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Published by: Jaisu Thundiyil Joseph on Nov 10, 2011
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05/01/2012

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1)Family as the basic unit of “

Society‟.

Differences in lifestyles due to :     regional background religion, caste, income group, etc.

and their implication in Architectural design of the housing units. 2)Sociological aspects in the history of the evolution of housing / shelter forms.

Arts, Culture and Music of Bahrain Arts include ceremonial dances accompanied by drums, readings of the Quran (Koran, or Islamic scripture), and storytelling. The poets of Bahraini are famous for their poetic verses and carry on established traditions while also exploring new themes. Births and marriages call for wide-scale celebrations in Bahrain, which often are a pleasure to take part in. Apart from this, the people of Bahrain are also known for their artistic skills, the boats used for fishing and pearling, being an example of this craftsmanship. The traditional jewellery also speaks volumes about the intricate designs that the people of Bahrain can come up with. Flora And Fauna of Bahrain Bahrain is home to a variety of plants and animals. Most of the plants that are found in Bahrain are salt-tolerant and desert resistant types, out of which palm trees are quite common. Animals include snakes and other reptiles, hares, scorpions, hedgehogs, and gazelles while the marine life is made up of mackerels, shrimps, pearl oysters, and dugongs. Bahrain lacks dramatic topographical features, such as mountains or valleys. The main island consists of a low desert plain that rises to a low central escarpment where Bahrain's highest point, Jabal ad Dukhan (134 m/440 ft), is located. Bahrain also lacks rivers, lakes and water bodies and obtains water for drinking and irrigation from underground aquifers. The smaller islands are generally low-lying, some being only a few feet above sea level. Flag of Bahrain The flag of Bahrain is red with a white serrated band, consisting of five white points on the hoist side. The five points represent the five pillars of Islam. Location of Bahrain Bahrain lies 24 km east of Saudi Arabia and 29 km west of Qatar. Climate of Bahrain The summers are extremely hot and humid in Bahrain, especially between April and October, with temperatures regularly rising to 43° C and sometimes reaching 52° C. However, winters are more pleasant with temperatures plummeting to 20° C or below. Seasonal winds periodically cause sandstorms and rough seas. Economy of Bahrain The economy of the country is mainly defined by oil production and refining but depletion of Bahrain's limited oil reserves has prompted the government to develop other industries as well. For example, in 1970, the government established Aluminum Bahrain (ALBA), an aluminum smelting industry which still remains an important industry. In a further effort at diversification, the government has also promoted tourism. The government controls the oil and gas industry, most heavy manufacturing, and the bulk of the transportation and communications sectors, but it has undertaken efforts to privatize the economy, thus transferring banking, light manufacturing, and commerce into private hands. Bahrain's gross domestic product (GDP) was $7.9 billion in 2001. Services, including public administration, banking, and tourism, accounted for 59 percent of the GDP. Industry accounted for 40 percent, with

Bahrain exports oil and non-oil products. But with the significant growth of its economy and due to the western influence the traditional form of education in Bahrain was transformed. due to the fluctuation in oil prices. reducing custom tariffs on certain items) have been made to modernize the economy and integrate it in the international market. Prior to the discovery of oil in the early thirties the economy was dependent on agriculture. it is unwise to depend solely on oil as a principal source of income. Education in Bahrain was formally initiated in this island country with the establishment of Quranic or Kuttab schools. Agriculture contributed only 1 percent of the GDP. Almost about a decade later education in Bahrain took a significant step with the opening of an all girls' school. vegetables and some foodstuffs. which include all necessary and complementary items. to a large extent. In recent years education in Bahrain has witnessed significant growth. Being a member of World Trade Organization (WTO). aluminium.4 million Bahraini Dinars (BD) in 1996. increased prices in the world market particularly during 1973. but it has also attracted international financial institutions. Bahrain has not only moved toward industrialization. However. socio-economic restructuring occurred at a rapid pace. Many institutions in Bahrain work hand in hand with the universities with some of the universities of United States to improve the education system. reached 1578. . The pearl industry flourished in the past because Bahrain was amongst the richest areas in pearls. University of Bahrain is the main university which imparts education not only to the local inhabitants but students from other Asian countries also comes to this university. As a member of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Due to the significant Pakistani and Indian population in Bahrain there are a number of Indian and Pakistani schools . Total imports. The Government of Bahrain has made significant improvements in raising the standard of living of the population by heavily investing in basic services and education. the Government of Bahrain abolished import duties on a number of foods and feed items and reduced duties on consumer goods to 5%. additional significant efforts (enacting new laws. Bahrain is making significant steps to harmonize and integrate its economy with the economies of these countries. light industrial products. no duties are imposed on import of raw materials or semi-manufactured goods. the pearl industry and regional trading. making Bahrain an efficient financial centre in the Middle East. As a step towards globalization.manufacturing responsible for 19 percent and oil and gas extraction for most of the remainder. Government revenues from the pearling industry were. Total exports reached 1713.7 million BD in 1996 and the transit shipment was 26.3 million BD in 1996. In 1919 with the effort of some elites of the city of Muharraq a formal school was established. Consequently. Additionally. boosted by the growing production of oil and gas industry. The total trade exchange was 3291. Since the discovery of oil in 1932 Bahrain witnessed a variety of changes and by the beginning of the seventies when it became an independent state. based on nominal taxes and fees imposed on each pearling ship together with indirect taxes imposed in the form of custom duties on pearls exported. introducing certain economic measures.6 million BD in the same year.

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