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Route of the Presentation
•Introduction to Leadership •Definition of Leadership & Leader •Leadership Qualities •Power sources of Leadership •Leadership theories •Trait theory of leadership •Behavioral theory of leadership •IOWA study •University of Michigan study •University of Ohio study •Managerial grids
Leadership is the art to of influencing and directing people in such a way that will win their obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in achieving common objectives.
Leadership is a dynamic, relational process involving interactions among leaders, members and sometimes outside constituencies. SITUATION LEADERS ====== FOLLOWERS
Who’s a Leader ?
There that others will follow, for whatever reason. Perhaps they have a sense of humor, they like their style. When you look at organizing events it's somebody who's got what is termed as ‘leadership qualities’, they are people who are willing to tell other people what to do but have the respect of other people as well, or gain that respect. Management Process
Who’s a are Leader ? particular people
•Good communication skill •Honesty •Visionary outlook •Selecting a good team •Ability to motivate people around •Consistency •Ability to stand against critics
Leadership Vs Management
What is the difference between management and leadership? It is a question that has been asked more than once and also answered in different ways. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them.
Leadership Vs Management
Focus Have vision Power Style Exchange Wants Risk Rules Conflict Direction Credit
Leading people Followers Long-term Personal charisma Transformational Excitement for work Achievement Takes Breaks Uses New roads Gives
Managing work Subordinates Short-term Formal authority Transactional Money for work Results Minimizes Makes Avoids Existing roads Takes
Sources of Power
Information Power: Information power comes from having knowledge that will influence the outcome of the negotiation. Planning and research can increase our information power, as can asking the right questions before we reach the bargaining phase of the negotiation. Reward Power: Reward power comes from having the ability to reward the other party in the negotiation. It could be the power a buyer has to place an order for goods and services or the power a Management Process salesperson has to give good service and
Sources of Power
Coercive Power: Coercive power is the power to punish. This is seen most commonly in the buyer- seller relationship, but can be a feature of other types of negotiation. Situation Power: Situation power is the power that comes from being in the right place at the right time. A customer is desperate to place an order and you are the only source of supply in the short term. Having an effective network and keeping in touch with what is Management Process
Sources of Power
Expertise Power: Expertise power comes from having a particular skill which you can apply and which can influence the outcome of the negotiation. Improving negotiation skills helps you win better deals. Other areas of expertise could also help the outcome of the Referent Power: negotiation. Referent power comes from being consistent over time. If people see you as having a clear, consistent strategy as a negotiator, you will increase your referent Management Process power. Having standards that you stick to
Trait theories leadership Behavioral theory of leadership of
oIOWA study oUniversity of Michigan study oUniversity of Ohio study oManagerial grids
Definition of Trait Theory Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. The
first organized approach to studying leadership analyzed the personal, psychological, and physical traits of strong leaders. The trait approach assumed that some basic trait or set of traits existed that differentiated leaders from non leaders. If those traits could be defined, potential Management Process
Basic Assumptions of Trait Theory
•People are born with inherited traits. •Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. •People who make good leaders have the right combination of traits.
“Ralph Stogdill”(1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders. And he further explains that, if following traits are in a person who could clearly be identified as a leader separated from other ordinary persons.
•Adaptable to situations •Alert to social environment •Clever (intelligent) •Ambitious and •Conceptually skilled •Creative achievement-orientated •Assertive •Diplomatic and tactful •Cooperative •Fluent in speaking •Decisive •Knowledgeable about •Dependable group task •Dominant (desire to •Organized influence others) (administrative ability) •Energetic (high activity •Persuasive •Socially skilled level) •Persistent •Self-confident •Tolerant of stress Management Process
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'.
Basic Assumptions of Behavioral Theories
•Leaders can be made, rather than are born. •Successful leadership is based in Behavioral learnable behavior. definable, theories of leadership .IOWA study .University of Michigan study .University of Ohio study .Managerial grids
University of Iowa studies by Kurt Lewin was a Polish Jew living in Germany under Hitler. He managed to escape & came to U.S. Kurt Lewin fascinated by group dynamics and Studied leadership in groups of boys at camp. University of Iowa studies (1930s) identified three types of leadership behavior. They are
Autocratic (Directive) •Leader tells “what, when, why, & how” of task •Followers do what they’re told Democratic (Participative) •Leader seeks input about task from group •Followers & leader are equal Laissez-faire (Delegate) •Leader lets followers make all decisions Management Process
A Continuum of Control
Autocratic leaders •High productivity •Hostility, aggression, blaming Democratic leaders •Fairly high productivity •Camaraderie, creativity, consideration Laissez-faire leaders •Low productivity
Management Process •Demanding, argumentative
University of Michigan Studies
Researchers at the University of Michigan USA, led by Rensis Likert, began studying leadership in the late 1940s. Based on extensive interviews with both leaders and followers, this research identified three basic forms of leader behavior. Management Process
Three basic forms of leader behaviors are,
Task-oriented behavior Relationship-oriented behavior
•Although an early study, this is still often referenced. It is notable that the two factors correlate with the people-task division that appears in other studies and also as preferences. •The Michigan studies were conducted around the same time as the Ohio State Leadership Studies, which also identified the focus on task ('Initiating Structure') Management and people Process
University of Ohio State Studies (1940s-1960s)
A famous series of studies on leadership were done in Ohio State University, starting in the 1950s. They found two critical characteristics, either of which could be high or low and were independent of one another. Consideration is the degree to which a leader acts in a friendly and supportive manner towards his or her Management subordinates. This Processthe degree to is
Two major inventions of Ohio Studies
• Initiating Structure • Consideration
The behavior of leaders, who define the leader-subordinate role so that everyone knows what, is expected, establish formal lines of communication, and determine how task will be performed.
• Leader organizes & structures work
(Defines follower roles & schedules work activities)
The behavior of leaders, who are concerned for subordinates and attempted to establish a warm, friendly, and supportive climate.
builds rapport, trust, & respect. (Nurtures followers & is collaborative) • Followers participate in making Management Process
Some research indicated high consideration and high structure was ideal • Not enough research support for this premise. Management • Best leadership Processstyle seemed
Managerial Grid Theory
The Managerial Grid model by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton is a behavioral leadership model. While acting as advisors to Exxon, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton concluded that there are many behaviors and motivations in the middle of the X and Y extremes of Douglas McGregor. Blake and Mouton found that a management behavior Management Process model with three axes (concern for
Managerial Grid Theory On the grid, concern for production is represented on a one to nine scale on the horizontal axis (x-axis). Concern for people is represented on a one to nine scale on the vertical axis (yaxis). According to Blake and Mouton there is also a third axis: Motivation, measured from negative (driven by Management Process fear) to positive (driven by desire).
Managerial Grid Theory
• Impoverished style (Low Production /
• Country Club style (Low Production /
• Produce or Perish style (High
Production / Low People)
• Middle-of-the-road style (Medium
Usage of the managerial grid
Analyzing or coaching a manager, in particular regarding relationships skills such as: dealing with critique, initiative, decision-making, conflict resolution, advocacy (expressing opinions, ideas), inquiry (information seeking) and resilience (reacting to problems or failures).
Benefits of the managerial Grid
• Using a model makes it easier to
openly discuss behavior and improvement actions. • Using the Grid model makes the various leadership styles measurable to a certain extent and allows more than two competing options (X versus Y).
Limitations/ disadvantages of the managerial Grid
•Introduction to Leadership •Definition of Leadership & Leader •Leadership Qualities •Power sources of Leadership •Leadership theories •Trait theory of leadership •Behavioral theory of leadership •IOWA study •University of Michigan study •University of Ohio study •Managerial grids Management Process