayavatthu—heart-base. the Buddha has simply stated ‘yaü råpaü nissàya’—depending on that ‘råpa’. and depending on which lies the seat of consciousness. but He did not commit Himself.Kàyappasàda— “The sphere of kàya—so runs the comment (Asl.” (Buddhist Psychology. 228 . Mr. According to the commentators hadayavatthu is the seat of consciousness. Tradition says that within the cavity of the heart there is some blood. 277–279. See Buddhist Psychology—Introduction lxxviii. instead of using hadaya as the seat of consciousness. 173–181). pp. He did not positively assert that the seat of consciousness was either in the heart or in the brain. Aung in his Compendium argues that the Buddha was silent on this point. Mr. Nor did He advance a new theory that brain is the seat of consciousness as is regarded by modern scientists. In the Dhammasaïganã the term hadayavatthu has purposely been omitted. 311)—is diffused over the whole bodily form just as oil pervades an entire cotton rag.

They are so called since they are devoid of being or life (nissatta nijjãva). 103. accompanied by aversion. Smiling consciousness cannot arise without a body. manodhàtu. 101. ‘That which carries its own characteristic mark is dhàtu’. The three classes of investigating consciousness and the eight great Resultants do not arise in the Formless sphere owing to the absence of any door or any function there. Dhàtu is derived from dhar. Buddhas and Pacceka Buddhas who experience such 229 √ . 102.99. manovi¤¤àõa-dhàtu. They are pa¤cavi¤¤àõadhàtu. Pa¤ca-vi¤¤àõa-dhàtu is applied to the ten senseimpressions. do not arise there. 100. To attain the first stage of Sainthood one must hear the word from another (paratoghosappaccaya). As aversion has been inhibited by those born in råpa and aråpa planes the two classes of consciousness. to hold. to bear. For the sake of convenience three technical terms are used here. Mano-vi¤¤àõa-dhàtu is applied to all the remaining classes of consciousness. Mano-dhàtu—is applied to the two types of receiving consciousness and five-door adverting consciousness (sampañicchana and pa¤cadvàràvajjana).

cakkhu. They are the 8 sobhana kusalas. 104. 4 aråpa kriyà. No råpa jhàna consciousness arises in the aråpaloka as those persons born in such planes have temporarily inhibited the desire for råpa. (10 + 3 + 3 + 8 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 15 = 43). 5 pa¤cavi¤¤àõadhàtus + 1 manodhàtu + 1 manovi¤¤àõadhàtu = 7. 1 sotavi¤¤àõa. This refers to manovi¤¤àõadhàtu. are dependent on the hadayavatthu. 109. e. 1 manodvàràvajjana. All the 43 types of consciousness stated above. 110.. 230 . 1 manovi¤¤àõadhàtu = 4. sota and hadayavatthu.classes of consciousness are not born outside the human plane. 7 lokuttaras = 42. 1 cakkhuvi¤¤àõa. 107.. 10 akusalas. i. Namely. 8 sobhana kriyà. 105. 108. 4 råpa kusalas. 1 manodhàtu. i. 106.e. Dhàtu’ + eka = Dhàtv’ eka. These may arise in planes with the five Aggregates or in planes with four Aggregates (aråpa-loka).

. Cha vatthåni. cha dvàràni. Tattha vatthudvàràlambanàni pubbe vuttanayen’ eva. 231 § 2. sotadvàravãthi. kàyavi¤¤àõaü manovi¤¤àõaü c’àti cha vi¤¤àõàni. Cittuppàdànamicc’ evaü katvà saïgaham uttaraü Bhåmi-puggalabhedena pubbàparaniyàmitaü Pavattisaïgahaü nàma pañisandhippavattiyaü Pavakkhàma samàsena yathàsambhavato kathaü.Chapter IV _______ Vãthi—Saïgaha Vibhàgo _______ § 1. sotavi¤¤àõaü. cha àlambanàni. jivhàvi¤¤àõaü. chadhà visayappavatti c’àti vãthisaïgahe cha chakkàni veditabbàni. Vãthimuttànaü pana kamma-kammanimitta-gatinimitta-vasena tividhà hoti visayappavatti. jivhàdvàravãthi. cha vi¤¤àõàni. ghàõavi¤¤àõaü. cha vãthiyo. ghàõadvàravãthi. Cakkhuvi¤¤àõaü. Vãthiyo pana cakkhudvàravãthi.

Ekacittakkhaõàtãtàni và. mahantaü. sotavi¤¤àõavãthi. Tàni pana sattarasacittakkhaõàni råpadhammànam àyu. Tato tass’ ànantaraü tam’ eva råpaü passantaü cakkhuvi¤¤àõaü. manodvàre. vibhåtamavibhåtaü c’àti chadhà visayappavatti veditabbà. vavatthapentaü votthapanacittaü c’àti yathàkkamaü uppajjitvà nirujjhanti. santãrayamànaü santãraõacittaü. atiparittaü c’àti pa¤cadvàre. § 3. ghàõavi¤¤àõavãthi. Tasmà yadi ekacittakkaõàtãtakaü råpàrammanaü cakkhussam’ àpàtham’àgacchati. tato dvikkhattuü bhavaïge calite bhavaïgasotaü vocchinditvà tam’ eva råpàrammaõaü àvajjentaü pa¤cadvàràvajjanacittaü uppajjitvà nirujjhati. sampañicchantaü sampañicchanacittaü. manodvàravãthi c’àti dvàravasena và cakkhuvi¤¤àõavãthi. Atimahantaü. bahucittakkhaõàtãtàni và ñhitippattàn’ eva pa¤càlambanàni pa¤cadvàre àpàthamàgacchanti. Tato paraü ek’ 232 . kàyavi¤¤àõavãthi manovi¤¤àõavãthi c’àti vi¤¤aõavasena và dvàrappavattà cittappavattiyo yojetabbà. parittaü. Kathaü? Uppàdaññhitibhaïgavasena khaõattayaü ekacittakkhaõaü nàma. jivhàvi¤¤àõavãthi.kàyadvàravãthi.

Tato paraü nirujjhati. Tattha javanàvasàne bhavaïgapàto’ va hoti. Tato paraü bhavaïgapàto’ va hoti. Yàva javanuppàdà’ pi appahontàtãtakamàpàtham àgataü àlambanaü parittaü nàma. tathà sotadvàràdãsu c’ àti sabbathà’ pi pa¤cadvàre tadàlambana233 . Tattha bhavaïgacalanam’ eva hoti. Ettàvatà cuddasacittuppàdà dve bhavaïgacalanàni pubbevàtãtakamekacittakkhaõanti katvà sattarasa cittakkhaõàni paripårenti. Tato paraü bhavaïgapàto. Yàva tadàlambun’ uppàdà pana appahontàtãtakam àpàtham àgataü àlambanaü mahantaü nàma. Natthi vãthicittuppàdo.ånatiüsakàmàvacarajavanesu yaü ki¤ci laddhapaccayaü yebhuyyena sattakkhattuü javati. Javanànubandhàni ca dve tadàrammaõapàkàni yathàrahaü pavattanti. Yàva votthapanuppàdà ca pana appahontàtãtakam àpàtham àgataü nirodhàsannamàlambanaü atiparittaü nàma. Natthi tadàlambanuppàdo. Tattha javanam pi anuppajjitvà dvattikkhattuü votthapanam’ eva pavattati. âlambanam’ etaü atimahantaü nàma gocaraü. Icc’ evaü cakkhudvàre.

etc. roots. in due order. In the present one the author deals with thought-processes as they arise through the mind and the other five senses. Having thus completed the noble compendium of consciousness and its concomitants (with respect to feelings etc. _______ Notes:— 1. In the preceding chapter states of consciousness and mental concomitants were treated according to feelings.). Analysis of Thought-Processes _______ Five Sense-Door Thought-Process _______ Introductory § 1. in accordance with the different kinds of 234 . _______ Ayam’ ettha pa¤cadvàre vãthicittappavattinayo. the compendium of (thought) processes both at rebirth and in lifetime.javana-votthapanamoghavàra-saïkhàrànaü catunnaü vàrànaü yathàkkamaü àrammaõabhåtà visayappavatti catudhà veditabbà. I shall briefly describe. § 4. according to the planes and individuals. Vãthicittàni satt’ eva cittuppàdà catuddasa Catupa¤¤àsa vitthàrà pa¤cadvàre yathàrahaü. and as they are determined by what (consciousness) that precedes and by what that follows (1).

ettakàni cittàni). The Pàli phrase pubbàparaniyàmitaü needs an explanation. ii. Pavatti refers to all thought-processes that occur during the course of one’s lifetime. and so many cittas follow this citta (idaü ettakehi paraü.”(p. in birth and life. and vi. In the compendium of thought-processes six kinds of six classes each should be understood—namely. imassa anantaraü. six doors. The commentary explains it thus—this citta arises after so many cittas. These first three classes have already been discussed in the previous chapter. the ‘before’. sixfold consciousness. the ‘after’. 235 . Distinguishing both person and life-plane. Thought-Processes § 2. six processes (2). iii. 124). i. I will go on To speak concisely. By order due.individuals and planes of existence. v. 93. Pañisandhi here refers to the initial thought-process that occurs at the moment of conception in a new birth. sixfold presentation of objects (3).93 iv. They are repeated here merely to complete the six groups. The translation of these two verses appears in the Compendium of Philosophy as follows:— “This further summary of geneses Of thought now having made. six objects. six bases. summing up again Processes of the mind.

doors. 4. The process connected with the tongue-door. and 6. 94. 5. 3. 5. body-consciousness. (ii) Kamma sign. 2. 4. are as described before. The sixfold types of consciousness are eye-consciousness. 3. The process connected with the body-consciousness. (i) Kamma. nose-consciousness. The process connected with the body-door. The process connected with the eye-consciousness. The process connected with the nose-door. ear-consciousness. tongue-consciousness. bhavaïga and cuti. The bases. 2. Namely. The thought procedure connected with the doors should thus be co-ordinated. The process connected with the ear-door. therein. and objects. and (iii) Destiny sign. According to the doors the thought-processes are:— 1. The process connected with the eye-door. Or. Pañisandhi. The process connected with the tongue-consciousness. The process connected with the ear-consciousness. 2. and mind-consciousness.The presentation of objects to the process-freed consciousness 94 is threefold—namely. according to consciousness the thought-processes are: 1. 6. The process connected with the mind-consciousness. and The process connected with the mind-door. The process connected with the nose-consciousness. 236 .

How is the intensity of objects determined? The three instants such as genesis. 237 . Subsequently the five-door apprehending consciousness (iv) arises and ceases apprehending that very visible object. iii) arresting the bhavaïga stream. b.§ 3. Thereafter the following thought-moments arise and cease in order— (v) eye-consciousness seeing that very form. (ii) ‘great’. At the mind-door (v) ‘clear’ and (vi) ‘obscure’. static (or development). (vi) recipient consciousness receiving it. (vii) investigating consciousness investigating it. Then the bhavaïgaconsciousness vibrates for one moment and perishes. The sixfold presentation of objects (4) should be understood as follows:— a. The five sense-objects enter the avenue of five sensedoors at the static stage when one or several thoughtmoments have passed. and dissolution constitute one thought-moment. (iii) ‘slight’. (ii. The duration of material things consists of seventeen such thought-moments. Hence the thought-process (4) runs as follows:— Suppose a visible object which has passed one instant (i) enters the avenue of eye. At the five sense-doors— (i) ‘very great’. (iv) ‘very slight’.

’ 95 That object which enters the avenue of sense. thus causally conditioned. having passed a few moments and is not able to survive till the arising of determining consciousness. 264.’ 95. two retentive resultants (xvi. Then any one of the 29 kinds of Sense-sphere javanas. Then the object ceases. In that case even the javanas do not arise. but only the determining consciousness lasts for two or three moments and then there is subsidence into bhavaïga. and one thought-moment that passed at the inception. That object which enters the avenue of sense. is termed ‘very slight. having passed (a few moments) and is not able to survive till the arising of the retentive thought-moments. fourteen ‘thought-arisings’ (cittuppàda) two vibrations of bhavaïga. That object which is about to cease and which enters the avenue of sense. is termed ‘great’. Finally comes the subsidence into the bhavaïga. 238 . Such an object is termed ‘very great.(viii) determining consciousness determining it. 263. is termed ‘slight’. Thus far seventeen thought-moments are complete namely. xvii) arise accordingly. Following the javanas. having passed (a few moments) and is not able to survive even till the arising of the javanas. runs mostly for seven moments (ix–xv). See pp.

As in the eye-door so is in the ear-door etc. and 4. 6. 4. the futile course. in the four ways. In all the five doors. àvajjana. sampañicchana. Vãthã is derived from vi + This term means a way or street. the fourfold presentation of objects should be understood. 2.In that case there is merely a vibration of the bhavaïga. 2. 2. is due order. 3. Notes:— i. 5. (7 moments) and 7. 1. These become 14 when the 7 javana moments and 2 tadàlambanas are reckoned separately. pa¤ca vi¤¤àõa. There are seven modes 96 and fourteen different types of consciousness in the thought-process. the course (ending with) retention. but no genesis of a thought-process. 239 . tadàlambana. but here it is used in the sense of process (paramparà). In detail there are accordingly 54 97 in the five doors. the course (ending with) javana. §. 96. Santãraõa. Visayappavatti— The commentarial explanation is — ‘the presentation of Namely. to go. the course (ending with) determining. votthapana. Herein this is the method of thought-process in the five sense-doors. Javana. √ 3. 3. and a thought-moment is never called a citta-vãthi. 97. A thought-process consists of several thought-moments. Those comprise all the classes of Sense-sphere consciousness which arise through the five sense-doors. 4. known as— 1.

Thought-processes According to Abhidhamma ordinarily there is no moment when we do not experience a particular kind of consciousness. ñhiti (static or development). The time-limit of such a consciousness is termed one thought-moment. hanging on to some object—whether physical or mental. and death 98 correspond to these three states. (visayànaü dvàresu. 240 . visayesu ca cittànaü pavatti. 4. Immediately after the cessation stage of a thoughtmoment there results the genesis stage of the subsequent thought-moment. Thus each unit of consciousness perishes conditioning another. transmitting at the same time all its potentialities to its successor. There is. decay.objects at the doors’. Books state that within the brief duration of a flash of lightning. They are uppàda (arising or genesis). or ‘the genesis of consciousness on the presentation of such objects’.) The author evidently prefers the first explanation. and bhaïga (cessation or dissolution). The interval between birth and death is regarded as decay. Each thought-moment consists of three minor instants (khaõas). Vishnu (Preserver) and Siva (Destroyer). These three stages correspond to the Hindu view of Brahma (Creator). a 98. The rapidity of the succession of such thought-moments is hardly conceivable by the ken of human knowledge. Birth. or in the twinkling of an eye billions of thought-moments may arise and perish. therefore.

Then the corresponding thought-process runs uninterruptedly for 16 thought-moments. As a rule for a complete perception of a physical object through one of the sense-doors precisely 17 thought-moments must pass. completing only 7 thought-moments. This is known as atãta-bhavaïga. The object thus presented is regarded as ‘very great’. The first moment is regarded as the genesis (uppàda). a thought-process occurs. consisting of a series of separate thought-moments leading one to the other in a particular. the last as dissolution (bhaïga). thus completing only 14 moments. After the expiration of that time-limit. This order is known as the citta-niyàma (psychic order). and the interval 15 moments as decay or development (ñhiti or jarà). When a material object is presented to the mind through one of the five sense-doors.continuous flow of consciousness like a stream without any interruption. uniform order. Sometimes the thought-process ceases at the moment of determining (votthapana) without giving rise to the javanas. one fundamental unit of matter perishes giving birth to another unit. If the thought-process ceases at the expiration of javanas without giving rise to two retentive moments (tadàlambana). Then 241 . then the object is called ‘great’. As such the time duration of matter is fixed at 17 thought-moments. As a rule when an object enters the consciousness through any of the doors one moment of the lifecontinuum elapses.

_______ Manodvàre Vãthi-Cittappavattinayo _______ § 5. tato paraü bhavaïgacalana-manodvàràvajjanajavanàvasàne tadàrammaõapàkàni pavattanti. then the object is regarded as ‘clear’. while the stars are regarded as minor objects. the object is termed ‘obscure. According to Abhidhamma it is not correct to say that the stars are perceived by the sub-consciousness and the moon by the consciousness. for instance. At times when an object enters the consciousness there is merely a vibration of the life-continuum. he gets a faint glimpse of the surrounding stars as well. a person looks at the radiant moon on a cloudless night. When a so-called ‘very great’ or ‘great’ object.’ When. He focuses his attention on the moon. Then the object is termed ‘very slight’. but he cannot avoid the sight of stars around. is subsequently conceived by the mind-door. When a thought-process. arising through the minddoor. Manodvàre pana yadi vibhåtamàlambanaü àpàtham’ àgacchati. Tato parari 242 . perceived through the five sense-doors. or when a thought process arising through the mind-door extends up to the retentive stage. Both moon and stars are perceived by the mind at different moments. ceases at the javana stage.the object is termed ‘slight’. The moon is regarded as a great object.

mind-door apprehending consciousness. _______ 99. retentive resultants take place at the end of the bhavaïga vibrations. 243 . 2 and Pa¤cadvaràvàjjana 1) = 41. Natthi tadàlambanuppàdo’ti. In the case of an ‘obscure object’ there is subsidence into bhavaïga at the end of the javanas without giving rise to the retentive resultants. _______ Mind-door Thought-Process _______ § 5. When the 7 javanas and 2 tadàlambanas are reckoned separately they total 10 distinctive thoughtmoments. Avibhåta panàlambane javanàvasàne bhavaïgapàto’ va hoti. Herein this is the section of the minor javana-procedure. § 6 Vãthicittàni tãn’ eva cittuppàdà daserità Vitthàrena pan’ etthekacattàëãsa vibhàvaye. Namely. Ayam’ ettha Paritta javanavàro. javana. and javanas. It will be explained that. and tadàlambana. In the mind-door when a ‘clear object’ enters that avenue. Three modes and ten 99 different types (of consciousness) in the thought-process are told. there are 41 100 kinds here. (1) manodvàràvajjana. After that there is subsidence into the bhavaïga. § 6.bhavaïgapàto. Aforesaid 54–13 (divipa¤cavi¤¤ana 10 + sampaticchansa. 100. in detail.

Kriyàjavanànantaraü kriyà javanaü arahattaphala¤ ca appeti. § 8. Ayam’ ettha manodvàre vãthi-cittappavatti nayo. Tathà tadàlambanuppàdo ca.Appanà—vithicittappavattinayo _______ § 7. Tattha somanassasahagatajavanàn’antaraü appanà’ pi somanassasahagatà’ va pàñikaõkhitabbà. Dvattiüsa sukhapu¤¤amhà dvàdasopekkhakà paraü Sukhitakriyato aññha cha sambhontiupekkhakà. Puthujjanànasekkhànaü kàmapu¤¤àtihetato Tihetukàmakriyato vãtaràgànamappanà. Tato paraü appanàvasàne bhavaïgapàto va hoti. 244 . Appanàjavanavàre pana vibåtàvibhåtabhedo natthi. Upekkhàsahagatajavanànantaraü upekkhàsahagatà’ va. Tattha hi ¤àõasampayuttakàmàvacarajavanamaññhannaü a¤¤atarasmiü parikammupacàrà¤ulomagotrabhå nàmena catukkhattuü tikkhattum’ eva và yathàkkamaü uppajjitvà niruddhe tadanantaram’ eva yathàrahaü catutthaü pa¤camaü và chabbãsati mahaggatalokuttarajavanesu yathàbhinãhàravasena yaü ki¤ci javanaü appanàvãthimotarati. Tatthà’ pi kusalajavanànantaraü kusalajavana¤ c’ eva heññhima¤ca phalattayamappeti.

A functional javana is followed by a functional javana and the Fruit of Arahantship. as ‘preparation’ (parikamma). a pleasurable ecstatic javana should be expected. In the ecstatic (5) javana-procedure there is no distinction between ‘clear’ and ‘obscure’. 12 classes 245 . in due order. in the fourth or fifth instant. §. Immediately after they cease. ‘approximation’ (upacàra). an ecstatic javana. is to be expected. After (tihetuka) (6) pleasurable meritorious thoughts (7) arise 32 (classes of consciousness) (8). descends into ecstatic process. as the case may be. ‘adaptation’ (anuloma)._______ Appanà Thought-Process _______ § 7. After a javana. after (tihetuka) meritorious thoughts. four times or thrice. arise. accompanied by knowledge. Here. is followed by a moral javana and (in the case of attainment—samàpatti) it gives rise to three lower Fruits. accompanied by equanimity. too. In this case any one of the eight Sense-sphere javanas. and ‘sublimation’ (gotrabhå). any one of the javanas. amongst the 26 Sublime and Supramundane classes. a moral javana. in accordance with the appropriate effort. accompanied by equanimity. accompanied by equanimity. 8. immediately after a pleasurable javana. Likewise there is no arising of retentive resultants. Here.

but to the Lustless 101 after tihetuka Sense-sphere functional thoughts. i. 6 classes of consciousness (11). after (tihetuka) pleasurable functional thoughts. _______ Notes:— √ √ 5. Arahants. Herein this is the method of thought-processes with respect to mind-door. Appanà is a highly developed form of vitakka—initial application of the mind. 246 . accompanied by equanimity. It is derived from the root √ ‘ I’ + the causal suffix ‘àpe’ + ana. In the course of his meditations. 8 classes of consciousness (10). The aspirant who wishes to develop jhànas takes for his object a suitable subject. and after (tihetuka) functional thoughts.of consciousness (9). and ‘p’ is duplicated: ‘â’ + ppe + ana = appanà. Appanà—(Saüskrt—appaõà. as mentioned in the 101. according to his temperament. to go). This is a rare Pàli term found in Abhidhamma. derived from ri. ‘A’ is substituted for ‘i’. to go. one of the jhàna factors. The initial ‘à’ is shortened before double ‘p’. Venerable Buddhaghosa defines ‘appanà’ as the directing or fixing of the one-pointed consciousness on an object (ekaggaü cittaü àrammaõe appenti). To the worldlings and Sekhas ecstasy results after tihetuka Sense-sphere meritorious thoughts.

literally. conditioned by objects that enter the avenue of consciousness. which precedes the javana stage.first chapter. Absolute 247 . The third thought-moment is known as anuloma because it arises in harmony with the preceding thoughtmoments and the following gotrabhå thought-moment. Immediately after this gotrabhå thoughtmoment arises the appanà jhàna thought-moment. but if the person is morally advanced only upacàra moment arises without the initial parikamma moment. Ordinarily these two thought-moments arise at the beginning of the appanà javana-process. Gotrabhå. Then a thought-process runs as follows— Manodvàràvajjana Parikamma Upacàra *** *** *** Anuloma Gotrabhå Appanà *** *** *** The first is the mind-door consciousness. means that which overcomes the Sense-sphere lineage or that which develops the sublime or exalted lineage. This is followed by another thought-moment known as upacàra because it arises in proximity to the higher consciousness. The initial thought-moment of the appanà javanaprocess is termed parikamma because it is a preparation for the desired higher consciousness whether Sublime (Mahaggata) or Supramundane (Lokuttara). he arrives at a stage when be would be able to experience the first jhànic ecstasy.

The fully undeveloped jhàna. As stated above it depends on the moral advancement of the person. One of the four Kàmàvacara moral javanas. In the case of an Asekha it is one of the four Kàmàvacara functional javanas. The Supramundane appanà javana-process occurs as follows— 1 2 3 Parikamma Upacàra Anuloma *** *** *** 4 5 6 7 Gotrabhå Magga Phala Phala *** *** *** *** In this thought-process parikamma may or may not precede. accompanied by knowledge. is known as upacàra samàdhi— access ecstasy. accompanied by knowledge. but the object of the gotrabhå is supramundane Nibbàna. The object of the first three thought-moments is mundane.one-pointedness of the mind is gained at this advanced stage of mental development. present in the preliminary thought-moments. arises as these preliminary appanà thought-moments. Never248 . Here gotrabhå means that which overcomes the lineage of the worldling or that which develops the supramundane lineage. To a worldling and a Sekha one of the four kàmàvacara moral javanas. arises in these preliminary stages. accompanied by knowledge.

7. The three lower fruits. two types of Kàmàvacara consciousness.theless. does not experience moral javanas. Each of the four Supramundane Paths arises only once in the course of one’s life. In the case of the second. 249 . performs the double function of intuiting Nibbàna and of eradicating the defilements. The Arahant Fruit and functionals are excluded. instead of gotrabhå. Otherwise there will be three Phala thought-moments. fourth. If the parikamma thought-moment precedes.. this developed thought-moment is incapable of eradicating the innate defilements. 8. Sotàpatti. Tihetuka—conditioned by three hetus—alobha (generosity). It is the Magga (Path) consciousness that immediately follows. adosa (goodwill) and amoha (wisdom). 6. This is immediately followed by two moments of Phala (Fruit) Consciousness if parikamma is present. Namely. But one may experience the Fruit consciousness even for a whole day continuously. the first 4 råpa jhànas and 28 (7 x 4) lokuttara jhànas. When one enjoys the Fruit of Arahantship the javanas that immediately precede must be functionals because an Arahant. otherwise as the third. which means purification. accompanied by pleasure and knowledge. being an Asekha. It should be noted that the Path consciousness occurs only once. stages of Sainthood—the fourth thought-moment is named vedana. vodàna thought-moment arises as the fourth. third. and Anàgàmi are preceded by a moral javana. Viz. Sakadàgàmi.

Tasmà yadi somanassa-pañisandhikassa domanassasahagatajavanàvasàne tadàrammaõasambhavo natthi. 11. _______ Tadàrammana Niyamo _______ § 9. 5th råpa jhàna + 4 aråpa jhànas + l. 1. 1. Upekkhàsahagatakriyà javanàvasàne ca upekkhàsahagatàn’ eva honti. Namely. Sabbattha’ pi pan’ ettha aniññhe àrammaõe akusalavipàkàn’ eva pa¤cavi¤¤àõasampaticchanasantãraõatadàrammaõàni. Domanassasahagatajavanàvasàne ca pana tadàrammaõàni c’ eva bhavaïgàni ca upekkhà sahagatàn’ eva bhavanti. Tamanantaritvà bhavaïgapàto. Namely. Tadà yaü ki¤ci paricitapubbaü parittàrammaõamàrabbha upekkhàsahagatasantãraõaü uppajjati. lst 4 råpa jhànas + 1st 4 arahatta phala jhànas. Atiññhe pana somanassasahagatàn’ eva santãraõatadàrammaõàni. Tattha’ pi somanassasahagatakriyàjavanàvasàne somanassasahagatàn’ eva tadàrammanàni bhavanti. 5th Arahattaphalajhàna. 5th råpa jhàna + 4 aråpa jhànas + 7 lokuttara pa¤camajjhàna. 10.9. va hoti’ 250 . Namely. ittthe kusalavipàkàni.

investigation. _______ The Procedure of Retention _______ § 9. they are moral resultants. But at the end of javanas.ti’ pi vadanti àcariyà. Hence to one whose rebirth-consciousness is accompanied by pleasure. investigation and retention are accompanied by pleasure. Tathà kàmàvacarajavanàvasàne kàmàvacarasattànaü kàmàvacaradhammesv’ eva àrammaõabhåtesu tadàrammaõaü icchantã’ ti. the retentive thought-moments are also accompanied by equanimity. Kàme javanasattàrammaõànaü niyame sati Vibhåtetimahante ca tadàrammaõamãritaü. If desirable. the five sense-impressions. at the end of functional javanas accompanied by pleasure. Ayam’ ettha Tadàrammaõa Niyamo. accompanied by equanimity. under all circumstances (i. at the end of javanas. accompanied by displeasure. the retentive thought-moments and the bhavaïgas are also accompanied by indifference. retentive thought-moments do not arise. accompanied by displeasure. In this connection.e. reception. retention (that arise) are immoral resultants. there arise retentive thoughtmoments also accompanied by pleasure. Here.. If the object is extremely desirable. § 10. At the end of functional javanas. Then. in both sensedoor and mind-door) when an object (12) is undesirable. there arises an inves251 .

His javana thoughts will naturally be unwholesome. but according to its intrinsic nature. 252 . hanging on to some sense-object with which one is familiar before. but is an inevitable consequence. is conditioned by his own will. is a kusala vipàka. The sight of the Buddha will perhaps be repulsive to a staunch heretic.tigating consciousness. beings. Immediately after. _______ Notes: 12. This vipàka is not conditioned by his will. Herein this is the procedure of retention. Objects—Arammana The desirability or undesirability of an object is determined not according to individual temperament. the teachers say. on the contrary. But the passive wholesome resultant eyeconsciousness. they say. caused by a past good kamma. The javana process. accompanied by indifference. in connection with ‘clear’ and ‘very great’ objects when there is certainty as regards the Sense-sphere javanas. there is subsidence into the life-continuum. The resultant consciousness conditioned thereby is regarded as the effect of one’s good or bad action. Likewise they expect retention at the end of Sensesphere javanas to the Sense-sphere beings only when Sense-sphere phenomena become objects. and objects. § 10. Retention occurs.

The object is generally undesirable and is a bad effect (akusala vipàka). the senseimpressions. All these thought-moments are the results of past good actions. except in the case of body-impression which is sukha. Now. investigation. but the javana process caused thereby will be wholesome to the dog. the mere sight of excreta will be a source of delight to an ordinary dog. when an undesirable object is presented either through the mind-door or five sense-doors. The accompanying feeling will also be pleasurable. reception. for instance. are also associated with a similar feeling. The accompanying feeling is invariably upekkhà. Here too the accompanying feeling is upekkhà. Although even an Arahant experiences an akusala vipàka at the sight of an undesirable object. his javana process will neither be wholesome nor unwholesome. accompanied by pleasure. The accompanying feeling will be one of equanimity. Likewise the upekkhà javanas 253 . The tadàrammaõas followed by Sense-sphere functional javanas. are all bad effects (akusala vipàkas). Instead of upekkhà it is somanassa. except in the case of body-impression which is dukkha. These thought-moments are the inevitable results of past bad actions. If the presented object is desirable. the feeling of the santãraõa moment differs.Again. retention that occur in the respective thought-processes. When the object is extremely desirable. then the aforesaid thought-moments are all good effects (kusala vipàkas).

If. _______ 254 . But in this particular case the objects differ. the rebirth-consciousness is not associated with somanassa. only to kàmàvacara beings. which are either ‘very intense’ or ‘clear’. As a rule the preceding javanas and the subsequent tadàrammaõas possess a similar feeling. This object is termed paritta (smaller or lesser) in comparison with the higher råpa. What happens when the javanas are accompanied by domanassa as there are no domanassa tadàrammaõas? If the rebirth-consciousness (pañisandhi-citta) of the person is accompanied by somanassa. then the tadàrammaõas become upekkhà as are the bhavaïgas that follow. It should be noted that tadàrammanas occur only. and upekkhà by upekkhà. without any special function.are followed by upekkhà tadàrammaõas. This adventitious thought-moment is technically termed àgaïtukabhavaïga. In that case an adventitious upekkhà santãraõa. as the bhavaïga that immediately follows is also accompanied by somanassa. and only in connection with kàmàvacara objects. Somanassa is followed by somanassa. Usually the object of the javanas and that of the tadàrammanas are identical. at the end of kàmàvacara javanas. merely intervenes for one moment. aråpa and lokuttara objects. then there will be no tadàrammaõas. on the other hand. The object of this santãraõa is another kàmàvacara object with which one is familiar in the course of one’s life.

Mandappavattiyaü pana maraõakàlàdisu pa¤cavàram’eva Bhagavato pana yamakapàñihàriyakàlàdãsu lahukappavattiyaü cattàri pa¤ca và paccavekkhanacittàni bhavantã’ ti pi vadanti. Vuññhànakàle ca anàgàmi phalaü va arahattaphalaü và yathàraham’ ekavàraü uppajjitvà niruddhe bhavaïgapàto’ va hoti. Tato paraü bhavaïgapàto. Cattàro pana magguppàdà ekacittakkhaõikà. 255 . (veditabbaü). Tato paraü bhavaïgapàto.Javana—Niyamo _______ § 11. Tato paraü dve tãõi phalacittàni yathàrahaü uppajjanti. Javanesu ca parittajavanavãthiyaü kàmàvacarajavanàni sattakkhattuü chakkhattum’ eva và javanti. Nirodhasamàpattikàle dvikkhattuü catutthàruppajavanaü javati. Tato paraü nirodhaü phusati. abhi¤¤àjavanàni ca sabbadà pi ekavàram’ eva javanti. âdikammikassa pana pañhamakappanàyaü mahaggatajavanàni. Sabbatthà’ pi samàpattivãthiyaü pana bhavaïgasote viya vãthiniyamo natthã’ ti katvà bahåni pi labbhantã ti.

Subsequently there is subsidence into the life-continuum. they say. Ayam’ ettha Javana-Niyamo. only five times.§ 12. the sense-sphere javanas run only for seven or six times. _______ _______ Procedure of Javana (13) § 11. To the beginner. At the time of Supreme Cessation (14) the fourth aråpa javana runs twice and then contacts Cessation. When it ceases there is subsidence into the continuum. In the process of Attainments there is no regularity of thought-processes. To the Exalted One. Thereafter two or three Fruit thoughtmoments arise accordingly. when the procedure is alert. But in the case of a feeble process and at the time of dying etc. 256 . as in the stream of life-continuum. at the time of the ‘Twin Psychic Phenomenon’ and the like. When emerging (from this ecstasy) either Anàgami Fruitconsciousness or Arahatta Fruit-consciousness arises accordingly. the Sublime javanas and super-intellect javanas. run only once at all times. Then comes subsidence into life-continuum. only four or five reflective thought-moments arise. during the first ecstasy. The arising of the four Paths endures only for one thought-moment. in a minor javana process. Sattakkhattuü parittàni maggàbhi¤¤à sakiü matà Avasesàni labbhanti javanàni bahåni’ pi. Amongst the javanas.

almost simultaneously. last only for six or seven moments. as a rule. At times they may continue for seven moments the most. When the Buddha. the Paths and Super-intellect only once. javanas are confined to five moments. the rest (Sublime and Supramundane) several times. So is it with 257 . _______ Notes:— 13. by His psychic powers. Herein this is the procedure of javanas. Javana— As it is difficult to give an adequate English rendering for javana the Pàli term has been retained here. only four or five javana thought-moments arise so as to reflect on the jhàna factors which is a pre-requisite for the performance of this ‘Twin Psychic Phenomenon’. it should be understood that many (Sublime and Supramundane) javanas take place. emits fire and water. In the case of a Yogi who develops the first jhàna for the first time javana lasts only for one moment. Sometimes the javanas last only for one moment. Both psychologically and ethically javana thoughtmoments are the most important as both good and evil are determined at this stage. from His body. Kàmàvacara javanas. It should be known that minor javanas arise seven times. When one is in a senseless state or is about to die.Nevertheless. § 12.

and Samàpatti is attainment. Nirodha means cessation. and Reminiscence of Previous Births (Pubbe-nivàsànussati ¥àõa). It is at this great moment that Nibbàna is intuited. i:) Psychic Powers (Iddhividha). As a rule he remains in this state for about a week. Books relate an incident of a Pacceka Buddha whose body was set fire to while in this state. by will power. temporarily arrest the ordinary flow of consciousness even for seven days continuously. Reading of Others’ Thoughts (Paracittavijànana). devoid of any breathing. But he was not affected thereby. Nirodha Samàpatti— An Anàgàmi or an Arahant who has developed the råpa and aråpa jhànas could. Immediately prior to the attainment of this state he experiences for two moments the fourth aråpa jhàna (state of neither perception nor non-perception). ii. Now when he emerges from this state the first thought258 . The attainment to such an ecstatic state is known as Nirodha-Samàpatti.) Celestial Ear (Dibba Sota). 14. Books state that his body cannot be harmed too. The difference between a corpse and one in this state is that the latter possesses life. The flow of consciousness then ceases until he emerges therefrom as determined by him.those who develop the five Abhi¤¤às—namely. Celestial Eye (Dibba Cakkhu). The four classes of supramundane javana Path-consciousness also last for one moment only. When one attains to this state all mental activities cease although there exist heat and life. Motionless he abides in this ecstasy.

§ 14. Asekkhànaü catucattàëãsasekkhànam’ uddise Chapa¤¤àsàvasesànaü catupa¤¤àsa sambhavà. or an Arahant Fruit-consciousness in the case of an Arahant. Diññhigatasampayuttavicikicchàjavanàni ca sekkhànaü. Tathà sekkhaputhujjanànaü kriyàjavanàni. Herein. func259 . Ayam’ ettha puggalabhedo. _______ Classification of Individuals _______ § 13. Lokuttarajavanàni ca yathàsakamari yànam’ eva samuppajjantã’ ti. Anàgàmipuggalànaü pana pañighajavanàni ca na labbhanti.moment to arise is an Anàgàmi Fruit-consciousness in the case of an Anàgami. duggatiyam pana ¤àõavippayuttàni ca mahàvipàkàni na labbhanti. Duhetukànam’ahetukàna¤ca pan’ettha kriyàjavanàni c’eva appanàjavanàni ca na labbhanti Tathà ¤àõasampayuttavipàkàni ca sugatiyaü. to those whose rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by two roots 102 and conditioned by none. _______ Puggala—Bhedo _______ § 13. Tihetukesu ca khãõàsavànaü kusalàkusalajavanàni ca na labbhatã’ti. Thereafter the stream of consciousness subsides into bhavaïga.

Because they are eradicated on attaining Sotàpatti. also do not arise.108 Sekhas 56. 102. 104. Like wise.tional javanas and ecstatic javanas 103 do not arise. To worldlings 54—namely. + 9 råpa and aråpa kriyà + 1 Arahatta Phala.109 and the rest 54 110 classes of consciousness. Nor do the javanas connected with misbelief and doubts arise to the Sekhas. 12 akusalas + 17ahetukas + 16 sobhana kusala and vipàkas + 9 råpa and aråpa kusalas. Namely. 106. 105. Alobha and Adosa. 103. no moral and immoral javanas arise. accompanied by knowledge. Namely. it is stated that Asekhas experience 44. Owing to the inferiority of the rebirth-consciousness. Namely. Similarly to the Sekhas and worldlings functional javanas do not arise. 18 ahetukas + 16 sobhana kriyà and vipàka. tihetuka tadàlambanas do not arise. 7 akusalas + 21 (8 + 5 + 4 + 4) kusalas + 23 Kàmà vacara vipàkas + 2 àvajjanas + 3 Phalas.105 To the Anàgàmi individuals there are no javanas connected with aversion. _______ § 14. All the four classes of Saints are called Ariyas because they far removed from passions. resultants. As they arise. 260 . in a happy plane. amongst those whose rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by three roots. 107. 108. It is only a tihetuka individual that could develop Jhànas or attain Sainthood. 109.104 But in a woeful state they do not also get great resultants dissociated with knowledge. To the ‘Corruption-freed’ (Arahants). 110.106 But the supramundane javanas are experienced only by Ariyas 107 according to their respective capacities. Because an Anàgàmi eradicates sense-desires and aversion.

Assa¤¤asattànaü pana sabbathà’pi cittappavatti natth’evà’ti._______ Herein this is the classific action of individuals. 261 . Ayam’ettha Bhåmivibhàgo. Råpàvacarabhåmiyaü pañighajavanatadàlambanavajjitàni. Aråpàvacarabhåmiyaü pañhamamaggaråpàvacarahasanaheññhimàruppavajjitàni ca labbhanti. Asãtivãthicittàni kàme råpe yathàrahaü Catusaññhi tathàruppe dvecattàëãsa labbhare. Icc’evaü chadvàrikacittappavatti yathàsambhavaü bhavaïgantarità yàvatàyukamabbhocchãnnà pavattatã’ ti. § 17. _______ Bhåmi—Bhedo _______ § 15. Kàmàvacarabhåmiyaü pan’ etàni sabbàni ’pi vãthicittàni yathàraham’ upalabbhanti. Sabbatthà’pi ca taü pasàdarahitànaü taü taü dvàrikavãthicittàni na labbhant’ eva. § 16.

111. 113. on the Plane of Form 64.113 Herein this is the section on Planes. 262 . 112. thought-processes connected with corresponding doors do not arise. On the Sense-sphere all these foregoing thoughtprocesses occur according to circumstances. On the Plane of Form (all) with the exception of javanas connected with aversion and retentive moments. On the Sense-sphere.Iti Abhidhammattha-Saïgahe Vãthi-SaïgahaVibhàgo nàma Catuttho-Paricchedo. _______ Section on Planes _______ § 15. In all planes. 54 Kàmàvacaras + 18 råpa and aråpa kusalas and kriyàs + 8 lokuttaras = 80. To those individuals without consciousness there is absolutely no mental process whatsoever. 10 akusalas + 1 manodvàràvajjana 16 Kàmàvacara kusalas and kriyàs + 8 Aråpa kusalas and kriyàs + 7 lokuttaras (excluding Sotàpatti Magga) = 42. hàna and jivhà vi¤¤ànas) + 3 ahetuka kriyàs+ 16 Kàmàvacara kusalas and kriyàs + 10 råpa kusalas and kriyàs + 8 aråpa kusalas and kriyàs + 8 lokuttaras = 64. § 16. smiling consciousness. 10 akusalas (excluding 2 pañighas) + 9 ahetuka vipàkas (excluding kàyag. On the Formless Plane (all) with the exception of the First Path. Namely. and the lower aråpa classes of consciousness. 80 111 thought-processes are obtained. Namely. to those who are devoid of senseorgans. råpàvacara consciousness.112 on the Formless Plane 42. Namely. according to circumstances.

till life lasts. Thus ends the fourth chapter in the Compendium of Abhidhamma. entitled the Analysis of ThoughtProcesses.§ 17. a visible object enters the mind through the eye-door a thought-process runs as follows— Pa¤cadvàra citta vãthi—Ati Mahanta Diagram IX Atãta Bhavaïga *** 1 Bhavaïga Calana *** 2 Bhavaïgupaccheda *** 3 Pa¤cadvàràvajjana *** 4 Cakkhu Vi¤¤àõa *** 5 Sampañicchana *** 6 Santãraõa *** 7 263 Votthapana *** 8 . as they arise. _______ Thought-Processes _______ When. for instance. intercepted by bhavaïgas. Thus the thought-processes connected with six doors. continue without any break.

the stream of consciousness subsides into bhavaïga.*** 9 *** 10 *** 11 Javana *** 12 *** 13 *** 14 *** 15 Tadàrammaõa *** *** 16 17 Immediately after this five sense-door thought-process. 264 . Then there arises a mind-door thought-process perceiving the aforesaid visible object mentally as follows:— Manodvàrika Vãthi Manodvàràvajjana *** 1 Javana *** *** 2 3 *** 4 *** 5 *** 6 *** 7 *** 8 Tadàrammaõa *** *** 9 10 Again the stream of consciousness subsides into bhavaõga and two more similar thought-processes arise before the object is actually known.

§ 2. Vehapphalà. Parittàbhà. tiracchànayoni. Tàsu nirayo. Tàvatimsà. råpàvacarabhåmi. Appamàõasubhà. 265 . Catubbidhà pañisandhi. Tattha apàyabhåmi. Nimmàõarati. Càtummahàrajikà. Yàmà. Brahmapurohità. Catasso bhåmiyo. aråpàvacarabhåmi. kàmasugatibhåmi. Subhakiõõà. c’àti catasso bhåmiyo nàma. Cattàri kammàni. Asa¤¤asattà. c’àti tatiyajjhànabhåmi. Tusità. pettivisayo. âbhassarà. Catuddhà maraõuppatti c’àti vãthimuttasaïgahe cattàri catukkàni veditabbàni. Paranimmitavasavattã c’àti Kàmasugati bhåmi sattavidhà hoti. Sà pan’àyam ’ekàdasavidhà’ pi kàmàvacarabhåmicc’ eva saïkhaü gacchati. Mahàbrahmà c’àti pañhamajjhànabhåmi. Brahmapàrisajjà. c’ àti dutiyajjhànabhåmi.Chapter V Vãthimutta — Saïgaha — Vibhàgo _______ (Bhåmi—Catukka) _______ § 1. Suddhàvàsà c’àti catutthajjhànabhåmi’ ti Råpàvacarabhåmi soëasavidhà hoti. Appamàõàbhà. Manussà. asurakàyo c’àti apàyabhåmi catubbidhà hoti. Parittasubhà. Vãthicittavasen’ evaü pavattiyam udãrito Pavattisaïgaho nàma sandhiyaü’ dàni vuccati.

âkàsàna¤càyatanabhåmi.Avihà. Sudassã. Aki¤ca¤¤àyatanabhåmi. Suddassà. § 3. _______ Planes of Existence ________ § 2. _______ Chapter V Process-Freed Section _______ i. Now the summary of the procedure at rebirth will be told. Thus. the life’s course (extending from birth to decease) has been explained. Ariyà n’opalabbhanti asa¤¤àpàyabhåmisu Sesaññhànesu labbhanti Ariyà’ nariyà pi ca. Vi¤¤àõa¤càyatanabhåmi. _______ Idam’ ettha Bhåmi–Catukkaü. Akaõitthà c’ati Suddhàvàsabhåmi pa¤cavidhà hoti. Four Kinds of Planes _______ § l. N’evasa¤¤à Nàsa¤¤àyatanabhåmi càti Aråpabhåmi catubbidhà hoti. In the summary of process-freed consciousness four sets of four should be understood as follows:— 266 . according to thought-processes. Puthujjanà na labbhanti suddhàvàsesu sabbathà Sotàpannà ca sakadàgàmino c’àpi puggalà. Atappà.

These eleven kinds of spheres constitute the Kàmàvacara planer Råpàvacara plane is sixteenfold—namely.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) four planes of life (l). to wit. four kinds of actions. (iv) the realm of the Yàma gods (13). (vi) the realm of the gods who rejoice in (their own) creations (15). sensuous blissful plane (3). and (vii) the realm of the gods who lord over the creation of others (16). 2. pp. Of these. (iii) the realm of the Thirty-three gods (12). råpàvacara plane (4). (i) the first jhàna plane. and 3. (ii) animal kingdom (7). 3. (v) the Delightful realm (14). 114. (i) human realm (10). the realm of Brahma’s retinue. 4. 435–444. (ii) the realm of the Four Kings (11). Among these the unhappy plane is fourfold—namely. For details see The Buddha and His Teachings. aråpàvacara plane (5). 267 . 1. fourfold advent of death. (i) woeful state (6). four modes of rebirth. 2. the Mahà Brahma realm (17). The Sensuous blissful plane is sevenfold—namely. the four planes of life 114 are:— 1. unhappy plane (2). (iii) Peta sphere (8). the realm of Brahma’s Ministers. and (iv) the host of Asuras (9).

Those who have attained the four stages of Sainthood. the Clear-sighted realm. Stream-Winners 115 or Once-Returners 116 are born in any way. 116. the Highest realm. All worldlings are called Non-Ariyas. 10. and v. the realm of Minor Lustre. and 6. (i) the Realm of Infinite Space. (iv) the fourth jhàna plane. the Serene realm. to wit. 11. 88. iv. i. (iii) the third jhàna plane. 5. the realm of Minor Aura. ii. the realm of of Great Reward. 115. the realm of mindless beings (18). The Pure Abodes are fivefold—namely. (ii) the Realm of Infinite Consciousness. § 3. 117. See p. iii. and 9. the Pure Abodes (19).(ii) the second jhàna plane. 4. In the Pure Abodes no worldlings. the Beautiful realm. 8. See p. 268 . The Aråpa plane (20) is fourfold—namely. the realm of Radiant Lustre. to wit. The Ariyas 117 are not born in mindless realms and woeful states. the Durable realm. (iii) the Realm of Nothingness. and 12. In other planes are born both Ariyas and Non-Ariyas. the realm of Infinite Aura. 87. the realm of Steady Aura. to wit. the realm of Infinite Lustre. 7. (iv) the Realm of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception.

Upon the exhaustion of the evil Kamma there is a possibil118. 5. lit. 3. States where sense-pleasures abound. “By traversing one cannot reach the end of the world” says the Buddha. See p. It is viewed both as a mental state and as a place. pp.” See Fred Hoyle. According to Buddhism there are several woeful states where beings atone for their evil Kamma. Niraya = ni + aya. They are not eternal hells where beings are subject to endless suffering. Bhåmi. 25. is not the only habitable world 118 and humans are not the only living beings. Nor is “the impregnated ovum the only route to rebirth”. 26. According to Buddhism the earth. an almost insignificant speck in the universe. 4. 1. See p.Herein these are the fourfold planes. 26.. to be. derived from means a place where beings exist. _______ Notes:— bhå. Apàya = apa + aya. √ 6. That which is devoid of happiness is apàya. 269 . See p. Infinite are world systems and so are living beings. 87–89. devoid of happiness. “There are about 1. The Nature of the Universe.000 planetary systems in the Milky Way in which life exists.000. 2.

Strictly speaking.ity for beings born in such states to be reborn in good states as the result of their past good actions.. It is also due to their past good Kamma. departed beings. across. 7. Peta = pa + ita: lit. or (those) absolutely devoid of happiness. it should be said that an animal may manifest itself in the form of a human being. There are at times certain animals. acchàna. 8. And this again depends entirely on the evolution of one’s understanding of reality. etc. Although they possess material forms generally they are invisible to the physical eye. There is. Tiracchàna = tiro.. but live in forests. Animals are so called because as a rule quadrupeds walk horizontally. Buddhist belief is that beings are born as animals on account of evil Kamma. the possibility for animals to be born as human beings. going. dirty surroundings. heat. or vice versa just as an electric current can be manifested in the forms of light. They have no plane of their own. 9. They are not disembodied spirits or ghosts. It is one’s Kamma that determines the nature of one’s material form which varies according to the skill or unskilfulness of one’s actions. These Asuras should be distinguished 270 . particularly dogs and cats. An animal may be born in a blissful state as a result of the good Kamma accumulated in the past. however. who live a more comfortable life than even human beings. and motion successively—one not necessarily being evolved from the other. Asura—lit. those who do not sport or those who do not shine.

The human realm is a mixture of both pain and happiness. Tusita—lit. awaiting the right opportunity to be born as a human being and become a Buddha. Buddhas are always born as human beings. to destroy. Càtummahàràjika—This is the lowest of the heavenly realms where the four Guardian Deities reside with their followers. the king of the gods. The origin of the name is attributed to a story which states that thirty-three selfless volunteers led by Magha.from another class of Asuras who are opposed to Devas and who live in the Tàvatiüsa plane. Sakka.. those who have an uplifted or developed mind (mano ussannaü etesaü). Manussa—lit. were born in this heavenly realm. 14. having performed charitable deeds. Bodhisattas prefer the human realm as they get a better opportunity to serve the world and perfect the requisites for Buddhahood. They are so called because they became civilized after Manu the seer.. Its Saüskrt equivalent is Manushya which means the sons of Manu. Yàma—derived from That which destroys pain is yàma. 12. Traditional belief is that the future Bodhisatta dwells at present in this celestial plane.. Tàvatiüsa—lit. happy-dwellers. 10. √ yam. 271 . 11. thirty-three. 13. resides in this celestial plane.

The three divisions of the other jhànic planes should be similarly understood. It is so called because they exceed others in happiness.15. Paranimmitavasavatti—lit. Superior to these Sensuous planes are the Brahma realms where beings delight in jhànic bliss. These are the six Celestial planes — all temporary blissful abodes — where beings are supposed to live happily enjoying fleeting pleasures of sense. The second is Brahma Purohita which means Brahma’s Ministers. Asa¤¤asatta—This is supposed to be a plane where beings are born without a consciousness. achieved by renouncing sense-desires. The lowest of these three is Brahma Pàrisajja. those who bring under their sway things created by others.. 18. The highest of the first three is Mahà Brahma. literally. and those who have perfect control of the first jhàna are born amongst the Mahà Brahmas in the third plane. those who have developed to a medium degree are born in the second. which. and age-limit owing to the intrinsic merit of their mental development. means ‘Those who are born amongst the attendants of Mahà Brahmas’. Those who develop the first Jhàna to a normal extent are born in the first plane. These are the three Brahma realms where beings who have developed the first jhàna are born. Nimmàõarati—Those who delight in the created mansions. Here only 272 . 17. beauty. 16.

When an Arahant attains the Nirodha Samàpatti his consciousness ceases to exist temporarily. No one is bound to believe anything if it does not appeal to his reason. Pañisandhicatukkaü _______ § 4. Råpàvacarapañisandhi. 20. Kàmasugatipañisandhi. they attain Arahantship and live in those planes till their life-term is over. âruppapañisandhi c’àti-catubbidhà hoti pañisandhi nàma. All these four are immaterial planes. at times. _______ ii. Tattha akusalavipàkopekkhàsahagata-santãraõaü 273 . Later. Apàyapañisandhi. 19. Normally both mind and matter are inseparable. Nor is it right to reject anything just because it cannot be conceived by one’s limited knowledge. But there may be many inconceivable things which are actual facts. By the power of meditation it is possible. 26.a material flux exists. The essence of the Buddha’s teaching is not affected by the existence or non-existence of these planes. Such a state is almost inconceivable to us. to separate matter from mind as in this particular case. Those who attain Anàgàmi in other planes are born in these Pure Abodes. Suddhàvàsa—Only Anàgàmis and Arahants are found in these planes. See p. It should be remarked that the Buddha did not attempt to expound any cosmological theory.

Nava sata¤ c’ekavãsa vassànaü koñiyo tathà Vassasatasahassàni saññhi ca vasavattisu. Imà nava kàmasugatipañisandhiyo nàma. Tesu catunnaü apàyànaü manussànaü vinipàtikàsuràna¤ ca àyuppamàõagaõàya niyamo natthi. Mahàvipàkàni pan’aññha sabbatthà pi kàmasugatiyaü pañisandhibhavaïgacutivasena pavattanti. Pañhamajjhànavipàkaü pañhamajjhànabhåmiyaü pañisandhibhavaïgacutivasena pavattati. tato catuggunaü Tusitànaü. § 5. tato catugguõaü Nimmàõaratãnaü. Manussagaõanàya navutivassasatasahassappamàõaü hoti. Tathà dutiyajjhànavipàkaü tañiyajjhànavipàka¤ ca dutiyajjhànabhåmiyaü. Sà pan’àyaü dasavidhà’ pi kàmàvacarapañisandhicc’eva saïkhaü gacchati. Càtummahàràjikànaü pana devànaü dibbàni pa¤cavassasatàni àyuppamàõaü. tato catugguõaü Yàmànaü. Catutthaj274 . Ayam’ ekà’ v’ àpàyapañisandhi nàma.apàyabhåmiyaü okkantikkhaõe pañisandhi hutvà vocchijjati. Kusalavipàk’ opekkhàsahagatasantãraõaü pana kàmasugatiyaü manussànaü jaccandhàdi hãnasattànaü c’eva bhummanissitàna¤ ca vinipàtikàsuràna¤ ca pañisandhi bhavaïgacutivasena pavattati. Tato catugguõaü tàvatiüsànam. tato catugguõaü Paranimnutavasavattãnaü devànaü àyuppamàõaü.

Mahàbrahmànaü eko kappo. Tathà tato paraü pavattiyaü cavanakàle ca råpam’ eva pavattitvà nirujjhati. Brahmapurohitànaü upaóóhakappo. Parittàbhànaü dve kappàni. Sudassãnaü aññhakappasahassàni. Appamàõàbhànaü cattàri kappàni. âbhassaràõaü aññha kappàni. Asa¤¤asattànaü pana råpam’ eva pañisandhi hoti.jhànavipàkaü tatiyajjhànabhåmiyaü. Vehapphalànaü asa¤nasattàna¤ ca pa¤cakappasatàni. Parittasubhànaü soëasa kappàni. Avihànaü kappasahassàni. Imà cha råpàvacarapañisandhiyo nàma. Appamàõasubhànaü dvattiüsa kappàni. Pañham’ àruppàdi vipàkàni pañhamàruppàdi bhåmãsu yathàkkamaü pañisandhi bhavaïgacutivasena pavattanti Imà catasso àruppapatisandhiyo nàma. Akaõiññhànaü soëasa kappa sahassàni àyuppamàõaü. Pa¤camajjhànavipàka¤ ca catutthajjhànabhåmiyaü. Tesu pana àkàsana¤càyatanåpagànaü devànaü visati kappasahassàni àyuppamàõaü. Atappànaü dve kappasahassàni. Sudassànaü cattàri kappasahassàni. Tesu brahmapàrisajjànaü devànaü kappassa tatiyo bhàgo àyuppamàõaü. Subhakiõhànaü catusaññhi kappàni. Vi¤¤àõ275 .

Therein the immoral resultant investigating consciousness. Rebirth is fourfold — namely.a¤càyatanåpagànaü devànaü cattàëãsakappasahassàni. (21) becomes the relinking (consciousness) at the moment of descent into a woeful state. _______ ii. lifecontinuum and decease (consciousness) of degraded human beings of the blissful sense-sphere such as those born blind and so forth (22) and also of earth-bound fallen (23) asuras. and (iv) rebirth in an aråpàvacara plane. The moral resultant investigating consciousness. âki¤ca¤¤àyatanåpagànaü devànaü saññhikappasahassàni. N’eva sa¤¤à Nàsa¤¤àyatanåpagànaü devànaü caturàsãtikappasahassàni àyuppamàõaü. This is the one single woeful rebirth. accompanied by indifference. § 6. (ii) rebirth in a blissful sense-sphere. (i) rebirth in a woeful state. (iii) rebirth in a råpàvacara plane. Then it lapses into bhavaïga and finally it becomes the decease (consciousness) and is cut off. persists as the relinking. Fourfold Rebirth _______ § 4. accompanied by indifference. 276 . Idam’ ettha pañisandhi-catukkaü. Pañisandhi bhavaïga¤ ca tathà cavanamànasaü Ekam’ eva tathà v’eka visayaü c’ ekajàtiyaü.

life-continuum. and decease (consciousness) everywhere in the blissful sense-sphere.000. and decease (consciousness). the fourth jhàna resultant in the third jhàna plane. life-continuum. In the plane of those who lord over others’ creation the age-limit. is nine hundred and twenty million sixty thousand years. according to human reckoning 9. Four times that amount is the agelimit of the gods who delight in their creations. similarly the second jhàna resultant and the third jhàna resultant in the second jhàna plane. that is.The eight great resultants (24) act as the relinking.000. The (foregoing) ten modes are reckoned as rebirth in the Kàmàvacara plane. There is no definite limit to the duration of life of beings born in woeful states. The age-limit of Delightful gods is four times that of the Thirty-three. The age-limit of the Thirty-three gods is four times this amount. amongst humans and fallen Asuras (25). § 5. These nine comprise rebirth in the blissful sensesphere. The first jhàna resultant occurs in the first jhàna plane as relinking. according to human reckoning. the fifth jhàna 277 . Four times that amount is the age-limit of those who lord over the creation of others. The age-limit of gods of the realm of Four Kings is 500 celestial years (26).

only material form exists and perishes.000 aeons. of ‘The Highest gods’ 16.000 aeons. Among them the age-limit of gods who have attained to the “Realm of Infinity of Space” is 20. of ‘Infinite Lustre’ four aeons. ‘Beautiful gods’ 4. But for mindless beings material form itself occurs as rebirth.resultant in the fourth jhàna plane. of ‘Great Reward’ and ‘Mindless Beings’ 500 aeons. of ‘Infinite Aura’ 32 aeons. of ‘Minor Aura’ 16 aeons. of ‘Brahma’s Ministers’ is half an aeon. of ‘Radiant gods’ eight aeons.000 aeons. of ‘Clear-sighted gods’ 8. of those who 278 . Among these the age-limit of the gods of ‘Brahma’s Retinue’ is one-third of an aeon (27). of those who have attained to the “Realm of Infinity of Consciousness” is 40. of ‘Minor Lustre’ two aeons (28). These are the four modes of Rebirth on the aråpa plane. of ‘Serene gods’ 2. of ‘Mahà Brahama’ is one aeon.000 aeons. ♦ ♦ ♦ The first aråpa jhàna resultant and others occur respectively on the first and other aråpa planes as relinking.000 aeons. during lifetime and at the moment of decease. lifecontinuum and decease (consciousness).000 aeons. of ‘Durable gods’ 1. Similarly thereafter. These six are the modes of rebirth on the råpàvacara plane.000 aeons. of those who have attained to the “Realm of Nothingness” is 60. of ‘Steady Aura’ 64 aeons.000 aeons.

Devadatta.000 aeons. Some are short-lived. and twelve such months constitute one year.have attained to the “Realm of neither Perception nor nonPerception” is 84. The Relinking consciousness.. life-continuum consciousness.119 § 6. e. for instance. is destined to suffer for an aeon. 26.) 119. Their age-limit differs according to the gravity of the evil deed. fallen from happiness. 279 . Herein this is the Fourfold Rebirth. 25. 120. Thirty such days amount to one month. and the decease consciousness in one (particular) birth are similar 120 and have an identical object. Kappa—That which is thought of in accordance with the analogy of mustard seeds and the rock (-kappãyati sàsapapabbatopamàhi’ ti kappo. Beings suffer in woeful states in accordance with their Kamma. 56. See Chapter I. 24. Notes:— 23. had to suffer in a woeful state only for seven days. the Queen of King Kosala. Mallikà. p. These are the eight sobhana vipàka cittas. i. on the other hand. Books state that 50 human years equal one celestial day. 313. Here eka does not mean one. p. See diagram X. 27. and some are long-lived. earth-bound deities live only for seven days. At times.

Aråpàvacarakusalaü c’àti pàkaññhànavasena. By kappa here and in the following cases is meant a mahà kappa. asaïkheyya kappa. Garukam’ àsannam’ àcinõaü kañattàkamma¤c’ àti pàkadànapariyàyena. a yojana in length. Diññhadhammavedanãyaü upapajjavedanãyaü aparàpariyavedanãyaü ahosikamma¤c’ àti pàkakàlavasena ca cattàri kammàni nàma. 28. antara kappa. is known as an antara kappa. _______ iii. i. ii. Four asaïkheyya kappas equal one mahà kappa. literally — an incalculable cycle. Janakàm’ upatthambakam’ upapãlakam’ upaghàtaka¤c’àti kiccavasena. and height. Twenty such antara kappas equal one asaïkheyya kappa. Kàmàvacarakusalaü. by throwing away a seed once in every hundred years. 280 . and mahà kappa. Tathà akusalaü. filled with mustard seeds. Kammacatukka _______ § 7. iii. iv. The interim period when the age-limit of human beings rises from ten to an indefinite time and then falls to ten again. Råpàvacarakusalaü. breadth.There are three kinds of kappas—namely. This exceeds the time required to exhaust an area.

samphappalàpo c’ àti vacãvi¤¤atti saïkhàte vacãdvàre bàhullavuttito vacãkammaü nàma. Kàmàvacarakusalam pi ca kàyadvàre pavattaü kàyakammaü. Tesu pàõàtipàto pharusavàcà vyàpàdo ca dosamålena jàyanti. vacãdvàre pavattaü vacãkammaü. Sesàni cattàri dvãhi målehi sambhavanti. manodvàre pavattaü manokammaü c’àti kammadvàravasena tividhaü hoti. Kathaü? Pàõàtipàto. kàmesu micchàcàro ca kàyavi¤¤àtti saïkhàte kàyadvàre bàhullavuttito kàyakammaü nàma.Tattha akusalaü kàyakammaü. Cittuppàdavasena pan’ etaü akusalaü sabbathà’ pi dvàdasasavidhaü hoti. micchàdiññhi c’ àti a¤¤atrà’ pi vi¤¤attiyà manasmiü y’ eva bàhullavuttito manokammaü nàma. 281 . Tathà dànasãla-bhàvanà-vasena cittuppàdavasena pan’ etaü aññhavidhaü pi. adinnàdànaü. vacãkammaü. Kàmesu micchàcàro abhijjhà micchàdiññhi lobhamålena. Abhijjhà. pisuõavàcà. manokammaü c’ àti kammadvàravasena tividhaü hoti. Musàvàdo. vyàpàdo. pharusavàcà.

veyyàvaccapattidàna-pattànumodana dhamma-savanadhamma-desanà-diññhijjukammavasena dasavidhaü hoti. Råpàvacarakusalaü pana manokammam’ eva. Tatth’ àpi tihetukam’ ukkaññhaü kusalaü tihetukaü pañisandhiü datvà pavatte solasavipàkàni vipaccati. Kàmàvacarakusalam pi ca kàmasugatiyam’ eva pañisandhiü janeti. Ettha akusalakammam’ uddhaccarahitaü apàyabhåmiyaü pañisandhiü janeti. Tam pan’ etaü vãsatividham pi kàmàvacarakammam’ icc’ eva saïkhaü gacchati. Pavattiyaü pana sabbam pi dvàdasvidhaü. Sattàkusalapàkàni sabbatthà’ pi kàmaloke råpaloke ca yathàrahaü vipaccanti. Tathà pavattiya¤ ca mahàvipàkàni.Dàna-sãla-bhàvanà-pacàyana. Tathà Aråpàvacarakusala¤ ca manokammaü. Ta¤ ca bhàvanàmayaü appanàppattaü jhànaïgabhedena pa¤cavidhaü hoti. 282 . tam pi bhàvanàmayaü appanàppattaü àlambanabhedena catubbidhaü hoti. Ahetukavipàkàni pana aññha’ pi sabbatthà’ pi kàmaloke råpaloke ca yathàrahaü vipaccanti.

Tad’ eva majjhimaü bhàvetvà Brahmapurohitesu. paõãtaü bhàvetvà Abhassaresu. Tesaü dvàdasapàkàni dasaññha ca yathàkkamaü Yathà vuttànusàrena yathàsambhavam’ uddise. Dvihetukam’ omakaü pana kusalam’ ahetukam’ eva pañisandhiü deti.Tihetukam’ omakaü dvihetukam’ ukkaññha¤ ca kusalaü dvãhetukaü pañisandhiü datvà pavatte tihetukarahitàni dvàdasa vipàkàni vipaccati. Majjhimaü bhàvetvà Appamàõàbhesu. § 9. 283 . Råpàvacarakusalaü pana pañhamajjhànaü parittaü bhàvetvà Brahmapàrisajjesu uppajjanti. majjhimaü bhàvetvà Appamànasubhesu. Pa¤camajjhànaü bhàvetvà Vehapphalesu. § 8. Asaïkhàraü sasaïkhàra-vipàkàni na paccati Sasaïkhàram asaïkhàra-vipàkànã’ ti kecana. Pavatte ca ahetukavipàkàn’ eva vipaccati. Tathà dutiyajjhànaü tatiyajjhàna¤ ca parittaü bhàvetvà Parittàbhesu. Catutthajjhànaü parittaü bhàvetvà Parittasubhesu. paõãtaü bhàvetvà Subhakiõhesu. paõãtaü bhàvetvà MahàBrahmesu.

§ 10. Aråpàvacarakusala¤ ca yathàkkamaü bhàvetvà àruppesu uppajjanti. _______ Idam’ ettha Kammacatukkaü. and (d) Reserve Kamma (37). Fourfold Kamma (29) ________ § 7. Anàgàmino pana Suddhàvàsesu uppajjanti. (c) Habitual Kamma (36). (a) Reproductive Kamma (30). (ii) With respect to the order in which the effect of Kamma takes place there are four kinds of Kamma—namely. (b) Supportive Kamma (31). (b) Proximate Kamma (35). ________ iv. (c) Obstructive Kamma (32) and (d) Destructive Kamma (33). 284 . (i) With respect to function there are four kinds of Kamma—namely. (a) Weighty Kamma (34).Tam’ eva sa¤¤àviràgaü bhàvetvà Asa¤¤àsattesu. Itthaü mahaggataü pu¤¤aü yathàbhåmi vavatthitaü Janeti sadisaü pàkaü pañisandhippavattiyaü.

(c) Moral Kamma pertaining to the råpa plane. harsh speech. and (d) Moral Kamma pertaining to the aråpa plane. How ? Killing. (c) Indefinitely Effective Kamma and (d) Defunct Kamma. (b) Moral Kamma pertaining to the Sense-Sphere. slandering. verbal action. (a) Immediately Effective Kamma (38) (b) Subsequently Effective Kamma. (iv) With respect to the place in which effect takes place there are four kinds of Kamma— namely. and sexual misconduct are bodily actions done generally (39) through the door of the body. and mental action. known as bodily intimation (40). Lying. Of them Immoral Kamma is threefold according to the doors of action—namely. and vain talk are verbal actions done generally through the door of speech.(iii) With respect to the time of taking effect there are four kinds of Kamma—namely. 285 . bodily action. known as verbal intimation (41). stealing. (a) Immoral Kamma.

(vii) rejoicing in (others’) merit. morality. deeds pertaining to the door of the body. verbal actions pertaining to the door of speech. 286 . harsh speech. illwill. (x) and straightening one’s views (42). viii. Moral Kamma of the råpa-plane is purely mental action. and meditation. and v in morality (sãla). (ii) morality. the remaining four arise from the two roots. (v) service. ix and x in meditation (bhàvanà). (viii) hearing the doctrine. and false belief (42) are mental actions done generally through the mind itself without (bodily or verbal) intimation. and false belief. Sexual misconduct. from the root of attachment. According to the jhàna factors that involve ecstasy it is fivefold. vi and vii are included in generosity (dàna). According to the classes of consciousness Immoral Kamma is twelvefold. covetousness. Of them killing.Covetousness. Of these ten. mental actions pertaining to the door of the mind. iv. Similarly it is eightfold according to the classes of consciousness such as generosity. All these twenty kinds are regarded as Kamma pertaining to the kàma-plane. and illwill spring from the root of hatred. (vi) transference of merit. It is also tenfold 121 according to (i) generosity. 121. and is caused by meditation. (iv) reverence. (ix) teaching the doctrine. (iii) meditation. Moral Kamma of the Kàma-plane is threefold according to the doors of action—namely.

produces rebirth with two roots. But during lifetime all the twelve take effect (44). Moral Kamma (45). accompanied by three roots of a lower class (47) and by two roots of a higher class. excluding those with three roots. accompanied by two roots of a lower class. excluding restlessness. Similarly the eight Great resultants (are experienced) during lifetime. of the kàma-plane produces rebirth in the blissful kàma-plane.Similarly moral Kamma of the aråpa-plane is mental action. During lifetime it gives effect to sixteen kinds of resultants. and gives effect to rootless resultants during lifetime.123 causes rebirth in a woeful state. and is also caused by meditation. I.124 Moral Kamma. The seven unwholesome resultants are experienced anywhere in the kàma plane and the råpa plane according to circumstances. Therein the highest moral Kamma (46) accompanied by three roots. See Ch. 124. Uddhacca is too weak to produce rebirth. produces rebirth without roots. during lifetime. 287 . The eight Beautiful and eight rootless resultants.122 Herein immoral Kamma. The eight (wholesome) rootless resultants are experienced anywhere in the kàma plane and råpa-plane according to circumstances. and gives effect to twelve resultants. 122. According to the objects of jhàna that involve ecstasy. produces rebirth similarly accompanied by the three roots. 123. it is fourfold. But moral Kamma.

they are born amongst the gods of Minor Aura. they are born amongst the Radiant gods. Developing them to a high degree. in due order. Developing them to a medium degree. Developing the same to a Medium degree. they are born amongst the Brahma’s Ministers. Developing it to a medium degree. they are born amongst gods full of unlimited Aura. they are born amongst gods of Infinite Lustre. they are born amongst gods of Steady Aura. § 9. 288 . those who develop the first jhàna to a minor degree are born amongst the Brahma’s Retinue. Some (teachers) (48) say that unprompted thoughts do not produce prompted resultants and prompted thoughts do not produce unprompted resultants. developing the second jhàna and the third jhàna to a minor degree. twelve. ten and eight (49) should be set forth. as stated above. Some say that a prompted moral consciousness does not produce an unprompted resultant. they are born amongst the Mahà Brahma gods. Developing it to a high degree. Similarly. the arising of the resultants. According to them. Developing them to a high degree. Developing the fourth jhàna to a minor degree. they are born amongst the gods of Minor Lustre. As regards moral Kamma of the råpa-plane. § 8.Unprompted moral consciousness does not produce a prompted resultant.

§ 10. Herein this is the fourfold Kamma. except that of a Buddha or of an Arahant. produces similar results (both) at rebirth and in one’s lifetime. _______ Notes:— 29. or ‘action influence’ as Westerners say. is the law of moral causation. it is action and reaction in the ethical realm. they are born in Formless Spheres in corresponding order. The Never-Returners are born in the Pure Abodes (50). Developing moral Kamma pertaining to the Formless Sphere. Strictly speaking. It is not fate or predestination. Kamma. In other words. is called Kamma. Thus sublimated merit. word and deed’. Saüskrt Karma. lit.. It is ones own doing reacting on oneself. they are born amongst beings without consciousness. the roots of Kamma.Developing the fifth jhàna. determined according to spheres. 289 . It. Kamma means all moral and immoral volition (cetanà). they are born amongst the gods of the Great Reward. Every volitional action. Developing it with no attachment to consciousness. means action or doing. It covers all that is included in the phrase—‘thought. The Buddhas and Arahants do not accumulate fresh Kamma as they have eradicated ignorance and craving.

Kamma is action and Vipàka. What we reap today is what we have sown either in the present or in the past. independent ruling agency. eight types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Sense-sphere (kàmàvacara). It is the cause and the effect. and four types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Formless realms (aråpàvacara). The cause produces the effect. The seed produces the effect. Kamma constitutes the twelve types of immoral consciousness. “the effect already blooms in the cause. is its reaction. As we sow. In the supramundane consciousness wisdom (pa¤¤à) is predominant. Vipàka (effect) is like the fruit arising from the tree. Like a seed is Kamma. The eight types of supramundane consciousness (Lokuttara Citta) are not regarded as Kamma and Vipàka. fruit or result. because they tend to eradicate the roots of Kamma that condition rebirth. Even so are Kamma and its effect. such is their relationship. Kamma is a law in itself. Inherent in Kamma is the potentiality of producing its due effect. the fruit explains the seed.” According to Abhidhamma. These twenty-nine types of consciousness are called 290 . and it operates in its own field without the intervention of an external. we reap somewhere and sometime in this life or in a future birth. the effect explains the cause. while in the ordinary types of consciousness volition (cetanà) is predominant. five types of moral consciousness pertaining to the realms of Forms (råpàvacara).

It is this last thought. even so every volitional activity is accompanied by its due effect. are called vipaka or fruition of Kamma. The 23 types (7 + 8 + 8) of resultant consciousness pertaining to the Sense-sphere. Though the present form perishes another form which is neither the same nor absolutely different takes place according to the potential thought-vibrations generated at the death moment. 291 . that determines the state of a person in his subsequent birth. pp. the five types of resultant consciousness pertaining to the realms of Form. Every birth is conditioned by a past good or bad Kamma which predominates at the moment of death.Kamma because the reproductive power is inherent in them. 30. pp. This may be either a good or bad Kamma. as the Kammic force which propels the life-flux still survives. and the four types of resultant consciousness pertaining to the Formless realms. The death of a person is merely “the temporary end of a temporary phenomenon”. 79–88. Just as every object is accompanied by a shadow. 129–133 and ‘Manual of Buddhism’. The Kamma that conditions the future birth is called Reproductive (Janaka) Kamma. which is technically called Reproductive Kamma. See ‘The Life of the Buddha and his Teachings’. These types of consciousness that are experienced as inevitable consequence of good and bad thoughts are called resultant consciousness (vipaka).

one experiences in the course of one’s lifetime. vitality (jãvitindriya).According to the commentary Janaka Kamma is that which produces mental aggregates and material aggregates at the moment of conception. It is either good or bad and it assists or maintains the action of the Reproductive Kamma in the course of one’s lifetime. ‘sex-decad’. odour (gandha). It is conditioned by Kamma and is not a fortuitous combination of sperm and ovum cells. the element of extension (pàñhavi). The initial consciousness which is termed the pañisandhi vi¤¤àõa (rebirthconsciousness) is conditioned by this Janaka Kamma. the element of heat (tejo). 31. the element of cohesion (àpo). are the inevitable consequences of Janaka Kamma. The body-decad is composed of the four elements— namely. From this it is evident that the sex is determined at the very conception of a being. and ‘base-decad’ (kàya-bhava-vatthu dasaka). colour (vaõõa). Upatthambhaka—that which comes near the Reproductive Kamma and supports it. Immediately after the conception till the death moment this Kamma 292 . nutritive essence (ojà). and body (kàya). Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth consciousness there arise the ‘body-decad’. the element of motion (vàyo). Sexdecad and base-decad also consist of the first nine and sex (bhàva) and seat of consciousness (vatthu) respectively. Pain and happiness. taste (rasa). its four derivatives (upàdà råpa)—namely.

just as a counteractive powerful force can obstruct the path of a flying arrow and bring it down to the ground. on the other hand.steps forward to support the Reproductive Kamma. Such an action is called Destructive Kamma which is more effective than the previous two in that it not only obstructs but also destroys the whole force. This Destructive Kamma also may be either good or bad.. happiness. interrupt and retard the fruition of the Reproductive Kamma. wealth. seeking an opportunity. thus preventing him from enjoying the blissful results of his good action. which. An animal. to the person concerned. on the other hand. 293 .. Upaghàtaka—According to the Law of Kamma the potential energy of the Reproductive Kamma could be nullified by a more powerful opposing Kamma of the past. An immoral Supportive Kamma. For instance. may quite unexpectedly operate. etc. tends to weaken. may lead a comfortable life by getting good food. etc. assists in giving pain. etc. who is born with a bad Reproductive Kamma. to the person born with an immoral reproductive Kamma as. A moral supportive Kamma assists in giving health. lodging. 32. Upapãóaka—Obstructive or Counteractive Kamma which. 33. unlike the former. a person born with a good Reproductive Kamma may be subject to various ailments etc. to a beast of burden. as a result of his good Counteractive Kamma preventing the fruition of the evil Reproductive Kamma. sorrow.. for instance..

his good Kamma would be obliterated by the powerful evil Kamma. for instance. It produces its results in this life or in the next for certain. and (v) parricide. who attempted to kill the Buddha and who caused a schism in the Sangha. Finally the Destructive Kamma brought his life to a miserable end. 34. any person were to develop the jhànas and later were to commit one of these heinous crimes. Otherwise it is verbal or bodily. His good Reproductive Kamma conditioned him a birth in a royal family. Permanent Scepticism (niyata micchàdiññhi) is also termed one of the weighty Kammas.As an instance of the operation of all four. 294 . The counteractive Kamma came into operation when he was subject to much humiliation as a result of his being excommunicated from the Sangha. may be either good or bad. may be cited. (iii) The murder of an Arahant. it is purely mental as in the case of the Jhànas. These are also known as ânantariya Kamma because they definitely produce their effects in the subsequent life. His continued comforts and prosperity were due to the action of the Supportive Kamma. The five kinds of Weighty Kamma according to their gravity are:— (i) The creation of a schism in the Sangha. If good. His subsequent birth will be conditioned by the evil Kamma in spite of his having gained the jhànas earlier. (iv) matricide. the case of Devadatta. If. (ii) The wounding of a Buddha. Garuka—which means either weighty or serious.

Devadatta lost his psychic powers and was born in an evil state. led a righteous life. âsanna or Death-proximate Kamma is that which one does or remembers immediately before the dying moment. King Ajàtasattu would have attained the first stage of Sainthood if he had not committed parricide. 35. perchance compelled by unfavourable circumstances. the consort of King Kosala. Sometimes a bad person may die happily and receive a good birth if fortunately he remembers or does a good act at the last moment. who casually happened to give some alms to the Venerable Sàriputta. Owing to its significance in determining the future birth. In this case the powerful evil Kamma acted as an obstacle to his gaining Sainthood. They will have their due effects as occasions arise. A story runs that a certain executioner. This does not mean that although he enjoys a good birth he will be exempt from the effects of the evil deeds accumulated during his lifetime. At times a good person may die unhappily by suddenly remembering an evil act of his or by harbouring some unpleasant thought. remembered this good act at the dying moment and was born in a state of bliss. the custom of reminding the dying person of his good deeds and making him do good acts on his death-bed still prevails in Buddhist countries. Queen Mallikà. because he wounded the Buddha and caused a schism in the Sangha. but as a result of remem295 .

a lie which she had uttered. who was living in the vicinity of the Buddha’s monastery. 37. This is as it were the reserve fund of a particular being. These are only exceptional cases.bering. Such reverse changes of birth account for the birth of virtuous children to vicious parents and of vicious children to virtuous parents. 36. Habits whether good or bad become second nature. it means ‘because done’. we. unless influenced by other circumstances. died squealing like a pig because he was earning his living by slaughtering pigs. In the same way at the death-moment. recall to mind such thoughts and deeds. At leisure moments we often engage ourselves in our habitual thoughts and deeds. As a rule the last thought-process is conditioned by the general conduct of a person. King Duññhagàmani of Ceylon was in the habit of giving alms to the Bhikkhus before he took his meals. All actions that are done once and soon forgotten belong to this category. at her death moment. 296 . Kañattà—Reserve or Cumulative Kamma. It was this habitual Kamma that gladdened him at the dying moment and gave him birth in Tusita Realm. They tend to form the character of a person. âciõõa Kamma is that which one habitually performs and recollects and for which one has a great liking. she had to suffer for about seven days in a state of misery. Literally. as a rule. a butcher. Cunda.

This is called the Immediately Effective Kamma. becomes ineffective if it does not operate in the second birth. According to Abhidhamma one does both good and evil during the javana process which usually lasts for seven thought-moments. The effects of the intermediate thought-moments may take place at any time until one attains Nibbàna. The next weakest is the seventh thought-moment. This type of Kamma is known as Aparàparãyavedanãya—Indefinitely Effective. Its evil effect one may reap in the subsequent birth. too. 297 . No one. but when such actions that should produce their effects in the present life or in a subsequent life do not operate. not even the Buddhas and Arahants. Bàhullavuttito—This term is used because these actions may be done through the other doors as well. is exempt from this class of Kamma which one may experience in the course of one’s wanderings in Saüsàra. If it does not operate in this life. Ditthadhamma means this present life. Kàyavi¤¤atti—expressing the intention through bodily movements. it is called Defunct or Ineffective (Ahosi). 40. 39. they are termed Ineffective. This is called Upapajjavedanãya Kamma.38. one may reap in this life itself. The effect of the first thought-moment. This. being the weakest. There is no special class of Kamma known as Ahosi. Ditthadhammavedaniya Kamma is that which is experienced in this particular life.

43. For instance. The desirable effects of moral actions are the eight types of rootless resultant consciousness and the eight types of Beautiful resultant consciousness.. 45. There is no after-life (natthika diññhi). 44. (akiriya diññhi) and iii. i. Ukkaññha—lit. A 46. They may take effect in the course of one’s lifetime. is considered a ‘highest’ moral Kamma. up (u) drawn ( highest class of moral Kamma is that which is attendant with good causes before and after the commission of the act. an alms given to the most virtuous with righteously obtained wealth. Good and bad produce no effect. 42. 298 √ . e. Vacãvi¤¤atti—expressing the intention through speech. ii. with no later repentance.41. By false beliefs are meant the following three misconceptions:— i. Everything has sprung up without a cause (ahetuka diññhi). The effects of the eight types of moral consciousness may not only serve as rebirth consciousness but also give rise to different types of resultant consciousness in the course of one’s lifetime.. The evil effects of the twelve types of immoral consciousness are the seven types of rootless resultant consciousness. kas). by viewing rightly such as—it is beõeficial to give alms etc.

The Anàgàmis who have developed the fifth jhàna and who possess the five faculties such as confidence. 49. Those who surpass in confidence (saddhà) are ‘born in the Aviha plane. While giving alms one may experience a moral consciousness with the three good roots. energy. The Sotàpannas and Sakadàgàmis. They are the teachers of the school of Mahàdhammarakkhita Thera of Moravapi Monastery in Ceyãon. who develop the fifth jhàna. 48. those who surpass in concentration (samàdhi) in Suddassi plane. those who surpass in mindfulness (sati) in Sudassa plane. Omaka—Inferior. Eight—8 ahetukas. it is regarded as an inferior Kamma. and those who surpass in wisdom (pa¤¤à) in Akaõiññha plane. 299 . and wisdom to an equal degree are born in the Vehapphala plane.47. concentration. those who surpass in energy (viriya) in Atappa plane. Ten—8 ahetuka vipàkas and 2 prompted or 2 unprompted resultants unaccompanied by wisdom. if he were to give to the vicious with unrighteously obtained wealth. are born in formless realms. 50. But those Sotàpannas and Sakadàgàmis who develop a dispassion for material existence. But. are born in the Vehapphala plane. mindfulness. Twelve—8 ahetuka vipàkas and either 4 Prompted Resultants or 4 Unprompted Resultants. and with later repentance.

ubhayakkhayena upacchedakakammunà c’ àti catudhà maraõuppatti nàma. Cutipañisandhikkamo _______ § 11.There is no fixed rule that Anàgàmis are not born in other suitable planes. Tathà ca marantànaü pana maraõakàle yathàrahaü abhimukhãbhåtaü bhavantare pañisandhijanakaü kammaü và taü kammakaraõakàle råpàdikamupaladdhapubbamupakaraõabhåta¤ ca kammanimittaü và anantaram’ uppajjamànabhave upalabhitabbaü upabhogabhåta¤ ca gatinimittaü và kammabalena chanõaü dvàrànaü a¤¤atarasmiü paccupaññhàti. _______ v. (Te pana a¤¤attha na nibbattantãti niyamo natthi— Comy). ‘Dry-visioned’ (sukkha-vipassaka) Anàgàmis who have followed the contemplation course develop jhànas before death and are consequently born in the Pure Abodes. kammakkhayena. âyukkhayena. Tato paraü tam’eva tatho’ paññhitaü àlambanaü àrabbha vipaccamànakakammànuråpaü parisuddham’ upakkiliññhaü và upalabhitabbabhavànuråpaü tatth’ onataü và cittasantànaü abhiõhaü pavattati bàhullena. Tam’ eva và pana janakabhåtaü kammamabhinavakaraõavasena dvàrappattaü hoti. 300 .

Tàni pana sabbàni’ pi parittadhammabhåta n’evàlambanàni’ ti veditabbaü. Ta¤ ca manodvàragahitaü. Paccàsannamaraõassa tassa vãthicittàvasàne bhavangakkhaye và cavanavasena paccuppannabhavapariyosànabhåtaü cuticittam’ uppajjitvà nirujjhati. Råpàvacarapañisandhiyà pana pa¤¤atti301 . Tasmà yadi paccuppannàlambanesu àpàthamàgatesu dharantesv’ eva maraõaü hoti. Tasmim niruddhàvasàne tass’ ànantaram’ eva tathà gahitaü àlambanam’ àrabbha savatthukaü avatthukam’ eva và yathàrahaü avijjànusayaparikkhittena taõhànusayamålakena saïkhàrena janãyamànaü sampayuttehi pariggayhamànaü sahajàtànamadhiññhànabhàvena pubbaïgamabhåtaü bhavantarapañisandhànavasena pañisandhisaïkhàtaü mànasaü uppajjamànam’ eva patiññhàti bhavantare. Maranàsannavãthiyaü pan’ ettha mandappavattàni pa¤c’ eva javanàni pàñikaïkhitabbàni. Tadà pañisandhibhavaïgànam’ pi paccuppannàlambanatà labbhatã’ ti katvà kàmàvacarapañisandhiyà chadvàragahitaü kammanimittaü gatinimitta¤ ca paccuppannamatãtamàlambanaü và upalabbhati.§ 12. Kammaü pana atãtam’ eva. § 13.

The advent of death (51) is fourfold—namely. A Kamma that produces rebirth in the subse302 . (ii) through the expiration of the (Reproductive) Kammic force (53) (iii) through the (simultaneous) expiration of both (54). § 14. by the power of Kamma. and (iv) through (the intervention of a) Destructive Kamma (55). at the moment of death. Procedure with regard to Decease and Rebirth _______ § 11. Tasmà te råpapañisandhikà nàma. to those who. Sesà råpàråpapañisandhikà. one of the following presents itself through any of the six doors:— i.bhåtaü kammanimittam’ evàlambanaü hoti. (i) through the expiration of the age-limit (52). Now. Tathà àruppapañisandhiyà ca mahaggatabhåtaü pa¤¤attibhåta¤ ca kammanimittam’ eva yathàrahaü àlambanaü hoti. Asa¤¤asattànaü pana jãvitanavakam’ eva pañisandhibhàvena patiññhàti. âruppà àruppapañisandhikà. are about to die. âruppacutiyà honti heññhimàruppavajjità Paramàruppasandhã ca tathà kàme tihetukà Råpàvacaracutiyà aheturahità siyuü Sabbà kàmatihetumhà kàmes’ v’ eva pan’ etarà Ayam’ettha cutipañisandhikkamo _______ v.

continually flows. A symbolic destiny sign (58) that should be got and experienced in the subsequent birth-place. 303 . or anything that was instrumental in the performance of the Kamma. whether with heartbase (60) or not. § 12. enveloped accordingly by latent ignorance. the stream of consciousness. in accordance with the Kamma that is to be matured whether pure or corrupted. At the end of the cessation. rooted in latent craving. and in conformity with the place where one is to be born. inclining mostly towards that state. An object (57) such as a pre-perceived form and the like. either at the end of a thought-process or at the dissolution of bhavaïga. acting as the forerunner to the coexisting states. arises and ceases in the way of death. and linking the existences. Or that birth-reproductive Kamma presents itself to a sensedoor in the way of renewing. iii. Thereafter attending to that object thus presented (59). based on the object thus obtained. the decease-consciousness. produced by action (Kamma). the consummation of the present life. rebirth-consciousness arises and is established in the subsequent existence. conjoined with mental co-adjuncts.quent birth enters (the mind-door) according to circumstances (56). ii. immediately after which. To one who is nearing death.

cohesion. Namely. taste. Kamma nimitta to one of the five sense-doors or gati nimitta to the minddoor) then the rebirth-consciousness and the bhavaïgaconsciousness take a present object. and physical life principle (jãvitindriya. belonging to the Kàma-sphere). àpo. Normally seven thought-moments.. the four derivatives—colour. In rebirth in the realms of Forms the Kamma symbol which is a concept (such as earth device etc.e. motion (pathavi. tejo. only a Kamma symbol which is a sublimated concept (such as a visualised ‘space’) becomes an object. Those born in Formless realms are called mentally reborn. 126. The rest are called materially and mentally reborn. in rebirth in Formless realms. heat. Herein in the dying thought-process only five feeble moments 125 of javana should be expected. rasa. too. odour. Thus in rebirth in a Sense-Sphere the Kamma nimitta taken by (any of) the six doors. To the mindless beings only the vital ‘nonad’ 126 establishes itself in the way of rebirth. Hence they are called materially-reborn. gandha. 125. oja). nutritive essence (vanna. according to circumstances. Therefore when death occurs while the present object is being presented to the avenues (i. All these should be regarded as lesser objects (i. the four elements of extension..§ 13.e. But Kamma is perceived by the mind-door only as a past object. or gati nimitta may be past or present. So.) becomes the object.) 304 . vàyo).

After a birth with the three roots one seeks rebirth in all states. One must. _______ Notes:— 51.” By death is meant the extinction of psychic life (jãvitindriya). and also in the Sense-Sphere with three roots. To each of the various planes of existence is naturally assigned a definite age-limit irrespective of the potential energy of the Reproductive Kamma that has yet to run. those with two roots and no roots) are reborn. Death is not the complete annihilation of a being.§ 14. in conventional terms. the rising of the sun in one place means the setting of the sun in another place. heat (usma = tejodhàtu). and consciousness (vi¤¤àõa) of one individual in a particular existence. one is not born without the three roots. “Death is the temporary end of a temporary phenomenon. however. After one passes away from a Formless realm. but not in a lower Formless plane. just as. succumb to death when the maximum 305 . in the Sense-Spheres. Herein this is the procedure with regard to decease and rebirth. What are commonly understood to be natural deaths due to old age may be classed under this category. 52. Death in one place means the birth in another place. When one passes from a realm of Form. one is similarly born in a Formless realm. The rest (namely.

55. It may also be said that if the Reproductive Kamma is extremely powerful. or desire which was extremely strong during lifetime becomes predominant at the moment of death and conditions the subsequent birth. The 306 . and thus destroy the life of a being. Similarly. the organic activities of the material form. A more powerful opposing force. volition. As a rule the thought. the Kammic energy rematerialises itself on the same plane or on some higher plane as in the case of the devas. in which is corporealised the lifeforce. There are powerful actions which suddenly cut off the force of the Reproductive Kamma even before the expiration of the life-term. a very powerful Kammic force of the past is capable of nullifying the potential energy of the dying reproductive (janaka) thought-moment. his death is due to the simultaneous expiration of both age and Kamma. can check the path of a flying arrow and bring it down to the ground. 53. cease even before the approach of old age. When the potential energy of this Reproductive Kamma is exhausted. for instance. If a person is born at a time when the age-limit is 80 years and he dies at 80 owing to the exhaustion of the potential force of his reproductive Kamma.age-limit is reached. In this last thought-moment is present a special potentiality. 54.

experienced at the moment of performing the action. Kamma nimitta is any sight. touch or idea which was obtained at the time of the commission of the Kamma. it is the good or bad thought.death of Devadatta was due to an upacchedaka Kamma which he committed during his lifetime. the exhaustion of the wick. 57. taste. 56. If it is a past action. It may be either a meritorious or a demeritorious Weighty action (Garuka Kamma). he may take for his object of the dying thought a Kamma done or remembered immediately before death (àsanna Kamma). may be extinguished owing to any of the following four causes—namely. They are so powerful that they totally eclipse all other actions and appear very vividly before the mental eye. smell. and some extraneous cause like the gust of a wind. such as knives in the case of a 307 . and the last one is known as akàlamaraõa (untimely death). such as jhànas (ecstasies) or parricide etc. As a person is about to die a good or bad action may present itself before his mind’s eye. sound. The first three types of death are collectively called kàlamaraõa (timely death). An oil lamp. for instance. Death of a person may similarly be caused by any of the aforesaid four ways. If there is no Weighty action. that recurs at the death-moment. strictly speaking. simultaneous exhaustion of both wick and oil. the exhaustion of oil.

The Kamma is presented to the mind-door. 59. a thoughtprocess runs its course even if the death be an instantaneous one. These symbols of one’s destiny may be hellish fires. and if they are bad.butcher. mother’s womb. Kammanimitta may be presented to any of the six doors according to circumstances. flowers in the case of a devotee. celestial mansions. is presented to the mind-door as a dream. It is said that even the fly which is crushed by a hammer on the anvil also experiences such a process of thought before it actually dies. mountainous regions. forests. etc. By gati nimitta is meant some sign of the place where he is to take birth. being always a physical sight. This is done by influencing the thoughts of the dying person. Gati-nimitta. etc. 308 . 58. they can be turned into good. Taking one of the aforesaid objects. patients in the case of a physician. When these indications of the future birth occur. Let us imagine for the sake of convenience that the dying person is to be reborn in the human plane and that his object is some good Kamma. so that his good thoughts may now act as the proximate Kamma and counteract the influence of the Reproductive Kamma which would otherwise affect his subsequent birth. an event which invariably happens to dying persons.

With the ceasing of the decease-consciousness death actually occurs. After this occurs death consciousness (cuti citta). its main function being the mere regulation of the new existence—abhinavakaraõa.His bhavaïga consciousness. accompanied by pleasure. Then no material qualities born of mind and food (cittaja and àhàraja råpa) are produced. interrupted. vibrates for one thought-moment and passes away. Only a series of material qualities born of heat (utuja) goes on till the corpse is reduced to dust. the last thought-moment to be experienced in this present life. The object in the present case being desirable. p. Thereafter the mind-door apprehending consciousness (manodvàràvajjana) arises and passes away. 315). What actually conditions rebirth is not this deceasethought. There is a misconception amongst some that the subsequent birth is conditioned by this last decease-thought. The tadàlambana consciousness which has for its function a registering or identifying for two moments of the object so perceived may or may not follow. but that which is experienced during the javana process. the consciousness he experiences is a moral one—automatic or prompted. which in itself has no special function to perform. Then comes the psychologically important stage—javana process—which here runs only for five thought-moments by reason of its weakness. (See Diagram XI. instead of the normal seven. As such it lacks all reproductive power. and associated with wisdom or as the case may be. 309 .

(See Diagram XII. Tato para¤ ca pañisandhàdayo rathacakkaü iva yathàkkamaü eva parivattantà pavattanti. Icc’ evaü gahitapañisandhikànaü pana pañisandhinrodhànantaratoppabhuti tam’ evàlambanamàrabbha tad’ eva cittaü yàva cuticittuppàdà asati vãthicittuppàde bhavassaïgabhàvena bhavaïgasantatisaïkhàtaü mànasaü abbhocchinnaü nadã soto viya pavattati. immediately after the dissolution of the decease consciousness (cuti citta) there arises in a fresh existence the relinking consciousness (pañisandhi vi¤¤àõa). Thereafter the mind-door apprehending consciousness (manodvàràvajjana) arises to be followed by seven javana thought-moments. In the case of Formless realms there is no heartbase (hadayavatthu). p. § 16. _______ (Citta—Santati) _______ § 15. Pañisandhibhavaïgavãthãyo cuti c’ eha tathà bhavantare 310 . Pariyosàne ca cavanavasena cuticittaü hutvà nirujjhati. developing a liking to the fresh existence (bhava nikanti javana). This is followed by sixteen bhavaïga thoughtmoments. Then the bhavaïga consciousness arises and perishes and the stream of consciousness flows on ceaselessly.Now. 316) 60.

revolving according to circumstances. _______ Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe Vãthimuttasaïgahavibhàgo nàma Pa¤camo Paricchedo.Puna pañisandhibhavaïgam iccayaü parivattati cittasantati Pañisankhàya paï’ etamaddhuvaü adhigantvà padamaccutaü budhà Susamucchinnasinehabandhanà samamessanti ciràya subbatà. _______ The Stream of Consciousness _______ § 15. Just as here so again in the subsequent existence there arise relinking-consciousness. disciplining themselves long. immediately after the cessation of the relinking (consciousness) (61). flows on. uninterruptedly like a stream (62). a similar consciousness. thoughtprocesses. § 16. to those who have thus got rebirth. Thereafter the relinking-consciousness and others. Being an essential factor of life. So. At the end. continue to exist. like a wheel. in the way of dying. it arises as decease-consciousness (64) and perishes. in the absence of a thought-process. The enlightened. and decease-consciousness. understanding the impermanence (of life). this consciousness is known as bhavaïga. until the arising of the decease-consciousness (63). Again with rebirth and life-continuum this stream of consciousness turns round. will realise the 311 . life-continuum. depending on the same object.

64. i. Immediately after the decease consciousness there arises in a subsequent rebirth the relinking or rebirth consciousness (pañisandhi citta).e. Note the Pàli phrase nadã soto viya. 63. Cuti citta or decease-consciousness. 62.127 and. Bhavaïga. completely cutting off the fetters of attachment.e. which one experiences at the moment of death. 127. Nibbàna.Deathless State. is similar to the pañisandhi citta and bhavaïga citta of that particular life. attain Peace. _______ Notes:— 61. and Cuti consciousness of one particular existence are identical as they have the same object. known as the Analysis of the Process-freed section. Pañisandhi. The mental states in each of these three are the same.. One experiences innumerable bhavaïga thought-moments in the course of one’s lifetime. i. this bhavaïga consciousness exists. at the moment of conception.128 _______ Thus ends the fifth chapter of the Compendium of Abhidhamma. During lifetime. whenever no thought-processes arise. 312 . Nibbàna-element without a substratum (nirupadisesa Nibbàna-dhàtu). They differ only in name and in function immediately after the rebirth-consciousness bhavaïga consciousness arises. 128.

1. Aråpaloka Formless Realms Planes of Existence N’eva Sa¤¤à N’ àsa¤¤àyatana âki¤ca¤¤àyatana Vi¤¤àõa¤càyatana âkàsàõa¤càyatana 84. " " .000 8.000 2.000 1.K.000 60.000 4.000 20.000 The Age-limit M.000 40. " " " (4) Realms of Form Råpaloka (16) Pure Abodes Suddhàvasa Catuttha Jhàna Bhåmi Fourth Jhàna Plane 313 { Akaõiññha Sudassi Sudassa Atappa Aviha Asa¤¤asatta Vehapphala Subhakiõha Appamàõasubha Parittasubha âbhassara Appamànàbha Parittàbha Mahà Brahma Brahma Purohita Brahma Pàrisajja 16. 2.Diagram X 4.K. 3.000 500 500 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1/ 2 1/ 3 M. " " " " " " " " " " " " " Tatiya Jhàna Third Jhàna Plane Dutiya Jhàna Bhåmi Second Jhàna Plane Pañhama Jhàna Bhåmi First Jhàna Plane A.K.

K.000 1.000 500 C.000 4.Y.000 8.Diagram X—continued Planes of Existence—(continued) Paranimmitavasavatti Nimmànarati Tusita Yàma Tàvatiüsa Càtummahàràjika Manussa—Human Plane Asurayoni Petayoni Tiracchànayoni Niraya Dugati Unhappy States The Age-limit 16. = Asaïkheyya Kappa C.K. " " " " " Happy States Sense Sphere Kàmaloka (11) Sugati (7) Devaloka Celestial Planes (6) No definite limit " " " " (4) 314 M.000 2.Y. = Celestial Years . = Mahà Kappa A.

Diagram XI Dying Thought-Process * Cuticitta Vithi * * * * * * * * * ** * * *. Sometimes bhavaïga (life-continuum) occurs between retention and decease. 315 Relinking or Rebirth Consciousness (in the subsequent life) Decease } Vibrating Bhavaïga Mind-door apprehending Arrest Bhavaïga Past Bhavaïga Retention Javana . At times decease takes place immediately after javana without retention.

Diagram XII Relinking or Rebirth consiousness * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Bhavaïga 16 Rebirth Thought-Process Pañisandhi Citta V ãthi Mind-door apprehending Javana 7 Bhavaïga 12 316 .

various thought-processes in the course of one’s lifetime and at rebirth. Paññhàna Naya (Causal Relations). Råpa is that which transforms or assumes a different mode owing to the √ 317 . Categories of good and evil. Path of Purity. According to the Vibhàvinã Tãkà. 52 mental states. persist. and Great Attainments. What they are. Pañicca-Samuppàda (the Law of Dependent Arising). But no logical definition of Råpa is found either in the Text or in the Commentaries. and perish are also explained. to perish Råpa is derived from (nàsa). The remaining four chapters are devoted to Råpa (matter). and classification of Kamma. so Råpa too has been microscopically analysed. Mental Culture. Råpa is the third Paramattha mentioned in the Abhidhamma and is one of the two composite factors of this so-called being—the other being Nàma (mind). Twenty-eight species of Råpa are enumerated. Nibbàna. how they arise. In one sense they form one complete book. 31 planes of existence. rup. to break up.Chapter 6 Introduction The first five chapters of the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha deal with the 89 and I21 types of consciousness. As Nàma. The sixth chapter is confined mainly to Råpa and Nibbàna.

Paramàõu was the ancient term for the modern atom. 16 aõus. One paramàõu is. one tajjàri. Meanings differ according to the context. Råpa changes so rapidly that one cannot strike an identical place twice. ‘matter’ is the nearest equivalent for Råpa although scientists too find it difficult to define matter. etc. With His supernormal knowledge the Buddha analysed this so-called paramàõu and declared that it consists of paramatthas—ultimate entities which cannot further be subdivided. It endures only for seventeen thought-moments. One √ 318 . therefore. ‘matter’. àpo. (sãtonhàdi virodhippaccayehi vikàraü àpajjati). The minute particles of dust seen dancing in the sunbeam are called rathareõus. It is generally rendered by ‘form’. It should be noted that the atomic theory prevailed in India in the time of the Buddha. From a Buddhist standpoint Råpa not only changes but also perishes (khaya. one aõu. 4096th part of a rathareõu. tejo. One particular meaning is not universally applicable. 16 paramàõus. According to the ancient belief one rathareõu consists of 16 tajjàris. Råpa is also explained as that which manifests itself rup-pakàsane). ‘body’. The paramatthas are pañhavi. From a philosophical standpoint. This paramàõu was considered indivisible.adverse physical conditions of cold. heat. vaya). ‘corporeality’. etc. and vàyo. ( Scholars suggest various renderings for Råpa.

Motion is regarded as the force or the generator of heat. while fluidity is the àpo element. Both heat and cold are included in tejo because they possess the power of maturing bodies. Preservation and decay are also due to this element. The element of extension and cohesion are so closely interrelated that when cohesion ceases extension disappears. this element has the power to regenerate matter by itself. It is this element that makes scattered particles of matter cohere and gives rise to the idea of ‘body’. water. fire and air.must not understand that these elements are earth. âpo is the element of cohesion. The qualities of hardness and softness which are purely relative are two conditions of this particular element. Movements are caused by this element. fire and air as some Greek thinkers believed in the past. the water above is supported by water below. Pañhavi means the element of extension. Heat or cold is the tejo element. in other words. is the vitalizing energy. the element of motion. Without it objects cannot occupy space. Unlike pañhavi it is intangible. Inseparably connected with heat is vàyo. Tejo. “Motion 319 . It is this element of extension in conjunction with the element of motion that produces the upward pressure. Unlike the other three essentials of matter. the substratum of matter. It may be stated that this element is present in earth. Tejo is the element of heat. This element is found even in minute particles when solid bodies are reduced to powder. When solid bodies are melted this element becomes more prominent in the resulting fluid. water. For instance. Cold is also a form of tejo.

To some extent we are responsible for the creation of our own material phenomena. and nutritive essence (ojà). pañhavi in earth. The fact that råpas arise in four ways such as Kamma. Dependent on them are the four subsidiary material qualities of colour (vaõõa). but one may preponderate over another as. The accumulated Kammic tendencies created by persons in the course of their previous lives. They are also called Mahàbhåtas or Great Essentials because they are invariably found in all material substances ranging from the infinitesimally small cell to the most massive object.” These four elements coexist and are inseparable.. smell (gandha). and vàyo in air. It should be noted that physical life-principle (råpa jãvitindriya) and sex are also conditioned by Kamma. All these four sources can. àpo in water. to a great extent. be brought under one’s control. Life in inorganic matter should be differentiated from life in animate being. These eight coexisting forces and qualities constitute one material group called ‘Suddhaññhaka Råpa kalàpa—pure-octad material group’. The remaining twenty kinds of råpa are equally important. desirable or undesirable. mind. tejo in fire. play at times a 320 . for instance. taste (rasa). seasonal phenomena and food will be a novel idea to modern thinkers.and heat in the material realm correspond respectively to consciousness and Kamma in the mental.

The seventh chapter enumerates all ethical states and classifies them into various groups. for instance. The ethical reason for acquiring each physical feature is clearly explained in the Sutta. But the path to Nibbàna has been described in detail in the ninth chapter. In the sixth chapter only a few lines have been devoted to the fourth paramattha—Nibbàna—the summum bonum of Buddhism. 30) the Buddha inherited these exceptional features. an extraordinary creation of His own Kamma. inherited like every other person. To understand the intricacies of Abhidhamma one 321 . as the result of His past meritorious deeds. the quintessence of Buddhism. No. the Law of Dependent Arising (Pañicca-Samuppàda) and the twenty-four Causal Relations (Paññhàna) are described in the eighth chapter. the reproductive cells and genes from His parents. but to that of the Aryan Buddhas. In the Buddha’s own words. The two most profound philosophical teachings of Buddhism—namely. such as the 32 major marks. He belonged not to the royal lineage. According to the Lakkhaõa Sutta (D. The Buddha. But physically there was none comparable to Him in His long line of honourable ancestors. N. He was certainly a superman.greater role than the hereditary parental cells and genes in the formation of physical characteristics. The last chapter is the most important and the most interesting as it deals with Mental Culture (bhàvanà) and Emancipation.

vàyodhàtu bhåtaråparaü nàma. Chapter VI Råpa—Saïgahavibhàgo _______ § 1. ghàõaü. § 2. tejodhàtu. Ettàvatà vibhattà hi sappabhedappavattikà Cittacetasikà dhammà råpandàni pavuccati Samuddesà vibhàgà ca samuññhànà kalàpato Pavattikkamato c’àti pa¤cadhà tattha saïgaho. (3) Råpaü. raso. One who understands the Abhidhamma well can fully comprehend the Word of the Buddha and thereby realise one’s ultimate goal. sotaü. pondering at the same time on the profound teachings embodied therein.should critically read and re-read the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha patiently and carefully. 322 . gandho. (2) Cakkhu. kàyo. àpodhàtu. Cattàri mahàbhåtàni. saddo. àpodhàtuvajjitaü bhåtattayasaïkhàtaü phoññhabba¤ ca gocararåpaü nàma. catunna¤ ca mahàbhåtànaü upàdàya råpan’ ti dvidham’petaü råpaü ekàdasavidhena saïgaharü gacchati. jivhà. Kathaü? (1) Pañhavidhàtu. pasàdaråpaü nàma.

(6) Jãvitindriyaü jãvitaråpaü nàma. Paricchedo ca vir¤¤atti vikàro lakkhaõanti ca Anipphannà dasa c’àti aññhavãsavidhaü bhave. (9) Kàyavi¤¤atti vacãvi¤¤atti vi¤¤attiråpaü nàma. sammasanaråpanti ca saïgaham gacchati. (10) Råpassa lahutà mudutà kamma¤¤atà vi¤¤attidvayaü vikàraråpaü nàma. (7) Kabalãkàro àhàro àhàraråpaü nàma. (8) âkàsadhàtu paricchedaråpaü nàma.(4) Itthattaü. salakkhaõaråpaü nipphannaråpaü råparåpaü. (11) Råpassa upacayo santati jaratà aniccatà lakkhanaråpaü nàma. Jàtiråpam’ eva pan’ ettha upacayasantatinàmena pavuccatã’ ti ekàdasavidhamp’ etaü råpaü aññhavãsatividhaü hoti saråpavasena. (5) Hadayavatthu hadayaråpaü nàma. Kathaü? Bhåtappasàdavisayà bhàvo-hadayam’ icca’ pi Jãvitàhàraråpehi aññhàrasavidhaü tathà. Ayam’ ettha råpasamuddeso. Iti ca aññhàrasavidhamp’ etaü sabhàvaråpaü. 323 . purisattaü bhàvaråpaü nàma.

Chapter 6
Analysis of Matter

Introductory § 1. Having thus far described the consciousness and mental states in accordance with their classes (1) and processes (2), matter will now be dealt with. With respect to enumeration (3), divisions (4), arisings (5), groups (6) and the mode of happening (7), the compendium of matter therein is fivefold. Enumeration of matter (samuddesa) § 2. Matter is twofold—namely, the four great Essentials (8) and material qualities derived from them (9). These two constitute eleven species. How? (1) Essential material qualities—the element of extension (10), the element of cohesion (11), the element of heat (12), and the element of motion (13). (2) Sensitive material qualities (14)—viz:—eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body. (3) Material objects (15)—viz:—form (16), sound, odour, taste and tangibility (17)—found in the three Essentials excluding the element of cohesion.

(4) Material qualities of sex (18)—viz:—femininity and masculinity. (5) Material quality of base—viz:—the heart-base (19). (6) Material quality of life—viz:—vital principle (20). (7) Material quality of nutrition—viz:—edible food (21). Thus these eighteen (22) kinds of material qualities are grouped: (i) according to their innate characteristics (23), (ii) according to their respective marks (24), (iii) as conditioned (25), (iv) as changeable (26), (v) as (fit for) contemplation (27). (8) Limiting material quality—viz:— the element of space (28). (9) Communicating material quality (29)—viz:— bodily intimation and vocal intimation. (10) Mutable material qualities (30)—viz:— material lightness (31), softness (32), adaptability (33), and the two forms of intimation.

(11) Characteristics (34) of material qualities— viz:— material productivity, continuity, decay and impermanence. Here by productivity and continuity are meant the material quality of birth. Thus the eleven kinds of material qualities are treated as twenty-eight according to their intrinsic properties. How (twenty-eight)? Essentials, sensory organs, objects, sex, heart, vitality, and food—thus (matter) is eighteen-foëd. Limitation (space), intimation, changeability and characteristics—thus there are ten non-conditioned (by kamma). In all there are twenty-eight. Herein this is the enumeration of matter.

Notes: Section 1 l. The first three chapters dealt with different types of consciousness and mental states both concisely and descriptively. 2. The fourth chapter was confined to 7 thoughtprocesses during lifetime, and the fifth chapter, to various planes and processes of rebirth-consciousness. 3. Samuddesa—i. e., the brief exposition of råpa.


Vibhàga—i. e., the analysis of råpa.

5. Samuññhàna—i. e., the arising of different constituents of råpa such as eye-decad etc., caused by Kamma, mind, seasonal phenomena, and food. 6. Kalàpa—the group compositions of råpa such as body-decad, sex-decad, etc. 7. Pavattikkama—i. e., how råpas take place in accordance with the states of existence, time, and classes of beings. Section 2. 8. Mahàbhåtàni—lit., those that have grown great. The four great Essentials are the fundamental material elements which are inseparable. Every material substance, ranging from the minutest particle to the most massive object, consists of these four elements which possess specific characteristics. 9. Upàdàya-råpàni—Derivative or secondary material properties dependent on the Great Essentials. Like the earth are the Essentials; the Derivatives are like trees that spring therefrom. The remaining 24 råpas are regarded as Derivatives. 10. Pañhavi-dhàtu—The pàli term dhàtu means that which bears its own characteristic marks. Element is the closest equivalent for dhàtu. Pañhavi-dhàtu, literally, means the earth-element. It is so called because like the

earth it serves as a support or foundation for the other coexisting råpas. Pañhavã (Saüskrt prñhivi), also spelt pathavi, puthavi, puthuvi, puñhuvi—is derived from puth, to expand, to extend. So far, though not very satisfactory the closest equivalent for pañhavi-dhàtu is ‘the element of extension’. Without it objects cannot occupy space. Both hardness and softness are characteristics of this element. 11. âpo-dhàtu—lit., the fluid element. âpo is deap, to arrive, or from à + pày, to rived from grow, to increase. It is ‘the element of cohesion.’ According to Buddhism it is this element that makes different particles of matter cohere, and thus prevents them from being scattered about. Both fluidity and contraction are the properties of this element. It should be understood that cold is not a characteristic of this element.

12. Tejo-dhàtu—lit., the fire-element is explained tij, to as ‘the element of heat’. Tejo is derived from sharpen, to mature. Vivacity and maturity are due to the presence of this element. Both heat and cold are the properties of tejo. Intense tejo is heat, and mild tejo is cold. It should not be understood that cold is the characteristic of àpo and heat is that of tejo; for, in that case, both heat and cold should be found together as àpo and tejo coexist.

13. Vàyo-dhàtu—lit., ‘the air-element’, is explained vày, as the element of motion. Vàyo is derived from


to move, to vibrate. Motion, vibration, oscillation, and pressure are caused by this element. 14. Pasàda-råpa—They are the sensitive parts of the five organs—eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body. They tend to clarify the coexisting material qualities. The perceptible physical eye, for instance, is the sasambhàra cakkhu or composite eye, which consists of the four bhåtaråpas, four upàdàråpas (colour, odour, taste, and sap), and jãvitindriya (vitality). The sensitive part which lies at the centre of the retina and which enables one to see objects is the cakkhupasàda. This is the basis of the eye-consciousness (cakkhuvi¤¤àõa) and becomes the instrument for the eye-door thought-process (cakkhu-dvàravãthi). The desire to see tends to develop the sense of sight. The eye, therefore, consists of ten material qualities of which pasàda is one. The other pasàdaråpas should be similarly understood. The Pasàdaråpas of ear, nose, and tongue are in their respective centres; the kàyapasàdaråpa is diffused throughout the body except on hair, on the tips of nails, and in withered skin. 15. Gocararåpa—The sense-fields which serve as supports for the sense-cognitions to arise. 16. Råpa—Both colour and shape are implied by this term.

17. Phoññhabba—owing to its subtlety, the element of cohesion (àpo) cannot be felt by the sense of touch. Only the other three Fundamental Elements are regarded as tangible. In water, for instance, the cold felt is tejo, the softness is pañhavi, and the pressure is vàyo. One cannot touch àpo as its property is cohesion. See Compendium, p. 155, n. 6. 18. Itthattaü purisattaü—also termed itthindriyaü, purisindriyaü — are collectively called in the abbreviated form bhàvaråpa, the state by means of which masculinity and femininity are distinguished. 19. Hadayavatthu—The seat of consciousness. Dhammasaïgani omits this råpa. In the Atthasàlini hadayavatthu is explained as cittassa vatthu (basis of consciousness). It is clear that the Buddha did not definitely assign a specific seat for consciousness as He has done with the other senses. It was the cardiac theory (the view that heart is the seat of consciousness) that prevailed in His time, and this was evidently supported by the Upanishads. The Buddha could have accepted this popular theory, but He did not commit Himself. In the Paññhàna, the Book of Relations, the Buddha refers to the basis of consciousness in such indirect terms as “yaü råpaü nissàya” “depending on that material thing”, without positively asserting whether that råpa was either the heart (hadaya) or the brain. But, according to the views of commentators like Venerable Buddhaghosa and Anuruddha, the seat of consciousness is definitely the heart.

It should be understood that the Buddha has neither accepted nor rejected this ancient popular cardiac theory. See Compendium, p. 156, n.l. and p. 277. 20. Jãvitindriya—There is vitality both in mind and in matter. Psychic life, which is one of the fifty-two mental states (cetasikas) and physical life, which is one of the twenty-eight råpas, are essential characteristics of this socalled being. Psychic life is one of the seven universals and physical life is associated with almost every material group except in dead matter. Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth-consciousness, physical life also springs up together with the initial material groups. Jãvita is qualified by indriya because it has a dominating influence over other co-adjuncts in vivifying them. 21. Kabalãkàro âhàro—So called because gross food is taken in by making into morsels. Here àhàra means nutritive essence (ojà) which sustains the physical body. In the statement—sabbe sattà àhàraññhitikà, all beings live on food—àhàra means a condition (paccaya). 22. Eighteen—4 + 5 + 4 (tangibility excluded), 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 18. 23. Sabhàvaråpa—With respect to their own peculiar characteristics such as hardness, fluidity, etc., 24. Salakkhaõaråpa—So called because they arise with the inherent general marks of impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and soullessness (anatta).

25. Nipphannaråpa—i. e., produced by Kamma, mind, etc. 26. Råparåpa—Here the first term råpa is used in its etymological sense, i. e., changeableness, as in the Pàli phrase—dukkha-dukkha. 27. Sammasanaråpa—Because it enables one to employ them as objects fit for contemplation or insight. 28. Akàsadhàtu—Ceylon Commentators derive àkàsa from à + kas, to plough. Since there is no ploughing as on earth space is called àkàsa. According to Saüskrt kàs to view, to recognize. àkàsa is derived from à + kàs, In Ledi Sayadaw’s opinion it is derived from à + to shine, to appear. âkàsa is space, which in itself is nothingness. As such it is eternal. âkàsa is a dhàtu in the sense of a non-entity (nijjãva), not as an existing element like the four Essentials. By àkàsa, as one of the 28 råpas, is meant not so much the outside space as the intra-atomic space that ‘limits’ or separates material groups (råpakalàpas). Hence in Abhidhamma it is regarded as a ‘paricchedaråpa’. Although àkàsa is not an objective reality, as it is invariably associated with all material units that arise in four ways. Abhidhamma teaches that it, too, is produced by the same four causes such as Kamma, mind, seasonal changes, and food. Simultaneous with the arising and perishing of the conditioned råpas, àkàsa råpa also arises and perishes. See Compendium, p. 226.


Then the number of råpas amounts to 27 instead of 28. 34. Mudutà is comparable to a well-beaten hide. bhàva. Upacaya means the first heaping-up or the first arising. Both upacaya and santati are sometimes treated as jàti—birth. 32. The arising of the first three decads — kàya. Vikàraråpa—Changeability of råpa. Lahutà denotes physical health. 31. Here ‘upa’ is used in the sense of first. Lakkhaõaråpa—So called because they assume distinguishable characteristics at different stages such as arising (uppàda).29. The subsequent arising of the three decads from the static stage of rebirth-consciousness throughout lifetime is regarded as santati. The former is caused by the ‘air-element’ (vàyodhàtu) produced by mind (cittaja). the latter by the ‘earth-element’ produced by the mind. 33. and is comparable to well-hammered gold. Kamma¤¤atà is opposed to the stiffness of the body. It is done both by action and speech— kàyavi¤¤atti and vacãvi¤¤atti. The duration of Vi¤¤atti is only one thought-moment. 30. 333 . and is comparable to an iron-rod heated throughout the day. Vi¤¤àtti is that by means of which one communicates one’s ideas to another and one understands another’s intentions. static (ñhiti) and dissolution (bhaïga). and vatthu — at the very moment of conception is regarded as upacaya.

the intermediate 15 are like the jaratà. Sabba¤ ca pan’ etaü ahetukaü sappaccayaü. jarà. Pasàdahadayasaïkhàtaï chabbidham pi vatthuråpaü nàma. Pasàdavi¤¤attisaïkhàtaü sattavidham pi dvàraråpaü. Kathaü? Pasàdasaïkhàtaü pa¤cavidham pi ajjhattikaråpaü nàma. With the exception of the five råpas—namely. appahàtabbam’ evà’ ti ekavidhaü pi ajjhattikabàhiràdivasena bahudhà bhedaü gacchati. sàsavaü. there are only three lakkhaõaråpas. Pasàdabhàvajãvitasaïkhàtaü aññhavidham pi indriya 129. and aniccatà. viz: birth. anàrammaõaü. itaraü avatthuråpaü. all the remaining 23 råpas last for 17 thought-moments. two vi¤¤attis. saükhataü.The life-term of conditioned råpa is normally I7 thought-moments or 51 minor thought-instants. lokiyaü. and death. Aniccatà is the dissolution of råpa. The entire interval between birth and death constitutes decay or development. jàti. 334 . growth-decay. Strictly speaking. kàmàvacaraü. itaraü advàraråpaü. itaraü bàhiraråpaü. _______ Råpavibhàgo § 3. According to commentators during the time occupied by a flash of lightning billions of thought-moments may arise. nàma. Aniccatà is synonymous with marana (death). the last thoughtmoment is like the aniccatà.129 The first thought-moment is like the upacaya.

_______ Classification of Matter § 3. Vaõõo.råpaü nàma. raso. Cakkhàdidvayaü asampattavasena. itaraü anindriyaråpaü. 3. Rootless (35) Causal (36) With Defilements (37) Conditioned (38) Mundane (39) Pertaining to the Kàma-Sphere (40) 335 . sappañigharåpaü ca. Icc’ evam’ aññhavãsati vidham pi ca vicakkhaõà Ajjhattikàdibhedena vibhajanti yathàraham. 5. 2. dåre råpaü. ghàõàdittayaü sampattavasenà’ ti pa¤cavidham pi gocaraggàhikaråpaü. gandho. Now all this matter divides itself into various categories as follows:— 1. Ayam’ ettha råpavihàgo. santike råpaü. Råpàyatanaü sanidassanaråpaü. itaraü anupàdinnaråpaü. appañigharåpaü. ojà. 4. Pasàdavisayasaïkhàtaü dvàdasavidham’ pi olàrikaråpaü. 6. itaraü vinibbhogaråpaü. itaraü agocaraggàhikaråpaü. itaraü sukhumaråpaü. Kammajaü upàdinnaråpaü. bhåtacatukka¤c’ àti aññhavidham pi avinibbhogaråpaü. itaraü anidassanaråpaü.

comprising the sensitives and sense-objects (7) 130 are gross (47). the rest are without a controlling faculty.7. The eight kinds. are five kinds of material phenomena that take objects (49). the rest are subtle. as not reaching (the object). the rest are without doors. proximate and impinging material qualities. sex-states. are material qualities with a door (45). are material qualities with basis (44). Object of form is visible. Eye and ear. and nonimpinging. How? The five kinds of sensitise material qualities are personal (43). Because “tangibility” comprises the three elements. distant. The six kinds. 8. comprising the sensitives and (the two) media of communication. 130. are material qualities with a controlling faculty (46). comprising the sensitives and the heart. tongue and body as reaching (the object). Material qualities born of Kamma are ‘grasped at’ (48). 336 . the rest are external. the others do not. and vitality. The seven kinds. Objectless (41) Not to be eradicated (42) Matter is thus onefold. comprising the sensitives. When conceived as personal. and nose. excluding àpo. external and so forth matter becomes manifold. the rest are invisible. The twelve kinds. the others are ‘not grasped at. the rest are without a basis.

Summary Thus the wise analyse. Sappaccayaü—Because they are related to the causes—Kamma. citta. 37. Saïkhataü—Because they are conditioned by the four causes. odour. 337 . and àhàra. 36. 38. etc. accordingly. Sàsavaü—Since they serve as objects for Defilements. the rest are separable. the 28 kinds with respect to ‘personal’ and so forth. There is no supramundane råpa. Kàmàvacaraü—Because they come within the range of sensual objects. Section 3 35.Colour. Lokiyaü—Because they are connected with the world of the Five Aggregates of Attachment (pa¤cupàdànakkhandhaloka). utu. Ahetukaü—Because they are not associated with the roots lobha. etc. sap (50) and the four Essentials are the eight kinds (51) of material phenomena that are inseparable. citta. 40. Kamma. 39. Herein this is the analysis of Matter. taste. dosa.

It is the mind that perceives objects through the senses. for instance. Owing to the grossness and nearness both sensitive organs and sense338 . They are so called because they possess a controlling power in their respective spheres. 45. The physical eye.. they serve as seats of consciousness. 47. The five sensitive organs are essential for living beings. ‘Indestructibility’ of matter is not implied by this term. They serve as doors to moral and immoral actions. 46. The state of sex controls masculinity and femininity. Without them they are inanimate logs. 44. Råpas serve as sense-objects. e. The remaining pasàdaråpas should be similarly understood. They are regarded as santike (near) because of their receptivity. is composed of ten material qualities. deeds and speech. They serve as doors to the mind. Ajjhattikaü—Belonging to the so-called self. Appahàtabbaü—Because there is no gradual eradication of matter like passions. mind and mental states. 43. 42. Like the captain of a ship it is vitality that controls råpas. i.41. but it is the sensitive eye (cakkhupasàdaråpa) that controls the remaining nine. Oëàrikaü—Because of their importance both subjectively and objectively. Anàrammaõaü—As they themselves do not perceive objects.

Upàdinnaü—The first 18 kinds of råpa born of Kamma are grasped by craving and false view. This may be the reason. and do not reach. See Compendium. sight and sound are regarded as objects that do not approach the eye and ear respectively as in the case of bodily contacts etc. 49. p. According to the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha. Gocaraggàhikaråpaü—They are so called because they take external objects as pasture. as a råpa in itself. ‘with striking’. 160. The four Essentials are inseparable and so are the other four Derivatives. Ojà. n. 51.objects mutually strike each other. 159. irrespective of the wave theory. 4. Hence they are called sappañigha. See Compendium. lit. has the power of producing other råpas as well. In the case of other objects they directly contact the sense-organs.. 50. For instance. Both eye and ear cognize distant objects without any direct approach. 48. So are the other two objects. taste must directly touch the tongue. p. the objects. why the author distinguishes between senses that reach. Hence they are also termed ‘suddhaññhaka’ (‘pure octad’) and ‘ojaññhaka’ (‘with ojà as the eighth’) The growth of inanimate matter is also due to the presence of this universal Ojà. _______ 339 . As a rule these eight råpas are bound together.

Votthapanakàmàvacarajavanàbhi¤¤à pana vi¤¤attim’ pi samuññhàpenti. vi¤¤attidvayaü cittajam’ eva. Tattha hadaya-indriyaråpàni kammajàn’ eva. Aråpavipàkadvipa¤cavi¤¤aõavajjitaü pa¤casattatividham pi cittaü cittasamuññhànaråpaü pañham bhavaïgaü upàdàya jàyantam’ eva samuññhàpeti. saddo cittotujo. Kammaü. Somanassa-javanàni pan’ ettha terasa-hasanam pi janenti. àhàro c’àti cattàri råpasamuññhànàni nàma. lahutàdittayaü utucittàhàrehi sambhoti. utu. Aññhàrasa paõõarasa terasa dvàdasàti ca Kammacittotukàhàrajàni honti yathàkkamaü 340 . cittaü. Sãtuõhotu-sama¤¤àtà tejo-dhàtu-ñhitippattà’va utusamuññhànaråpaü ajjhatta¤ ca bahiddhà ca yathàrahaü samuññhàpeti. Lakkhaõaråpàni na kutoci jàyanti. Avinibbhogaråpàni c’ eva àkàsadhàtu ca catåhi sambhåtàni. Tattha appanàjavanaü iriyàpatham’ pi sannàmeti. Ojà-saïkhàto àhàro àhàrasamuññhànaråpaü ajjhoharaõkàle ñhànappatto’ va samuññhàpeti.Rupasamutthàna—Naya § 4. Tattha kàmàvacaraü råpàvacaraü cà ti pa¤cavãsatividham pi kusalàkusalakammamabhisaïkhataü ajjhattika-santàne kammasamuññhànaråpaü pañisandhim’ upàdàya khaõe khaõe samuññhàpeti.

in one’s own continuity. (2) Material phenomena arising from Mind (54) The seventy-five types of consciousness. (3) Seasonal conditions. Herein the thirteen pleasurable Javanas produce laughter too. Material phenomena arise in four ways. 341 . But the Determining Consciousness. produce. at every moment. and (4) Food. the twenty-five types of moral and immoral Kamma. viz:— (1) Kamma. (1) Material Phenomena arising from Kamma (53) Therein. (2) Mind. and super-knowledge consciousness produce also (bodily and vocal) media of communication. excluding the Formless Resultants and the twice fivefold cognitives produce mind-born material phenomena. Javanas of the Kama Sphere.Jàyamànàdiråpànaü sabhàvattà hi kevalaü Lakkhaõàni na jàyanti kehicã’ ti pakàsitaü. _______ The Arising of Material Phenomena (52) § 4. pertaining to the Kàma and Råpa Spheres. commencing from conception. duly constituted material phenomena born of Kamma. from the first moment of life-continuum just as it arises. Ayam’ ettha råpasamuññhànanayo. Therein the ecstatic Javanas regulate the bodily postures.

Råpasamutthàna—Buddhism does not attempt to solve the problem of the ultimate origin of matter. during assimilation on reaching its static stage. The characteristic marks of matter that arise and so forth are not produced by any cause. known as nutritive essence. The triple qualities of lightness and so forth arise from seasonal conditions. (4) Material Phenomena arising from Food (56) Food. and food. The two media of communication are born only of mind. they say. Eighteen. and food. Therein the heart and the (eight) material Faculties are born of Kamma. _______ Notes:— 52. which comprises both cold and heat. seasonal conditions. produces material phenomena resulting from food. fifteen. The inseparable material qualities and the element of space arise from four causes. since they are wholly intrinsic. on reaching its static stage. thirteen. Characteristic material qualities do not arise from any cause. It 342 . according to circumstances. produces. Sound is born of mind and seasonal conditions. both internal and external material phenomena. resulting from seasonal conditions.(3) Material Phenomena arising from Seasonal conditions (55) The Tejo-element. mind. and twelve arise respectively from Kamma. mind.

spring up at every instant. the kàya. It is only those classes of consciousness pertaining to the Kàma and Råpa-Spheres that tend to produce råpa. 53. 54. the invisible but more powerful composite factor of the so-called being. At the very moment of conception there arise. They are 12 types of immoral consciousness. by Kamma are meant past moral and immoral types of consciousness. Cittaja—Mind. vitality and the Kàyapasàda. four derivatives. Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth-consciousness. The sex-decad and the base-decad are similarly constituted. and the 5 moral råpa jhànas. A moral or immoral birth-reproductive Kamma generated at the dying moment of a person conditions the rebirth-consciousness (pañisandhicitta) in a subsequent birth. råpas. as a result of the reproductive Kammic force. According to Abhi343 .takes for granted that matter exists and states that råpa develops in four ways. three dasakas or ‘decads’—namely. Kammaja—Strictly speaking. like the flame of a lamp. The body decad is composed of the four elements. and vatthu—body. sex and base decads. conditioned by past Kamma. up to the I7th thought-moment reckoned from the dying moment of the person. bhàva. has the potentiality to produce råpa. 8 types of moral consciousness. This is apparent from the physical changes that result from thoughts generated by a person. good and bad thoughts produce desirable and undesirable material phenomena. In other words.

the Buddha fasted 49 days immediately after His Enlightenment. it is from the arising moment of the first Bhavaïga. diving into the earth. The rebirth-consciousness does not produce mind-born råpas since Kamma does that function and since it is a newcomer to the fresh existence. No mind-born råpas arise at the static and perishing thought-moments as they are weak. and 16 sobhana kusala and kriyà. The four Aråpa Vipàka Jhànas do not produce råpa as they are developed through non-attachment to råpa. The ten sense-cognitives lack the potentiality to produce råpa. etc. 1 hasituppàda. One who possesses Jhànas can therefore produce powerful råpas which would enable him to live even without edible food. 26 Javanas (10 råpa kusala and kriyà + 8 aråpa kusala and kriyà and 8 lokuttaras) could produce abnormal bodily movements such as passing through the air. and Abhi¤¤à cittas are the two fifth jhàna kusala and kriyà. that material phenomena arising from mind spring up. walking on water. accompanied by equanimity and connected with knowledge. One who experiences Nibbànic bliss could live without any food for a considerable period. The mentally alert do not lack vitality. 344 . For instance. Here the Determining consciousness is the minddoor consciousness (manodvàràvajjana). that is. Kàmajavanas (29) are the 12 akusalas. immediately after the rebirth-consciousness.dhamma. It is stated that Jhàna factors are essential to produce mind-born råpa. Of the 75 types of consciousness.

the types of consciousness excluding the two akusalas accompanied by misbelief. Arahants. At the genesis stage Kamma-born tejo element takes the place of mind-born tejo element. mind. Råpas 345 .13 pleasurable javanas are the 4 akusalas and 8 sobhana kusalas and kriyàs. found in these three groups. and seasonal conditions. produced by climatic conditions. experience the four akusalas and four sobhanas. Sekhas. The internal tejo element. âhàraja—By âhàra are meant the nutritive essence present in physical food and the sap (ojà) contained in the material groups born of Kamma. and vatthu. The Buddhas smile only with the four sobhana kriyàs. produces råpa at the static stage which endures for 49 minor thought-instants. Utuja—It was stated earlier that Kamma produces. Strictly speaking. three decads — kàya. It should he understood that råpas. 55. supported by the external nutritive essence. 56. It is clear that the term utu has been used in the sense of tejo which constitutes both heat and cold. and 1 hasituppàda. are also included in the utuja class. combined with the external tejo element. at the moment of rebirth. bhàva. when laughing or smiling. accompanied by pleasure. The internal ojà. it is the internal and external tejo elements which produce råpa. Worldlings. produces material phenomena caused by seasonal conditions at the static stage of the rebirth-consciousness. the four kriyàs and one hasituppàda.

tongue. ear. inarticulate sounds are caused by utu. and death. Musical notes caused by men are produced by utu. masculinity. âkàsa—It is interesting to note that this intra-atomic space is caused by all the four causes. They do possess a certain kind of life different from human beings and animals. 3 + Inseparables 8 + Space 1. nose. and vitality) are wholly produced by Kamma. They are:— Mutables 5 + Sound 1 + Inseparables 8 + Space 1. decay. as they are not the inevitable results of Kamma. Sadda—Articulate sounds are caused by mind. They are :— Sound 1 + Lightness etc. âhàraja = 12. Hadaya and 8 Indriya råpas (= eye. They are:— inseparables 8 + Space 1 + Heart 1 + Controlling faculties 8. _______ 346 . Utuja = 13. Cittaja = 15.arise when the ojà diffuses the body. Internal sap is alone incapable of producing råpa without the aid of external nutritive essence. Kammaja = 18. They are:— Lightness etc. body. conditioned by mind. The four Lakkhana råpas are common to all as there is no råpa devoid of the three instants — birth. Thus jãvitindriya or the lifeprinciple present in animate beings such as men and animals should he differentiated from the inanimate life of plants and inorganic substances. femininity. 3 Inseparables 8 + Space 1.

347 . Avinibbhogaråpam’ eva jãvitena saha jãvitanavakan’ ti pavuccati. Avasesà pana sabbe pi ajjhattikam’ eva. ghàna-dasakam. Kammacittotukàhàra-samuññhànà yathàkkamaü Nava cha caturo dve’ ti kalàpà ekavãsati Kalàpànaü paricchedalakkhaõattà vicakkhaõà Na kalàpaïgam iccàhu àkàsaü lakkhaõàni ca. Ime nava kammasamuññhàna-kalàpà. jivhà-dasakaü. Tad’ eva kàyavi¤¤attiyà saha kàyavi¤¤attinavakaü vacã-vi¤¤atti saddehi saha vacã-vi¤¤atti-dasakaü lahutàdãhi saddhim lahutàdekàdasakaü kàya-vi¤¤attilahutàdi-dvàdasakaü vacã-vi¤¤atti-saddalahutàdi-terasaka¤ c’àti cha cittasamuññhànakalàpà. kàyadasakaü. pumbhàva — dasakaü vatthu-dasaka¤ c’àti yathàkkamaü yojetabbaü. sadda-lahutàdidvàdasaka¤ c’àti cattàro utusamuññhànakalàpà. Suddhaññhakaü. Tattha jãvitaü avinibbhogaråpa¤ ca cakkhunà saha cakkhu-dasakan’ ti pavuccati. Avinibbhogaråpaü pana suddhaññhakaü. Ekuppàdà ekanirodhà ekanissayà sahavuttinoekavãsati råpa-kalàpà nàma. saddanavaka¤ c’àti utusamuññhàna-kalàpà bahiddhà pi’ labbhanti. lahutàdekàdasakaü. Tattha suddhaññhakaü.Kalàpa—Yojanà § 5. Suddhaññhakaü. saddanavakaü. lahutàdekàdasaka¤ c’àti dve àhàrasamuññhàna-kalàpà. itthibhàva — dasakaü. Tathà sotàdãhi saddhiü sotadasakaü.

Therein vitality and the (eight) inseparable material qualities together with the eye are called the ‘eye-decad’. together with the material qualities of lightness. and coexist.’ male-decad’. ‘nose-decad’. and adaptability the ‘un-decad of lightness’ and so forth. pliancy. There are twenty-one material groups inasmuch as they arise together (or have a common genesis). ‘body-decad’. together with the bodily intimation. the do-decad of 348 . and adaptability. are called the ‘vital-nonad’. These six material groups are produced by mind. together with the vocal intimation and sound the ‘vocal intimation decad’. cease together (or have a common cessation). the do-decad of bodily intimation. pliancy. They. the un-decad of lightness. Similarly the ‘ear-decad’ together with the ear and so forth. together with vitality. _______ Grouping of Material Qualities (57) § 5. lightness. and adaptability. The pure octad„ the sound-nonad. ‘femaledecad. should respectively be formed. and the tri-decad of vocal intimation. ‘tongue-decad’. lightness. and adaptability. Inseparable material qualities. pliancy. sound.Ayam’ ettha kalàpa-yojanà. pliancy. The inseparable material qualities constitute the ‘pure octad’. have a common dependence. ‘base-decad’. constitute the ‘bodily intimation nonad’. These nine groups are produced by Kamma.

four and two produced in due order from Kamma. Pañisandhiyaü pana saüsedajàna¤ c’ eva opapàtikàna¤ ca cakkhu-sota-ghàõajivhà-kàya-bhàva-vatthu-dasaka-saïkhàtàni satta-dasakàni pàtubhavanti ukkaññhavasena. and characteristic marks just indicate. Tathà’ pi bhàva-dasakaü kadàci na labbhati. Tasmà tesaü vasena kalàpahàni veditabbà. and food. Gabbhaseyyaka-sattànaü pana kàya-bhàva-vatthudasaka–saïkhàtàni tãõi dasakàni pàtubhavanti. The pure octad. Herein this is the formation of material groups. As space demarcates. the wise state that they are not parts of material groups. Omakavasena pana cakkhu-sota-ghàõa-bhàva-dasakàni kadàci pi na labbhanti. All the rest are strictly internal. pliancy. and the un-decad of lightness. Tato paraü 349 . pliancy and adaptability are the two material qualities produced by food. There are twenty-one material groups — nine. seasonal phenomena. Of them the two material groups produced by seasonal phenomena—pure octad and the sound nonad—are found externally too. mind.sound. six. Sabbàni pan’etàni råpàni kàmaloke yathàrahaü anånàni pavattiyaü upalabbhanti. and adaptability—these four are produced by seasonal phenomena. Section 6 Råpapavattikkamo § 6. lightness.

Icc’ evaü matasattànaü punad’ eva bhavantare Patisandhim upàdàya tathà råpaü pavattati. Tato paraü cittajàhàraja-råpa¤ ca vocchjijjhati. Iccevaü kàmaråpàsa¤¤ã-saïkhàtesu tãsu ñhànesu pañisandhi-pavatti-vasena duvidhà råpappavatti veditabbà. Tasmà tesaü pañisandhikàle cakkhu-sota-vatthuvasena tãõi dasakàni jãvitanavakàni c’àti cattàro kammasamutthànakalàpà. Tato paraü utusamuññhànaråpaparamparà yàva mata-kalebara-saïkhàtà pavattanti. 350 . Tasmà tesaü pañisandhikàle jãvitanavakam’ eva. Asa¤¤a-sattànaü pana cakkhu-sota-vatthu-saddàni pi na labbhanti. Tathà sabbàni pi cittajaråpàni. Råpaloke pana ghàõa jivhà-kàya-bhàva-dasakàni ca àhàraja-kalàpàni ca na labbhanti. Puretaraü uppannàni ca kammaja-råpàni cuticittasamakàlam’ eva pavattitvà nirujjhanti.pavattikàle kamena cakkhudasakàdãni ca pàtubhavanti. Pavattiya¤ ca saddavajjitaü utusamuññhànaråpaü atiricchati. pavattiyaü cittotusamuññhànà ca labbhanti. Maraõakàle pana cuti-cittopari sattarasama cittassa ñhiti-kàlaü upàdàya kammajaråpàni na uppajjanti. Icc’ evaü pañisandhiü upàdàya kammasamuññhànà dutiyacittam’ upàdàya citta-samuññhànà ñhitikàlam’ upàdàya utusamuññhànà ojàpharaõaü upàdàya àhàrasamuññhànà c’àti catusamuññhàna-råpa-kalàpa-santati Kàmaloke dãpajàlà viya nadãsoto viya ca yàvatàyukaü abbhocchinnaü pavattati.

Aññhavãsati kàmesu honti tevãsa råpisu Sattaras’ eva sa¤¤ãnam aråpe natthi ki¤ci pi. Iti cittaü cetasikaü råpaü nibbànam iccapi Paramatthaü pakàsenti catudhà va tathàgatà. Nibbànaü pana lokuttara-saïkhàtaü catumagga¤àõena sacchikàtabbaü magga-phalànaü àlambanabhåtaü vàna — saïkhàtàya taõhàya nikkhantattà nibbànanti pavuccati. according to circumstances. Tad’etaü sabhàvato ekavidham pi. Nibbànaü § 7. _______ Arising of Material Phenomena (58) § 6. Saddo vikàro jaratà maraõa¤ c’ opapattiyaü Na labhanti pavatte tu na ki¤ci pi na labbhati. with no deficiency. saupàdisesanibbànadhàtu anupàdisesa-nibbànadhàtu c’ àti duvidhaü hoti kàraõapariyàyena. Ayam’ ettha råpa-pavattikkamo. Tathà su¤¤ataü animittaü appaõihitaü c’ àti tividhaü hoti àkàrabhedena Padamaccutamaccantaü asaïkhatamanuttaraü Nibbànaü iti bhàsanti vànamuttà mahesayo. during lifetime in 351 . Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe råpa – saïgahavibhàgo nàma Chaññho Paricchedo. All these material qualities are obtained.

352 . But at conception. ear. sex and the material groups produced by food do not arise. Thus to the dead persons. there arise at most the seven decads—eye. Thereafter a continuity of material qualities produced by physical changes persists while what is called a corpse (lasts). and sex decads are not obtained. body. This is how deficiencies of material groups should be understood. sex and base.— uninterruptedly flows on in the Kàma-sphere till the end of life like the flame of a lamp. eye. nose. But at the time of death. during lifetime. again in a subsequent life. gradually there arise eye-decads and so forth. In the Råpa-plane decads of nose. From the conception and thereafter. tongue. To the womb-born creatures there arise three decads— body. nose. mind-born from the second moment of consciousness. to moisture-born beings and to those of spontaneous birth. season-born from the time of the static stage. however.—produced in four ways—namely. starting from the static stage of consciousness. the sex-decad is not obtained. tongue. Thus the continuity of material groups. Kamma-born from the time of conception. Kamma-born material qualities that arose earlier exist till the deceasemoment and then cease. As a minimum sometimes. Sometimes. foodborn from the time of the diffusion of nutritive essence.the Kàma-sphere. body. ear. material qualities similarly arise starting from the conception. or the stream of a river. sex and base. from the seventeenth moment reckoned backward from the decease-consciousness.

ear. and the vital nonad. and base. continue. mutation. At the moment of birth sound. ear. Herein this is the way how material qualities arise. 23 in the Råpa-plane. 17 in the Asa¤¤a plane. base and sound. decay. Thus in the three planes of Kàma. but none in the Aråpa-plane. Therefore at the moment of their rebirth only the vital nonad arises. During lifetime there is nothing that is not obtained.Therefore to them at the time of rebirth there arise four material groups produced by Kamma. such as the three decads of eye. But to the mindless beings there do not arise eye. Nibbàna is onefold according to its intrinsic nature. Nibbàna (59) § 7. It becomes an object to the Paths and Fruits. In the Kàma-sphere are obtained 28 material qualities. Råpa and Asa¤¤a (Mindless) the procedure of material phenomena should be understood in two ways as regards rebirth and lifetime. During lifetime material qualities produced by physical changes. Nibbàna however is termed supramundane. and is called Nibbàna because it is a departure (ni) from cord-like (vàna) craving. Similarly mind-born material qualities do not arise. and is to be realized by the wisdom of the Four Paths. impermanence are not obtained. 353 . with the exception of sound. During life material qualities produced by mind and physical changes arise.

There are such 21 material groups. For instance. As all mental states possess four common characteristics. All these ten coexist (sahavutti). the Tathàgatas reveal the Ultimate entities:—consciousness. matter. absolutely endless. It should be understood that the earthelement of the ‘eye-decad’ does not serve as a basis for the associated råpas of the ‘ear-decad’.According to the way (it is experienced) it is twofold—namely. acts as a basis for the remaining nine (ekanissaya). The earth-element. Thus. so råpas found in the aforesaid groups possess four salient characteristics. Signless (61). and Longing-free (62). non-conditioned (64). in the ‘eye-decad’ all the ten associated råpas arise and cease together (ekuppàdaekanirodha). It is threefold according to its different aspectsnamely. These four characteristics apply only to the associated råpas of each particular group. Void (60). Great seers who are free from craving declare that Nibbàna is an objective state (63) which is deathless. 57. 354 . Råpas do not arise singly but collectively in groups. _______ In the Abhidhamma Compendium this is the sixth chapter which deals with the analysis of matter _______ Notes: § 5. which is one of the ten. and Nibbàna. and incomparable. as fourfold. the element of Nibbàna with the substrata remaining and the element of Nibbàna without the substrata remaining. mental states.

Petas and Devas normally. moisture-born beings (saüsedaja). Beings having a spontaneous birth are generally invisible to the physical eye. They all must possess a consciousness as they are all endowed with the base-decad. This section deals with the manner in which these material groups come into being and how they exist during lifetime. Embryos that take moisture as nidus for their growth. and in different states of birth. womb-born beings (jalàbuja). and beings having spontaneous births (opapàtika). the seat of consciousness. and body though they possess those physical organs. Conditioned by their past Kamma. at the moment of conception. that is. they appear spontaneously. According to Buddhism there are four kinds of birth—namely. egg-born beings (aõóaja). without passing through an embryonic stage. 58. tongue. sex. and the seat of conscious355 . Egg-born beings are also included among wombborn beings. But all beings who are spontaneously born in the Råpa-Sphere are not only asexual but are also devoid of sensitive nose. The sensitive material qualities (pasàdaråpas) of those particular organs are lost as they are not of any practical use to Brahmas. like certain lowly forms of animal life.§ 6. At the moment of conception they all obtain the three decads of body. and Brahmas belong to this class. Sometimes moisture-born beings lack certain senses and have no sex. Some of those who have spontaneous birth in the Kàma-Sphere are asexual. belong to the third class.

From this it is seen that even eggs are constituted with a consciousness. At times some are devoid of either masculinity or femininity. When all forms of craving are extirpated. Ni is a particle implying negation. the extinction. means non-craving or non-attachment. or the annihilation of the flames of lust. Strictly speaking. hatred. in conventional terms. and is not merely an escape from ‘sin and hell’.ness. Vàna means weaving or craving. As long as one is entangled by craving or attachment.131 Saüskrt Nirvàna. √ và. 57. Kammic forces cease to operate. § 7. one accumulates fresh Kammic forces which must materialise in one form or other in the eternal cycle of birth and death. derived from ni + to weave. Nibbàna is also derived from ni + In that case Nibbàna means the blowing out. and one. vu. attains Nibbàna.” pp. √ 356 . For details see “The Buddha and His Teachings. escaping the cycle of birth and death. or ‘departure from craving’. The Buddhist conception of Deliverance is this escape from the ever-recurring cycle of birth and death. It is this craving which acts as a cord to connect the series of lives of any particular individual in the course of his wanderings in Saüsàra. Nibbàna. is composed of ni and vàna. Ni + vàna = Nivàna = Nibàna = Nibbàna. to blow. 489–510. and 131. Etymologically. Nibbàna is that Dhamma which is gained by the complete destruction of all forms of craving. Nibbàna.

Upàdi. As such it is unique (kevala).ignorance. sesa = remaining. It is only the means to gain Nibbàna. Intrinsically (sabhàvato) Nibbàna is peaceful (santi). beyond the world of mind and body or the five ‘aggregates’. 6. The Ceylon Commentary explains—the cause for naming it as such with respect to its having or not having the aggregates as the remainder (sa-upàdisesàdivasena pa¤¤àpane kàraõabhåtassa upàdisesabhàvàbhàvassa lesena). It should be understood that the mere destruction of passions is not Nibbàna (khayamattam’ eva na nibbànanti vattabbaü). Nibbàna is an ultimate reality (vatthudhamma) which is supramundane (lokuttara). Adding a note on this term S. derived from 357 . Nibbàna is to be understood by intuitive knowledge and inferential knowledge (paccakkha or pañivedha ¤àõa and anumàna or anubodha ¤àõa). 168. p. Aung writes: “The Ceylon commentaries explain it by pa¤¤àpane kàraõassa lesena — by way of device of the means (of knowing) in the matter of language” Compendium. Saupàdisesa—Sa = with. This single Nibbàna is viewed as twofold according to the way it is experienced before and after death. and is not an end in itself. upàdi = aggregates (mind and body). To express both ideas it is stated that Nibbàna is to be realized by means of the wisdom pertaining to the four Paths of Sainthood and that it becomes an object to the Paths and Fruits. that is.Z. The text uses a simple but recondite Pàli phrase—kàraõa-pariyàyena. n.

Nibbàna of the Arahants is also saupàdisesaNibbànadhàtu as they have the body still remaining. 358 √ . Itivuttaka refers to these two kinds of Nibbàna. It also signifies passions (kilesas). It is only the Nibbàna of the Arahants after their death that is termed anupàdisesa-Nibbànadhàtu because the aggregates and the passions are discarded by them. p. who is such and unattached. It states:— “These two Nibbàna-states are shown by Him Who seeth. means the five aggregates as they are firmly grasped by craving and false views. tho’ becoming’s stream Be cut off. or of all conditioned things. 38. Sakadàgàmis. hatred. experienced by Sotàpannas. (See The Buddha and His Teachings) 60. Void here does not mean that Nibbàna is ‘nothingness’. One state is that in this same life possessed With base remaining. Woodward — As it was said. According to the text and the commentarial interpretations Nibbàna.upa + à + dà. While the state without a base Belongeth to the future. 143. but mention is made only of Nibbàna comprehended by Arahants. Su¤¤ata—Devoid of lust. to take. and ignorance. and Anàgàmis. p. wherein all Becomings utterly do come to cease.” Itivuttaka. is saupàdisesaNibbànadhàtu as they have the body and some passions still remaining.

= Vi¤¤atti — two media of communication — gestures and speech + = Yes – = No (Diagram XIII continued on next page) 359 . = Iriyàpatha — Bodily movements H. Appanihita—Free from the hankerings of lust etc. State does not exactly convey the meaning of the Pàli term. = Hasituppada — Smiling consciousness V. or because it is not longed for which any feelings of craving. 63.. Asaïkhata—Nibbàna is the only Dhamma which is not conditioned by any cause. 64. = Cittaja — råpa born of mind I. or from the signs of all conditioned things. Padaü—Here the term is used in the sense of an objective reality (vatthudhamma). = Kammajarupa — råpa born of Kamma C. In pali it is designated as a ‘Dhamma’. Animitta—Free from the signs of lust etc.. Hence it is eternal and is neither a cause nor an effect. Diagram XIII How different types of consciousness produce various kinds of rupa— Abbreviations:— K. It may be argued whether Nibbàna could strictly be called either a state or a process.61. 62.

accompanied by indifference 2 Rooted in Illwill. accompanied by pleasure 4 Rooted in Attachment. accompanied by equanimity C. + + + + + + + + – + + – + – + – – – + – – – – + – – – + + + + + + + + + – + + + + + + + – – + – – – – + – + + + – – – + + – + + + + – – + – – + + + + – + + – + 360 . H. accompanied by indifference 8 Sobhanas.K. 2 rooted in Ignorance 10 Sense-cognitions. Kiriyà. Vipàka 4 Sobhanas. 4 Aråpa Vipàka 2 Sampañicchana. 1 Sense-door. 4 Rooted in Attachment. accompanied by pleasure 4 Sobhanas. V. Kiriyà. accompanied by pleasure 4 Sobhanas. I. 3 Santãraõa 1 Mind-door (Votthapana) 1 Hasituppàda 5 Råpakusala 5 Råpa Vipàka and 5 Råpa Kiriyà 8 Aråpa Kusala and Kiriyà 8 Lokuttara 4 Sobhanas.

diññhiyogo. sabbasaïgaho c’ àti samuccayasaïgaho catubbidho veditabbo. diññhogho. bhavàsavo. sãlabbataparàmàso kàyagantho. thãnamiddhanãvaraõaü. bodhipakkhiyasaïgaho. uddhaccakukkuccanãvaraõaü. § 2. diññhàsavo. Dvàsattatividhà vuttà vatthudhammà salakkhaõà Tesaü dàni yathàyogaü pavakkhàmi samuccayam.Chapter VII Samuccaya—Saïgaha—Vibhàgo _______ § 1. avijjàsavo. vyàpàdanãvaraõaü. vicikicchànãvaraõaü. (ii) Cattàro oghà — kàmogho. missakasaïgaho. (vi) Cha nãvaraõàni — kàmacchandanãvaraõaü. avijjogho. avijjàyogo. avijjànãvaraõaü. (iv) Cattàro ganthà — abhijjhà kàyagantho. Kathaü? (i) Akusalasaïgahe tàva cattàro àsavà:—kàmàsavo. bhavogho. sãlabbatupàdànaü. 361 . (v) Cattàro upàdànà — kàmupàdanaü. attavàdupàdànaü. Akusalasaïgaho. diññhupàdànaü. bhavayogo. idaüsaccàbhiniveso kàyagantho. vyàpàdo kàyagantho. (iii) Cattàro yogà — kàmayogo.

mànànusayo. pañighasaüyojanaü. (viii) Dasa saüyojanàni — kàmaràgasaüyojanaü. âsavoghà ca yogà ca tayo ganthà ca vatthuto Upàdànà duve vuttà aññha nãvaraõà siyuü Chaëevànusayà honti nava saüyojanà matà Kilesà dasa vutto’ yaü navadhà pàpasaïgaho 362 . uddhaccaü. abhidhamme. mànasaüyojanaü. moho. diññhànusayo. aråparàgasaüyojanaü. mànasaüyojanaü. macchariyasaüyojanaü. thãnaü. pañighasaüyojanaü. vicikicchàsaüyojanaü. sãlabbataparàmàsasaüyojanaü. ahirikaü. vicikicchàsaüyojanaü. issàsaüyojanaü. (ix) Aparàni dasa saüyojanàni — kàmaràgasaüyojanaü. pañighànusayo. suttante. uddhacca saüyojanaü. Asavàdisu pan’ ettha kàmabhavanàmena tabbatthuka taõhà adhippetà. råparàgasaüyojanaü. bhavaràgànusayo. (x) Dasa kilesà — lobho. avijjà saüyojanaü. anottappaü. avijjàsaüyojanaü. Sãlabbataparàmàso idaüsaccàbhiniveso attavàdupàdànaü ca tathà pavattaü diññhigatam’ eva pavuccati. sãlabbata paràmàsasaüyojanaü. vicikicchà. doso. màno. vicikicchànusayo. diññhi. bhavaràgasaüyojanaü. avijjànusayo. diññhisaüyojanaü. diññhisaüyojanaü.(vii) Sattànusayà — kàmaràgànusayo.

(iv) The miscellaneous compendium. Ignorance. Attachment to existence. 3. Sense-desires. in the immoral compendium here are four Defilements (2):— 1. (ii) The compendium of mixed categories. 3. The compendium of categories should be understood as fourfold:— (i) The compendium of immoral categories. 363 . The seventy-two kinds of entities (1) have (already) been described with their characteristics. Now I shall speak of their categories in accordance with their relations. Sensedesires. Illwill. (v) There are four Graspings (6):—1. Covetousness. 2. 2. (iv) There are four (bodily) Ties (5):—1. Soul-theory (7). (iii) The compendium of categories that pertain to enlightenment. False Views. How? (i) To begin with. False Views. Adherence to rites and ceremonies. 4. (iii) There are four Bonds (4):—(same as 1–4). 2. Dogmatic belief that ‘this alone is truth’. 3. (ii) There are four Floods (3):—(same as 1–4). 4. § 2. and 4.Chapter 7 Abhidhamma Categories _______ Introductory § 1. Adherence to rites and ceremonies.

8. Ignorance. 7. (viii) There are ten Fetters according to the Suttas (10):—1. 364 . Herein in the category of Defilements and so on the terms ‘attachment to sensual pleasures’ and ‘attachment to existence’ imply craving based on them. Hate. 2. 2. Restlessness. Attachment to Realms of Form. Doubts. Hatred. Attachment to sensual pleasures. 7. Attachment to Formless Realms. 3. Moral Fearlessness. Attachment to sensual pleasures. 4. 3. Hatred. 5. Pride. Delusion. 6. Hatred. Doubts. Doubts. (ix) There are ten Impurities (II):—Greed. Adherence to rites and ceremonies 8. Envy 9. 3. Pride. False Views. 9. 6. Pride. 4. Adherence to rites and ceremonies. 2. and 7. and ‘clinging to the soul-theory connote just ‘false views’ connected therewith. dogmatic belief that ‘this alone is truth’. Ignorance. 8. 9. Sloth and Torpor. Pride. 7. Attachment to existence. and 10. Attachment to existence. Sloth. Restlessness and Brooding. False Views. Doubts. Avarice.(vi) There are six Hindrances (8):—Sense-desires. Ignorance. 2. (vii) There are Seven Latent Dispositions (9) 1. Attachment to sensual pleasures. 5. 5. 2. 4. 3. and 10. There are other ten Fetters according to Abhidhamma:— 1. 6. False Views. In the same way ‘adherence to rites and ceremonies’. Ignorance. 4. False Views. Illwill. Restlessness. 6. 3. Doubts. Moral Shamelessness. and 10. 4. 5. 5. 6.

and Ties are threefold. to flow.. _______ Notes:— 1. Floods. This compendium of immoral categories is ninefold. They are miscellaneously treated in this chapter. All these 72 are subjective and objective realities described in the previous chapters. the thought-moment that immediately 365 √ . âsavà— is derived from à + are so called either because they flow up to the topmost plane of existence or because they persist as far as the Gotrabhå consciousness (i. d. (1+52+18+1=72) a. There are two Graspings and eight Hindrances. Bonds. c.e. b. 1 — All the 89 types of consciousness are regarded as one as they all possess the characteristic of ‘awareness’.Summary Actually Defilements. Vatthudhammà—namely. Latent Dispositions are six. Impurities are ten. 72. su. 1 — Nibbàna is one insamuch as it possesses the characteristic of peacefulness. Fetters should be understood as nine. 18 — All the conditioned (nipphanna) råpas are considered separately since they differ in their characteristics. 52 — All mental states (cetasikas) are viewed separately as they possess different characteristics. They 2.

See Compendium. 227. both past and future lives. Ogha is derived from ava + kill. No. These âsavas are latent in all worldlings and may rise to the surface in any plane of existence. to harm or 3.132 and avijjàsava is ignorance with regard to the four Noble Truths. 1. 5. Yogas 4. Corruptions. Ganthas are those that bind mind with body or the present body with bodies of future existences. to yoke. 170. diññhàsava are the sixty-two kinds of erroneous views. Here the term kàya is used in the sense of mass or body—both mental and physical. han. Stains are suggested as the closest equivalents for this ‘infamously famous’ Pàli term. Of the four âsavas kàmàsava means attachment to sensual pleasures. n. Yoga is derived from are those that yoke beings to the round of existence or to the machine of existence. √ √ 366 . p. Beings caught in the current of a great flood are overturned and swept away directly to the sea and are hurled into the bottom. See Brahmajàla Sutta—Digha Nikaya. Intoxicants. past life. 1. Depravities. Taints. bhavàsava is attachment to Råpa and Aråpa planes of existence. They lie dormant in all from an indefinite period and are treated as strong intoxicants or drugs that infatuate beings. future life. p.precedes the Path-consciousõess of the ‘Stream-Winner’— Sotàpatti). 132. In the same way these oghas drown beings completely and are swept away into states of misery. Defilements. and the Law of Dependent Arising. yuj.

Intense craving is implied by the term. 7. to hinder. restlessness and brooding are grouped together because their functions (kicca). Four soul-theories connected with each of the remaining four Aggregates should be similarly understood.. See A Manual of Buddhism. They are so called because they obstruct the way to celestial and Nibbànic bliss.6. to give. causes 367 √ √ . Nãvaraõàni—is derived from nã + obstruct. Both sloth and torpor. (iv) Body is in the soul. pp. Hence in the Pañiccasamuppàda it is stated — Because of craving (taõhà) there is attachment or grasping (upàdàna). 113–115 and The Buddha and His Teachings pp. Upàdàna is like the actual stealing. (iii) Soul is in the body. 538–541. Usually Nãvaranas are regarded as five excluding ignorance. to 8. var. or that which does not allow the jhànas to arise. Attavàdåpàdàna—Commentaries mention twenty kinds of soul-theories associated with the five Aggregates as follows:— (i) Soul is identical with the body. or that which obstructs the eye of wisdom. Upàdànàni is derived from upa + à dà. (ii) Soul is possessed of a body. According to the commentary this term means that which prevents the arising of good thoughts in the way of jhànas etc. Taõhà is like a thief groping in the dark to steal some thing.

to perturbed water caused by wind. to 9. restlessness and brooding. to the second pair. sloth and torpor. 368 √ . These Hindrances are temporarily inhibited by the jhànas. The function of sloth and torpor is mental inactivity. that of restlessness and brooding is disquietude. Anusaya. by attaining Anàgàmi. to boiling water. tranquillity. Every worldling. The cause of the first pair is laziness. and restlessness by Arahatta. derived from anu + sleep. to lie. indecision. They are completely eradicated by attaining the four stages of Sainthood. Sense-desire is compared to water mixed with various colours. illwill. who has reached the topmost jhàna plane. illwill and brooding. to water covered with moss. even so when one is obsessed by Hindrances one cannot perceive what is conducive to the good and happiness of oneself and others. but these seven are the strongest. All passions are Anusayas. are those that lie dormant in oneself until an opportune moment arises for them to come to the surface as they have not been eradicated. and their opposing factors are similar.(àhàra = hetu). si. sloth. Energy is opposed to the first pair. Just as one cannot perceive one’s own reflection in muddy water. that of the second pair is vexation about the loss of relatives etc. to turbid and muddy water. may give vent to these evil tendencies as they are latent in him. sense-desire. Doubt or indecision is eradicated by attaining Sotàpatti. torpor. when born amongst mankind.

11. 9. Hatred Vicikicchà (Kaïkhà)–Doubt. 3. 2. Lobha (Taõhà)—Craving Diññhi—False View. 5. Conceit Uddhacca—Restlessness Thina—Sloth Kukkucca—Brooding Middha—Torpor Ahirika—Moral Shamelessness Anottappa—Moral Fearlessness Issà—Jealousy. Error Avijjà (Moha)—Ignorance Patigha (Dosa)—Illwill. 8. 13.âsava + + + Ogha + + + Yoga + + + Gantha + + Upàdàna + + Nãvarana + Anusaya + + + + + + Saüyojana + + + + + + + Kilesa + + + + + + + + 1. 6. 4. Envy Macchariya—Avarice 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + 369 + + + + Diagram XIV + + + + . Indecision Màna—Pride. 14. 12. 10. 7.

Similarly there are only two upàdànas by way of lobha and diññhi.10. Both kàmàsava and bhavàsava connote lobha. to yoke. oghas. By means of the four Paths (Magga) they are eradicated by degrees. Saüyojana—from saü + yuj. idaüsaccàbhinivesa (‘The dogmatic belief that this alone is truth’) and attavàdåpàdàna (‘soul-theory’) connote diññhi (false view or error). When the two pairs—thãna-middha and uddhaccakukkucca—are treated as four mental states. råparàga. there are only three àsavas. Kilesas are precisely ten. that the 370 √ . See Ch. Nãvaraõas amount to eight. are those which bind beings to the round of existence. 1. The ten saüyojanas are treated as eight when kàmaràga and bhavaràga are included in lobha. yogas. and bhava to both råpa and aråpa spheres. are reduced to seven when kàmaràga. aråparàga are included in lobha. 11. Lobha is implied by both kàmataõhà and bhavataõhà. Thus. and diññhi and sãlabbataparàmàsa in diññhi. The three terms—sãlabbataparàmàsa (indulgence in rites and ceremonies). The ten saüyojanas. When kàmaràga and bhavaràga are grouped in craving. Attachment to råpa and aråpa-spheres is bhavataõhà. Strictly speaking. and ganthas. according to Suttanta. to bind. In the categories of evil the term kàma is sometimes applied to kàma-sphere. anusayas amount to six. it will be seen. and diññhi and sãlabbataparàmàsa in diññhi. Kilesas are those which defile or torment the mind.

dukkhindriyaü. 371 . sammàkammanto. (v) Navabalàni — saddhàbalaü. vicàro. ghàõindriyaü. ekaggatà. doso. amoho. alobho. ana¤¤àtassàmitindriyaü. domanassindriyaü. adoso. sukhindriyaü. satindriyaü. pa¤¤indriyaü. purisindriyaü. sammàvàyàmo. upekkhindriyaü. somanassaü. domanassaü. saddhindriyaü viriyindriyaü. sammàjãvo. upekkhà. jãvhindriyaü. micchàsaïkappo. samàdhindriyaü. itthindriyaü. micchàsamàdhi. satibalaü. moho. sammàvàcà. _______ Missaka-Saïgaho § 3. pa¤¤àbalaü. somanassindriyaü. (iv) Bàvãsatindriyàni—cakkhundriyaü. pãti. a¤¤àtàvindriyaü. samàdhibalaü. micchàdiññhi.14 immoral mental states appear in different proportions in the nine categories of evil. kàyindriyaü. sammàsaïkappo. ottappabalaü. hiribalaü. sammàsati. (iii) Dvàdasamaggaïgàni — sammàdiññhi. (i) Missaka-saïgahe cha hetu—lobho. a¤¤iõdriyaü. sammà samàdhi. anottappabalaü. ahirikabalaü. sotindriyaü. micchàvàyàmo. viriyabalaü. jãvitindriyaü manindriyaü. Lobha is common to all. (ii) Sattajhànaïgàni—vitakko.

manosa¤cetanà tatiyo.(vi) Cattàro adhipati—chandàdhipati. _______ Mixed Categories § 3. Cattàrodhipati vuttà tathàhàrà’ ti sattadhà Kusalàdisamàkiõõo vutto missakasaïgaho. majjhe cha ¤àõàni a¤¤indriyànã ’ti pavuccanti. ahetukesu maggaïgàni na labbhanti. Dvihetukatihetuka-javanesv’ eva yathàsambhavaü adhipati eko’ va labbhati. Tathà vicikicchàcitte ekaggatà maggindriyabalabhàvaü na gacchati. cittàdhipati. aviriyesu balàni. phasso dutiyo. Pa¤cavi¤¤àõesu jhànaïgàni. viriyàdhipati. Indriyesu pan’ ettha sotàpattimagga¤àõaü ana¤¤àtassàmitindriyaü. _______ Cha hetu pa¤ca jhànaïgà maggaïgà nava vatthuto Soëasindriyadhammà ca baladhammà nav’ erità. vimaüsàdhipati. Jãvitindriya¤ ca råpàråpavasena duvidhaü hoti. arahattaphala¤àõaü a¤¤àtàvindriyaü. vi¤¤àõaü catutthaü. In the compendium of mixed categories (13) there are six Roots (14):— 372 . (vii) Cattàro àhàrà — kabalãkàro àhàro.

Displeasure. Nonattachment. Happiness 11. 3. Moral Shamelessness. (ii) There are seven constituents of Jhàna (15):— 1. 4. Initial Application. 17. 5. 10. 4. 6. 2. Confidence. 2.A (i) 1. 13. Right Thoughts. 12. 11. Highest Realization. Greed. 7. Intention (or Wish-to-do. 20. Mind (or Thought) (22). Right Mindfulness. Energy (or Effort. 8. 4. 4. Pain. (iv) There are twenty-two Faculties (17):—1. 4. 5. Mind. (vii) There are four kinds of Food (23):— Edible Food. Right Livelihood. The Faculty of him who has fully realized. 6. and 6. 7. 2. Wisdom. and 4. Moral Fearlessness. Concentration 5. Wrong Effort. 5. 16. Effort. Moral dread. Masculinity. Confidence. 18. 9. Right Action. Wrong one-pointedness. 15. 12. 373 . Wrong Thoughts. Right Understanding. (iii) There are twelve constituents of the Path (16) 1. (v) There are nine Powers (20):— 1. 2. 8. Equanimity. Pleasure. 8. 9. 6. 9. 7. One-pointedness. and 7. The thought— ‘I will realize the unknown’. 2. 5. Body. Femininity. Wisdom. Goodwill. Equanimity or Indifference.) 2. Right Concentration. Right Speech. 21. Reason (or Intellect). Eye. (vi) There are four Dominating Factors (21):— 1.) 3. Tongue. Mindfulness. 22. Energy. Displeasure. 3. 3. Joy. 19. Ear. 3. Pleasure. Moral shame. Delusion. 10. Nose. Mindfulness. Right Effort. Aversion. 3. 6. Sustained Application. 14. Wrong Views. Vitality. Concentration. Wisdom.

the second. ‘The Faculty of him who has fully realised’ means the knowledge of the Fruit of Arahantship. Only one ‘Dominating Power’ (28) is obtained at a time. and 4. amongst the Faculties. Likewise four dominant factors. accompanied by two or three moral roots. and four kinds of food have been told. Similarly in the consciousness. physical and psychical. the third. in the Rootless (26). five jhàna constituents. only in the Javana consciousness. Highest Realization means the intermediate six kinds of knowledge. 3. nine Path constituents. Volitional Factors. nine powers have been described (29). The controlling Faculty of vitality is twofold. sixteen controlling factors. ‘the Path Constituents’. Contact (or sense-impact). Now. consisting of moral and immoral states. in effortless states (25). been enumerated. the thought— ‘I will realize the unknown’ means the knowledge of the Path of the Stream-Winner (Sotàpanna). according to circumstances. ‘Controlling Faculty’ or a ‘Force’. The jhàna constituents (24) are not obtained in the five kinds of sense-cognition. the fourth. Summary In reality six roots. _______ 374 . ‘Forces’. Thus in seven ways has the compendium of mixed categories.2. accompanied by Doubts (27) one-pointedness does not attain to the state of a ‘PathConstituent’. (Rebirth) Consciousness.

and Nibbàna (sugatiduggatãnaü nibbànassa ca abhimukhaü pàpanato maggà—Comy). immoral. 15. gained by mental concentration. The six constituents of jhàna are used in these two senses. Jhànaïga—Jhàna is explained as that which burns up the opposing conditions of Hindrances or that which closely perceives the object. Both these meanings are applicable to the ecstasies. p. to the blissful states and Nibbàna. When the same factors appear in a moral or immoral consciousness and ‘displeasure’ appears in an immoral consciousness. and indeterminate. Missakasaïgaho—This is so called because moral (kusala) immoral (akusala) and indeterminate (avyàkata) are mixed in this section. 46. Maggaïgàni—Here Magga is used in its general sense—namely. See Chapter 1. woeful states. the rest are moral. 16. that which leads to the presence of blissful states. Only displeasure is immoral. they are termed jhànangas in the second general sense.Notes:— Section 3 13. Of the twelve constituents the last four lead to woeful states. Hetu—See Chapter 1. 375 . the rest. 14.

by these twelve constituents are meant nine mental states found in different types of consciousness. and right livelihood are the three Abstinences (virati) found collectively in the supramundane consciousness and separately in mundane moral types of consciousness.Strictly speaking. Indriya—So called because they possess a controlling power in their respective spheres. Of the four evil constituents. vàyàma. Right Understanding means the pa¤¤à cetasika. vàyàma. right thoughts. wrong views mean the immoral diññhi cetasika. 11. 13. and 14 represent five kinds of feeling. 17. Right speech. right action. and wrong one-pointedness mean the vitakka. 17. The first eight are collectively found only in the eight types of supramundane consciousness—By the noble Eightfold Path are meant these eight specific mental states. The first five are the sensitive organs described earlier. sati and ekaggatà cetasikas respectively found in the moral and indeterminate types of consciousness. 18. wrong effort. right effort. and 19 are treated both as Faculties and 376 . 16. and right one-pointedness mean the vitakka. right mindfulness. and ekaggatà cetasikas respectively found in the immoral types of consciousness. 10. 15. Vitality is both physical and psychical. The sixth and seventh are collectively called bhàvindriya. 12. wrong thoughts.

An Arahant is called an A¤¤àtàvã because he has fully realized the four Noble Truths. are opposed to faithlessness. immoral. and moral fearlessness. highest knowledge. The first seven are moral. The intermediate six kinds of knowledge from the Sotàpatti Fruit to the Arahatta Path are termed A¤¤à (derived from à = perfect ¤à. in order. it is termed Indriya. moral shamelessness. Balàni—These nine Powers are so called because they cannot be shaken by the opposing forces and because they strengthen their coadjuncts. By ana¤¤àtaü is meant the Nibbàna never seen before. laziness. The last three Faculties are very important and they pertain to the supramundane. The last Faculty refers to the highest knowledge of the Arahant in the Fruit stage. heedlessness. It is at the first stage of Sainthood—Sotàpatti—that the four Truths are realized for the first time. 377 . Hence the knowledge of the Sotàpatti Path is technically called ana¤¤àtaü ¤assàmi’ t’ indriyaü.Powers as they influence their coadjuncts and as they overcome their opposing forces. the last two. to know). √ 20. The first seven. restlessness. As the + wisdom found in all these seven types of supramundane consciousness controls the coexisting 37 Factors of Enlightenment. ignorance. The last two immoral Powers are found only in the immoral twelve types of consciousness and they consolidate their coadjuncts.

lords over all his ministers.21. supremacy. No two adhipatis can exercise supreme authority simultaneously. lit. Phassàhàra or contact or sense-impact sustains the five kinds of feeling. Edible food (kabalãkàràhàra) sustains the material body. is used in the sense of sustenance. or lordship therein. They sustain or produce rebirth in the three spheres. Adhipati may be compared to a king who. as the sole head of the State. controls only its coexisting råpas without any interference with the controlling faculty of the ear. Indriyas can have their compeers. Indriyas are compared to the king’s ministers who control only their respective compartments without interfering with the others.. in this connection. By manosaücetanàhàra are meant the different kinds of volition present in the 29 types of moral and immoral mundane consciousness. for instance. Adhipati. 22. The difference between adhipati and indriya should be clearly understood. The Faculty of eye. Here citta refers to the javana thought-process and vimaüsà to the faculty of wisdom (pa¤¤indriya). In the case of adhipati. one dominates all the other coexisting factors with no resistance from any. 23. âhàra. Vi¤¤ànàhàra signifies the rebirth-consciousness that sustains the mental states and material phenomena (nàma-råpa) which 378 .

Effortless states are the sixteen types of consciousness —namely. in the case of formless spheres they sustain only nàma.arise simultaneously. There are no adhipatis in the Ahetuka and Ekahetuka Cittas. 28. there are five Jhàna constituents because the three kinds of feeling could be treated as one. There are such 19 types of rebirth-consciousness. No Jhàna constituents are present in the 10 types of sense-cognitions because the sense-impressions are weak. The Rootless are the 18 ahetuka-cittas. three santãraõas and the sense-door consciousness (pa¤cadvàràvajjana). In the case of mindless spheres they sustain only råpa. 29. ten sense-cognitions. In the existences where the five Aggregates are present they sustain both mind and matter. Strictly speaking. 25. since wrong 379 . The one-pointedness present in the Vicikicchàcitta serves only to stabilise the mind. 27. and close perception of the object is absent. 24. 26. two sampañicchanas. Path constituents are nine. It is not powerful. One-pointedness present in them is not very strong.

iv. samàdhindriyaü. satindriyaü. cittànupassanà-satipaññhànaü. vi. pãtisambojjhaïgo. viriyasambojjhaïgo. Pa¤cindriyàni—saddhindriyaü. viriyiddhipàdo. anuppannànaü pàpakànaü anuppàdàya vàyàmo. viriyindriyam. 380 sammàsaï- . viriyabalaü. Indriyas are sixteen when the five kinds of feelings are grouped in one. dhammànupassanà-satipaññhànaü. samàdhisambojjhaïgo. Cattàro sammappadhànà—uppannànaü pàpakànaü pahànàya vàyàmo. ii. iii. anuppannànaü kusalànaü uppàdàya vàyàmo. satibalaü. passadhisambojjhaïgo. pa¤¤indriyaü. vedanànupassanà satipaññhànaü. cittiddhipàdo. i. Aññhamaggaïgàni—sammàdiññhi. samàdhibalaü. Sattabojjhaïgà—satisambojjhaïgo. Viriya and Ekaggatà respectively. upekkhàsambojjhaïgo. pa¤¤àbalaü. Cattàro iddhipàdà—chandiddhipàdo. and the three supramundane in pa¤¤à.thoughts. upannànaü kusalànaü bhiyyobhàvàya vàyàmo. v. Bodhipakkhiyasaïgahe cattàro satipaññhànà kàyànupassanà-satipaññhànaü. vãmaüsiddhipàdo. vii. effort. dhammavicayasambojjhaïgo. Pa¤cabalàni—saddhàbalaü. and one-pointedness are included in Vitakka. _______ Bodhipakkhiya Saïgaho § 4.

Mindfulness as regards Dhamma. _______ Factors of Enlightenment (30) § 4. 381 . In the compendium of Factors pertaining to Enlightenment there are four (1) Foundations of Mindfulness (31):— 1. Mindfulness as regards body. sammàsamàdhi. sammàkammanto. Chando cittam upekkhà ca saddhà-passaddhi-pãtiyo Sammàdiññhi ca saïkappo vàyàmo viratittayaü Sammàsati samàdhã’ti cuddas’ete sabhàvato Sattatiüsappabhedena sattadhà tattha saïgaho. Saïkappa-passaddhi ca pãtupekkhà chando ca cittaü viratittaya¤ ca Nav’ekañhànà viriyaü navaññha sati samàdhi catu pa¤ca pa¤¤à Saddhà duñhànuttamasatta-tiüsadhammànam’eso pavaro vibhàgo. Sabbe lokuttare honti na và saükappapãtiyo Lokiye’pi yathàyogaü chabbisuddhippavattiyaü. 2. Ettha pana cattàro satipaññhànà’ti sammà-sati ekà’va pavuccati. sammàjãvo.kappo. sammàsati. sammàvàcà. 4. 3. Mindfulness as regards feelings. Mindfulness as regards thoughts. sammàvàyàmo. Tathà cattàro sammappadhànà’ti ca sammàvàyàmo.

Right Effort. 5. The effort to augment arisen good. Concentration. Quietude. (5) There are five Powers (34):— 1. Right Mindfulness alone is implied. The effort to discard evils that have arisen. 4. 4. 2. 4. 3. Effort. Effort.(2) There are four Supreme Efforts (32):— 1. Wisdom. The effort to prevent the arising of unrisen evils. 3. Mindfulness. Reason. 2 Effort. Right Understanding. 3: Thought. 4. Rapture. 382 . Concentration. (6) There are seven Constituents of Enlightenment (35):— 1. Wisdom. 2. (4) There are five Faculties (34):— 1. 6. 2. Equanimity. 8. 5. 3. Will. 7. Right Mindfulness. Investigation of the Truth 3. 7. Right Speech. Right Concentration. Right Action. Right Livelihood. (7) There are eight Path-Constituents (36):— 1. 2. 5. 4. Mindfulness. Concentration. 4. Right Thoughts. Here by the four Foundations of Mindfulness. Confidence. (3) There are four Means of Accomplishment (33):— 1. Mindfulness. 5. The effort to develop unrisen good. 6. Right Effort is implied by the four Supreme Efforts. Confidence. 3. 2. Effort.

All these. Right Mindfulness. Bodhipakkhiya—Bodhi means Enlightenment or the aspirant for Enlightenment. foundations. Confidence twice (37). Rapture. Effort nine times. _______ Section 4 Notes:— 30. Thought. Aspirations or Thoughts. Effort. Equanimity. application. awareness. and Concentration. on one hand. These Satipaññhànas are intended to develop both concentration and insight. Mindfulness eight times. Right Understanding. Thought. Quietude.The sevenfold compendium which consists of 37 factors. Contemplation on these four leads. bases. according to circumstances. Pakkhiya. Concentration four times. to the development of ‘undesirable383 . means ‘on the side of’. or attentiveness. Confidence. the three Abstinences. Each Satipaññhàna serves a specific purpose. Equanimity. Quietude. Satipaññhana—sati = mindfulness. literally. in the course of sixfold purity. save at times Aspirations and Rapture. the three Abstinences. Wisdom five times. paññhàna = establishment. The esteemed enumeration of these 37 sublime factors is as follows:—Aspirations. 31. occur in the Supramundane (Consciousness) and in the mundane (consciousness) too. Rapture. occur once. is composed of these fourteen according to their nature:—Will. Will.

‘pleasure’. Only when these four are present in the supramundane consciousness are they termed Iddhipàda. and ‘soullessness’ (anatta). ‘permanence’ and ‘substantiality’. by one English equivalent. The first which deals with råpa— breath—is also regarded as a kind of råpa. Iddhipàda—The means of accomplishing one’s own end or purpose. the objects of mindfulness may be divided into nàma and råpa. used in this connection. Dhamma. Briefly. Sammappadhàna (Right exertion)—One mental state—viriya—performs four functions. 34. Hence it is very difficult to render the Pàli term. painfulness (dukkha). Strictly speaking. 32. Citta means the supra-mundane consciousness. on the other hand. to the eradication of ‘desirableness’. all these four pertain to the supramundane consciousness. It is preferable to retain the Pàli term to avoid any misunderstanding. The second and the third deal with different kinds of feelings and thoughts. Viriya refers to the four Supreme Efforts. The fourth deals with both nàma and råpa. and. 33. Chanda is the mental state—‘wish-to-do’.ness’ (asubha). For details see the Satipaññhàna Sutta and the commentary. impermanence (anicca). Indriyas and Balas are identical though differ384 . Vimaüsà signifies the mental state of wisdom present in the supramundane consciousness.

Right Beliefs.ent meanings are attached to them. to uddhacca (restlessness). and pãti are opposed to thãna-middha (sloth and torpor). Dhammavicaya. good. Sammàdiññhi is rendered by Right Understanding. Sammàdiññhi is explained as the knowledge of the four Noble Truths. Here Dhammavicaya means seeing mind and matter as they truly are. or ‘that which goes by killing the passions’ (Nibbànatthikehi maggãyatã’ti và kilese màrento gacchatã’ti maggo). aïga = factor. Right Knowledge. By passaddhi are meant both cittapassaddhi and kàyapassaddhi mental states. According to Abhi385 . It is insight. Evidently this particular definition has been given to differentiate the noble Eightfold Path from an ordinary one. 35. Maggaïgàni—According to the commentaries. Strictly speaking. Upekkhà does not mean hedonic indifference but mental equipoise known as tatramajjhattatà. vãriya. In other words. bodhi = enlightenment or one who is striving for enlightenment. Sambojjhaïga—Saü = exalted. and upekkhà. samàdhi. 36. these eight factors connote eight mental states collectively found in the supramundane consciousness that has Nibbàna for its object. Right Views. ‘that which is sought by those who strive for Nibbàna’. it is the understanding of one’s personality as it really is or of things as they truly are. passaddhi. here Magga is used in two different senses—namely.

Sammàvàcà signifies abstinence from lying. These three constitute Sãla or Morality. According to Abhidhamma it is the mental state of vitakka (application) that directs the mind to Nibbàna. Sammàjiva is twofold. The three mental states of ‘Abstinences’ (virati) are implied by these three constituents. Aspirations. slaves. and frivolous talk. intoxicants. It deals with right livelihood of both Bhikkhus and laymen. and cruelty (himsà). It is placed first because all actions should be regulated by wisdom. and harmlessness (avihiüsà). and Right Livelihood. Intention. it is the mental state of wisdom (pa¤¤à) that tends to eradicate ignorance (avjjà). Right Understanding leads to Right Thoughts. eliminating the evil thoughts of sense-desires (kàma). and poison. illwill (vyàpàda). animals for slaughter. by cultivating the good thoughts of renunciation (nekkhamma). slandering. Sammàsaïkappa is rendered by Thoughts. and misconduct.dhamma. Right Action. loving-kindness (avyàpàda). The first two constituents are grouped in wisdom (pa¤¤à). harsh speech. Sammàkammanta deals with abstinence from killing. Right Thoughts lead to Right Speech. The latter are prohibited from trading in arms. 386 . stealing. Ideas.

and I Right Mindfulness. 1 Controlling Factor.’ The last three are included in Samàdhi or concentration. Effort (viriya) occurs nine times as follows:— 4 Supreme Efforts. 1 Controlling Factor. and Wisdom or Insight. 1 Power. 1 means of Accomplishment. It is the mental state of ‘ekaggatà.Sammàvàyàma signifies the four Supreme Efforts mentioned above. Mindfulness occurs eight times is follows:— 4 Foundations of Mindfulness. 1 Constituent of Enlightenment. 1 Power. Sammàsamàdhi is concentration or the ‘one pointedness of the mind’. The eight constituents comprise Morality. Sammàsati denotes the four kinds of Mindfulness mentioned above. I Power. 1 Right Effort. and 1 Right Understanding. 1 Constituent of Enlightenment. Concentration. Concentration occurs four times as follows:— 1 Controlling Factor. 1 Power. 1 Right Mindfulness. 37. 1 Constituent of Enlightenment. 387 . 1 Constituent of Enlightenment. 1 Controlling Factor. Wisdom occurs five times as follows:— 1 Means of Accomplishment.

6. 10. 7. 5. Viriya Sati Pa¤¤à Samàdhi Saddhà Saïkappa Passaddhi Pãti Upekkhà Chanda Citta Sammàvàcà Sammàkammanta Sammàjãva 9 8 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 —(4) —(4) — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 Satipaññhàna 4 Sammappadhàna 4 Iddhipàda 5 Indriya 5 Bala 7 Bojjhaïga 8 Maggaïga 388 } Virati Diagram XV . 12. 11. 13. 9.Bodhipakkhiya Saïgaha 1. 14. 3. 8. 2. 4.

saddàyatanaü. there is no vitakka. (ii) Pa¤cupàdànakkhandhà—råpåpàdànakkhandho. sotadhàtu. kàyadhàtu. _______ Sabbasaïgaho § 5. råpadhàtu. (iv) Aññhàrasadhàtuyo—cakkhudhàtu. rasadhàtu. vi¤¤àõakkhandho. sotàyatanaü ghàõàyatanaü. vi¤¤àõåpàdànakkhandho. rasàyatanaü. kàyàyatanaü. dhammàyatanaü. manàyatanaü. sa¤¤àkkhando. ghàõadhàtu. 1 Power. 389 . there is no pãti. gandhadhàtu. saïkhàråpàdànakkhando. phoññhabbàyatanaü. gandhàyatanaü. (iii) Dvàdasàyatanàni—cakkhàyatanaü. (i) Sabbasaïgahe—Pa¤cakkhandhà-råpakkhandho. but in the mundane separately according to the type of consciousness.Confidence occurs twice as follows:— 1 Controlling Factor. jivhàdhàtu. vedanàkkhando. jivhàyatanaü. When it is gained based on the fourth and fifth Jhànas. råpàyatanaü. vedanåpàdanakkhandho. saïkhàrakkhando. These 37 factors are collectively found only in the supramundane consciousness. phoññhabbadhàtu. sa¤¤åpàdànakkhandho. When the supramundane-consciousness based on the second Jhàna is gained. saddadhàtu.

2. 3. 4. dukkhasamudayo ariyasaccaü. manodhàtu. Pa¤c’ upàdànakkhandhà’ti tathà tebhumakà matà Bhedàbhàvena nibbànaü khandhasaïgahanissañaü. manovi¤¤àõadhàtu. dhammadhàtu. Dvàràlambanabhedena bhavantàyatanàni ca Dvàràlambataduppannapariyàyena dhàtuyo Dukkhaü tebhåmakaü vaññaü taõhàsamudayo bhave Nirodho nàma nibbànaü maggo lokuttare mato.cakkhuvi¤¤àõadhàtu. 390 . Maggayuttà phalà c’eva catusaccavinissañà Iti pa¤cappabhedena pavutto sabbasaïgaho. Ettha pana cetasikà-sukhumaråpa-nibbànavasena ekånasattati dhammà dhammàyatanadhammadhàtå’ti saïkhaü gacchanti. dukkhanirodho ariyasaccaü. (v) Cattàri ariyasaccàni—dukkhaü ariyasaccaü. sotavi¤¤àõadhàtu. Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe samuccayasaïgahavibhàgo nàma sattamaparicchedo. jivhàvi¤¤àõadhàtu. dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadà ariyasaccaü. Råpa¤ ca vedanà sa¤¤à sesà cetasikà tathà Vi¤¤àõam’iti pa¤c’ete pa¤cakkhandhà’ti bhàsità. Manàyatanam’eva sattavi¤¤àõadhàtuvasena bhijjati. kàyavi¤¤àõadhàtu. l. ghàõavi¤¤àõadhàtu. 5.

body. 12. 7. (iv) The Eighteen Elements (45):— 1. eye (43). consciousness. ear. 4. 9. 11. nose. 3. feeling. mind (44). tongue. 3. 6. cognizable object. tangible object. 12. tongue-conciousness. taste. sound. 2. visible object. odour. 2. visible object. mental states (40). nose. 10. odour. (ii) The Five Aggregates of Grasping (41):— 1. matter. 2. 5. ear. body. perception. tongue. tangible object. 5. feeling. 391 . 3. 2. 6._______ § 5. eye-consciousness. 5. 5. consciousness. matter. 8. 4. taste. 9. eye. (iii) The Twelve Spheres (42):— (a) Sense-Organs 1. 4. (b) Sense-Objects 7. 4. nose-consciousness. sound. 11. 13. ear-consciousness. A Synthesis of ‘the Whole’ (38) In the compendium of ‘the whole’ there are:— (i) The Five Aggregates (39). 14. 3. 1. mental states. 8. perception. 10.

and their resultant consciousness arise the elements. Similarly those that pertain to the three planes are regarded as Five Aggregates of grasping. the Noble Truth of Suffering. Summary Matter. remaining mental states. cognizable object (46). body-consciousness 16. objects. 2. perception. 3. feeling. present. 4. and Nibbàna are regarded as the sphere of cognizables and the cognizable element. Herein sixty-nine entities comprising (52) mental states. Owing to the difference between doors and objects there arise (twelve) sense-spheres. 392 . the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering. (v) The Four Noble Truths (48) : 1. As Nibbàna lacks differentiation (such as past. In accordance with doors. mind. mind-consciousness (47).15. and consciousness—these five are called the five Aggregates. 18. Only the sphere of mind divides itself into seven consciousnesselements. the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering. (16) subtle matter. 17. future) it is excluded from the category of Aggregates. the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

The other four divisions should be similarly understood. Here the term Saïkhàra is used in a specific sense. The Buddha analyses the so-called being into five groups. propensities. Mental states associated with the Paths and the Fruits are excluded from the four Truths. The remaining 50 mental states are collectively called Saïkhàra. aggregate. syntheses do not exactly convey the meaning 393 . _______ Thus is the seventh chapter of the Compendium of Abhidhamma dealing with the Abhidhamma Categories. Cessation is Nibbàna.Existence in the three planes is suffering Craving is its cause. Mental formations. Thus the category of the ‘whole’ has been explained in five ways. mass. and perception is another. Path is regarded as supramundane. present and future material phenomena are collectively called råpakkhandha. _______ Notes: 38. tendencies. Category of all such as Aggregates etc. 39. feeling is one. Of the 52 mental states. 40. Khandha means group. All the past.

Cakkhàyatana means the sensitive part of the eye which responds to visual-stimuli. See Chapter 1. Manàyatana—There is no special organ for the mind like the physical organs. The four remaining sense-organs should be similarly understood. Even ‘volitional activities’ is not very appropriate. ‘Mental states’ is too general. Dhàtu is that which bears its own characteristic. 44. The eight supramundane states of consciousness and mental states found therein and the ten material qualities not born of Kamma are not treated as upàdànakkhandha. 394 . 46. but is not misleading. 42. basis. Upàdànakkhandha—They are so called because they form the objects of clinging or grasping. Dhammadhàtu is synonymous with dhammàyatana but differs from Dhammàrammaõa as it does not include citta (consciousness). 43.of the Pàli term. 45. âyatana means a field. pa¤¤atti (concepts). sphere. 41. By mind-sphere is meant the ‘adverting consciousness’ (manodvàràvajjana) together with the preceding ‘arrest Bhavaïga’—(Bhavaïgupaccheda). and pasàdaråpa (sensitive material phenomena).

The first truth deals with dukkha which. The fourth Truth is the Noble Eightfold Path or the Middle Way. The world rests on suffering—hence it is contemptible. who was far removed from passions. means contemptible void. excluding the tenfold senseconsciousness (dvipa¤cavi¤¤àõa) and the three manodhàtu (=two types of receiving-consciousness and sense-door consciousness). 395 . for need of a better English equivalent. As an abstract truth dukkha is used in the sense of contemptible (du) emptiness (kha). therefore. The cause of this suffering is craving or attachment (taõhà) which leads to repeated births. Ariyasacca—The Pàli term for truth is sacca which means that which is. It is devoid of any reality—hence it is empty or void. Its Saüskrt equivalent is satya which denotes an incontrovertible fact. 48. is inappropriately rendered by suffering or sorrow. the Buddha. Dukkha. As a feeling dukkha means that which is difficult to endure. Manovi¤¤àõadhàtu—Of the 89 classes of consciousness 76 types of consciousness are regarded as mind-consciousness. The third Noble Truth is Nibbàna which can be achieved in this life itself by the total eradication of all forms of craving. The Buddha enunciates four such truths which are associated with so-called beings. They are called ariyasaccàni because they were discovered by the Greatest Ariya.47.

Chapter VIII Paccaya—Saïgaha—Vibhàgo _______ § 1. saïkhàra-paccayà vi¤¤àõaü. saëàyatana-paccayà phasso. 396 . jàti-paccayà jarà — marana — soka — parideva-dukkhadomanass’ upàyàsà sambhavanti. Yesaü saïkhatadhammànaü ye dhammà paccayà yathà Taü vibhàgam’ih’edàni pavakkhàmi yathàrahaü. Tattha tayo addhà. vedanà-paccayà taõhà. Tattha avijjàpaccayà saïkhàrà. Ubhayaü pana vomissetvà papa¤centi àcariyà. Paññhànanayo c’àti paccayasaïgaho duvidho veditabbo. dvàdasaïgàni. nàmaråpapaccayà saëàyatanaü. upàdàna-paccayà bhavo. bhava-paccayà jàti. tãõi vaññàni. Tattha tabbhàvabhàvãbhàvàkàramattopalakkhito pañiccasamuppàdanayo. phassapaccayà vedanà. vi¤¤àõa-paccayà nàmaråpaü. catusaïkhepo. dve målàni ca veditabbàni. Pañiccasamuppàdanayo. _______ § 2. Paññhànanayo pana àhaccapaccayaññhitim’ àrabbha pavuccati. Evam’ etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hotã’ ti ayam’ ettha pañiccasamuppàdanayo. tisandhi. taõhà-paccayà upàdànaü. vãsatàkàrà.

nàmaråpaü. upàdànaü. vedanà. Avijjà. vi¤¤àõaü. majjhe aññha paccuppanno addhà’ ti tayo addhà. Tathà taõh’ åpàdànabhavaggahaõena ca avijjàsaïkhàrà. Vaññam’àbandham’ iccevaü tebhåmakam’ anàdikaü Pañiccasamuppàdo’ti paññhapesi mahàmuni. tisandhi. upapattibhavasaïkhàto bhav’ ekadeso. jaràmaraõan’ti dvàdasaïgàni. catusaïkhepà ca bhavanti. maraõaü anàgato addhà. Avijjàtaõhàvasena dve målàni ca veditabbàni. kammabhavasaïkhàto bhav’ekadeso. avasesà ca vipàkavaññanti tãõi vaññàni. jàtijaràmaraõaggahaõena ca vi¤¤àõàdiphalapa¤cakam’eva gahitanti katvà. Sokàdivacanaü pan’ ettha nissandaphalanidassanaü. Avijjà taõhåpàdànà ca kilesavaññaü. saïkhàrà atãto addhà. jàti. saëàyatanaü. jarà. taõhà. phasso. Avijjàsaïkhàraggahaõena pan’ettha taõhåpàdànabhavà pi gahità bhavanti.Kathaü? avijjà. jàti. 397 2. Atãte hetavo pa¤ca idàni phalapa¤cakaü Idàni hetavo pa¤ca àyatiü phalapa¤cakanti Vãsatàkàrà. bhavo. Tesam’ eva ca målànaü nirodhena nirujjhati Jàràmaraõamucchàya pãëitànam’ abhiõhaso âsavànaü samuppàdà avijjà ca pavattati. 1. saïkhàrà. saïkhàrà ca kammavaññaü. .

Chapter 8
The Compendium of Relations

Introductory § 1. I shall now explain here, in a fitting manner, how causal states act as relations to the conditioned states (1). § 2. The compendium of relations is twofold:— A. The Law of Dependent Arising (2), and B. The Law of Causal Relations. (3) Of these, the law of Dependent Arising is marked by the simple happening of a state dependent on its antecedent state (4). The Law of Causal Relations is said with reference to the existence of conditions that relate to one another. Teachers explain them by mixing both methods.

The Law of Dependent Arising Therein:— Dependent on Ignorance (5) arise Conditioning Activities (6). Dependent on Conditioning Activities arises (Rebirth) Consciousness (7). Dependent on (Rebirth) Consciousness arise Mind and Matter (8). Dependent on Mind and Matter arise the six (Sense) Bases (9).

Dependent on the six (Sense) Bases arises Contact (10). Dependent on Contact arises Feeling (11). Dependent on Feeling arises Craving (12). Dependent on Craving arises Grasping (13). Dependent on Grasping arises Action or Becoming (14). Dependent on Action arises Birth (15). Dependent on Birth arise Decay, Death, Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief, and Despair. Thus arises the whole mass of suffering. Herein this is the Law of the Dependent Arising. It should be understood that there are three periods, twelve factors, twenty modes, three connections, four divisions, three rounds, and two roots. How? Ignorance and Conditioning Activities belong to the past; Birth, Decay, Death belong to the future; the intermediate eight to the present. Thus there are three periods. Ignorance, (moral and immoral) Activities, (Rebirth) Consciousness, Mind and Matter, Six Sense Bases, Contact, Feeling, Craving, Grasping, Action, Birth, Decay and Death are the twelve factors. The terms Sorrow and so on are shown as incidental consequence (of Birth). Here, by taking ignorance and activities, craving, grasping, and action are also taken. Likewise, by taking craving, grasping, and action, ignorance and activities are also taken. By taking birth, decay and death, the five

effects with consciousness and so on are taken also. Thus there are:— Five causes pertaining to the past, and five effects to the present; five causes pertaining to the present, and five effects to the future. There are twenty modes, three connections and four divisions. The three Rounds— 1. Ignorance, craving, and grasping belong to the Round of Passions; 2. One part of becoming (bhava) known as action and (moral and immoral) activities belong to the Round of Kamma. 3. One part of becoming known as renewed existence (uppity bhava) and the rest belong to the Round of Effects. Ignorance and craving should be understood as the two roots. (16).133

Summary By the destruction of these roots does the Round cease. The ignorance, originating from defilements (17), increases in the constantly oppressed who faint by decay and death. The Great Sage has thus expounded this entangled, beginningless existence in the triple sphere as the ‘Law of Dependent Arising.’
133. See diagrams XVI, p. 401 and XVII, p. 402.


Diagram XVI

The Wheel of Life

t io n


-M a rà

a ra õ a

A v i jj à
Ig nora n

Fi r

Co nn ec



e at & D ay

Sa ï




A c tio n or Bec om in g


à ¤aõ åpa Vi ¤ a–R a n m Nà ëàyata a Sa hass à P an Ved

Taõ hà Upà dàn a Bha va
Ac Sid tive e Lif of e


à rà

Co n
ct ne
n io

it i









ir t



ive ass of P e Sid fe Li

– Vi


B hav

iou s

¤ ¤ à õa

P ure ast Fut

n ess

rà Saükha

e L if of e Sid



e tiv Ac


à dà Up

ch tta

















e iv sit Po

M ind & Ma


P h a ssa

C o nt

de Si








àma– rå


te r


Si x

Feel ing

Ved a


ec ond C on ne






c t io n


Paticca Samuppàda
1. 2. Ignorance Avijjà Activities Saükhàrà Rebirth-Consciousness Vi¤¤ànà Mind & Matter Nàma-Råpa Six Sense-Spheres Saëàyatana Contact Phassa Feeling Vedanà Craving Tanhà Attachment Upàdàna Action or Becoming Bhava Birth Jàti Decay Death Jarà-Maraõa Craving—Taõha Attachment—Upàdàna Action or Becoming—Bhava

Diagram XVII

Passion Kilesà Cause—Hetu

3. 4. 5. 6.




{ {


Past Causes Atãta-Hetu


Decay & Death Jarà-Maraõa


Present Effects Vattamàna Phala


8. Consequence Vipàka 9.

Ignorance Avijjà


Activities Saükhàrà Rebirth-Consciousness Vi¤¤àõa Mind and Matter Nàma-Råpa Six Sense-Spheres Saëàyatana Contact—Phassa Feeling—Vedanà

11. 12.

} }

Present Causes Vattamàna Hetu

Future Effects Anàgata Phala

Notes:— Section 1 1. Saïkhatadhammànaü—To the conditioned nàma and råpa described in the previous chapters.

Section 2 2. Pañiccasamuppàda134—Pañicca—because of, on account of; samuppàda = arising, origination. Although the literal meaning of the term is ‘arising because of’ or dependent arising or origination, it is applied to the whole causal formula which consists of twelve interdependent causes and effects, technically called paccaya and paccayuppanna. S. Z. Aung renders Pañiccasamuppàdanaya by ‘The Law of happening by way of cause’. In this chapter the Law of Dependent Arising is not mixed up with the Paññhànanaya as in the Visuddhimagga. 3. Paññhànanaya—According to the Ceylon Commentary here the prefix ‘pa’ means, ‘various’ (nànappakàra). Ledi Sayadaw says ‘principal’ (padhàna). òhàna (lit. station) signifies ‘cause’ (paccaya) which is paraphrased by ‘upakàrakadhamma’ — aiding or supportive conditions. These various or principal causes

134. For details see “The Buddha and His Teachings” pp. 418–431.


are decribed in detail in the Paññhànapakaraõa, the seventh book of the Abhidhamma-Piñaka. The system expounded in this treatise is called Paññhànanaya. The difference between the two nayas should be understood as follows: i. Because of A arises B. Because of B arises C. When there is no A there is no B. When there is do B there is no C. In other words ‘this being so, that is; this not being so, that is not’ (imasmiü sati, idaü hoti; imasmiü asati, idaü na hoti). This is the Pañiccasamuppàdanaya. When we say that A is related to B in thc way of coexistence’, ‘interdependence’ we get an illustration of Paññhànanaya. See Journal of the Pàli Text Society, 1915–1916, pp. 21–53. 4. Tabbhàvabhàvibhàvàkàramatta; bhàvàkàramatta = the simple happening of a state; tabbhàvabhàvã = dependent on its antecedent state. Avijjà, lit., not-knowingness, i.e., of the four Noble Truths. It is also explained as ‘that which causes beings to run in the endless Saüsàra’ (antavirahite saüsàre satte javàpeti). ‘Whereby the fruit is produced’ is termed ‘paccaya’, which is the cause. When ignorance is destroyed and turned into knowingness, all causality is shattered as in the case of Buddhas and Arahants.




Saïkhàra—This is a multisignificant term which should be understood according to the context. Here the term signifies immoral (akusala), moral (kusala), and unshakable (àne¤jà) volitions (cetanà) which constitute Kamma that produces rebirth. The first embraces all volitions in the 12 types of immoral consciousness; the second, all volitions in the 8 types of Beautiful (kusala) consciousness and the 5 types of kusala Råpajhàna consciousness; the third, all volitions in the 4 types of kusala Aråpajhànas. There is no proper English equivalent which gives the exact connotation of this Pàli term. Saïkhàra, as one of the five aggregates, implies the 50 mental states excluding feeling and perception. The volitions of the four supramundane Path consciousness (lokuttaramaggacitta) are not regarded as saïkhàrà because they tend to eradicate ignorance. Wisdom (pa¤¤à) is predominant in supramundane types of consciousness while volition (cetanà) is predominant in the mundane types of consciousness. Ignorance is predominant in immoral activities, while it is latent in moral activities. Hence both moral and immoral actions are regarded as caused by ignorance. Vi¤¤àõa—strictly denotes the 19 types of rebirthconsciousness (pañisandhi vi¤¤àõa) described in chapter V. All the 32 types of resultant consciousness (vipàkacitta), experienced during lifetime, are also implied by the term.


The foetus in the mother’s womb is formed by the combination of this relinking consciousness with the sperm and ovum cells of the parents. In this consciousness are latent all the past impressions, characteristics and tendencies of that particular individual life-flux. This relinking-consciousness is regarded as “radiant” (pabhassara) as it is either devoid of immoral roots of lust, hatred and delusion (as in the case of ‘rootless resultants—ahetukavipàka), or accompanied by moral roots (as in the case of ‘resultants with roots’). 8. Nàmaråpa—This compound should be understood as nàma alone, råpa alone, and nàmaråpa together. In the case of aråpa planes there arises only mind; in the case of mindless (asa¤¤a) planes, only matter; in the case of kàma and råpa planes both mind and matter. By nàma are here meant the three aggregates— feeling (vedanà), perception (sa¤¤à) and saïkhàra— that arise simultaneous with rebirth-consciousness. By råpa are meant the three decads 135 kàya, bhàva,

135. The body decad (kàyadasaka) is composed of the four elements—namely, i. the element of extension (pañhavi) ii. the the element of cohesion (àpo), iii. the element of heat (tejo), iv. the element of motion (vàyo); its four derivatives (upàdàråpa)—namely, v. colour (vaõõa) vi. odour (gandha), vii. taste (rasa), viii. nutritive essence (ojà), ix. vitality (jãvitindriya), and x. body (kaya). Sex-decad (bhàvadasaka) and base-decad (vatthudasaka) also consist of the first nine and sex and seat of consciousness respectively. From this it is evident that sex is determined by past Kamma at the very conception of the being. Here kàya means the sensitive part of the body. Sex is not developed at the moment of conception but the potentiality is latent. Neither the heart nor the brain, the supposed seat of consciousness, is developed but the potentiality of the seat is latent.


vatthu—that also arise simultaneous with rebirthconsciousness, conditioned by past kamma. The second and third factors pertain to the past and present. The third and fourth factors, on the contrary, are contemporaneous. 9. Saëàyatana—During the embryonic period the six sense-bases gradually evolve from the psycho-physical phenomena in which are latent infinite potentialities. The insignificant, infinitesimally small speck now develops into a complex six senses-machine which now operates almost mechanically without any agent like a soul to act as the operator. The six sense bases are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The first five refer to the sensitive organs that evolve by degrees. Mind-base has already been explained.

10. Phassa—See Chapters 1 and 2. 11. Vedanà—Ibid. 12. Taõhà (Craving) is threefold, namely—craving for sensual pleasures (kàmataõhà), craving for sensual pleasures associated with the view of eternalism (bhavataõhà) i. e., enjoying pleasures thinking that they are imperishable, and craving for sensual pleasures associated with the view of nihilism (vibhavataõha) i. e., enjoying pleasures thinking that everything perishes after death. The last is the materialistic point of view.

Bhavataõhà and Vibhavataõhà are also interpreted as attachment to Råpa and Aråpa Planes respectively. Usually these two terms are rendered by craving for existence and non-existence. There are six kinds of craving corresponding to the six sense-objects such as form, sound, and so on. They become 12 when they are treated as internal and external. They are reckoned as 36 when past, present and future are taken into consideration. When multiplied by the foregoing three kinds of craving they amount to 108. dà, to give, 13. Upàdàna, derived from upa + à + is intensive craving or firm grasping. Taõhà is like groping in the dark to steal an object. Upàdàna corresponds to the actual stealing. Grasping results with attachment and error. It gives rise to the false notions of ‘I’ and “mine”. 14. Bhava, lit., becoming, is explained as both moral and immoral action which constitute Kamma (kammabhava)—active process of becoming—and the different planes of existence (upapattibhava)—passive process of becoming. The only difference between Saïkhàra and Kammabhava is that the former pertains to the past and the latter to the present. It is only the (kamma) bhava that conditions the future birth. 15. Jàti, strictly speaking, is the arising of the aggregates (khandhànaü pàtubhàvo).

16. Ignorance is shown as the past cause that conditions the present, and Craving as the present cause that conditions the future. 17. âsavas or Defilements, latent in all worldlings, are cited as the cause of ignorance.

(Paññhànanayo) § 3. (1) Hetupaccayo, (2) àrammaõapaccayo, (3) adhipatipaccayo, (4) anantarapaccayo, (5) samanantarapaccayo, (6) sahajàtapaccayo, (7) a¤¤ama¤¤apaccayo, (8) nissayapaccayo, (9) upanissayapaccayo, (10) purejàtapaccayo, (11) pacchàjàtapaccayo, (12) àsevanapaccayo, (13) kammapaccayo, (14) vipàkapaccayo, (15) àhàrapaccayo, (16) indriyapaccayo, (17) jhànapaccayo, (18) maggapaccayo, (19) sampayuttapaccayo, (20) vippayuttapaccayo, (21) atthipaccayo, (22) natthipaccayo, (23) vigatapaccayo, (24) avigatapaccayo’ti ayam’ettha paññhànanayo. i. Chadhà nàmantu nàmassa pa¤cadhà nàmaråpinaü Ekadhà puna råpassa råpaü nàmassa c’ekadhà, Pa¤¤attinàmaråpàni nàmassa duvidhà dvayaü Dvayassa navadhà c’àti chabbidhà paccayà kathaü.


A. Anantaraniruddhà cittacetasikà dhammà paccuppannànaü citta cetasikànaü anantara samanantaranatthivigatavasena; purimàni javanàni pacchimànaü javanànaü

sahajàtà cittacetasikà dhammà a¤¤ama¤¤aü sampayuttavasenà’ti chadhà nàmaü nàmassa paccayo hoti. Upanissayo pana tividho hoti—àrammaõåpanissayo. D. Pacchàjàtà cittacetasikà dhammà purejàtassa imassa kàyassa pacchàjàtavasen’àti ekadhà va nàmaü råpassa paccayo hoti. Tatth’àlambanam’ eva garukataü àrammaõåpanissayo. Hetujhànaïgamaggaïgàni sahajàtànaü nàmaråpànaü hetàdivasena. Chavatthåni pavattiyaü sattannaü vi¤¤ànadhàtånaü. anantaråpanissayo. ârammaõavasena upanissyavasenà’ti ca duvidhà pa¤¤attinàmaråpàni nàmass’ eva paccayà honti. C.àsevanavasena. sahajàta cetanà sahajàtànaü nàmaråpànaü. B. pa¤càlambanàni ca pa¤cavi¤¤àõavãthiyà purejàtavasen’àti ekadhà va råpaü nàmassa paccayo hoti. Anantaraniruddhà cittacetasikà dhammà anantaråpanissayo. 410 . pakatåpanissayo c’ àti. E. vipàkakkhandhà a¤¤ama¤¤aü saha jàtànaü råpànaü vipàkavasen’àti ca pa¤cadhà nàmaü nàmàrupànaü paccayo hoti. Tattha råpàdivasena chabbidhaü hoti àrammaõaü. Ràgàdayo pana dhammà saddhàdayo ca sukhaü dukkhaü puggalo bhojanaü utu senàsana¤ ca yathàrahaü ajjhattaü ca bahiddhà ca kusalàdidhammànaü kammaü vipàkanti ca bahudhà hoti pakatåpanissayo. nànakkhaõikà cetanà kammàbhinibbattànaü nàmaråpànaü kammavasena.

Cittacetasikà dhammà a¤¤ama¤¤aü sahajàtaråpàna¤ ca. Okkantikkhaõe vatthuvipàkànaü. cittacetasikà dhammà sahajàtaråpànaü sahajàtavasena. a¤¤ama¤¤a. råpajãvitindriyaü upàdinnaråpànaü. pañisandhikkhaõe vatthuvipàkà a¤¤ama¤¤anti ca tividho hoti sahajàtapaccayo. avigatavasenà’ti yathàrahaü navadhà nàmaråpàni nàmaråpànaü paccayà bhavanti. Cittacetasikà dhammà a¤¤ama¤¤aü sahajàtaråpàna¤ ca mahàbhåtà a¤¤ama¤¤aü upàdàråpàna¤ ca. 411 . nissaya. aråpino àhàrà sahàjàtànaü nàmaråpànan’ti ca duvidho hoti àhàrapaccayo. Cittacetasikà dhammà a¤¤ama¤¤aü. Pa¤cappasàdà pa¤cannaü vi¤¤àõànaü. aråpino indriyà sahajàtànaü nàmaråpànanti ca tividho hoti indriyapaccayo. indriya. vippayutta. mahàbhåtà a¤¤ama¤¤aü upàdàråpàna¤ ca. sahajàta. Adhipati. mahàbhåtà a¤¤ama¤¤aü pañisandhikkhaõe vatthuvipàkà a¤¤ama¤¤anti ca tividho hoti a¤¤ama¤¤apaccayo. cha vatthåni pavattiyaü sattannaü vi¤¤àõadhàtånaü purejàtavasenà’ti ca tividho hoti vippayuttapaccayo. atthi. Tattha garukatam’àlambanaü àlambanàdhipativasena nàmànaü sahajàdhipati catubbidho’pi sahajàtavasena sahajàtànaü nàmaråpànanti ca duvidho hoti adhipatipaccayo. pacchàjàtà cittacetasikà dhammà purejàtassa imassa kàyassa pacchàjàtavasena. àhàra.F. Kabaëãkàro àhàro imassa kàyassa. chavatthåni sattannaü vi¤¤àõadhàtånanti ca tividho hoti nissayapaccayo.

" Mutuality (or Reciprocity) (23) .. ârammaõåpanissayakamma atthipaccayesu ca sabbe’pi paccayà samodhànaü gacchanti. " Co-nascence (22) . Sahajàtaråpanti pan’ettha sabbatthà’pi pavatte cittasamuññhànànaü pañisandhiyaü kañattàråpàna¤ ca vasena duvidho hoti veditabbaü... . . .. " Immediacy (21) . .. .. condition Object (19) . Pa¤cavidho hoti atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo. . . .. .. . . 2. . Iti tekàlikà dhammà kàlamuttà ca sambhavà Ajjhatta¤ ca bahiddhà ca saïkhatàsaïkhatà tathà Pa¤¤attinàmaråpànaü vasena tividhà ñhità Paccayà nàma paññhàne catuvãsati sabbathà’ti. " Dependence (24) .. 7. . 3. _______ § 3. .. . ... 6. " Powerful Dependence (or Sufficing) (24) " 412 . The Law of Causal Relations The following are the causal relations:— 1. Root (18) ... " Predominance (20) ..... . 4. . 5.. " Contiguity (21) . . 8. . .. .. 9.Sahajàtaü purejàtaü pacchàjàtaü ca sabbathà Kabaëãkàro àhàro råpajãvitamiccayanti..

10. . " Control (31) . " Presence (36) . " Path (33) . . . Again mind is related in one way to matter. ... .. " Nutriment (30) . . ... In five ways mind is related to mind and matter... ... and matter in one way to mind. 15. " Association (34) .. . . 18. . . In two ways concepts. . . 413 ... . " Absence (37) ... . 13. . . . Pre-nascence (or Antecedence) (25). In nine ways are the two-mind and matter-related to mind and matter. 16.. .. condition Post-nascence (or Post Occurrence) (26) " Repetition (or Habitual Recurrence) (27) " Kamma (28) . .. .. 19. 11. 17. . . . " Jhàna (32) . " Dissociation (35) .. . . 23.. 22.. 20. mind and matter are related to mind... ..... 14. " Non-separation (38) . " Herein this is the law of causal relations. 12... _______ Section 2 The Law of Causal Relations In six ways mind is related to mind.. .. . " Effect (29) . . . .. 21.. 24.... " Separation (38) . . . . Thus the relations are sixfold.

In five ways mind is related to mind and matter:— Root. . Only in one way is mind related to matter:— Subsequent consciousness and mental states are related to this preceding (material) body by way of postoccurrence. In six ways mind is related to mind:— Consciousness and mental states that immediately cease.Relations of Mind and Matter How? A. The (mental) aggregates of effect are related to one another and coexistent matter by way of effect. absence. Jhàna and Path factors are related to coexisting mind and matter by way of root etc. immediacy. Preceding Javanas are related to the subsequent Javanas by way of repetition (or habitual recurrence). C. and separation. relate themselves to present consciousness and mental states by way of contiguity. D. Only in one way is matter related to mind:— The six bases during life are related to the seven ele414 B. Coexisting volition is related to coexisting mind and matter and asynchronous volition to mind and matter born of kamma by way of kamma. Coexisting consciousness and mental states are related to one another by way of association.

states of confidence etc. reciprocity. season. nutriment. is similarly related to its effects. F. are related to moral states etc. pleasure. by way of predominance. presence. E. individual. and the five objects to the five processes of sense-cognition by way of antecedence. food. Therein object is sixfold as form etc. powerful dependence as contiguity. internal and external.ments of cognition. dissociation. ii. pain. The object to which weight is attached is related to states of mind by way of objective predominance. Therein relation of predominance is twofold:— i. and powerful dependence as intrinsic nature. too. as the case may be. powerful dependence as object. and non-separation. by way of object and powerful dependence. lodging—conditions. The fourfold coexisting predominance is related to coexisting mind and matter by way of co-nascence. Consciousness and mental states that immediately cease act as the powerful dependence of proximity. dependence.. Mind and matter are related to mind and matter in nine ways according to circumstances—namely. Kamma. Of them the object itself when it becomes prominent serves as a powerful dependence. In two ways are concepts. co-nascence. The powerful dependence of intrinsic nature is of several kinds:—states of lust etc. But powerful dependence is threefold—namely. The relation of co-nascence is threefold:—conscious415 . mind and matter related to mind—namely. control.

to the seven cognitive elements. bases and the resultant consciousness at the moment of rebirth.ness and mental states are related to one another and to the coexisting material states. The relation of nutriment is twofold:—edible food is related to this body. and six bases. bases and the resultant consciousness. in the course of 416 . to one another. the four Great Essentials. The relation of control is threefold:—the five sensitive organs are related to the five kinds of cognition. the six bases. to one another and derived material qualities.. the immaterial controlling factors. to one another. to the material qualities that have been grasped at. to coexistent mind and matter by way of coexistence. the subsequent consciousness and mental states. to this antecedent body by way of post-occurrence. to the coexisting mind and matter. the controlling power of material vitality. The relation of dependence is threefold:—consciousness and mental states are related to one another and coexisting matter. and consciousness and mental states. the four Great Essentials. mutually to the derived material qualities. and immaterial nutriment. to the coexistent mind and matter. The law of dissociation is threefold:—at the moment of conception the basis of mind is related to the effects (of kamma). The relation of reciprocity is threefold:—consciousness and mental states are related to one another. the four chief elements. to one another. at the moment of rebirth.

conditioned and non-conditioned. mind and matter. to the seven cognitive elements by way of antecedence. in every way. internal and external. Like the roots of a tree are hetu. the relation of presence and that of non-separation.’ It is used in the sense of ‘root’ (målaññhena). Furthermore. and at rebirth as those born of kamma. it is explained as a ‘serviceable or supportive factor’ (upakàrako dhammo). All relations are included in the relations of object. antecedence. The five kinds of relations—coexistence.life. _______ Summary Thus the relative conditions pertaining to the three periods of time and timeless. edible food. Hetu-paccaya—Here paccaya presents some difficulty. 417 . It is defined as that by means of which an effect comes to be. In all the relations in Paññhàna are twenty-four. Hetu is defined as ‘that by which an effect is established. Kamma and presence. post-occurrence. and material life—are. _______ Section 3 18. Herein coexisting material qualities should be understood as twofold:—throughout the course of life they should be understood as those born of mind. In other words it is the cause. powerful dependence. are threefold by way of concept.

for example. ko hetu. 29–53. 19. ârammaõa—or âlambana—The former is derived ram. The causal relation by way of ‘root’ may be suggested as the closest rendering.like water and manure that aid its growth are paccaya. to delight in. however. Things on which the subject delights in or hangs upon are ‘objects’.. In the Abhidhamma these two cognate terms are used in two different senses. acts as a causal relation to visual-consciousness by way of an ‘object’. p. pp. 279. to hang upon. Adhipati—Lit. They are the six moral and immoral roots. ‘Roots’ are purely mental. for instance. √ √ 20. In the Suttas. There are six classes of objects. and hetu is one of them. Hetupaccaya is explained as ‘hetu itself is a paccaya’ or ‘as hetu it becomes a paccaya. (See Compendium. the latter from à + from à + lamb. 418 .’ It is interpreted as a supportive or serviceable factor in the sense of root (målaññthena upakàrako dhammo). A form. mastery or lordship over one’s own. without any distinction. they are invariably employed as synoymous terms. See Chapter 1. It should be stated that there is nothing mundane or supramundane that does not become an object for mind. ko paccayo— what is the reason? what is the cause? In the Paññhàna 24 such paccayas are enumerated. Journal of the Pàli Text Society. 1915–1916. as.

419 . the four mental aggregates. effort and reasoning—may. the appearance of the three ‘decads’ at the moment of conception. thought. causally relate itself to coexistent mental states and material phenomena by way of predominance. Anantara and Samanantara—In meaning there is no difference between the two terms.One of the four dominant factors—-namely. 22. The perishing preceding states causally relate themselves to immediately following states by way of contiguity and immediacy. the four Great Essentials that arise together. 21. In the Pañiccasamuppàda it may be mentioned that both contact and feeling which appear as causes and effect are conascent. at one time. then this phenomenon is to the other phenomenon a condition by way of predominance. the different mental states that simultaneously arise in a particular type of consciousness. etc. wish.” (Paññhàna). According to Buddhist philosophy one thought-moment perishes immediately giving birth to another. as. “Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental states arise by giving predominance to one of these four factors. They differ only in etymology. Sahajàta—The causal relation by way of co-nascence. The succeeding thought-moment inherits all the potentialities of its immediate predecessor. for instance.

wealth and √ 420 . parricide and so on will serve as an upanissaya to effect a birth in a woeful state. so is the causal relation of dependence. Upa is an intensive prefix. one of the five heinous crimes such as matricide. Z. A¤¤ama¤¤a—Just as the legs of a tripod are reciprocally helpful. etc. a mental with a physical. 23. For instance. Aung renders upasnissaya by ‘sufficing condition’. to lie. It is compared to the rains on which depend the growth of trees. and as pictures depend on a canvas on which they are painted. mind and matter are reciprocally related. Causal relations of co-nascence and reciprocity should be differentiated. mind-born material phenomena are not reciprocally related to the coexisting mind. early education. They are not identical. Good environments. 24. As trees depend on the ground for their support. Upanissaya is defined as a stronger species of Nissaya. S. a physical with a physical. As a rule. will serve as a causal relation by way of ‘dependence’ (nissaya) for the acquisition of health.A mental state may be co-nascent with a mental state. For instance. and a physical with a mental. Nissaya and Upanissaya—derived from upa + ni + si. even so mental or physical state or states may be causally related by way of reciprocity (or mutuality). nor are the material derivatives to the coexisting Great Essentials.

Purejàta—lit. âsevana denotes this repeated practice. 1916. Pacehàjàta—Of the 89 types of consciousness. By repetition one acquires a certain amount of skill in any particular thing. as a rule. Priority is not a good rendering. The six physical bases and six sensual objects are regarded as pre-existent. âsevana—Repeated practice. spiritual pride. See Ledi Sayadaw’s learned article on this subject in P. even so they may become upanissaya for evil too as. Just as good actions become upanissaya for future good deeds. The pre-existent things are regarded as causal relations only when they continue to exist in the present and not by mere antecedence.. 25. This applies to both good and evil things. S. 421 . pp. This is the reason why the fourth javana thought-moment is considered very powerful. the fourth to the third. 85 types.knowledge in later life. T. born before or that which pre-exists. for instance. the third to the second. Kamma means the volition that plays the most important part in moral and immoral thoughts. 28. excluding the four Aråpa resultants. 27. leads to proficiency. In javana process the second thoughtmoment is causally related to the first. by way of recurrence. 26. and the 52 mental states are causally related to the antecedent physical body by way of post-occurrence. 49–53. Journal.

in contemplative exercise. Indriya—The controlling factors enumerated in chapter VII become causally related to the coexistent mental states and material phenomena because they exercise control in their respective spheres. 30. For instance. mindfulness. Edible food is causally related to the body by way of nutriment or food. feelings. and deeds. etc. technically known as Kamma. volitions or moral and immoral actions (manosa¤cetanà) to rebirthconsciousness (pañisandhi vi¤¤àõa). in grief and happiness. confidence controls its co-adjuncts in religious convictions. is causally related to the Kamma-born material phenomena etc. âhàra—Just as material food sustains the physical body. even so mental foods sustain mental states. 422 . so are mental contacts or impressions (phassa) to feelings. As a seed to a tree so is Kamma causally related to its inevitable results. Vipàka—Like a cool breeze that pacifies a person seated under the cool shade of a tree. This volition. 31.words. even so mental states of resultant types of consciousness are causally related to coexistent mental states and material phenomena by way of ‘effect’ due to their effortless peaceful nature. psychic and physical life. in vivifying mind and matter. 29. and rebirthconsciousness (vi¤¤àõa) to mind and matter.

6. 2. (6) displeasure and (7) onepointedness are causally related to one another and other concomitants by way of close perception and contemplation. 34. See Chapter 1. 4. they are caus423 . have one identical object and one identical base. 7 are found in two classes of consciousness rooted in attachment. right livelihood. (5) equanimity. These path factors are causally related to both mind and body. right mindfulness. (3) rapture. Magga—means a way or road. as certain mental states arise together. 7. the initial application (vitakka) is causally related to its concomitants in directing them towards the desired object. right action. 1. 5. the other. 2. For instance. 2. The vehicles that convey travellers to the former are the evil ‘PathConstituents’ of wrong views. (4) happiness. right speech. and wrong one-pointedness. (2). right effort. The vehicles that ply on the latter way are right understanding. 33. Jhàna—The seven jhàna factors of (1) initial application. in deluded consciousness.32. wrong application. 3. and right onepointedness. sustained application. 7. in hateful consciousness. perish together. Sampayutta—Though possessing distinct characteristics from an ultimate standpoint yet. 1. wrong effort. One way leads to woeful states. 1. to states of bliss. and leading away from existence (niyyàna) in the case of good ones. leading downwards in the case of bad ones. right aspirations.

so with the disappearance of the predecessor. 36. 38.ally related to one another by way of ‘association’. for instance. Such is the causal relation by way of absence. Natthi—As with the disappearance of light. mind that depends on the heart-basis is causally related to it by way of dissociation because both mind and heart-basis are not mutually bound as water on a lotus leaf. Vippayutta is the opposite of the foregoing. The visibility of objects. 35. 37. Tattha råpadhammà råpakkhandho ca cittacetasikàsaïkhàtà cattàro aråpino khandhà nibbàna¤c’ àti pa¤cavidham pi aråpanti ca nàman’ ti ca pavuccati. For instance. the successor appears. For instance. 424 . Sweet and bitter tastes may be helpful to each other in being dissimilar. Vigata and Avigata are similar to Natthi and Atthi respectively. Pa¤¤attibhedo § 4. darkness spreads. Atthi is the causal relation of states that exist in the present to similar states like the causal relation of coexistence. the visual consciousness (dassana) is causally related to the immediately following receiving consciousness (sampañicchana) by way of absence. is due to the presence of light.

vijjamànena vijjamànapa¤¤atti. sasambhàrasannivesàkàram’ upàdàya geharathasakañàdikà. avijjamànena avijjamànapa¤¤atti. candàvattanàdikam’ upàdàya disàkàlàdikà. avijjamànena vijjamànapa¤¤atti. taü taü bhåtanimittaü bhàvanàvisesa¤ ca upàdàya kasiõanimittàdikà cà’ti ev’màdippabhedà pana paramatthato avijjamànà ’pi atthacchàyàkàrena cittuppàdànamàlambanabhåtà taü taü upàdàya upanidhàya kàraõaü katvà tathà tathà parikappiyamànà saïkhàyati. Ubhinnaü pana vomissakavasena sesà yathàkkamaü chalabhi¤¤o itthisaddo cakkhuvi¤¤àõaü ràjaputto’ti ca veditabbà. pa¤¤àpãyatã’ ti pa¤¤attã’ti pavuccati. Pa¤¤àpanato pa¤¤atti pana nàma nàmakammàdinàmena paridãpità. voharãyati. avijjamànapa¤¤atti. khandhapa¤cakam’ upàdàya purisapuggalàdikà. Sà vijjamànapa¤¤atti. 425 . vijjamànena avijjamàna pa¤¤atti. Ayaü pa¤¤atti pa¤¤àpiyattà pa¤¤atti nàma. tad’àyaü avijjamànapa¤¤attãti pavuccati. asamphuññhàkàram’ upàdàya kåpaguhàdikà. sama¤¤àyati. Kathaü? Taü taü bhåtapariõàmàkàram’ upàdàya tathà tathà pa¤¤attà bhåmipabbatàdikà. pa¤¤àpanato pa¤¤attã’ti ca duvidhà hoti.Tato avasesà pa¤¤atti pana pa¤¤àpiyattà pa¤¤atti. c’àti chabbidhà hoti. Tattha yadà pana paramatthato vijjamànaü råpavedanàdiü etàya pa¤¤àpenti tad’àyaü vijjamànapa¤¤atti. Yadà pana paramatthato avijjamànaü bhåmipabbatàdiü etàya pa¤¤àpenti.

‘chariot’. _______ Section 4 Pa¤¤atti § 4. such terms as ‘person’ ‘individual’ and the like. Atthà yassànusàrena vi¤¤àyanti tato paraü Sàyaü pa¤¤atti vi¤¤eyyà lokasaïketanimmità’ti. or as it makes known. Therein the material states are just the aggregates of matter. ‘cart’ and the like. The remainder Pa¤¤atti (39). is twofold.’ and the like. which comprise the four immaterial aggregates. How? There are such terms as ‘land’. so named on account of the five aggregates. and Nibbàna are the five kinds of the immaterial. so named on account of the mode of formation of materials. Consciousness and mental states. such terms as 426 . such terms as ‘direction’. ‘mountain’ and the like. insamuch as it is made known. ‘time. so designated on account of the mode of transition of the respective elements. named according to the revolution of the moon and so forth. They are also called ‘name’ (Nàma). Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe Paccayasaïgahavibhàgo nàma aññhamo paricchedo. such terms as ‘house’.Vacãghosànusàrena sotavi¤¤àõavãthiyà Pavattànantaruppanna manodvàrassa gocarà.

‘mountain’ and so forth that do not exist in reality. etc. though they do not exist in an ultimate sense. ‘visual cognition’. 4. in consideration of. They are called ‘pa¤¤atti’ because they are thought of. such as ‘matter’. with respect to. and so forth that exist in reality. this or that mode. All such different things. ‘possessor of sixfold supernormal vision’. As it makes known it is called ‘pa¤¤atti’. ‘cave’ and the like. A real concept. so named on account of respective elements and different mental culture. It is sixfold (40):— 1.‘well’. ‘woman’s voice’. ‘king’s son’. It is described as ‘name’. for instance. become objects of thought in the form of shadows of (ultimate) things. and made known on account of. ‘feeling’. a real concept by means of a real concept. 427 . for instance. an unreal concept. such as ‘land’. 6. a real concept by means of an unreal concept. This ‘Pa¤¤atti’ is so called because it is made known. when they make known by a term. so named on account of the mode of non-impact and so forth. expressed. 2. 5. reckoned.’ The rest should respectively be understood by combining both as. understood. 3. an unreal concept by means of real concept. it is called an ‘unreal concept. such terms as Kasiõa-objects and the like. When they make known by a term. it is called a ‘real concept’. ‘name-made’. As. an unreal concept by means of an unreal concept.

Pa¤¤atti—There are two kinds of Pa¤¤atti or concepts—namely. are called ‘saõñhànapa¤¤atti. atthapa¤¤atti and nàmapa¤¤atti. the name given to the object. mountain. are called ‘samåha-pa¤¤atti’. etc. collective concepts. Chariot. These concepts should be understood as fashioned by world-convention. that is. Land. village. since they correspond to a collection or group of things. The latter is that which makes known. Notes:— 39. 428 . are meanings understood. The former is made known. etc.. since they correspond to the form of things. the object conveyed by the concept.’ formal concepts._______ Summary By following the sound of speech through the process of auditory consciousness and then by means of the concept conceived by mind-door that subsequently arises. that is. This is the eighth chapter which deals with the Analysis of Causal Relations in the Compendium of Abhidhamma.

Visualized image. time concepts. spaceconcepts. etc. Here the sensitive eye exists in an ultimate sense. 6. Woman’s voice. Well. etc. etc. Here the voice exists in an ultimate sense. since they correspond to mental signs gained by mental development. feeling. 2. Here neither the son nor the king exists in an ultimate sense. since they correspond to locality. but not the woman. Land. 5. are called ‘disà-pa¤¤atti’. are called ‘àkàsa-pa¤¤atti’. mountain. ‘Possessor of sixfold supernormal vision’. Six kinds of Pa¤¤atti— 1. etc. Matter. are terms given to things that do not exist in an ultimate sense. West. 429 3. Here the former does not exist in an ultimate sense. conceptualised image. are called ‘kàla-pa¤¤atti’. King’s son. but the latter does. 4.East. noon. since they correspond to open space. Eye-consciousness. exist in an ultimate sense. etc. local concepts. cave etc. . 40. since they correspond to time. Morning. and so does the consciousness dependent on it. are called ‘nimitta-pa¤¤atti’.

vinãlakaü. 430 . vikkhàyitakaü. vipubbakaü. dasa anussatiyo. vitakkacarità. Parikammanimittaü. hatavikkhittakaü. dosacarità. ekà sa¤¤à. nãlakasiõaü. Ràgacarità.Chapter IX Kammatthàna—Saïgaha—Vibhàgo _______ § 1. Parikammabhàvanà. àpokasiõaü. pañibhàganimittaü c’àti tãni nimittàni ca veditabbàni. dasa asubhà. c’àti chabbidhena caritasaïgaho. Kammaññhànasaïgaho Samathavipassanànaü bhàvanànam’ito paraü Kammaññhànaü pavakkhàmi duvidham pi yathàkkamaü. lohitakasiõaü. aññhikaü c’àti ime dasa asubhà nàma. vicchiddakaü. appanàbhàvanà c’àti tisso bhàvanà. catasso appama¤¤àyo. puëavakaü. lohitakaü. uggahanimittaü. Tattha samathasaïgahe tàva dasakasiõàni. Katham? Pañhavãkasiõaü. cattàro àruppà c’àti sattavidhena samathakammaññhànasaïgaho. saddhàcarità. tejokasiõaü. mohacarità. ekaü vavatthànaü. odàtakasiõaü àkàsakasiõaü. àlokakasiõaü c’àti imàni dasa kasiõàni nàma. Uddhumàtakaü. upacàrabhàvanà. vikkhittakaü. § 2. vàyokasiõaü. pãtakasiõaü.

Kàyagatàsati. Mudità.Buddhànussati. Caritàsu pana dasa asubhà kàyagatàsati saïkhàtà koññhàsabhàvanà ca ràgacaritassa sappàyà. ânàpànasati c’àti imà dasa anussatiyo nàma. Catudhàtuvavatthànaü ekaü vavatthànaü nàma. Càgànussati. Dhammànussati. Tattha’ pi kasinesu puthulaü mohacaritassa. Upasamànussati. ânàpànaü mohacaritassa vitakkacaritassa ca. _______ (Sappàyabhedo) § 3. Sãlànussati. 431 . âhàre pañikkålasa¤¤à ekà sa¤¤à nàma. Ayam’ettha sappàyabhedo. âkàsàna¤càyatanàdayo cattàro àruppà nàmà’ti sabbathà pi samathaniddese cattàëãsa kammaññhànàni bhavanti. Maraõopasamasa¤¤àvavatthànàni buddhicaritassa. Brahmavihàro’ti pavuccati. Upekkhà c’àti imà catasso appama¤¤àyo nàma. Sesàni pana sabbàni pi kammaññhànàni sabbesam pi sappàyàni. Devatànussati. Karuõà. Saïghànussati. khud dakaü vitakkacaritassa ca. Buddhànussati àdayo cha saddhàcaritassa. Mettà. Maraõànussati. Catasso appama¤¤àyo nãlàdãni ca cattàri kasiõàni dosacaritassa.

(Bhàvanà-bhedo) § 4. Tatthà’ pi dasa kasiõàni ànàpàna¤ ca pa¤cakajjhànikàni. Buddhànussati àdisu aññhasu sa¤¤àvavatthànesu c’àti dasasu kammaññhànesu upacàra bhàvanà’va sampajjati. _______ Ayam’ettha bhàvanàbhedo. Iti chabbãsati råpàvacarajjhànikàni kammaññhànàni. Bhàvanàsu pana sabbatthà ’pi parikammabhàvanà labbhat’eva. _______ (Gocarabhedo) § 5. Sà ca bhàvanà parikammabhàvanà nàma. Kathaü? âdikammikassa hi pañhavimaõdalàdisu nimittam’ ugganhantassa tam’ àlambanaü parikammanimittanti pavuccati. Nimittesu pana parikammanimittaü uggahanimittaü ca sabbatthà’pi yathàrahaü pariyàyena labbhant’ eva. Tattha hi pañibhàganimittam’àrabbha upacàrasamàdhi appanàsamàdhi ca pavattanti. 432 . Pañibhàganimittaü pana kasiõàsubhakoññhàsànàpànes’ veva labbhati. Mettàdayo tayo catukkajjhànikà. Cattàro pana àruppà aråpajjhànikà. Dasa asubhà kàyagatàsati ca pañhamajjhànikà. Upekkhà pa¤camajjhànikà. natthi appanà. Sesesu pana samatiüskammaññhànesu appanà bhàvanà’ pi sampajjati.

Sà ca bhàvanà samàdhiyati. cakkhunà passantass’eva manodvàrassa àpàthamàgataü’ tadà tam’ evàlambanaü uggahanimittaü nàma. Tato paññhàya paribandha vippàhànà kàmàvacarasamàdhisaïkhàtà upacàrabhàvanà nipphannà nàma hoti. Tato paraü tam’ eva pañibhàganimittaü upacàra samàdhinà samàsevantassa råpàvacarapañhamajjhànam’ appeti. Tathà samàhitassa pana tassa tato paraü tasmiü uggahanimitte parikammasamàdhinà bhàvanamanuyu¤jantassa yadà tappatibhàgaü vatthudhammavimuccitaü pa¤¤attisaïkhàtaü bhàvanàmayam’ àlambanaü citte sannisinnaü samappitaü hoti. paccavekkhaõà c’àti imàhi pa¤cahi vasitàhi vasibhåtaü katvà vitakkàdikam’ oëàrikaïgaü pahànàya vãcaràdi sukhumaïguppattiyà padahanto yathàkkamaü dutiyajjhànàdayo yathàraham’ appeti. Tato paraü tam’ eva pañhamajjhànaü àvajjanaü. Avasesu pana appama¤¤à sattapa¤¤attiyaü pavattanti. âkàsavajjitakasiõesu pana yaü ki¤ci kasiõaü ugghàñetvà laddhamàkàsaü anantavasena parikammaü karontassa pañhamàruppam’ appeti. samàpajjanaü. vuññhànaü. adhiññhànaü.Yadà pana taü nimittaü cittena samuggahitaü hoti. Icc’evaü pañhavikasiõàdisu dvàvãsatikammaññhànesu pañibhàganimittam’upalabbhati. Tam’eva pañhamàruppavi¤¤àõàbhàvaü pana natthi ki¤ci’ti parikammaü karontassa 433 . Tadà taü pañibhàganimittaü samuppannanti pavuccati. Tam’eva pañhamàruppavi¤¤àõaü anantavasena parikammaü karontassa dutiyàruppam’appeti.

Abhi¤¤à ca nàma:— lddhividhaü dibbasotaü paracittavijànanà Pubb: nivàsànussati dibbacakkhå’ti pa¤cadhà. Tatiyàruppaü santam’etaü paõãtam’ etanti parikammaü karontassa catutthàruppam’ appeti. Of the two. Niññhito ca samathakammaññhànanayo _______ Chapter 9 Compendium of Subjects for Mental Culture (1) _______ Introductory § 1. the objects of mental culture are sevenfold:—1. § 2. Abhi¤¤àvasena pavattamànaü pana råpàvacarapa¤camajjhànaü abhi¤¤àpàdaka pa¤camajjhànà vuññhahitvà adhiññheyyàdikam’àvajjitvà parikammaü karontassa råpàdist àlambanesu yathàraham’ appeti. upacàro ca sampajjati. in the Compendium of Calm. the 434 .tatiyàruppam’appeti. Avasesesu ca dasasu kammaññhànesu Buddhaguõàdikamàlambanam’ àrabbha parikammaü katvà tasmiü nimitte sàdhukam’ uggahite tatth’eva parikamma¤ ca samàdhiyati. Hereafter I will explain the twofold subjects of mental culture which deals with Calm (2) and Insight (3). Ayam’ ettha gocarabhedo. to begin with.

3. and equanimity. The six kinds of temperaments (4):—1. 5. The Reflection on the Doctrine. (II). the preliminary. the abstract. appreciative joy. (10) D. are:— loving-kindness. a mangled (corpse). 435 . or ignorant. The ten Impurities (8) are:—a bloated (corpse) a discoloured (corpse). 2. the one Analysis. E. yellow. C. the discursive. the four Aråpa-Jhànas. the proximate. The Reflection on deities. the unintelligent. How? A. the devout. 3. 4. The one Perception is the feeling of loathsomeness about food (12). an eaten (corpse). the conceptualised. The Reflection on the Order. The three signs (6):—1. 2. the lustful. 9. 5. the ten Impurities. The Reflection on peace. The Reflection on generosity. compassion. and light. 3. the hateful. air. a worminfested (corpse) and a skeleton. fire. the one Perception 6. 3. or faithful. The Reflection on death. blue. The ten kasiõas (7) are:—earth. red. water.ten Kasiõas. 5. The ten Reflections (9) are:—1. 2. The four Illimitables. a disjoint corpse. 7. 7. white. The three stages of Mental Culture:—1. or wise. the intellectual. 4. 2. 8. the ten Reflections. 4. the four Illimitables. 6. also called Sublime States. space. 3. 6. The Reflection on the Buddha. 2. Mindfulness regarding breathing. the concentrative. a festering (corpse). B. The Reflection on morality. the preliminary (5).

The preliminary stage of mental culture is attainable in all these forty subjects of meditation. In the ten subjects 436 . and all the remaining subjects of mental culture. Of the kasiõas a wide one is suitable for the unintelligent. G. _______ Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments § 3.F. The four ‘Illimitables’ and the four coloured Kasiõas are suitable for those of a hateful temperament. and ‘analysis’. The six reflections on the Buddha and so forth are suitable for those of a devout temperament. for those of an intellectual temperament. and a small one for the discursive. The four Aråpa-Jhànas are the ‘Infinity of space’ (14) and so forth. Herein this is the section on suitability. In the exposition of ‘Calm’ there are altogether forty (15) subjects of meditation. (17). ‘perception’. The one Analysis is the analysis of the four elements (13). With respect to temperaments the ten ‘Impurities’ and ‘Mindfulness regarding the body’ such as the 32 parts are suitable for those of a lustful temperament (16). reflection on ‘death’. ‘peace’. The reflection on ‘breathing’ is suitable for those of an unintelligent and discursive temperament. _______ Stages of Mental Culture § 4. for all.

and the one ‘Analysis’ (18) only proximate mental culture is attained but not the concentrative stage. the ten ‘Impurities’ and ‘Mindfulness regarding the body’ only the first Jhàna. But the conceptualised image is obtained in ‘the ‘Kasiõas’. ‘Impurities’. ‘Parts of the body’. Therein the ten kasiõas and the ‘Breathing’ produce five Jhànas. How ? Whatever object. the preliminary sign and the abstract sign are generally obtained in every case according to the object. amongst the earth kasiõas and so 437 . It is by means of the conceptualised image the proximate one-pointedness and the ecstatic one-pointedness are developed. In the thirty remaining subjects of mental culture the concentrative stage of mental culture is also attained. four Jhànas. the first three ‘Illimitables’ such as loving-kindness. Thus these twenty-six subjects of mental culture produce Råpa-Jhànas. The four ‘formless’ objects produce the Aråpa-Jhànas.of mental culture such as the eight Reflections on the Buddha and so forth and the one ‘Perception’. _______ Signs of Mental Culture § 5. ‘equanimity’ (19) the fifth Jhàna. Of the three signs. and ‘Breathing’. This is the section on mental culture.

Thus with respect to twenty-two subjects of mental 438 . thereafter. resolution. according to circumstances. attainment. arises. pertaining to the Kàma-sphere. Thenceforth by bringing that very first jhàna under one’s sway by means of these five kinds of mastery (21)— namely. Then he who develops the conceptualised image by means of ‘proximate concentration’ attains to the first Jhàna of the Råpa-sphere.forth. reckoned as a concept. Likewise. and revision—the striving person. by degrees. when a counter-image born of meditation. to the second jhàna and so forth. is called a preliminary sign. _______ Råpa Jhànas Thereafter ‘proximate concentration’. reflection. a beginner takes to practise meditation. then it is called the abstract sign. freed from original defects (20). emergence. practises meditation on the abstract sign by means of preliminary concentration. by inhibiting the coarse factors like ‘initial application’ and so forth. then it is said that the conceptualised image has arisen. and that meditation is preliminary mental culture. is well established and fixed in the mind of one who is well composed and who. That meditation becomes well established. When that sign is perceived by the mind and enters the mind-door as if seen by the very (physical) eye. and by developing the subtle factors like ‘sustained application’ and so forth attains. free from obstacles.

thinking that ‘it is infinite’. there arises the fourth Aråpa Jhàna. to one who practises concentration on space abstracted from any kasiõa excluding the àkàsa kasiõa. To one who practises concentration on the non-existence of the first Aråpa-consciousness. thinking ‘there is naught whatever’—there arises the third Aråpa Jhàna. when one practises concentration on physical 439 . _______ Supernormal Knowledge (23) Emerging from the fifth jhàna (serving as a) basis for supernormal knowledge. thinking—it is calm. To one who practises concentration on that very first Aråpa Jhàna. But in the remaining (eighteen) subjects of mental culture the ‘Illimitables’ relate to the concept of beings. _______ Aråpa Jhànas (22) Now. thinking—‘this is infinite’—there arises the first Aråpa Jhàna. it is sublime’. there arises the second Aråpa Jhàna. In the remaining ten subjects of mental culture when concentration is practised on an object like the attributes of the Buddha and so forth and when the sign is well grasped ‘preliminary meditation’ becomes steadfast therein and ‘proximate meditation’ is also accomplished.culture such as the earth kasiõa etc. To him who practises concentration on the third Aråpa-consciousness. and reflecting on the ‘resolution’ and so forth. the conceptualised image is obtained.

therefore. By concentration passions are only temporarily inhibited. to lull. It is synonymous with concentration (samàdhi) which leads to the development of jhànas. and Celestial Eye. Kammaññhàna. literally. means ‘subjects of meditation’ or ‘meditation exercises’. liter- . to see. √ 3. The method of meditation of Calm is ended. derived from vi + 440 2. √ dis. implies subjects or exercises. gained by subduing the Hindrances. or occasion. Reminiscence of past births. the fifth Råpa-Jhàna induced in the way of developing supernormal knowledge. Vipassanà. Herein this is the section on mental culture.. There are forty such subjects of meditation. to subdue. station. _______ Notes:— Section 1 1. Kamma means the act of meditation or contemplation. sam. there arises according to circumstances. Celestial Ear. Discerning others’ thoughts.objects etc. òhàna. The five kinds of supernormal knowledge are:— Various Psychic Powers. Samatha. Kammaññhàna—Here this term is used in a technical sense. derived from denotes ‘tranquillity’ or ‘quietude’. ground.

Akin to the ignorant are those whose minds oscillate. means perceiving in diverse ways. and soullessness. in brief. 4. The main object of vippassanà is to see things as they truly are. that is in the light of transiency. while dosa (anger. By nature some are exceptionally devout (saddhàcarita). ‘introspection’. It is rendered by ‘insight’. there are six kinds of temperaments. hatred or illwill). Thus. in order to gain one’s Emancipation. sorrowfulness. ‘intuition’. contemplation’. Ràga (lust) is predominant in some. By combining them with one another. With the inclusion of diññhicarita (speculative temperament) there are 64. Habitual actions tend to form particular temperaments. we get 63 types. There are a few others who lack intelligence and are more or less ignorant (mohacarita). unable to focus their attention deliberately on one thing (vitakkacarita). 441 . The temperaments of people differ owing to the diversity of their actions or Kammas. Carita signifies the intrinsic nature of a person which is revealed when one is in a normal state without being preoccupied with anything. Most people belong to these two categories.ally. in others. while others are exceptionally intelligent (buddhicarita).

is termed ‘Uggahanimitta’. Kasiõa means ‘whole’. Anuloma. ‘all’. Upacàra. The identical visualised image. ecstatic concentration. used for preliminary mental culture is termed ‘Parikammanimitta’. In the case of Pañhavikasiõa one makes a circle of about one span and four fingers in diameter and. until the Gotrabhå thought-moment in the Jhàna Javana process. Gotrabhu. 6. The same object. is termed Upacàrabhàvanà. complete’ it is so called because the light issuing from the conceptualized image is extended everywhere without any limitation. Appanà / Bhavaïga. The thought-moment that immediately follows the Gotrabhå thought-moment is called Appanà. is termed ‘Pañibhàganimitta’ when it serves as an object of Upacàra and Appanà Bhàvanà. . persists as if firmly fixed upon the object of concentration. The preliminary stages of mental development are termed Parikammabhàvanà. Any object.5. Mental culture. because vitakka (initial application). freed from all Kasiõa defects. Jhàna Thought-Process:— Manodvàràvajjana / Parikamma. when mentally perceived with closed eyes. from the moment one develops the conceptualized image and temporarily inhibits the Hindrances. the foremost Jhàna constituent. cov442 7. such as a Kasiõa.

This hypnotic circle is known as kasiõa-maõóala and is also called Parikammanimitta. a span and four fingers in diameter. àpo. free from original kasiõa faults. Then he concentrates on this visualised image until it develops into a conceptualised or counterimage. (water. perhaps weeks. When he does this for some time. For the water-kasiõa one may take a vessel full of colourless water. Eventually he gains ‘ecstatic concentration’ (Appanà samàdhi). smoothes it well. At this stage the innate five Hindrances are temporarily inhibited. or months. This visualised object is called ‘Uggahanimitta’. he may put in some other kind of clay beneath. If there be not enough clay of dawn-colour. Now he places this object two and a half cubits away from him and concentrates on it. As he continually concentrates on this abstract concept he is said to be in possession of proximate or neighbourhood concentration (Upacàrasamàdhi). saying—àpo. To develop the fire-Kasiõa one may kindle a fire before him and concentrate on it through a hole. or year—he would be able to close his eyes and visualise the object. a 443 . preferably rain water. and concentrate on it. This is known as the ‘Pañhibhàganimitta’.ering it with dawn-coloured clay. earth. saying mentally or inaudibly—pañhavi. water) until he gains one-pointedness of the mind. The purpose is to gain the onepointendeness of the mind. in rush-mat. pathavi or earth.

or white and concentrate on it repeating the name of the colour as in the case of the other kasiõas. a span and four fingers in diameter. 8. saying—vàyo vàyo (air. saying—okàsa. One may even concentrate on blue. saying—tejo. and white flowers. in either a well-covered pavilion or a piece of leather or a mat.piece of leather. air). fire). or a piece of cloth. 444 . red. To develop the colour kasiõas one may take a maõóala of the prescribed size and colour it blue. okàsa (space. yellow. One who develops the air-kasiõa concentrates on the wind that enters through window-space or a hole in the wall. tejo (fire. It may be mentioned that light and space kasiõas are not mentioned in the Texts. space). or on a circle of light cast on the ground. Asubha—Those ten kinds of corpses were found in ancient Indian cemeteries and charnel places where dead bodies were not buried or cremated and where flesh-eating animals frequent. light) Space-kasiõa can be developed by concentrating on a hole. Light-kasiõa may be developed by concentrating on the moon. saying—àloka. or on the wall by sunlight or moonlight entering through a wallcrevice or holes. In modern days they are out of the question. àloka (light. red. or on an unflickering lamplight. yellow.

i. of wise conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One. This Order of the disciples of the Exalted 445 . Omniscient. “Such indeed is that Exalted One — Worthy. to be realized by oneself. Fully Enlightened. inviting investigation. “Well-expounded is the doctrine by the Exalted One. means repeated reflection or constant mindfulness. for example. The four pairs of persons constitute eight individuals. leading to Nibbàna. each one for himself. Dhammànussati is the reflection on the virtues of the Doctrine as. and Holy. Knower of the Worlds. to be understood by the wise. of dutiful conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One.” ii. Anassati—literally.” iii. of upright conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One. of immediate fruit. Teacher of gods and men. Saïghànussati is the reflection on the virtues of the pure members of the Noble Celibate Order as follows: “Of good conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One.9. Buddhànussati is the reflection on the virtues of the Buddha as. an Incomparable Charioteer for the training of individuals. Endowed with Wisdom and Conduct. for example. Well-farer.

vi. Constant meditation on death does not 446 . Càgànussati is reflection on one’s own charitable nature. Sãlànussati is reflection on the perfection of one’s own virtuous conduct. Maraõànussati is reflection on the termination of psycho-physical life.” Thus when one reflects again and again on one’s own faith and other virtues. placing deities as witnesses it is called Devatànussati. is an incomparable field of merit for the world. Contemplation on death enables one to comprehend the fleeting nature of life. is worthy of gifts. v.One is worthy of offerings. When one understands that death is certain and life is uncertain one endeavours to make the best use of one’s life by working for self-development and for the development of others instead of wholly indulging in sensual pleasures. vii. I too possess them. Upasamànussati is reflection on the attributive qualities of Nibbàna such as the cessation of suffering etc. viii.” iv. is worthy of hospitality. is worthy of reverential salutation. Devatànussati—“Deities are born in such exalted states on account of their faith and other virtues.

it makes one more active and energetic. skin. Within this body. one may meditate on the uncertainty of life and on the certainty of death. one can face death with serenity. on the contrary. If one is not conversant with all the thirty-two parts. but. 447 . Besides. teeth. They may meditate on the innate creative possibilities of this complex machinery of man. leads to dispassion. This meditation on the loathsomeness of the body. is found a skeleton. This meditation may not appeal to those who are not sensual. Choosing various similies. While contemplating death. hair of the body. Beauty is nothing but skin deep. one may meditate on one part such as bones.make one pessimistic and lethargic. Many Bhikkhus in the time of the Buddha attained Arahantship by meditating on these impurities. Kàyagatàsati is reflection on the 32 impure parts of the body such as hair. etc. ix. nails. When one reflects thus on the impure parts of the body passionate attachment to this body gradually disappears. one may think that life is like a flame or that all so-called beings are the outward temporary manifestations of the invisible Kammic energy just as an electric light is the outward manifestation of the invisible electric energy. It is full of flesh which is covered with a skin.

bowels. ânàpànasati is mindfulness on respiration. nails. articular fluid. constantly focusing your attention on respiration. Then breathe in through the nostrils calmly. Inhale first and count mentally one. bones. breathe out and close the mouth. bile. blood. It is possible for the mind to wander before one 448 . Adopting a convenient posture. liver. marrow. kidneys.The thirty-two parts of the body are enumerated as follows:— “Hair. lymph. A few practical hints are given here for the benefit of the average reader. In some books these two terms are explained in the reverse way. without strain. tears. stomach. skin. faeces. flesh. grease. sweat. nasal mucus. sinews. pus. lungs. phlegm. Exhale and count two. spleen. mesentery. diaphragm. In this manner count up to ten. This is one of the best subjects of meditation. hair of the body. The Buddha also practised ànàpànasati before His Enlightenment. Concentration on the breathing process leads to one-pointedness of the mind. âna means inhalation and apàna exhalation. and ultimately to Insight which leads to Arahantship. which appeals equally to all. A detailed exposition of this meditation is found in the Satipaññhàna Sutta and in the Visuddhi Magga. teeth.” x. and urine. heart. concentrating on the breathing process. brain. saliva.

What is essential is concentration. For more details readers are referred to the Visuddhi Magga. When one practises this concentration for a certain period. Some prefer counting as it aids a concentration. This simple method may be pursued by all without any harm. a day might come when one will realize that his so-called body is supported by mere breath. and that the body perishes when breathing ceases. But one need not be discouraged. Where there is change there cannot be a permanent entity or an immortal soul. In some Suttas this simple method of respiration is explained as follows:— 449 . and not counting which is secondary. One might perhaps feel as if one were floating in the air.counts up to ten. Thus one fully realizes impermanence. Gradually one can increase the number of series. It is now clear that the object of this concentration on respiration is not merely to gain one-pointedness but also to cultivate Insight in order to obtain Deliverance. Later one can concentrate on the breathing process without counting. Try again until success is achieved. while others prefer not to count. Insight might then be developed to gain Arahantship. say five series of ten. When one does this concentration exercise one feels light in body and mind and very peaceful.

boundless) because these thoughts are radiated towards all beings. 4. ‘Calming this breathing process (passambhayaü kàyasaïkhàraü). I will exhale’: thus he trains himself. 1. When making a long inhalation he knows: ‘I make a long inhalation’. ‘I will inhale’: thus he trains himself. benevo450 . I will inhale’: Thus he trains himself. Vihàra means mode or ‘state of conduct’ or ‘state of living’. ‘I make a short exhalation’. 3. as in Brahmacariya (sublime life). when making a short exhalation he knows. attentively he breathes out.” ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 11. Clearly perceiving the entire (breath) body (sabbakàyapañisaüvedi). When making a short inhalation he knows. clearly perceiving the entire (breath) body ‘I will exhale’: thus he trains himself. ‘I make a short inhalation’. Brahmavihàra—Here Brahma means sublime. They are also termed appama¤¤à (limitless. 2. without limit or obstruction. when making a long exhalation he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation’. Mettà (saüskrt Maitri)—loving-kindness. ‘calming this breathing process. i.“Attentively he breathes in.

and its indirect enemy is exhilaration (pahàsa). its indirect enemy is personal affection (pema). Mudità embraces prosperous beings. Mettà embraces all beings without exception. It eliminates dislike (arati) and is the congratulatory attitude of a person.lence. It discards illwill. iii. and it eliminates cruelty. It is the wish for the good and happiness of all. It is not carnal love or personal affection. Its direct enemy is wickedness (hiüsà) and its indirect enemy is passionate grief (domanassa). goodwill—is defined as that which softens one’s heart. Its chief characteristic is the wish to remove the sufferings of others. The direct enemy of Mettà is hatred. Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in others’ prosperity and success (anumodanà). 451 . The culmination of Mettà is the identification of oneself with all beings (sabbattatà). Its direct enemy is jealousy. illwill or aversion (kodha). Compassion embraces sorrow-stricken beings. Benevolent attitude is its chief characteristic. ii. Mudità is not mere sympathy but sympathetic or appreciative joy. Karunà—compassion—is defined as that which makes the hearts of the good quiver when others are subject to suffering or that which dissipates the sufferings of others.

’ 452 . the loved and the unloved. pain and happiness.’ (ii) ‘The Realm of the Infinity of Consciousness. gain and loss. the pleasant and the unpleasant. 12. They are: (i) ‘The Realm of the Infinity of Space. with neither attachment nor aversion. It is the balanced state of mind amidst all vicissitudes of life such as praise and blame. eating etc. It is not hedonic indifference but perfect equanimity or a well-balanced mind. Ahare patikkålasa¤¤à—i.iv. (iii) ‘The Realm of Nothingness’ and (iv) The ‘Realm of neither Perception nor Nonperception. cohesion. and motion with regard to their characteristics etc. Its direct enemy is attachment (ràga) and its indirect enemy is callousness. means to view impartially. Arupajhànas—See Ch. Upekkhà discards clinging and aversion.. are its closest equivalents. mental equilibrium.e. the feeling of loathsomeness of food. repute and disrepute. in its search. See Chapter 2. Upekkhà. that. Equanimity. Catudhàtuvavatthànaü—i. 14. Here Upekkhà does not mean mere neutral feeling. heat. 13..e. note 49. but implies a sterling virtue. 1. is. the investigation of the four primary elements of extension. Upekkhà embraces the good and the bad. Impartial attitude is its chief characteristic. literally.

Adhiññhàna—the ability to remain in the jhànas as long as one likes. 18.’ 20. 21. is an indispensable aid to practise concentration on them. As equanimity (upekkhà) is found only in the fifth jhàna. Paccavekkhana is similar to àvajjana. they cannot be developed by concentrating on these two objects. Thirty-eight objects when ‘light’ and ‘space’ are excluded. 453 . Vuññhàna—the ability to emerge from the jhànas as quickly as possible. Samàpajjana—the ability to attain to different jhànas quickly.e. from the defects found in the original kasinamanóala. Vatthudhammato—i. These objects are too coarse. 19.15. As there is no vitakka in the remaining four Jhànas.. and vitakka. Because they tend to create a disgust for the body which fascinates the senses. 16. 17. âvajjana—reflection on the different constituents of jhàna. the first four jhànas cannot be developed by concentrating on this last ‘Illimitable. one of the constituents of jhàna. Because the objects are too deep and vast.

23. This is the first supernormal vision the Buddha developed during the first watch on the night He attained Enlightenment. This was the second knowledge the Buddha developed during the second watch on the night of His Enlightenment. iii.22. which are imperceptible to the physical eye. far or near. See Ch. iv. while in the case of others it is limited. 92. which enables one to hear subtle or coarse sounds far or near. v. which enables one to see heavenly or earthly things. Paracittavijànana—is the power to discern the thoughts of others. p. also called clairaudience. Abhi¤¤à—Only one who has gained the fifth jhàna can develop the following five kinds of supernormal knowledge or vision:— i. creation of forms. ii. diving into the earth. etc. 454 . Dibbacakkhu is the Celestial or Divine Eye. also called clairvoyance. Dibbasota is the Celestial Ear. With regard to this knowledge the Buddha’s power is limitless. belong to this category. 1. Iddhividha—Flying through the air. walking on water. Pubbenivàsànussati—is the power to remember the past lives of oneself and others.

Cittavisuddhi. is identical with this Celestial Eye. Sammasana¤àõaü. Aniccànupassanà. knowledge with regard to the future. To these should be added the sixth supernormal knowledge—âsavakkhaya¤àõa—Knowledge with regard to the extinction of passions which is supramundane. only during a Buddha-cycle. ¥àõadassanavisuddhi’ càti sattavidhena Visuddhisaïgaho. Maggàmagga¤àõadassanavisuddhi. Sãlavisuddhi. These come within the range of the Buddha’s Omniscience. Pañipadà¤àõa dassanavisuddhi. 6. are two other kinds of knowledge belonging to the same category. 3. 5. but the last. Aniccalakkhaõam. 2. Dukkhalakkhaõaü. 7.Cutåpapàta¤àõa. Vipassanàkammaññhàne pana 1. 4. knowledge with regard to the dying and reappearing of beings. 3. Anattànupassanà c’àti tisso Anupassanà. Bhan455 . 2. Diññhivisuddhi. 1. Anattalakkhaõa¤ c’àti tãõi Lakkhaõàni. Udayavyaya¤àõaü. and yathàkammåpaga¤àõa. Kaïkhàvitaraõavisuddhi. These five kinds of supernormal vision are worldly. Anàgataüsa¤àõa. Dukkhànupassanà. The first five kinds may be developed at any period. _______ (Visuddbibhedo) § 6. knowledge with regard to the faring of beings according to their own good and bad actions.

456 . Appaõihito Vimokkho c’àti tayo Vimokkhà. Animitto Vimokkho. Animittànupassanà. 10. Bhaya¤àõaü. Upacàrasamàdhi. Anuloma¤àõaü. Lakkhaõa-rasa – paccupaññhàna – padaññhàna – vasena nàma-råpapariggaho Diññhivisuddhi nàma. Katham? Pàtimokkhasaüvara Sãlaü. dukkhaü bhayaññhena. Paccayasannissita Sãlaü c’àti catupàrisuddhi Sãlaü Sãlavisuddhi nàma. Appaõihitànupassanà c’àti tãõi Vimokkhamukhàni ca veditabbàni. Pañisaïkhà¤àõaü. Obhàso pãti passaddhi adhimokkho ca paggaho Sukhaü ¤àõamupaññhànamupekkhà ca nikanti c’àti. Su¤¤ato Vimokkho. Indriyasaüvara Sãlam. c’àti dasa Vipassanà¤àõàni. 9. âdãnava¤àõaü. Mu¤citukamyatà¤àõaü. ¥ibbidà¤àõaü. Su¤¤atànupassanà. Tato paraü pana tathàpariggahitesu sappaccayesu tebhåmakasaïkhàresu atãtàdibhedabhinnesu khandhàdinayam’ àrabbha kalàpavasena saïkhipitvà aniccaü khayaññhena. anattà asàrakaññhenà’ ti addhànavasena santativasena khaõavasena và sammasana¤àõena lakkhaõattayaü sammasantassa tes’veva paccayavasena khaõavasena ca udayavyaya¤ànena udayavyayaü samanupassantassa ca. 7. Appanàsamàdhi c’àti duvidho’pi Samàdhi Cittavisuddhi nàma.ga¤àõaü 4. 8. Saükhàrupekkhà¤àõaü. âjãvapàrisuddhi Sãlaü. 6. 5. Tesam’eva ca nàma-råpànaü paccayapariggaho Kaïkhàvitaraõa-visuddhi nàma.

Chabbisuddhikam’ en’ evaü bhàvetabbo catubbidho Nàõadassanavisuddhi nàma maggo pavuccati. Tato paraü gotrabhåcittaü nibbànam’ àlambitvà puthujjanagottamabhibhavantaü ariyagottamabhisambhonta¤ ca pavattati. Tato paraü dve tãõi phalacittàni pavattitvà bhavaïgapàto’va hoti. Yà sikhàppattà sà sànulomasaïkhàrupekkhàvuññhànagàminãvipassanà’ti’ ca pavuccati. Puna bhavaïgaü vocchinditvà paccavekkhaõa¤àõàni pavattanti. Tass’evaü pañipajjantassa pana vipassanàparipàkam’àgamma idàni appanà uppajjissatã’ti bhavaïgaü vocchinditvà uppannamanodvàràvajjanànantaraü dve tãõi vipassanàcittàni yaü ki¤ci aniccàdilakkhaõam’àrabbha parikammopacàrànulomanàmena pavattanti. Ayam’ ettha visuddhibhedo. Tass’ànantaram eva maggo dukkhasaccaü parijànanto samudayasaccaü pajahanto nirodhasaccaü sacchikaronto maggasaccaü bhàvanàvasena appanàvãthim’ otarati. 457 . Maggaü phalas ca nibbànaü paccavekkhati paõóito Hãne kilese sese ca paccavekkhati và navà. Tathà paripanthavimuttassa pana tassa udayavyaya¤àõato paññhàya yàvànulomà tilakkhaõaü vipassanàparamparàya pañipajjantassa nava vipassanà¤àõàni Pañipadà¤àõadassanavisuddhi nàma.Obhàsàdi vipassanupakkilese paripanthapariggahavasena maggàmaggalakkhaõavavatthànaü Maggàmagga¥ànadassanavisuddhi nàma.

Purity of Vision regarding intuitive wisdom._______ Different Kinds of Purity § 6. Knowledge (of dissolving things) as fearful. 4. Purity of Morals. Purity of Vision in discerning the Path and Non-Path. The Contemplation on Suffering and 3. 2. 7. Knowledge of (baneful) things as disgusting. 2. Knowledge with regard to the dissolution (of things). 6. Knowledge of reflecting contemplation (29). The Contemplation on Impermanence. In the exercises on mental culture pertaining to Insight (24) the section on ‘Purity’ is sevenfold:— 1. 458 . Knowledge with regard to the arising and passing away (of conditioned things). There are three Characteristic Marks:— 1. The Characteristic Mark of No-soul (27). 3. Purity of Vision in discerning the method. The Characteristic Mark of Impermanence (25). 4. Purity of Views. Knowledge of adaptation (31). Knowledge of equanimity towards conditioned things (30). 7. 6. 5. There are three Contemplations:— 1. and 3. Knowledge as regards the wish to escape therefrom. 3. 2. The Characteristic Mark of Suffering (26). 8. 9. 5. 2. The Contemplation on No-soul. There are ten kinds of Insight:— 1. and 10. Investigating knowledge (28). Purity of Mind. Purity of Transcending Doubts. Knowledge of (fearful) things as baneful.

4. ‘proximate concentration’. function. Contemplation on Desirelessness. formulates in groups the conditioned things of the triple plane. Purity of Transcending Doubts (39) is the comprehension of the causes of those very mind and matter. Emancipation through Desirelessness (35). considering the modes of aggregates etc. and ‘established or ecstatic concentration. 3. 1. Discipline as regards sense-restraint. and proximate cause. Emancipation through Void (33). 2. Purity of Mind (37) consists of two kinds of concentration — namely. 2. Discipline as regards purity of livelihood. 2. Discipline as regards the four requisites. There are three Doors of Emancipation:— 1. How? Purity of morals (36) consists of four kinds of perfect discipline — namely. and that 459 . that have arisen with causes. After comprehending the causes.’ Purity of Views (38) is the understanding of mind and matter with respect to their characteristics. Moral Discipline as regards the Fundamental Precepts. Contemplation on the Void. Contemplation on the Signlessness and 3. mode of appearance. the meditator. differing according to the past etc..There are three Emancipations (32):— 1. Emancipation through Signlessness (34) and 3.

effort. owing to the ripening of insight (he feels) ‘Now the development (of the path) (42) will arise’. arises mind-door consciousness. and momentariness. quietude. and extending up to the knowledge of adaptation. Now to him. nine kinds of Insight. is the determining of characteristics of Path and not Path by understanding aura etc. joy. starting from the knowledge of arising and passing away. By Purity of Vision that discerns the method (41) is meant these nine kinds of knowledge. followed by 460 . continuity. happiness. Getting rid of these inimical impediments. wisdom. equanimity and a liking (for that state). To him who meditates on the arising and passing away of things by means of the knowledge so named with respect to causes and momentariness there arise— an aura. and soullessness in the sense of unsubstantiality — by way of duration. excessive faith. there arise in one continuous stream of contemplation. Purity of Vision in discerning what is the Path and what is not the Path (40). suffering in the sense of fearfulness. _______ Realization When he thus practises contemplation. Thereupon arresting the lifecontinuum.have been comprehended in the foregoing manner. mindfulness. the meditator reflects on the three Characteristics. Now he meditates on the three characteristics — impermanence in the sense of dissolution. as inimical impediments of insight.

‘proximate’. phala. and evolving the lineage of the Ariyas. is also termed ‘Insight of emergence leading to the Path’ (44). Thereafter the Gotrabhå-consciousness (45). defilements destroyed. the knowledge of reflection occurs. together with knowledge that conforms (to the Truths). • • •• gotrabhå. upacàra. occurs. having for their object any of the Characteristics such as impermanence etc. when perfected. having Nibbàna as its object. realizing the Truth of suffering. overcoming the lineage of the worldlings. 136. and developing the Truth of the Way to its cessation. • anuloma. the Path (of the Stream-Winner). • bhavaïga. and ‘adaptation’ (moments) (43).two or three (moments of) insight consciousness.136 Immediately after that consciousness. The wise man reflects (47) on the Path. They are termed ‘preliminary’. descends into the transcendental stream. and either reflects or does not reflect on the remaining defilements. Nibbàna. eradicating the Truth of its cause. That knowledge of equanimity towards conditioned things. Fruit. 461 . parikamma. After that Path-consciousness two or three moments of Fruit-consciousness arise and subside into the lifecontinuum (46). realizing the Truth of its cessation. magga. The thought-process of a Stream-Winner:— • • • Manodvàravajjana. Then arresting the life-continuum.

Anicca. 462 . i. Normally matter endures only for seventeen thought-moments. e. Section 6 Notes:— 24. Not to get what one desires is suffering. the fleeting nature of both mind and matter. disease is suffering. The chief object of Insight is to understand things as they truly are. not remaining static for two consecutive moments.Thus the fourfold Path which has to be developed by degrees by means of the sixfold purity is called the ‘Purity of Intuitive Knowledge’ (48). death is suffering. Vipassanà or Insight is the third and final stage on the Path of Sainthood. Herein this is the section on Purity. All conditioned things are constantly changing. Separation from the pleasant is suffering. during the time occupied by a flash of lightning. Dukkha—All conditioned things are subject to suffering. in fact. Changeableness is a characteristic of everything that is conditioned. changes even faster than matter. Union with the unpleasant is suffering. decay is suffering. billions of thought-moments may arise. Birth is suffering. the five aggregates of attachment are suffering.. 25. 26. In brief. Mind. Commentators state that.

It may be mentioned that it was after hearing the ‘Anattalakkhaõa Sutta’. conditioned and non-conditioned. As there is no permanent entity in matter. 30. gained by meditating on each of them. With regard to Anattà. the Buddha employed the term dhammà to include supramundane unconditioned Nibbàna as well. he takes only that which appeals to him most. so also there is no unchanging entity in mind conceived as an ‘ego’ or ‘soul’. Anattà—or Soullessness is the crux of Buddhism. With regard to Anicca and Dukkha the Buddha said— ‘saïkhàrà—conditioned things’. The aspirant does not usually meditate on all these three characteristics. 28.. Pañisaïkhà¤àõa—is the re-contemplation of conditioned things in order to find out the means to escape therefrom. is the investigation of aggregates as composite (kalàpavasena). having neither attach463 . Of them. ‘handling-knowledge’. there is no permanent soul. 29. In everything mundane and supramundane. that the first five monks attained Arahantship. the discourse on soullessness. Saïkhàrupekkhà¤àõa—is perfect equanimity towards all conditioned things. Sammasana¤àõa—Lit.27. Hence the Buddha in the Dhammapada stated — ‘sabbe dhammà anattà—all Dhammas are soulless’. is named accordingly. Deliverance.

Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘suffering’ (dukkha) is called Appaõihitavimokkha. Animitta—free from the signs of permanence etc. ‘That which saves one who observes it from woeful states’ is the 464 . Vimokkha—so called because they deliver one from the ten Fetters etc. Su¤¤ata—devoid of a soul. all pertaining to the life of a Bhikkhu. Emancipation gained by meditating on soullessness (anattà) is called Su¤¤atavimokkha. is the first of seven ‘Purities’. resulting from developing the foregoing different kinds of Insight. Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘impermanence’ (anicca) is called Animittavimokkha. 36. Appaõihita—free from the hankering of craving.ment nor aversion. 31. 33. The first is Pàtimokkhasaüvarasãla. 35. Anuloma¤àõa—is the ‘adaptation knowledge’ gained by perfecting the foregoing nine kinds of Insight. It is so called because it conforms itself to the 37 Factors of Enlightenment and qualifies the aspirant for the higher path. It consists of four kinds. 32. Sãlavisuddhi—Purity of Morals. 34.

it is termed ‘saüvara’. Sãla is used in the sense of ‘composure’ (samàdhàna) and ‘support’ (upadhàraõa). the third Sãla. It is so called because it tends to discipline thoughts. gained by developing the Jhànas. 38. Paccayasannissitasãla. Pàtimokkha therefore means “Fundamental Teaching” or “Fundamental Precepts”. Pà is also explained as the Buddha’s Teaching. A purified mind is like a polished mirror where everything is reflected in its true perspective. alms. and deeds and because it acts as a support for other virtues. is concerned with the unselfish use of the four requisites—robes. It deals with 220 137 disciplinary rules which every Bhikkhu is expected to observe.commentarial explanation of ‘Pàtimokkha’. a Bhikkhu should not act in an unbecoming way. Atipamokkha means extremely important. It is so called 137. temporarily inhibiting the Hindrances. 37. 227 including seven ways of settling disputes (adhikaraõa samatha dhamma) 465 . Cittavisuddhi—is the second ‘Purity’. and medicine. deals with the control of the six senses. Indriyasaüvarasãla. âjãvapàrisuddhisãla. the second Sãla. As it restrains one from evil deeds etc. With a purified mind one can see things as they truly are. It is the purity of mind.. In obtaining the necessaries of life. Diññhivisuddhi—is the third purity. words. lodging. the fourth Sãla. deals with the right livelihood of a Bhikkhu.

seasonal phenomena. and. ‘causelessness’.because it purifies one from the false theory of a permanent soul. The aspirant who has cleared his doubts meditates again with better understanding on the three charac466 . craving. This correct comprehension results from investigating mind and matter as regards their salient characteristics (lakkhaõa). He understands that present mind and matter at conception were conditioned by past ignorance. of manifestation (paccupaññhàna). matter is conditioned by kamma. and the future. during lifetime. while mind is sustained by the senses and their corresponding objects. the way. function or essential properties (rasa). and their immediate cause (padaññhàna). mind. 39. Thus he realizes the second noble truth of the cause of suffering and rids himself of doubts. This is called a purity because it removes the stain of erroneous views of ‘chance’. grasping and Kamma. the present. the past. 40. and on the causes that sustain them in the present. Maggàmagga¤àõadassanavisuddhi—This is the fifth ‘Purity’. etc. and edible food. To achieve this purity one meditates on the various causes that tend to produce present mind and matter. Kankhàvitaraõavisuddhi—is the fourth ‘Purity’ which attempts to transcend sceptical doubts as regards cause and effect.

His religious fervour increases (adhimokkha). He understands. The arising and passing away of conditioned things become very conspicuous to him. happiness (sukha) and quietude (passaddhi). As he is thus absorbed in meditation he witnesses an aura (obhàso) emanating from his body as a result of his keen insight. and anatta. for every form of pleasure is only a prelude to pain. He finds no genuine happiness. He becomes strenuous (paggaho) and even-minded (upekkhà). 41. chiefly owing to the presence of the aura. ‘This is the right path. Pañipadà¤àõadassanavisuddhi—is the sixth ‘purity’. a continuous undivided movement. He experiences also an unprecedented joy (pãti). Labouring under the misconception that he has attained Sainthood. and wisdom (¤àõa) ripens. It is called a ‘purity’ because it clears up the misconception as regards the actual ‘path’. dukkha. He realizes that life is a mere flowing.teristics of anicca. 467 . What is transient is painful. Soon he realizes that these temptations are only impediments(upakkilesa) to Insight and that he has not really attained Sainthood. Accordingly he endeavours to distinguish between the right and wrong path (maggàmagga¤àõadassana). mindfulness (sati) strengthens. and where change and sorrow prevail there cannot be a permanent ego or soul. that is the wrong path’. he yearns (nikanti) for this state of mind.

45. Immediately after the Gotrabhå thought-moment there arises the Path thought-moment of the Sotàpanna. 461. 44. Gotrabhu—lit.. 248. 46. It is so called because it leads to the Path emerging from woeful states and signs of conditioned things. The object of this thought-moment is Nibbàna. This particular thought-moment in the three higher stages of Sainthood is termed ‘vodàna’ (pure) as the aspirant is already an Ariya. means ‘overcoming the worldly lineage’.n. the supramundane Path (lokuttaramagga).) 42. (See p. Appanà. Vuññhànagàminãvipassanà—is the name given to both Saïkhàrupekkhà¤àõa and Anuloma¤àõa of the tens kinds of Insight. but the actual realization of Nibbàna by the eradication of passions occurs at the Path thought-moment that immediately follows. 43. 136.This term is collectively applied to the nine kinds of Insight beginning with the knowledge as regards the arising and passing away of conditioned things and ending with the knowledge of adaptation that occurs in the Path thought-moment immediately preceding the Gotrabhå moment. 461. See pp. It is at this stage that one comprehends the 468 . f.

This is the reason why the Dhamma is called ‘akàlika’ (immediately effective). on the defilements one has destroyed. This particular thought-moment is termed ‘Sotàpattimagga.’ Sota here means the stream that leads to Nibbàna. 15 pertaining to the first three stages of Sainthood. destroying the passions. It is called ‘magga’ because it arises.Truth of Suffering. and actually realizes Nibbàna for the first time in his life. on the Nibbàna one has realized. 469 . and 4 to the last stage. The Pàli phrase—n’àparaü itthatthàya—No more of this state again—refers to this process of reflection. eradicates craving. âpatti means ‘entering for the first time’. The eight factors that constitute the Noble Path are also fully developed at this stage. 47. on the defilements one has yet to destroy. in the case of the first three stages. An Arahant who has no more defilements to destroy knows that he is delivered. It is the Noble Eightfold Path. There are altogether 19 kinds of such reflective knowledge. Paccavekkhaõa¤àõàni—As a rule after each of the four stages of Sainthood one reflects on the Path and Fruit one has attained. and. This Path thought-moment arises only once in the course of one’s lifetime. the cause of suffering. and is immediately followed by two or three ‘Fruit’ (phala) moments before the stream of consciousness lapses into bhavaïga.

(Vimokkhabhedo) § 7. Aniccànupassanà vipallàsanimittaü mu¤cantã. âlambanavasena pana sarasavasena ca nàmattayaü sabbattha sabbesam’ pi samam’eva. Yadi dukkhato vipassati appaõihito vimokkho nàmà’ti ca maggo vipassanàgamanavasena maggavãthiyaü. Tattha anattànupassanà attàbhinivesaü mu¤cantã. Dukkhànupassanà taõhàpaõidhiü mu¤cantã. su¤¤ato vimokkho nàma hoti maggo. a mental state of wisdom found in Path-Consciousness. Tasmà yadi vuññhànagàminãvipassanà anattato vipassati. Phalasamàpattivãthiyaü pana yathàvuttanayena vipassantànaü yathàsakaü phalamuppajjamànam’ pi vipassanàgamanavasen’eva su¤¤atàdivimokkho’ti ca pavuccati. animittànupassanà nàma.48. appaõihitànupassanà nàma. It is called a ‘purity’ because it is completely free from all stains or defilements. Ettha pana sotàpattimaggaü bhàvetvà diññhivicikicchàpahànena pahãnàpàyagamano sattakkhattuparamo sotàpanno nàma hoti. Nàõadassanavisuddhi is the name given to the contemplative knowledge. animitto vimokkho nàma. Su¤¤atànupassanà nàma vimokkhamukhaü hoti. Yadi aniccato vipassati. resulting from the realization of the four Truths. _______ (Puggalabhedo) § 8. Ayam’ettha vimokkhabhedo. 470 .

receives 471 .Sakadàgàmimaggaü bhàvetvà ràgadosamohànaü tanukarattà sakadàgàmi nàma hoti. Likewise. that discards the signs of false notion (50). then the Path is known as ‘Signless-Emancipation. Hence. Ayam’ettha puggalabhedo. The contemplation of impermanence. then the Path is known as ‘Void-Emancipation’. and is termed ‘Void-contemplation’. and is termed ‘Unhankering-contemplation’. Therein. the Fruit. then the Path is known as ‘Unhankering-Emancipation’. (occurring) in the Path thought-process. Sakid’eva imaü lokaü àgantvà anàgàmimaggaü bhàvetvà kàmaràgavyàpàdànamanavasesappahànena anàgàmi nàma hoti. and is termed ‘Signless-contemplation’. becomes an avenue of Emancipation. Thus the Path receives three names according to the way of Insight. Khãõàsavo loke aggadakkhiõeyyo. if with the ‘Emergence Insight leading to the Path’ one contemplates on no-soul. anàgantvà itthattaü. The contemplation of suffering. if one contemplates on sorrow. that discards the hankering of attachment (51). if one contemplates on impermanence. Emancipation § 7. becomes an avenue of Emancipation. becomes an avenue of Emancipation. that discards the clinging to a soul (49). the contemplation of no-soul. Arahattamaggaü bhàvetvà anavasesakilesappahànena arahà nàma hoti.

eradicating false views and doubts. one becomes a StreamWinner who is born seven times at most.these three names according to the way of the Path. returning to this world only once. However. not returning to this (Sentient) State. But. Herein this is the section on Individuals. one becomes a Once-Returner. hatred. one becomes a Never-Returner. developing the Path of Stream-Attainment (52). Developing the Path of Once-Returning (53). Developing the Path of the Worthy. the triad of names is applied equally to all (Paths and Fruits) everywhere. 472 . only in accordance with the way of Insight. Individuals § 8. and ignorance. who is free from Corruptions. the Fruits that arise according to the Paths.. are termed ‘Void-Emancipation’ etc. Herein. and totally eradicating sensual desires and hatred. one becomes a Worthy One (55). Developing the Path of Never-Returning (54). and who is fit to receive the highest offerings in this world (56). and escaping from going to woeful states. as regards objects and respective functions. and totally eradicating all defilements. in the thought-process as regards the attainment to fruition. to those who contemplate in the foregoing manner. and attenuating lust. Herein this is the section on Emancipation.

‘this is happiness’. They are ‘erroneous perception’ (sa¤¤àvipallàsa). On account of these three misconceptions people regard what is impermanent as permanent. Attàbhinivesa—The stronghold of a soul like the doer of action. There are three classes of Sotàpannas — namely. Before seeking an eighth birth. Those who will be born seven times at most in heavenly and earthly realms (sattakkhattuparama). Vipallàsanimittaü—Three vipallàsas or misconceptions are discarded by meditating on impermanence. i. they attain Arahantship. . Taõhàpaõidhi—Such hankerings like ‘this is mine’. Those who seek birth in noble families two or three times before they attain Arahantship (kolaükola). 51. ‘erroneous ideas’ (cittavipallàsa). ‘this is my soul’ 50. Section 8 52. and ‘erroneous views’ (diññhivipallàsa). 473 ii._______ Notes:— Section 7 49. the reaper of fruit. Sotàpanno—One who has entered the stream that leads to Nibbàna for the first time.

iii. He neither violates the five Precepts nor commits the heinous crimes. Free from birth in woeful states. 53. v. There are five kinds of Sakadàgàmis — namely. having being born in a heavenly realm. Those who attain Sakadàgàmi here and attain Parinibbàna in a heavenly realm. A sotàpanna has unshakable confidence in the Buddha. i. Those who attain Sakadàgàmi here and attain Parinibbàna here itself. After attaining Sakadàgàmi in this life. Those who attain Sakadàgàmi in a heavenly realm and attain Parinibbàna in this human plane. Those who attain Sakadàgàmi in a heavenly realm and attain Parinibbàna there. Dhamma. 474 ii. . iv. he may be born in a heavenly realm and attain Arahantship seeking birth in the human plane. Those who attain Sakadàgàmi here and. Sakadàgàmi—One who returns to this world of human beings only once. iii. and the Saïgha. seek birth in this human plane and attain Parinibbàna. he is ever destined for enlightenment. Those who are born only once more before they attain Arahantship (ekabãjã).

Anàgàmi—One who will not return to this Sensesphere (Kàmaloka).54. passing beyond one Brahma realm to another higher Brahma realm. Those who attain Parinibbàna without exertion (asaïkhàraparinibbàyi). a Worthy One. Khãõàsavo—synonymous with an Arahant. Those who attain Parinibbàna within the first half life-span in the Pure Abodes (antaraparinibbàyi). Those who attain Parinibbàna with exertion (sasaïkhàra parinibbàyi). 55. Such beings are born in the ‘Pure Abodes’ (Suddhàvàsa). The Path of Purification When the Jhànas are developed. the mind is so purified. Those who attain Parinibbàna having lived more than half a life-span (upahaccaparinibbàyi). attain Parinibbàna in the Highest Brahma realm (uddhaüsota akaõiññhagàmi). where everything is 475 . because he has destroyed all the defilements. iii. v. that it resembles a polished mirror. Those who. higher Brahma realms where Anàgàmis abide till they attain Arahantship. ii. There are five classes of Anàgàmis:— i. iv.

freed from the false notion of a permanent soul. and that his present existence is due to past ignorance (avijjà). Discipline regulates words and deeds. craving (taõhà). Having thus gained a correct view of the real nature of this so-called being. concentration controls the mind. is merely a complex compound of mind and matter which are in a state of constant flux. he searches for the causes of this “I” personality. he transcends 138. Meditating thus. Still. Kamma. On account of these five causes this so-called being has arisen. for. the third and the final stage. so the present will condition the future. The third member of the Path of Purity. He realizes that there is nothing in the world which is not conditioned by some cause or causes. This searching examination shows that what he has called ‘I’. there is not complete freedom from unwholesome thoughts. and as past causes have conditioned the present. past or present. With a one-pointed mind he analyses and examines this socalled being. attachment (upàdàna). and physical food of the present life. 476 . by concentration.clearly reflected in true perspective. They may rise to the surface at quite unexpected moments. but it is Insight (pa¤¤à). that enables the aspirant to Sainthood to eradicate wholly the defilements inhibited by Samàdhi. the evil tendencies are only temporarily inhibited. At the outset he cultivates ‘Purity of Vision’ (diññhi visuddhi) 138 in order to see things as they truly are.

to his surprise. and devoid of an immortal soul (anatta). his religious fervour increases. 477 .139 Thereupon he contemplates the truth that all conditioned things are transient (anicca). he resumes his meditation on the arising (udaya ¤àõa) and passing away (vaya ¤àõa) of all conditioned things. the fourth member of the Path of Purity. He realizes that life is a flux conditioned by internal and external causes. He becomes even-minded. present and future.all doubts with regard to past. happiness. he develops a liking for this mental states. 140. subject to suffering (dukkha). He experiences an unprecedented pleasure. a day comes. and quietude. Mistaking this advanced state of moral progress for Sainthood. and is absorbed in meditation. As he thus contemplates the real nature of life. chiefly owing to the presence of the aura. Soon the realization comes that these new developments are impediments to moral progress and he cultivates the purity of knowledge with regard to the Path and Non-Path. Nowhere does he find any genuine happiness. the fifth member of the Path of Purity. when. Of these two states the latter becomes more impressed on his mind since change is more conspicuous than becoming. Therefore he directs his 139. Maggàmagga¤àõadassanavisuddhi. Wherever he turns his eyes he sees naught but these three characteristics standing out in bold relief.140 Perceiving the right path. Kankhàvitaranavisuddhi. mindfulness becomes clear and insight keen. for everything is fleeting. he witnesses an aura (obhàsa) emitted by his body.

and soullessness (patisankhà ¤àõa). He perceives that both mind and matter which constitute this so-called being are in a state of constant flux. àdinava. bhaïga. and upekkhà ¤ànas are collectively termed Pañipadà¤ànadassanavisuddhi—Purity of Vision in discerning the method. the sixth member of the Path of Purity. These nine kinds of Insight—namely. not remaining the same for two consecutive moments. 141. and develops a feeling of disgust (nibbidà ¤àõa). 478 . The whole world appears to him like a pit of burning embers — a source of danger. followed by a strong will for deliverance from it (mu¤citukamyatà ¤àõa). 142. mu¤citukamyatà. and thereafter develops complete equanimity towards all conditioned things. sorrow. With this object in view. nibbidà. patisakhïà. To him then comes the knowledge that all dissolving things are fearful (bhava ¤àõa). Subsequently he reflects on the wretchedness and vanity (àdãnava ¤àõa) of the fearful and deluded world. having neither attachment nor aversion for any worldly object (uppekkhà ¤àõa).142 his ultimate goal.attention to contemplation of the dissolution of things (bhaïga ¤àõa). he chooses one of the three characteristics for his object of special endeavour and intently cultivates Insight in that particular direction until the glorious day when he first realizes Nibbàna. udaya. he resumes his meditation on the three characteristics of transiency. vaya. bhaya. the seventh member of the Path of Purity. Insight found in this supramundane Path Consciousness is known as Nàõadassana visuddhi—Purity of Vision regarding intuitive wisdom.141 Reaching this point of spiritual culture.

479 . mental states. The view that there is one unchanging entity. Dr. See Chapter l. but an Ariya (Noble). and consciousness. On attaining this first stage of Sainthood. 1. Paul Dahlke. feeling.” 143 When the spiritual pilgrim realizes Nibbàna for the first time he is called a Sotàpanna 144 —one who has entered the stream that leads to Nibbàna for the first time. 144. when there is a complex-compound of psycho-physical aggregates is termed sakkàyadiññhi.“As the traveller by night sees the landscape around him by a flash of lightning. glimpses Nibbàna with such clearness that the after-picture never more fades from his mind. view when a group exists. in other words. a permanent soul. he eradicates the following three Fetters (saüyojana) that bind him to existence—namely. The stream represents the noble Eightfold Path. Here kàya refers to the five Aggregates of matter. Dhammasaõgani enumerates twenty kinds 143. Sakkàya-diññhi—sati + kàye + diññhi—literally. to the complex-compound of mind and matter. perception. and the picture so obtained swims long thereafter before his dazzled eyes. or. A Stream-Winner is no more a worldling (puthujjana). by the flashing light of insight. so the individual seeker.

theory of individuality.” For the eradication of the remaining seven Fetters a Sotàpanna is reborn seven times at most. They are doubts about 1. illusion of individualism. the disciplinary rules (sikkhà). 6. the Dhamma. and 8. 2. the Saïgha 4. 1004. the noble pilgrim makes rapid progress. and the Saïgha.145 Sakkàya-diññhi is usually rendered by self-illusion. 3. Translation. pp. See Dhammasangani. He is not subject to states of woe as he is destined for Enlightenment.146 Sãlabhataparàmàsa—Adherence to (wrongful) rites and ceremonies. 257–259. Dhammasaïganã explains it thus:—“It is the theory held by ascetics and brahmins outside this doctrine. both the past and the future. 3. 5. He gains implicit confidence in the Buddha. Vicikicchà—Doubts. the future. 480 . the past. or by both rules of moral conduct and rites. With fresh courage as a result of this distant glimpse of Nibbàna. 146. the Buddha. He would not for any reason violate any of the five precepts. Ibid.of such soul theories. that purification is obtained by rules of moral conduct. Dependent Arising (Pañicca-Samuppàda). 2. 7. and 145. the Dhamma. or by rites.

A layman may become an Anàgàmi. he harbours thoughts of lust and anger. It is interesting to note that the Ariya Saint who has attained the second stage of Sainthood can only weaken these two powerful Fetters with which he is bound from a beginningless past. becomes a Sakadàgàmi—OnceReturner—reaching the second stage of Sainthood by attenuating two other Fetters — namely. At times. attachment to Realms of Form (råparàga). attains Arahantship. It is by attaining the third Stage of Sainthood. though to a slight extent. Never-Returners 481 . and ignorance (avijjà). Once-Returners. the final state of Sainthood. restlessness (uddhacca). that of the Anàgàmi (Never-Returner). since he has rooted out the desire for sensual gratification. provided he leads a celibate life. pride (màna). that he completely eradicates these two Fetters. attachment to Formless Realms (aråparàga). an environment exclusively reserved for Anàgàmis and Arahants.perfecting his Insight. sense-desires (kàmaràga) and illwill (pañigha). should he not attain Arahantship in that birth itself. The Anàgàmi Saint now makes his final advance and destroying the remaining five Fetters—namely. Now he is called a Once-Returner because he is born in the human realm only once. Stream-Winners. Thereafter he neither returns to this world nor is he born in the celestial realms. After death he is reborn in the Pure Abodes (Suddhàvàsa).

literally. The Arahant realizes that what was to be accomplished has been done. Tattha yathàkkamaü pañhamajjhànàdimahaggatasamàpattiü samàpajjitvà vuññhàya tattha gate saïkhàradhamme tattha tatth’ eva vipassanto yàva àki¤ca¤¤àyatanaü gantvà tato paraü adhiññheyyàdikaü pubbakiccaü katvà n’eva sa¤¤à n’àsa¤¤àyatanaü samàpajjati. Tassa dvinnaü appanàjavanànaü parato vocchijjati cittasantati. Vuññhànakàle pana anàgàmino anàgàmiphalacittaü 482 . Arahants are called Asekhas because they no longer undergo any training. the seeds of his reproduction in matter have all been destroyed. a Worthy One. Tato nirodhasamàpanno hoti. The happy pilgrim now stands on heights more than celestial. A heavy burden of sorrow has finally been relinquished. and all forms of craving and all shades of ignorance are totally annihilated. far removed from uncontrolled passions and the defilements of the world. An Arahant. _______ (Samàpattibhedo) § 9. Nirodhasamàpattisamàpajjanaü pana anàgàmãna¤ c’eva arahattàna¤ ca labbhati. is not subject to rebirth because he does not accomplish fresh Kammic activities.are called Sekhas because they have yet to undergo training. Phalasamàpattivãthiyaü pan’ettha sabbesam pi yathàsakaphalavasena sàdhàraõà’va.

Tato paraü paccavekkhaõa¤ànaü pavattati. Niññhito ca vipassanàkammaññhànanayo. _______ Iti Abhidhammattha Saïgahe KammaññhànasaïgahaVibhàgo nàma navamo paricchedo. Iti Anuruddhàcariyena racitaü Abhidhammatthasaïgahaü nàma pakaraõaü niññhitaü. Pu¤¤ena tena vipulena tumålasomaü Dha¤¤àdhivàsamuditoditamàyugantaü Pa¤¤àvadàtaguõasobhitalajjibhikkhå Ma¤¤antu pu¤¤avibhavodayamaïgalàya. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 1. Ayam’ ettha samàpattibhedo. Càrittasobhitavisàlakulodayena Saddhàbhivuddhaparisuddhaguõodayena Nambavhayena paõidhàya parànukampaü Yaü patthitaü pakaraõaü pariniññhitantaü. Bhàvetabbaü pan’icc’evaü bhàvanàdvayam’ uttamaü Pañipattirasassàdaü patthayantena sàsane.arahato arahattaphalacittaü ekavàraü pavattivà bhavaïgapàto hoti. 483 . 2.

Herein ‘the Attainment to Fruition’ is common to all in accordance with their respective fruits. an Arahant Fruit consciousness. Herein this is the Section on Attainments.. The end of exercises on mental culture or Insight. At the time of rising.Attainments § 9. if to a Never-Returner. and emerging therefrom contemplates on the conditioned things in each of those jhànas. This is the ninth chapter of the Compendium of Abhidhamma which deals with the Exercises on Meditation. or to an Arahant. having attended to the preliminary duties such as resolving etc. In this case. an Anàgàmi Fruit consciousness. Thus he proceeds up to ‘the State of Nothingness’. This is followed by the knowledge of reflection. one attains successively to the great ecstasies like the first jhàna etc. 484 . But ‘The Attainment to Cessation’ (57) is possible only to Never-Returners and Arahants. Then. occurs only for a single moment and then lapses into Bhavaïga. Now after two ecstatic javana thought-moments his stream of consciousness is suspended.. One who wishes to enjoy the essence of practice in this Dispensation should thus develop the sublime dual meditation. Thereafter he attains to (Supreme) ‘Cessation’. he attains to the ‘State of Neither-Perception nor Non-Perception’.

to compose a treatise out of compassion for others. _______ Section 9 57. Thus ends the treatise called the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha composed by the great teacher. and soullessness of conditioned states found in that particular jhàna.Aspiration As invited by Namba. this book has been completed. Mind is suspended. he meditates on the transiency. When such a person wishes to attain to Nirodhasamàpatti. sorrowfulness. for the acquisition of merit and for their happiness. By this great merit may the modest monks. remember till the end of the world the most famous Tumålasoma Monastery. 485 . emerging from which. belonging to a respectable family.. full of faith and replete with sterling virtues. Nirodhasamàpatti—Lit. the abode of grain. he first attains to the first jhàna and. It is so called because during this period the stream of consciousness temporarily ceases to flow. Anuruddha. but vitality persists. who are purified by wisdom and who shine in discipline. Likewise. It is only an Anàgàmi or an Arahant who has developed the Råpa and Aråpa Jhànas who can attain to this supreme state of ecstasy. ‘attainment to cessation’. a person of refined manners.

he attains to the last Aråpajhàna of ‘Neither Perception nor NonPerception’ and remains in that state for two javana thought-moments. For details see Visuddhimagga. Immediately after he attains to Nirodha-samàpatti when his stream of consciousness is temporarily suspended. †‡† 486 . (iii) that he should arise in time when he is summoned by the Buddha. or an Arahant Phala consciousness in the case of an Arahant. Emerging from this jhàna.he attains. in order. Thereafter arises the Bhavaïga citta. (iv) whether he would live for more than seven days from that moment. After seven days he emerges from this state and experiences for a single moment an Anàgàmi Phala consciousness in the case of an Anàgàmi. After making these resolutions. he makes the following four resolutions:— (i) that his fourfold requisites be not destroyed. to the remaining jhànas and meditates in the same way until the Aråpa-Jhàna of ‘Nothingness’. He has to think of his age-limit as this ecstatic state normally extends to seven days. (ii) that he should arise in time when his services are needed by the Sangha.