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Published by Divyanshu Vats

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Published by: Divyanshu Vats on Nov 10, 2011
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Made by Divyanshu Vats ECE-B 090103078

technologies and practices that involve in the transmission of data over fiber optic link and recommend a communication system that perfectly meets the requirements of communication of data in the current trend and environment. The main objective is to make a comparative study among different principles . .

  In recent years it has become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission They span the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for many network systems .

.   Fiber-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines The transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information coming from copper wire The information is then processed and translated into equivalently coded light pulses.

Light pulses move easily down the fiber-optic line because of a principle known as total internal reflection .  A light-emitting diode (LED) or an injectionlaser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the light pulses .

The optic core An optic cladding. 4. The outer jacket . 2.1. A buffer material. 3.

      Backbone architecture for telecommunication links Cable service providers High speed internet Trunk lines Monitor power grid systems Local area networks .

   One of the initial economic factors to consider when converting to fiber-optics is the cost of replacing wire systems with fiber Increased demand for optical fiber has brought the prices down within competitive range of copper In the short term it is often less expensive to continue using copper cabling for covering expanded communication needs .

   In the long term it may be more cost effective to invest in conversion to fiberoptics . This cost effectiveness is due to the relative ease of upgrading fiber optics to higher speeds and performance. It is generally accepted that customers will need increased bandwidth as the information highway grows .

and internet access is not available in much of the wiring of copper. telephone. interactive multimedia. Fiber optics will play a pivotal role in this race since the bandwidth needed for providing an all-in-one service with television. .

. Multi.mode allows hundreds of rays of light to propagate through the core.  Single mode allows only one mode of ray to pass through it’s core.

data can be converted into raw binary data prior to transmission. . once the information is stored electronically and whatever the form. video or sonar) comes in many forms .   The source information (such as audio. The first step is to convert the information into a bit-stream .

compression. Different modulation schemes make varying use of the bandwidth. BER and power. .  The next step is to modulate the baseband and this is where. in constructing an optical communications system. but the trade-offs will include distance. we start making compromise .

HDB3 is the most advanced and efficient technique developed so far. optical communication systems use pulse code modulation (PCM) schemes to modulate the baseband .  Due to the lack of 'coherent' optical systems for extracting phase information. There are many PCM techniques available. .

Laser Diodes-Lasers produce coherent light and deliver far higher performance than LEDs e.g Fabry–perot laser .produce incoherent light that severely reduces the obtainable bandwidth .  Leds.

but rather when to convert to optical fiber. . it is evident that fiber-optics have become the industry standard for transmission of information. Based on industry activity. The choice is not whether to convert to optical fiber. It is most likely that we will be able to use it in our local networks in the days to come.

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