Sales Promotion Sales promotion, a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade. Whereas advertising offers a reason to buy, sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (samples, coupons, cash refund offers, process off, premiums, prizes, patronage rewards, free trials, warranties, tie-in promotions, crosspromotions, point-of-purchase displays, and demonstrations); trade

promotion (prices off, advertising and display allowances, and free goods); and sales force promotions (trade shows and conventions, contest for sales and specialty advertising). These tools are used by most organizations, including non-profit organizations. Churches, for example, often sponsor bingo games, theatre parties, testimonial dinners and raffles.

A decade ago, the advertising to sales-promotion ratio was about 60:40. Today, in many consumer packaged-good companies, sales promotion accounts for 65% to 75% t of the combined budged. Sales promotion expenditures have been increasing as a percentage of combined budget expenditure annually for the last two decades. Several factors contribute to this rapid growth, particularly in the consumer markets. Promotion is now more accepted by the top management as an effective sales tool; more product managers are qualified to use sales-promotion tools; and product managers are under pressure to increase current sales. In addition, the number of brands has increased; competitors use promotions frequently; many brands are seen as similar; consumers are more priceoriented; the trade has demanded more deals from the manufacturers; and the advertising efficiency has declined because of rising costs, media clutter, and legal restraints. The rapid growth of sales-promotion media has created clutter similar to the advertising clutter. Manufacturers have to find ways to rise above the clutter-for instance, by offering larger coupon-redemption values or using more dramatic point-of purchase displays and demonstrations. Purposes of Sales promotion


Sales-promotion tools vary in their specific objectives. A free sample stimulates consumer trial, whereas a free management-advisory service aims at cementing long-term relationship with a retailer. Sellers use incentive-type promotion to attract new, to reward loyal customers, and to increase the repurchase rates of the occasional users. Sales promotion often attracts brand switchers, who are primarily looking for low price, good value, or premiums. Sales promotions are unlikely to turn them into loyal users. Sales promotions used in markets of high brand similarity produce a high sales response in the short term but little permanent gain in the market share. In markets of high dissimilarity, sales promotion can alter market shares permanently. Farris and Quelch cite a number of sales promotion benefits flowing to manufacturers and consumers. Sales promotion enable manufacturers to adjust to short-term variations in supply and demand. They enable manufacturers to test how high a list price they can charge, because they can always discount it. They induce the customers to try new products instead of never straying from current ones. They lead to more varied retail formats, such as every-day-low-price store and the promotional-pricing store. They promote greater consumer awareness of prices. They permit manufacturers


to sell more than they would sell at list price. They help the manufacturer adapt programs to different consumer segments. Consumer themselves enjoy some satisfaction from being smart shoppers when they take advantage of price specials. Today many marketing managers first estimate what they need to spend in trade promotion, then what they need to spend in consumer promotion. Whatever is left they will budget for advertising. There is danger, however, in letting advertising take a back seat, because advertising typically acts to build brand loyalty. The question of whether or not sales promotion weakens brand loyalty is subject to different interpretations. Sales promotion, with its incessant prices off, coupons, deals and premiums, may devalue the product offering in the buyers’ minds. Buyers learn that the list price is largely a fiction. However, before jumping to any conclusion, we need to distinguish between price promotions and added-value promotions. However, usually, when a brand is price promoted too often, the consumer begins to devalue it and buy it mainly when it goes on sale. So there is risk in putting a well-known brand leader on promotion over 30% of time. Dominant brands offer deals frequently, because most deals only


subsidize current users. Brown’s study of 2,500 instant-coffee buyers concluded that:  Sales promotions yield faster and more measurable responses in sales than advertising does.  Sales promotions do not tend to yield new, long term buyers in mature markets because they attract mainly deal-prone consumers who switch among brands as deals become available.  Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result of competitive promotion.  Advertising appears to be capable of deepening brand loyalty.

There is also evidence that price promotions do not build permanent total category volume. Small share competitors find it advantageous to use sales promotion, because they cannot afford to match the market leaders’ large advertising budgets; nor can they obtain shelf-space without offering trade allowances or stimulate consumer trials without offering incentives. Price competition is used by small brand seeking to enlarge its share, but it is less effective for category leader whose growth lies in expanding the entire category. The upshot is that many consumer packaged goods


companies feels that they are forced to use more sales promotions than they wish. They blame the heavy use of sales promotion for decreasing brand loyalty; increasing consumer price-sensitivity; brand quality image dilution, and a focus on short-run-marketing planning.

Major decisions in Sales Promotions In using sales promotion, a company must establish its objectives, select the tools, develop the program, pretest the program, implement and control it, and evaluate the results. Establishing the objectives Sales promotion objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives, which are derived from more basic marketing objectives developed for the product. For consumers, objectives include encouraging


purchase of larger-sized units, building trial among non-users, and attracting switchers away from competitors’ brands. For retailers, objectives include persuading retailers to carry new items and higher levels of inventory, encouraging stocking of related items, offsetting competitive promotions, building brand loyalty, and gaining entry into new retail outlets. For the sales force, objectives include encouraging support of a new product or model, encouraging more prospecting, and stimulating off-season sales.

Marketing Memo: Sales Promotions as brand builders
Building brand awareness is a long-term process. What a brand does today predicts what it will do tomorrow. Sales promotions are short term and temporary. Here are some of the tips on how to make a sale promotion an effective brand-building tool.  Make sure the promotion is justified: A new store opening, a company anniversary, and other kinds of celebrations are all good reasons for running a promotion Tie the promotion to brand’s image: Birth dates and anniversaries are good Look at every both for the sales job it can do and as a communication tool: A promotion is one of a brand’s many voices; it can help build brand awareness if it says the right things

 

Source: Adapted from Jacques Chevron, “Branding and Promotion: Uneasy combination.” Brand week, September 14, 1998, p.24


Selecting Consumer-promotion tools The promotion planner should take into account the type of the market, sales promotion objectives, competitive conditions, and each tool’s cost effectiveness. The main consumer promotion tools are summarized in the following table. We Offer distinguishamount of manufacturer promotions and retailerto Samples: can of a free between a product or service delivered door promotions. Salesmail, picked are in a store, attached toused together withor door, sent in the promotions up most effective when another product, advertising a price promotion alone produced 15% increase in featured in In one study, offer. sales volume. When combined with feature advertising, sales volume increased Certificates entitling thewith feature advertising on the purchase of Coupons: 19% when combined bearer to a stated saving and a point-ofpurchase display, sales volume increased 24% a specific product; mailed, enclosed in other products or attached to them, or inserted in the magazine and newspaper ads.

Major Consumer promotion tools: a price reduction after purchase rather Cash Refund Offers (rebates): Provide than at retail shop; consumer sends a specified “proof of purchase” to the manufacturer who “refunds” part of the purchase price by mail.

Price Packs (cents-off deals): Offers to consumer savings off the regular price of a product, flagged on the label or package. A reduce price pack is a single package sold at the reduce price (such as two for the price of one). A 8 banded pack is two related products banded together (such as a toothbrush and

Selecting trade-promotion tools Manufacturers use a number of trade promotion tools. Surprisingly a higher percentage of promotion pie is devoted to trade promotion tools (46.9 %) than to consumer promotion (27.9%), with media advertising capturing remaining 25.2 %. Manufacturers use award money to the trade 1. To persuade the wholesaler or retailer to carry the brand;


2. Persuade the retailer or wholesaler to carry more units than the normal amount; 3. To induce the retailers to promote the brand by featuring, display, and price reductions and; 4. To stimulate retailers and their sales clerks to push the product. The growing power of large retailers has increased their ability to demand trade promotion at the cost of consumer promotion and advertising. The different trade promotions are Price off (off-invoice or off list): A straight discount off the list price on each case purchased during a stated time period.

Allowance: An amount offered in return for the retailer’s agreeing to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way. An advertising allowance compensates the retailers for advertising the manufacturer’s product. A display allowance compensates them for carrying a special product display Free Goods: Offers of extra cases of merchandise to intermediaries who buy a certain quantity or who feature a certain flavor or size Source: For more information, see Betsy Spethman, Trade Promotion Redefined, Brandweek, March 13, 1995, pp. 25-32


Selecting Business- and sales-force-promotion tools Companies spend billions of dollars on business-and sales-force-promotion tools as shown in the table. These tools are used to gather business leads, impress and reward customers, and motivate the sales force to greater effort. Companies typically develop budgets for each business-promotion tool that remain fairly constant from year to year. Trade Shows and Conventions: Industry associations organize annual trade sows and conventions. Business marketers may spend as much as 35 % of their annual promotion budget on trade shows Sales Contests: A sales contest aims at including the sales force or dealers to increase their sales over a stated period, with prizes (money, trips, gifts or points) going to those who succeed

Specialty Advertising: Specialty advertising consists of useful, low cost items bearing the company’s name and address, and sometimes an advertising message that salespeople give to prospects and customers. Common items are ballpoint pens, key chains, flashlights, tote bags, and memo pads.


Objectives Of The Study



 To know awareness of people towards Amul Prolife & Ice cream .  To know in which segment ice cream are mostly like/preferred.  To know which advertisement tool is mostly preferred by people.  To know the preference of Amul ice cream with comparison to other competitive brands.  To know the factors which affects consumer’s buying behavior to purchase prolife & sugar free ice cream.  Create awareness about the Probity ice cream  To collect the detailed data by filling up the questionnaire from the APO’S/A class outlets or parlors  To collect the detailed data with respect to AMUL Outlets.


 To collect information about the AMUL Prolife & ice cream by different APO’S & A class outlets  To collect detailed information about the price, supply or any required improvement towards the AMUL Prolife & ice cream.  To give suggestion provided by the outlets to the company for improvement of AMUL Prolife & ice cream/Products


 To study the marketing strategies of the Amul Ice Cream Company.  To study the various products and their prices.  To study the various plans and schemes.  To study the preference of those factors which are considerable by the customer.  To analyze the satisfaction level of the customer.  To analyze the market share of Amul Ice Cream Company.  To show the coverage area of Amul Ice Cream Company.




Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited), formed in 1946, is a dairy cooperative movement in India. It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 2.6 million milk producers in Gujarat, India. It is based in Anand town of


and has been


sterling example of a co-operative

organization's success in the long term. The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand .


In the year 1946 the first milk union was established. This union was started with 250 liters of milk per day. In the year 1955 AMUL was established. In the year 1946 the union was known as KAIRA DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS’ UNION. This union selected the brand name AMUL in 1955. It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organization, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 2.6 million milk producers in Gujarat, India. It is based in Anand town of Gujarat and has been a sterling example of a cooperative organization's success in the long term. The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand . The brand name Amul means “AMULYA”. This word derived form the Sanskrit word “AMULYA” which means “PRICELESS”. A quality control expert in Anand had suggested the brand name “AMUL”. Amul products have been in use in millions of homes since 1946. Amul Butter, Amul Milk Powder, Amul Ghee, Amulspray, Amul Cheese,


Amul Chocolates, Amul Shrikhand, Amul Ice cream, Nutramul, Amul Milk and Amulya have made Amul a leading food brand in India. (The total sale is Rs. 6 billion in 2005). Today Amul is a symbol of many things like of the high-quality products sold at reasonable prices, of the genesis of a vast co-operative network, of the triumph of indigenous technology,

of the marketing savvy of a farmers' organization. And have a proven model for dairy development (Generally known as “ANAND PATTERN”).


Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is India's largest food products marketing organisation. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products which are good value for money. Amul's product range includes milk powders, milk, butter, ghee, cheese, curd, chocolate, ice cream, cream, shrikhand, paneer, gulab jamuns, basundi, Nutramul brand and others. In January 2006, Amul plans to launch India's first sports drink Stamina, which will be competing with Coca Cola's Powerade and PepsiCo's Gatorade .


Amul is the largest food brand in India and world's Largest Pouched Milk Brand with an annual turnover of US $1050 million (2006-07). Currently Amul has 2.6 million producer members with milk collection average of 10.16 million litres per day. Besides India, Amul has entered overseas markets such as Mauritius, UAE, USA, Bangladesh, Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong and a few South African countries. Its bid to enter Japanese market in 1994 had not succeeded, but now it has fresh plans of flooding the Japanese markets .Other potential markets being considered include Sri Lanka. Dr Verghese Kurien, former chairman of the GCMMF, is recognised as the man behind the success of Amul. On 10 Aug 2006 Parthi Bhatol, chairman of the Banaskantha Union, was elected chairman of GCMMF. ACHIEVEMENT: Amul : Asias largest dairy co-operative was created way back in 1946 to make the milk producer self-reliant and conduct milk- business with pride. Amul has always been the trend setter in bringing and adapting the most modern technology to door steps to rural farmers.


Amul created history in following areas: a)First self motivated and autonomous farmers organization comprising of more than 5000000 marginal milk producers of Kaira District. b) Created Dairy co-operatives at village level functioning with milk collection centres owned by them. c) Computerized milk collection system with electronic scale and computerized accounting system. d)The first and only organization in world to get ISO 9001 standard for its farmers co-operatives. e)First to produce milk from powder from surplus milk. Amul is the live example of how co-operation amongst the poor marginal farmers can provide means for the socio-economic development of the under privileged marginal farmers. Amul in abroad:


Amul is going places. Literally. After having established its presence in China, Mauritius and Hong Kong, Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), Indias largest milk cooperative, is waiting to flood the Japanese market. Then, GCMMF is also looking at Sri Lanka as one of its next export destinations. Amul products are already available on shelves across several countries, including the US, China, Australia, West Asian countries and Africa. GCMMF recorded a turnover of Rs 2,922 crore last fiscal. Its products include pouch milk, ultra heat treated (UHT) milk, ice cream, butter, cheese and buttermilk.

PEOPLE POWER: AMUL'S SECRET OF SUCCESS The system succeeded mainly because it provides an assured market at remunerative prices for producers' milk besides acting as a channel to market the production enhancement package. What's more, it does not disturb the agro-system of the farmers. It also enables the consumer an access to high quality milk and milk products. Contrary to the traditional


system, when the profit of the business was cornered by the middlemen, the system ensured that the profit goes to the participants for their socioeconomic upliftment and common good. Looking back on the path traversed by Amul, the following features make it a pattern and model for emulation elsewhere. Amul has been able to:  Produce an appropriate blend of the policy makers farmers board of management and the professionals: each group appreciating its rotes and limitations,  Bring at the command of the rural milk producers the best of the technology and harness its fruit for betterment.  Provide a support system to the milk producers without disturbing their agro-economic systems,  Plough back the profits, by prudent use of men, material and machines, in the rural sector for the common good and betterment of the member producers and


Even though, growing with time and on scale, it has remained

with the smallest producer members. In that sense. Amul is an example par excellence, of an intervention for rural change. The Union looks after policy formulation, processing and marketing of milk, provision of technical inputs to enhance milk yield of animals, the artificial insemination service, veterinary care, better feeds and the like - all through the village societies. Basically the union and cooperation of people brought Amul into fame i.e. AMUL (ANAND MILK UNION LIMITED), a name which suggest THE TASTE OF INDIA.Amul sells 35 million litres of icecream valued at more than Rs 200 crore out of a total branded ice-cream market of 100 million litres worth Rs 600 crore. The Amul ice cream business is currently growing at the rate of more than 20%.

PLANTS First plant is at ANAND, which engaged in the manufacturing of milk, butter, Ghee, milk powder, flavored milk and buttermilk.


Second plant is at MOGAR, in Rajasthan which engaged in manufacturing

chocolate, nutramul, Amul Ganthia and Amul lite.

Third plant is at Kanjari, which produces cattelfeed.


Fourth plant is at Khatraj, which engaged in producing cheese.


Today, twelve dairies are producing different products under the brand name Amul. Today Amul dairy is no. 1 dairy in Asia and no. 2 in the world, which is matter of proud for Delhi and whole India.







producers' Union No. of Producer Members: No. of Village Societies: Total Milk handling capacity: 2.6 million 12,792 10.16 million litres per day

Milk collection (Total - 2006- 2.38 billion litres 07): Milk collection (Daily Average 6.5 million litres 2006-07): Milk Drying Capacity: Cattlefeed Capacity: 594 Mts. per day manufacturing 2640 Mts per day

Sales Turnover 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

Rs (million) 11140 13790 15540 18840 22192 22185 22588 23365 27457

US $ (in million) 355 400 450 455 493 493 500 500 575


2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

28941 29225 37736 42778

616 672 850 1050




INTERNATIONAL CIO 100 AWARD FOR RESOURCEFULNESS GCMMF is a winner of the prestigious international CIO 100 award from IDG's CIO Magazine, USA. The 2003 CIO 100 award recognizes the organizations around the world that excel in positive business performance through resourceful IT management and best practices. This CIO International IT excellence Award has recognized the Cooperative Movement & its Leadership under the "Amul" brand, initiated by Dr. V Kurien, Milkman of India, whose main Motto is to build Indian Society economically & literally strong through innovative cooperative resourceful network, so as to provide quality service & products to the end consumers and good returns to the farmer members. This award has also given direction that IT need to be encouraged & adopted more & more at grass root level and bridge the digital divide through proper training, re-training so as to bring radical change & benefit to the Indian society. It has also recognized the Managing Director, Mr. B M Vyas, who has taken IT initiative by setting the direction "GCMMF as IT Company in


Food business". It has also inspired all the employees of GCMMF Enterprise to sustain the challenges as a "Change Agent" by excelling their IT skills in order to transform the people around them towards IT Integration (e-Vision) on both the ends of supply chain (Village level Farmer to end consumer). This award also motivated the each & every member dairy, Amul's wholesale distributors, retailers, transporters and suppliers who have supported whole-heartedly the IT initiatives of GCMMF. The Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) has been honoured at the CIO 100 Symposium & Award Ceremony on August 19, 2003, at the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. Shri Subbarao Hegde, Head of IT had been to USA and received the said Award on behalf of GCMMF. The photograph link of the recipient of the CIO award along with CIO Magazine's Editor in Chief, Abbie Lundberg, can be seen at BOARD MEMBERS Shri Ramsinh Prabhatsinh Parmar Shri Rajendrasinh Dhirsinh Parmar Shri Dhirubhai Amarsinh Zala Smt. Mansinh Kohyabhai Chauhan Chairman Vice-Chairman Director Director


Shri Maganbhai Gokalbhai Zala Shri Shivabhai Mahijibhai Parmar Shri Pravinsinh Fulsinh Solanki Shri Chandubhai Madhubhai Parmar Shri Bhaijibhai Amarsinh Zala Shri Bipinbhai Manishankar Joshi Smt. Sarayuben Bharatbhai Patel Shri Ranjitbhai Kantibhai Patel Shri B. M. Vyas

Director Director Director Director Director Director Director Director Managing Director G.C.M.M.F

Shri Deepak Dalal Shri Rahul Kumar

District Registrar Managing Director




AMUL is all set to storm the Ice cream market with a new range of probiotic ice cream aimed at the total health conscious. Proboitic means “for life”. Probitics are defined as “live beneficial culture administered in adequate amounts which confer a beneficial health effect on the host”. The human large intestine is a active site of no of microorganism known as gut microflora. In a healthy person it a balance of a number of beneficial a bacteria. The gut microflora actively play a role in health maintenance by modulation of immune system, protection from pathogens and virus invasion through gastrointestinal tract. They also aid in food digestion. A part from these beneficial bacteria also synthesize some vitamins in gut. Our


food habit, living habit, medication to cure disease,stress & strain, age etc can cause the disturbance in balance of gut miroflora. The disturbed gut microflora can create a chance for pathogens and viral invasion. The products are: • • Amul ProLife (Probiotic Wellness Ice Cream) Amul Sugar Free (Probiotic Diabetic Delight) Amul ProLife

(Probiotic Wellness Ice Cream) Probiotics are a live, beneficial culture, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a beneficial health effect on the host. They help in digestion, improve the immune system, make the bones stronger, fight against allergic reactions and are effective in controlling travellers’ diarrhoea. They also help in the prevention of colon cancer and enhance brain activity. The Amul ProLife Probiotic Wellness Ice Cream has all these benefits. How is Amul ProLife ice cream beneficial? Probiotic ice cream is enriched with live beneficial cultures to help your overall.

Executive VP – Inflight Services, said, “The improvements were prompted by surveys conducted among passengers, assessing their needs and ratings


of our inflight products. The new products were developed in collaboration with leading gastronomic experts. We will be offering better quality meals and we have modernised the design of our crockery and cutlery.” World Business Class World Business Class passengers travelling on KLM’s exIndia flights shall enjoy exquisitely prepared three-course Indian and Western meals. Passengers will be able to choose from new Indian menus developed in collaboration with renowned London-based Chef Andy Varma of the Vama Group and owner of the famous restaurant, The Indian Room in London. World Business Class passengers on all KLM flights exAmsterdam will be treated to the internationally renowned cuisine of Jacques and Laurent Pourcel from December 1, 2006 till the onset of summer 2007. The Pourcel brothers, who run top class restaurants in many countries, have produced recipes for the hors d’oeuvre, three main courses, and dessert. Intercontinental Economy Class On all flights to and from India, KLM’s Economy Class passengers will be offered a larger choice of Indian and Western cuisines, as a full menu and as accompaniments. Special attention will be given to local preferences. To complement the new meals, the trays, crockery and cutlery have been redesigned to improve meal presentation. Also, the current hot snack served shortly after the post


midnight take-off from India will be supplemented with a snack box having a choice of three light snacks. The new Indian menus in ex- Amsterdam Economy Class have also been. well-being and health.

Following are the benefits of having Probiotic ice cream: • It improves the gut micro flora • Helps in digestion • Improves the mineral and vitamin absorptions from diet • Produces anti-microbial substances, which help in fighting against pathogens • Produces Vitamin B • Assists in healthy liver functioning • Supports cholesterol management • Prevents and reduces food allergies Prevents the formation and growth of colon cancer, if used regularly. Market estimates As many are today becoming health and calorie conscious, the market is growing. Amul estimates that it would expand the market by increasing customer base. Essentially, it would not only convert no consumers of ice


cream into eaters but also increase frequency of ice cream eating. It expects to get 10% additional growth only through the probiotic range. Since the company is the first to introduce the innovation, developed in-house, it expects to build the market and capture the entire market for probiotic ice cream.

Amul Sugar Free (Probiotic Diabetic Delight) For diabetics, consuming ice cream had remained a dream. Amul is all set to change that with the launch of India’s first specially created Sugar Free Low Fat Diabetic Delight. In Amul Sugar Free Probiotic Diabetic Delight frozen dessert, sugar has been replaced with zero calorie and low calorie sweeteners called fructooligo- saccharides. Fructo-oligo-saccharides (FOS) are soluble dietary fibres that improve the mineral absorption and bone health in addition to increasing the disease-fighting ability of the body. Digestive enzymes sparingly digest these sweeteners in the stomach or small Amul probiotic wellness ice cream have been made to confer the health benefit of these probiotics.


Who does Probiotic ice cream suit best? EVERYONE who desires to live HEALTHY LIFE. Probiotic ice cream is enriched with live beneficial cultures to help your overall well being and health.

Amul Probiotic wellness ice cream :

Improves immunity Improves digestion Prevent gut infection Manages traveler’s diarrhea

Available in so many flavours packed in international packings: Amul Probiotic wellness ice cream is available in : 125ml/500ml+500ml free and 1.25 litrs in 5 flavours : Vanilla with chocolate

sauce/Starwberry/chocolate/shahi Anjir and fresh litchi price ranging from Rs.15(125ml) to 110(1.25litrs).


Amul Pro-Biotic Ice-cream Gets No. 1 Award At World Dairy Summit


"Sh VK Singh, IAS, Managing Director, Punjab Cooperative Dairy Federation accepting 2007 IDF Marketing Award from Sh Jim Begg, President, International Dairy Federation for Amul Prolife Probiotic Ice Cream on 3rd Oct 2007 at World Dairy Summit, Dublin, Ireland. Sh VK Singh had kindly accepted award on behalf of GCMMF." It’s another triumph for brand Amul. After emerging as India’s topmost brand, it has gone to win one of the world’s most prestigious awards – The International Dairy Federation Marketing Award (2007) for

Amul pro-

biotic ice-cream launch.
Announcing the award on October 03, at Dublin, Ireland on the occasion of the World Dairy Summit, Mr. Jim Begg the IDF President commented “These campaigns are excellent examples of best practise in branded and generic marketing from around the world. In markets around the world that are volatile and highly competitive, dairy products have a role in health balanced diets, and these campaigns have demonstrated the ability of well planned and executed marketing investments.” GCMMF is the first and the only Indian organization to receive the 2007 IDF Marketing Award which covered three categories – Nutri-marketing,


Innovation and Marketing Communication. Amul Pro-biotic Ice-cream received the award in the Nutri-marketing category. According to Shri B. M. Vyas, Managing Director, GCMMF, “We launched Amul Pro-biotic Ice-cream as well as Amul Pro-biotic Sugar Free Ice-cream, due to the constraints of cold chain which is a pre-requisite for ice-cream distribution. In a country like India where we have waterborne diseases like diarrhoea, eating a spoonful or two of pro-biotic ice-cream would keep the family healthy and strong. The product was launched with this in view. We were the first in the country to introduce probiotic ice-cream and pro-biotic sugar free ice-cream. We are happy that our efforts have been globally recognized by bestowing the prestigious IDF Marketing Award’.


Amul "Utterly Delicious" Parlours

Amul has recently entered into direct retailing through "Amul Utterly Delicious" parlours created in major cities Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Baroda, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Surat. Amul has plans to create


a large chain of such outlets to be managed by franchisees throughout the country. Amul Parlours at some prominent locations in the country, which are run by the company or its wholesale dealers:
1. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation 2. The Somnath Temple 3. National Institute of Design 4. Infosys Technologies in Bangalore, Mysore & Pune

5. Wipro campus in Bangalore
6. L.J. College, Ahmedabad 7. Ahmadabad Airport

8. Surat Municipal Corporation
9. Delhi Police

10.Gujarat State Raod Transport Corporation
11. Jubilee Mission Medical College, Trichur, Kerala 12. Sanjay Gandhi Hospital Parlour, Amethi


13. Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata 14. Cafe Amul, MDG, Gandhinagar

Central Delhi APO’S 1. G.B.Pant Hospital, Dariayganj New Delhi 2. Maulana Azad Medical College ,New Delhi 3. DMRC , New Delhi "Amul Utterly Delicious" parlours are an excellent business opportunity for investors, shopkeepers and organizations. In order to come closer to the customer, company decided to create a model for retail outlets, which would be known as "Amul Preferred Outlets"(APO)




AMUL 40%

HUL 30%

Among the major players in this industry AMUL has a market share of around 40%,. Hindustan Unilever Ltd with an estimated market share of 30% represented mainly by Kwality Walls brand and lastly Vadilal is the player in the national market with 20% of the market share and 10% of the others brand like Mother Dairy, Arun Dairy and some local brands. Indian Ice Cream Market Industry Snapshot · Market Size - 800 Crores


· Ice Cream market is growing at 10 to 12% · Ice creams traditionally are a low volume business Players Ice-cream Introduction The ice cream market growth picked up after de-reservation of the sector in 1997. Of the total size of Rs 15-16bn, around 30-32% is in the hands of organized sector valued at Rs 4.9bn, rest all is with the unorganized sector. Production area In rural areas, kulfis / ice creams made by small / cottage industry are popular. The market for organized sector is restricted to large metropolitan cities. In small towns and villages, there are thousands of small players who produce ice- creams / kulfis in their home backyard and cater to the local market. Almost 40% of the ice creams sold in the country are consumed in the western region with Mumbai being the main market, followed by 30% in the north and 20% in the south.

Growth promotional activities


The Indian government adopted the policy of liberalization regarding the ice cream industry also and it is since then that this sector has shown an annual growth ranging from 15- 20% per annum for last 1- 2 year. Presently in 1999 it is estimated at worth of Rs15- 16bn. This growth rate is expected to continue for another next 2- 3 years because of lower base. Types Indian Ice Cream market can be segmented in three different ways, namely on the basis of flavors; on the basis of stock keeping units / packaging and on the basis of consumer segments. On the basis of flavors the market today has a number of flavors like vanilla, strawberry, chocolate, mango, butterscotch a number of fruit flavours; dry fruit flavors traditional flavors like Kesar- Pista, Kaju- Draksh etc. The market is totally dominated by Vanilla, Strawberry and chocolate, which together account for more than 70% of the market followed by butterscotch and other fruit flavors.

1. Amul - Market Leader with share of 40%


2. HUL - Kwality Walls - 2nd biggest player 3. Mother Diary 4. Arun - Chennai Based Hatsun Agro Product 5. Metro Daily - Kolkata based 6. Aavin - Tamil Nadu based Recent Happenings 1. HUL's Moo (Nutritional Ice Cream) - targeted at Kids 2. As Mother Dairy has competency cold chain distribution as they have Safal brand (frozen peas, corn, juices and mixed vegetables) under their portfolio, they have expanded from Delhi to Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Punjab, Rajasthan, UP & Uttaranchal. Due to this and other brand extensions in the pipeline, Mother Diary expects their turnover by 20% this year over their present size of Rs. 2800 Rs. Cr. 3. Aavin, the cooperative sector milk and dairy products marketer in Tamil Nadu, has launched a low sugar variant of ice creams in the market. According to an official press release, the ice cream `without added sugar' is ideal for diabetics and safe for children and mothers-to-be. This variant has just 80 calories and has 16 mg of sweetener against 8,000 mg of sugar in the


traditional ice creams. The ice cream conforms to the US and domestic food regulations, the release said 4. GCMMF launched its pro-biotic ice creams that have live beneficial culture that confer beneficial health effects such as improving immunity and digestion and strengthening bones. It also introduced a sugar-free ice cream range and is planning a Web site on ice creams. There two ranges are Amul Prolife and Amul Sugar free. According to Mr. R.S. Sodhi, GM Marketing, Amul, Amul hopes to build the pro-biotic range into a Rs 100crore brand within the next two-three years. While Amul had earlier tested this market segment through the launch of an isabgol-enriched ice cream, this is company's first full-fledged attempt at capturing a good share of the pro-biotic enriched foods market in India. Both the brands are available in 125 ml (Rs 15), 500 ml and 1.25 litre (Rs 120) packs in five flavours, vanilla with chocolate sauce, strawberry, chocolate, shahi anjir and fresh litchi. On the retail front, it intends to hike its Amul parlours from 600 to 10,000 by 2010

5. Arun Ice Creams, the ice cream brand from Hatsun Agro Product Ltd, is launching a new range of ice cream outlets, Arun Ice Creams Unlimited. Hatsun Agro, which is the largest private dairy in India, plans to make


available its range of dairy products at the conventional Arun ice cream outlets operated through franchisees. This network will also be expanded. The new range of outlets will sell ice cream by the scoop, `aggressively priced' at Rs 20 a scoop of 100 gm, Mr Chandramogan said. A feature of these parlours will be the wide selection of flavours, over 25 flavours with five new substituted for the existing ones each month to ensure more variety. The company is investing over Rs 15 lakh in each of these outlets. Few Brands/ Target Consumers 1. Youth Centric - Chills 2. Kids - Moo 3. Teenagers - Cornett 4. Health Conscious - Amul Sugar free & ProLife This summer mother diary targeted children with the baseline — `Jagaye Andar ka Bandar' while it is luring adults with the message `Give In'. Interesting piece of information: Hawking is not allowed in Mumbai which makes 1/3rd of business for HLL. Rest is contributed by retail outlets Future of Ice Cream Market in India Ice Cream market will expand with increase in number of malls - HUL has been increasing their ice cream outlets - Swirl. Few years consumers use to


go out for walk after dinner and use to buy ice creams from hawkers. But now consumer who often visit malls for entertainment prefer to buy ice creams during different times of the day as it is visible upfront and feel like spending Rs. 50 for that tasty chocolate swirl with cake and nuts. As marketers are understanding the different needs of consumers, be it health conscious people, kids, youngsters, young etc, and coming up with products specific for them... with portfolio of flavors, consumer today has plethora of options at hand to choose from and therefore high probability of buying one more scoop of ice cream. Also with increasing wallet size and innovative modern retail formats, it has definately given a philip to the ice cream industry in India.



 Increase the awareness level of AMUL PROLIFE & SUGARFREE


 Seek the general perception of consumer towards AMUL ICE


 To find the performance of AMUL ICE CREAM

vis-à-vis other


 To know the consumer psyche and their behaviour towards AMUL



Scope of the Study This study will help in comprehensive analysis of AMUL APO’S /A class outlets. At the same time it was intended to find about the potential of Prolife & Sugar free ice cream in different APO’S, and about problems or issues and suggestions towards the company Sources of the data collection: -

Primary sources: -

Information by company personal, outlets &APO’S Suggestions by Distributor

Secondary sources: - www.managementparadise .com

Data collection tools  Questionnaire  Interviews.  Meetings.


Sampling Technique: - Sampling technique is the convenience sampling. There were many individual A class outlets & company APO’S involve in different kinds of acceptation toward the Prolife & Sugar free ice cream. Sample size: Sample size is 50 – 100 A class outlets/ APO’S and Consumer. 3. Information Requirement
 First, I had to know about all the competitors present in the Iceceam  Segment (Reputed and well established brands as well as Local

 Before going for the survey I had to know the comparative packs and

Prices of all the competitors existing in the market.

 Since Ice cream is a product that attracts children and youngsters

hence I had to trace the market and segment it, which mainly deals with people of various age groups.
 As Ice cream is different product, the main information needed is the

various types of ice cream available in the market, their calorific value and various other facts. They can be termed as :


 Amul Probiotc prolife & sugar free ice cream is different segment

which is mainly made for those people who are very concern about his health so , I had to trace this segment 4. Choice of Research design – Alternatives & choice Despite the difficulty of establishing an entirely satisfactory classification system, it is helpful to classify marketing research on the basis of the fundamental objectives of the research. Consideration of the different types, their applicability, their strengths, and their weakness will help the student to select the type best suited to a specific problem. The two general types of research are: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Exploratory research seeks to discover new relationship, emphasis on discovery of ideas.

Marketing researches devote a significant portion of their work on exploratory studies when very little is known about the problem being examined.



Conclusive studies attempts to determine the frequency with which something occurs or the relationship between two phenomenon. Usually conclusive studies assume certain under underlying characteristics of the market or have some precise statement of research questions/hypothesis. 5. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT USED - DETAILS & WHY? If one wants to know what type of dentifrice people use, what they think of, television commercials, or why they buy particular brands of cars, the natural procedure is to ask them. Thus, the questionnaire method has come to be the more widely used of the two data collection method. Many consumers are now familiar with the telephone caller who greets them with “We are making a survey”, and then proceeds to ask a series of questions. Some interviews are conducted in person, others by telephone, and others by mail. Each of these has its special advantages and disadvantages and limitations. The questionnaire method in general, however, has a number of pervasive advantages and disadvantages. Discussion of particular variations will be more meaningful if these characteristics of the general methods are brought out first.


A questionnaire consists of list of questions to be asked from the respondents and the space provided to record the answer / responses. Questionnaire can be used for the personal interviews, focus groups, mails and telephonic interviews. The choice among these alternatives is largely determined by the type of information to be obtained and by the type of respondents from whom it is to be obtained. The common factor in all varieties of the questionnaire method is this reliance on verbal responses to question, written or oral. Questionnaire in the project consists of:  Multiple choice questions  Dicthomus

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: Questions of this type offer the respondents an alternative to choose the right answer among others. It is faster, time saving and less biased. It also simplifies the tabulating process. OPEN END QUESTIONS: In this type respondents are free to answer in their own words and express the ideas they think are relevant, such questions are good as first questions


or opening questions. They introduce the subject and obtain general reaction.

DICTHOMUS: These are the questions which are Boolean in nature. These answers are straightforward and respondents have to answer them in a straight way. That means the answer can only be either ‘Yes” or ‘No’. SAMPLING METHODS Sample design is a definite plan of obtaining some items from the whole population. The sample design used in this project is two state sampling i.e. cluster sampling and convenience sampling. The whole city was divided into some geographical areas like in Central Delhi and I have chosen

Dariyagunj, DMRC, NFC, APO’S, A CLASS OUTLETS. The total sample size was 50 -100 outlets . CLUSTER SAMPLING Here the whole area is divided into some geographical area and a definite number of consumers were to be surveyed. CONVINIENCE SAMPLING


This type of sampling is chosen purely on the basis of convenience and according to convenience.I visited Dariyagunj, ITO, NFS’S, APO;S, A class Outlets and Dealers.


Sampling Technique: Non probability sampling technique that in which each element in the selected Sample Unit: People who buy Amul Prolife ice cream available in retail outlets, superstores, etc Sample size : 50 to 100 APO’S, A class outlets, parlours population does not have an equal chance of getting

Consumer (Age ranging between 15 yrs to 65 yrs) Method : Direct interview through questionnaire.

Data analysis method: Graphical method. Area of survey: Moradabad



 Questionnaire was prepared keeping the objective of research in mind.
 Questions were asked to respondents as regards to there willingness to

purchase Ice cream.  The help of questionnaires conducted direct interviews, in order to get accurate information.
 In order to get correct information I had to approach consumers

ranging from 15 yrs to 65 yrs.
 I visited as many respondents as I can and asked them their real

likings about any iceream
 It is really a Herculean task to understand Consumer Behaviour, as

the definition suggest, “Consumer behaviour is a physical activity as well as decision process individual engaged in when evaluating, acquiring, using and disposing goods and services”.
 In order to collect accurate information I visited to APO’S (Amul

preferred outlets), A class outlets, Parlours , , each and every question was filled personally by the respondents and checked properly.


 People were not willing to answer, when they were contacted between

1.00 pm to 5.00 pm, the time when most of the people take rest during the scorching heat.



CONSUMER [1] What kind (Company) of Ice cream do you eat? Branded Non branded

92 % 08%


INFERENCE 92% respondents in the region of Moradabad consume Branded Ice cream , while 8% still consume non branded.



Which company do you mostly preferred? Kwality Walls (Hul) AMUL Mother Dairy Vadilal Others 30 % 25 % 22 % 13 % 10%


10% 13% 30%

22% 25%

INFERENCE Mostly children & teenagers likes ice cream in their families. So we should give stress on children & tenager segment to increase market share. Young & old people also using ice cream for consuming & for giving as a gift.



Which ice cream flavor do you like? Vanilla Butterscotch Strawberry Other 60% 30% 06% 04%

F lavour


INFERENCE The above diagram suggest that the most preferred form is bar i.e. 60%, followed by i.e. 30%, Vanilla are all time favorites with


06% while other forms are preferred to the extent of 6%.


Do you know about the Amul Prolife (Probiotic) ice cream? YES - 38 NO - 62




INFERENCE Mostly people do not have any knowledge about the probiotic ice cream


[7] DO you have any knowledge about the Probiotic ice cream?


YES 40%

N0 60%

INFERENCE 60 % OF People do not aware about the mean of Probiotic ice cream .



Have you ever tasted Amul Probiotic Sugar free ice cream? Yes No 70 % 30 %





The chart shows that 70% respondents have tasted Amul Prolife ice cream, while still 30% have not tried Amul ice cream. Amul must use proper techniques in order to cater the needs of every common man. [9] Can you recall AMUL advertisement towards Prolife ice cream? Yes No 32 % 68 %





Here it was observed that only 32% respondents in the city of Delhi were able to recall Amul Prolife advertisement. This shows how much Amul lags behind in promotional activities and advertisement. Therefore Amul must use strong promotional activities and advertisement in order to retain their potential consumers. [10] Who uses Amul prolife probiotic & sugar free ice cream in your family?  Children  Teenager  Adult  Old person



OLD 40%



INFERENCE We can clearly gauge from the pie chart that 40% of the old person preffered Amul Prolife sugar free ice cream, after the children having 30% preference because both segment is very conscious about his health.


[11] What is the frequency of purchasing ice cream? Daily Weekly Fortnightly Occasionally 17 % 22 % 13 % 48 %



WEEKLY 22% Other 61% DAILY 17% FORTNIGHTLY 13%

INFERENCE The frequency of ice cream differ a lot where 17% respondents buy it daily, 22% weekly, 13% fortnightly, and there is a Hugh chunk of people who buy ice cream occasionally.


[12] How do you scale your ice cream?









































INFERENCE The above pie chart shows, 35% of consumer always preferred fruit nut ice cream but the difference between Amul Prolife ice cream (33%), says that they are very conscious about his health.

OUTLETS & PARLOURS [1.] Consumer level of acceptance toward Amul ice cream? TABLE NO .3 LEVEL HIGH MODERATE LOW TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENT 25 15 10 50 PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT 50% 30% 20% 100%







From the above chart I can say that the consumer’s level of acceptance towards AMUL ice cream is very high, their percentage more than 45%.

[2] Does the packing of the ice cream influence customer to purchase it? Yes – 60 % No - 40%





Findings & limitation for the Potential of Prolife & Sugar free Brand of Amul ice cream in Moradabad

Scope of study is to help in comprehensive analysis of prolife & sugar free ice cream of AMUL. It also tends to the A class outlets and APO’S view about the important aspect of the company with reference to its Prolife & Sugar free ice cream & other product.

From the study I have also got the information about the AMUL parlors, A class outlets and APO’ S in central Delhi. It also give information about the level of satisfaction from the outlets towards the AMUL prolife & sugar free ice cream. By the findings through the analysis and interpretation which I have done with different APO’S & outlets .I said that their were no problems and issues in APO’S & A class outlets towards AMUL Prolife & sugar free ice cream in Moradabad.


 From the research I found that in Central Delhi there are about 4

APO’S ,8 A class outlets & 20-25 small shops who purchase AMUL Prolife & sugar free ice cream/ products.
 There are 4 APO’S (AMUL Preferred Outlets) in Moradabad which

are the exclusive AMUL outlets, they sell only AMUL products.
 The prices of AMUL Prolife & Sugar free ice cream as par with

same other AMUL ice cream.
 The outlets order processing from distributor or company is done by

phone or companies sales person who used to visit distributors office and APO’S.


 The APO’S & A class outlets have their separate D/F for AMUL ice

cream/product.  The logistic involved for making products available to the final customers are tempos or trucks depend upon the order by distributor.  The company has launched their ice cream quarterly.
 The consumer level of acceptance towards AMUL ice cream/product

is very high.
 The APO’S & A class outlets did not face any difficulty / problem

about supply of materials provided by the company.
 During the survey it was found that still there are 60% people who

have not tasted Amul Prolife Sugarfree ice cream .
 Lake of Awareness in consumers. Many people are not know about

Amul Prolife Sugar free ice cream specially children and teenagers.
 As I found that the main product of Amul is Milk and company firstly

wants to capture maximum market share in milk market which is approx. 66%, after it Amul is concentrating upon butter & cheese which has market share of approx. 88%, so it is not concentrating upon ice cream .
 When I interviewed people then many of the people can not recall Amul

ice cream advertisement. It shows Lake of Promotion Activity


 There is lake of Sales Promotional Activities i.e. , extra weight, quiz

contest etc.
 Mother Dairy is main competitor and strategically better performer then

 I find the main thing is that “Amul” brand name has very good image in

consumer’s mind and they consider it as Pure & Good Product.
 People who have tasted Amul Ice cream are not ready to purchase the

same again because of improper availability




As we know that Amul is very big organization and market leader in dairy products. It has maximum market share in Milk, Butter and Cheese, which are its main/core products. As we know Amul is a co-operative organisaion but ice cream industry is a profitable industry we can’t ignore it. With the help of research, company can find out its week points in Prolife ice cream product and can increase its market share through rectify mistakes. People have believed in Amul’s product and they will accept its ice cream also if effective actions were taken. The survey resulted into following conclusions:
 Amul must come up with new promotional activities such that

people become aware about Amul Prolife Sugar free ice cream
 Quality is the dominating aspect which influences consumer to

purchase Amul product, but prompt availability of other Prolife Sugar free ice cream brands and aggressive promotional activities by others influences the consumer towards them and also leads to increase sales.


 In comparison to Amul Prolife Sugar free ice cream, the other

players such as Kwality Walls, Mother Dairy, and Vadilal provide a better availability and give competition to the hilt.
 People are mostly satisfied with the overall quality of Amul Prolife

Sugarfree ice cream , but for the existence in the local market Amul must use aggressive selling techniques.



 In order to maintain and increase the sales in the city of Moradabad

the following recommendations regarding Amul Prolife ice cream; particularly regarding advertisement, distribution, promotional

policies, etc, are hereby suggested:
 First and foremost Amul should take proper action in order to

improve service, because although being on a top slot in Butter and milk supplies it does not get the sales in ice cream , which it should get.
 Company should use brand ambassador which attracts

each age

segment i.e. Saniya Mirza, Amitabh Bacchan, Superman, Jadoo etc.
 Amul should give local advertisements apart from the advertisements

given at the national level. Local advertisement must mention the exclusive Amul shops of the city.


 Company should launch Prolife sugarfree ice cream

in new in

attractive packing to change image of Amul ice cream consumers mind.

 Company should introduce sales promotion schemes like free

weight, cutting knife, contest, free gifts etc.
 Company should launch ice cream in new flavors like –

Mix Fruit  Pineapple Elaichi  Coffee Banana  Mango


The company needs to improve their packaging material quality. Packaging is one of the main areas of disagreement with the ice cream because the packaging of the Prolife & Sugar free ice cream creates problem with caring and forwarding Company should have to open more APO’S & A class outlets because total number of outels in delhi is very less.



 Limited time available for interviewing the respondents. As a result of this it was not possible to gather full information about the respondents.  When I interviewed children and teenagers, sometimes they use to  give answers under the influence of their parents or elders.  As summer training is going under summer season so sometimes  people are less interested in filling up questionnaire..  Non-cooperative approach and rude behavior of the respondents.  If the respondents answer does not falls between amongst the options given then it will turn up to be a biased answer. Some time outlets and parlours owner did not give proper knowledge and time about my queries.



BOOKS: • Kothari, C.R. “Research Methodology”, (2006), Wishwa Publication • Kotler Philip “Marketing Management”.

Bibliography :

3. 4.




What kind of Ice cream do eat? Branded ______ Non-branded ______


Who uses Amul Prolife sugarfree ice cream in your family? Children Young Teenager Old


What Ice cream flavour do you like? Vanilla _____ strawberry _____ Butterscotch Other _____ _____


By which media you prefer to watch advertisements?


Television Newspapers Others (Mention) [5]

Hoardings Magazines

What factors effects you in a chocolate advertisement? Brand ambassador _______ Comedy Others (Mention) _______ _______ Jingles ________ Music ________


Have you ever tasted Amul Prolife ice cream ? Yes _____ No ______

[7] Can you recall AMUL ice cream advertisement? Yes ____ No ____

[8] What is the frequency of purchasing ice cream? Daily ______ Weekly _______

Fortnightly ______

Occasionally _______

[9] How do you scale your Chocolate?







PRICE SWEETNESS PACKAGING SOFTNESS SCHEMES AVAILABILITY [10] Which company ice cream do you like most? AMUL ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________



[11] Why do you prefers Amul Prolife ice cream? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________


[12] Have you got any complain about Amul ice cream? Taste Packaging Rates [13] Did you receive any separate demand towards Amul prolife& Sugar free ice

cream from the consumer?

[14] How does the pattern of sales changes after launched Amul Prolife ice cream?

&sugar free

[A]. Prolife & Sugar free ice cream eat into the share of other Amul ice cream [B].Prolife & sugar free ice cream cut into the share of rival brand while not affecting sales of other Amul ice cream [C]. Sale of Amul ice cream & rival ice cream stay unaffected while brand extensions bring in new customers NAME: AGE: ___________ ___________






45 and above


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