VSL POST-TENSIONING SOLUTIONS

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS CONSTRUCTION PARTNER FOR BRIDGES, BUILDINGS CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES, SLAB ON GRADE, SPECIAL STRUCTURES, REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING

A REPUTATION FOR EXCELLENCE SINCE
VSL’s leadership in post-tensioning
VSL is a recognised leader in the field of special construction methods. Well-proven technical systems and sound in-house engineering are the basis of the group’s acknowledged reputation for innovative conceptual designs and engineering solutions, for reliability, quality and efficiency.

VSL executes all works using its own staff and equipment.

Gateway, Australia - 2008

VSL – post-tensioning as the core business
For decades, VSL has designed, manufactured and installed durable, state-of-the art posttensioning systems complying with international standards and approval guidelines for both new and existing structures. Services and products are all aimed at delivering the optimal solution for the customer.

Deep Bay Link, Hong Kong - 2005

VSL’s aim of creating innovative solutions by adapting proven experience is supported by the ability to identify and share immediately the best ideas that have been introduced anywhere within the network. The solutions are developed and tailored for clients worldwide. VSL subsidiaries execute all work using their own personnel and equipment: technical consultancy and support during planning and all phases of construction are part of VSL’s value-added service, which is tailored to suit the client’s needs.

The VSL Network
VSL operates as a multinational group of companies whose subsidiaries and licensees are organised into closely-cooperating regional units. Customers benefit greatly from the continuing development of VSL’s special construction methods and from the exchange of information taking place within the VSL Network.

VSL – your construction partner
With offices throughout the world, VSL offers a comprehensive range of professional, highquality services for all kinds of projects, from feasibility studies and preliminary designs to alternative proposals, contractor consultancy services and field installation. All are aimed at finding the best possible solutions with the best value for money. VSL’s involvement seeks to provide fully-customised solutions adapted to the client’s requirements. Its worldwide network allows VSL to offer a high degree of competence and flexibility, participating with a spirit of co-operation to find the most appropriate solutions. VSL’s goal is to be a privileged partner for engineers and contractors.

Dubai Festival City, UAE - 2006

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V S L P O S T- T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S

9 The overall reduction of CO2 emission can achieve up to 27%! RC: Reinforced concrete PC: Post-tensioned concrete The VSL Academy Competence is a key factor and VSL adopts a principle of continuous learning and training.0 8. encourage sharing of experience and promote best practice. with the aim of continuously improving performance. Spain . safety.1956 Changing the way we do business For VSL. CONTRIBUTING TO SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS Post-tensioning reduces CO2 emissions by up to 27% Generally the use of VSL Post-tensioning delivers the maximum cost-benefit for a project and has as well a beneficial impact on its sustainability and CO2 emissions during construction. The QSE (quality.3 Concrete (300 kg cement / m3) 105.2008 VSL Post-tensioning systems The VSL Post-tensioning technology includes several systems that are specifically designed for different applications. VSL – guided by a strong QSE culture VSL’s leading position is based on a rigorous and committed quality culture. VSL is committed to maintaining the highest levels of client satisfaction and personnel safety. sustainable development means striking a balance in its development model between the economic profitability of its businesses and their social and environmental impacts. The following table describes broadly these different systems and their main field of applications. Ras Laffan LNG.8 Post-tensioning steel 0 Total CO2 emission 129.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 3 . Post-tensioning offers significant reductions Materials and quantities RC (kg CO2/m²) PC (kg CO2/m²) 84. which are thereon developed in this brochure.1 Reinforcing steel 24. environment) policy is VSL’s first priority.3 3. That commitment is formalised into the VSL Sustainable Development program which focuses on safety. supervisors and site managers go through centralised training at the VSL Academy. lowering the CO2 emissions by up to 27%. Qatar . where they learn best practice in all aspects of post-tensioning.1996 Barcelona New Exhibition Centre. Monostrand and slab tendons Bonded Unbonded APPLICATIONS • Slabs on grade • Building slabs • Transverse post-tensioning in bridge decks… Multistrand tendons Internal External • Longitudinal posttensioning in bridges • Building frames • Containments • Special structures… Internal Stressbar External • Short tendons. the use of post-tensioning results in more durable structures with reduced concrete volumes. employees are vitally important to the competitiveness and prosperity of the company. such as transverse post-tensioning for cable-stayed bridge pylons • Precast connections • Structural strengthening… V S L P O S T. Compared with conventional reinforced concrete slabs. Foremen.0 95. Local teams ensure co-ordination of actions. In VSL’s culture. use of fewer scarce materials and less energy and production of less pollution and waste.

monitoring and inspection are important to focus on. where the prestressing force is transferred to the structure at its lowest end and where there is no access. as too are competence in design and methods. The same principle had already been a success with a VSL world-first. Adaptable and cost-saving solutions Mulroy Bay Bridge. Load control with the VSL Single strand load cell The VSLdesigned Single strand load cell allows economical and precise measurement of the load on a strand. The issues of QSE and sustainability have long been priorities together with the efficiency of construction methods and site works. VSL’s PT Observer and ADAPT systems greatly enhance the quality of the operational process. assuring traceability.2009 The VSL AF Anchorage is used for vertical tendons. It uses a personal digital assistant (PDA) to process the information for further use by the client. This is also the case for post-tensioning products and services where durability. 4 V S L P O S T. New solutions for enhanced durability Leak-tight encapsulation with PT-PLUS® VSL continuously drives durability development and markets its PT-PLUS® plastic duct system for leak-tight encapsulation and higher fatigue resistance. It is compact and easy to install.R&D: THE KEY TO QUALITY AND DURABILITY Research and development are VSL’s driving force. ADAPT. Electrical isolation with VSL CS 2000 Traceability and site efficiency PT Observer uses barcode process technology to collect all data throughout the entire posttensioning process. launching girders… for bridge construction and has the in-house capabilities to customise them from one project to the next. VSL develops custom-made specialised equipment such as movable scaffolding systems.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . the tool for Automatic Data Acquisition for Post-Tensioning. collects data about tendon forces and elongation during stressing. PT-PLUS® ducts produce electricallyisolated tendons (EIT) and allow monitoring of the effectiveness of the corrosionprotective encapsulation. fitting onto any VSL Anchor head. Ireland . the use of electrically isolated ground anchors on a project in 1985. Together with the CS 2000 Anchorage. Void control with the VSL Grout void sensor The VSL Grout void sensor is installed at potentially critical points on a tendon and checks for the existence of voids after grouting.

organisation.TRAINING: AT THE HEART OF STRONG PERFORMANCE VSL is committed to investing in its staff. VSL’s managers transfer the fundamentals and culture of the company while promoting exchanges and useful networking throughout the group.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 5 . A well-trained staff is VSL’s most valuable asset in providing the best-possible service to clients. • provide hands-on practical training on posttensioning mock-ups designed to cover all operational procedures. Senior staff members are in charge of teaching VSL Techniques to new recruits. VSL Academy: a market leader’s initiative On site training As a specialist contractor. V S L P O S T. planning. The goals of the VSL Academy are to: • provide a unique training facility and tools within VSL to train our personnel in the skill and techniques required to perform the work to the highest standards specified today. PMX – training in project management excellence The programme’s content combines technical topics. supervisors and site engineers. • harmonise working procedures and enhance knowledge. risk management and result orientation with communication topics and leadership. VSL Academy VSL has launched the VSL Academy to strengthen the company culture and to develop knowledge sharing by formalising and standardising the training of all posttensioning foremen. setting up training schemes and striving for professionalism. VSL aims to maintain and develop its staff’s skills on a long-term basis. Through this.

Hong Kong .3 million m2 of bridge deck over the last 20 years Kingston’s Hunt’s Bay Bridge.2006 VSL Post-tensioning systems lead and shape the state-of-the-art in bridge construction. Jamaica . with a choice of steel or VSL PT-PLUS® plastic duct.2009 6 V S L P O S T. The systems comply with national and international standards and are approved by EOTA (European Organisation for Technical Approvals) and by other approval bodies. as well as the availability of technical and site expertise for fully-encapsulated and electrically-isolated tendons (EIT).VSL POST-TENSIONING SOLUTIONS FOR Internal tendons – the most commonly-used solution The VSL systems are based on the method of post-tensioning. They are versatile and provide clients with unmatched durability. They meet the advanced technical and practical requirements of today’s engineers and construction professionals. Shenzhen Western Corridor.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . Australia .2004 VSL’s experience: 150. Gateway Upgrade.000 precast segments forming 6. providing bond to the structure. Such tendons are extensively used in bridges and transportation structures as well as being applied successfully in building construction. Most applications of the multistrand system are internal and cement grouted.

UK . The external tendon technology has been used for bridge superstructures. VSL external post-tensioning provides features such as the possibility of replacing tendons if required and easy inspection of the integrity of the corrosion protection. composite steel-concrete bridges.2009 External tendons for more flexibility External post-tensioning tendons are positioned outside of the concrete section. timber and masonry structures. External post-tensioning tendons can also be installed after completion of a structure if additional load capacity is required.1996 Brunswick Head.2009 Boulonnais Viaduct. This is done by adding tendons to the structure if the original design and construction were made to accommodate such an addition. They are therefore not bonded to the structure. Medway Crossing Bridge. though anchored into buttresses or diaphragms that form part of the bridge structure.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 7 .2006 steel. girders in buildings and roof structures as well as for circular structures such as silos and reservoirs.2001 V S L P O S T. but also include structural Gautrain Rapid Rail Link. a retrofit method can be implemented. Hong Kong . Applications are not restricted to concrete. France . although this requires a high level of engineering for structural analysis. South Africa . Otherwise. Australia .R BRIDGES East Tsing Yi Viaduct.

It is even a prerequisite for most of today's methods and allows the fast bridging of large spans with aesthetically-pleasing results.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S .2004 ERECTION BY LIFTING FRAME BALANCED CANTILEVER CAST-IN-SITU Gateway bridge upgrade. INCREMENTAL LAUNCHING METHOD Sagarra-Garrigues water channel. Australia . With its design and methodology teams. VSL provides engineers and contractors with expertise in building costeffective. Spain .2005 8 V S L P O S T. West Tsing Yi Viaduct.2008 VSL as your “know-how partner” VSL’s post-tensioning know-how originates from thousands of projects and starts with a fundamental understanding of economicallyoptimised bridge concepts. Chile . Australia . a method particularly suited to building large structures rapidly and economically even and especially into congested urban environments. durable and tailored structures.VSL POST-TENSIONING SOLUTIONS FOR BRIDGES VSL Post-tensioning – a tool for pushing the limits Bridge construction without post-tensioning is unthinkable.2006 ERECTION BY OVERHEAD GANTRY Metro de Santiago. Hong Kong . It is unrivalled in precast segmental construction.2008 ERECTION BY UNDERSLUNG GANTRY Windsor Flood Plane Project. VSL’s competence is outstanding in all known bridge construction methods.

Switzerland . The coupler is compact and similar in size to the ducting and can be used when tendons cross the segment at an angle. PL 3: allowing monitoring of the integrity of tendon encapsulation including protection against stray currents. However. PL 2: using PT-PLUS® ducts as leak tight encapsulation for enhanced protection against corrosion and fatigue. VSL PT-PLUS® encapsulated tendons (PL 2) for high durability on Abu Dhabi Third Crossing.ENHANCING DURABILITY Gaining something extra with VSL’s PT-PLUS® duct system For conventional applications in nonagressive environment.2009 PT-PLUS® duct with protection shell Enhancing durability – VSL’s concept for multi-layer protection The multi-layer corrosion protection system enhances durability. the following is recommended: PL 1: using corrugated metal duct with special high quality grout (e. Switzerland . including tight encapsulation. high fatigue resistance and a low friction coefficient. applying the Electrical Isolation Tendon (EIT) method with PT-PLUS® ducts and the appropriate VSL Anchorage. generally structures in severe corrosion environment and to bridges and other structures with fatigue loadings. As an experienced specialist contractor. Electrically Isolated Tendons (EIT) at the Roeti Bridge.2007 The tendon encapsulation the decisive choice Bearing in mind fib’s bulletin 33 and given the specific characteristics of PT-PLUS®. It combines a careful overall concept and design of the structure’s waterproof membranes. this is particularly suited for transverse tendons in bridge deck slabs and other structures where tendons are close to the concrete surface and subjected to fatigue. VSL recommends the use of vacuum-assisted grouting for the most challenging conditions. VSL provides a full service for this stateof-the-art technique. the corrugated plastic ducts and plastic couplers of the VSL PT-PLUS® system provide important advantages when compared with conventional steel ducts. VSL carries out high-quality grouting using trained personnel and reliable equipment and in accordance with well proven procedures. In addition. Dubai . For details see page 22. Cement grout provides excellent protection however grouting is a task for specialists. low-permeability concrete and leaktight tendon encapsulation with a cementitious grout or other protection systems.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 9 . Lect Bridge. A new coupler for EIT in precast structures A new plastic coupler now permits full tendon encapsulation or EIT protection at the joints of precast segmental structures. VSL is well qualified to assist decision makers with the adequate service when crucial protection strategies and measures are evaluated and decided. such as where high points are not accessible or in other special cases. VSL’s Grout void sensors enhance quality monitoring during grouting of tendons. corrugated steel ducts are normally used.2008 PL = Protection Level V S L P O S T. VSL’s HPI Grouting).g.

WHotel. Mexico . • fast and easy installation of electric. Spain . • post-tensioned raft foundations resulting in more economical solutions with improved deflection behaviour and better soil pressure distribution. car parks and similar structures. Lugo Hospital. 10 V S L P O S T.VSL POST-TENSIONING IN BUILDINGS A TOOL TO ACHIEVE SUBSTANTIAL BENE Kens Project.2006 Considerable savings for all parties The advantages of using post-tensioning in buildings are being exploited in many countries and acknowledged by all partners in the construction process. • less energy consumption. VSL’s experience of economical applications: • post-tensioned slabs for all types of buildings. shopping centres. column-free. • more useable space within the available height limits. • reduced financing costs due to shorter construction periods. • reduced cycle times as post-tensioning allows the structure to be stripped earlier leading to an overall reduction in the construction programme. allowing the architect and engineer to design with more flexibility and pleasing aesthetics. • post-tensioned transfer beams and transfer plates to provide spacious. Australia . air conditioning and other services for flat slabs.2005 Contractors gain through: • shorter construction time as formwork is often simpler and due to lesser back-propping. • reduced deflection of structures.2008 Owners benefit from: • savings in materials in structures and foundations. lobbies and convention rooms. parking structures and warehouses. B2B Hotel. USA . leading to more economical construction. architecturally pleasing spaces such as entrance halls.2004 Architects have: • more aesthetic freedom and larger column-free spaces that generate more flexibility for offices. warehouses.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . • less need for maintenance because of the crack and vibration control. • post-tensioned concrete walls such as cores and masonry walls.

• all works for the supply and installation of the post-tensioning materials.2008 VSL Post-tensioning is often part of major structures such as this 480m-tall skyscraper. • assistance in all detailed design stages with a constant aim of optimising savings in materials. UK . achieving sustainability of the structure and easing construction to reduce the cycle times and the resources required. VSL Post-tensioning services – providing a solid frame for any structure VSL’s scope of services goes beyond the supply of components and includes: • design assistance at the conceptual stage to select the best option for the floor system and provide preliminary sizing and quantities.1 and 4. Burj Residence Dubai.2). Hong Kong . which is stabilised against typhoon winds through the use of posttensioned mega-trusses that link the external columns to the inner core of the building. including a turnkey service package provided by VSL’s site teams. UAE . MEGA-TRUSSES International Commerce Centre.APPLICATIONS EFITS • post-tensioning in structural members such as the mega-trusses of high-rise buildings to withstand wind-generated overturning moments.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 11 . Philippines .2000 VSL Post-tensioning allows thinner slabs or larger spans. TRANSFER PLATE/BEAMS CONSTRUCTION VSL’s experience: Millions of square metres designed and built throughout the world over the past 50 years Detailed information is given in VSL’s “Post-tensioning in building” publication (Report Series 4. SLAB CONSTRUCTION RCBC Plaza.2007 FRAME CONSTRUCTION Venetian Macao Resort Hotel. V S L P O S T.2006 Accommodating different floor layouts to ensure proper load transfer.2007 Frame construction for speed and ease of building with large open spaces or heavy loads. Liverpool Tower. China .

Well-designed structures are practically crack-free and. USA . Some of the well-known VSL Anchorages are particularly suited for use in containment structures: • The patented AF Anchorage.2008 Thanks to the variety of its post-tensioning anchorage systems.2007 AF Anchorages N’Kossa Barge. they are economical. L Anchorage Z Anchorage 12 V S L P O S T. most importantly. • The Z Anchorage.1995 ICM Corn Silo. which is used as the lower non-stressing anchorage for vertical tendons that are not accessible during strand installation and stressing. VSL offers versatile solutions for engineers and contractors to optimise costs and construction times. which is used as the lower non-stressing anchorage for vertical tendons and allows the strand bundle to be pushed or pulled through and stressed after the concrete work for the wall has been finished. Australia . Cote d’Ivoire .T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . which is normally used for hoop tendons that can be installed within the wall thickness and which therefore do not necessitate buttresses for the stressing operation.VSL POST-TENSIONING: IDEALLY SUITED Unique VSL Anchorages for economical solutions The shapes and functions of containment structures make them ideally suited to posttensioning. Water tank. France .2008 Digester tank. • The L Anchorage. Croatia .2008 Boyer Tank.

equipment and procedures meet the stringent requirements for installation.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 13 .6” strands is used for the 67. EXTREME TEMPERATURE TESTING Anchorages and tendons tested at temperatures down to -196°C Shanghai LNG Tank. strands and anchorages are subjected to temperatures down to -196°C and are tested according to ETAG 013 or other international standards. China .75m.7m high inner of the two containment shells. Korea . The VSL System with 55 greased and sheathed 0.2007-2009 V S L P O S T.TO CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES Uljin Nuclear Power Plant. France. The purpose-built ring structure in Gien. 13 extra tendons in the dome. Russia. retensioning or replacing the tendons. Meeting stringent requirements with exceptional reliability Some applications are extraordinary and call for additional measures and special testing: stressing and grouting operations on various types of tendons forming full 360° circle. as well as 50 vertical over-thedome tendons stressed from a stressing gallery are post-tensioned according to the latest nuclear containment requirements. VSL demonstrated that its systems. The system allows checking the residual load. Through its long experience and proven post-tensioning systems.2005 Two units LAES-2 Nuclear Power Station in St Petersburg. 76 hoop tendons anchored in one of the two buttresses. has a radius of 24. VSL is in a position to supply its post-tensioning systems to any LNG or LPG project worldwide.46m and a height of 2. During these tests. Nuclear applications VSL carried out comprehensive tests on a fullscale mock-up of the latest generation of nuclear power plants to verify compliance of its PT systems and methods with new specific requirements. Liquefied gas applications The construction of tanks for LNG and LPG (liquefied natural and petroleum gas) requires cryogenic testing of the post-tensioned tendons.

little or no reinforcement and few if any joints.2003 Large slabs. when using post-tensioned slab on grade. Its advantages provide benefits in many different types of projects including warehouses. such as for tennis courts and skating rinks.VSL POST-TENSIONING FOR SLAB ON GRADE CONSTRUCTION: THE COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTION Benefits to the owner Elimination of joints: Owners and operators benefit from the elimination of all or most of the costly joints. Post-tensioned slabs are also used for residential purposes and in recreation. High impact and abrasion resistance: The compression resulting from post-tensioning combined with an optimum concrete strength and surface treatment reduces general wear and tear and subsequent maintenance costs. Australia . distribution centres. a thinner slab.2007 Austrak. 14 V S L P O S T. “Crack free” performance: Initial stressing can prevent shrinkage cracking. Large areas in excess of 2. which results in a shorter construction time and contributes to a very competitive initial cost. airports. giving great improvements in operational efficiency. Wal-Mart. Low maintenance: The significant reduction in the number of joints means that less maintenance is required. where a concrete slab foundation is placed directly on the ground.2007 Hangar Mosnov. VSL can provide the full range of services from the installation of post-tensioning to the complete design and construction of the concrete slab.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . Czech Republic .500m2 can be concreted. rail and shipping terminals. Mexico .2001 The 30. the use of VSL’s technologies leads to less excavation. Post-tensioning compresses the slab and counteracts tensile stresses that would otherwise cause cracking under the worst combinations of loads or in poor soil conditions. Chile . Nestlé Distribution Plant. manufacturing facilities and as floor bases for liquid retaining structures.000m2 of joint-free slab of the Nestlé Plant constructed by VSL Chile represent the present world record. container storage terminals. Shorter construction time: Compared with ordinary reinforced concrete slabs. indoor or outdoor VSL Post-tensioning is widely used in the construction of pavement areas and in slabs on grade.

Morocco . The elements are post-tensioned longitudinally with 6-12 tendons. if built at all. VSL also carried out the design. towed to site and sunk. many special structures could only be built with great effort. STADIUM CONSTRUCTION Sazka Stadium Prague. .4m diameter was built to increase the discharge from Lake Thun.5m with a 300mm-thick wall.INSIDE Thun Bypass Tunnel. then sealed at both ends. floated.WHETHER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE PUSHES FROM. Customers value the experience and versatility they gain by having VSL as a partner from the early planning stages through to construction..2m-wide lining segment that was post-tensioned with two tendons.2km-long tunnel of 5. Switzerland . Over the years.OR OUTSIDE Thu Thiem Immersed Tunnel..2006 Post-tensioning tendons with VSL Loop Anchorages were installed for the deck-to-pile footing tie-down system in the piers supporting the bridge’s back spans.5” monostrands encapsulated in plastic ducts.. . 9m high and 90m long.2003 The challenge of building a multifunctional stadium with two halls that are part of irregular and complicated structural elements is an excellent example of a project where clients can benefit from the versatility of VSL as a professional post-tensioning partner.2008 A 1. supply and erection of four sets of formwork to cast 15m–long segments. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION . The prevailing pressure conditions led to the use of a 1. each with two 0. V S L P O S T. concrete floating barges...2008/2009 The tunnel crosses under the Saigon River in Ho Chi Minh City and is made up of four precast tunnel units. VSL’s posttensioning services have been used for a very wide range of highly prestigious and complex structures including offshore platforms.VSL POST-TENSIONING FOR SPECIAL STRUCTURES: A SMART ALTERNATIVE PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION Sea water pipeline. Korea . each 33m wide. VSL was fully involved in the planning and conceptual phase of the posttensioning tendon details. Versatile applications Without post-tensioning. Structural integrity and water-tightness is provided by transverse post-tensioning using sheathed monostrand with an average of three loops and longitudinal tendons of 6-12 units of 100m length. SUB-STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION Machang Bridge. Vietnam .. dams and many others.2007 This 2km-long pipeline south of Casablanca has an internal diameter of 2.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 15 . Czech Republic .

strengthening of the abutments with bars and replacement of expansion joints. As a first precautionary step.VSL POST-TENSIONING FOR REPAIR WO A MUST FOR TAILOR-MADE SOLUTIONS Structural remedial work requires thorough diagnosis of damage and deterioration followed by full assessment of the causes. REPAIR OF BRIDGES Figueira de Foz Bridge.2005 VSL. Portugal . enables VSL to prepare precise and comprehensive reports. shock-absorbers were fitted at each side of the deviators before the tendons were cut and the anchorages removed or adapted. • estimating the order of magnitude for the cost of repairs. • design of repair strategies. • condition evaluation of the same. Assessment diagnosis of structural conditions includes: • inspection and surveillance of concrete structures. France .102m-long Saint-Cloud Bridge near Paris showed signs of corrosion and the client decided to replace them. New external tendons were then installed by VSL. • root cause analysis. REPLACEMENT OF EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING IN BRIDGES St Cloud Viaduct. VSL employs state-of-the-art equipment and special inspection techniques to detect defects in reinforced and prestressed concrete structures before any significant damage occurs. There was also retrofitting of structural bearings and seismic devices. carried out repair works including external post-tensioning. Close co-operation with materials testing institutes and structural designers.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . 16 V S L P O S T. including the installation of 4 x 500kN shock-absorbers at the abutments.2000 The external tendons that reinforced the 1974-built 1. risks and consequences involved. together with the use of the latest investigation techniques. in partnership with a local contractor.

2001 The 60m-tall silo was strengthened using a VSLengineered solution of externally wrapped. which has been transformed into a leisure and entertainment complex. • protection with: . wind and human activities. .6" strand with a centre stressing anchorage. SILO REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING Blue Circle Cement Silo. non-greased 0.2005 A carbon fibre tendon system was used for the seismic upgrade of the emergency feed building at the Gösgen nuclear power plant. the ultra-high-strength and ductile blast-resistant solution. The Leaning Tower of Pisa. bonded tendons each with four strands of 0. STRENGTHENING OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Gösgen Nuclear Power Plant. The 66 tendons are encapsulated in flat high-density polyethylene ducts and anchored into special stressing brackets.1993 VSL strengthened the world-renowned Leaning Tower of Pisa with 18 specially-developed monostrand hoop tendons. V S L P O S T. .Ductal®. VSL carried out engineering and post-tensioning works in connection with the transfer slab and beams of the Neo-Mudéjar façade. allowing force adjustment and monitoring during and after the stressing operation.6”.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 17 .dampers for mitigation of vibration induced by earthquake. The project involved post-tensioned floors with spans of between 12m and 17m and the supply of other VSL products such a neoprene bearings and studs. The system consists of carbon CFRP plates and head and is well suited for seismic and other strengthening measures where post-tensioning forces are needed in very thin tensile members. Spain . The optimum solution consisted of a marble-coloured PE-sheath and galvanized. Switzerland .bonded CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer). VSL’s other repair solutions VSL also provides other structural solutions for the repair and strengthening of structures including: • passive strengthening with the design and application of: . .cathodic protection for corrosion mitigation.RKS: STRENGTHENING OF HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Las Arenas Bullfighting Ring. built in 1898. Italy . Singapore .2007 One of the many examples in Barcelona where VSL has assisted with engineering and specialised site works is this former bull ring.bonded SRP (steel reinforced polymer).

vsl.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S .25 3178.com 18 V S L P O S T.GROUND ENGINEERING Ground anchors VSoL® walls CONSTRUCTION Bridges D-walls & Piles Buildings Ground improvement Slab on grade REPAIR.25 Containment structures Structural diagnostics & Monitoring Special structures Repair & Strengthening Protection & Preservation Heavy lifting SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGIES Formwork & Equipment • Post-tensioning strand systems • Bars & post-tensioning bar systems • Stay cable systems • Damping systems (stays & buildings) • Ductal ® UHP concrete • Bearings & Joints www. STRENGTHENING & PRESERVATION 36.

VSL TECHNICAL DATA AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS STRAND AND TENDON PROPERTIES PT-PLUS® DUCT SYSTEM DATA TENDON LAYOUT. RADII. FRICTION AND TENDON LOSSES FOR INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CABLES BLOCK-OUTS AND EQUIPMENT DATA V S L P O S T.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 19 .

5/3.0 5-27 5-31 101.7 197 296 395 494 592 691 790 888 987 1086 1184 1283 1382 1481 1579 1678 1777 1875 1974 2073 2171 2270 2369 2468 2566 2665 2764 2862 2961 3060 3158 3257 3356 3455 3553 3652 4244 5429 [kN] 173 346 519 692 865 1038 1211 1384 1557 1730 1903 2076 2249 2422 2595 2768 2941 3114 3287 3460 3633 3806 3979 4152 4325 4498 4671 4844 5017 5190 5363 5536 5709 5882 6055 6228 6401 7439 9515 d=12.0 82. For special cases (long tendons. to prEN 10138-3 or low-relaxation grade acc.0 108.1% permanent extension 2) Minimum load at 1% extension for low-relaxation strand 3) Valid for relaxation class acc./min.1 .0 127.7 mm Ap=98.0 31.9 x 2.0/2. Strands must always be pushed-in prior to concreting.0 x 3. to ASTM A 416-06 1.0/4.4 x 2.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S .5 ASTM A 416-06 Grade 270 12.5 mm Ap=100 mm2 Ap=93 mm2 [mm2] 98.5/3.0 42.0 x 3.0 114. radii of > 6 m.0/5.0/4.5 5-19 5-22 5-22 5-27 88.0/5. small radii etc. In plan view.TENDON PROPERTIES 13mm (0.0/4.0 x 2.0/3.3 x 3.5”) Strand type Nominal diameter Nominal cross section Nominal mass Nominal yield strength Nominal tensile strength Specif.6 x 3. 5) Please check with the nearest VSL office for the complete anchorage list.STRAND PROPERTIES 13mm (0.0 60.STRAND 1.7 x 2.0 x 3.1k fpk Fpk (mm) (mm2) (kg/m) (MPa) (MPa) (kN) (GPa) (%) prEN 10138 – 3 (2006) Y1860S7 12.0/2.7 mm2 [kN] 183. for PT-PLUS® see also under 3.0 1) Flat ducts possible as well 2) Flat duct PT-PLUS® with rectangular slab anchorages.0/2. Eccentricity e: negligible 4) Given values may slightly vary depending on local availability of ducts. tendons with slab type anchorages must be straight between anchorages or have only unidirectional turns with min.5/3.5 88.0/4.7 98.7 x 3. 2.0 70.0/4.726 0.7 0.0/2.5 x 2. They are minimal for most applications.5/3.9 x 2.5/3.3.1.1 .0/5.7 367 551 735 919 1102 1286 1470 1653 1837 2021 2204 2388 2572 2756 2939 3123 3307 3490 3674 3858 4041 4225 4409 4593 4776 4960 5144 5327 5511 5695 5878 6062 6246 6430 6613 6797 7899 10104 [mm] 20/25 35/40 35/40 40/451 45/50 45/50 50/57 55/62 55/62 60/67 60/67 60/67 65/72 65/72 70/77 70/77 75/82 75/82 75/82 80/87 80/87 80/87 85/92 85/92 90/97 90/97 95/102 95/102 95/102 95/102 95/102 100/107 100/107 100/107 110/117 110/117 110/117 120/127 130/137 e [mm] 3 8 6 7 8 6 7 9 8 10 9 8 9 8 9 9 11 10 9 10 9 8 12 11 14 13 15 14 13 12 11 13 12 12 17 17 16 18 17 [mm] 22/25 76/252 76/252 76/252 58/63 58/63 58/63 58/63 58/63 58/63 58/63 58/63 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 115/121 115/121 115/121 115/121 115/121 115/121 130/136 130/136 [mm] 6 14 12 11 10 9 9 8 7 14 13 12 12 11 10 9 20 19 18 19 18 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 20 19 19 19 19 18 23 17 [mm] 25.5/3.5/3.0/5.5 12.0/4.5/3.0/5.7 1) Characteristic value measured at 0.3 x 2.781 16341 16401 1860 1860 173 186 approx.0 60.0/3.5/3.8 x 2.5 101.5 88.5/3.0/5.2 .3 x 3.5 (EN523).0 82.0/4.) greater size duct is recommended – please verify with VSL.5/3.0 x 2. 20 V S L P O S T.0/5.0/2.0 5-37 5-43 5-55 114.9 93 100 0.5”) Unit Strands numbers Steel area Ap acc.9 mm Ap=100 mm2 [mm2] 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 4300 5500 d=12.0/2.9 mm Ap=100 mm2 [kN] 186 372 558 744 930 1116 1302 1488 1674 1860 2046 2232 2418 2604 2790 2976 3162 3348 3534 3720 3906 4092 4278 4464 4650 4836 5022 5208 5394 5580 5766 5952 6138 6324 6510 6696 6882 7998 10230 d=12. breaking load Young’s modulus Relaxation3 after 1000 h at 20°C and 0.775 16752 1860 183.6 x 3.0 5-12 5-15 5-15 5-19 70.9 x 2. many curvatures.3 x 2.0/5.5/3.7 x Fpk d Ap M fp0.0/4.0/3.0/3. In any case the filling ratio (cross-section steel / duct) must not exceed 0. 195 max. to prEN ASTM Breaking load Y1860S7 (prEN) Corrugated steel duct3 Corrugated plastic duct (recommended) VSL PT-PLUS® Grade 270 Øi / Øe e Øi / Øe e ø (ASTM) Eccentricity Steel pipes Ø ext x t d=12.0/2.0/2.0 x 2.0 5-31 5-37 108.0/2.0 139.5 x 2.5 mm Ap=93 mm2 [mm2] 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-7 5-12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 43 55 93 186 279 372 465 558 651 744 837 930 1023 1116 1209 1302 1395 1488 1581 1674 1767 1860 1953 2046 2139 2232 2325 2418 2511 2604 2697 2790 2883 2976 3069 3162 3255 3348 3441 3999 5115 d=12.0 33.7 mm d=12.5/3.0 88.9 x 2. 3) If flat ducts (steel or PT PLUS®) to be used with square type castings please contact your VSL representative.

0/4.2.0/5.3 15.6 x 3.0 80.3 x 3.0/4.7 140 150 1.1.5 101.0/5.6”) Unit Strands numbers Steel area Ap acc. In any case the filling ratio (cross-section steel / duct) must not exceed 0.0/5.0/5.3 x 3.1k fpk Fpk (mm) (mm2) (kg/m) (MPa) (MPa) (kN) (GPa) (%) prEN 10138 – 3 (2006) Y1860S7 15.0/2.3 x 3.7 521 782 1043 1304 1564 1825 2086 2346 2607 2868 3128 3389 3650 3911 4171 4432 4693 4953 5214 5475 5735 5996 6257 6518 6778 7039 7300 7560 7821 8082 8342 8603 8864 9125 9385 9646 11210 14339 [mm] 25/30 40/45 40/45 45/501 50/57 55/62 55/62 65/72 65/72 70/77 70/77 75/82 80/87 80/87 80/87 85/92 85/92 90/97 90/97 100/107 100/107 100/107 100/107 100/107 110/117 110/117 110/117 110/117 120/127 120/127 120/127 120/127 120/127 120/127 130/137 130/137 130137 140/147 160/167 e [mm] 5 9 6 7 8 9 7 11 9 11 9 11 13 11 10 12 11 13 12 17 16 15 14 13 18 17 16 15 21 20 19 18 17 16 22 21 20 21 26 [mm] 22/25 76/252 76/252 76/252 58/63 58/63 58/63 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 76/81 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 100/106 115/121 115/121 115/121 115/121 115/121 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 130/136 150/157 150/157 [mm] 4 13 11 9 18 16 15 13 12 25 24 23 22 20 19 18 17 16 15 22 22 21 21 20 27 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 20 27 21 [mm] 25.5 ASTM A 416-06 Grade 270 15.3 mm d=15. 3) If flat ducts (steel or PT PLUS®) to be used with square type castings please contact your VSL representative. In plan view.7 mm Ap=140 mm2 Ap=150 mm2 [kN] 260 520 780 1040 1300 1560 1820 2080 2340 2600 2860 3120 3380 3640 3900 4160 4420 4680 4940 5200 5460 5720 5980 6240 6500 6760 7020 7280 7540 7800 8060 8320 8580 8840 9100 9360 9620 11180 14300 [kN] 279 558 837 1116 1395 1674 1953 2232 2511 2790 3069 3348 3627 3906 4185 4464 4743 5022 5301 5580 5859 6138 6417 6696 6975 7254 7533 7812 8091 8370 8649 8928 9207 9486 9765 10044 10323 11997 15345 d=15.4 x 2.0/4.0 101.7 1) Characteristic value measured at 0./min. radii of > 6 m.4 x 3.0 x 3.7 x 3.0/4.6 x 3.3.7 mm Ap=150 mm2 [mm2] 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 3750 3900 4050 4200 4350 4500 4650 4800 4950 5100 5250 5400 5550 6450 8250 d=15. to prEN ASTM Breaking load Y1860S7 (prEN) Corrugated steel duct3 Corrugated plastic (recommended) duct VSL PT-PLUS® Grade 270 Øi / Øe e Øi / Øe e ø (ASTM) Eccentricity Steel pipes Ø ext. V S L P O S T.7 x 2.0 114.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 21 .24 140 1.24 mm Ap=140 mm2 [mm2] 140 280 420 560 700 840 980 1120 1260 1400 1540 1680 1820 1960 2100 2240 2380 2520 2660 2800 2940 3080 3220 3360 3500 3640 3780 3920 4060 4200 4340 4480 4620 4760 4900 5040 5180 6020 7700 d=15.0/. 5) Please check with the nearest VSL office for the complete anchorage list.0/4.0/2. breaking load Young’s modulus Relaxation3 after 1000 h at 20°C and 0.4 .0 1) Flat ducts possible as well 2) Flat duct PT-PLUS® with rectangular slab anchorages.5/3.6 x 3. 2.0 139.0/5.0 x 2.0/4. Eccentricity e: negligible 4) Given values may slightly vary depending on local availability of ducts.0/2.0 76.0/5.2.5/3.0/.0 x 3.0/4.0 6-37 6-43 6-55 139.0 127.0 6-31 6-37 127. They are minimal for most applications. small radii etc.0 x 3.5/3.0/4. tendons with slab type anchorages must be straight between anchorages or have only unidirectional turns with min.3 x 2.0 152. Strands must always be pushed-in prior to concreting.1% permanent extension 2) Minimum load at 1% extension for low-relaxation strand 3) Valid for relaxation class acc.0/4.0/4.0/2.7 x Fpk d Ap M fp0.0 33.) greater size duct is recommended – please verify with VSL.0/4.0 42.0 6-19 6-22 6-22 6-27 101. to prEN 10138-3 or low-relaxation grade acc.0 48. x t d=15.172 16361 16401 1860 1860 260 279 approx.0 168.0/5. many curvatures.7 x 3. for PT-PLUS® see also under 3.0 114.3 x 3.0 76.0 x 2.1 x 2.0 6-27 6-31 114.STRAND PROPERTIES 15mm (0.1.1 x 2.0/4.0/4.6”) Strand type Nominal diameter Nominal cross section Nominal mass Nominal yield strength Nominal tensile strength Specif.0 x 2.0/5.0/2.0/4.5 (EN523).3 mm Ap=140 mm2 [mm2] 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-7 6-12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 43 55 140 280 420 560 700 840 980 1120 1260 1400 1540 1680 1820 1960 2100 2240 2380 2520 2660 2800 2940 3080 3220 3360 3500 3640 3780 3920 4060 4200 4340 4480 4620 4760 4900 5040 5180 6020 7700 d=15.0 108.TENDON PROPERTIES 15mm (0.5 6-12 6-15 6-15 6-19 80.102 16762 1860 260. to ASTM A 416-06 1. 195 max.0/5.24 mm Ap=140 mm2 [kN] 260.6 x 3.5/3.3 .093 1.0/5.0 101. For special cases (long tendons.5/3.

5 E 55 42 52. locally valid norms (or for example EN523) can be consulted. In addition.1 TYPES 3.0 3.380 0. the PT-PLUS® system with additional details at the anchorages allows to provide electrically isolated tendons (EIT) and a protection level of Round duct Coupler PL3 (fib bulletin 33). For spacing between anchorages and edge distance. 23 mm Dimensions for PT-PLUS® duct system Dimensions in mm. The PT-PLUS® system is particularly suitable for railroad brides. For additional information and details.5 60 60 52 60 ØF 27.320 0.180 0.010 0.DUCTING 3. refer to individual anchorage data sheet.0 3.6” 6-1 6-7 6-12 6-19/22 6-27 6-31/37 6-55 One-piece sleeve coupler Note: PT-PLUS® ducts come in lengths of approximately 6 m.0 3. use of the VSL PT-PLUS® corrugated plastic duct system is 1 recommended. They are corrugated and leak-tight and must have sufficient strength to withstand varying degrees and types of mechanical loading. subject to modifications 1 Couplers are available with/without grout vents for a smooth tube with dia.250 0.270 0.3 Corrugated PT-PLUS® duct system For enhanced corrosion protection and fatigue resistance of the tendons.1. 22 V S L P O S T. 5 strands are available).200 1.52 106 124 147 162 177 198 Duct kg/m 0.5 3.1 Bright corrugated steel ducts The most commonly used sheaths are made from rolled steel strip.2 Galvanized corrugated steel ducts Galvanization is sometimes used to ensure corrosion protection of the metal strip.5 2.420 0.620 0.1.1.ANCHORAGES For the selection and the dimensions of the most commonly used anchorages. These EIT tendons permit monitoring of the leak tightness of the tendon encapsulation and protection of the tendon over the entire design life of the structure. Please check local code requirements.480 0.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . Round and flat (max.980 1.2 . subject to modifications Tendon unit Type 22 59 76 100 115 130 150 2 Nominal weight ØA 22 58 76 100 115 130 150 ØB 25 63 81 106 121 136 157 ØC 31 73 91 116 131 146 167 D 1. 3.200 0.120 1.5” 5-1 5-12 5-19 5-31 5-37 5-43/55 0. bridge decks.52 82 100 123 138 153 175 G 802 108 116 126 127 134 126 H 27. 3. parking structures and other situations where severe corrosion or high fatigue loading may be expected. 3 . Half-shell Clamp Grout vent connection1 Couplers are available with/without grout vents for a threaded tube with dia.5 2. type 22 ducts are 7 m long Flat duct Coupler Seal Clip Sleeve Grout vent connection1 Dimensions in mm. 16 / 20 mm. please consult the VSL data sheets on anchorages. It can provide lower friction losses when stressing the tendon.620 Coupler kg/unit 0.

The following dimensions of external tendon pipes are recommended (see table below).7 94.30 k = refer to 2 below µ = 0.4 External pipe diameter (mm) strands bare PE sheathed 75 90 110 110 140 160 90 110 140 160 160 180 Wall thickness (mm) strands bare PE sheathed 4.0. nuclear.0) x 10-3 m-1 µ = 0.25 k = refer to 2 below µ = 0.08 k = refer to 2 below µ = 0.1.4 6.05 k = 0. to EN12201 and ASTM D3035 or ASTM F714 or equivalent standards.0 122.2 41.0.12 .7 88. Dimensions for steel pipes Strand Nos.0.0. suitable to carry internal pressure during grouting (ETAG013 (2002) e.9 65.2 / 1.1.2 69. subject to modifications 3. µ-values depend on lubrication 2. (for recommended dimensions.9 87. 3.14 k = 1.7 7. subject to modifications Wall thickness e ≥ Ø / 50 or minimum 1.3 Other tendon force losses In addition to friction and relaxation losses (see above).9 149.0.5 mm Ø = external diameter Where steel pipes need to be welded.6 90. new high density polyethylene (HDPE) material (virgin granulate) acc.7 108. Occasionally they have been also used for internal tendons when no bonding steel / concrete is required. To calculate losses due to concrete shrinkage and creep.12 .greased and plastic sheathed monostrands Greased and plastic sheathed monostrands 1.0 6. compensation can be provided by appropriate procedures. for short tendons.20 k = 0.4 131.04 .bare strands .14 k = (0. offshore) where the ducts are subject to high loading when particularly tight tendon curvature is required.5 112.5 5.20 . The wobble factor can normally be neglected Recommended value µ = 0.7 77.5 x 10-3 m-1 V S L P O S T. for strands with 100 mm2 140 mm2 150 mm2 34 45 58.2 Draw-in of wedge at lock-off: max. with an internal diameter not smaller than 1.1 72.24 k = (0.8 . specifies 1 MPa / 10 bar design pressure).3 5. steel pipes are used.0 x 10-3 m-1 µ = 0.0. or when tendons are in congested parts of structures.2 115. also concrete shrinkage and creep as well as a draw-in of the wedge during lock-off must be considered. e.1 6.02 .T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 23 .0. saddles for external tendons: with clean dry or lubricated strands1 Saddles for external tendons with internal HDPE tube over saddle: . Ducts normally have a ratio of diameter / wall thickness of 16 to 18.4 111. reference should be made to the technical documents and standards applicable to each project.4 .1.g. for transversal tendons for bridges and for similar structures where the exploitation of a maximum tendon eccentricity in relatively thin members is important.3 104.6 8. Steel tubes used externally: dimensions are primarily dictated by the availability of local standardized tubes.8 x 10-3 m-1 µ = 0. Tubes are thin (in compliance with EN or equivalent standards) and machine-bendable.2.7 Ap where Ap represents the cross section of the prestressing steel.6) x 10-3 m-1 µ = 0.7 8.1 Friction coefficient The following values may be assumed when using the equation Px = Po e -(µφx + kx) : Equation of loss of post-tensioning force along a tendon φx = Accumulated tendon deviation Px = Remaining force at distance x from the stressing end from the stressing end k = Wobble coefficient Po = Stressing force at the stressing end x = Distance from the stressing end µ = Friction coefficient 3.6 136. 3.6 27 31 37 43 55 5-12 / 6-7 5-15/19 / 6-12 5-22/31 / 6-15/19 5-37 / 6-22/27 5-43 / 6-31 5-55 / 6-37 Dimensions in mm. If necessary. The table below can serve as a guideline and is based on an internal diameter of ≥ 1. 6 mm This value is independent of the jack or tendon type.g.14 µ = 0.7 Ap (Ap = nominal cross section of the steel area in the tendon).1 79. e ≥ 3 mm Dimensions in mm.2 53. see 1.4 Smooth plastic ducts Smooth plastic ducts are predominantly used for external tendons.16 .3 9. Material recycled from previously used PE components shall not Dimensions for smooth plastic ducts Tendon size be used. cryogenic. 3.1. They are normally made of UV resistant.7 103.g.1 80.15 µ = 0.3 94.5 126.2) x 10-3 m-1 µ = 0.07 k = (0.5 154.1 40.2.The PT-PLUS® flat duct system and type 22 are often used for slab post-tensioning in buildings.6 .7 7.6 55.8 74.5 Steel pipes In certain applications (e. 4 7 12 15 19 22 Min inside dia.6 6.2 FRICTION COEFFICIENT AND LOSSES DUE TO PRESTRESSING 3. Range Corrugated steel sheath PT-PLUS® plastic duct Steel pipes incl.06 k = refer to 2 below µ = 0.4).9 126.8 97.2.

7 times diameter of the duct b2. an offset with respect to the theoretical axis is only tolerated provided that equilibrium reinforcing bars have been provided over this zone. under all circumstances and in every direction. Kinks are not permitted.3 DUCT SPACING AND COVER The cable layout patterns are dictated by the designer. Usually the spacing and curvatures are laid down in standards.3. required cover. c2 = 1. Moreover. see 3. For tolerances on cable positions reference should be made to applicable standards and recommendations. reference should be made to applicable standards and recommendations.4 SPACING OF THE SUPPORTS AND TOLERANCES The spacing of the supports underneath the steel and plastic ducts must be 10 to 12 times the internal diameter of the duct. guidelines or national approvals. and where ducts risk to be dented by closely placed rebars. and radii of curvature. When detailing that cable layout. whenever a cable displays or potentially displays deviation in the vicinity of an edge of concrete which could lead to spalling of concrete cover.0 times diameter of the duct 3. these being minimum values: Measurement (a) • Precast elements. soft environmental conditions • In general • Severe environmental conditions 30 40 50 SPACING b1. In determining minimum spacings and concrete cover requirements for ducts. it is absolutely essential to consider the spacing of cables from Minimum spacing and cover of duct another. elements protected from bad weather. Standard steel duct VSL Protection shells are recommended to be fixed on the duct at tendon supports for tendon radii R < 2 Rmin (see under 4.3.2). PT-PLUS® plastic duct with protection shell 24 V S L P O S T. The fastening fittings must be sufficiently robust and close enough so that the ducts and tendons will not exhibit displacements or deformations in excess of the allowed tolerances.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S . If not available. c1 = 0. VSL recommends that the following guidance values be observed.

50 m for unbonded tendons for 5-1 and 6-1 V S L P O S T.55 up to up to 6-7 6 .5 SADDLES FOR EXTERNAL TENDON 3. saddles consist of a pre-bent steel tube cast into the surrounding concrete or attached to a steel structure by stiffening plates. This reinforcement is considered as an integral component of the anchorage and its design lies within the field of responsibility of VSL. 4.2 MINIMUM RADIUS OF TENDON CURVATURE AND TANGENT LENGTH FOR INTERNAL TENDONS Minimum radius of tendon curvature Minimum tangent length Rmin (m) = 3.50 m 4.00 m .1 ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT The transfer of the prestressing forces from the anchorage into the concrete produces stresses which exceed the concrete strength and that must be withstood by special reinforcement. A distinction may be made between three types of reinforcement.They apply to smooth steel and HDPE pipe and assume a straight length on either side of the deviation.5 to 1. It is also important that the protective sheath be properly joined.DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 4.12 up to 5 .50 m 3.3.22 6 .5 m for Fpk ≥ 7 MN Rmin (m) = 2.0 m for Fpk ≥ 2 MN.0 m .50 m 5.5. c) Reinforcement for spalling forces near stress free edges This reinforcement is designed by the project designer as part of the overall reinforcement of the structure.3 Minimum radius of tendon curvature for external tendons Tendon unit 0.43 6 . Guidelines for its design can be found in VSL’s report “Detailing for post-tensioning”.3) Fpk [MN] ≥ 2.43 up to 5 .55 Minimum radius 2.12 6 . the saddle arrangement must be chosen accordingly. b) General zone of reinforcement for resisting the spreading of forces in the structure This reinforcement is designed by the project designer.The values are equivalent to approximately Rmin (m) = (1. This reinforcement is specified in approvals and it may only be changed upon approval by VSL. If tendon replacement is a design requirement.00 m 3.1 Saddles Various solutions are used in practice. PE pipe through bell-mouth deviator. from anchorage to anchorage (most common detail) PE pipe through deviator pipe.31 6 . 3.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 25 .0 x Fpk [MN] ≥ 2. The Anchorage data sheets show the required reinforcement for each anchorage.31 up to 5 .2 Various saddle arrangements the saddle must be carefully detailed in order not to damage the prestressing steel by sharp angular deviations during stressing and in service. from anchorage to anchorage Diabolo bell-mouth for deviation points at diaphragm segment Deviation pipe protrudes from concrete at sufficient distance and is coupled to PE pipe 4 . The connection between the free tendon length and 3. In most cases.00 m 4.5. a) Local zone reinforcement in the immediate vicinity of the anchorage For this purpose. spirals (helices) or appropriate orthogonal reinforcement are normally used.19 up to 5 .6” up to 5 .37 6 .8 m for Fpk ≤ 2 MN = 1. ≤ 7 MN = 1.00 m 2.5 m Lmin = 0.5” 0.5.

300 2.250 1.500 1.100 1.220 2. drainage is required. 5.400 2. C E 26 V S L P O S T.350 1.620 2. The block-out dimensions and clearance requirement as given under 5.000 1. They should have a range of spacing between vents in the order of 30 – 70 m.550 1.300 1.000 1. 5.400 1. Departures from these data may be possible. As a general rule distance between grout vents should not exceed 100 m.2 GROUT VENTS Low point drains should only be foreseen where there is a risk of water freezing inside the duct and hence. 85% of the 310kN.INSTALLATION 5.400 1. – 30 30 30 30 50 50 50 50 60 80 80 80 80 80 90 90 B 300-360 600 500 650 650 520 620 950 700 560 950 860 1.1 ANCHORAGES It is a requirement that the bearing plate / casting of anchorages are fixed perpendicular to the tendon axis.200 1.5 .850 D 116 140 200 180 300 310 300 330 390 485 585 500 570 650 790 710 770 E 90 100 150 140 200 200 180 210 250 300 330 280 365 360 450 375 420 Dimensions in mm A A B Jack is designed to be used for 310kN UTS strands stressed to max.3 BLOCK-OUT DIMENSIONS AND CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS B 45° -60 ° Concrete cover according to applicable standard Jack type ZPE-23FJ ZPE-30 ZPE-3 ZPE-60 ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-185* ZPE-200 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-500 ZPE-580* ZPE-750 ZPE-980* ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250 ZPE-1450* * A min. Please contact VSL.760 2.200 1.010 D C 1.3 should be followed.200 950 1.000 1.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S E .

500 601 1.170 315 300 325. 85% of the 310kN.064 5-22 5-31 6-18 to 6-22 ZPE-580* II 760 500 150 961.000 553 2. V S L P O S T.809.100 5-31 to 5-55 6-31 to 6-43 ZPE-980* ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250 ZPE-1450* II 810 645 150 1.6 5.7 2.6” tendon types 2 ZPE-23FJ I 830 116 200 47.340 5-37 to 5-55 6-27 6-31 6-37 6-31 to 6-37 II 1.0 12.500 595 1.064 523 140 5-6 5-7 6-4 II 610 310 100 309.10 230 488 23 5-1 6-1 ZPE-30 II 720 140 250 58.168.150 790 200 1.5” tendon types Used for 15mm/ 0.5 10.000 559 1.000 550 200 894.3 9.5.660 580 435 5-22 5-31 6-18 6-19 Jack is designed to be used for 310kN UTS strands stressed to max.805 610 460 5-12 to 5-31 6-12 6-19 6-22 ZPE-750 II 1.6 1.185 520 150 1.6” tendon types * ZPE-460 II 580 485 100 2 ZPE-500 III 1.3 1.0 4.4 STRESSING JACK DATA Type I (ZPE-23FJ) Type II (ZPE-460/31) Type III (ZPE-1000) Designation Type Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Stroke (mm) Piston area (cm ) Capacity (kN) (bar) Weight (kg) Used for 13mm/ 0.T E N S I O N I N G S O L U T I O N S 27 .6 500 483 47 5-2 5-3 6-2 ZPE-60 III 615 180 250 126.7 5.856 600 120 5-7 6-3 6-4 6-7 ZPE-200 III 1.500 577 1.9 14.250 804.436.5” tendon types Used for 15mm/ 0.750 590 800 III 1.4 1.32 320 549 28 5-1 6-2 ZPE-3 III 475 200 160 103.4 632 500 74 5-2 to 5-4 6-2 6-3 ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-185* III 700 280 160 203.730 5-37 6-43 to 6-55 6-43 6-48 6-55 II 840 765 150 2.3 2.290 620 150 2.000 614 305 5-12 5-19 6-6 6-7 ZPE-19 II 730 390 100 500.247.900 580 294 5-18 6-12 Designation Type Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Stroke (mm) Piston area (cm ) Capacity (kN) (bar) Weight (kg) Used for 13mm/ 0.850 600 151 5-12 6-6 6-7 II 600 295 100 309.0 7.652.

CHAI WAN Phone:+852 2590 22 88 Fax: +852 2590 02 90 Intrafor Hong Kong Ltd. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as granting a license.A. Ltd. SANTIAGO Phone: +56 2 571 67 00 Fax: +56 2 571 67 01 HONG KONG VSL Hong Kong Ltd.VSL LOCATIONS www. Printed in France – patented.A. Bhd. Anyone using this material assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. PAÇO DE ARCOS Phone: +351 21 445 83 10 Fax: +351 21 444 63 77 VSL GEO Sistemas de Aplicação em Geotecnia SA PAÇO DE ARCOS Phone: + 351 21 445 83 10 Fax: + 351 21 445 83 28 BRUNEI VSL Systems (B) Sdn. PASIG CITY Phone/Fax: +632 672 13 95 SINGAPORE VSL Singapore Pte. VSL International Ltd. Bhd. . UAE Phone: +971 4 885 7225 Fax: +971 4 885 7226 Americas / ARGENTINA VSL Sistemas Especiales de Construcción Argentina SA BUENOS AIRES Phone: +54 11 4326 06 09 Fax: +54 11 4326 26 50 SOUTH AFRICA Tsala-RMS Construction Solutions (Pty) Ltd JOHANNESBURG Phone: +27 11 878 6820 Fax: +27 11 878 6821 Asia / Headquarters VSL International Ltd. CHAI WAN Phone:+852 2836 31 12 Fax: +852 2591 61 39 FT Laboratories Ltd. SUBINGEN Phone: +41 58 456 30 30 Fax: +41 58 456 30 35 VSL (Suisse) SA SAINT LEGIER Phone: +41 58 456 30 00 Fax: +41 58 456 30 95 VENEZUELA Gestión de Obras y Construcciones C. SINGAPORE Phone: +65 6559 12 22 Fax: +65 6257 77 51 CHILE VSL Sistemas Especiales de Construcción S. LA PAZ Phone: +591 2 27 70 338 Fax: +591 2 27 96 183 Europe / AUSTRIA Grund-Pfahl. BANGKOK Phone: +66 2 679 76 15 . 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HANOI Phone: +84 4 3976 5088 Fax: +84 4 3976 5089 HO CHI MINH CITY Phone: +84 8 810 6817 Fax: +84 8 810 6818 PERU Sistemas Especiales de Construcción Peru S.A.und Sonderbau GmbH HIMBERG Phone: +43 2235 87 777 Fax: +43 2235 86 561 CHINA PRC VSL (China) Engineering Corp. Ltd ANKARA Phone: +90 312 490 90 66 Fax: +90 312 490 90 55 Copyright 2010. Ltd.vsl.com Middle East / Africa / EGYPT Matrix Engineering Company CAIRO Phone: +20 2 344 19 00 Fax: +20 2 346 04 57 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES VSL Middle East LLC DUBAI. CARACAS Phone/Fax: +58 212 941 86 75 NETHERLANDS Heijmans Beton en Waterbouw B. CHENNAI Phone: +91 44 4225 11 11 Fax: +91 44 4225 10 10 VIETNAM VSL Vietnam Ltd.V.o.V MEXICO Phone: +52 55 55 11 20 36 Fax: +52 55 55 11 40 03 FRANCE VSL France S. BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Phone: +673 2 380 153 / 381 827 Fax: +673 2 381 954 BOLIVIA Postensados de Bolivia SAN MIGUEL. HEFEI Phone: +86 551 382 29 18 Fax: +86 551 382 28 78 PHILIPPINES VSL Philippines Inc. Ltd. MD Phone: +1 410 850 7000 Fax: +1 410 850 4111 GREAT BRITAIN VSL Systems (UK) Ltd. BEDFORDSHIRE Phone: +41 58 456 30 30 Fax: +41 58 456 30 35 JAPAN VSL Japan Corporation TOKYO Phone: +81 3 3346 8913 Fax: +81 3 3345 9153 Australia / VSL Australia Pty. suitability and applicability.A. or copyright in regard to the information or products contained or referred to herein. S. trademark. PING CHE Phone: +852 2758 48 61 Fax: +852 2758 89 62 CROATIA Tehnicki projekt d. express or implied under any patents. NEW SOUTH WALES Phone: +61 2 9484 5944 Fax: +61 2 9875 3894 QUEENSLAND Phone: +61 7 3265 64 00 Fax: +61 7 3265 75 34 VICTORIA Phone: +61 3 979 503 66 Fax: +61 3 979 505 47 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Phone: +61 8 8354 4884 Fax: +61 8 8354 4883 TASMANIA Phone: +61 3 6225 3567 Fax: +61 3 6225 2226 PERTH Phone/Fax: +61 8 9523 4686 SWITZERLAND VSL (Switzerland) Ltd.o.A. LABÈGE Phone: +33 05 61 00 96 59 Fax: +33 05 61 00 96 62 SPAIN CTT Stronghold BARCELONA Phone: +34 93 289 23 30 Fax: +34 93 289 23 31 VSL-SPAM. Ltd. BARCELONA Phone: +34 93 846 70 07 Fax: +34 93 846 51 97 INDIA VSL India PVT Ltd. The information set forth in this brochure including technical and engineering data is presented for general information only.A. While every effort has been made to insure its accuracy. TAIPEI Phone: +886 2 2759 6819 Fax: +886 2 2759 6821 COLOMBIA Sistemas Especiales de Construcción S. VSL disclaims any and all express or implied warranties of merchantability fitness for any general or particular purpose or freedom from infringement of any patent.A.S BOGOTA Phone: +57 1 226 62 30 Fax: +57 1 271 50 65 CZECH REPUBLIC VSL Systems (CZ) Ltd. KUALA LUMPUR Phone: +603 7981 47 42 Fax: +603 7981 84 22 TURKEY Mega Yapi Construction & Trade Co. ZAGREB Phone: +385 1 4664 586 Fax: +385 1 4664 549 ^ TAIWAN VSL Taiwan Ltd.A de C. PRAGUE Phone: +420 2 51 09 16 80 Fax: +420 2 51 09 16 99 THAILAND VSL (Thailand) Co. Printed on paper from sustainably managed forests.. SEOUL Phone: +82 2 553 8200 Fax: +82 2 553 8255 NORWAY Spennarmering Norge AS RUD Phone: +47 98 21 02 66 Fax: +47 67 17 30 01 MALAYSIA VSL Engineers (M) Sdn. Equipamento e Montagens S.

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