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FOR JAZZ K€YBOARD

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<-.F.-FRANK ANTOOTH M
A comprehensive approach to contemporary keyboard voicings for the
PERFORMER ARRANGER TEACHER JAZZ THEORIST

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the Author Objective and Dedication Acknowledgements 2 4 4 5 6 8 13 15 17 19 25 31 37 40 43 .45 51 52 54 62

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Foreword Chapter 1. An Overview of Traditional Jazz Theory Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Generic Voicings (and the "Rule of Thumb") Generic Voicings Workout Miracle Voicings Workout with Generic and Miracle Voicings .. ., Voicing Suspended and Altered Dominant Chords as Polychord Fractions Application of Polychord Fractions in the ii7-V7-1 Progression Voicings for the Blues and Other Common Progressions Voicings for Diminished and Half Diminished Chords and Half Step Preparation

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Chapter 8. Chapter 9.

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Chapter 10. Tritone Substitutions
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Chapter 11. The Melodic Soprano Voice (Melodic Comping) Chapter 12. Sample Progression for Further Study Chapter 13. Glossary Chapter 14. Suggested Listening Chapter 15. A Semester's Syllabus for a Jazz Keyboard Lab Endorsements

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10

The generic minor voicing serves the following minor family harmonies: minor triads, minor sixth, minor seventh, minor ninth, minor eleventh, and minor thirteenth chords. To construct the generic minor voicing, place the right hand fifth finger on the minor third and, following the format for generic major voicings, use descending intervals of the perfect fourth to construct the five-note chord. For an EMi9, we would start with the minor third and proceed as follows.

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The chord produced is really an EMilI, a rough approximation of an EMi9, because the 9th is absent. Again, however, there are no offending chord tones, the "Rule of Thumb" is intact, and the resulting sound is tastier than the usual tertial (see Glossary) rendition of EMi9. -

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Let's now look at the progression, GMa7, EMi7, CMa7, or analyzed in terms of diatonic scale steps, IMa7, vi7, IVMa7. Ifwe use generic voicings as follows, we can use the same 5-note construction for all three harmonies. The sound of each will be different as the bassist supplies the different tonics.

Ex. 2,10

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If we were playing the organ, we could sustain the same voicing and let the bassist "walk" across the different tonics. On piano, we would probably be obliged to play the same voicing with a rhythm stylistically appropriate to the nature of the tune, yet our goal of minimal motion be-tween adjacent harmonies is achieved while at the same time avoiding ..third city".

Generic Dominant Family Chords
Generic Dominant voicings function for sevenths, ninths, and thirteenth chords.
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Building this category of chords requires a little more thought. The right hand begins as with generic major construction: Perfect fourths descending from the tonic or fifth of the given tonality. However, the left hand doesn't continue in fourths; but rather, plays the third and seventh of the dominant chord. The third and seventh are the most crucial tonal indicators of all the diatonic steps. For example, to playa F9 (or seventh or thirteenth), place the right hand fifth finger on the tonic and proceed as follows:

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Similarly, the dominants, like the majors, can be constructed from the fifth descending.

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The tritone is reversed with the two different generic dominant constructions; when constructed from the tonic descending, the third is on the bottom. Conversely, when constructed from the fifth descending, the seventh is the lowest voice. When we approach cyclicaldominants, for example F7-B~7 or 17-IV7, we can construct the F7 from the tonic descending and the B~7from the fifth descending to obtain minimal motion between the two voicings.

Ex. 2,14

When voiced in this fashion, only the tritone indicators move while the right hand voices remain stationary. Again, tertiality has been avoided, the right thumb insures optimal sonority by observing the "Rule of Thumb, .. and minimal motion has been achieved between the adjacent harmonies.

Chapter 2 In A Nutshell:
Objectives:
1. Good sounding voicings that minimize voice leading between two harmonies. 2. "Detertialization" or restructuring of text book tertial harmonies.

Points to Remember
A. All Generic Voicings are 5-note constructions. B. Generic Majors have two constructions. They may be constructed from either the tonic or the fifth descending in perfect fourths. C. Generic Minors have one construction: all fourths descending from the minor third. D. Generic Dominants have two constructions. They may be constructed from either the tonic down or the fifth down. The top three voices are quartal with the 3rd and Dominant seventh in the left hand. E. Observe the "Rule of Thumb" (R.H. Thumb on the middle of the five tones played between middle C and Cl). If context requires the R.H. thumb to dip below Middle C, be certain that the tonic replaces the lowest voice of the generic construction. This will be explained later in more detail.

is obviously easiest when BbMa9 is voiced from the 5th descending.. 3. I've moved as little as possible to the Generic voicing of the F7 from the tonic down.' 0" I Ex.I'..1 L 1 The most frequently employed progression in j azz and commercial music is the ii-V7-I progression.. 3.5 0' J . iI. Write and play the other sample voicings to acclimate yourself to the concepts of Generic Voicings and minimal motion between harmonies. 1 Ex. 3.. 3.... . (BbMa9).. F' 8... Answers on following page. ~~ . : ! IfiIl_ A -i " mA From the generic construction of C minor (from the minor third descending).Chapter 3: GENERIC VOICINGSWORKOUT Ex. Remember: move as little as possible and observe the "Rule of Thumb".4 ell "~ A c: £' AmA . 4 " D"" oJ Ent. J oJ ~ ~ (~ Ex. I_ - . • Ex.' c' Am. CIfI' _:A G£Ntl.. 3.. I " R". We thereby have to move only one voice a half step.2 . Let's use Generic Voicings to construct a ii-V7-1 progression in Bb.~ F'If . 3.I (-7 Ex. A' ~ 4 (. " A.e tiD/fIN'S #~ t ~ lIII_ oJ (7 4• 1/ .3 ..6. • ~ ~ e. I I • J 0" . Resolution to the I chord.

tJ • . Ex.ILl " . ".. ~_4 " J D .$ . ( ~..".2 • ... 3.+ L'" P+ .5 J.. 3.!!!: 'I!~ A' DllfA4 wi--""'W. "JL . I :1 I 4 l1li" ~ .tJ . _I_ J I Ir"I.• L III' J~ J.. _I_~_O ~ 1..14 ANSWERS Ex. ff E 'f "'..

The "miracle" aspect of these voicings is that thei each accommodate five different harmonic functions (depending on which tone is used as the tonic). I LoY I~ J L... Harmonic functions of Ex..."'II!!? Miracle Voicing I (M. Chapter 4: MIRACLE VOICINGS Ex. ··C".... or '/2 step above the bottom voice. 4. 4. we can use this construction to accommodate five different harmonic functions: Strong Major (3rd and 7th present) Weak Major (7th not present) Minor Suspended Dominant (11th chord) Lydian ..2 -~ To locate the tonic to be used for the various harmonic functions. M~t~ r:.-<. "A".. Miracle Voicings are five-note chord constructions. For Ex. 3. To find the tonic of the weak major function... "B~".1.I. S. J ~ p1.1.. use the second voice from the bottom. c/ • . or 11th chord function.-. " As mentioned. In this case. P4th.. start from any given tone (I've arbitrarily chosen an "E") and descend using the following intervals: Major third.1 KR You'll find the designation "Miracle Voicing" only in this book. In the case of Ex... . V... To fmd the tonic of the suspended dominant. ..t. i J In Lydian harmonies. . F+ _. 4. I... is V2 step above the top voice.. The tonic of the strong major function.. The tonic of the Lydian function is either a tritone from the top voice. The lowest voice in the construction serves as the tonic of the minor function. 4. #4.. the from Lydian.! 7- C A S.rL _sri ).. use the second voice from the top of the construction as the tonic (root). use the following method: 1. (M. or #11 is the most poignant tone as it is the only scale step which differentiates Majoi .V. L~ ) ( . 4.. )hi" /. P4th .r D /I tIJ Bb ttL{ Ex. P4th. - . In this case. 4. and they hell us in our goal of avoiding tertial voicings..t.V. I) To construct M. 2.1: "F".I) Tonic F r'l " !. Like Generic Voicings.

V. Strong Major (3rd and 7th present) Weak Major (7th not present) Minor Suspended Dominant (11th chord) Lydian Harmonic functions of M.16 Miracle Voicing II (M. fl. the tonic of the Lydian function is a tritone from the bottom voice. proceed as follows: 1. (Identical to Generic Major from the tonic descending). Let's arbitrarily start from a "G" and descend in fourths as follows. II.4th above the top voice. Since the Generic Major voicing from the 5th descending is also identical to M.V. "F'.V. built entirely from perfect fourths. I Suspended Dominant.V. Note that for M. In this case. It is a 5-note construction. V. 2- S Let's now find the tonics (roots) of the five different harmonic functions. 5. H. 1 Minor. This construction is also identical to the Generic Minor with the minor third scale step as the top voice.II serves five different harmonic functions: 2 Major. Generic Major and Minor. Conversely. This is the strong major function since both the 3rd and 7th are present. In this case "G". Tonic G E A F c To locate the tonic of the 5 various harmonic functions. Like M.V. The 2nd voice from the bottom is the tonic of the minor function. 3. "A". 2. L. In this example. The root of the Lydian function is a tri-tone from the bottom voice. M. 4. . for M.V. "E".I. II. L. In this case. The top voice is the root of the weak major function. and 1 Lydian. II) Miracle Voicing II is identical to our old friends. In this example. II. the tonic will be a P. The middle voice is the tonic of the 11th chord or suspended dominant function. "C'. I the tonic of the Lydian function is a tritone from the top voice.

5. Remember that approximations of chord qualities (e.Chapter 4 in a Nutshell: A. Miracle Voicing I has a major third between the top two voices. JIll _A J { - I # .3 Ex. .2 ( Am. .1 JIll FmA' t . V.6 I " :]I J . II is constructed entirely of perfect fourths. .. . both are five-voice constructions. 5. CMiII for a desired CMi 7) are permissible as long as there are no chord tones present which are not members of the parent scale/mode of the given harmony. ~ Ex. 5'~L JIll D"' t ~ J ftc J ~ { Ex. ll. D. II. 5.~ .g. Each Miracle Voicing serves five different harmonic functions depending on which tone is employed as the tonic. 5.between adjacent harmonies. Dominants. Ex. C. I and M." ( FMI Ex. Otherwise it is a quartal construction. .V. 5. I and M. Chapter 5: "WORKOUT" WITH GENERIC AND MIRACLE VOICINGS Using only Generic Majors. There are two miracle voicings designated as M_V.5 '" J ~ ( S'N' AIfI. Ir£svoice some sample progressions bearing in mind the "Rule of Thumb" and minimal moticm. Minors. Ex. V. I . andM. M.1 Dm. ftc ~' J . B..V.

N.ULE.) ND"f(. GttN. lifIl.... 'THE. :r.s.V... ..1 5. ".V. 13 -tD (.J ..1 oIi. v. 6bJ.V.1C &€. ~ M. (iEJJ..f. 5ih" Oil 1'i£U. 5. (Mftt.. DJl M.t r:. • .". _ G.W.." (JII. D. 1.J._ filE.II.V...V. P£ M. ~.J!.3 _A Sb't.. liEN.v.4 Dbq Q~fJ S~'IJ' II II e: pq A~"" f -J ~ ( -! AI.. M..Q..'f Sb.MM. 5th~ Dolt.~ CIl R"" II 'OM I II ~f' . ~ M.. . U ot: THuma .. 61<JJ.. ~ M./' A~ t'~ 5..V. Ol>trI.. M. Gt&V.V.6 ~".l1 6~. 1- M. 5..IflA. om.. :I: 6. Dom.ll a£ flAl. 'fJJ. -rile..2 II . IIt..ll 61:.. 1DNI'-~ S 1J.OoM.9 ~~mA' + M. . 6&.1J~A. MA:!. 'TONIC.. MIo1.18 ANSWERS Analyze the step-wise or intervallic motion of the root movements of each preceding progression and then transpose the progressions to other keys. .II.. 5th~ 4 M. -(DNIL..1 _A F~ A ~ MI II &'... 4 :c. L~P D8. '" h* G. OIL 11 -roAIIL.611 II £.~ f' ~ C ~ R"" (I 04 "mA1 -<ilL M..OOI)'1. ( M.e.. oJ .. e». M.u. r. l ~G!N. 8L1'Wu. M.V. OeKl. 5.U!/E.M1. I' cJ ~m~q oJ ".. ~~ DOm.I/.ll m..j.'oJ.m. 1illm: ~ :r: 6iJIJ.n. CWf 5..II. ~..5 ...v. ftW/{! .

Tritone indicators for dominant family chords are Ma 3rd and dominant seventh (the interval between these two tones is a tritone) with the exception of 11th chords (suspended dominant chords) where the third is absent. from the chord quality. or second inversion is equally functional as the "numerator" or top half of the polychord fraction. and 13ths as interchangeable. or 111. "x" is any given tonality. Let's begin by redefining the terms used: 1. The "numerator" triad ontop is always a major triad. etc. i. (b9JbS). Dominant family chords: 7ths.#5 or b13. 9ths. 9ths. ED.. 2. 2. and possible combinations of altered tones. and 13ths. and any inversion. not detracting. Only in rare instances may we not take the liberty to consider 7th.g. the 11th chord (or suspended dominant). In other words. The third is not used in application. the ninth or sixth (13th) may be added in performance thereby enhancing. Alterations are diatonic scale tones which are chromatically raised or lowered (altered). e. first inversion. The Roman numerals in the fraction refer to the major scale steps of the ''x'' tonality. (11th chords are unique because in application the third is replaced by the 4th or 11th scale tone). 3. 3. The concept here is as easy to assimilate as Generic and Miracle Voicings were in the previous chapters.e. or bottom half of the polychord fraction. root position. . hence the tritone indicators for the denominator are not applicable. The Ma3rd and dominant 7th are the only mandatory chord tones for the denominator. Desired harmony I. Alterations to be covered: bS.Chapter 6: VOICING SUSPENDED AND ALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS AS POLYCHORD FRACTIONS 1 Don't be intimidated by the title of this chapter. to create new sounds or "tensions". S. All chord tones are in the Mixolydian diatonic system. xU or x7sus Fraction ~VII I Example Implementation Db C CII This harmony is the one exception for two reasons: 1. for ex. b9. B. 4. It is not an altered harmony. when we see a chord symbol designation of a 7th. Let's start with the one exception. To voice these altered dominants we're going to think of two harmonies stacked one on top of the other like a fraction: numerator denominator n 17 G F1 General information and explanation of symbols used 1. F. 2. 19.

.. 7 --. 7 TT If 1 1"'\1 ..J (III) -b bI ~~ Z1I p .1 (b~ (.. because the third is deleted and the seventh is already present in the numerator triad.1 • [1.sWJ I~.. -b- * ··C" has arbitrarily chosen as the x tonality since most of us first learned the C scale and therefore feel at home in "C". X. Ex.) O.HD#. X' (~. Note that in the 1st and 2nd inversion spellings of Ex..MDAif P'IIIINAAIf'S: . I t. conceptualizing the 11th chord as bvp instantly gives us the best voicing.Amp(. Wide intcrvallic "gaps" between the two hands should be avoided in the interest of sonority.D !A.~A~fI4AJ !.I.:y 77 1""e.AClrI4IJG F4A.20 However. Example 6. that all inversions of the major triad based on thebvn scale step (B~)are equally functional. ' (hI) )( "" K.2 '4lY4.l" A. Ex.) C'J{bf) C!~1('~ a- x (t~Xf {19) ~_ ' 7 -fr V.DN ~b·.lI__ %. -r Note in Ex. In the case of C1I. 6.(f~ -fr-¢ ~ 8.c.mlJJr"'4AJ C/.l.<..SIRtO I4AI.:. it is sometimes necessary to reverse the tonic and fifth in the left hand.. ..f... Vl.AlfUlD PE.2 lists the polychord fractions to be used for other altered dominant chords. 6. l I ~ u -~ -J ~61f.. 1 +1" . In order to keep all voices as compact as possible.J a . the obvious choices for the two representative tones of denominator are the tonic and fifth.(t. \. 6. the tonic is now above the fifth in the left hand. x? (4*') 1 C 1(If) ~..1.

II I .1AIvfR. ~ ? . :If'f v I /1 " 5 c. "- ::. " t I ·ft.. 7" + Isr IN"UStON~ 7fU 1 • In... .31ON ......~ ? "- e.~ ~ W_ .3_.. It . I KDof Pos r n allJ v "- \ d. A . a. RDdf PoStflati.... . .... 1!~ l~~.:g'ON[f'..'n" ~"V' ··:W·IJ 2ND ..1('II): e v. .. r ._ :.·u.:. 6..'1 . 1 • • -_ Roof ~.- Let's voice the preceding: Ex.. PDSrtiOilJ '" . ....

b~ r- e.40. "'0 /WOlD OOIlBUNct. ""n"W . bm . In all examples the denominator (L.. 1f~ _v m'l{ SE.. "Th£. -J ~ 'II" -a..V1' 7 -nt. IWMUJl1M. the third and the dominant seventh. ..I.3b and c.5 JI I . In examples 6. 141AD.LSjO~ 'lvD ~ ----. .3a-e..J "} th. VJII L" ... " .7 - ? 'l1 :J' ? 7f THE...S£. 2.~ Id' e of'~ .(.E:.. fAf a£R . 6.q = % It U ) bE :: " -J J# _.UAD Y Pf"f. Note in the examples 6.4) ----.Rlt.~ ~ mfir'l se. the denominator triad does not include the 7th designation since the 7th scale tone is already present in the numerator triad. we may substitute the tonic for the doubled note in the Left Hand. 6.. ..4 c._ UOIC£D.Nl4mUMoR.22 1. Ex.. 1'UL ~fa IlU. I ... .. VOle£[): :!AJ1Jl.-..) triad is represented by the two strongest tonal indicators.H..) triad are useable. ..E. •~ bo .H.. When the third and seventh are already present in the numerator triad. IJi. . Ex.lI~ "~fI. J TN 1tIUMi1t1rfD" .-HllIII DOM &.A 0'( PR.: .I'J UI'It..£SEPf IN 'f'1U. all possible inversions of the numerator (R. blJ -f! ---a- 3.-p -f-R '.

in the first harmony.Gi ---I II For the D~7(#9) above. 6. the left hand plays the denominator. F 11.- A:t:I f V" a b$ ~. F7t?5). 2. .7 .5). C7t?9. The "Eb" is common to both harmonies.'1 F7 :I[ 6i TDi 1If. The "Rule of Thumb".. 3.. ~ " J f .+ b][_ + '7 4- 3 7 1+) '". P. Ab13(#II).O~tf'il ~!i:. the root position ED triad moves to the C b Major triad in the first inversion by simply moving the top two tones a 112 step in opposite directions... The right hand plays the numerator triad.. FII.Let's now attempt to voice random altered dominant chords and 11th chords as polychord fractions bearing three factors in mind: I.L ? . oth n h ~ !It S1EP uP n and AD use enharmonicallv . A IA ~ ? 3 fttftC110tJ :r. For example. . hJH~ Mnt-inn hPtuT_n thE> n7 . D7(#9). 23 Ex.. All. E.jq) ::mcl the Abl1tb(}) l!i:. I've used E Major triad for the DIll numerator triad rather than the theoretically correct FD Major to avoid double flats. :r... Notice the minimal movement between the numerator triads. Random altered dominants and suspended dominant chords.1.6 NUtrlfR.. ~. A1~ " Z .I . 6. . E13(~).+7(#9). m:. s: D Num. Minimal motion between adjacent harmonies. Ex.. G7(b9!b5)..5 . D07(#9).. £1.. B~13(#11). F#9sus.

8b. D13(#11). -~--. .. ? J ht.+J. 7 b.. I _Q__"I' Jil .. 1...• :Yo :r.. :. B~9sus.. the polychord fraction concept Of~~lI not only works...1 11 11 )..I _O_ I"____"'_ .. b ~* .~ p \t~ ''IP -r .:: ::m: E. '1 e rl I 011 IE. 4 [)1i1 II? £. _-• :r: F ~ I Nil"'. JI =f. 2. ". Two Answers: I.1 ~ .: __ When the "Rule of Thumb" has been broken by placing the R. .): ~_f.. " Ia.. the tonic may replace the doubled tone in the left hand (denominator). <tf1( tI_ ___I!: Of I (I 7 ~ 0£IJfIm. C+ 7(#9).. first inversion. C7+(#9)... Memorize the 6 polychord fractions and review them until the association between the fraction and the desired harmony are automatic..5) 6. voice the followingprogressions..1~ __ . 5 ... remember: 1. D 1 u. E7(~9/~5) ~um. n e: ... Because root position. '«III' IN. 1 ".. B13(~9). should the third or seventh be present in the numerator triad..5 H-~ w ~. D~9(#11). your voicings are equally correct.H. 8p tnnp.H. D~7(# 9)..A . U_ '1 _a . b I 611 A :1L ..the (~11) alteration should ultimately trigger a mental response of g.... .Jll[ E. F7(#9). _y 7 a. s M_ • II "t. . denominator. ~"'__ .8a. .'.. and second inversion triads could feasibly place the right hand thumb within the confines of middle C to C1.Q.. ...1_..H. ~ " (I I" • " ? "1 '• P't '1 A .. Root and fifth serve for the L.. Expendable chord tones are hereby deleted.. however.Q.b -.~7(b5).. only one answer will be offered If you've moved as little as possible and adhered to the "Rule of Thumb".. Random suspended and altered dominants. :L _~ 2 II '" ---"'I. jIt -"-_hi I' " __iii A" _W1'" I I I..5). . . A7(~9fi... However. but offers a palatable solution.E9sus D7(~9f1..5).H~ ! b. .__. 1LA.-.FlI.~ ~ .ff. .. __Il___IZ . Tritone indicators (3rd and 7th) may function for all altered dominants as the representative tones for the left hand (denominator). A7(#~). Paying heed to the "Rule of Thumb" and the concept of "minimal motion".:[.-. BD 13(#1I). G7(~9). ~7(~9fi..:'..D I 1t1 P .II'K r. or when aR." IL+ '5 3 _L ._ . Suspended dominant chords are not altered dominants. For example. we instantly have a guaranteed state of the art sounding 5-note construction for the desired harmony. In recapitulation. thumb lower than Middle C. 2. P ~ 5 .•• • • - .. fRAC:fII.. 6.. 1. 24 Why Polychord Fractions? __ ..<1 tinnhl". By using this method of voicing.

. m».ioIt!tfIL e. 7." J. z L~ IN ~ -II " . OA. The descending parallel triads in second inversion in the right hand create a smooth aural effect. With voicings we've learned in this book. 7.5th' -. ~: Ptt. By playing Ex. e MAtt GtN.2. 7.It. USED: M. .I.r II!" oJ If ~ L T ':t F" 7 .v.". we notice a couple of new favorable tonal bonuses: 1.Chapter 7: APPLICATION OF POLYCHORD FRACTIONS IN THE ii7-V7-I PROGRESSION 25 With the addition of Polychord Fractions as altered/suspended Dominants to our harmonic vocabulary. RcruAt... The fraction is or in this case F 13(b9).1 if' .l)Dm. Ex.1 due to the descending chromaticism of the line. the voicings will be 5-note constructions. which adhere to the "Rule of Thumb" and the principle of minimal motion.!A' 8"mA q mM.1 be- . liaJ. Ift. 7. (This topic of the melodic soprano voice leading will be addressed later in Chapter 11.. I[ Ex. Yi. UMJaoIJ1: D"II " PllAI(!.V • .. The voice leading of the soprano voice has more sense of motion and resolution than in Ex.::t. 7. 1"0 . Ex. 7. and resolution from the altered V7 to the I sounds more convincing than in Ex... .1 shows generic and miracle voicings employed for a ii7-V7-1 in Bb.If'Lf.mlll uSE.6 >ftj 3 -t S' . let's now play II-V-I's using various alterations for the dominant V7.. 5th.n: HI.%'.2 4 . As before.. Let's alter the dominant V7 to include the alteration (~9).. fYlM.) 2.2 Ac:nuu. we are now capable of voicing familiar progressions with some degree of sophistication.

. "..r_ " • ' .4 elm.(.' t IJ { e: MA ~ ....~. D I. " 1-~11(~. ~ ~ /1 II... ~.. OJ /:~.. 7.&.1) SmA4 " t.. . ~ ( · · .If .. + l'Ia. Ex. it will be advisable to supply roots for the dominant V7 and major I in the bottom voice as the right hand thumb dips below middle C.... CMi 11 .£ ~ S£'INIIINfA 1iJ. *+ IL G •• I'''' p~ .). PIAY£D IfAND AS TII£ UIAJ£1r y~ f (. . J .' U. • -'!- ~:~ ~.'rl"/I1~ I' IA) . B~Mi 11 . Abmi l l etc... I' :. .. ~ II' • 8At /'(/11. .26 To practice this progression in all keY~.? JIIIi ~tJ blJ I.... . .0"..... " A 15 (H) ." "111.. .. II' .lULl i. .....'J(W) . i .AbMa9.". .... "10'1 btl l1li" E.:~ ~." &" (. ..1i::t -J l II" JI_ J60_ loa .Af .. I ... " . c:..IL + I...-11£ UPf All Ex..3 II 111'1 -~ CIH/' F "(11..) C MA q . For ex. l. 7..~'~.H...Eb13(b9) . !~ ~:~ S'". P7 CI' I.!he root of the I Major triad becomes the root of the minor ii7 chord..FI3W~) .) 1 1111 .1'1I f/lll Practice the other six keys in similar fashion."I II . I o inA 1(7 ..' + a "M.." p". 1 ~ " .B~Ma7.4 =rP (I ~I'.. " ..DAJ'U IAI iFF ur 1'PAlIC$ $II~"'D 8i. Note that as this sequential progression descends.

!. but with a different soprano voice leading.B. i Practice these ii-V7-I's shown in Ex.»- .3 and 7... -. ~ •...'*~~ ..~:~ Jr#: .) GWq Pit.6 (7 . "b l. j Ex..£. \ 4.5 offers the same progression (ii-V7-I) with the same dominant alteration ~9}.5 in all 12 keys following both a cyclical and random key sequence.c .t S"QIJ.: J( ("fA~) Practice 7.JI.. Gt" I!l II!: A IlAu~Q"" J(£J 5f. 7. M..:.!_.# ~ ..... PL..4cruAL. Fll.. practice iiI I . Pq WA I " '1 . 7.c. . ".V13(b9) . • • • .flflJCE) r. oR.~ + • ovu... E. + . A..(. A&.) tn... Ex..V.5 A JIoo _ . . ~? .. D .. 7.... O{l£t A a~'l"tCA" l(E..ffl(" ~.I in the following sequence: C. (1J.J • • I ~.. .. (f C. G. Bb.~ GEN. MM.I/. 7.1 *~ zr.. This insures that the theoretical principles behind the voicings are memorized and that the hands are not reliant on mechanical motor memory. . 11'1'11 ". Eb. .. Ex.l. . HAIltn·.. A".3 7 # . • 'I .. .f) Gt ~ tJ I.... D./' ("If) F·1 .'mt" c. L-'~ l ) #_ . D IS C.4 in other randomly selected key sequence~ For ex.. .. F.£AJ") S.1:1 J ... - *:~ ~ if.. . Db.

Practice this progression until it is "ingrained".8 AC. IS J7' • ~VI Ex. 7.. l l .28 Let's try a ii-V7-I with another dominant alteration (#9.10) for the theoretical assimilation.~:I: ~~ 4- -~~a...4Rh1. ~" Ie~ l..11. II IU~ J t" '" . ~. 7. . LJ ~ _ .: M. and a random key sequence (Ex. :~ !I~ of . I) I . L . .. I.... .It!! 1+ d" !"I' .. " .#5). P~~. . 7. JI..PLf. V. 6 mll9 51#. _. Utilize both a cyclical key sequence (Ex. Our polychord fraction for this alteration ..... /I GaJ-r."" .. . H.lI.9) for motor memory..IAL. I ~ " ~~ * . ~ M.. e tn.

.13 _oS: as examples 7. HAM!: PItJNi!lnL: AnI! " 1(*") M.I :III. or use that of Ex.V7{119/~5) .I in the following keys: G. The negation of this V-I dominant-tonic relationship is evident in the jazz standard Maiden Voyage by Herbie Hancock...3 -~! RAil II Ir A .<I. r oS: .. ? ':MI'~ Q_ . For example.. The dominant alterations (#9) and and 7. Go.1L ~7 GmA' Gf..%'~f)_ % 7_ IfJ ~ ttea " ~ ~ 1:1 H'-·r. 13 demonstrate.3 . /I l._ tJ .v. 3 _4.. In other words.)..t__.ID 3 " A /tiL 1/ . S#.::r GEIJ. 'I .U't. ~ Practice Examples 7. 1[" Gt"'A' D 13 (III) .ilIl 12_ . • The dominant alteration ( ~9105) which is accommodated by the polychord fraction as functional in a ii7-V7-1 progression . however..v. mA3_ oR.} M... ~ (lit.. Ab. 7. .11a If '. % IN "e .J1 fJ .7. mi M. H. the suspended dominant or 11th chord is also harmonically independent. M. 5 +J.V .l-l- fle'f. ID -- .12 11 if' .II.. 7.. 7.'~.1 !!. they do not require resolution to a tonic. ~y equally is Ex.. different from the other alterations in as much as their tonal properties do not require resolution..\I....12 Ex.. the dominant (#9) and dominant (JII) are (to borrow a baseball analogy) free agents.&" . F..I/.11a and b like the previous examples in this chapter. ..: M.V.n • Iff• II PI2 JtJCIPLE. the first chord in Coltrane's Blue Trane is the tonic E07 with the alteration (~9).. hl. C.. "J1_ D~(~) bmAtJ fiE AI• Mit!.4M1: :rr.. ? .I"+'" n"'.. .f WI Ex. (# 11) could be used in a ii7-V7-I progression Ex. 7. Eb.10. _D .Al. A. are self-sufficient harmonies that may function in a tonic capacity themselves.s: II. E. . JIL IfJ ~ Iii" --'f ~ .. _1+ D 'I ~ I!J . I &£"k mAr. B. :sO Random: Invent your own sequence. ACT. Similarly. but rather.. ~ . D.'~(*I'). M. Db. and its tonal properties (tensions) do not require a resolution. dh . I .~ -J ':JI ~ _.IIb Jill.1 5th" The dominant alterations of (#9) and 1) are. both over a cyclical and random key sequence. . 11 r • . By the nature of their sonority.. . Cyclical: ii7 . .:: cd.

. Practice repeatedly the ii7-V7-I progressions shown in this chapter. 2.I/. The B section begins with a harmony of E" sus followed by D~ill.V.lI( " A ." . limAi OIl ..V. '][ If the principle of minimal motion between adjacent harmonies is observed as in the above examples.... GEJ. Remember because of the "tensions" which aurally suggest a resolution.. If this be the case. .IAl~IPLL: "" " M. + Ik-r. the same chord spelling serves two functions. Again. "..l1 M. but rather..A1.. the aural sense of tension/resolution between the dominant and the tonic is not as apparent as in the cases of the aforementioned.W. YJ D9!1:t5 Polychord fraction Polychord fraction ~i ~YJ #9/#5 The other alterations.5th ~ 01{ J[ ffll M. 4 bars ofD9sus are followed by four bars ofF9sus.mAJ .~ . M...14b ~ :tDbH'1c. I ~ /I L-r ~_ A: ~ . the minor ii. .l. IM. A . Ex. c. Ex.14a _A_ 01 " . Devise a method to drill yourself on these fractions until they are automatic. O~ A DU 6m. II . s-.. The bass player would supply the different tonics... -r 4M. You will cross paths with ii-V7-I's every day of your musical lives unless you choose to pursue a career of atonal or serial performance. Another point of interest concerning the suspended dominant chord: the voicing will be identical to that of ii7 voicing in a ii-V7-I progression.7.m " 0" M. "9 Polychord fractions b. I .I root relationship. #9 (bVI) and #11 {g) as well as the suspended dominant (WP) may be used.-:l Q .I).".1:t>&I1" I cAL. bfJJ. good luck. .qq 6.d' 3 I!J ~ 1. DtJ . The root movement is obviously not cyclical (V .rr.1(/1· . the best alterations for the dominant in the ii7-V7-I progression are: a. In Summation: 1. MRJ.. I IN .5 ~ 1/ " A r .. However. and the suspended dominant V.I/ • J:. Acquaint yourself with the various polychord fractions for the altered and suspended dominants.7. 3. and the "free agent" status of the suspended dominant (Ll th) chord has been validated.30 In the A section. '1.em: PR.~.r.~III.V. we don't have a cyclical V .

'£ Practice Ex.. r- l f. ~i V /D ~i /I ~* . . tr. Listen to the respected masters of the art of comping.... Comping repeatedly on beat one is one of those unwritten cardinal sins and is guaranteed to annoy your colleagues on the band stand.- • J ~* l 7"1 ~:S: ~ JJ_ ....~ . 8. Red Garland. Herbie Hancock. ~* 1 t J . 8. Ex. Let's now use combinations of Generic Voicings. • IJ .. .. Kenny Drew. I It ..g. 7 - - .. bf 17 Ib .... Miracle Voicings. Wynton Kelly. rather than simply playing each voicing religiously in each bar on beat one.. " ]. . ~~ .. in order to familiarize yourself with styllistically correct comping... ~ i: 8 ~. to mention a few. Dbl3 liZ ~.~"p.l1... We can play the basic blues in "A~" (three chord progression) with only generic dominants .1 and all subsequent exercises in all twelve keys. f.1 II l.~ rJ L b.1: . and Polychord Fractions to voice various blues progressions..a. ~ .. Please note that some rhythmic ingenuity must be employed by the jazz pianist with the suggested voicings. .. . e.. Chapter 8: VOICINGS FOR THE BLUES AND OTHER COMMON PROGRESSIONS .

v:::r v • '... . L t .. 1 ._ r_~ '" . Ex.~II) in the last two bars.32 Ex. l' I' . 8..~III . . notice that the soprano voice remains unchanged (glued) throughout the entire progression.l-l7 __ _'\ I..4~ . 8." ( :IJq ) '1 la 1/ 'I . • 7 ~ ~~* '=: i C -i' . 8.£1 1+ Q ""+ I . III" .V .2 ... 1'£ L . fa - .I ~ 1Jl!1.I ..I. \_ U&' L I I ill ~ 1..2 is a blues progression in EJ:.Q. _\ .- '" II!! . with more variety than the basic three chord version shown in Ex. ~~ P. More importantly.VI .3 alters the blues progression even more with alternate II-V's and the "Coltrane turnaround" (I ...3 ..~VI ..P.1. 111 " "J' .£ Note that beginning in bar 7 we have the cyclical changes. 8. II G.. _ . ~t'A 'I ..os f . q ~:n: 1...+ IS. tI I. '. .. Ex.II .. 8.a. A I I.Yo with bars 8-10 using altered or suspended dominants. Ex. HAiM: PftIAlelPLL~ " I.

8.5 I = ¥ J. Let's now tackle the project of comping for a tune which doesn't use a blues progression.Notice that the voicings of the chords in progression 8. A Dan Haerle handout lists 16 Blues progressions with the footnote "Portions of these progressions could be combined with each other to combine hundreds of slight variations of the above. and Polychord Fractions) to accomodate the desired harmonies. Miracle Voicings. "Rule of Thumb" . as long as we're aware of minimal motion. there's no ground for anxiety even if there were one million possible blues progressions... /J /s . 8.." However.4 I r r I~rr I There are numerous other blues progressions.... h' . -----:.. Cliff 1 If LAO'r'8YfD " By Tad Dameron pt &J jii 1 J. JJ)J ~ CmAq '1 j. and the new concept of melodic soprano voice leading. we derive the following: 33 Ex. Observe another prerequisite for successful comping: the logical melodic contour of the soprano voice... We would just simply and logically use our harmonic vocabulary (Generic Voicings. Tad Dameron's Ladybyrd..iltJi:'" II ... Sb1 J]) l J J I J. Ex. J J I ..3 move with minimal motion between adjacent harmonies and that the "Rule of Thumb" is in effect. By tying all identical adjacent soprano notes.

I bl' . F ml L A '"' 1 D' • DII" 1 a' . I M.qb'.JL . "(. ba .v.:I. ~ ".~ II!'L " nrl'll II It."or + ~ .I fi.. . Of course.V. 8. to embellish or sophisticate the given harmony." A G J . Bear in mind that songs in lead sheet form. + II . ~A.I'IM1SJ... It is therefore the pianist's option. M.lI.8~ . Ex. The pianist may add extensions or altered tones only to the extent that they do not clash with the melody. 7 ~.b7 I" . i. ~. a single line melody with accompanying chord symbols.6. N.eINilS F='lMI'1 I" . GptN J 11 e"'A' " P"U.V.. .V I!I .. CmAfI (~IM" .. "'.1# .I L 7.tPLt: '*"': " M... 8.. I eM A . 0"') M.34 Ex..ADVSYIlD 51 ~7 1/ C!itA' ~ s~1 " By Tad Dameron L-i~ II "" e. VO.L I AL!1UAL fltINe.6 offers a successful way of voicing the chord symbols to Ladybyrd.7 . consideration must be given to the melody. generally employ the simplest harmonic possibility for the chord symbol..lI.~ 'i· 'I' . . fa ~ .e. if not responsibility. "'A .

I as the resolution to the I (C Major.V. Tritone indicators D (3rd) and AD(7th) represent the denominator 17. I've substituted the root for the Major seventh as the lowest voice. I've moved to the nearby Generic Major.V. Bar 3: The M.I minor function).I voicing for the duration of the bar since it functions for both ADand Db Major. Bar 11: The closest minor voicing from the previous is M. II Major triad in the key of aj. we see that the melody lands on the non-diatonic "E".while the right hands moves as little as possible from the preceeding construction in bar 7 to the nearest F Major triad. Bar 10: y. Bar 13: The G9sus (FIG) is the first radical deviation from the original harmony. The parallel descending motion of the Right hand triad from the previous bar. we can employ the polychord fraction to accomodate both melody and hannony. F. the melody lights on the # 11 while the basic harmony is dominant. 8.V.V. The fraction here is or E~7' Tritone indicators (3rd and 7th) suffice for the denominator. Bar 1: M. Bar 16: M. Generic major constructions either from the tonic or the fifth descending would have functioned equally as well for the first bar .V. which can either be analyzed as D5or#11.I (AmilI). Bar 7: Moving all 5 voices of the Generic Major C6/9 in bar 5-6 up 1f2 step gives us a close approximation of B1mti7.e. I've taken the liberty to alter the lead sheet harmony. Bar 8: Refer to Ex. I in the strong major function with the Ma7th as the sopnno voice. i. The Polychord I~ for the altered dominant Db 13 (#11) offers more tonal tension than a major voicing. B. For the EhMa7. of Thumb". However. M.V.I (weak major function) accommodates the ADMa7 while adhering to the "Rule . As this chord is constructed in a lower (but allowable) register of the keyboard. V. G) ofa Dmi l l and a G9sus are identical. Bar 12: D7 is voiced as a Generic Dominant from the tonic descending (D9). strong function) necessitates the least movement. but the ever-so-slight jump to M. This avoids a potential "tonic clash" with the bassist. Bar 14: Once again.II) from the tonic descending supplies a C6/9 in approximation of the desired CMa 7. V. F triad to E triad offers a nice tonal effect. G7.V. The polychord fraction Yi is a high tension dominant alteration which makes the resolution in the next bar aurally gratifying.I (weak major) would have been closer to the previous harmony.. The main motive behind selecting the alteration (D9)was twofold: A. Since the chord symbol for this bar (BD7)is a dominant construction. R Bar 9: Here's the Generic Major construction for the ADfrom the 5th descending.. C. in bar 8. Rather than have the soprano voice leap from the "D" in the previous bar to an "F" above (Generic Minor construction for Dmi) or to an "A" below (M. is C Major. Again.5. g Bar 5: Simply for variance with bar 1. ED7. it would also be possible to keep the M. Bar 2: y.V. 5th descending.5 to check the melodic symmetry between bars 4 and 8. I've opted for the nearest G9sus(F/G) since the ingredients (D. I Fmi 11 was obtained by simply moving all 5 voices of the preceding harmony up 112 step. Bar 15: M. Generic Major (M. A. Bar 6: y. Bbmil1. Bar 4: Referring to bar 4 of Ex.II is justified by the stronger sonority. 8.

..r"\~ I. . 8.'" L A "ti I/ 'l' 7 ~ 1 IC. -- •• ' • • fa "" . . A "". ". 8..I .. comp. • . I . .. • • ~ • • • ..1II. •."1 ': . • . • I .. in performance the preceeding bar by bar analysis and execution must happen spontaneously.: _Co I . • • • • " fItI...7 until it feels natural.1""" ~~ b. ~. . b~· Practice Ex. .AD'Igf'1I1J " l'1li.. 8. 11'1'. .7 JI -I_ "J.. V .. or like "you wrote it".1 .... ~ u!- • ·~~i {II" 1"'1 t ~ ( ''I. (iJ "'!Ii ~ • ~ '!Ii ~ • . _ .. ~ _Il_ .... I l1li . "-~ . . \ ...._ ~ I -.6. I.. ~ v• ~ _j_.L . AI ..If.1 . l'1li.6 and understand the logic involved in moving from one harmony to the next.{ /I M "J' ""'" . I •• . ...36 Obviously. -.. with no time for deliberation..... "''ItI~• .. ... but with your own rhythms. . rI J ~ .I • IA < ~.. l..lI ~.. " . Using the same voicings quoted in Ex..".~ I ... .. I -. " 1II.' J " S " ~ ~ ~ - " t'" ~ • M .. • ..- -.....~-'" . we now have covered all the voicings used in Ex. 8.lJ . ..I _"" .1.. By Tad Dameron Ex.- "" _L~ • - .. ..1 ~....."A~ .'Sf 12. . .. 8. I • . ~-I" r"\D -.. Ex. ~ ~ r'm. •• • • 1 v.MI. . . ~. . '.. However... ~ .7 supplies the only missing ingredient to make our comping rendition of Lady byrd sound like that of a master: rhythm..I q '" n If.

C diminished.2 If we consider the top voice of Ex. This construction also serves "B" or "C~" as a 13(b9).. WI'1"Mo 4 b' ~1l I'e. Add the tone a tritone lower than bottom voice of the inverted triad to supply a fourth voice. fa 7 I' It Ab C. we have the altered dominant.Chapter 9: VOICINGS FOR DIMINISHED AND HALF-DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS h. Coincidentally. Ex. plus the presence of both the A and A" which gives it a distinctive sonority. 9. ~ bJII: % Ab T Pit 1'DAJI~ b. form a major triad in second inversion. having nothing to do with the parent scale. the second voice is indeed a non-chordal tone. Ex.'" -f. 3Am£. 9. a return to third city (tertial construction) is necessary to voice diminished and half-diminished seventh chords.e. if analyzed with the tone "F" as the tonic. ways to restructure these harmonies so that when voiced.1a Therefore. the sound is palatable and avoids the strict succession of stacked thirds.3 . the second inversion major triad over the tritone. however.9. F7(#9). 9. Ex. It is rather the construction of this chord( i. or 1'1 .? . 37 The principles of quartal chord construction are obviously impossible to implement with harmonies whose basic intervallic building block is the minor third. an alternative voicing is constructed as follows: With the tonic note on top. For fully diminished sevenths. ecNfl"R"~1"IOU WI1'~ "F" 4$ '11W11l. There are. This is a 4-voice construction. or bJP.2 as the tonic.

JAr-. I \..4 t . 9._4. Ex. _.la). I've constructed our diminished voicing (Ex. ..".. Simply stated. G. ON5'"f1!.EJJ._ J_ . J G Olm._ r • J.4) from the "'G" descending in the second complete bar. .I - - I L. 4.. .V. 9.'1107 A 07 = c 07 = E~ = EiIo7 .~ a 0 I -J .~~ i- • ~ ~' ..u. 9. Pjt{fIJC\PU!_: I M.4. :II: of!. f1( It'" 'J " ~ .'" DlnlllJ/SIf£D 10 ~ .~ Altu /I I ._"h. it sounds good in a diminished context. D". Let's use this construction in context of a standard tune.. and sequenced this voicing at the interval of a minor third to move parallel with the melody. ~I II . mi....' .. I ~ . M... JI: - In example 9._ 'III. a simpler solution would be: Ex.38 How you choose to perceive this chord mathematically or intellectually is. our diminished construction can be inverted at the interval of a minor third. .'JOt As in the case of strict tertial diminished seventh chords (Ex. " OIl ""I~. M..AJOi~ .. . G07 FIo7 = = B~7 = (. (Or/" ) 'Ct-e~1 ~ .I/...I 4 .. I. t. 9... 'I.5 AJ1. ~' v~~fn. In other words. "....c. [01. however. ....V. not the issue..I.2 are interchangeable." \.... Jobim's "Wave". . - . By Antonio Carlos Jobim Jt VaJC. 9.. the following diminished constructions patterned after Ex. .1 1 lIT A~l(t • '.. If tempo should make execution of this bar hazardous or impossible.

I " .The sonority of half diminished seventh chords can also be improved by avoiding a strict succession of the thirds."I ' (111) r l '...4- bS A' This construction extracts the third from the triad and puts it in the soprano. Ex.:. Another altemati ve is to voice the G~7as an Eb 13 with the tonic omitted.oo-r .3 :IMItJ£LJ iDo~ .7 If '1\ CC"'D It 11ft r.£A/DINit.~ ImPLIED ':i: . This spreads out the sonority and avoids stacked thirds. The mathematical relationship is as follows: The tonic of the half diminished chord becomes the third of the dominant 13th.6 t J G... For example: A¢>7 could be voiced as a F13 from the 5th descending. .j.7 oi '. 9..J' 1 ~. bs 1" VOrC!D AIJ p" Q£AJUIC DDtt1INAAIf r~Dh'J AI P&SC. 9. An alternative voicing: Mi3 7 ~5 Tonic 3 Ex. It.% I . generic construction. J ~ I!.

. First. Let's take the first 8 bars of "All The Things You Are" for a laboratory experiment with tri-tone substitutions and V2 step preparation. For example.'1 • b:' (0"')· 1(~) (D "'. In other words: Fma7 I I BD13 I I II Ami7 I AD? I II I IIII Gmi is an option.' ~. or dominant harmony. This is known as a tritone substitution since the interval between the root of the V and DII harmonies is a tritone. 10. 10.'~JJ J J I J ~r a. Dominants work best as the substituted harmony.t (e) ~~Umlmi'l When the root movement between two adjacent harmonies is Dot cyclical (roots ascending in perfect fourths).. is sometimes replaced or substituted by a harmony constructed on the II scale step.~' J IJ J J J J Words by Oscar Hammerstein II Music by Jerome Kern J .n Chapter 10: TRITONE SUBSTITUTIONS AND Y2STEP PREPARATION b As mentioned earlier. The substituted harmony will always resolve to a harmony '12 step lower. . As a means of harmonic variance the V.. tritone subs and '/2 step preparation are synonymous terms. If the root movement is cyclical. L. no liRE" ~ C· "" e.. e 1J r A~mR1 JI II MA 1 I. 2. the melody and changes in fake book form: Ex. .4 :' "ALL THE TIIIA). 4.1 e: ii? ii' (0".I ii. 1 .1 D~ 7 ". a similar technique of prefacing a desired harmony from a 1f2 step above is known as "Half step preparation".. The melody (if applicable) will influence the harmony and possible alterations of the substituted chord.2 I &#1 . in the progression: 4 4111111111111 I FMa7 I Ami7 AD7 I Gmi I we may take the liberty to split the first bar and "prepare" the Ami? with a dominant harmony based on the root '12 step above. four rules must be 1. Ex. In instances where tritone substitutions held in consideration: and half step preparation are appropriate.) - r" (". the most frequently encountered progression in Western jazz and commercial music is the ii-V-I. 3.

1986 T. Chord quality options are: *1• EI3A. EI3(#1l) = Bar 3: Cyclical root movement.S.I. D7 (tertially constructed) "G" is a tritone. B13(#II) = 2... Bar 6: Tritone sub on "Db". A7(Ds) (tertia1ly constructed) 4. nb7 with all optional alterations (i1s. E13 (unaltered) 3. 1. Possibilities are: bPI bi tf = = 3. we'll denote our choice with an asterisk (*) Bar 1: Root movement between bars I and 2 is cyclical. g (ph . A9sus = b'(I = I f A 2. ADI3 2.J7 = g = :. D9sus = Bar 4: Cyclical root movement." is the enharmonic "G~" which is the 13th in relation to the tonic of the substitute. not cyclical. The melody "AI.n) = VI = E7 C# \11:' 17 2.or_ . &iP=S=$: ~IJ 5" I t ? G"M J IJ ] ] ] I J ~ I.. Dli7(#9) = AI bT =~ Ii.d Words by Oscar Hammerstein II Music by Jerome Kern pb o'7(~) JI " COpynyOt <i) 1939. Options are: Bar 5: Root movement from "D D" to the following I. Db7(b9J1. (. Soma Monico. Therefore. A" Rigl'ltti RI!II!fIr\'ad Since our options for the substituted harmony are multiple. ADIJ&g) = *3.s) = bi = No 3. 41 'ALL 1i'ur THI'" ~ II liRE" "''IV rr Nq" 7 .L. Root of tritone sub is "D". *A7(b9!b5) creates maximum tension and makes resolution to the ADMa7 tonally gratifying.- It! U. and the substituted harmony for the last two beats. _ Copyright FtIlM'W'fla Ifltfi'l"II!IIli(ltlal Cop~rigl'lf Sec. the *B13 is a tritone substitute.. ADI3(#ll) N = . Root oftri-tone sub is "E". A bar by bar explanation of the theoretical procedures used will be offered after the example. AI"is obviously the tonic of the substituted harmony while the "F" melody note implies a 13th. The chosen possibility for the chord quality. Context and your ear are the sole judge and jury of which harmony is appropriate. Other possibilities: g = t.. A7(#9) = sm = c 3. B. Root oftri-tone sub is A.B. D7(D9IDs) = 2.9. Tlt. Other possibilities: 1. Therefore half step preparation is in order. _ _ ~VIIT _ .#9) *2. B13(b9) = g 11 = g~ =~ The answer to which of the possibilities is preferable is subjective. CA 90401) M.Let's now split each bar with the given harmony for the first two beats. D7(#9) = brp = b 1j 4. A7(b9) (tertially constructed) *1.A. "B" on beat 3 allows many chord quality possibilities: I.uJecI Corn_" (0/0 ThO W. #5. Bar 2: Cyclical root movement between bars 2 and 3. I. Mu'" C<>~y.

I in "F" with a return to the V7sus.l Analyzing Ex. 1. preferably diatonically or chromatically. 11. in effect. AI!f. M. the voicing for the C7sus in bar 4 is Miracle Voicing I and -identical to the Gmi 11 in bar 1. q Sus. I.Chapter 11: THE (Melodic Comping) MELODIC SOPRANO VOICE_ 43 As previously mentioned.J n + ~ e..1 A A. 1"1\. ~"" . we must consent to chord quality approximations like the Gmi 11 for the desired Gmi 7. Sample progression #1 Gmi7 I C7(b9) I FMa7 I C7sus This progression is the frequently encountered ii -V . In bar 3. The harmony is. the FMa7 is voiced as a generic major FMa9 descending from the 5th scale tone.2 wt " So.INC...v. now we have three criterion to successful voicing: 1.: Ita.- SIiS J ~ . 'I V" Pb Q . and 3. "Melodic comping" emphasizes the logic and musicality of your chord choices by devoting attention to the voice leading of the soprano or top voice of the adjacent harmonies in the progression. HAln1: ~ PR. (I 'MA ~ 7 !:7 . Melodic soprano voice leading . 11.IPLe. It could be voiced in the following fashion: Ex. Minimal motion between adjacent harmonies. if the top voice of each chord construction progresses to the next top voice in some logical sequence. enhanced by the addition of the 11tho The voicing for the C7(o9) is the polychord fraction using tritone indicators for the denominator. Although implying a different root. The voice leading of the soprano voice follows a simple logic. The "Rule of Thumb" 2.. Ex. your comping will have a sense of fluidity and continuity. 11.V.

A~9(#11) Sample progression #2: I Fmi7 I B~7 I E~Ma7 Ex. whereas Ex. b0 if" J.. 1L I. let's take sample progression #2 and voice it.7 ltd. E~Ma7 ._ ~ ....- -_ . _-------- 44 To demonstrate. 11. the "minimal motion" concept has been sacrificed to allow a smooth melodic line. :1.._ 4_l ~ 1+ tQ ~-" Fml kA . HAP. _ ... . 11.]I :.M.4 b" o Ex. 11. 11.. In this instance..C:L. . ~B b PR.5 . Ii ..3 (Voicing of sample progression #2) " r1 1 _II' £.V.5 places the "minimal motion" concept in higher priority.~ _j. _v. £D' ~ fit.. 0 i. £...V. 7 fYll . W_ ~tT.lutIPLE.4 favors the melodic soprano voice leading concept.:. Ex.. . _j . M. Simply stated. 11._ ..mA' __l'I_ 4b9f!/~ _III F. :0:. The soprano voice leading in example 11... ~ 'IIIIL oJ " ~ LI:"1 . the voice leading in example 11. ... .5 where the soprano voice remains stationary between bars 4 and 5. I've taken the liberty to alter the given B~7 harmony to a dominant (b9) in order to create a stronger melodic line in the soprano voice.b mR ~ In bar 4.4 has both more sense of motion and resolution than does the voice leading Ex. I I ~+ IIJJ. "--rI II" .til A PI} (:) .J ..

12. Both would be correct although stylistically different. I J J J ~ZJ .' Jib 11 With respect for the melody and the basic harmonic motion.. Three staves are used. there is simply no one single defmitive approach to correct voicings. . To illustrate. Polychord Fractions While harmonizing each lead sheet example. 12. consider employing the various methods of altera tion previously discussed: a. Altered dominants via Polychords Following each excerpt. Tri-tone substitutions h. Miracle Voicings c..1 and the bottom two are the "realization" in basic rhythmic values: ." G I rrr £r I ttnA q (. Half step preparation c. Voice these excerpts using the given harmonies and the techniques you've learned in the previous chapters: a. Ways to voice chords are as diverse as the pianists who voice them.Chapter 12: SAMPLE PROGRESSIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 45 Excerpts of two standard tunes in lead sheet form (melody and chord symbols) are printed below for harmonization (voicing).1 ("Pennies From Heaven") could be voiced in the following manner.. Bear in mind. imagine the renditions of the same chord progression by two pianists..{. . Oscar Peterson and Chick Corea. Generic Voicings h. 12. Ex.. F r r ..1 Words by John Burke MUSic by Arthur Johnston . I Ex.. the top is Ex.ftc c. the author will present and discuss a possible voicing solution. ~ a.

. 12.. The F13 on the second half of the bar is an obvious deviation from the Emi in the original.V. ( .f. ~t accomodates the melody.V. (or M._ .2 "'.l is the obvious choice to follow the F13 which preceeded in bar 1. . ... i. one ofthe focal harmonies..-• . ~ M:t/. WlfH QIUI rAAo1"... 'llL r.V. C6/9 voiced as a Generic Major T.L M.7 Bar by Bar Analysis: Bar 1: With C6 belonging to the Major family and the first melody note being "C" the obvious choice came to mind. - Bar 2: Emili voiced as a M._ . z._ . .46 Ex.~us a_ 5iil ~ t" • + 1 II'"' v+ ( ! . Bar 3: Minimal motion to M.7 ft. and chromatically descending bass line.I /1 _a_ AD1. .(bf) C.. l'".v.D SoP..][ ell D' I I _j_ _j_ ~1 '-"' I tI 1 u ~ ItJ r'" w ~ rIM' " C1M'II A" .".).E. The D~o7 or B7 (b9)1D~ chromatically sets up the Drni l l in bar 3. However. 11. I as a D minor function is the obvious choice. harmonic motion. (f fARAIJ. A _u...II.. R" "'fA L 1 til :1/. J:. the melody is acknowledged and the F 13 sets up a nice chromatically descending line in the bass from IV (Fl3) to ii (Dmill) in bar 3. .

The voicing of the A13 is similar to the Generic Dominant 5'. 12.". The A13 acknowledges the melody and cyclically sets up the ii7 (Dmil I) that's to come in bar 7. the singer (or other soloist) has considerably more melodic freedom and flexibility. Professional singers have a particular aversion to this practice.?I in bar 8. 7 0". I've moved the top voice from "B" to "D" simply to reinforce the melody. The cyclical progression iii7 (Emili) . 1 Words by Lorenz Hart Music by Richard Rodgers a r IJ 1:>.V. intonation becomes a more critical issue if the pianist voices all chords with the melody note in the soprano.' I J. Let's look now at Ex. keep in mind that in a real life comping situation. M.. bar 4) gives a nice parallel aural effect. bar 3) to the Emi triad and 4 . triads while the bass covers the tonics. a lead sheet version of the first eight bars of Rodger's and Hart's "The Lady Is A Tramp.ii (Dmill). is basically quartal. The half diminished tritone as a substitute for the tonic Major was a harmonic device favored by Bill Evans and others of his era.' J j " I -. I as an Emi function.3 r DI'r F e". ~1 II . the soprano voice "E" has been deleted and the tonic has been added on the bottom.VI7 (A13) . V. descending bass line beginning with the "G" in bar 4. If the pianist's voicings do not favor the melody constantly.3. The top three voices (F triad in 2nd inversion) are now going to conveniently contribute to the two subsequent harmonies as polychords: Y1 on an Ab root offers a tritone sub for the Dmi resolving to a G9sus voiced as a ~. Bar 7: Minimal motion takes us to the nearest Dmi.. I for Fmill chromatic bass line..41{ f Ii F Ex. Before we take a look at another sample progression. 12. Bar 4: The movement of the F Major triad in 2nd inversion (RH. it may be the soloist's preference that you not comp with the melody note in the s0prano of your chord constructions. the tenor voice moves parallel with the RH. This construction supports the stated melody.2nd inversion (RH." . heeds both the melody and the motion of the Bar 5: Surprise! Here's a tritone substitution ofF#li7 [F#Mi7(~5) J to continue a chromatically Bar 6: If we moved all voices down a half step from the Fmill in bar 5 we have M.V. However. and the soprano offers a nice melodic line from the previous harmony and to the following harmony. Also. Minimal motion to the nearest M.1. In the left hand..

Bar 8: Moving the numerator triad again down a half step to E. • -'- ""'- _l_ III[ J " . for the Dmill. :3_ ... '/~ . in bar 5 to F in bar 6 enables a smooth transition to M. Ii A 1IAIf1 P " !:'!'t' '1 _ Words by Lorenz Hart Music by Richard Rodgers . 4S Bar 6: Here I've used the same numerator triad as in bar 2.V. ILl \" I-"'j.11. This time.V.I ~ IJ (~q) A:1 .1.ji II!" _. LADY I I • .._ • I 1 _lMJ ~ I D 1IU7 . ~ ..A_ IL em. Ex.-VDIc£. "B" was added on top as a melody reinforcement. from the tonic descending. ob Major in 2nd inversion. . }j for a compact G13(b9).5 IL ''ra£. however. J'~ r IJ.5 is an equally valid "realization".V. .. we set up the dominant polychord.v. .IIDleL M.Bar 5: Minimal motion takes us to the nearest C Major construction. J1: Il_ _c. J- M..r A' ~ '""'" 1:2. e c: . over the VI scale step with a resultant harmony of A 13 (b9). • ~. (8' • _M £j . Nl. 12. 12. Generic Major. ~: .. but with no emphasis on having the melody note as the top voice of each chord Ex.j •• ~ i~~ i~ ~ ~ .. Cjj- If ~ A " (btl) oJ - 1)"" " ". Bar 7: Descending numerator triads from CJ!. v .

. For example. The subject of jazz theory has already been thoroughly examined.. A. i I Ex. It is my honest aim to provide the aspiring pianist.. In other words.e. yes. these texts fall short by not explaining which voicing should be used in a particular progression.. The book covers how to move between adjacent harmonies with minimal motion using good sounding state of the art voicings. . consideration must be given to I. Other texts offer various possible voicings for a given harmony.. the preceding harmony).0+7(#9). Although correct.2 offers three credible voicings for an FI3.J I J J J J l - The voicings offered in Ex. A. However.g. Ex. as with all worthwhile endeavors. however.FI3 might be completely different from the PI3 voicing used in the progression FI3 . This is. or jazz scholar with a logical approach to the objective of smooth contextual voice leading with good sounding voicings.. study and practice will be necessary to achieve this objective. The key words here are "good sounding" . the material will be presented with the intent of easy systematic intellectual assimilation in hopes that undue drudgery can be avoided and that - . A. and the voice leading is smooth.". they leave much to be desired in terms of sophistication.. analyzed..2 II OIl ~13 J J J ""'T ~ (. However. I are. Herbie Hancock or McCoy Tyner would probably not voice this progression in this manner. arranger. . David Baker. The variable here is context. George Russell. where you're going to (i. theoretically correct. a "how to" book. Regrettably. e..FOREWORD This is not a jazz theory book . .e.J J .. where you're coming from (i. the way ODewould voice a FI3 in the progression C9 . and 2. the following harmony).. and Jerry Coker. and expounded upon by various redoubtable authorities. rather. .t ~ l1li' ~:f: .11&.

the altered harmonies and counter melody function totally as an accompanying duet to the original melody. b. Bar 4: Tied over from bar 3 is G7(P9!bS} which was quite accessible to our Dmi9. this time constructed on '''G''. °i Bar 5: The bottom voice of the Generic Minor construction for Emi has simply been lobbed off leaving us a 4-voice quartal construction. prepares the upcoming Dmi harmony and doesn't clash with the melody.5: Bar 1: C Major voiced generically from the Sth descending is as good an opener as any. . Voice leading from the preceeding harmony was optimally smooth. Bar 2: The EP9. that the chord is not voiced as a strict succession of thirds. voiced as a Generic Dominant (TJ). Bar 6: The melodic soprano sets up the polychord fraction ¥1 on "A" or AI3 (P9). The tertial voicing of the DMi9 offers a pleasant aural contrast to the previous voicings which were predominantly quartal. however. Bar 8: Bars 7 and 8 are a transposed version of bars 5 and 6. However. Why? a. Bar 3: Another surprise! A tertial spelling of a Dmi9. and. still sufficient for Emi 11.so Bar by Bar Analysis of Ex. Note that the soprano voice has enough motion to even be considered a counter melody. 12. Note. Bars 5-8 exemplify the concept of melodic comping. The soprano sets up another 13(b9). Bar 7: The active soprano voice returns to a 4-voice quartal construction for Dmi 11. there are many possible solutions to the voicing of any lead sheet melody. May I suggest on first reading that you pay homage to the composers original harmonic intentions before you investigate possibilities for alteration. Obviously. Both the G7(P9/PS) and the following unaltered G9 do not aggravate the melody note "B".

In contrast to quartal harmony which is predominantly constructed of perfect fourths." L.H. Voicings . . an abbreviation of the verb complement (Merriam-Webster: to supply a lack).Root. Tritone Indicators . Comp .B. and dominant. The interval between these two tones is a tritone.A harmony containing chromatically raised or lowered tones which deviate from an established diatonic system. . ." Tertial . For example. "Tommy comped nicely behind the trombone solo.Harmonies (chords) constructed essentially of major or minor thirds. These two tones are the strongest tonal indicators of dominant family harmonies. constructed of thirds "tertian.Tonic." Comping . Beginning tone of any diatonic system." R. "Third City" .From the tonic descending.Constructed of thirds. (see Chapter 2) Miracle Voicings .Easy to construct 5-note chord constructions which accommodate the three basic families: Major.V. the parenthetical (~11)implies a chromatic alteration or deviation from the C Major scale..The third and dominant 7th scale tones of a given dominant tonality.The individual n2tes which chromatically deviate from an established diatonic system. Mixolydian is the relevant diatonic system for dominant family chords. T f. To "complement" in a musical performance by providing harmonic support (chords) preferably in a tasteful. adv.(]e '.Adhering to the scale or mode applicable to a given harmony. Root . (see Chapter 4) M. Generic Voicings . Tonic . appropriate manner.. . in the case of a CMa7(~11). For ex. Beginning tone of any diatonic system.Reference to tertially constructed harmonies.Abbreviation for "left hand." Tertiality .a combination of two or more tones sounded simultaneously to accommodate a specified harmony.Originally. A harmonic construction where the major or minor third is the basic intervallic building block. For ex.Abbreviation for "Miracle Voicing.From the fifth descending. A harmonic construction where the perfect fourth is the basic intervallic building block. Quartal. 5 Alteration . Altered ..5-note chord constructions each with five different harmonic functions. 5 f .to compo Diatonic .Constructed of fourths. The Harvard Dictionary of Music defines this means of construction as tertially. minor.Abbreviation for "right hand.

Tommy Flanagan. David Liebman (sax) 2. Keith Jarrett. Joe Farrell (ww)." It would be blatant naivete to assume otherwise. Steve Gadd (dr) 7. w. Eddie Gomez (b) 4. Henry Grimes or Bob Cranshaw (b) 3. Bill Evans. the dependence is equally undeniable. Cannonball Adderley (sax). Freddie Hubbard (tpt). Jimmy Cobb (dr) . "Friends". Miles Davis (tpt). Prestige 7311 w. Bobby Hutcherson (vibes). Art Tatum. "Jackie's Bag". Polydor 1-6160 w. John Coltrane (sax). The leader's name will be underlined if the keyboardist was not the leader on that particular recording date. Joanne Brackeen. Blue Mitchell (tpt). Michael Brecker (sax). only one recording per artist has been listed. as well as those in any academic discipline. Wayne Dockery (b). Sonny Rollins (sax). Ernie Watts (sax). Hal Galper. Prestige P-24059 w. "Sonny Meets Hawk". George Cables. A & M Records. Paul Chambers (b). Don Walker of Dekalb. John Coltrane (sax). "Prism". Jaki Byard. however. Century w. Jackie Mclean (sax). although the influence is perhaps more subtle and indirect. John Coltrane (sax). Roy Haynes (dr) 5. George Tucker (b). Illinois: "We all rest on the shoulders of those who precede us. Listed below are thirty-five keyboardists whose comping style and chord voicings have influenced this book." a single recording is listed which exemplifies that individual's comping style. Kenny Drew. we must correlate that Bach influenced Beethoven. Miles Davis (tpt). Perhaps scientific achievements are more tangibly linked to the past than artistic achievements." not for excellence in other areas such as solo playing. Red Garland. "Forgotten Fantasies" . "Kenny Burrell with John Coltrane". Kenny Burrell (g). Paul Chambers (b). In the interest of brevity. Jimmy Cobb (dr) 9. "Outward Bound". Contemporary 14001. or for their contribution to the heritage of jazz pianism. Paul Chambers (b). "Speak With A Single Voice". Randy Brecker (tpt). Peter Erskine (dr) 6. As Galileo's accomplishments paved the way for those of Einstein. "Cable's Vision". Choice Records 1024 w. Paul Chambers (b). Eddie Gomez (b). The "current" accomplishments and innovations in music. Eric Dolphy (sax). Coleman Hawkins (sax) Roy McCurdy (dr). Freddie Hubbard (tpt).52 Chapter 14: SUGGESTED LISTENING One of the more memorable quotes I've heard was passed on to me by friend and piano teacher nonpareil. Debussy. Blue Note 84051 w. Art Taylor (dr) 8. Chopin. (SP-709) w. Bob Moses (dr) 11. "Relaxin' With The Miles Davis Quintet". Chick Corea. Those below have been listed for their reputations as "compers. Respected "Compers" (alphabetical listing) 1. Prestige 7129 w. are only possible as a result of a series of previous milestones achieved by the innovators of previous generations. Following the name of each "comper. "Kind Of Blue" . These artists have served and will serve as stylistic role models for subsequent generations of jazz keyboardists. Jimmy Cobb (dr) 10. Richie Beirach. RCA 741074/075 w. Columbia CS 8163 w. Paul Bley. Tony Dumas (b). Tina Brooks (sax).

Curley Russell (b). Miles Davis (tpt). Capitol ST 2663 w. Jeffrey Watts (dr). Herbie Hancock. "Subconscious-Lee". Dennis Irwin (b). MCA/lmpulse 29015 w.. Herb Ellis (g).Other personnel not 31. 1) Columbia LE 10018 w. Billy Higgins (dr) 33. John Lewis. Bob Berg (sax). Wynton Kelly.13.J. "The1onius Monk At The Five Spot" Milestone M 47043 w. Impulse A-88 w. Charlie Haden (b). Vic Gatsky (b). Roy Haynes (dr) 27. Hank Jones. Richard Davis (b). Junior Cook (sax). Charlie Parker (sax). Ella Fitzgerald (voc).Q. Chip Lyles (dr) 17. Freddie Hubbard (tpt). "Eastern Rebellion 2". "M. Concord CJ-I04 w. John Hicks. John Scofield (g). Louis Hayes (dr) 30. Red Mitchell (b). Branford Marsalis (sax). Jim McNeely. Bud Powell. "The Survivor's Suite" ECM-l-1085 w. Alamac QSR-2430 w. "Ella & Louis" Verve V6-4003 w. Louis Armstrong (tpt & voc).lBlues At Carnegie Hall". Tony Williams (dr) 14. "New Wine In Old Bottles" Inner City 6029 w. Lyle Mays. Vernell Fournier (dr) 19. (b). Percy Heath (b). "Blowin' The Blues Away". Timeless SJP-J06 w. Ahmed Abdul-Malik (b). Keith Jarrett. Phil Bowler or Ray Drummond (b) 23. Elvin Jones (dr). Kenny Kirkland. Danny 25. Cannonball Adderley (sax). "Everything I Love". Oscar Peterson. "The Plot Thickens". Ray Brown (b). Bill Pierce (ww). Billy Hart (dr) 34. Louis Bellson or Buddy Rich (dr) 28. James Williams. Joe Zawinul. Wynton Marsalis (tpt). Horace Silver. Fats Navarro (tpt). Johnny Griffin (sax). Atlantic SD 1468 w. listed. Ron Carter (b). George Coleman (sax). Sam Jones (b). "Mercy. Gottlieb (dr) Pat Metheny (g). Prestige 7250 w. Jimmy Garrison (b). "Dear John C. Alan Dawson (dr) 16. Paul Chambers (b). Roy McCurdy (dr) . Jackie McLean (sax) Ron Carter (b). Ahmad Jamal. Nat Adderley (tpt). Eugene Taylor (b). Charlie Mariano (sax) 15. Cedar Walton. Roland Hanna. John Coltrane (sax). Mercy. Roulette SR-5005 w. "Miles Davis In Person Friday Night At The Blackhawk" (Vol. "Coltrane Live At Birdland". Blue Note 84195 w. Blue Note 4017 w. Art Blakey (dr) 29. Lennie Tristano. Donald Bailey (dr) 5 . "Tune-Up!" Cobblestone 9013 wi Sonny Stitt (sax). Israel Crosby (b). Billy Hart (dr). Betty Carter (voc). Hampton Hawes. "The Seance" Contemporary S7621 w. Barry Harris. McCoy Tyner. Lee Konitz. John Burr or Mike Richmond (b) 26. Columbia 38641 w. Tony Williams (dr) 21. Hank Mobley (sax). Milt Jackson (vibes). •'Ahmad Jamal's Alhambra" Argo 685 w. "Think Of One". Dewey Redman (sax). Blue Mitchell (tpt). Elvin Jones (dr) 32. Walter Booker 18. "Pat Metheny Group" ECMI-1114w. Connie Kay (dr) 24. Philly Joe Jones (dr) 22. Mark Egan (b).". Thelonius Monk. "Now It's My Turn". Mercy". Sam Jones (b). Gatemouth 1001 w. "Charlie Parker's All-Stars 1950". Paul Motian (dr) 20. "Maiden Voyage".

Again. Volume 6. Each week's material covers four crucial areas: 1. Sight reading materials will depend on the general capability level of the class. Read and explain the Foreword and Chapter 1. technical independence of the hands. 15. Bartok's Microcosmos Vol.g. Play all examples in Chapter 2. (A must for any novice pianist or doubler). Listening. To be recommended for independence of the hands and introduction to various modes. and Dominant). of the Theoretical.1 Ex.54 Chapter 15: A SEMESTER'S SYLLABUS For those interested in incorporating the preceding material into a semester's Jazz Keyboard Lab. Four-handed duets for two pianos are always fun for students to play. Sight reading. Assignment: Read Chapter 2. Week 1 A. Chapter 14 offers a suggested listening list should the teacher need ideas. The playing at the keyboard of the previously discussed 3. For example. -. C. Application. 1-6 are excellent. Ex. Explaining the theories behind Miracle Voicings) 2. Assignment. Sight Reading and Listening D. Generic Voicings. the following 17-week syllabus has been designed. Play all examples in Chapter 1 to review scales and tertial harmony. and heightens harmonic and contrapuntal awareness. Duets are beneficial as an introduction to ensemble playing (playing with others) and for developing an internal pulse or sense of time. An Overview Of Traditional B. Explain Chapter 2. C. Require students to write two simple one-measure patterns in 4/4 using the notes of the C Major scale and starting on the tonic. Generic Voicings (Major. 15. Week 2 A. Theoretical. (e. Never underestimate the constructive value of listening to the masters. 4. Application. Theoretical. the teacher should select duet material difficult enough to challenge but not discourage the class. There are numerous 4-hand duets written for all technical levels and available from your print music dealer. the most difficult. Sight Reading and Listening D. B. The Theoretical. Minor.2 &it 13 J 1J J] - . Explanation of the theories and principles of each concept. Jazz harmony. Sight reading benefits eye to hand coordination. These are progressive pieces with Volume I being the easiest. Application concepts.

_I!I _ • P" - .!. - • • • -I- .. In II I. 4. 15.3 &£ B. Theoretical. For example. For example. Have class play all the selected sample patterns. /I - • loll' --~ • ~ - 1 ~:~ :~.M' _. Write on blackboard suffice.. • • . 1.4 II j . .LM ) J • . 15. please!) over these cyclical dominants. while A group plays 15.5. 1.4.2 altered to accommodate minor harmonies. Application f ] ad ] - Ex. Ex. ~ Ex. Have group A comp generic cyclical dominants as in Ex. 15.14 with a stylistically suitable rhythm. both Major and Minor. 15.1-.Week 3 A. . group B should play patterns (both hands.1. ~ kilo . as dominant patterns by lowering the seventh (if the seventh is 3. 2. Ex. sample patterns brought in by the students. Divide the class into two groups (A & B).3 is 15.2.5 " 'Y. Show students how to alter these patterns by lowering the third scale step in order to accommodate minor harmonies. Simultaneously. Four or five should 55 2. ~ -J 4 . B group could be playing 15. Play major patterns present).

15. . Swap. For example. Transpose these patterns to other keys. Sight Reading and Listening D. at the same time could supply a simple bass line connecting the two Ex. Read Chapter 3. Assignment 1. 15. r :z. 15.6 . Teacher continues to hold it together by "walking" bass lines. Request that the students start a "Patterns Notebook" by adding those on the board to their own. Ex. Bring in two more one-measure major patterns in starting on the third.8 -.56 The teacher harmonies. Generic Voicings Workout. c. 2. Same procedure.J r or ij~ ~ 5.i- F ~r r J I . 6.3 1 3. ~i J 1 J J. except now group B camps while group A plays the patterns.3 11 3 Ex. 3 .7 .

3.1 in all twelve keys. 1.6 to a closely related key. 2. Swap. 6. 4. Group B. Add new patterns to notebook.1in time. Class: Play through randomly selected new patterns beginning on the third. B. Group A: patterns over the ii-V7-! progression. Teacher: Add a walkingbass line to perform Ex. Transpose each exercise 3. Sight Reading and Listening. Week 5 A. Transpose to other keys. 1. patterns. C. Students should concentrate on "minimal motion" and the "Rule of Thumb. Students: Play Ex.Week 4 A. Dissect Chapter 3 stressing "minimal motion. 1.2-3. Application.2-6. 1. Answer questions pertaining to any previous material. . 57 2. Practice examples 3. Group A. 4. B. Sight Reading and Listening. 3. Groups A and B: Swap.2-3. Theoretical. Theoretical. Group B: comp. Put a few random new patterns on the board. Teacher: Bass lines. Application. 5. Teacher: Walk bass lines. Class: Play 3. Assignment.6." Check voicings with those printed on p. The followingwould suffice: 3. comp to 3. Groups A and B.6.16. 3.2-3." 2. D. C. Practice both Major and minor by lowering thirds and sevenths as necessary. 2.

6. Generic Voicings by transposing 3. Week 8 A. Comp to Examples 5. In these keys: Group A. Assignment. Comp. Assignment: Write out two one-measure patterns in 4/4 time (C Major) which begin on the fifth scale step. B. Groups A and B. show how Generic and Miracle Voicings can accommodate the chord progression and adhere to the "Rule of Thumb. Teacher. Patterns. Theoretical. Stress the minimal voice leading between harmonies. Sight Reading and Listening D. Group B. bass lines. &i J j P:J J J . Week 7 A. 2.1-5. Groups A and B.1. D. Theoretical. 15. 1. Patterns. Check voicings assignment from previous week with the supplied voicings to 5. Discuss and demonstrate the five Assignment harmonic functions of each Miracle Voicing (See Chapter 4). 15. B.2-3. Discuss.10 Ex.6. Workout With Generic and Miracle Voicings. Sight Reading and Listening. C.2 and 4.6. 3. 2. Swap. Application 1. Play Examples 4. For example. Swap. Theoretical. Review Chapter 3. if any questions. C.11 JJJJ - 01. 1. Ex. Group B. Assignment.1-5. 4. Group A. Write out voicings on a grand staff to Examples 5.4 to acquaint students with Miracle Voicings and their various functions.6 to new keys.1-5 slowly." B. Practice Examples 5. Application. Sight Reading and Listening D.1-5.58 Week 6 A. Teacher. Look over Chapter 5. bass lines. Application. C. Using example 5.

3. Sight Reading and Listening. 3.6 to closely related keys. 2. 1. 59 Week 10 A. 2. Practice the Polychord Fractions in other keys. cyclical key sequence (See 7. Assignment. Group A comps while Group B plays the new patterns with both hands. Play the new patterns as one would over Major. B. . B. Put a few random patterns (beginning on the fifth) on the board. Minor and Dominant harmonies by altering the third and seventh accordingly. Invent your own or use that of Ex. it is imperative that these are thoroughly explained and understood. C. Play through the exercise in Chapter 7. Practice same over a random key sequence. Put new patterns in notebook. Swap. Read and comprehend Chapters 6 and 7. Play through all examples in Chapter 6. Application. Read Chapter 8. 1. In new keys. However. Theoretical. #91#5 and ~9/~5in a 2. Assignment 1. Today's class time may be predominantly absorbed by theoretical discussion and explanation of Polychord Fractions and their applications. Application 1. Voicings For The Blues And Other Common Progressions. D.3). Transpose 5. 4.Week 9 A. Application of Polychord Fractions In The ii7-V7-I Progression. C. Answer any questions pertaining to previous material. 1. 7. Sight Reading and Listening D. Practice ii7-V7-I with the following alterations for the dominant: ~.10. Voicing Suspended and Altered Dominants as Polychord Fractions. 2.1-5. Theoretical. 2.

Since the 11th and 13th are dominant family constructions. For example. From an "F". as all harmonic systems that we've come to designate as "Western. I'm still fascinated by the existence of other scales currently used in other civilizations. In other words. Albeit beyond the scope and intent of this book to chronicle the evolution of the Pythagorean scale to our currently used equally tempered scale. Incumbent upon the result of our third stacking is." is based upon an equally tempered scale which uses the interval of a half step as its smallest unit. different harmonies will be initiated depending upon the diatonic parameters of the scale or mode employed. of course.6 Chapter 1: AN OVERVIEW OF TRADmONAL JAZZ HARMONY Jazz harmony. we stack thirds (every other scale step) above the tonic to create the desired harmony. the parent scale or mode. The resultant harmonies from stacking thirds within this diatonic system are: . let's construct a Dorian mode. this western notion of dividing an octave into twelve equal divisions would strike our ears as dissonant and unnatural. or if we had been raised today in an Eastern culture. let's pick an arbitrary tonic of "F" and construct a major scale. Starting on an arbitrary tonic. let's stack thirds and construct major family harmonies. The interval of the third is the basic building block of chord structures. the major ninth is the largest major family construction possible without chromatically altering the steps of the major scale. Now. say in China. Ifwe had been born three hundred years earlier. the parent scale for minor family harmonies.

Put random patterns on board. Theoretical. one. comp to 10. Group A. C. Sight Reading and Listening. Teacher. 1. bass lines.60 Week 11 A.6. B. 2. Class: camp to progression while individuals improvise with or without regardto patterns previously learned. D. Sight Reading and Listening. B. comp to 8. Discuss and answer pertinent to Chapter IX. D. B. Ladybyrd. 3. one. 1. Swap. 5.3. Theoretical. Read Chapter 10. Teacher.2. Application. Tritone Substitutions and Half Step Preparation. C. Group B. Application. 3. Swap and repeat 3 and 4. Same procedure for Ex. Group A. 2. Play through all examples in Chapter 10. Group B. play patterns over the chord progression to 8. 2.5. Play through all examples in Chapter 9. Write three sample patterns on the board (one beginning on the tonic. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 10. Put Blues progression on board with some altered dominants. . Application. Week 12 A. Assignment. All The Things You Are. Sight Reading and Listening. 8. Read Chapter 9. Play these Major and minor. Play all examples in Chapter 8. This may monopolize the time allotted to the class period. 1. 3. Voicings For Diminished and Half Diminished Chords. 5. play patterns to same. C. Group A. 4. on the third. D. Put random patterns on the board. bass lines. comp to 8. Swap. on the fifth). Assignment. 4.6. Theoretical. Group B. Thoroughly discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 8. and. Patterns. Week 13 A.

Class comps while individuals improvise using patterns or their own ideas. Melodic Cornping 8. Theoretical. Week 16 A. Theoretical. 1. Review 2. Sight Reading and Listening. Assignment. Application. D. Practice tune of choice. Allow time for individual practice oflast week's assignment. e. -------6- Week 14 A. 2. Allow time for individual practice of "tune of choice. 2.g. D. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 11. remark on (a) phrasing. Study and 2. 3. Half Step Preparation 6. camping to the tune of choice. 1. Review: 1. Generic Voicings 2. Week 15 A. Polychord Fractions 4. Assignment. Tritone Substitutions 7. Sample Progressions B. Theoretical. Sample Progessions for Further Study.-- --- . B. etc." D. Application. Sight Reading and Listening.. C. Read Chapter 12. B. (c) use of space. Painstakingly proceed through the bar by bar analysis of each sample realization to Pennies From Heaven and The Lady Is A Tramp. Practice Week 17 . 3. Diminished Voicings 5. Assignment. C. Have students analyze and write out voicings using alterations to any tune of their choice. Play sample progressions offered in Chapter 12. 1. (b) time. 1. Discuss with the individuals who played solos how their improvisation could be improved. 1. Put a "G" Blues on the board with altered dominants. 1. Miracle Voicings 3. Play through the sample progressions I and II in Chapter 11. 2. Application. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 12.

il~ "_oiIl'! _1_ . in practice. ~_"''' ... "Standardized Chord Symbol Notation".. However. 1..9 Our task is now to inspect alternative ways of voicing these harmonies.. But... One frequently heard and encountered exception (aren't there always exceptions) to tertially (see Glossary) constructed (stacked thirds) harmonies is the sixth chord.. the parent scale for all dominant family When we stack thirds within this mode. the resultant harmonies are: Ex.L __ . 1. - i For diminished family chords. & '" F SIX1H (F") Ex. Major.6 ~ iF_a.. A favored means to contemporary sounding voicings is to "detertialize".. a Mixolydian mode. or rearrange our stacked thirds so that the desired harmony is achieved. Granted.. 1.:i r ... _ -"- 'l. but the strict succession of thirds is avoided. 'I • . 11 1"'11 _ .. i Starting with an «P". __ ~r~_~ T' __ ~ ~1 __ .. with diminished chords... the seventh step of the diminished scale may be played with no adverse tonal repercussions. I must take issue with the claim that the 0 symbol indicates a 4-voice construction... ] 1 ] ] ] Ifwe are to perceive augmented chords as alterations of major or dominant family constructions (depending on which diatonic system is used for the larger extensions). UrAD (F) b F S£V£urH CF") I I .....J... ~ ~_.. we have now covered four basic diatonic systems (i. Mixolydian and Diminished) which govern jazz harmonies.. _ .il_. let's construct an F diminished scale and see the results of stacking thirds. "T"1.. j .. I I I I I f Ex.I. let's construct harmonies.:i.. how do we designate a simple diminished triad? The Brandt-Roemer solution of Minor . Dorian. _ 1_ ~ r ...10 4 ~ *When possible I've tried to adopt the chord constructions and respective designations as espoused by Carl Brandt and Clinton Roemer in their book.e.

proceed as follows: First. H 'rI. L. R.1 The Rule of Thumb Generally. Major Ninths. Generic voicings relegate all major family chords into the category. the lower two voices by the left. 2.. minor. Naturally. Application: After determining that a chord does indeed belong to the major family. They are simple to assimilate. and 6/9 chords. . «Generic Major".H .A. 2. easy to play. "ntLl. The FMa9 obviously belongs to the major family. Ex.. _li0ii' H.W. with 5-voice chord constructions. most resonant sonorities. See Ex.2 Similarly. the optimal sonority will be obtained when the "Rule of Thumb" is intact. . it's advisable to follow the "Rule of Thumb": Keep the right hand thumb in the octave between middle C and Cl (one octave higher).N. but most frequently (particularly when comping). _K..1. Major family chords include Major triads. With the left hand.l ."S Jr. place. the top three voices are played by the right hand. let's say we see an FMa9 on a chart with no suggested voicing offered. Ex. :. the resulting sonority is generally too thin for comping. 2. Major Sixths. Ex. 'nc"J . K. so we put our right hand fifth fmger on the tonic and proceed as follows: " . when the right hand thumb is above Cl . the right hand fifth finger on the root of the chord and the second (or third) fmger a perfect fourth lower. ~fN.8 Chapter 2: GENERIC VOICINGS (and the "Rule of Thumb") Generic Voicings are five-note chord constructions which function for three basic chord families: major. Major Sevenths. place the second finger a perfect fourth lower than the right hand thumb and the left hand fifth fmger a perfect fourth below that.12_.1I~IL .. 2. . The result is a five-voice construction built entirely of perfect fourths. This rule helps players avoid muddy sonorities that can result when the right hand thumb moves below middle C. certain musical situations may specifically require a higher or lower sonority. S rt . Then place the right hand thumb a perfect fourth lower.H.. and avoid tertiality (see Glossary) while still accommodating the desired harmony.uma t ( In order to produce the strongest. .£A. and dominant.tNrU L.4 As an example.

3 ~ . iliA" G ". Generic Major voicings can also be constructed from the fifth scale tone of a given harmony descending in perfect fourths in a similar fashion as those constructed from the tonic down. EMa7 . 2. and most important.- C".. our FMa9 can be voiced in two ways: 9 f. . Ex. 1'HMIII8 With the generic construction descending from the fifth scale degree. Theoretically. tll/I.OE. Obviously these constructions would similarly function for any two major harmonies whose respective tonics are a fourth apart (e.H. the «Rule of Thumb" has been observed for the sake of sonority. tertiality has been avoided (in this case. Since the voicings are identical. there are no offensive chord tones. eliminated). we do not have an exact FMa9.Due to the absence of the Major Seventh.':1" t£.DN D. however.NOl'f.IVMa in the key of G: GMa7 . and the resultant voicings sound seemingly more sophisticated than the «third city" (see Glossary) rendition of the same progression. the system works. we achieve an exact FMa9. The chord is in the best position on the keyboard for sonority. restructured).AMa7.GbMa9).-- I~I Q .g. r»Ma9 . . voice leading has been minimized (in fact. Ifwe generically construct the G Major voicing from the tonic descending. and the right thumb is between middle C and C 1. DI.. .. Let's observe the cyclical progression IMa .7 Ye. but the point to be stressed is that either voicing is sufficient and context determines which we would use..O-a. and the C Major voicing from the fifth descending we derive the identical voicing.. For example. fIq • t.Af 5 . the resulting chord is actually an F6/9.CMa7.

15. .5 " 'Y. please!) over these cyclical dominants. 1. Ex.3 &£ B. _I!I _ • P" - .2.2 altered to accommodate minor harmonies.. Theoretical.Week 3 A. Write on blackboard suffice. Application f ] ad ] - Ex. - • • • -I- . . Divide the class into two groups (A & B).3 is 15. Ex.5. 15. For example. B group could be playing 15. 15. Have class play all the selected sample patterns. ~ Ex. while A group plays 15. • • .!.1-. 4.LM ) J • . ~ kilo . For example. 15. ~ -J 4 . sample patterns brought in by the students.14 with a stylistically suitable rhythm.4 II j . Show students how to alter these patterns by lowering the third scale step in order to accommodate minor harmonies. /I - • loll' --~ • ~ - 1 ~:~ :~. Have group A comp generic cyclical dominants as in Ex.. 1. Play major patterns present). Four or five should 55 2.M' _.1. In II I.4. Simultaneously. 2. both Major and Minor. group B should play patterns (both hands. as dominant patterns by lowering the seventh (if the seventh is 3.

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