(Mindanao State University-General Santos City, Philippines

)
BSEE-(G.R.F) students ‘04
Solved Pr oblems
in
Mechanics of Mater ials

ES-64





1. 12-7. Determine the equations of the elastic curve using the x
1
and x
2
coordinates. Specify the slope at A and the maximum deflection. EI is
constant.
1. 12-10.The beam is made of two rods and is subjected to the concentrated
load P. Determine the slope at C. The moments of inertia of the rods are I
AB

and I
AC
, and the modulus of elasticity is E.
2. 12-13. Determine the elastic curve for the cantilevered beam, which is
subjected to the couple moment M
o
. Also compute the maximum slope and
maximum deflection of the beam. EI is constant.
3. 12-15. Determine the deflection at the center of the beam and the slope at B.
EI is constant.
4. 12-16. Determine the elastic curve for the simply supported beam, which is
subjected to the couple moments M
o
. Also, compute the maximum slope and
the maximum deflection of the beam. EI is constant.
5. 12-19. Determine the equations of the elastic curve using the coordinates x
1

and x
2
, and specify the slope at A. EI is constant.
6. 12-22.The floor beam of the airplane is subjected to the loading shown.
Assuming that the fuselage exerts only vertical reactions on the ends of the
beam, determine the maximum deflection of the beam. EI is constant.
7. 12-27. Determine the elastic curve for the simply supported beam using the x
coordinates 0 ≤ x ≤ L/2. Also, determine the slope at A and the maximum
deflection of the beam. EI is constant.
8. 12-34.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
9. 12-35.The shaft is supported at A by a journal bearing that exerts only
vertical reactions on the shaft, and at C by a thrust bearing that exerts
horizontal and vertical reactions on the shaft. Determine the equation of the
elastic curve. EI is constant.
10. 12-37.The shafts support the two pulley loads shown. Determine the
equation of the elastic curve. The bearing at A and B exerts only vertical
reactions on the shaft. EI is constant.
11. 12-38.The shafts support the two pulley loads shown. Determine the
equation of the elastic curve. The bearing at A and B exerts only vertical
reactions on the shaft. EI is constant.
12. 12-43.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
13. 12-54.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
14. 12-55. Determine the slope and deflection at B. EI is constant.
15. 12-61. Determine the maximum slope and the maximum deflection of the
beam. EI is constant.
16. 12-40.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
17. 12-45.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
18. 12-50. Determine the equation of the elastic curve. Specify the slope at A. EI
is constant.
19. 12-25.The beam is subjected to the linearly varying distributed load.
Determine the maximum slope of the beam. EI is constant.
20. 12-42.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the slope and elastic curve. EI is constant.
21. 12-45. The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of
the elastic curve. EI is constant.
22. 12-46.The wooden beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the
equation of the elastic curve. Specify the deflection at the end C.
E
W=
1.6(10
3
) ksi.
23. 12-63. Determine the deflection and slope at C. EI is constant.
24. 12-66. Determine the deflection at C and the slope of the beam at A, B, and
C. EI is constant.
25. 12-73. Determine the slope at B and deflection at C. EI is constant.
26. 12-86.The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the slope at B
and deflection at C. EI is constant.



1. 5-5.The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 2.50 in. and an inner diameter
of 2.30 in. If it is tightly secured to the wall at C and the three torques are
applied to it as shown., determine the shear stress developed at points A and
B. These points lie on the pipe’s outer surface. Sketch the shear stress on the
volume elements located at A and B.
2. 5-9. The assembly consists of two sections of galvanized steel pipe
connected together using a reducing coupling at B. The smaller pipe has an
outer diameter of 0.75 in. and an inner diameter of 0.68 in., whereas the
larger pipe has an outer diameter of 1 in. and an inner diameter of 0.86 in. If
the pipe is tightly secured to the wall at C, determine the maximum shear
stress developed in each section of the pipe when the couple shown is
applied to the handles of the wrench.
3. 5-10.The link acts as part of the elevator control for a small airplane. If the
attached aluminum tube has an inner diameter of 25 mm, determine the
maximum shear stress in the tube when the cable force of 600 N is applied to
the cables. Also, sketch the shear stress distribution over the cross section.
4. 5-2.The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the
radius r of the inner cone of the shaft that resists one-half of the applied
torque (T/2). Solve the problem two ways: (a) by using the torsion formula,
(b) by finding the resultant of the shear stress distribution.
5. 5-3.The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the
radius r of the inner core of the shaft that resists one-quarter of the applied
torque (T/4). Solve the problem two ways: (a) by using the torsion formula,
(b) by finding the resultant of the shear stress distribution.
6. 5-13. A steel tube having an outer diameter of 2.5 in. is used to transmit 35
hp when turning at 2700 rev/min. Determine the inner diameter d of the tube
to nearest 1/8 in. if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10 ksi.
7. 5-17. The steel shaft has a diameter of 1 in. and is screwed into the wall
using a wrench. Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft if the
couple forces have a magnitude of F = 30 lb.
8. 5-21. The 20-mm-diameter steel shafts are connected using a brass coupling.
If the yield point for the steel is (τ
Y
)
st
= 100 MPa, determine the applied
torque T necessary to cause the steel to yield. If d = 40 mm, determine the
maximum shear stress in the brass. The coupling has an inner diameter of 20
mm.
9. 5-22. The coupling is used to connect the two shafts together. Assuming that
the shear stress in the bolts is uniform, determine the number of bolts
necessary to make the maximum shear in the shaft equal to the shear stress
in the bolts. Each bolt has a diameter d.
10. 5-29. The shaft has a diameter of 80 mm and due to friction at its surface
within the hole, it is subjected to a variable torque described by the function
( )
2
25
x
x t · N⋅m/m, where x is in meters. Determine the minimum torque T
0

needed to overcome friction and cause it to twist. Also, determine the
absolute maximum stress in the shaft.
11. 5-30. The solid shaft has a linear taper from r
A
at one end to r
B
at the other.
Derive and equation that gives the maximum shear stress in the shaft at a
location x along the shaft’s axis.
12. 5-32. The drive shaft AB of an automobile is made of a steel having an
allowable shear stress of τ
allow
= 8 ksi. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 2.5
in. and the engine delivers 200 hp to the shaft when it is turning at 1140
rev/min, determine the minimum required thickness of the shaft’s wall.
13. 5-33. The drive shaft AB of an automobile is to be designed as a thin walled
tube. The engine delivers 150 hp when the shaft is turning at 1500 rev/min.
Determine the minimum thickness of the shaft’s wall if the shaft’s outer
diameter is 2.5 in. The material has an allowable shear stress τ
allow
= 7 ksi.
14. 5-34. The drive shaft of a tractor is to be designed as a thin-walled tube. The
engine delivers 200 hp when the shaft is turning at 1200 rev/min. Determine
the minimum thickness of the wall of the shaft if the shaft’s outer diameter is
3 in. The material has an allowable shear stress of τ
allow
= 7 ksi.
15. 5-35. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has
an outer diameter of 2 in. If it is rotating at 200 rad/s. determine its largest
inner diameter to the nearest 1/8 in. If the allowable shear stress for the
material is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.
16. 5-36. The drive shaft of a tractor is made of a steel tube having an allowable
shear stress of τ
allow
= 6 ksi. If the outer diameter is 3 in. and the engine
delivers 175 hp to the shaft when it is turning at 1250 rev/min. determine the
minimum required thickness of the shaft’s wall.
17. 5-37. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has
an outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the
smallest angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress
for the material is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.
18. 5-38. The 0.75 in. diameter shaft for the electric motor develops 0.5 hp and
runs at 1740 rev/min. Determine the torque produced and compute the
maximum shear stress in the shaft. The shaft is supported by ball bearings at
A and B.
19. 5-42. The motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and
has an outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine
the smallest angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear
stress for the material is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.
20. 5-46. The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T at its ends. Show
that the maximum shear strain developed in the shaft is γ
max
= Tc/JG. What
is the shear strain on an element located at point A, c/2 from the center of the
shaft? Sketch the strain distortion of this element.
21. 5-74. A rod is made from two segments: AB is steel and BC is brass. It is
fixed a its ends and subjected to a torque of T = 680 N⋅m. If the steel portion
has a diameter of 30mm. determine the required diameter of the brass
portion so the reactions at the walls will be the same. G
st
= 75 GPa, G
br
= 39
GPa.
22. 5-78. The composite shaft consists of a mid-section that includes the 1-in.-
diameter solid shaft and a tube that is welded to the rigid flanges at A and B.
Neglect the thickness of the flanges and determine the angle of twist of end
C of the shaft relative to end D. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 800
lb⋅ft. The material is A-36 steel.




The column is subjected to an axial force of 8 kN at its top. If the cross-sectional
area has the dimensions shown in the figure, determine the average normal stress
acting at section a-a. Show this distribution of stress acting over the area’s cross
section.

























( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
MPa
m
N
A
P
m A
mm A
mm mm mm mm A
82 . 1
10 4 . 4
8000
10 4 . 4
4400
140 10 150 10 2
2 3
2 3
2
·
·
·
·
·
+ ·


σ
σ
The anchor shackle supports a cable force of 600 lb. If the pin has a diameter of
0.25 in., determine the average shear stress in the pin.


















( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
A
V
in
r A
in r
in d
11 . 6
04909 . 0 2
6 . 0
2
: stress shear double For
04909 . 0
125 . 0
125 . 0
25 . 0
2
2
2
2
·
· ·
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
π
The small block has a thickness of 5 mm. if the stress distribution at the support
developed by the load varies as shown, determine the force F applied to the block,
and the distance d to where it is applied.
















( )( )( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]( )( )
( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( )
m d
d
d F
d F
d for Solving
kN F
N F
F
110
36000
3960000
000 , 960 , 3
60 120
3
2
5 120 20
2
1
60 120
2
1
5 120 40 60
3
2
5 60 40
2
1
:
36
000 , 36
005 . 0 12 . 0 10 60 40
2
1
005 . 0 06 . 0 10 40
2
1
6 6
·
·
· ⋅
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ⋅
·
·
+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
·
A 175-lb woman stands on a vinyl floor wearing stiletto high-heel shoes. If the
heel has the dimensions shown, determine the average normal stress she exerts on
the floor and compare it with the average normal stress developed when a man
having the same weight is wearing flat-heel shoes. Assume the load is applied
slowly, so that dynamic effect can be ignored. Also assume the entire is supported
only by the heel of one shoe.




















( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
psi
in
lb
A
F
in A
in in in A
psi
in
lb
A
F
in A
in in A
W
W
W
W
W
W
M
M
M
M
M
M
869
201 . 0
175
201 . 0
3 . 0
2
6 . 0 1 . 0
5 . 50
462 . 3
175
462 . 3
2 . 1
2
4 . 2 5 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
·
· ·
·
+ ·
·
· ·
·
+ ·
σ
σ
π
σ
σ
π
The 50-lb lamp is supported by three steel rods connected by a ring at A.
Determine which rod is subjected to the greater average normal stress and compute
its value. Take θ=30°. The diameter of each rod is given in the figure.





































( )
( )
( )
psi
psi
lb F
lb F
F
lb F F
F
F
F
F F
F
AC
AD
AC
AD
AD
AD AC
Y
AD
AC
AD AC
X
61 . 745
2
2
25 . 0
6 . 36
21 . 634
2
2
3 . 0
83 . 44
6 . 36
83 . 44
45 sin
30 cos
30 sin
45 cos
50
50 45 sin 30 sin
0
30 cos
45 cos
45 cos 30 cos
0
·
·
·
·
·
·
° +
°
°
°
·
· ° + °
· Σ
°
°
·
° · °
· Σ
π
σ
π
σ


∴Rod AC is subjected to greater average normal stress at 745.61 psi.
The 50-lb lamp is supported by three steel rods connected by a ring at A.
Determine which rod is subjected to the greater average normal stress and compute
its value. Take θ=45°. The diameter of each rod is given in the figure.




































∴Rod AC is subjected to greater average normal stress at 745.61 psi.
( )
( )
psi
psi
lb F
lb F
lb F F
F
F F
F F
F
AC
AD
AC
AD
AD AC
Y
AD AC
AD AC
X
3 . 720
2
2
25 . 0
36 . 35
24 . 500
2
2
3 . 0
36 . 35
36 . 35
36 . 35
50 45 sin 45 sin
0
45 cos 45 cos
0
·
·
·
·
·
·
· ° + °
· Σ
·
° · °
· Σ
π
σ
π
σ

The two steel members are joined together using a 60° scarf weld. Determine the
average normal and average shear stress resisted in the plane of the weld.
















( )
( )
MPa
mm
kN
A
V
MPa
mm
kN
A
N
mm A
mm
mm A
kN V
kN N
N
N
V N
F
N
V
V N
F
x
Y
62 . 4
025 . 866
1000 4
8
025 . 866
1000 93 . 6
025 . 866
60 sin
30
25
4
93 . 6
0 60 cos
60 sin
30 sin
30 cos 8
0 60 cos 30 cos 8
0
60 sin
30 sin
60 sin 30 sin
0
2
3
2
3
2
· · ·
· · ·
·

,
`

.
|
°
·
·
·
· °
°
°
+ ° + −
· ° + ° + −
· Σ
°
°
·
° · °
· Σ
τ
σ
The build-up shaft consist of a pipe AB and solid rod BC. The pipe has an inner
diameter of 20mm and outer diameter of 28mm. The rod has a diameter of 12mm.
Determine the average normal stress at points D and E and represent the stress on a
volume element located at each of this points.













( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) T MPa
mm
kN
C MPa
mm
kN
mm A
A
mm A
A
E
E
D
D
E
E
D
D
75 . 70
0973 . 113
1000 8
26 . 13
5929 . 301
1000 4
0973 . 113
36
5929 . 301
4
20
4
28
2
3
2
3
2
2
2 2
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
π
π
The plastic block is subjected to an axial compressive force of 600N. Assuming
that the caps at the top and bottom distribute the load uniformly throughout the
block. Determine the average normal and average shear stress acting along section
a-a.





















( )
( )
( )
( )
kPa
mm
mm
N
A
V
kPa
mm
mm
N
A
N
N V
N N
N
N
F
N
V
V N
F
a a
a a
y
x
52
30 cos
100
50
1000 300
90
30 cos
100
50
1000 62 . 519
300
62 . 519
0 30 cos 30 sin
30 cos
30 sin
600
0
30 cos
30 sin
30 cos 30 sin
0
2
2
·
°
· ·
·
°
· ·
·
·
· ° − °
°
°

· Σ
°
°
·
° · °
· Σ


τ
σ
The specimen failed tension test at an angle of 52° when the axial load was 19.80
kip. If the diameter of the specimen is 0.5 in., determine the average normal and
average shear stress acting on the area of the inclined failure plane. Also, what is
the average normal stress acting on the cross section when failure occurs?








When failure occurs no shear stress
exists, since the shear force at the
section is 0.

ksi
in
kip
A
P
ave
101
196 . 0
8 . 19
0
2
·
· ·
·
σ
σ
τ



( )
ksi
in
kip
A
V
ksi
in
kip
A
N
in A
A
A
in A
A
kip V
kip N
N
N kip
V N kip
F
N
V
V N
F
ave
ave
x
y
9 . 48 '
2492 . 0
19 . 12
'
'
'
6 . 62 '
2492 . 0
6 . 15
'
'
2492 . 0 '
52 sin
'
196 . 0
2
5 . 0
19 . 12
6 . 15
0 52 cos
52 sin
38 sin
38 cos 8 . 19
0 52 cos 38 cos 8 . 19
0
52 sin
38 sin
52 sin 38 sin
0
2
2
2
2
2
·
· ·
·
· · ∴
·
°
·
·
·
·
·
· °
°
°
+ ° + −
· ° + ° + −
· Σ
°
°
·
° · °
· Σ
τ
τ
σ
σ
π
A tension specimen having a cross-sectional area A is subjected to an axial force P.
Determine the maximum average shear stress in the specimen and indicate the
orientation θ of a section on which it occurs.













( )
( )
( )
A
P
A
P
A
P
P P
A
P
A
P
d
d
A
P
A
P
P V
A
A where
A
V
S
S
2
45 sin 45 cos
sin cos
45
1 tan
sin cos
2 sin 2 cos
2 sin 2 cos 0
2 cos 2 sin
sin cos
sin
cos
cos
sin
;
·
° °
,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
° ·
·
·
·
− ·
+ − ·
·
·
·
· ·
τ
τ
θ θ τ
θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
τ
θ θ
θ
θ
τ
θ
θ
τ
The joint is subjected to the axial member force of 5 kN. Determine the average
normal stress acting on sections AB and BC. Assume the member is smooth and is
50 mm thick.
















( )
( )
( )
( )
kPa
mm mm
kN
MPa
mm mm
kN
kN F
F kN
F
kN F
F kN
F
BC
BC
AB
AB
BC
BC
y
AB
AB
x
596
50 50
1000 49 . 1
04 . 2
40 50
1000 08 . 4
49 . 1
30 sin 08 . 4 45 sin 5
0
08 . 4
0 30 cos 45 cos 5
0
3
3
·
·
·
·
·
· ° − °
· Σ
·
· ° + ° −
· Σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
The joint is subjected to the axial member force of 6kip. Determine the average
normal stress acting on section AB and BC. Assume the member is smooth and is
1.5in. thick.















Σ Fy = 0
6sin60º = FBCsin70º
FBC = 5.53 kip

Σ Fx = 0
FAB = 6cos60º+FBCcos70º
FAB = 4.89 kip

For section AB:
σ AB=FAB/A = 4.89 kip
2(1.5 in2)
σ AB=1.63 ksi

For section BC:
σ BC=FBC/A = 5.53 kip
4.5 in(1.5 in)
σ BC=0.819 ksi


Rod AB and BC have diameters of 4 mm and 6 mm, respectively. If the load of 8
kN is applied to the ring at B, determine the average normal stress in each rod if θ
= 60°.














Σ Fy = 0
-8 kN+F
BC
sin60º = 0

Σ Fx = 0
- F
BC
= 9.24 kN
F
AB
+F
BC
cos60º = 0
F
AB
= 4.62 kN
σ
AB
=4.62 kN(1000
3
) = 367.65 MPa
π (4mm
2
)
σ
BC
=9.24 kN(1000
3
) = 326.8 MPa
π (9mm
2
)







Rods AB and BC have diameters of 4mm and 6mm respectively. If the vertical
load of 8kN is applied to the ring at B, determine the angle θ of rod BC so that the
average normal stress in each rod is equivalent. What is this stress?














Given:
dAB=4mm
dBC=6mm
Find: θ & σ

Σ Fy = 0
-8 kN+FBCsinθ = 0
FBC=8 kN/sinθ

Σ Fx = 0
-FAB+FBCcosθ = 0
FAB = FBCcosθ = 8 kNcosθ /sinθ

σ BC= 8 kN
(sinθ )π (0.006m/2)2
σ AB= 8 kNcosθ
π sinθ (0.004m/2)2
σ BC=σ AB
8 kN = 8 kNcosθ
π sinθ (0.006m/2)2 π sinθ (0.004m/2)2
θ =cos-1(0.0042/0.0062)
θ =63.61º
σ = 8 kN
π sin63.61º(0.006m/2)2
=316 MPa



The bars of the truss each have a cross-sectional area of 1.25 in2. Determine the
average normal stress in each member due to the loading P=8kip. State whether the
stress is tensile or compressive.
















Σ Fx=0
Cx-Bx=0
Cx=Bx

Σ Fy=0
Cy+Dy-0.75-P=0
Cy+Dy=1.75 P

At joint A
Σ Fy=0
AB(4/5)=P
AB=(5/3)P (T)

Σ Fx=0
AB(4/5)=AE
AE=(4/3)P (C)

At joint B
Σ Fy=0
-AB(3/5)-BE+BD(3/5)=0
BD=()5/3[.75P+(3/5)(5/3)P]
BD=(35/12)P (C)

Σ Fx=0
-AB(4/5)-BD(4/5)+BC=0
BC=(11/3)P (T)

Σ MD=0
-3Cx+4(.75P)+8P=0
Cx=(11/3)P
Dx=(11/3)P


At joint E
Σ Fx=0
AE=ED
ED=(4/3)P (C)
Σ Fy=0
BE=.75P (P)

σ AB= (5/3)P
1.25
=(4/3)(8)=10.7 ksi (T)
σ BC=(11/3)P/1.25=(44/5)(8)
= 23.5 ksi (T)
σ AE=(4/3)P/1.25=(16/15)(8)
=8.53 ksi (C)
σ BE=.75P/1.25=(3/5)(8)
=4.8 ksi (T)
σ ED=(4/3)P/1.25=(16/15)(8)
=8.53 ksi (C)
σ BD=(35/12)P/1.25=(7/3)(8)
=18.7 ksi (C)

The uniform beam is supported by two rods AB and CD that have cross-sectional
areas of 12 mm
2
and 8 mm
2
, respectively. If d = 1 m, determine the average normal
stress in each rod.












Σ M
C
= 0

AB
= 12 kN.m
T
AB
=4 kN
Σ Fy = 0
TCD = 6 kN-4 kN
= 2 kN

σ
AB
= 4000 N
12(1m
2
/1000
2
)
σ
AB
=333 MPa
σ
CD
= 2000 N
8(1m
2
/1000
2
)
=250 MPa
The uniform beam is supported by two rods AB and CD that have cross-sectional
areas of 12 mm2 and 8 mm2, respectively. If d = 1 m, determine the average
normal stress in each rod.













Σ MA = 0
6d = TCD(3)
TCD = 2d

Σ Fy = 0
TAB = 6-2d
σ AB = σ CD
6-2d = 2d
12 m2 8 m2
10002 10002
(6-2d)(8)(10002) = (12)(2d)(10002)
48 = 40d
:ּ d = 1.2m
The railcar dock light is supported by the 1/8 in diameter pin at A. If the lamp
weighs 4lb, and the extension arm AB has a weight of 0.5 lb/ft, determine the
average shear stress in the pin needed to support the lamp. Hint: The shear force is
cost by the couple moment required for equilibrium at A.










0.5 lb.ft

M


Ay 4 lb
3 ft
Σ Fy = 0
Ay = 4+0.5(3)
Ay = 5.5 lb
Σ MA = 0
M = 4(3)+0.5(3)(1.5)
M = 14.25 lb.ft[12 in/1ft]
M = 171 lb.in
T = V/A = M/1.25
π r2
= 11147.47 lb/in2
= 11.1 ksi






The two member frame is subjected to the distributed loading shown. Determine
the intensity w of the largest uniform loading that can be applied to the frame w/o
causing either the average normal stress or the average shear stress at section b-b to
exceed σ = 15MPa and τ = 16MPa, respectively. Member CB has a square cross-
section of 35mm on each side.

















( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
kN W
kN W
N W
W
W
BC
kN W
N W
W
W
BC
W BC
W BC
M
y
b b
x
b b
A
8 . 21
8 . 21
78 . 777 , 21
3
5
35 16 875 . 1
5
4
5
3
2 . 27
22 . 222 , 27
3
5
35 15 875 . 1
5
3
5
3
875 . 1
5 . 1 3
5
4
3
0
2
2
· ∴
·
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
,
`

.
|
· Σ


l
l
τ
σ
Ay
A Ax B
BC
W
3m
3
5
4
1-81. The 60mm × 60mm oak post is supported on the pin block. If the allowable
bearing stresses for this material are σ oak =43MPa and σ pine =25MPa, determine
the greatest load P that can be supported. If a rigid bearing plate is used between
this material, determine its required area so that the maximum load P that can be
supported. What is this load?













σ
OAK
=43 MPa
σ
PINE
=25 MPa

σ
OAK
=P/A
[43 N/mm2][602 mm2]=P
154,800 N=P
P=154.8 kN
σ
PINE
=P/A
[25 N/mm2][602 mm2]
90000 N=P
P=90 kN

:ּ P=90 kN since this is the greatest load the pine block can told.

Since there is a bearing plate between the oak block and the pine block,
the maximum load is the allowable load by the pine block that is P≈ 155 kN



A
ALLOW
= P
MAX

OAK

= 154.8[1000/1 kN]
25N/mm2[(1000mm)2/1 m2
=6.19x10-3 m


1-82. The join is fastened together using two bolts. Determine the required
diameter of the bolts if the allowable shear stress for the bolts is τ
allow
= 110 MPa.
Assume each bolt supports an equal portion of the load.















Τ
allow
= V/4A
110 MPa = 80 kN(1000)
4π (d
2
/4)
d = √80(1000)/π (110)
d = 15.2 mm
1-83. The lever is attached to the shaft A using a key that has a width d and length
of 25mm. If the shaft is fixed and a vertical force of 200N is applied perpendicular
to the handle, determine the dimension d if the allowable shear stress for the key is
τ allow = 35MPa.










Σ Fy=0
Ay=200 N
Σ MA =0
M=200(500 mm)[1 m/1000 mm]
M=100 N.m

V=M/20 mm=100 N.m/.02 m
=5000N
A=V/TALLOW
dL=V/TALLOW
d=5000 N/(25x25) N
d=5.71 mm
20 mm
500 mm
A
d
200 N
1-86. The tension member is fastened together using two bolts, one on each side of
the member as shown. Each bolt has a diameter of 0.3 inch. Determine the
maximum P that can be applied to the member if the allowable shear stress for the
bolts is τ allow =12ksi and the allowable average normal stress is σ allow = 20ksi.








Σ Fy = 0
Vsin60º = Nsin30º
V = Nsin30º
sin60º

Σ Fx = 0
-P+Ncos30º+Vcos60º = 0
N = 0.866 P
V = 0.5 P

σ = 0.866 P
2π (0.3 in/2)2
Τ = 0.5 P/2π (0.3 in/2)2

If σ =20 ksi
P = 3.26 kip
Τ = 11.55 ksi
(safe)

If Τ =12 ksi
P = 3.39 kip
σ =20.8 ksi
(fail)

:ּ P = 3.26 kip


P P
60°
1-88. The two steel wires AB and AC are used to support the load. If both wires
have an allowable tensile stress of σ
allow
= 200 MPa, determine the required
diameter of each wire if the applied load is P = 5 kN.
















Σ Fx = 0
-F
AB
sin60º+F
AC
(4/5) = 0
F
AB
= 4F
BC
/5sin60º

Σ Fy = 0
-5+F
AB
cos60º+F
AC
(3/5) = 0
F
AC
= 4.71 kN
F
AB
= 4.35 kN
σ
AB
=4.35(1000
4
)
π (dAB)
2

d
AB
=√4.35(1000
4
)/π (200)
d
AB
= 5.26mm
σ
AC
=4.71(1000
4
)
π (d
AC
)
2

d
AC
= √4.71(1000
4
)/π (200)
= 5.48 mm




60°
A
B
C
P
4
3
5
1-89. The two steel wires AB and AC are used to support the load. If both wires
have an allowable tensile stress of σ allow = 180MPa, and wire AB has a diameter
of 6mm and AC has a diameter of 4mm, determine the greatest force P that can be
applied to the chain before one of the wires fails.



















Σ Fx = 0
-FABsin60º+FAC(4/5) = 0
FAB = 4FAC
5sin60º

Σ Fy = 0
-P+FABcos60º+FAC(3/5) = 0
FAC = 0.942 P
FAB = 0.87 P

σ AB = 0.87 P (1000)
π (9m2)

σ AC=0.942 P(1000)
π (4m2)

If σ AB = 180 MPa
60°
A
B
C
P
4
3
5
P = 5.85 kN





2-1. An air filled rubber ball that has a diameter of 6in. If the air pressure w/in it is
increase until the ball’s diameter becomes 7in., determine the average normal
strain in the robber.

P
6 in.
in
in
L
6
1
6
6 7
·

· ∈·
δ
2-2. A thin strip of rubber has an unstretched length of 15 in. If it is stretched
around a pipe having an outer diameter of 5in., determine the average normal strain
in the strip.

in
in
L
0472 . 0
15
708 . 0
· · ∈·
δ
2-3. The rigid beam is supported by a pin at A and wires BD and CE. If the load P
on the beam causes the end C to be displaced 10mm downward, determine the
normal strain developed in wires CE and BD.

D E
B C
P
A
3 m 2 m 2 m
4 m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
L
mm
BD
BD
CE
C
CE
B
B C
3
3
3
3
10 07143 . 1
10 4
7
30
10 5 . 2
10 4
10
7
30
3 7


× · ∈
×
· ∈
× · ∈
×
· · ∈
·
·
δ
δ
δ δ
2-5. The wire AB is unstretched when θ = 45°. If the load is applied to the bar AC,
w/c causes θ = 47°, determine the normal strain in the wire.

C
L
A
B
θ
L
( )
343 . 0
034290324 . 1
034290324 . 1
2 47 sin
∈·

∈·
·
·
L
L L
L x
x L
2-7. The two wires are connected together at A. If the force P causes point A to be
displaced horizontally 2mm, determine the normal strain developed in each wire.

C
A
B
30°
30°
P
3
0
0

m
m
3
0
0

m
m
( )
( )
mm
mm
x
x
3
10 779 . 5
30
734 . 1
734 . 1
cos
2 30 cos 300
300
81 . 29
2 30 cos 300
150
tan

× ∈·
°
∈·
·
+ °
· +
° ·
+ °
·
φ
φ
φ
2-9. Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of rigid member CBD and a
flexible cable AB. If the force is applied to the end D of the member and causes a
normal strain in the cable of 0.0035mm/mm, determine the displacement of D.
Originally the cable is unstretched.

P
D
B
C
A
θ
300 mm
300 mm
400 mm
2-13. The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A is given a horizontal
displacement of 5mm. Determine the average normal strain ∋
x
along the x axis.

A
A'
5 mm
800 mm
800 mm
45°
45°
x'
x
y
45°
( )
( )
mm
mm
3
10 43 . 4
800
800
75 . 44 cos
5 45 cos 800
75 . 44
5 45 cos 800
45 sin 800
tan

× ∈·

°
+ °
∈·
° ·
+ °
°
·
φ
φ
2-14 The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A is given a horizontal
displacement of 5mm. Determine the average normal strain ∋
x’
along the x’ axis.

A
A'
5 mm
800 mm
800 mm
45°
45°
x'
x
y
45°
mm
mm
L
x
x
3
10 84 . 8
45 cos 800
5
'
'

× · ∈
°
· · ∈
δ
2-15. The corners of the square plate are given the displacements indicated.
Determine the average normal strains ∋
x
and ∋
y
along the x and y axes.

A
A
D
C
10 in.
10 in.
10 in. 10 in.
2 in.
2 in.
3 in. 3 in
x
y
in
in
L
in
in
L
y
y
y
x
x
x
02 . 0
10
10 2 . 10
03 . 0
10
3 . 10 10
· ∈
·

· ∈
− · ∈
·

· ∈
δ
δ
2-21. A thin wire, lying along the x axis, is strained such that each point on the
wire is displaced x = kx
2
along the x axis. If k is constant, what is the normal
strain at any point P along the wire?

x
P
x
kx
kx
kx
dx x
k
kx
dx
dx
kx
x
2
2
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
2
2
− ∈·
− ∈·
− ·

·

·

∈·


2-22. The wire is subjected to a normal strain that is defined by ∋ - xe
-x2
, where x is
millimeters. If the wire has an initial length L, determine the increase in its length.


x
x
L
2
x
xe ∈·
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
LET
0
L
L
L
x
x
x
x
x
e L
e
e
u
du L
xdx e du
dx e x du
e u
dx xe L







− · ∆
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
− · ∆
· −
− ·
·
· ∆


2-25. The piece rubber is originally rectangular. Determine the average shear strain
γ
xy
if the corners B and D are subjected to the deformation shown by the dashed
lines. Determine the average normal strain along the diagonal DB and side AD.

D
C
B A
300 mm
400 mm
3 mm
2 mm
y
x
2-26. The piece of rubber is originally rectangular and subjected to the deformation
shown by the dashed lines. Determine the average normal strain along the diagonal
DB and side AD.

D
C
B A
300 mm
400 mm
3 mm
2 mm
y
x
mm
mm
mm
mm
AB
AB
AD
AD
6
3
10 00 . 8
500
500
229 . 0 cos
500
38 . 0
300
2
tan
10 81 . 2
400
400
43 . 0 cos
400
43 . 0
400
3
tan


× · ∈

°
· ∈
° ·
·
× · ∈

°
· ∈
° ·
·
θ
θ
φ
φ
mm
mm
w
w
BD
BD
3
2 2
2
10 8 . 6
500
500 6 . 496
6 . 496
188 . 89 cos
382 . 0 cos
300
43 . 0 cos
400
2
382 . cos
300
43 . 0 cos
400

× − · ∈

· ∈
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
2-28. The material distorts into the dashed position shown. Determine the average
normal strain that occurs along the diagonals AD and CF.

















( ) ( )( ) ( )

· ∈
·
− − + ·
2655 . 143
2655 . 143
405739 90 cos 15725 80 2 4 . 125 80
2 2
2
CF
CF
CF
B
A
80 mm
100 mm
10 mm
2 mm
y
x
25 mm
15 mm
C D
F
50 mm
( ) ( )
mm x
mm mm x
4 . 125
10 125
5739 . 4
125
10
tan
2 2 2
·
+ ·
·
·
θ
θ
2-29. The non uniform loading causes a normal strain in the shaft that can be
expressed as ∋ = kx
2
, where k is a constant. Determine the displacement of the end
B. Also, what is the average normal strain in the rod?

A B
L
x
∫ ∫
·
2
kx
2-30. The non uniform loading causes a normal strain in the shaft that can be
expresses as ∋ = k sin ((π/L)x), where k is a constant. Determine the displacement
of the center C and the average normal strain in the entire rod.

A B
L/2 L/2
C
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
k
L
kL
kL
x
k x
x
L
L
k x
dx x
L
k x
dx x
L
k x
dx
x
x
L
k
x
L
k
x
X
C
C
L
C
L
C
L
C
C
L
x
2
2
1
: STRAIN NORMAL
0 cos
2
cos
cos
sin
sin
sin
sin
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
· ∈
· ∈
· ∆
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
− · ∆
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ∆

,
`

.
|
· ∆

,
`

.
|
· ∆

·
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ∈



2-31. The curved pipe has an original radius of 2ft. If it is heated non uniformly, so
that the normal strain along its length is ∋ = 0.05cosθ, determine the increase in
length of the pipe.



A
2 ft
θ
( )
ft x
d x
d r x
rd
x
r L
1 . 0
sin 1 . 0
cos 1 . 0
cos 05 . 0
cos 05 . 0
90
0
90
0
90
0
· ∆
·
· ∆
· ∆

·
·


θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
4-27. Determine the relative displacement of one end of the tapered plate with
respect to the other end when it is subjected to an axial load P.













P
P
h
t
d2
d1
dx
y
h
2 2
1 2
d d

2 2
1
d x

2
1
d
2
x
dx
d d
h
dy
dy
h
d d
dx
d y
h
d d
x
y d y d h d xh
h
d d
y
d x
h
d d
y
d x
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
2 2 2 2

·

·
+
,
`

.
| −
·
− · −

·


·

[ ]
( )
1
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
ln
ln
ln
2
1
2
1
2
1
d
d
d d
h
tE
P
d d
d d
h
tE
P
x
d d
h
tE
P
x
dx
tE
d d
h
P
x
dx
tE
d d
h
P
xtE
dx
d d
h
P
AE
dx
d d
h
P
AE
Pdy
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·
·


δ
δ
δ
δ
4-50. The three suspender bars are made of the same material and have equal
cross-sectional areas A. Determine the average normal stress in each bar if the
rigid beam ACE is subjected to the force P.

D F
C
E
P
B
A
d/2 d/2 d
L
4-53. The 10mm diameter steel bolt is surrounded by a bronze sleeve. The outer
diameter of this sleeve is 20mm, and its inner diameter is 10mm. If the bolt is
subjected to a compressive force of P= 20kN. Determine the average normal stress
in the steel and the bronze. E
st
= 200Gpa, E
br
= 100GPa.

P
10 mm
P
20 mm
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
MPa
MPa
kN
L
E
kN P
kN P
P L LP
P L
L P
Pa
L Pb
Pb Pst kN
B
B
ST
ST ST
ST
ST
B
B B
B ST
B ST
B B
B
9 . 50
10 100 12 10 2441 . 4
102
10 200 8 10 3662 . 6
8
12
20 10 3662 . 6 10 2441 . 4
20 10 3662 . 6
10 2441 . 4
10 100 01 . 0 02 . 0
4 . 0 1000
20
9 5
9 5
5 5
5
5
9 2 2
·
× × ·
·
× × ·
·
·
·
− × · ×
·
− × ·
× ·
× −
·
+ ·


− −


σ
σ
σ
δ
σ
δ δ
δ
δ
π
δ
4-110. A 0.25in diameter steel rivet having a temperature of 1500°F is secured
between two plates such that at this temperature it is 2in long and exerts a
clamping force of 250lb between the plates. Determine the approximate clamping
force between the plates when the rivet cools to 70°F. For the calculation, assume
that the heads of the rivet and the plates are rigid. Take α
st
= 8(10
-6
)/°F, E
st
=
29(10
3
)ksi. Is the result a conservative estimate of the actual answer? Why or why
not?

































2 in.







An air filled rubber ball that has a diameter of 6in. If the air pressure w/in it is
increase until the ball’s diameter becomes 7in., determine the average normal
strain in the robber.

P
6 in.
in
in
L
6
1
6
6 7
·

· ∈·
δ
A thin strip of rubber has an unstretched length of 15 in. If it is stretched around a
pipe having an outer diameter of 5in., determine the average normal strain in the
strip.






in
in
L
0472 . 0
15
708 . 0
· · ∈·
δ
The rigid beam is supported by a pin at A and wires BD and CE. If the load P on
the beam causes the end C to be displaced 10mm downward, determine the normal
strain developed in wires CE and BD.

D E
B C
P
A
3 m 2 m 2 m
4 m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
L
mm
BD
BD
CE
C
CE
B
B C
3
3
3
3
10 07143 . 1
10 4
7
30
10 5 . 2
10 4
10
7
30
3 7


× · ∈
×
· ∈
× · ∈
×
· · ∈
·
·
δ
δ
δ δ
The wire AB is unstretched when θ = 45°. If the load is applied to the bar AC, w/c
causes θ = 47°, determine the normal strain in the wire.

C
L
A
B
θ
L
( )
343 . 0
034290324 . 1
034290324 . 1
2 47 sin
∈·

∈·
·
·
L
L L
L x
x L
The two wires are connected together at A. If the force P causes point A to be
displaced horizontally 2mm, determine the normal strain developed in each wire.

C
A
B
30°
30°
P
3
0
0

m
m
3
0
0

m
m
( )
( )
mm
mm
x
x
3
10 779 . 5
30
734 . 1
734 . 1
cos
2 30 cos 300
300
81 . 29
2 30 cos 300
150
tan

× ∈·
°
∈·
·
+ °
· +
° ·
+ °
·
φ
φ
φ
Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of rigid member CBD and a
flexible cable AB. If the force is applied to the end D of the member and causes a
normal strain in the cable of 0.0035mm/mm, determine the displacement of D.
Originally the cable is unstretched.











For the wire:












P
D
B
C
A
θ
300 mm
300 mm
400 mm
mm x
x
mm AB
AB
383 . 4
600
tan
75 . 1
500
0035 . 0
·
·
· ∆

·
θ
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
° ·
+ − ·
+ − + ·
4185 . 0
90 cos 240000 0625 . 1753
90 cos 300 400 2 300 400 75 . 501
2 2 2
θ
θ
θ
The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A is given a horizontal
displacement of 5mm. Determine the average normal strain ∋
x
along the x axis.

A
A'
5 mm
800 mm
800 mm
45°
45°
x'
x
y
45°
( )
( )
mm
mm
3
10 43 . 4
800
800
75 . 44 cos
5 45 cos 800
75 . 44
5 45 cos 800
45 sin 800
tan

× ∈·

°
+ °
∈·
° ·
+ °
°
·
φ
φ
The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A is given a horizontal
displacement of 5mm. Determine the average normal strain ∋
x’
along the x’ axis.

A
A'
5 mm
800 mm
800 mm
45°
45°
x'
x
y
45°
mm
mm
L
x
x
3
10 84 . 8
45 cos 800
5
'
'

× · ∈
°
· · ∈
δ
The corners of the square plate are given the displacements indicated. Determine
the average normal strains ∋
x
and ∋
y
along the x and y axes.

A
A
D
C
10 in.
10 in.
10 in. 10 in.
2 in.
2 in.
3 in. 3 in
x
y
in
in
L
in
in
L
y
y
y
x
x
x
02 . 0
10
10 2 . 10
03 . 0
10
3 . 10 10
· ∈
·

· ∈
− · ∈
·

· ∈
δ
δ
A thin wire, lying along the x axis, is strained such that each point on the wire is
displaced x = kx
2
along the x axis. If k is constant, what is the normal strain at
any point P along the wire?

x
P
x
kx
kx
kx
dx x
k
kx
dx
dx
kx
x
2
2
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
2
2
− ∈·
− ∈·
− ·

·

·

∈·


The wire is subjected to a normal strain that is defined by ∋ - xe
-x2
, where x is
millimeters. If the wire has an initial length L, determine the increase in its length.


x
x
L
2
x
xe ∈·
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
LET
0
L
L
L
x
x
x
x
x
e L
e
e
u
du L
xdx e du
dx e x du
e u
dx xe L







− · ∆
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
− · ∆
· −
− ·
·
· ∆


The piece rubber is originally rectangular. Determine the average shear strain γ
xy
if
the corners B and D are subjected to the deformation shown by the dashed lines.
Determine the average normal strain along the diagonal DB and side AD.

D
C
B A
300 mm
400 mm
3 mm
2 mm
y
x
The piece of rubber is originally rectangular and subjected to the deformation
shown by the dashed lines. Determine the average normal strain along the diagonal
DB and side AD.

D
C
B A
300 mm
400 mm
3 mm
2 mm
y
x
mm
mm
mm
mm
AB
AB
AD
AD
6
3
10 00 . 8
500
500
229 . 0 cos
500
38 . 0
300
2
tan
10 81 . 2
400
400
43 . 0 cos
400
43 . 0
400
3
tan


× · ∈

°
· ∈
° ·
·
× · ∈

°
· ∈
° ·
·
θ
θ
φ
φ
mm
mm
w
w
BD
BD
3
2 2
2
10 8 . 6
500
500 6 . 496
6 . 496
188 . 89 cos
382 . 0 cos
300
43 . 0 cos
400
2
382 . cos
300
43 . 0 cos
400

× − · ∈

· ∈
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
The material distorts into the dashed position shown. Determine the average
normal strain that occurs along the diagonals AD and CF.

















( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
mm
mm
mm AD
AD
mm y
mm
mm
mm CF
CF
AD
AD
CF
CF
24708 . 0
15850
15850 003 . 157
003 . 157
90 cos 80 15850 2 15850 80
9 . 125 15850
843 . 6
125
15
tan
03465 . 0
22025
22025 2655 . 143
2655 . 143
405739 90 cos 15725 80 2 4 . 125 80
2
2
2 2
2
· ∈

· ∈
·
+ − + ·
· ·
° ·
·
− · ∈

· ∈
·
− − + ·
φ
φ
φ
B
A
80 mm
100 mm
10 mm
2 mm
y
x
25 mm
15 mm
C D
F
50 mm
( ) ( )
mm x
mm mm x
4 . 125
10 125
5739 . 4
125
10
tan
2 2 2
·
+ ·
° ·
·
θ
θ
The non uniform loading causes a normal strain in the shaft that can be expresses
as ∋ = k sin ((π/L)x), where k is a constant. Determine the displacement of the
center C and the average normal strain in the entire rod.

A B
L/2 L/2
C
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
k
L
kL
kL
x
k x
x
L
L
k x
dx x
L
k x
dx x
L
k x
dx
x
x
L
k
x
L
k
x
X
C
C
L
C
L
C
L
C
C
L
x
2
2
1
: STRAIN NORMAL
0 cos
2
cos
cos
sin
sin
sin
sin
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
· ∈
· ∈
· ∆
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
− · ∆
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ∆

,
`

.
|
· ∆

,
`

.
|
· ∆

·
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ∈



The curved pipe has an original radius of 2ft. If it is heated non uniformly, so that
the normal strain along its length is ∋ = 0.05cosθ, determine the increase in length
of the pipe.



A
2 ft
θ
( )
ft x
d x
d r x
rd
x
r L
1 . 0
sin 1 . 0
cos 1 . 0
cos 05 . 0
cos 05 . 0
90
0
90
0
90
0
· ∆
·
· ∆
· ∆

·
·


θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
Determine the relative displacement of one end of the tapered plate with respect to
the other end when it is subjected to an axial load P.













P
P
h
t
d2
d1
dx
d d
h
dy
dy
h
d d
dx
d y
h
d d
x
y d y d h d xh
h
d d
y
d x
h
d d
y
d x
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
2 2 2 2

·

·
+
,
`

.
| −
·
− · −

·


·

[ ]
( )
1
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
ln
ln
ln
2
1
2
1
2
1
d
d
d d
h
tE
P
d d
d d
h
tE
P
x
d d
h
tE
P
x
dx
tE
d d
h
P
x
dx
tE
d d
h
P
xtE
dx
d d
h
P
AE
dx
d d
h
P
AE
Pdy
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·
·


δ
δ
δ
δ
dx
y
h
2 2
1 2
d d

2 2
1
d x

2
1
d
2
x
The three suspender bars are made of the same material and have equal cross-
sectional areas A. Determine the average normal stress in each bar if the rigid
beam ACE is subjected to the force P.














D F
C
E
P
B
A
d/2 d/2 d
L
EF EF
CD CD
AB AB
F P
A
P
F P
A
P
F P
A
P
F P
A
P
· ·
· ·
· ·
· ·
,
,
,
,
σ
σ
σ
σ
( ) ( )
2
3
2
2
3
2
: 0
0
P
F F
d
P d F d F
M
P F F F
Fy
CD AB
CD AB
E
EF CD AB
· +

,
`

.
|
· +
· Σ
· + +
· Σ
3 .
2
3
2
2 . 0 2
1 .
0 2
2 2
1 2
2
`
2
eqn
P
F F
eqn F F F
eqn P F F F
F F F
F F F F
F F F F
d
A
F
A
F
d
A
F
A
F
d d
CD AB
EF CD AB
EF CD AB
EF CD AB
EF CD EF AB
EF CD EF AB
EF CD EF AB
EF CD EF AB
· +
· + −
· + +
· + −
− · −

·


·


·
− σ σ σ σ
P F
P F
P F F
p
F F
g u F inate e
eqn P F F
P F F
F F F
g u F inate e
eqn
p
F F
P F F
P F F F
g u F inate e
AB
AB
EF AB
EF AB
EF
EF AB
CD AB
EF CD AB
CD
EF AB
CD AB
EF CD AB
Cd
12
7
2
7
6
3 5
2
) 5 & 4 ( sin lim
5 . 3 5
2
3
2
0 2
) 3 & 2 ( sin lim
4 .
2
2
3
2
) 3 & 1 ( sin lim
·
− · −
· +

· + −
· +
· +
· + −

· + −
· +
· + +
A
P
A
P
A
P
P
F
P
P
F P
g u F solve
p
F
p
F P
g u F solve
EF
CD
AB
CD
Cd
CD
EF
EF
EF
12
3
12
7
3
12 12
7
) 1 ( sin
12
2 12
7
) 4 ( sin
·
·
·
·
· + +
·
− · + −
σ
σ
σ
(Mindanao State University-General Santos City, Philippines)
BSEE-(G.R.F) students

The 10mm diameter steel bolt is surrounded by a bronze sleeve. The outer
diameter of this sleeve is 20mm, and its inner diameter is 10mm. If the bolt is
subjected to a compressive force of P= 20kN. Determine the average normal stress
in the steel and the bronze. E
st
= 200Gpa, E
br
= 100GPa.

P
10 mm
P
20 mm
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
MPa
MPa
kN
L
E
kN P
kN P
P L LP
P L
L P
Pa
L Pb
Pb Pst kN
B
B
ST
ST ST
ST
ST
B
B B
B ST
B ST
B B
B
9 . 50
10 100 12 10 2441 . 4
102
10 200 8 10 3662 . 6
8
12
20 10 3662 . 6 10 2441 . 4
20 10 3662 . 6
10 2441 . 4
10 100 01 . 0 02 . 0
4 . 0 1000
20
9 5
9 5
5 5
5
5
9 2 2
·
× × ·
·
× × ·
·
·
·
− × · ×
·
− × ·
× ·
× −
·
+ ·


− −


σ
σ
σ
δ
σ
δ δ
δ
δ
π
δ
A 0.25in diameter steel rivet having a temperature of 1500°F is secured between
two plates such that at this temperature it is 2in long and exerts a clamping force of
250lb between the plates. Determine the approximate clamping force between the
plates when the rivet cools to 70°F. For the calculation, assume that the heads of
the rivet and the plates are rigid. Take α
st
= 8(10
-6
)/°F, E
st
= 29(10
3
)ksi. Is the result
a conservative estimate of the actual answer? Why or why not?


































2 in.
( )
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
kips P
P
kips P
P
AE
PL
T L
T
T
TH
TH
54 . 16
25 . 0 289 . 16
29 . 16
10 29 25 . 0
4
2
1500 70 2 10 8
3 2
6
·
+ ·
·
×
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
· − ×
− · ∆

π
α


The rubber block is subjected to an elongation of 0.03 in along the x axis, and its
vertical faces are given a tilt so that ° · 3 . 89 θ .Determine the strains
x
∈ ,
x
∈ ,
xy
γ .
Take 5 . 0 ·
r
v



















Finding
x




Finding
y


( )
in
in
y
y
x y
00375 . 0
0075 . 0 5 . 0
− · ∈
· ∈
∈ − · ∈ υ


Finding
xy
γ

in
in
in
in
x
x
0075 . 0
4
03 . 0
· ∈
· ∈
4 in.
3 in.
θ
y
x
( )( )
rad
xy
xy
0122 . 0
180
3 . 89 90
·
° − ° ·
γ
π
γ







The non uniform loading causes a normal strain in the shaft that can be expressed
as ∋ = kx
2
, where k is a constant. Determine the displacement of the end B. Also,
what is the average normal strain in the rod?

A B
L
x
∫ ∫
·
2
kx















































5- 2. The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’
of the inner core of the shaft that resists one-half of the applied torque (T/2).












r r'
T








by ratio and proportion:
7651 . 32 cos '
841 . 0 '
2
'
2
'
' 2
'
2
'
4
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
max
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
T
r
T
r r
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
π π
τ τ
5-3. The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’
of the inner core of the shaft that resists one-quarter of the applied torque (T/4).










45 sin '
707 . 0 '
4
'
4
'
' 2
'
2
'
' 2
.)
2
' '
)
2
( 2
4
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
max
3
3
max
3 3
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
T
r
T
r r
r
T
b
r
T
r
T
r
T
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
· ·
π π
τ τ
π
τ
π
τ
π π
τ









r r'
T


5-5. The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 2.50 in. and an inner diameter of
2.30 in. If it is tightly secured to the wall at C and the three torques are applied to it
as shown, determine the shear stress developed at points A and B. These points lie
on the pipe’s outer surface. Sketch the shear stress on the volume elements located
at A and B.











sol’n:







C
B
A
600 lb-ft
350 lb-ft
450 lb-ft
τ
max
450 lb⋅ft = 5400 lb⋅in
350 lb⋅ft = 4200 lb⋅in
600 lb⋅ft = 7200 lb⋅in

5400 + 4200 – 7200
= 2400
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
B
B
B
76 . 2
6 . 2758
3 . 2 5 . 2
5 . 2 2400 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
7200 - 4200
= 3000
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
B
A
A
45 . 3
3 . 3448
3 . 2 5 . 2
5 . 2 3000 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
5-10. The link acts as part of the elevator control for a small airplane. If the
attached aluminum tube has an inner diameter of 25 mm, determine the maximum
shear stress in the tube when the cable force of 600 N is applied to the cables. Also,
sketch the shear stress distribution over the cross section.











600 N
600 N
25mm
5mm
75mm
75mm
MPa
x
J
Tr
MPa
m x
Nm
J
Tr
m x J
d D J
Nm T
T
M
x
40 . 10
) 10 108 (
) 0125 . 0 )( 90 (
45 . 14
) 10 108 (
) 075 . 0 )( 90 (
10 108
) 025 . 0 035 . 0 (
32
) (
32
90
) 075 . 0 )( 600 ( 2
; 0
9
4 9
2
max
4 9
4 4
4 4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
− ·
·
·
· ∑



τ
τ
π
π


5-13. A steel tube having an outer diameter of 2.5 in. is used to transmit 35 hp
when turning at 2700 rev/min. Determine the inner diameter d of the tube to
nearest 1/8 in. if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10 ksi.









2.5 in.
d
Given:

?
/ 75 . min / 2700
/ . 250 , 19 3
/ 000 , 10
5 . 2
2
·
· ·
· · Ρ
·
d
s rev rev f
s ft lb hp
in ld
in D
allow
τ

Solution:

in lb T
T
T
T
. 97 . 4084
) 75 . 0 ( 2
19250
)] 75 . 0 ( 2 [ 19250
·
·
·
· Ρ
π
π
ω


r
d
r
r
r
r
r
·
·
·
− ·
]
]
]

· −

·
2
206 . 1
649 . 6
10000
) 2 )( 25 . 1 )( 4084097 (
) 25 . 1 (
10000
) 25 . 1 )( 97 . 4084 (
2
) (
2
) 25 . 1 (
) 25 . 1 (
2
) 25 . 1 ( 97 . 4084
4
4 4
2
4 4
4 4
max
π
π π
π π
π
τ

in d 4 . 2 · ; 5 . 0
8
1
4 ·
in d
2
1
2 ·
5-17. The steel shaft has a diameter of 1 in. and is screwed into the wall using a
wrench. Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft if the couple forces have
a magnitude of F = 30 lb.











sol’n:



8in.
8in.
F
F
12in
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
AB
AB
AB
8 . 7
72 . 7818
68 . 0 75 . 0
75 . 0 210 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
BC
BC
BC
36 . 2
2361
86 . 0 1
1 210 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
AB D = 0.75 in
d = 0.68 in
BC D = 1 in
d = 0.86 in
( ) ( )
in lb T
T M
A
⋅ ·
· + ·

210
8 15 6 15
5-21. The 20-mm-diameter steel shafts are connected using a brass coupling. If the
yield point for the steel is (τ
Y
)
st
= 100 MPa, determine the applied torque T
necessary to cause the steel to yield. If d = 40 mm, determine the maximum shear
stress in the brass. The coupling has an inner diameter of 20 mm.










d
T
T
20mm
To find the T; steel;

Nm T
T
x
r
T
s
s
s
07 . 157
) 010 . 0 (
2
10 100
2
3
6
3
·
·
·
π
π
τ


To find the max.., τ ; brass;

MPa
r R
TR
3 . 13
) 01 . 0 02 . 0 (
) 02 . 0 )( 07 . 157 ( 2
) (
2
4 4
4 4
·

·

·
τ
π
π
τ
5-22. The coupling is used to connect the two shafts together. Assuming that the
shear stress in the bolts is uniform, determine the number of bolts necessary to
make the maximum shear in the shaft equal to the shear stress in the bolts. Each
bolt has a diameter d.








Soln:






R
T
T
r
2
3
2 3
3
2
2
2
2
4 2
2 ;
2
1 ;
4
4
4
d
r
n
Rn d
T
r
T
r
T
Rn d
T
Rn
d
T
PRn T
d
P
A
P
·
·
> < ·
> < ·

,
`

.
|
⋅ ·
·
⋅ ·
·
π π
π
τ
π
τ
τ
π
τ
π
τ
5-29. The shaft has a diameter of 80 mm and due to friction at its surface within
the hole, it is subjected to a variable torque described by the function
( )
2
25
x
x t · N⋅m/m, where x is in meters. Determine the minimum torque T
0
needed
to overcome friction and cause it to twist. Also, determine the absolute maximum
stress in the shaft.










( )
2
25
x
xe t ·
T
o

80mm
x
2m
Solution:
d=80mm=0.08 m
( )
2
25
x
xe t ·
3
16
d
T
π
τ ·
dx xe T
x
2
2
0
25

·
dx xe T
x

·
2
0
2
25
let u=
2
x
du=2x dx
du/2=x dx

x=0, u=0
x=2,u=4

·
4
0
2
25 du e
T
u

















du e
u

·
4
0
5 . 12
[ ]
4
0
5 . 12
u
e ·
[ ] 1 5 . 12
4
− · e
Nm T 670 ·
MPa 66 . 6 · τ
3 3
) 10 80 (
) 670 ( 16

·
x π
3
16
d
T
π
τ ·
5-30. The solid shaft has a linear taper from
A
r at one end to
B
r at the other. Derive
and equation that gives the maximum shear stress in the shaft at a location x along
the shaft’s axis.

r
B

x
L
r
A


r
o


L
x
T
T
Solution:


1
r r r
B
+ ·
L
r r
x L
r
B A

·

1

L
x L r r
r
B A
) )( (
1
− −
·

L
x L r r
r r
B A
B
) )( ( − −
+ ·
L
x L r r L r
r
B A B
) )( ( − − +
·
L
x L r r x L L r
r
B A B
) ( ) ( − − − +
·
L
x L r x L L r
r
A B
) ( )] ( [ − + − −
·
L
x L r x r
r
A B
) ( ) ( − +
·
L
x L r xr
r
A B
) ( − +
·















3
16
d
T
π
τ · ;
2
d
r ·

3 3
8
2
r d
r d
·
·



3
8
16
r
T
π
τ ·

3
2
r
T
π
·
3
) (
2
]
]
]

− +
·
L
x L r xr
T
A B
π
τ
[ ]
3
3
) (
2
x L r xr
TL
A B
− +
·
π
τ

5-32. The drive shaft AB of an automobile is made of a steel having an allowable
shear stress of τ
allow
= 8 ksi. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 2.5 in. and the
engine delivers 200 hp to the shaft when it is turning at 1140 rev/min, determine
the minimum required thickness of the shaft’s wall.


Given: psi ksi 8000 8 · · τ
in D 5 . 2 ·
s lbft hp / 000 , 100 200 · · Ρ
sec / 19 min / 1140 rev rev f · ·
? · t
Solutions:

f
T
π 2
Ρ
·

) / 19 ( 2
/ 000 , 100
s rev
s lbft
π
·
lbft T 66 . 837 · or
lbin 89 . 051 , 10 ·


) (
16
4 4
d D
TD

·
π
τ

) 5 . 2 (
) 5 . 2 )( 89 . 051 , 10 ( 16
000 , 8
4 4
d
psi

·
π


) 000 , 8 (
65 . 402075
) 5 . 2 (
4 4
π
· − d

4
4
23
998 . 15 39
·
− ·
d
d

in d 19 . 2 ·

Thickness:

2
D
R · ;
2
d
r ·
2
5 . 2
· R
2
19 . 2
· r
25 . 1 · R 1 . 1 · r

r R t − ·

in t
t
15 . 0
1 . 1 25 . 1
·
− ·

5-33. The drive shaft AB of an automobile is to be designed as a thin walled tube.
The engine delivers 150 hp when the shaft is turning at 1500 rev/min. Determine
the minimum thickness of the shaft’s wall if the shaft’s outer diameter is 2.5 in.
The material has an allowable shear stress τ
allow
= 7 ksi.






Given



?
000 , 7 7
5 . 2
/ 25 min / 500 , 1
/ 000 , 75 150
min
·
· ·
·
· ·
· · Ρ
t
psi ksi
in D
s rev rev f
s lbft hp
τ


Solution

f
T
π 2
Ρ
·

) / 25 ( 2
/ 000 , 75
s rev
s lbft
π
·

lbin T
lbft T
58 . 729 , 5
46 . 477
·
·



in d
d
d
d
d
d D
Td
29 . 2
5968 . 27
42 . 10 39
) 000 , 7 (
183 , 229
39
) 5 . 2 (
) 5 . 2 )( 58 . 5729 ( 16
000 , 7
) (
16
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
·
·
− ·
· −

·

·
π
π
π
τ




Thickness:

in R
R
D
R
25 . 1
2
5 . 2
2
·
·
·
;
in r
r
d
r
146 . 1
2
29 . 2
2
·
·
·



in t
t
r R t
104 . 0
15 . 1 25 . 1
·
− ·
− ·












5-34. The drive shaft of a tractor is to be designed as a thin-walled tube. The
engine delivers 200 hp when the shaft is turning at 1200 rev/min. Determine the
minimum thickness of the wall of the shaft if the shaft’s outer diameter is 3 in. The
material has an allowable shear stress of τ
allow
= 7 ksi.




Given:

ksi
in D
s rev rev f
s ft lb hp
7
3
/ 20 min / 1200
/ . 100000 200
·
·
· ·
· · Ρ
τ

psi 7000 ·
?
max
· t
Solution:

lbft T
lbft T
s rev
s lbft
T
f
T
3 . 9549
8 . 795
) / 20 ( 2
/ 100000
2
·
·
·
Ρ
·
π
π



in d
d
d
d
d
d D
TD
785 . 2
16 . 60
84 . 20 81
) 7000 (
4 . 458366
81
) 3 (
) 3 )( 3 . 9549 ( 16
7000
) (
16
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
·
·
− ·
· −

·

·
π
π
π
τ


Max Thickness:

2
D
R ·
5-35. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. If it is rotating at 200 rad/s. determine its largest inner
diameter to the nearest 1/8 in. If the allowable shear stress for the material is τ
allow
=
25 ksi.










A B
6 in.
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
in d
d
d
d D
TD
in lb T
T
p
T
75 . 1
11 . 6 16
2
2 15000 16
25000
16
15000
200
250000
4
4 4
4 4
·
− ·

·

·
⋅ ·
·
·
π
π
τ
ω
lb ft
hp
s lb ft
hp
s lb ft hp
in lb
ksi
/ 250000
/ 500
500
/ 500 1
/ 25000
25
2
·

,
`

.
| ⋅
⋅ ·
·
· τ
5-36. The drive shaft of a tractor is made of a steel tube having an allowable shear
stress of τ
allow
= 6 ksi. If the outer diameter is 3 in. and the engine delivers 175 hp
to the shaft when it is turning at 1250 rev/min. determine the minimum required
thickness of the shaft’s wall.




A B
6 in.
5-37. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest
angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material
is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.





A B
6 in.
5-38. The 0.75 in. diameter shaft for the electric motor develops 0.5 hp and runs at
1740 rev/min. Determine the torque produced and compute the maximum shear
stress in the shaft. The shaft is supported by ball bearings at A and B.













A B
6 in.
5-42. The motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest
angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material
is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.











A
B
5-46. The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T at its ends. Show that the
maximum shear strain developed in the shaft is γ
max
= Tc/JG. What is the shear
strain on an element located at point A, c/2 from the center of the shaft? Sketch the
strain distortion of this element.








5-74. A rod is made from two segments: AB is steel and BC is brass. It is fixed at
its ends and subjected to a torque of T = 680 N⋅m. If the steel portion has a
diameter of 30mm. determine the required diameter of the brass portion so the
reactions at the walls will be the same. G
st
= 75 GPa, G
br
= 39 GPa.












sol’n:


θ
AB
= θ
BC





















680 N⋅m
1.60 m
0.75 m
C
A
B
BC AB
JG
TL
JG
TL
·
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
9
4
9
4
10 39
32
6 . 1 680
10 75
32
030 . 0
75 . 0 680
d π π
·
( )( )( )
( )( ) 39 75 . 0
75 030 . 0 6 . 1
4
4
· d
( )
4
4 6
10 3 . 3 m d

·
m d 0427 . 0 ·
mm d 7 . 42 ·






5-78. The composite shaft consists of a mid section that includes the 1-in-diameter
solid shaft and a tube that is welded to the rigid flanges at A and B. Neglect the
thickness of the flanges and determine the angle of twist of end C of the shaft
relative to end D. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 100-lb.ft. The material is A-
36 steel.





























d
T
T
20mm










The solid shaft has a diameter of 0.75 in. If it is subjected to a torque shown,
determine the maximum shear stress developed in regions BC and DE of the shaft.
The bearings at A and B allow free rotation of the shaft.





( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
ksi
ksi
ft lb
ft lb T
ft lb T
T
DE
DE
BC
BC
BC
DE
BC
AB
62 . 3
75 . 0
32
12 375 . 0 25
07 . 5
75 . 0
32
12 358 . 0 35
. 35
. 25
. 35
0
4
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
τ
τ
π
τ
τ
The solid shaft has a diameter of 0.75 in. If it is subjected to a torque shown,
determine the maximum shear stress developed in regions CD and EF of the shaft.
The bearings at A and F allow free rotation of the shaft.





( )( )( )
( )
ksi
ft lb T
T
CD
CD
EF
CD
EF
17 . 2
75 . 0
32
12 375 . 0 15
0
. 15
0
4
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
τ
τ
5-49. The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel shaft are subjected to
the torque shown. Determine the angle of twist of end B with respect to the end A.
The shaft has a diameter of 40 mm.





5-58. The engine of the helicopter is delivering 600 hp to he rotor shaft AB when
the blade is rotating at 1200 rev/min. Determine the nearest 1/8 in. diameter of the
shaft AB if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 8 ksi and the vibrations limit the
angle of twist of the shaft to 0.05 rad. The shaft is 2 ft. long and made from 1.2
steel.

5-59.The engine of the helicopter is delivering 600 hp to he rotor shaft AB when
the blade is rotating at 1200 rev/min. Determine the nearest 1/8 in. diameter of the
shaft AB if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10.5 ksi and the vibrations limit the
angle of twist of the shaft to 0.05 rad. The shaft is 2 ft. long and made from 1.2
steel.

5-6. the solid 1.25 in diameter shaft is used to transmit the torques applied to the
gears. If it is supported by smooth bearings at A and B, which do not resist torque,
determine the shear stress developed in the shaft at points C and D. Indicate the
shear stress on volume elements located at these points.

5-7. The shaft has an outer diameter of 1.25 in and an inner diameter of 1 in. If it is
subjected to the applied torques as shown, determine the absolute maximum shear
stress developed in the shaft. The smooth bearings at A and B do not resist torque.

5-50.The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel shaft are subjected to
the torques shown. Determine the angle of twist of gear C with respect to gear D.
The shaft has a diameter of 40 mm.











































6-1. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and B
exerts only vertical reactions on the shaft.














( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
[ ]
0
5 . 7 5 . 7
5 . 7
5 . 7
5 . 31 24
24
0
. 8 . 0 5 . 31 25 . 0 24
. 6
25 . 0 24
5 . 7
5 . 31 24
0
5 . 31
05 . 1 24 8 . 0
0
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
· − ·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
B
B
B
A
A
o
B
B
A
L A
B
B
Y
A
A
B
V
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN V
M
m kN M
m kN M
M
kN R
R
F
kN R
R
M
L
L
L
L
250 mm 800 mm
A B
24 kN
RA
RB
-24 kN
7.5 kN
-6 kN⋅m







6-2. The load binder is used to support a load. If the force applied to the handle is
50lb, determine the tensions T
1
and T
2
in each end of the chain and then draw the
shear and moment diagrams for the arm ABC.





































( )
( )
( )
0
200 200
200
200
250 50
50
50
200
50 250
0
250
3 15 50
0
2
2
1
1
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
C
C
C
B
B
B
A
Y
c
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb lb V
lb V
lb V
lb T
lb lb T
F
lb T
T
M
L
L
50 lb
T2
T1
C
B
A
12 in.
3 in.
200 lb
-50 lb
-600 lb⋅in






5- 2. The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’
of the inner core of the shaft that resists one-half of the applied torque (T/2).












r r'
T

5-3. The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’
of the inner core of the shaft that resists one-quarter of the applied torque (T/4).










5-5. The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 2.50 in. and an inner diameter of
2.30 in. If it is tightly secured to the wall at C and the three torques are applied to it
as shown, determine the shear stress developed at points A and B. These points lie
on the pipe’s outer surface. Sketch the shear stress on the volume elements located
at A and B.














5-10. The link acts as part of the elevator control for a small airplane. If the
attached aluminum tube has an inner diameter of 25 mm, determine the maximum
shear stress in the tube when the cable force of 600 N is applied to the cables. Also,
sketch the shear stress distribution over the cross section.





r r'
T
C
B
A
600 lb-ft
350 lb-ft
450 lb-ft
600 N
600 N
25mm
5mm
75mm
75mm






5-13. A steel tube having an outer diameter of 2.5 in. is used to transmit 35 hp
when turning at 2700 rev/min. Determine the inner diameter d of the tube to
nearest 1/8 in. if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10 ksi.









2.5 in.
d

5-17. The steel shaft has a diameter of 1 in. and is screwed into the wall using a
wrench. Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft if the couple forces have
a magnitude of F = 30 lb.














8in.
8in.
F
F
12in
5-21. The 20-mm-diameter steel shafts are connected using a brass coupling. If the
yield point for the steel is (τ
Y
)
st
= 100 MPa, determine the applied torque T
necessary to cause the steel to yield. If d = 40 mm, determine the maximum shear
stress in the brass. The coupling has an inner diameter of 20 mm.










5-22. The coupling is used to connect the two shafts together. Assuming that the
shear stress in the bolts is uniform, determine the number of bolts necessary to
make the maximum shear in the shaft equal to the shear stress in the bolts. Each
bolt has a diameter d.









5-29. The shaft has a diameter of 80 mm and due to friction at its surface within
the hole, it is subjected to a variable torque described by the function
( )
2
25
x
x t · N⋅m/m, where x is in meters. Determine the minimum torque T
0
needed
to overcome friction and cause it to twist. Also, determine the absolute maximum
stress in the shaft.








d
T
T
20mm
R
T
T
r
( )
2
25
x
xe t ·
T
o

80mm
x
2m






5-30. The solid shaft has a linear taper from
A
r at one end to
B
r at the other. Derive
and equation that gives the maximum shear stress in the shaft at a location x along
the shaft’s axis.










T
T
x
A
L
r
B
r
A
B
5-35. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. If it is rotating at 200 rad/s. determine its largest inner
diameter to the nearest 1/8 in. If the allowable shear stress for the material is τ
allow
=
25 ksi.











5-36. The drive shaft of a tractor is made of a steel tube having an allowable shear
stress of τ
allow
= 6 ksi. If the outer diameter is 3 in. and the engine delivers 175 hp
to the shaft when it is turning at 1250 rev/min. determine the minimum required
thickness of the shaft’s wall.




A B
A B
6 in.
6 in.
5-37. A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest
angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material
is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.










5-38. The 0.75 in. diameter shaft for the electric motor develops 0.5 hp and runs at
1740 rev/min. Determine the torque produced and compute the maximum shear
stress in the shaft. The shaft is supported by ball bearings at A and B.










5-42. The motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an
outer diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest
angular velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material
is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.









A B
A B
6 in.
6 in.
A
B






5-74. A rod is made from two segments: AB is steel and BC is brass. It is fixed at
its ends and subjected to a torque of T = 680 N⋅m. If the steel portion has a
diameter of 30mm. determine the required diameter of the brass portion so the
reactions at the walls will be the same. G
st
= 75 GPa, G
br
= 39 GPa.











5-78. The composite shaft consists of a mid section that includes the 1-in-diameter
solid shaft and a tube that is welded to the rigid flanges at A and B. Neglect the
thickness of the flanges and determine the angle of twist of end C of the shaft
relative to end D. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 100-lb.ft. The material is A-
36 steel.




















680 N⋅m
1.60 m
0.75 m
C
A
B
d
T
T
20mm






6-3. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and D
exert only vertical reactions on the shaft. The loading is applied to the pulleys at B
and C and E.





























6-4. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for
the beam.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
. } 12 76 . 142
27 110 47 80 61 24 . 82 {
. 24 . 420
15 110 35 80 49 24 . 82
. 16 . 1196
20 80 34 24 . 82
. 36 . 1151
. 14 24 . 82
0
35
76 . 107
24 . 2
24 . 82
24 . 82
76 . 142 35 110 80
0
76 . 142
61 35 34 110 14 80 49
0
·
+
− − · Σ
− ·
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
·
·
− ·
·
·
·
− + + ·
· Σ
·
+ + ·
· Σ
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
E
E
D
D
C
C
B
B
E
D
C
B
A
A
A
Y
D
D
A
M
in lb
M
in lb M
M
in lb M
M
in lb M
in lb M
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
A
B C D
E
14 in. 20 in. 15 in. 12 in.
80 lb 110 lb 35 lb
82.4 lb
2.24 lb
107.76 lb
35 lb
1151.36 lb.ft
1196 lb.ft
-420.24 lb.ft








































( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
4 2 8 2 12 2 16 2 20 4
. 16
4 2 8 2 12 2 16 4
. 24
4 2 8 2 12 4
. 24
4 2 8 4
. 16
4
2
4 2
: symmetry By
·
− − − − · Σ
·
− − − ·
·
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
· Σ
· ·
· ·
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
F
F
E
E
D
D
C
C
B
F A
F A
M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
kip R R
R R
4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft
2 kip 2 kip 2 kip 2 kip
4 kip
2 kip
-2 kip
-4 kip
16 kip.ft
24 kip.ft
16 kip.ft





6-5. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the rod. It is supported by a pin at A
and a smooth plate at B. The plate slides w/in the groove and so it cannot support a
vertical force, although it can support a moment.
































( ) ( )
m kN M
m kN M
M
kN R
F
L
C
B
B
A
Y
. 60
. 30
2 15 4 15
5 . 1
0
· Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
A
B
4 m 2 m
15 kN
15 kN
30 kN.m
60 kN.m











6-6. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and B
exert only vertical reactions on the shaft. Also, express the shear and moment in
the shaft as a function of x w/in the region 125mm<x<725mm.












( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 075 . 0 2500 675 . 0 800 8 . 0 625 . 815
. 328 . 111
6 . 0 800 725 . 0 625 . 815
. 953 . 101
125 . 0 625 . 815
37 . 1484
625 . 815 1500 800
0
625 . 815
75 1500 675 800 800
0
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
·
− + ·
· Σ
·
+ ·
· Σ
L
L
L
L
B
D
D
C
C
B
B
Y
A
A
B
M
m N M
M
m N M
M
N R
R
F
N R
R
M
125 mm
A
B
800 N
815.625 N
1500 N
600 mm 75 mm
x
15.625 N
-1484.375 N
101953 N.m
111328 N.m













6-7. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the
beam.

























( )
( ) m N x M
x x M
N V
. 100 625 . 15
125 . 0 800 625 . 815
625 . 16
725mm x 125mm @
+ ·
− − ·
·
< <
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
0
. 15
3 8 39
. 39
2 18 75
0
8
10 18
18
. 75
15 5 8 2 10
18
0
· Σ
− ·
+ − · Σ
− ·
+ − · Σ
·
·
− ·
·
− ·
− − − · Σ
·
· Σ
B
B
B
C
C
B
C
C
A
A
A
A
Y
M
m kN M
M
m kN M
M
V
kN V
kN V
kN V
m kN M
M
kN R
F
L
L
L
L
L
L
10 kN 8 kN
2 m 3 m
15 kN.m
18 kN
8 kN
-39 kN.m
-15 kN.m
-75 kN.m

















6-8. Draw the shear and moment for the pipe. The end screw is subjected to a
horizontal force of 5kN. Hint: the reaction at the pin C must be replaced by
equivalent loadings at point B on the axis of the pipe.





































( )
( )( )
( )
0
4 . 0 4 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0 1
0
0
1
1
1
8 . 0 5 4 . 0
0
1
8 . 0 5 4 . 0
0
·
⋅ + ⋅ − ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
·
− ·
− ·
·
·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
·
m kN m kN M
m kN
m kN M
M
kN V
kN V
kN R
R
M
kN R
R
M
B
BL
A
BL
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
5 kN
400 mm
80 mm
A
B
C
-1 kN
-0.4
kN.m






6-9. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. Hint: the 20kip load must
be replaced by equivalent loadings at point C on the axis of the beam.










( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0
4 33 . 3 33 . 13
33 . 13
20 4 15 8 67 . 11
67 . 46
4 67 . 11
0
33 . 3
0 15 67 . 11
33 . 3 33 . 3 67 . 11
33 . 3 67 . 11
67 . 11 38 . 3
20 8 15 12 20 4 15 12
0 0
·
− ·
⋅ ·
− − · Σ
⋅ ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· − ·
+ − · ·
− · ·
· ·
+ · − ·
· Σ · Σ
B
DL
CL
A
C
B CL
BL A
A B
A B
B A
M
ft kip
M
ft kip
M
M
kip
kip V
V kip V
kip V kip V
kip R kip R
R R
M M
6-10. The engine crane is used to support the engine, which has a weight of 1200
lb. Draw the shear and moment diagrams of the boom ABC when it is in the
horizontal position shown.






( )
( )
( )
0
6000 6000
6000
2
3 2000
0
0
1200 1200
1200
1200
3200 2000
2000
2000
3200
1200 2000
0
5 2000 5
0
·
⋅ − − · Σ
⋅ − ·
− · Σ
· Σ
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
+ ·
· Σ
·
· Σ
ft lb M
ft lb
M
M
lb lb V
lb V
lb
lb lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
lb lb R
F
ft lb R
M
CL
BL
A
CL
CL
B
AL
A
B
B
Y
A
B
A
B C
4 ft
3 ft 5 ft
1200 lb
-2000
1200
-6000
6-12. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the compound beam w/c is pin
connected at B. It is supported by a pin at A and a fix wall at C.








( ) ( )
0
4 4
4
4
8 4
4
4
10 6
6
6
4
10 14
0
10
32 108
4 8 18 6 14
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
+ ·
+ ·
· Σ
kip kip V
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
kip V
kip R
R
F
kip R
R
M
C
CL
D
DL
A
AL
O
C
C
y
A
A
C
( )( )
0
16 16
16
24 40
24
4 6
0
·
⋅ − ⋅ ·
⋅ ·
⋅ − ⋅ ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
ft kip ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip M
M
CL
DL
AL
o
A
8 kip 6 kip
B
C
4 ft 6 ft 4 ft 4 ft
4
-6
-4
16
-24
6-15. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. Also, determine the
shear and moment in the beam as a function of x, where 3ft<x<15ft.






































( )( )( )
( )
( )
ft kip
Area M
ft x
x
Similar By
kip R
R
F
kip R
R
M
C
B
B
A
A
B
⋅ ·
− ·
− ·
− ∆ ·
·
·

·
− ·
· Σ ↑
·
+ ·
· Σ
79 . 7
50 778 . 67
50 778 . 8
2
167 . 13
50
778 . 8
167 . 13
12
18
:
833 . 4
167 . 13 12 5 . 1
0
167 . 13
6 12 5 . 1 50 12
0
( )
( ) ( )
( )
25 . 46 667 . 17 75 . 0
75 . 6 5 . 4 75 . 0 5 . 39 167 . 13
9 6 75 . 0 5 . 39 167 . 13
3
2
5 . 1
3 167 . 13
5 . 1 7667 . 17
3 5 . 1 167 . 13
: 15 3 @
2
2
2
2
− + − ·
− + − − ·
+ − − − ·
− − − ·
− ·
− − ·
≤ <
x x M
x x x
x x x
x x M
x V
x V
ft x ft
50 kip.ft
1.5 kip/ft
A
B
3 ft 12 ft
x
x
C
13.167
-4.833
7.79 kip.ft
-50 kip.ft




6-16. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.







( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
0
4 8 800 12 8 800 51200
25600
4 8 800 51200
51200
4 8 800 12 8 800
0
8 800 8 800
0
·
− − · Σ
⋅ ·
− · Σ
⋅ ·
− · Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
C
B
A
A
y
M
ft lb
M
ft lb
M
R
F
( )
0
6400 6400
6400
8 800
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
CL
BL
A
V
lb
V
V
800 lb/ft
A
B
8 ft
800 lb/ft
8 ft
-6400
25600
51200
6-17. The 50lb man sits in the center of the boat, w/c has a uniform width and
weight per linear foot of 3lb/ft. Determine the maximum bending moment exerted
on the boat. Assume that the water exerts a uniform distributed load upward on the
bottom of the boat.



( )
0
2
1
75 . 0 75
0
13
15
150 45
0
0
·
⋅ ·
∆ ·
·
·
+
·
· Σ
C
B
A
o
y
M
ft lb
Area M
M
ft
lb
w
w
F
( ) ( )
( )
o
V
lb
lb V
lb
V
V
CL
B
BL
A
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
·
75 75
75
150 75
75
5 . 7 3 5 . 7 13
0
150 lb
7.5 ft 7.5 ft
75 lb
-75 lb
281.25 lb.ft
2° 2°
6-18. The footing supports the load transmitted by the two columns. Draw the
shear and moment diagrams for the footing if the reaction of soil pressure on the
footing is assumed to be uniform.









( )
( )
0
7
7
14 7
7
12
6
7
7
7
14 7
7
6
6
7
6
7
24
28
14 14 24
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
·
·
+ ·
· Σ
kip kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
ft
ft
kip
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip
ft
ft
kip
V
ft
kip
w
ft
kip
kip kip w
F
DL
C
CL
CL
B
BL
o
o
y
14 kip 14 kip
12 ft 6 ft 6 ft

21 kip.ft
-7 kip
7 kip


21 kip.ft
-7 kip
7 kip
A
B
C
D
E
6 ft
6-19. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.







( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
0
5 . 0 5 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 9 5 2
0
0
5 . 0 5 5 . 2
5 . 2
30 5 . 27
25
5 10
2
1
0
5 . 0
5 . 9 10
10 5 2
0
5 . 9
30 5 . 12 5 2 10
0
·
+ − ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
⋅ − ·
⋅ ·
⋅ + − ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
− ·
+ − ·
− · − ·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
B
B
B
B
y
BL
BL
CL
AL
O
A
AL
O
A
A
B
V
kip V
kip R
R
F
M
ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip M
ft kip
M
M
kip
kip V
kip V
V
kip R
R
M
30 kip.ft
2 kip/ft
A
B
5 ft 5 ft 5 ft
-10 kip
-0.5 kip


-25 kip.ft
-27.5 kip.ft
2.5 kip.ft
6-21. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam and determine the shear
and moment in the beam as a function of x, where 4ft<x<10ft. by symmetry:








( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
75 1050 3200
2
4 150
4 450 200
150 1050
4 150 450
450
2
900
6 150
0
x x
x
x M
x
x V
R lb R
R R
R R
F
B A
B A
B A
y
− + − ·

− − + − ·
− ·
− − ·
· ·
· ·
· +
· Σ
150 lb/ft
A
B
4 ft 6 ft 4 ft
x
200 lb.ft 200 lb.ft
200 lb.ft
-200 lb.ft -200 lb.ft
-450 lb
450 lb
2° 2°
6-23. The T-beam is subjected to the loading shown. Draw the shear and moment
diagrams for the beam.






( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
ft kip M
kip V
ft x
x
x R V
F
R
R
M
lb R lb R R
R R
F
MAX
MAX
A
y
B
B
A
A B A
B A
y
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
+ − − ·
− − − ·
· Σ
·
· +
· Σ
· · +
+ · +
· Σ
12
2
67 . 21
600 100 2000 67 . 3566 0
6 100 2000
0
33 . 233
9 18 100 18 6 2000
0
67 . 3566 ; 3800
18 100 2000
0
6-24. The beam is bolted or pinned at A and rests on a bearing pad at B that exerts
a uniform distributed loading on the beam over its 2ft length. Draw the shear and
moment diagrams for the beam if it supports a uniform loading of 2kip/ft.







( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) [ ]
( ) ( )( ) [ ]
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
1 2 4 6 8 2 11 8
8
4 8 2 9 8
24
2 4 2 8
1 8
0
4
8
8
16
0
8 8
8
16 8
8
8
8 16
16
0
4
5 8 2 10 2
0
·
+ − · Σ
⋅ ·
⋅ − · Σ
⋅ ·
⋅ + · Σ
⋅ · Σ
·
·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
− ·
− ·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
B
D
D
C
A
B
E
A
A
O A
y
O
O
A
M
ft kip
ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip M
ft kip M
M
ft x
x
kip V
kip
kip V
kip V
kip R
w R
F
ft
kip
w
w
M
6-29. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.







































L/2
M
max

12
6 4 2 4
max
L W
L L W L L W
M
o
o o
·
⋅ − ⋅ · Σ
4
4
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
0
4
6 12
2 6
1
2 2
1
2 2
3
2 2
1
0
2 2
L W
R
L W
L W L W
R
F
L W
R
L W L W
LR
L L W L L W
LR
M
o
B
o
o o
B
Y
o
A
o o
A
o o
A
B
·
⋅ − + ⋅ ·
· Σ
·
+ ·

,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ·
· Σ
6-30. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.


89
3
4
4 2
0
4
3 2 3
2
0
2
L W
M
L
W
L
y
L W
R
L W L W
R
F
L W
R
L L W
LR
M
o
AL
o A
o
B
o o
B
Y
o
A
o
A
B
− · Σ
·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
⋅ · ⋅
· Σ








2
2
4
2 4
0
2
1
0
2
2
L
x
L
L
x
L
x W L W
xy R V
F
O O
A
y
·
− ·
− ·
− ·
· Σ

2
2 2
0244 . 0
11785 . 0 0934 . 0
2 3 2 2 2
2
1
3
2
4
L W
L W L W
L L
L
W L
L
W L L L W
M
O
O O
O O O
CL
− ·
− ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
⋅ −
,
`

.
|
− · Σ

R
A

M
x
3
L
x
y
L
W
O
·


6-31. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.

6
6
6
3
3
:
6
0
3 6
3 3 6
3 3 2
1
3
6 6 3
3
27 6 54
7
3 3
2
3 2
1
3 3 3 3
2
9 3 2
1
0
2 2 2
L
x
x
L W
W
x
L W
L
L W
similar by
L W
V
L W L W
V
L W L W
R V
L W
L W L W L W
V
L W L W
V R
L W
V
R
L W
R
L W L W L W
L L W L L L W L L L
W LR
M
O
O
O O
O
B
O O
D
O O
B B
O
O O O
C
O O
B A
O
A
B
O
A
O O O
O O
O A
B
·
·
·

− ·
· − ·
− · · ·
− · − ·
− − · · ·
· ·
+ + ·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
·
· Σ


( )
0
9
2
6 3 6 3 3
2
9 6 6
54
5
6 6 2
1
216
23
216
23
72 108
5
6
12 6 6 9 6 6 3 3
54
5
9 6 3 3
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+ −
,
`

.
|
+ − · Σ
·

,
`

.
|
− · Σ
·
− − ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+ −
,
`

.
|
+ · Σ
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· Σ
L L W L L L W L L L W
L
L W
M
L W
L L W L W
M
L W
L W L W L W
L L W L L L W L L L W
M
L W
L L W L L W
M
O O O O
B
O
O O
D
O
O O O
O O O
MAX
O
O O
C
6-32. The ski supports the 180lb weight of the man. If the snow loading on its
bottom surface is trapezoidal as shown, determine the intensity w, and then draw
the shear and moment diagrams for the ski.





( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
5 . 1
3
30
15
15
5 . 1
2
30 90
105
105
4
3
40
2
3
2
3
2
1
5 . 1 40
2
1
15
3
1
2
3
2
3
40
2
1
90
0 180 90
30
2
3
40
2
1
180 40
2
3
30
30 30
40
2
3
90
2
3
40
2
1
40
9
180
3
2
3
180
3 5 . 1
2
1
5 . 1
2
1
180
0
2
·
− · Σ
⋅ ·

,
`

.
| +
− · Σ
⋅ ·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+ · Σ
⋅ ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· Σ
− ·
· − ·

,
`

.
|
· − + ·
− · ·
+ − ·
,
`

.
|
·
·
·
+ ·
+ + ·
· Σ
D
C
E
B
E
D E
C B
Y
M
ft lb
M
ft lb
M
ft lb
M
lb V
V V
lb lb
V V
ft
lb
W
W
W
W W W
F
6-33. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.






( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0 5 . 4
3
5 . 112
75 . 168
75 . 168 5 . 4
3
5 . 112
0
0
5 . 112 5 . 112
5 . 112
5 . 112 0
0
5 . 112 5 . 112
5 . 112
5 . 112
: 5 . 112
75 . 843 75 . 168
5 . 4
3
2
5 . 4 5 . 4
2
50
3
5 . 4
50
2
1
9
0
2
· − ·
⋅ · ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
·
· ·
·
+ ·
]
]
]

+ + ·
· Σ
CL
BL
A
C
CL
BL
A
B A
B
B
A
M
m kN M
M
kN V
kN
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN R R
symmetry by kN R
R
M
50 kN/m 50 kN/m
4.5 m 4.5 m
A B
112.5 kN
-112.5 kN


168.75 kN.m
6-35. The smooth pin is supported by two leaves A and B and subjected to a
compressive load of 0.4kN/m caused by bar C. Determine the intensity of the
distributed load w
o
of the leaves on the pin and draw the shear and moment
diagrams for the pin.


( ) ( ) [ ]
( )( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
m kN
M
m kN M
M
kN V
kN
kN V
kN
kN V
V
m
kN
W
W
F
MAX
BL
A
DL
CL
BL
A
O
O
y
⋅ ·
+ ·
⋅ · ·
·
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]

+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
]
]
]

·
·
·
·
]
]
]

· Σ
00026 . 0
03 . 0
2
012 . 0
00008 . 0
00008 . 0 02 . 0
3
012 . 0
0
0
02 . 0
2
5 . 1
012 . 0
012 . 0
06 . 0 4 . 0 012 . 0
012 . 0
02 . 0 5 . 1
2
1
0
2 . 1
06 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 0
2
1
2
0
2.6x10-3 kN⋅m
60 mm 20 mm 20 mm
wo wo
0.4 kN/m
0.012 kN
0.012 kN
30 mm


6-36. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.

( )( )
( )
( )
( )( ) [ ]
( )
( )
0
6
3
9000
1800
18000
1500 12 1625
1500
0
05 . 0 6 300 9000
9000
10625 1625
1625
1625
1625
6
2
3000
10625
0
10625
12
127500
12 2 6
2
3000
1500
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
+ − ·
⋅ ·
·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
·
+ + ·
· Σ
C
B
B
A
CL
B
B
A
A
A
A
y
B
B
A
M
M
M
ft lb M
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
3 kip/ft
1500 lb.ft
A
B
12 ft 6 ft
900
-1625


1500
-18000
6-37. The compound beam consists of two segments that are pinned together at B.
Draw the shear and moment diagrams if it support the distributed loading shown.






































0
6 6
54
3
3 6
3 / @
2 2
2
·
− ·
·

·
·
WL WL
M
WL
L WL
M
L x
CL
MAX
( )
2 6
3
6
2
x? 0; V @
3
6 2
6
6
0
Wx WL
V
L
x
WL
Wx
WL
R
WL WL
R
WL
R
L WL
LR
M
C
C
A
A
C
− ·
·
·
·
·
− ·
·
·
· Σ






6-38. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.
















( )( ) ( )( )( )
m kN M
x
x M
x x
x
x
x
M
kN V
x
x V
x x V
m kN
M
kN R
R
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
⋅ − ·
·
− ·
− − ·

,
`

.
|
− − ·
− ·
·
− ·
− − ·
⋅ ·
+ · Σ
·

,
`

.
| +
·
· Σ
54
3 @
7
6
3 2
6
2
12
45
3 @
15
2
6
12
54
1 3 6
2
1
5 . 1 3 12
45
3
2
18 12
0
2
2 2
2
18 kN/m
12 kN/m
3 m
A B


-45 kN
-54 kN.m
6-39. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam and determine the shear
and moment as a function of x.








( )( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
600 500
9
100
3
9
100
3 100 200
3
3
3
200
3
2
1
3
2
200
200
8 . 3
15
3
100
500
0
3
100
500
3
6
200
600 200 200
33
3
200
3
2
1
3 200 200
700
1200 3
2
600
0
200
1200 300 900
1 3 200
2
1
5 . 1 3 200 6
0
3
3 2
2 2
2
2
2
− + − ·
− − − − ·

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|
− − − − ·
·
·
·
· − ·
− − + − ·

,
`

.
|
− − − − − ·
·

,
`

.
|
·
· Σ
·
· + ·
+ ·
· Σ
x x M
x x x
x
x x x M
x
x
x
x
x x
x x x V
N R
R
F
N R
R
M
B
B
Y
A
A
B
0
700 700
700
0 ; 6 @
3 . 690 ; 0
; 8 . 3 @
600 ; 200
; 3 @
0 ; 200
0 @
·
+ − ·
− ·
· ·
⋅ · ·
·
⋅ · ·
·
· ·
·
B
BL
BL
DL DL
CL CL
A A
V
N V
M m x
m N M V
m x
m N M N V
m x
M N V
x






















(Mindanao State University-General Santos City, Philippines)
BSEE-(G.R.F) students







6-43. A member having the dimensions shown is to be used to resist an internal
bending moment of M = 2 kip⋅ft. Determine the maximum stress in the member if
the moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis. Sketch the stress
distribution for each case.

















a) about z axis











b) about y axis

6 in.
6 in.
x
z
y
psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
z
z
z
z
z
167
) / 1000 ( / 167 . 0
864
) 12 )( 6 ( 2
864
) 12 )( 6 )(
12
1
(
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
333
) / 1000 )( / 333 . 0 (
216
) 12 )( 3 )( 2 (
216
12
) 6 )( 12 )( 1 (
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
6-45. A member has the triangular cross section shown. Determine the largest
internal moment M that can be applied to the cross section without exceeding
allowable tensile and compressive stresses of (σ
allow
)
t
= 22 ksi and (σ
allow
)
s
= 15 ksi,
respectively.























We used the smaller value

M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
in kip M
M
bh
M
bh
c
I
c
I
M
I
Mc
t
. 44
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 22
)
24
( 22
24
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
in kip M
M
c
I
M
c
. 30
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 15
2
·
·
·
σ
ft kip M
in
ft
in kip M
. 5 . 2
12
. 30
·

,
`

.
|
·
6-46. A member has the triangular cross section shown. If a moment of M = 800
lb⋅ft is applied to the cross section, determine the maximum tensile and
compressive bending stresses in the member. Also, sketch a three dimensional
view of the stress distribution acting over the cross section.











M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
C
h
C
in I
I
bh
I
I
Mc
c
c
c
c
8 . 4
/ 4800
62 . 4
31 . 2 9600
31 . 2
3
3 4
3
3 2 2
3
2
62 . 4
36
) 3 2 )( 4 (
36
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
3
1
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
h
C
t
t
t
4 . 2
/ 2400
62 . 4
15 . 1 9600
15 . 1
3
3 2
3
2
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
6-49. A beam has the cross section shown. If it is made of steel that has an
allowable stress of σ
allow
=24 ksi, determine the largest internal moment the beam
can resist if the moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis.















a) about z-axis












b) about y-axis
3 in.
z
y
3 in.
3 in.
3 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
I
Mc
z
z
z
z
z
. 8 . 20
. 7 . 249
25 . 0 3 / 8125 . 33 24
8125 . 33
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
125 . 3 25 . 0 6 . 0
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
2
4
3
2
3
·
·
+ ·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
· σ
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
. 0 . 6
. 06 . 72
3
9 24
9
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
2
4
3 3
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

·
6-50. The beam is subjected to a moment of M = 40 kN⋅m. Determine the bending
stress acting at points A and B. sketch the results on a volume element acting at
each of these points.














B
A
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
MPa
MPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
I I I
B
B
A
A
y
y
z
z
A
z y
2 . 66
) 10 ( 51 . 1
1000 025 . 0 40
0
199
) 10 ( 5 . 1
1000 075 . 0 40
0
) 10 ( 51 . 1
12
05 . 0 05 . 0
2
12
15 . 0 05 . 0
5
5
4 5
3 3
·
]
]
]

+ ·
·
]
]
]

+ ·
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

· · ·



σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
6-73. Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to
the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B support only vertical
forces, and the allowable bending stress is σ
allow
= 160 MPa.



0.8 1.2 0.6
600 400
A B
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
mm d
m r
r
M
r
r
M
r
Mr
N R
R
M
N R
R
M
B
B
A
A
A
3 . 31
0156 . 0
) 10 ( 160
480 4
4
4
4
200
8 . 0 600 8 . 1 400 2 . 1
0
800
6 . 0 400 2 600 2 . 1
0
3
6
3
3
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
π
πσ
π
σ
π
σ
6-81. The beam is subjected to the load P at its center. Determine the placement a
of the supports so that the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam is as large
as possible. What is this stress?








For symmetrical loading













4
2 2 2
2
@
4
0
2 2
0 @
2
0
2 2
2 2
0
2
2
0
max
PL
M
L L P
M
L
a
PL
M
L P
M
a
L
a
a
L P
M
a
L P
M
M M
M
P
R
P R
R R
P R R
Fy
A
A
A
B
A
B A
c
AY
AY
BY AY
BY AY
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
≤ ≤
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
·
· Σ
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
( )( )
( )
2
max
2
max
3
max
3
max
max
2
3
12
8
12
2 4
2
12
, 0
bd
PL
bd
PL
bd
d PL
d
c
bd
I
I
c M
L a
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
P
d
b
L/2 L/2
a a
6-89. The steel beam has the cross-sectional area shown. If w = 5 kip⋅ft, determine
the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam.



( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
ksi
in I
I
kip R
R R
Fy
kip R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
8 . 66
3 . 152
3 . 5 12 160
3 . 152
12
10 3 . 0
15 . 5 3 . 0 8
12
30 . 0 8
2
40
80
0
40
2 40 4 40 24
0
max
max
4
3
2
3
·
·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
+ ·
· Σ
σ
σ
8 ft 8 ft 8 ft
8 in.
0.30 in.
10 in.
0.30 in.
0.30 in.
w w
6-90. The beam has a rectangular cross section as shown. Determine the largest
load P that can be supported on its overhanging ends so that the bending stress
does not exceed σ
max
= 10 MPa.






( )( )
( )
kN P
P
m I
I
I
Mc
P R
P R R
Fy
P R
P P R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
4 . 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
125 . 0 5 . 1
) 10 ( 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
12
25 . 0 5 . 0
2
0
3 5 . 1 5 . 1
0
4
6
4 4
3
max
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ


σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
6-91. The beam has the rectangular cross section shown. If P =12 kN, determine
that absolute maximum bending stress in the beam. Sketch the stress distribution
acting over the cross section.





( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
MPa
m I
I
kN R
R R
Fy
kN R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
5 . 11
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18000
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
12
25 . 0 15 . 0
12
24
0
12
3 12 5 . 1 12 5 . 1
0
max
4
max
4
max
4 4
3
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ



σ
σ
σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
6-93. A log that is 2 ft in diameter is to be cut into a rectangular section for use as a
simply supported beam. If the allowable bending stress for the wood is σ
allow
= 8
ksi, determine the largest load P that can be supported if the width of the beam is b
= 8 in.




h
b
2 ft
8 ft 8 ft
P
6-102. The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant
moment of M = 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner
and sketch the stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 45°.














θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
6-103. The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant
moment of M = 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner
and sketch the stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 30°.


















θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
6-105. The T-beam is subjected to a moment of M = 150 kip⋅in. directed as shown.
Determine the maximum bending stress in the beam and the orientation of the
neutral axis. The location y of the centroid, C, must be determined.




6-185. Determine the bending stress distribution in the beam at section a-a. sketch
the distribution in three dimension acting over the cross section.




80 N 80 N
80 N 80 N
400 mm 400 mm 300 mm 300 mm
a
a
100 mm
75 mm
15 mm 15 mm
15 mm
6-51. The aluminum machine part is subjected to a moment of M = 75 N⋅m.
Determine the bending stress created at points B and C on the cross section. Sketch
the results on a volume element located at each of these points.





B
10 mm
M = 75 N⋅m
20 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
20 mm
40 mm
C
N
6-53. A beam is constructed from four pieces of wood, glued together as shown. If
the moment acting on the cross section is M = 450 N⋅m, determine the resultant
force that bending stress produces on the top board A and on the side board B.





20 mm
20 mm
200 mm
15 mm
A
200 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
B
15 mm
6-47. The beam is made from three boards nailed together as shown. If the moment
acting on the cross section is M = 600 N⋅m, determine the maximum bending
stress in the beam. Sketch a three-dimensional view of the stress distribution acting
over the cross section.




M = 600 N⋅m
20 mm
25 mm
200 mm
20 mm
6-106. If the internal moment acting on the cross section of the strut has a
magnitude of M = 800 N⋅m and is directed as shown, determine the bending stress
at points A and B. The location z of the centroid C of the strut’s cross-sectional
area must be determined. Also, specify the orientation of the neutral axis.


z
y
12 mm
M = 800 N⋅m
12 mm
200 mm
200 mm
150 mm
z
12 mm
60°
6-71. The axle of the freight car is subjected to wheel loadings of 20 kip. If it is
supported by two journal bearings at C and D, determine that maximum bending
stress developed at the center of the axle, where the diameter is 5.5 in.

10 in.
20 kip
A B
D C
10 in. 60 in.
20 kip
6-74. Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 1.5-in.-diameter shaft
which is subjected to the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B
support only vertical forces.



18 in.
1 in.
15 in.
400 lb
300 lb
A
B
6-75. Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to
the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B support only vertical
forces, and the allowable bending stress is σ
allow
= 22 ksi.




18 in.
1 in.
15 in.
400 lb
300 lb
A
B
6-72. Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 30-mm-diameter
shaft which is subjected to the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B
support only vertical forces.



0.8 m 1.2 m 0.6 m
600 N 400 N
A B
6-79. The steel shaft has a circular cross section with a diameter of 2 in. It is
supported on smooth journal bearings A and B, which exert only vertical reactions
on the shaft. Determine the absolute maximum bending stress if it is subjected to
the pulley loadings shown.




































20 in. 20 in. 20 in. 20 in.
500 lb 300 lb 500 lb
A B








The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’ of the
inner core of the shaft that resists one-half of the applied torque (T/2).












r r'
T








by ratio and proportion:
7651 . 32 cos '
841 . 0 '
2
'
2
'
' 2
'
2
'
4
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
max
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
T
r
T
r r
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
π π
τ τ
The solid shaft of radius r is subjected to a torque T. Determine the radius r’ of the
inner core of the shaft that resists one-quarter of the applied torque (T/4).










45 sin '
707 . 0 '
4
'
4
'
' 2
'
2
'
' 2
.)
2
' '
)
2
( 2
4
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
max
3
3
max
3 3
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
T
r
T
r r
r
T
b
r
T
r
T
r
T
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
· ·
π π
τ τ
π
τ
π
τ
π π
τ









r r'
T





The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 2.50 in. and an inner diameter of 2.30 in.
If it is tightly secured to the wall at C and the three torques are applied to it as
shown, determine the shear stress developed at points A and B. These points lie on
the pipe’s outer surface. Sketch the shear stress on the volume elements located at
A and B.











sol’n:







C
B
A
600 lb-ft
350 lb-ft
450 lb-ft
τ
max
450 lb⋅ft = 5400 lb⋅in
350 lb⋅ft = 4200 lb⋅in
600 lb⋅ft = 7200 lb⋅in

5400 + 4200 – 7200
= 2400
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
B
B
B
76 . 2
6 . 2758
3 . 2 5 . 2
5 . 2 2400 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
7200 - 4200
= 3000
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
B
A
A
45 . 3
3 . 3448
3 . 2 5 . 2
5 . 2 3000 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
The link acts as part of the elevator control for a small airplane. If the attached
aluminum tube has an inner diameter of 25 mm, determine the maximum shear
stress in the tube when the cable force of 600 N is applied to the cables. Also,
sketch the shear stress distribution over the cross section.











600 N
600 N
25mm
5mm
75mm
75mm
MPa
x
J
Tr
MPa
m x
Nm
J
Tr
m x J
d D J
Nm T
T
M
x
40 . 10
) 10 108 (
) 0125 . 0 )( 90 (
45 . 14
) 10 108 (
) 075 . 0 )( 90 (
10 108
) 025 . 0 035 . 0 (
32
) (
32
90
) 075 . 0 )( 600 ( 2
; 0
9
4 9
2
max
4 9
4 4
4 4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
− ·
·
·
· ∑



τ
τ
π
π


A steel tube having an outer diameter of 2.5 in. is used to transmit 35 hp when
turning at 2700 rev/min. Determine the inner diameter d of the tube to nearest 1/8
in. if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10 ksi.









2.5 in.
d
Given:

?
/ 75 . min / 2700
/ . 250 , 19 3
/ 000 , 10
5 . 2
2
·
· ·
· · Ρ
·
d
s rev rev f
s ft lb hp
in ld
in D
allow
τ

Solution:

in lb T
T
T
T
. 97 . 4084
) 75 . 0 ( 2
19250
)] 75 . 0 ( 2 [ 19250
·
·
·
· Ρ
π
π
ω


r
d
r
r
r
r
r
·
·
·
− ·
]
]
]

· −

·
2
206 . 1
649 . 6
10000
) 2 )( 25 . 1 )( 4084097 (
) 25 . 1 (
10000
) 25 . 1 )( 97 . 4084 (
2
) (
2
) 25 . 1 (
) 25 . 1 (
2
) 25 . 1 ( 97 . 4084
4
4 4
2
4 4
4 4
max
π
π π
π π
π
τ

in d 4 . 2 · ; 5 . 0
8
1
4 ·
in d
2
1
2 ·
The steel shaft has a diameter of 1 in. and is screwed into the wall using a wrench.
Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft if the couple forces have a
magnitude of F = 30 lb.











sol’n:



8in.
8in.
F
F
12in
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
AB
AB
AB
8 . 7
72 . 7818
68 . 0 75 . 0
75 . 0 210 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in
lb
d D
TD
BC
BC
BC
36 . 2
2361
86 . 0 1
1 210 16
16
2
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
τ
τ
π
π
τ
AB D = 0.75 in
d = 0.68 in
BC D = 1 in
d = 0.86 in
( ) ( )
in lb T
T M
A
⋅ ·
· + ·

210
8 15 6 15
The 20-mm-diameter steel shafts are connected using a brass coupling. If the yield
point for the steel is (τ
Y
)
st
= 100 MPa, determine the applied torque T necessary to
cause the steel to yield. If d = 40 mm, determine the maximum shear stress in the
brass. The coupling has an inner diameter of 20 mm.










d
T
T
20mm
To find the T; steel;

Nm T
T
x
r
T
s
s
s
07 . 157
) 010 . 0 (
2
10 100
2
3
6
3
·
·
·
π
π
τ


To find the max.., τ ; brass;

MPa
r R
TR
3 . 13
) 01 . 0 02 . 0 (
) 02 . 0 )( 07 . 157 ( 2
) (
2
4 4
4 4
·

·

·
τ
π
π
τ
The coupling is used to connect the two shafts together. Assuming that the shear
stress in the bolts is uniform, determine the number of bolts necessary to make the
maximum shear in the shaft equal to the shear stress in the bolts. Each bolt has a
diameter d.








Soln:






R
T
T
r
2
3
2 3
3
2
2
2
2
4 2
2 ;
2
1 ;
4
4
4
d
r
n
Rn d
T
r
T
r
T
Rn d
T
Rn
d
T
PRn T
d
P
A
P
·
·
> < ·
> < ·

,
`

.
|
⋅ ·
·
⋅ ·
·
π π
π
τ
π
τ
τ
π
τ
π
τ
The shaft has a diameter of 80 mm and due to friction at its surface within the
hole, it is subjected to a variable torque described by the function
( )
2
25
x
x t · N⋅m/m, where x is in meters. Determine the minimum torque T
0
needed
to overcome friction and cause it to twist. Also, determine the absolute maximum
stress in the shaft.










( )
2
25
x
xe t ·
T
o

80mm
x
2m
Solution:
d=80mm=0.08 m
( )
2
25
x
xe t ·
3
16
d
T
π
τ ·
dx xe T
x
2
2
0
25

·
dx xe T
x

·
2
0
2
25
let u=
2
x
du=2x dx
du/2=x dx

x=0, u=0
x=2,u=4

·
4
0
2
25 du e
T
u

















du e
u

·
4
0
5 . 12
[ ]
4
0
5 . 12
u
e ·
[ ] 1 5 . 12
4
− · e
Nm T 670 ·
MPa 66 . 6 · τ
3 3
) 10 80 (
) 670 ( 16

·
x π
3
16
d
T
π
τ ·
The solid shaft has a linear taper from
A
r at one end to
B
r at the other. Derive and
equation that gives the maximum shear stress in the shaft at a location x along the
shaft’s axis.










T
T
x
A
L
r
B
r
A
B
Solution:


1
r r r
B
+ ·
L
r r
x L
r
B A

·

1

L
x L r r
r
B A
) )( (
1
− −
·

L
x L r r
r r
B A
B
) )( ( − −
+ ·
L
x L r r L r
r
B A B
) )( ( − − +
·
L
x L r r x L L r
r
B A B
) ( ) ( − − − +
·
L
x L r x L L r
r
A B
) ( )] ( [ − + − −
·
L
x L r x r
r
A B
) ( ) ( − +
·
L
x L r xr
r
A B
) ( − +
·















3
16
d
T
π
τ · ;
2
d
r ·

3 3
8
2
r d
r d
·
·



3
8
16
r
T
π
τ ·

3
2
r
T
π
·
3
) (
2
]
]
]

− +
·
L
x L r xr
T
A B
π
τ
[ ]
3
3
) (
2
x L r xr
TL
A B
− +
·
π
τ

The drive shaft AB of an automobile is made of a steel having an allowable shear
stress of τ
allow
= 8 ksi. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 2.5 in. and the engine
delivers 200 hp to the shaft when it is turning at 1140 rev/min, determine the
minimum required thickness of the shaft’s wall.


Given: psi ksi 8000 8 · · τ
in D 5 . 2 ·
s lbft hp / 000 , 100 200 · · Ρ
sec / 19 min / 1140 rev rev f · ·
? · t
Solutions:

f
T
π 2
Ρ
·

) / 19 ( 2
/ 000 , 100
s rev
s lbft
π
·
lbft T 66 . 837 · or
lbin 89 . 051 , 10 ·


) (
16
4 4
d D
TD

·
π
τ

) 5 . 2 (
) 5 . 2 )( 89 . 051 , 10 ( 16
000 , 8
4 4
d
psi

·
π


) 000 , 8 (
65 . 402075
) 5 . 2 (
4 4
π
· − d

4
4
23
998 . 15 39
·
− ·
d
d

in d 19 . 2 ·

Thickness:

2
D
R · ;
2
d
r ·
2
5 . 2
· R
2
19 . 2
· r
25 . 1 · R 1 . 1 · r

r R t − ·

in t
t
15 . 0
1 . 1 25 . 1
·
− ·

The drive shaft AB of an automobile is to be designed as a thin walled tube. The
engine delivers 150 hp when the shaft is turning at 1500 rev/min. Determine the
minimum thickness of the shaft’s wall if the shaft’s outer diameter is 2.5 in. The
material has an allowable shear stress τ
allow
= 7 ksi.






Given



?
000 , 7 7
5 . 2
/ 25 min / 500 , 1
/ 000 , 75 150
min
·
· ·
·
· ·
· · Ρ
t
psi ksi
in D
s rev rev f
s lbft hp
τ


Solution

f
T
π 2
Ρ
·

) / 25 ( 2
/ 000 , 75
s rev
s lbft
π
·

lbin T
lbft T
58 . 729 , 5
46 . 477
·
·



in d
d
d
d
d
d D
Td
29 . 2
5968 . 27
42 . 10 39
) 000 , 7 (
183 , 229
39
) 5 . 2 (
) 5 . 2 )( 58 . 5729 ( 16
000 , 7
) (
16
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
·
·
− ·
· −

·

·
π
π
π
τ




Thickness:

in R
R
D
R
25 . 1
2
5 . 2
2
·
·
·
;
in r
r
d
r
146 . 1
2
29 . 2
2
·
·
·



in t
t
r R t
104 . 0
15 . 1 25 . 1
·
− ·
− ·















The drive shaft of a tractor is to be designed as a thin-walled tube. The engine
delivers 200 hp when the shaft is turning at 1200 rev/min. Determine the minimum
thickness of the wall of the shaft if the shaft’s outer diameter is 3 in. The material
has an allowable shear stress of τ
allow
= 7 ksi.










Given:

ksi
in D
s rev rev f
s ft lb hp
7
3
/ 20 min / 1200
/ . 100000 200
·
·
· ·
· · Ρ
τ

psi 7000 ·
?
max
· t
Solution:

lbft T
lbft T
s rev
s lbft
T
f
T
3 . 9549
8 . 795
) / 20 ( 2
/ 100000
2
·
·
·
Ρ
·
π
π


in d
d
d
d
d
d D
TD
785 . 2
16 . 60
84 . 20 81
) 7000 (
4 . 458366
81
) 3 (
) 3 )( 3 . 9549 ( 16
7000
) (
16
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
·
·
− ·
· −

·

·
π
π
π
τ

Max Thickness:


in
d
r
R
D
R
3925 . 1
2
5 . 1
2
· ·
·
·
in t
r R t
12 . 0 ·
− ·
A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an outer
diameter of 2 in. If it is rotating at 200 rad/s. determine its largest inner diameter to
the nearest 1/8 in. If the allowable shear stress for the material is τ
allow
= 25 ksi.










A B
6 in.
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
in d
d
d
d D
TD
in lb T
T
p
T
75 . 1
11 . 6 16
2
2 15000 16
25000
16
15000
200
250000
4
4 4
4 4
·
− ·

·

·
⋅ ·
·
·
π
π
τ
ω
lb ft
hp
s lb ft
hp
s lb ft hp
in lb
ksi
/ 250000
/ 500
500
/ 500 1
/ 25000
25
2
·

,
`

.
| ⋅
⋅ ·
·
· τ
The drive shaft of a tractor is made of a steel tube having an allowable shear stress
of τ
allow
= 6 ksi. If the outer diameter is 3 in. and the engine delivers 175 hp to the
shaft when it is turning at 1250 rev/min. determine the minimum required
thickness of the shaft’s wall.







A B
6 in.
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
in t
r R t
d
r
D
R
thickness
in d
in d
d
d
d D
TD
in lb T
lb ft T
f
P
T
167 . 0
08 . 1
2
165 . 2
2
25 . 1
2
5 . 2
2
;
165 . 2
98 . 21
6000
87 . 320856
39
5 . 2
5 . 2 4 . 8021 16
6000
16
. 4 . 8021
. 45 . 668
833 . 20 2
87500
2
4
4
4 4
4 4
·
− ·
· · ·
· · ·
·
·
· −

·

·
·
·
·
·
π
π
π
τ
π
π
( )
( )( )
( )
2
4 4
4 4
/ 17 . 483
2 5 . 4
5 . 4 2 . 1322 16
16
in lb
d D
TD
·

·

·
τ
π
π
τ
A motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an outer
diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest angular
velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material is τ
allow
=
25 ksi.









A B
6 in.
( )
( )
( )
( )
s rad
T
P
in lb T
T
d D
TD
/ 296
2 . 11137
10 3
. 2 . 11137 ;
84 . 1 2
2 16
25000
16
6
4 4
4 4
·
·
·
·

·

·
ω
ω
π
π
τ
The 0.75 in. diameter shaft for the electric motor develops 0.5 hp and runs at 1740
rev/min. Determine the torque produced and compute the maximum shear stress in
the shaft. The shaft is supported by ball bearings at A and B.













A B
6 in.
( )
( )
( )
psi
d
T
in lb T
lb ft T
f
P
T
219
75 . 0
12 . 18 16
16
. 12 . 18
. 51 . 1
29 2
260
2
3
3
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
π
τ
π
π
The motor delivers 500 hp to the steel shaft AB, which is tubular and has an outer
diameter of 2 in. and an inner diameter of 1.84 in. Determine the smallest angular
velocity at which it can rotate if the allowable shear stress for the material is τ
allow
=
25 ksi.











A
B
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
s rad
D
d D P
P
T
D
d D
T
d D
TD
/ 4 . 296
22 . 11137
10 3
32
84 . 1 2 2500 10 3
16
16
;
16
6
4 4 6
4 4
4 4
4 4
·
·

·

·
·

·

·
ω
ω
π
ω
τπ
ω
ω
τπ
π
τ
The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T at its ends. Show that the
maximum shear strain developed in the shaft is γ
max
= Tc/JG. What is the shear
strain on an element located at point A, c/2 from the center of the shaft? Sketch the
strain distortion of this element.















JG
Tc
G
G
J
Tc
c r
J
Tr
·
·
·
·
· ·
max
max
max
max
;
γ
τ
γ
γ τ
τ
JG
Tc
G
G
J
Tc
c
j
T
2
2
2
;
·
·
·
·
· ·
γ
τ
γ
γ τ
ρ
ρ
τ
A rod is made from two segments: AB is steel and BC is brass. It is fixed at its
ends and subjected to a torque of T = 680 N⋅m. If the steel portion has a diameter
of 30mm. determine the required diameter of the brass portion so the reactions at
the walls will be the same. G
st
= 75 GPa, G
br
= 39 GPa.












sol’n:


θ
AB
= θ
BC





















680 N⋅m
1.60 m
0.75 m
C
A
B
BC AB
JG
TL
JG
TL
·
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
9
4
9
4
10 39
32
6 . 1 680
10 75
32
030 . 0
75 . 0 680
d π π
·
( )( )( )
( )( ) 39 75 . 0
75 030 . 0 6 . 1
4
4
· d
( )
4
4 6
10 3 . 3 m d

·
m d 0427 . 0 ·
mm d 7 . 42 ·






The composite shaft consists of a mid section that includes the 1-in-diameter solid
shaft and a tube that is welded to the rigid flanges at A and B. Neglect the thickness
of the flanges and determine the angle of twist of end C of the shaft relative to end
D. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 100-lb.ft. The material is A-36 steel.






























d
T
T
20mm















5-14. The solid shaft has a diameter of 0.75 in. If it is subjected to a torque shown,
determine the maximum shear stress developed in regions BC and DE of the shaft.
The bearings at A and B allow free rotation of the shaft.






















( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
ksi
ksi
ft lb T
ft lb T
T
DE
DE
BC
BC
DE
BC
AB
62 . 3
32
75 . 0
12 375 . 0 40
07 . 8
32
75 . 0
12 375 . 0 35
. 25
. 35
0
4
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
τ
τ
π
τ


















5-15. The solid shaft has a diameter of 0.75 in. If it is subjected to a torque shown,
determine the maximum shear stress developed in regions CD and EF of the shaft.
The bearings at A and F allow free rotation of the shaft.



















( )( )
( )
ksi
lb T
T
CD
CD
EF
CD
EF
17 . 2
32
75 . 0
12 375 . 0 15
0
15
0
4
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
τ
τ
























5-49. The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel shaft are subjected to
the torque shown. Determine the angle of twist of end B with respect to the end A.
The shaft has a diameter of 40 mm.













( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
° ·
·
− + ·
Σ ·
·
·
·
·
·
·
0578 . 0
3 . 57 010079813 . 0
10 75 02 . 0
2 3 . 0 300
10 75 02 . 0
2 4 . 0 200
10 75 02 . 0
2 . 0 5 . 0 400
02 . 0
04 . 0
. 300
. 200
. 400
/ 10 75
/
9 4 9 4 9 4
/
2 9
A B
A B
AC
CD
BD
rad
JG
TL
m r
m d
m N T
m N T
m N T
m N G
θ
π π π
θ
θ






























5-58. The engine of the helicopter is delivering 600 hp to he rotor shaft AB when
the blade is rotating at 1200 rev/min. Determine the nearest 1/8 in. diameter of the
shaft AB if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 8 ksi and the vibrations limit the
angle of twist of the shaft to 0.05 rad. The shaft is 2 ft. long and made from 1.2
steel.











































5-59.The engine of the helicopter is delivering 600 hp to he rotor shaft AB when
the blade is rotating at 1200 rev/min. Determine the nearest 1/8 in. diameter of the
( )
( )
( )
in d
in d
d
d
T
in lb T
ft lb T
f
P
T
75 . 2
75 . 0
8
1
6 . 0 ; 6 . 2
8000
28648 16
16
. 28648
. 3 . 2387
20 2
300000
2
3
3
·
·
,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
π
π
τ
π
π
shaft AB if the allowable shear stress is τ
allow
= 10.5 ksi and the vibrations limit the
angle of twist of the shaft to 0.05 rad. The shaft is 2 ft. long and made from 1.2
steel.





































( )
( )
( )
in d
in d
d
d
T
in lb T
ft lb T
f
P
T
5 . 2
5 . 0
8
1
4 . 0 ; 4 . 2
10500
28648 16
16
. 28648
. 2387
20 2
300000
2
3
3
·
·
,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
π
π
τ
π
π




5-6. the solid 1.25 in diameter shaft is used to transmit the torques applied to the
gears. If it is supported by smooth bearings at A and B, which do not resist torque,
determine the shear stress developed in the shaft at points C and D. Indicate the
shear stress on volume elements located at these points.
































( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
ksi
J
Tr
in lb T
in lb T
D
D
C
C
D
C
56 . 1
25 . 1
32 625 . 0 600
91 . 3
25 . 1
32 1625 1500
. 600
. 1500
4
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
τ
π
τ
τ
π
τ
τ










5-7. The shaft has an outer diameter of 1.25 in and an inner diameter of 1 in. If it is
subjected to the applied torques as shown, determine the absolute maximum shear
stress developed in the shaft. The smooth bearings at A and B do not resist torque.



























( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
in lb T
d D
TD
62 . 6
1 25 . 1
25 . 1 1500 16
. 1500 ;
16
max
4 4
max 4 4 max
·

·
·

·
τ
π
π
τ


















5-50.The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel shaft are subjected to
the torques shown. Determine the angle of twist of gear C with respect to gear D.
The shaft has a diameter of 40 mm.



( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
° ·
+ ·
Σ ·
·
·
·
·
·
243 . 0
10 75 02 . 0
2 4 . 0 200
10 75 02 . 0
2 5 . 0 400
84 . 0
. 300
. 200
. 400
/ ) 10 ( 75
/
9 4 9 4
/
2 9
D C
D C
AC
CD
BD
JG
TL
m d
m N T
m N T
m N T
m N G
θ
π π
θ
θ
r
B

x
L
r
A


r
o


L
x
T
T





























The simply supported shaft has a moment of inertia of 2I for given region BC and
a moment of inertia I for regions AB and CD. Determine the maximum deflection
P
of the beam due to the load P.


256
3
2
128 128
5
128
1536 512 192
128
5
1536
5
512
3
384 512
5
1536
7
384
5
2

2
: 0
3
3 3
3
/
3 3 3
/
3
/
3 3 3 3 3 3
/
PL
L
PL
L
PL
PL
T
PL PL PL
T
PL
T
PL PL PL PL PL PL
T
P
R R
L
P L R
M
A B
A B
A D
A D
D A
A
D
·
+
·
·
+ + ·
·
+ + + + + ·
· ·
·
·

δ
δ

A
B C
D
L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4
I I
2I
T
P/A
T
D/A
δ
8
2
PL


8
2
PL

8
2
PL

16
2
PL
16
2
PL

Determine the equation of the elastic curve for the beam using the x coordinate
that is valid for 0 ≤ x ≤ L/2. Specify the slope at A and the beam’s maximum
deflection. EI is constant.










P
2
L

2
L

x
A
B
2
2
2
0
0
P
R
P
R
L
P L R
M
P R R
Fy
A
B
B
A
B A
·
·

,
`

.
|
·
· Σ
· +
· Σ
( )
EI
PL
y
L
x y
L x x
EI
P
y
x
PL
x
P
EIy
PL
C
C
L P
L
x y
C
x y
C x C x
p
EIy
C x
p
EIy
x
p
EIy
x
p
M
M
48
2
@
3 4
48
16 12
16
2 4
0
2
, 0 ' @
0
0 , 0 @
12
4
'
2
' '
2
0
max
max
2 2
2
3
2
1
1
2
2
2 1
3
1
2
− ·
·
− ·
− ·
− ·
+
,
`

.
|
·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + ·
+ ·
·
·
· Σ
EI
PL
EI
C
y
x
A
16
0
0 @
2
1

·
+ · ·
·
θ
θ
Determine the equations of the elastic curve using the x
1
and x
2
coordinates.
Specify the slope at A and the maximum deflection. EI is constant.













P
x
1
A B
P
x
2
L
a
a
The beam is made of two rods and is subjected to the concentrated load P.
Determine the slope at C. The moments of inertia of the rods are I
AB
and I
AC
, and
the modulus of elasticity is E.



A
B
P
L
C
l
Determine the elastic curve for the cantilevered beam, which is subjected to the
couple moment M
o
. Also compute the maximum slope and maximum deflection of
the beam. EI is constant.













A B
M
o
L
x
O O
A
A
M M
M
R
Fy
·
· Σ
·
· Σ
0
0
0
EI
L M
y
L M
L M
EIy
L x y
Lx M x
M
EIy
L M C
L x y
C
x y
C x C x
M
EIy
C x M EIy
M M
M
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
2
2
@
2
, 0 ' @
0
0 , 0 @
2
'
0
2
max
2
2
max
max
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
− ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + ·
+ ·
·
· Σ
EI
L M
EI
C
y
x
O
− ·
+ · ·
·
max
1
max
max
0 '
0 @
θ
θ
θ
Determine the deflection at the center of the beam and the slope at B. EI is
constant.



A
B
M
0
L
x
EI
L M
y
L M L M
L
L M
EIy
L
x
EI
L M
y
L M
EIy
x
L M
C
L C
L M
L
L M
y L x
C
y x
C x C
x M
L
x M
EIy
C x M
L
x M
EIy
M x R M
L
M
R
M
L
M
R
M L R
M
O
O O O
O
O
O
O O
O O
O
O
O A
O
B
A
O
A
O A
B
48
3
6 8 48
2
@
3
'
3
'
0 @
3
0
2 6
0
0 , @
0
0 , 0 @
2 6
2
'
; 0
; 0
2
max
2 2 3
max
1
1
2 3
2
2 1
2 3
1
2
− ·
− + − ·
·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
+ + +

·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + + − ·
+ +

·
+ − ·
·
· Σ
− ·
− ·
· Σ
[ ] x L Lx x
LEI
M
y
Lx M x M
L
x M
EIy
O
O O O
2 3
2 3
2 3
6
3 2 6
− + − ·
− +

·
Determine the elastic curve for the simply supported beam, which is subjected to
the couple moments M
o
. Also, compute the maximum slope and the maximum
deflection of the beam. EI is constant.




M
0
L
x
M
0
Determine the equations of the elastic curve using the coordinates x
1
and x
2
, and
specify the slope at A. EI is constant.













M
0
A B
L
C
x
1
L
x
2
L
M
R
L
M
R
M L R
M
R R
R R
Fy
O
A
O
B
O B
A
B A
B A

·
·
·
· Σ
− ·
· +
· Σ
; 0
0
; 0
below indicates sign negative
EI
L M
C EI
x
L M
C
L x y
C
x y
C x C x
L
M
EIy
C x
L
M
EIy
x
L
M
M
M
O
A
O
O
O
O
;
6
0 @
6
, 0 @
0
0 , 0 @
6
2
'
; 0
1
1
2
2 1
3
1
2
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + ·
+ ·
·
· Σ
θ
θ
θ
The floor beam of the airplane is subjected to the loading shown. Assuming that
the fuselage exerts only vertical reactions on the ends of the beam, determine the
maximum deflection of the beam. EI is constant.

















80 lb/ft
8 ft
2 ft 2 ft
( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3
max
4 3
max
4 4 3
3
1
1
4 4 3
2
2 1
4 4 3
1
3 3 2
2 2
.
3
56320
6
3
14720
4
3
0
6
3
160
6 @
3
14720
2
3
10
10
3
0
3
160
.
3
14720
12 10
3
10
2
3
0
12
3
160
0
0 , 12 @
0
0 , 0 @
2
3
10
10
3
0
3
160
2
3
40
10
3
40
160 '
2 40 10 40 320 ' '
2
2
2 80
2
10
10 80
320
320
6 8 80 12
; 0
640 8 80
0
ft lb
EI
y
EIy
x y
x x x x EIy
ft lb C
C
y x
C
y x
C x C x x x EIy
C x x x EIy
x x x EIy
x
x
x
x x R M
lb R
lb R
R
M
R R
Fy
A
B
A
A
B
B A
− ·

1
+ ·
·
− − − −
1
+ ·
− ·
+ −
1
+ ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + − − −
1
+ ·
+ − − − + ·
− − − + ·

,
`

.
| −
− −
,
`

.
| −
− + ·
·
·
·
· Σ
· · +
· Σ
3
max
3
max
.
77 . 18
.
77 . 18
ft kip
EI
ft kip
EI
y
· ∆
− ·
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the elastic
curve. EI is constant.




A B
8 ft
4 ft
4 ft
3 kip/ft
5 kip-ft 5 kip-ft
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 4 3 4 3
2
2
2
4 3 4 3
2
1
2 1
4 3 4 3
2
1
3 2 3 2
. 136 24 12
8
1
12 2 4
8
1
4 2
2
5 1
136
0 , 4 @
24 12
8
1
12 2 4
8
1
4 2
2
5
24
0 ' , 8 @
12
8
1
12 2 4
8
1
4 2
2
5
12
6
3
12
2
12
4
6
3
4
2
12
5 '
2
12
12 3 12
2
4
4 3 4 5
12
24
0
12
0 4 8 3 8
0
ft kip x x x x x
x
EI
y
C
y x
C x x x x x
x
EIy
C
y x
C x C x x x x
x
EIy
C x x x x x EIy
x
x x R
x
x x R M
kips R
R R
Fy
kips R
R
M
B A
B
B A
A
A
B
]
]
]

+ − − + − + − − − + − ·
·
· ·
+ − − + − + − − − + − ·
− ·
· ·
+ + − + − + − − − + − ·
+ − + − + − − − + − ·

,
`

.
| −
− + − +
,
`

.
| −
− − − + − ·
·
· +
· Σ
·
· −
· Σ
The shaft is supported at A by a journal bearing that exerts only vertical reactions
on the shaft, and at C by a thrust bearing that exerts horizontal and vertical
reactions on the shaft. Determine the equation of the elastic curve. EI is constant.







A
B
P
a
C
x
b
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
]
]
]

+
− +
+ − ·
+
− +
+ − ·
·
+

·
· ·
·
· ·
+ +
− +
+ − ·
+
− +
+ − ·
− +
+ − ·
− + − ·
·
− ·
· Σ
+
·
+ ·
· Σ
x
Pba
a
a x b a P
a
Pbx
EI
y
x
Pba
a
a x b a P
a
Pbx
EIy
Pba
C
a C
a
Pba
y a x
C
y x
C x C
a
a x b a P
a
Pbx
EIy
C
a x b a P
a
Pbx
EIy
a
a x b a P
a
Pbx
EIy
a x R x R M
a
Pb
R
P R R
Fy
a
b a P
R
b a P a R
M
B A
A
B A
B
B
6 6 6
1
6 6 6
6
6
0
0 , @
0
0 , 0 @
6 6
2 2
'
' '
0
0
3 3
3 3
1
1
3
2
2 1
3 3
1
2 2
The shafts support the two pulley loads shown. Determine the equation of the
elastic curve. The bearing at A and B exerts only vertical reactions on the shaft. EI
is constant.











A
B
20 in. 20 in.
20 in.
x
40 lb
60 lb
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
3 3 3 3
3 3 3
1
1
3 3
2
2 1
3 3 3
1
2 2 2
. 4006 40 33 . 18 20 67 . 6 67 . 1
1
4006 40 33 . 18 20 67 . 6 67 . 1
4006
40 20 67 . 6 40 67 . 1 0
0 , 40 @
0
0 , 0 @
40 33 . 18 20 67 . 6 67 . 1
2
40 110
2
20 40
2
10
'
40 110 20 40 10 ' '
40 20 40
10
40 60
0
110
60 60 20 40 40
0
in lb x x x x
EI
y
x x x x EIy
C
C
y x
C
y x
C x C x x x EIy
C
x x x
EIy
x x x EIy
x R x x R M
lb R
R R
Fy
lb R
R
M
B A
A
A B
B
B
A
+ − + − − − ·
+ − + − − − ·
·
+ − − ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + − + − − − ·
+

+



·
− + − − − ·
− + − − − ·
↓ ·
+ + ·
· Σ
↑ ·
+ ·
· Σ
The shafts support the two pulley loads shown. Determine the equation of the
elastic curve. The bearing at A and B exerts only vertical reactions on the shaft. EI
is constant.










A
B
12 in.
24 in.
24 in.
x
50 lb 80 lb
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
3 3 3 3
3 3 3
2
1
2
2 1
2 1
3 3 3
1
2 2 2
. 5760 1680 36 33 . 13 12 1 . 17 33 . 8
1
5760 1680 36 33 . 13 12 1 . 17 33 . 8
5760
1680
2 & 1
60 95040 0
0 , 60 @
12 14400 0
0 , 12 @
36 33 . 13 12 1 . 17 33 . 8
2
36 80
2
12 5 . 102
2
50
'
36 80 12 5 . 102 50
5 . 102
80 50
0
5 . 27
24 80 48 12 50
0
in lb x x x x
EI
y
x x x x EIy
C
C
eqn equating
C
y x
C C
y x
C x C x x x EIy
C
x x x
EIy
x x x M
lb R
R R
Fy
lb R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
− + − − − + − ·
− + − − − + − ·
− ·
·
+ − ·
· ·
+ + − ·
· ·
+ + − − − + − ·
+



+ − ·
− − − + − ·
·
+ · +
· Σ
·
· +
· Σ
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the elastic
curve. EI is constant.






A
B
x
l
9 ft. 15 ft.
6 kip/ft
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 . 24 9 24
180
1
9 24
6
4 . 77
24
180
1
0
0 : 24 @
1 . 9 9
180
1
_ 0
0 : 9 @
9
180
1
9
6
4 . 77
180
9
36
1
9
2
4 . 77
36
'
9
9
1
9 4 . 77
9
9
3
1
9 6
3
2
2
1
9 4 . 77
3
1
3
2
2
1
' '
9
3
1
9 6
2
1
9
3
1
2
1
3
2
9
6
6 . 39
15 6 6 9
2
1
0
4 . 77
0 5 . 7 15 6 15 9
3
1
9 6
2
1
15
0
2 1
5 3 5
2 1
5
2 1
5 3
5
1
4 2
4
3
3
eqn C C
y x
eqn C C
y x
C x C x x
x
EIy
C x x
x
EIy
x x
x
x x x x x x x EIy
x x y x R x xy M
x y
x
y
kips R
R R
Fy
kips R
R
M
A
B
B A
A
A
B
+ + − + − +

·
· ·
+ + ·
· ·
+ + − + − + − ·
+ − + − + − ·
− + − + − ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− + − +

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− ·

,
`

.
|
− − + − +
,
`

.
|
− ·
·
·
·
− − +
· Σ
·
· −
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|

· Σ
( ) ( )
]
]
]
]
]

+ −
− + − + −
·
·
− ·
55 . 2636 5 . 256
9
180
1
9
6
4 . 77
180
1
55 . 2636
5 . 256
2 & 1 .
5 3
5
2
1
x
x x
x
EI
y
C
C
eqn equating
Determine the slope and deflection at C. EI is constant.









A
B
15 ft.
C
30 ft.
15 kip
Determine the slope and deflection at B. EI is constant.








A
B
P
L
( )
EI
PL
B
PL
L
B EI
EI
PL
L PL EI
B
B
3
2 3
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
· ∆

,
`

.
|
· ∆
·
·
θ
θ
Determine the maximum slope and the maximum deflection of the beam. EI is
constant.













A
B
L
M
0
M
0
0
0
; 0
; 0
·
·
· Σ
− ·
· Σ
B
B
A
B A
R
L R
M
R R
Fy
EI
L M
y
L M L M
EIy
L
x y
Lx M x M
EIy
L M
C
L
x y
C
x y
C x C x
M
EIy
C x M EIy
M M
M
O
O O
O O
O
O
O
O
8
4 8
2
@
2 2
2
2
, 0 ' @
0
0 , 0 @
2
'
; 0
2
max
2 2
max
max
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
− ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + ·
+ ·
·
· Σ
EI
L M
C EI
x
O
2
0
0 @
1
max
− ·
+ ·
·
θ
θ
θ
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the elastic
curve. EI is constant.





A
B
4 kip/fit
8 ft.
4 kip
2 kip
8 ft. 8 ft.
x
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the elastic
curve. EI is constant.









A
B
20 kN
1.5 m 3 m
20 kN
1.5 m
x
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
2
2
2
3 3 3
2
3 3 3
2
1
1
3 3 3
2
2 1
3 3 3
1
2 2 2
. 90 5 . 67
3
10
5 . 4
3
10
5 . 1
3
10 1
. 90
5 . 4 5 . 67 5 . 4
3
10
0
3
10
3
3
10
0
0 , 5 . 4 @
5 . 67
3
10
5 . 4
3
10
5 . 1
3
10
. 5 . 67
6 6
3
10
5 . 1
3
10
5 . 4
3
10
0
0 , 6 @
0
0 , 0 @
3
10
5 . 4
3
10
5 . 1
3
10
10 5 . 4 10 5 . 1 10 '
20 5 . 4 20 5 . 1 20
20 5 . 4 5 . 1
20
20
5 . 1 20 5 . 4 20 3
; 0
40
; 0
m kN x x x x
EI
y
m kN C
C
y x
C x x x x EIy
m kN C
C
y x
C
y x
C x C x x x EIy
C x x x EIy
x x x M
x x R x R M
kN R
kN R
R
M
kN R R
Fy
B A
B
A
A
B
B A
]
]
]

− + − − + − ·
− ·
+ + − + ·
· ·
+ + − − + − ·
·
+ − + ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + − − + − ·
+ − − + − ·
− − + − ·
− − + − ·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
· +
· Σ
Determine the equation of the elastic curve. Specify the slope at A. EI is constant.




A
B
L
C
x
w
L
The beam is subjected to the linearly varying distributed load. Determine the
maximum slope of the beam. EI is constant.










A
B
x
L
w
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
360
7
24
1
12
1
'
360
7
120 36
1
0
0 , @
0
0 , 0 @
20
1
36
1
24
1
12
1
'
6
1
6
1
' '
3 2
1
3
6
6
1
0
2
0
3 4
2
3
1
1
4
4
2
2 1
4
3
1
4
2
3
2
L w
L
x w
Lx w EIy
L w
C
L C
L
L w
L w
y L x
C
y x
C x C
L
x w
Lx w EIy
C
L
x w
Lx w EIy
x w Lx w EIy
x
xy x R M
L
x w
y
L
w
x
y
proportion and ratio by
L w
R
L w
R
L w L R
M
L w
R R
Fy
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
A
O
O
o
B
o
A
O A
B
O
B A

,
`

.
|
− ·
− ·
+ − ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ +

,
`

.
|
− ·
+

,
`

.
|
− ·
− ·

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
·
·
·
·
· Σ
· +
· Σ
( ) ( )
EI
L w
L w
EIy
L w
L w L w EIy
L x
O
O
O
O O
45
45
'
360
7
24
1
12
1
'
@
3
max
3
3
3 3
·
·
− − ·
·
θ
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the slope and
elastic curve. EI is constant.




A
B
3 kN/m
15 kN⋅m
5 m
3 m
x
C
( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
]
]
]



+ − + − ·
]
]
]
]
]



+ − + −
·
− ·
+ − ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ +

+ − + − ·
+

+ − + − ·

,
`

.
| −
− + − +
,
`

.
|
− ·
·
+ ·
· Σ
·
· − +
· Σ
x
x
x
x
x
EI
y
x
x
x
x
EI
y
C
C
y x
C
y x
C x C
x
x
x
x EIy
C
x
x
x
x EIy
x
x x R
x
x x R M
kN R
R
M
kN R
R
M
B A
B
B
A
A
A
B
125 . 3
8
5
5 75 . 1
8
75 . 0
1
125 . 3
2
5
5 25 . 5
2
25 . 2 1
'
125 . 3
5
8
5
5 75 . 0 0
0 , 5 @
0
0 , 0 @
8
5
5 75 . 1
8
75 . 0
2
5
5 25 . 5
2
25 . 2 '
2
5
5 3 5
2
3
5 . 10
15 5 . 2 5 3 ) 5 (
0
5 . 4
0 15 5 . 2 5 3 5
; 0
4
3
4
3
3
2
3
2
1
1
4
3
2
2 1
4
3
4
3
1
3
2
3
2
The wooden beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the equation of the
elastic curve. Specify the deflection at the end C. E
W=
1.6(10
3
) ksi.










A
B
C
9 ft
0.8 kip/ft
1.5 kip
9 ft
x
6 in.
12 in.
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
. 765 . 0
10 6 . 1 , 18 @
9 . 8 ; 0 9
1080
9 8 . 0
9 05 . 0
0 9 @
0 ; 0 , 0 @
1080
9 8 . 0
12
9 4 . 0
6
9 4 . 5
1080
8 . 0
6
3 . 0
4 54
9 8 . 0
3
9 4 . 0
2
9 4 . 5
4 54
8 . 0
2
3 . 0
'
9 8 . 0
9
8 . 0
6
1
9 4 . 0 9 4 . 5
54
8 . 0
3 . 0 ' '
9
8 . 0
9
8 . 0
9 8 . 0
6
1
9 4 . 0 9 4 . 5
6
1
3 . 0
3 . 0
0 4 . 5 9 8 . 0
2
1
5 . 1
0
4 . 5
9
3
2
9 8 . 0
2
1
18 5 . 1 9
0
3
1 1
5
3
2
2 1
5 4 3 5 3
1
4 3 2 4
2 2 2
2 2 2
in y
EI x
C C
y x
C y x
C x C
x x x x x
EIy
C
x x x x x
EIy
x
x
x x x x EIy
x
y
x
y
proportion and ratio by
x y x x y x x M
kips R
R
Fy
kips R
R
M
A
A
B
B
A
− ·
· ·
· · + − −
· ·
· · ·
+ +

+

+

+ −

·
+

+

+

+ −

·

,
`

.
|
− + − + − +

,
`

.
|
− − ·
·
·
− − + − + − +
,
`

.
|
− − ·
− ·
· + − −
· Σ
·

,
`

.
|
+ ·
· Σ
2
Determine the deflection and slope at C. EI is constant.






A
B
L
C
x
L
M
0
Determine the deflection at C and the slope of the beam at A, B, and C. EI is
constant.




A
B
6 m
C
3 m
8 kN⋅m
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
EI
or
EI
EIy
x C slope
EI
or
EI
EIy
x B slope
EI
EIy
x A slope
x x Eiy
m kN C
C
y x
C
x y
C x C x x EIy
C x x
C x x EIy
x x EIy
x R x R M
kN R kN R
R
M
R R
Fy
C C
B B
A
B A
B A
A
B
B A
40 40
, 40 '
9 ; @
16 16
, 16 '
6 ; @
8
, 8 '
0 ; @
8 6
3
2
3
2
'
. 8
6 0
9
2
6
9
2
0
0 , 6 @
0
0 , 0 @
6
9
2
9
2
6
3
2
3
2
6
6
4
6
4
'
6
3
4
3
4
' '
6
3
4
;
3
4
8 6
0
0
0
2 2
2
1
1
3
2
2 1
3 3
1
2 2
1
2 2
· − · − ·
·
·

· − ·
·
· ·
·
+ − + − ·
·
+ + − ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + − + − ·
+ − + − ·
+ − + − ·

,
`

.
|
+ − ·
− + ·
· − ·
− ·
· Σ
· +
· Σ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
( )
3
3 3
.
84
84
84
8 6
9
2
9
2
9 @ ; @
m kN
EI
C
EI
y
EIy
x x x EIy
x C deflection
C
· ∆
− ·
− ·
+ − + − ·
·
Determine the slope at B and deflection at C. EI is constant.






A B
P
C
2
P

2
P

a a a
a
The beam is subjected to the load shown. Determine the slope at B and deflection
at C. EI is constant.


























A B
C
a
2
a

a
2
a

w
w
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
EI
wa
C
EI
wa
y
wa
EIy
a
wa
a
w
a
w
a
wa
EIy
a x C deflection
EI
wa
a
w
a
w
a
w
a
wa
EI
a x B slope
x wa a x
w wx a x w wax
EIy
wa a x
w wx a x w wax
EIy
wa C
a C a
w
a
w
a
w wa
a x y
C
x y
C x C a x
w wx a x w wax
EIy
C a x
w wx a x w wax
EIy
a x
w wx
a x
w
wax EIy
a x
a x w
wx a x
a x w x R M
C
B
A
48
25
;
48
25
48
25
2
3
24
7
2
3
24 2
1
24 2
3
6
2
3
; @
12
7
12
7
6
3
6
2
6
3
2
3 ; @
12
7
2
24 24 24 6
12
7
2
6 6 6 2
'
12
7
3
24
3
24
2
24 6
27
0
3 , 0 @
0
0 , 0 @
2
24 24 24 6
2
6 6 6 2
'
2
2 2 2
' '
2
2
2
2 2
4 4
4
3
4 4 3
3
3 3 3 2
3 4
4 4 3
3 3
3 3 2
3
1
1
4 4 4
4
2
2 1
4
4 4 3
1
3
3 3 2
2
2
2
2
· ∆ − ·
− ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
·
·
·
− − − + ·
·
− − − −

+ ·
− − − −

+ ·
− ·
+ − − + ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + − − −

+ ·
+ − − −

+ ·
− − − − + ·

,
`

.
| −
− − −
,
`

.
| −
− + ·
θ
θ
( )
( )
wa R
wa R
wa wa
a R
wa
a
a
wa a R
M
wa R R
Fy
B
A
A
A
B
B A
·
·
+ ·
+
,
`

.
|
+ ·
· Σ
· +
· Σ
2 2
5
3
2
2
2
3
; 0
2
0
2 2
2




Determine the elastic curve for the simply supported beam the x coordinate 0 ≤x ≤
L/2. Also, determine the slope at A, and the maximum deflection of the beam. EI is
constant.




























wo
B A
L
x
( )
192
5
2 8 2 12
0
0 ' ;
2
@
0
0 ; 0 @
24 60
8 12
'
4 3
0
4 3
2
2
1
0
2
2
: PROPORTION AND RATIO BY
4
4
6 12
2 3
1
2 4 2 3
2
4
0
2
2 2
1
2 2
1
0
3
1
1
2 4
2
2 1
3 5
1
2 4
3
2
2 2
L w
C
C
L L w L
L
w
y
L
x
C
y x
C x C
Lx w
L
x w
EIy
C
Lx w
L
x w
EIy
Lx w
L
x w
M
x
L w x
L
Lx w
M
M
L
x w
y
L
w
x
y
L w
R
L w
R
L w L w
L R
L R
L L L w L L w
M
L w
R R
L w L w
R R
Fy
o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o
o
o
A
o
B
o o
B
B
o o
A
o
B A
o o
B A
− ·
+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
− ·
· ·
·
· ·
+ + + − ·
+ + − ·
+ − ·
· −

,
`

.
|
+
· Σ
·
·
·
·
+ ·
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· Σ
· +

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
· +
· Σ
EI
L w
y
L L w L L w L
L
L w
EIy
L
x
o
MAX
o o o
MAX
24
2 192
5
2 24 2 60
:
2
@ y
4
3
3 5
max
− ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
− ·
·
EI
L w
C EI
x
o
MAX
MAX
MAX
192
0 0
0 @
3
1
·
+ + ·
·
θ
θ
θ
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and B exerts
only vertical reactions on the shaft.




















( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
[ ]
0
5 . 7 5 . 7
5 . 7
5 . 7
5 . 31 24
24
0
. 8 . 0 5 . 31 25 . 0 24
. 6
25 . 0 24
5 . 7
5 . 31 24
0
5 . 31
05 . 1 24 8 . 0
0
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
· − ·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
B
B
B
A
A
o
B
B
A
L A
B
B
Y
A
A
B
V
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN V
M
m kN M
m kN M
M
kN R
R
F
kN R
R
M
L
L
L
L
250 mm 800 mm
A B
24 kN
RA
RB
-24 kN
7.5 kN
-6 kN⋅m

The load binder is used to support a load. If the force applied to the handle is 50lb,
determine the tensions T
1
and T
2
in each end of the chain and then draw the shear
and moment diagrams for the arm ABC.





































( )
( )
( )
0
200 200
200
200
250 50
50
50
200
50 250
0
250
3 15 50
0
2
2
1
1
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
C
C
C
B
B
B
A
Y
c
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb lb V
lb V
lb V
lb T
lb lb T
F
lb T
T
M
L
L
50 lb
T2
T1
C
B
A
12 in.
3 in.
200 lb
-50 lb
-600 lb⋅in





Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and D exert
only vertical reactions on the shaft. The loading is applied to the pulleys at B and C
and E.





























Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the
beam.

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
. } 12 76 . 142
27 110 47 80 61 24 . 82 {
. 24 . 420
15 110 35 80 49 24 . 82
. 16 . 1196
20 80 34 24 . 82
. 36 . 1151
. 14 24 . 82
0
35
76 . 107
24 . 2
24 . 82
24 . 82
76 . 142 35 110 80
0
76 . 142
61 35 34 110 14 80 49
0
·
+
− − · Σ
− ·
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
·
·
− ·
·
·
·
− + + ·
· Σ
·
+ + ·
· Σ
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
E
E
D
D
C
C
B
B
E
D
C
B
A
A
A
Y
D
D
A
M
in lb
M
in lb M
M
in lb M
M
in lb M
in lb M
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
A
B C D
E
14 in. 20 in. 15 in. 12 in.
80 lb 110 lb 35 lb
82.4 lb
2.24 lb
107.76 lb
35 lb
1151.36 lb.ft
1196 lb.ft
-420.24 lb.ft








































( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
4 2 8 2 12 2 16 2 20 4
. 16
4 2 8 2 12 2 16 4
. 24
4 2 8 2 12 4
. 24
4 2 8 4
. 16
4
2
4 2
: symmetry By
·
− − − − · Σ
·
− − − ·
·
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
· Σ
· ·
· ·
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
F
F
E
E
D
D
C
C
B
F A
F A
M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
M
ft kip M
kip R R
R R
4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft
2 kip 2 kip 2 kip 2 kip
4 kip
2 kip
-2 kip
-4 kip
16 kip.ft
24 kip.ft
16 kip.ft




Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the rod. It is supported by a pin at A and
a smooth plate at B. The plate slides w/in the groove and so it cannot support a
vertical force, although it can support a moment.

































( ) ( )
m kN M
m kN M
M
kN R
F
L
C
B
B
A
Y
. 60
. 30
2 15 4 15
5 . 1
0
· Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
A
B
4 m 2 m
15 kN
15 kN
30 kN.m
60 kN.m












Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and B exert
only vertical reactions on the shaft. Also, express the shear and moment in the
shaft as a function of x w/in the region 125mm<x<725mm.











125 mm
A
B
800 N
815.625 N
1500 N
600 mm 75 mm
x
15.625 N
-1484.375 N
101953 N.m
111328 N.m














Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.
























( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 075 . 0 2500 675 . 0 800 8 . 0 625 . 815
. 328 . 111
6 . 0 800 725 . 0 625 . 815
. 953 . 101
125 . 0 625 . 815
37 . 1484
625 . 815 1500 800
0
625 . 815
75 1500 675 800 800
0
− − · Σ
·
− · Σ
·
· Σ
·
− + ·
· Σ
·
+ ·
· Σ
L
L
L
L
B
D
D
C
C
B
B
Y
A
A
B
M
m N M
M
m N M
M
N R
R
F
N R
R
M
( )
( ) m N x M
x x M
N V
. 100 625 . 15
125 . 0 800 625 . 815
625 . 16
725mm x 125mm @
+ ·
− − ·
·
< <
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
0
. 15
3 8 39
. 39
2 18 75
0
8
10 18
18
. 75
15 5 8 2 10
18
0
· Σ
− ·
+ − · Σ
− ·
+ − · Σ
·
·
− ·
·
− ·
− − − · Σ
·
· Σ
B
B
B
C
C
B
C
C
A
A
A
A
Y
M
m kN M
M
m kN M
M
V
kN V
kN V
kN V
m kN M
M
kN R
F
L
L
L
L
L
L
10 kN 8 kN
2 m 3 m
15 kN.m
18 kN
8 kN
-39 kN.m
-15 kN.m
-75 kN.m


















Draw the shear and moment for the pipe. The end screw is subjected to a
horizontal force of 5kN. Hint: the reaction at the pin C must be replaced by
equivalent loadings at point B on the axis of the pipe.




































( )
( )( )
( )
0
4 . 0 4 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0 1
0
0
1
1
1
8 . 0 5 4 . 0
0
1
8 . 0 5 4 . 0
0
·
⋅ + ⋅ − ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
·
− ·
− ·
·
·
· Σ
·
·
· Σ
·
m kN m kN M
m kN
m kN M
M
kN V
kN V
kN R
R
M
kN R
R
M
B
BL
A
BL
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
5 kN
400 mm
80 mm
A
B
C
-1 kN
-0.4
kN.m
The engine crane is used to support the engine, which has a weight of 1200 lb.
Draw the shear and moment diagrams of the boom ABC when it is in the horizontal
position shown.






( )
( )
( )
0
6000 6000
6000
2
3 2000
0
0
1200 1200
1200
1200
3200 2000
2000
2000
3200
1200 2000
0
5 2000 5
0
·
⋅ − − · Σ
⋅ − ·
− · Σ
· Σ
·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
+ ·
· Σ
·
· Σ
ft lb M
ft lb
M
M
lb lb V
lb V
lb
lb lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
lb lb R
F
ft lb R
M
CL
BL
A
CL
CL
B
AL
A
B
B
Y
A
B
A
B C
4 ft
3 ft 5 ft
1200 lb
-2000
1200
-6000
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the compound beam w/c is pin connected
at B. It is supported by a pin at A and a fix wall at C.








( ) ( )
0
4 4
4
4
8 4
4
4
10 6
6
6
4
10 14
0
10
32 108
4 8 18 6 14
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
+ ·
+ ·
· Σ
kip kip V
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
kip V
kip R
R
F
kip R
R
M
C
CL
D
DL
A
AL
O
C
C
y
A
A
C
( )( )
0
16 16
16
24 40
24
4 6
0
·
⋅ − ⋅ ·
⋅ ·
⋅ − ⋅ ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
ft kip ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip M
M
CL
DL
AL
o
A
8 kip 6 kip
B
C
4 ft 6 ft 4 ft 4 ft
4
-6
-4
16
-24
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. Also, determine the shear and
moment in the beam as a function of x, where 3ft<x<15ft.






































( )( )( )
( )
( )
ft kip
Area M
ft x
x
Similar By
kip R
R
F
kip R
R
M
C
B
B
A
A
B
⋅ ·
− ·
− ·
− ∆ ·
·
·

·
− ·
· Σ ↑
·
+ ·
· Σ
79 . 7
50 778 . 67
50 778 . 8
2
167 . 13
50
778 . 8
167 . 13
12
18
:
833 . 4
167 . 13 12 5 . 1
0
167 . 13
6 12 5 . 1 50 12
0
( )
( ) ( )
( )
25 . 46 667 . 17 75 . 0
75 . 6 5 . 4 75 . 0 5 . 39 167 . 13
9 6 75 . 0 5 . 39 167 . 13
3
2
5 . 1
3 167 . 13
5 . 1 7667 . 17
3 5 . 1 167 . 13
: 15 3 @
2
2
2
2
− + − ·
− + − − ·
+ − − − ·
− − − ·
− ·
− − ·
≤ <
x x M
x x x
x x x
x x M
x V
x V
ft x ft
50 kip.ft
1.5 kip/ft
A
B
3 ft 12 ft
x
x
C
13.167
-4.833
7.79 kip.ft
-50 kip.ft




Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.







( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
0
4 8 800 12 8 800 51200
25600
4 8 800 51200
51200
4 8 800 12 8 800
0
8 800 8 800
0
·
− − · Σ
⋅ ·
− · Σ
⋅ ·
− · Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
C
B
A
A
y
M
ft lb
M
ft lb
M
R
F
( )
0
6400 6400
6400
8 800
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
CL
BL
A
V
lb
V
V
800 lb/ft
A
B
8 ft
800 lb/ft
8 ft
-6400
25600
51200
The 50lb man sits in the center of the boat, w/c has a uniform width and weight per
linear foot of 3lb/ft. Determine the maximum bending moment exerted on the boat.
Assume that the water exerts a uniform distributed load upward on the bottom of
the boat.



( )
0
2
1
75 . 0 75
0
13
15
150 45
0
0
·
⋅ ·
∆ ·
·
·
+
·
· Σ
C
B
A
o
y
M
ft lb
Area M
M
ft
lb
w
w
F
( ) ( )
( )
o
V
lb
lb V
lb
V
V
CL
B
BL
A
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
·
75 75
75
150 75
75
5 . 7 3 5 . 7 13
0
150 lb
7.5 ft 7.5 ft
75 lb
-75 lb
281.25 lb.ft
2° 2°
The footing supports the load transmitted by the two columns. Draw the shear and
moment diagrams for the footing if the reaction of soil pressure on the footing is
assumed to be uniform.









( )
( )
0
7
7
14 7
7
12
6
7
7
7
14 7
7
6
6
7
6
7
24
28
14 14 24
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
·
·
+ ·
· Σ
kip kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip V
ft
ft
kip
kip V
kip
kip kip V
kip
ft
ft
kip
V
ft
kip
w
ft
kip
kip kip w
F
DL
C
CL
CL
B
BL
o
o
y
14 kip 14 kip
12 ft 6 ft 6 ft

21 kip.ft
-7 kip
7 kip


21 kip.ft
-7 kip
7 kip
A
B
C
D
E
6 ft
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.







( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
0
5 . 0 5 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 9 5 2
0
0
5 . 0 5 5 . 2
5 . 2
30 5 . 27
25
5 10
2
1
0
5 . 0
5 . 9 10
10 5 2
0
5 . 9
30 5 . 12 5 2 10
0
·
+ − ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
⋅ − ·
⋅ ·
⋅ + − ·
⋅ − ·
− ·
·
− ·
+ − ·
− · − ·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
B
B
B
B
y
BL
BL
CL
AL
O
A
AL
O
A
A
B
V
kip V
kip R
R
F
M
ft kip M
ft kip
ft kip M
ft kip
M
M
kip
kip V
kip V
V
kip R
R
M
30 kip.ft
2 kip/ft
A
B
5 ft 5 ft 5 ft
-10 kip
-0.5 kip


-25 kip.ft
-27.5 kip.ft
2.5 kip.ft
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam and determine the shear and
moment in the beam as a function of x, where 4ft<x<10ft. by symmetry:








( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
75 1050 3200
2
4 150
4 450 200
150 1050
4 150 450
450
2
900
6 150
0
x x
x
x M
x
x V
R lb R
R R
R R
F
B A
B A
B A
y
− + − ·

− − + − ·
− ·
− − ·
· ·
· ·
· +
· Σ
150 lb/ft
A
B
4 ft 6 ft 4 ft
x
200 lb.ft 200 lb.ft
200 lb.ft
-200 lb.ft -200 lb.ft
-450 lb
450 lb
2° 2°
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.






( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0 5 . 4
3
5 . 112
75 . 168
75 . 168 5 . 4
3
5 . 112
0
0
5 . 112 5 . 112
5 . 112
5 . 112 0
0
5 . 112 5 . 112
5 . 112
5 . 112
: 5 . 112
75 . 843 75 . 168
5 . 4
3
2
5 . 4 5 . 4
2
50
3
5 . 4
50
2
1
9
0
2
· − ·
⋅ · ·
·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
·
· ·
·
+ ·
]
]
]

+ + ·
· Σ
CL
BL
A
C
CL
BL
A
B A
B
B
A
M
m kN M
M
kN V
kN
kN V
kN V
kN V
kN R R
symmetry by kN R
R
M
50 kN/m 50 kN/m
4.5 m 4.5 m
A B
112.5 kN
-112.5 kN


168.75 kN.m
The smooth pin is supported by two leaves A and B and subjected to a compressive
load of 0.4kN/m caused by bar C. Determine the intensity of the distributed load
w
o
of the leaves on the pin and draw the shear and moment diagrams for the pin.


( ) ( ) [ ]
( )( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( )
m kN
M
m kN M
M
kN V
kN
kN V
kN
kN V
V
m
kN
W
W
F
MAX
BL
A
DL
CL
BL
A
O
O
y
⋅ ·
+ ·
⋅ · ·
·
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]

+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
]
]
]

·
·
·
·
]
]
]

· Σ
00026 . 0
03 . 0
2
012 . 0
00008 . 0
00008 . 0 02 . 0
3
012 . 0
0
0
02 . 0
2
5 . 1
012 . 0
012 . 0
06 . 0 4 . 0 012 . 0
012 . 0
02 . 0 5 . 1
2
1
0
2 . 1
06 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 0
2
1
2
0
2.6x10-3 kN⋅m
60 mm 20 mm 20 mm
wo wo
0.4 kN/m
0.012 kN
0.012 kN
30 mm


Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.

( )( )
( )
( )
( )( ) [ ]
( )
( )
0
6
3
9000
1800
18000
1500 12 1625
1500
0
05 . 0 6 300 9000
9000
10625 1625
1625
1625
1625
6
2
3000
10625
0
10625
12
127500
12 2 6
2
3000
1500
0
·
+ − ·
− ·
+ − ·
⋅ ·
·
− ·
·
+ − ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
·
+ + ·
· Σ
C
B
B
A
CL
B
B
A
A
A
A
y
B
B
A
M
M
M
ft lb M
V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb V
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
3 kip/ft
1500 lb.ft
A
B
12 ft 6 ft
900
-1625


1500
-18000
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam and determine the shear and
moment as a function of x.




























( )( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
600 500
9
100
3
9
100
3 100 200
3
3
3
200
3
2
1
3
2
200
200
8 . 3
15
3
100
500
0
3
100
500
3
6
200
600 200 200
33
3
200
3
2
1
3 200 200
700
1200 3
2
600
0
200
1200 300 900
1 3 200
2
1
5 . 1 3 200 6
0
3
3 2
2 2
2
2
2
− + − ·
− − − − ·

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|
− − − − ·
·
·
·
· − ·
− − + − ·

,
`

.
|
− − − − − ·
·

,
`

.
|
·
· Σ
·
· + ·
+ ·
· Σ
x x M
x x x
x
x x x M
x
x
x
x
x x
x x x V
N R
R
F
N R
R
M
B
B
Y
A
A
B
18 kN/m
12 kN/m
3 m
A B


-45 kN
-54 kN.m




A member having the dimensions shown is to be used to resist an internal bending
moment of M = 2 kip⋅ft. Determine the maximum stress in the member if the
moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis. Sketch the stress
distribution for each case.

















a) about z axis











b) about y axis

6 in.
6 in.
x
z
y
psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
z
z
z
z
z
167
) / 1000 ( / 167 . 0
864
) 12 )( 6 ( 2
864
) 12 )( 6 )(
12
1
(
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
333
) / 1000 )( / 333 . 0 (
216
) 12 )( 3 )( 2 (
216
12
) 6 )( 12 )( 1 (
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
A member has the triangular cross section shown. Determine the largest internal
moment M that can be applied to the cross section without exceeding allowable
tensile and compressive stresses of (σ
allow
)
t
= 22 ksi and (σ
allow
)
s
= 15 ksi,
respectively.























We used the smaller value

M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
in kip M
M
bh
M
bh
c
I
c
I
M
I
Mc
t
. 44
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 22
)
24
( 22
24
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
in kip M
M
c
I
M
c
. 30
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 15
2
·
·
·
σ
ft kip M
in
ft
in kip M
. 5 . 2
12
. 30
·

,
`

.
|
·
A member has the triangular cross section shown. If a moment of M = 800 lb⋅ft is
applied to the cross section, determine the maximum tensile and compressive
bending stresses in the member. Also, sketch a three dimensional view of the stress
distribution acting over the cross section.











M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
C
h
C
in I
I
bh
I
I
Mc
c
c
c
c
8 . 4
/ 4800
62 . 4
31 . 2 9600
31 . 2
3
3 4
3
3 2 2
3
2
62 . 4
36
) 3 2 )( 4 (
36
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
3
1
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
h
C
t
t
t
4 . 2
/ 2400
62 . 4
15 . 1 9600
15 . 1
3
3 2
3
2
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
A beam has the cross section shown. If it is made of steel that has an allowable
stress of σ
allow
=24 ksi, determine the largest internal moment the beam can resist if
the moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis.















a) about z-axis












b) about y-axis
3 in.
z
y
3 in.
3 in.
3 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
I
Mc
z
z
z
z
z
. 8 . 20
. 7 . 249
25 . 0 3 / 8125 . 33 24
8125 . 33
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
125 . 3 25 . 0 6 . 0
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
2
4
3
2
3
·
·
+ ·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
· σ
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
. 0 . 6
. 06 . 72
3
9 24
9
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
2
4
3 3
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

·
The beam is subjected to a moment of M = 40 kN⋅m. Determine the bending stress
acting at points A and B. sketch the results on a volume element acting at each of
these points.

















B
A
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
MPa
MPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
I I I
B
B
A
A
y
y
z
z
A
z y
2 . 66
) 10 ( 51 . 1
1000 025 . 0 40
0
199
) 10 ( 5 . 1
1000 075 . 0 40
0
) 10 ( 51 . 1
12
05 . 0 05 . 0
2
12
15 . 0 05 . 0
5
5
4 5
3 3
·
]
]
]

+ ·
·
]
]
]

+ ·
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

· · ·



σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to the
concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B support only vertical forces,
and the allowable bending stress is σ
allow
= 160 MPa.



0.8 1.2 0.6
600 400
A B
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
mm d
m r
r
M
r
r
M
r
Mr
N R
R
M
N R
R
M
B
B
A
A
A
3 . 31
0156 . 0
) 10 ( 160
480 4
4
4
4
200
8 . 0 600 8 . 1 400 2 . 1
0
800
6 . 0 400 2 600 2 . 1
0
3
6
3
3
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
π
πσ
π
σ
π
σ
The beam is subjected to the load P at its center. Determine the placement a of the
supports so that the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam is as large as
possible. What is this stress?








For symmetrical loading













4
2 2 2
2
@
4
0
2 2
0 @
2
0
2 2
2 2
0
2
2
0
max
PL
M
L L P
M
L
a
PL
M
L P
M
a
L
a
a
L P
M
a
L P
M
M M
M
P
R
P R
R R
P R R
Fy
A
A
A
B
A
B A
c
AY
AY
BY AY
BY AY
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
≤ ≤
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
·
· Σ
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
( )( )
( )
2
max
2
max
3
max
3
max
max
2
3
12
8
12
2 4
2
12
, 0
bd
PL
bd
PL
bd
d PL
d
c
bd
I
I
c M
L a
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
P
d
b
L/2 L/2
a a
The beam has a rectangular cross section as shown. Determine the largest load P
that can be supported on its overhanging ends so that the bending stress does not
exceed σ
max
= 10 MPa.







( )( )
( )
kN P
P
m I
I
I
Mc
P R
P R R
Fy
P R
P P R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
4 . 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
125 . 0 5 . 1
) 10 ( 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
12
25 . 0 5 . 0
2
0
3 5 . 1 5 . 1
0
4
6
4 4
3
max
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ


σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
The beam has the rectangular cross section shown. If P =12 kN, determine that
absolute maximum bending stress in the beam. Sketch the stress distribution acting
over the cross section.





( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
MPa
m I
I
kN R
R R
Fy
kN R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
5 . 11
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18000
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
12
25 . 0 15 . 0
12
24
0
12
3 12 5 . 1 12 5 . 1
0
max
4
max
4
max
4 4
3
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ



σ
σ
σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
A log that is 2 ft in diameter is to be cut into a rectangular section for use as a
simply supported beam. If the allowable bending stress for the wood is σ
allow
= 8
ksi, determine the largest load P that can be supported if the width of the beam is b
= 8 in.














h
b
2 ft
8 ft 8 ft
P
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
kip P
kip
R P
ft kip
M
kip R
R
R M
S
M
in
bh
S
P
R
P
R
P R
M
in
h
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
B
114
5 . 113
75 . 56 2
2
5448
75 . 56 96
75 . 56
681
96
8
96 ,
681
6
6 . 22 8
6
2
2
8 16
0
6 . 22
8 24
4
2
2
2 2
·
·
·
·
⋅ ·
·
·
·
· ·
·
·
·
·
·
·
· Σ
·
− ·
σ
The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant moment of
M = 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner and sketch
the stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 45°.














θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
462
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
462
10 2552 . 3
04 . 601 125 . 0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
04 . 601 45 sin 850
04 . 601 45 cos 850
45
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4 3
4 4 3
·
+

·
− ·
+

·
·
+
− −
·
·

+
− −
·
+

·
· ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ·
· ·
· ·
° ·
− −
− −
− −
− −


E
D
B
Y
Y
Z
Z
A
Z
Y
Z
Y
kPa
kPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
m I
Nm M
Nm M
σ
σ
σ
σ
θ
The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant moment of M
= 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner and sketch the
stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 30°.














θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
m I
Nm M
Nm M
E
D
B
Y
Y
Z
Z
A
Z
Y
Z
Y
119
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
446
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
446
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
119
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
425 30 sin 850
12 . 736 30 cos 850
30
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4 3
4 4 3
·
+

·
− ·
+

·
·
+
− −
·
− ·

+
− −
·
+

·
· ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ·
· ·
· ·
° ·
− −
− −
− −
− −


σ
σ
σ
σ
θ

The T-beam is subjected to a moment of M = 150 kip⋅in. directed as shown.
Determine the maximum bending stress in the beam and the orientation of the
neutral axis. The location y of the centroid, C, must be determined.










6in. 6in.
2in.
8in.
2in.
60°
150 kip.in
y
y
z
B
A
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ]
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
ksi
ksi
ksi
in
I
in
I
in
A
A y
y
in kip M
in kip M
B
A
Z
Y
o
Z
Y
33 . 3
0178 . 2
333 . 293
1 9 . 129
33 . 333
7 75
33 . 3
333 . 293
6 9 . 129
333 . 333
3 75
33 . 333
7 9 2 12 2 12
12
1
4 7 2 8 8 2
12
1
33 . 293
12 2
12
1
2 8
12
1
7
12 2 2 8
12 2 9 2 8 4
75 60 cos 150
9038 . 129 60 sin 150
max
4
2 3 2 3
4
3 3
· ∴
− ·

+
− −
− ·
·
+

− ·
·
]
]
]

− + +
]
]
]

− +
,
`

.
|
·
·
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
·
·
+
+
·
Σ
Σ
·
⋅ − · − ·
⋅ · ·
σ
σ
σ
( )
( )
( )
° − ·
− − ·
·
·
2 . 63
30 2 . 33
30 tan
33 . 293
333 . 333
tan tan
α
θ α
Y
Z
I
I
The aluminum machine part is subjected to a moment of M = 75 N⋅m. Determine
the bending stress created at points B and C on the cross section. Sketch the results
on a volume element located at each of these points.























( )( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
MPa
MPa
m
I
m
y
c
C
B
B
Z
55 . 1
10 3633 . 0
0075 . 0 75
61 . 3
10 3633 . 0
0175 . 0 75
10 3633 . 0
0175 . 0 03 . 0 04 . 0 01 . 0
12
1
2 ) 005 . 0 0175 . 0 ( 01 . 0 08 . 0 01 . 0 08 . 0
12
1
0175 . 0
01 . 0 04 . 0 08 . 0 01 . 0
03 . 0 01 . 0 04 . 0 2 01 . 0 08 . 0 005 . 0
6
6
4 6
2 3 2 3
·
− −
·
·

− ·
·
]
]
]

− +
,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

− + ·
·
+
+
·


σ
σ
σ
σ
B
10 mm
M = 75 N⋅m
20 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
20 mm
40 mm
C
N



A beam is constructed from four pieces of wood, glued together as shown. If the
moment acting on the cross section is M = 450 N⋅m, determine the resultant force
that bending stress produces on the top board A and on the side board B.
















20 mm
20 mm
200 mm
15 mm
A
200 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
B
15 mm
( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )( )
kN
F
MPa
F
I
z M
I
y M
m
I
RB
B
RA
A
y
Y
Z
Z
A
y
5 . 1
1000
015 . 0 24 . 0 34 . 410334
410 . 0
10 316 . 1
12 . 0 450
0
0
0
0 0
10 316 . 1
24 . 0 015 . 0
12
1
2 11 . 0 02 . 0 2 . 0 02 . 0 2 . 0
12
1
2
4
4 4
3 2 3
·
·
·
+ ·
·
·
+ ·
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·


σ
σ
σ
The beam is made from three boards nailed together as shown. If the moment
acting on the cross section is M = 600 N⋅m, determine the maximum bending
stress in the beam. Sketch a three-dimensional view of the stress distribution acting
over the cross section.

















M = 600 N⋅m
20 mm
25 mm
200 mm
20 mm
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )
( )
MPa
I
Mc
m
I
m C
m y
A
A y
y
06 . 2
10 53 . 24
11875 . 0 600
10 53 . 34
05625 . 0 1 . 0 15 . 0 02 . 0 15 . 0 02 . 0
12
1
2
0125 . 0 05625 . 0 025 . 0 24 . 0 025 . 0 24 . 0
12
1
11875 . 0 05625 . 0 175 . 0
05625 . 0
02 . 0 15 . 0 2 24 . 0 025 . 0
02 . 0 15 . 0 1 . 0 2 24 . 0 025 . 0 0125 . 0
6
max
4 6
2 3
2 3
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

− +
+
]
]
]

− + ·
· − ·
·
+
+
·
Σ
Σ
·


σ
If the internal moment acting on the cross section of the strut has a magnitude of M
= 800 N⋅m and is directed as shown, determine the bending stress at points A and
B. The location z of the centroid C of the strut’s cross-sectional area must be
determined. Also, specify the orientation of the neutral axis.
















z
y
12 mm
M = 800 N⋅m
12 mm
200 mm
200 mm
150 mm
z
12 mm
60°
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
° − ·
]
]
]

·
·
− ·

+
− −
·
·
− −
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
·
]
]
]

− + ·
· − ·
·
+
+
·


− −
− −


1 . 87
30 tan
10 3374 . 16
10 18869 . 0
tan
tan tan
13 . 1
10 3374 . 16
0366 . 0 82 . 692
10 11869 . 0
2 . 0 400
38 . 4
10 3374 . 16
1134 . 0 82 . 692
10 1886 . 0
2 . 0 400
10 18869 . 0
4 . 0 012 . 0
12
1
194 . 0 012 . 0 138 . 0 012 . 0 138 . 0
12
1
2
10 3374 . 16
0366 . 0 081 . 0 012 . 0 4 . 0 012 . 0 4 . 0
12
1
1134 . 0 0366 . 0 15 . 0
366 . 0
138 . 0 012 . 0 2 4 . 0 012 . 0
138 . 0 012 . 0 081 . 0 2 4 . 0 012 . 0 006 . 0
6
3
6 3
6 3
4 3
3
2 3
4 6
2 3
α
α
θ α
σ
σ
Y
Z
B
A
Z
Y
I
I
MPa
MPa
m
I
m
I
m C
m
z
The beam has a rectangular cross section as shown. Determine the largest load P
that can be subjected to the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B
support only vertical forces.





































0.8 m 1.2 m 0.6 m
600 N 400 N
A B
( )
( )
2
3
3
2
3
3
/ 181
030 . 0
480 32
32
4
32 4
2
;
m N
d
M
r
Mr
d
d
I
I
Mc
·
·
·
·
·

,
`

.
|
· ·
σ
π
π
π
π
π
σ






A member having the dimensions shown is to be used to resist an internal bending
moment of M = 2 kip⋅ft. Determine the maximum stress in the member if the
moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis. Sketch the stress
distribution for each case.

















a) about z axis











b) about y axis
6 in.
6 in.
x
z
y
psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
z
z
z
z
z
167
) / 1000 ( / 167 . 0
864
) 12 )( 6 ( 2
864
) 12 )( 6 )(
12
1
(
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ

psi
kip lb in kip
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
333
) / 1000 )( / 333 . 0 (
216
) 12 )( 3 )( 2 (
216
12
) 6 )( 12 )( 1 (
2
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
A member has the triangular cross section shown. Determine the largest internal
moment M that can be applied to the cross section without exceeding allowable
tensile and compressive stresses of (σ
allow
)
t
= 22 ksi and (σ
allow
)
s
= 15 ksi,
respectively.























We used the smaller value

M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
in kip M
M
bh
M
bh
c
I
c
I
M
I
Mc
t
. 44
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 22
)
24
( 22
24
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
in kip M
M
c
I
M
c
. 30
)
24
) 3 2 )( 4 (
( 15
2
·
·
·
σ
ft kip M
in
ft
in kip M
. 5 . 2
12
. 30
·

,
`

.
|
·
A member has the triangular cross section shown. If a moment of M = 800 lb⋅ft is
applied to the cross section, determine the maximum tensile and compressive
bending stresses in the member. Also, sketch a three dimensional view of the stress
distribution acting over the cross section.











M
2 in.
2 in.
4 in.
4 in.
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
C
h
C
in I
I
bh
I
I
Mc
c
c
c
c
8 . 4
/ 4800
62 . 4
31 . 2 9600
31 . 2
3
3 4
3
3 2 2
3
2
62 . 4
36
) 3 2 )( 4 (
36
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
3
1
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
( )
( ) ( )
ksi
in lb
in C
C
h
C
t
t
t
4 . 2
/ 2400
62 . 4
15 . 1 9600
15 . 1
3
3 2
3
2
2
2
2
·
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
A beam has the cross section shown. If it is made of steel that has an allowable
stress of σ
allow
=24 ksi, determine the largest internal moment the beam can resist if
the moment is applied (a) about the z axis, (b) about the y axis.















a) about z-axis












b) about y-axis
3 in.
z
y
3 in.
3 in.
3 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
0.25 in.
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
I
Mc
z
z
z
z
z
. 8 . 20
. 7 . 249
25 . 0 3 / 8125 . 33 24
8125 . 33
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
125 . 3 25 . 0 6 . 0
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
2
4
3
2
3
·
·
+ ·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
· σ
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
ft kip M
in kip M
M
in I
I
y
y
y
y
y
. 0 . 6
. 06 . 72
3
9 24
9
12
25 . 0 6 . 0
12
6 . 0 25 . 0
2
4
3 3
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

·
The beam is subjected to a moment of M = 40 kN⋅m. Determine the bending stress
acting at points A and B. sketch the results on a volume element acting at each of
these points.














B
A
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
50 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
MPa
MPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
I I I
B
B
A
A
y
y
z
z
A
z y
2 . 66
) 10 ( 51 . 1
1000 025 . 0 40
0
199
) 10 ( 5 . 1
1000 075 . 0 40
0
) 10 ( 51 . 1
12
05 . 0 05 . 0
2
12
15 . 0 05 . 0
5
5
4 5
3 3
·
]
]
]

+ ·
·
]
]
]

+ ·
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

· · ·



σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to the
concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B support only vertical forces,
and the allowable bending stress is σ
allow
= 160 MPa.



0.8 1.2 0.6
600 400
A B
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
mm d
m r
r
M
r
r
M
r
Mr
N R
R
M
N R
R
M
B
B
A
A
A
3 . 31
0156 . 0
) 10 ( 160
480 4
4
4
4
200
8 . 0 600 8 . 1 400 2 . 1
0
800
6 . 0 400 2 600 2 . 1
0
3
6
3
3
4
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
π
πσ
π
σ
π
σ
The beam is subjected to the load P at its center. Determine the placement a of the
supports so that the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam is as large as
possible. What is this stress?








For symmetrical loading













4
2 2 2
2
@
4
0
2 2
0 @
2
0
2 2
2 2
0
2
2
0
max
PL
M
L L P
M
L
a
PL
M
L P
M
a
L
a
a
L P
M
a
L P
M
M M
M
P
R
P R
R R
P R R
Fy
A
A
A
B
A
B A
c
AY
AY
BY AY
BY AY
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
·
≤ ≤
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
·
·
· Σ
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
( )( )
( )
2
max
2
max
3
max
3
max
max
2
3
12
8
12
2 4
2
12
, 0
bd
PL
bd
PL
bd
d PL
d
c
bd
I
I
c M
L a
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
P
d
b
L/2 L/2
a a
The steel beam has the cross-sectional area shown. If w = 5 kip⋅ft, determine the
absolute maximum bending stress in the beam.



( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
ksi
in I
I
kip R
R R
Fy
kip R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
8 . 66
3 . 152
3 . 5 12 160
3 . 152
12
10 3 . 0
15 . 5 3 . 0 8
12
30 . 0 8
2
40
80
0
40
2 40 4 40 24
0
max
max
4
3
2
3
·
·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
+ ·
· Σ
σ
σ
wo wo
8 ft 8 ft 8 ft
0.3 in
8 in
0.30 in
10 in
0.30 in
160 kip.ft
-40 kip
40 kip
The beam has a rectangular cross section as shown. Determine the largest load P
that can be supported on its overhanging ends so that the bending stress does not
exceed σ
max
= 10 MPa.






( )( )
( )
kN P
P
m I
I
I
Mc
P R
P R R
Fy
P R
P P R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
4 . 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
125 . 0 5 . 1
) 10 ( 10
) 10 ( 953 . 1
12
25 . 0 5 . 0
2
0
3 5 . 1 5 . 1
0
4
6
4 4
3
max
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ


σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
The beam has the rectangular cross section shown. If P =12 kN, determine that
absolute maximum bending stress in the beam. Sketch the stress distribution acting
over the cross section.





( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
MPa
m I
I
kN R
R R
Fy
kN R
R
M
A
B A
B
B
A
5 . 11
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18000
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
125 . 0 18
) 10 ( 953125 . 1
12
25 . 0 15 . 0
12
24
0
12
3 12 5 . 1 12 5 . 1
0
max
4
max
4
max
4 4
3
·
·
·
·
·
·
· +
· Σ ↑ +
·
· +
· Σ



σ
σ
σ
P P
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
250 mm
150 mm
. A log that is 2 ft in diameter is to be cut into a rectangular section for use as a
simply supported beam. If the allowable bending stress for the wood is σ
allow
= 8
ksi, determine the largest load P that can be supported if the width of the beam is b
= 8 in.














h
b
2 ft
8 ft 8 ft
P
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
kip P
kip
R P
ft kip
M
kip R
R
R M
S
M
in
bh
S
P
R
P
R
P R
M
in
h
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
B
114
5 . 113
75 . 56 2
2
5448
75 . 56 96
75 . 56
681
96
8
96 ,
681
6
6 . 22 8
6
2
2
8 16
0
6 . 22
8 24
4
2
2
2 2
·
·
·
·
⋅ ·
·
·
·
· ·
·
·
·
·
·
·
· Σ
·
− ·
σ
The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant moment of
M = 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner and sketch
the stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 45°.














θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
462
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
462
10 2552 . 3
04 . 601 125 . 0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
0
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 04 . 601
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
04 . 601 45 sin 850
04 . 601 45 cos 850
45
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4 3
4 4 3
·
+

·
− ·
+

·
·
+
− −
·
·

+
− −
·
+

·
· ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ·
· ·
· ·
° ·
− −
− −
− −
− −


E
D
B
Y
Y
Z
Z
A
Z
Y
Z
Y
kPa
kPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
m I
Nm M
Nm M
σ
σ
σ
σ
θ
The member has a square cross section and is subjected to a resultant moment of M
= 850 N⋅m as shown. Determine that bending stress at each corner and sketch the
stress distribution produced by M. Set θ = 30°.














θ
125 mm
125 mm
D
C
A
B
E
250 mm
M = 850 N⋅m
y
z
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
I
z M
I
y M
m I
m I
Nm M
Nm M
E
D
B
Y
Y
Z
Z
A
Z
Y
Z
Y
119
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
446
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
446
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
119
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 12 . 736
10 2552 . 3
125 . 0 425
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
10 2552 . 3 25 . 0 25 . 0
12
1
425 30 sin 850
12 . 736 30 cos 850
30
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4
4 4 3
4 4 3
·
+

·
− ·
+

·
·
+
− −
·
− ·

+
− −
·
+

·
· ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ·
· ·
· ·
° ·
− −
− −
− −
− −


σ
σ
σ
σ
θ





The T-beam is subjected to a moment of M = 150 kip⋅in. directed as shown.
Determine the maximum bending stress in the beam and the orientation of the
neutral axis. The location y of the centroid, C, must be determined.










( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ]
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
ksi
ksi
ksi
in
I
in
I
in
A
A y
y
in kip M
in kip M
B
A
Z
Y
o
Z
Y
33 . 3
0178 . 2
333 . 293
1 9 . 129
33 . 333
7 75
33 . 3
333 . 293
6 9 . 129
333 . 333
3 75
33 . 333
7 9 2 12 2 12
12
1
4 7 2 8 8 2
12
1
33 . 293
12 2
12
1
2 8
12
1
7
12 2 2 8
12 2 9 2 8 4
75 60 cos 150
9038 . 129 60 sin 150
max
4
2 3 2 3
4
3 3
· ∴
− ·

+
− −
− ·
·
+

− ·
·
]
]
]

− + +
]
]
]

− +
,
`

.
|
·
·
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
·
·
+
+
·
Σ
Σ
·
⋅ − · − ·
⋅ · ·
σ
σ
σ
( )
( )
( )
° − ·
− − ·
·
·
2 . 63
30 2 . 33
30 tan
33 . 293
333 . 333
tan tan
α
θ α
Y
Z
I
I
6-185. Determine the bending stress distribution in the beam at section a-a. Sketch
the distribution in three dimension acting over the cross section.







( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )( )
kPa
Nm
I
Mc
m
I
6 . 634
52 . 2
050 . 0 32
10 52 . 2
12
15 . 0 75 . 0
12
1 . 0 15 . 0
2
4 6
3 3
·
·
·
·
+
]
]
]

·

σ
The aluminum machine part is subjected to a moment of M = 75 N⋅m. Determine
the bending stress created at points B and C on the cross section. Sketch the results
on a volume element located at each of these points.


















B
10 mm
M = 75 N⋅m
20 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
20 mm
40 mm
C
N
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
MPa
MPa
m
I
m
y
c
C
B
B
Z
55 . 1
10 3633 . 0
0075 . 0 75
61 . 3
10 3633 . 0
0175 . 0 75
10 3633 . 0
0175 . 0 03 . 0 04 . 0 01 . 0
12
1
2 ) 005 . 0 0175 . 0 ( 01 . 0 08 . 0 01 . 0 08 . 0
12
1
0175 . 0
01 . 0 04 . 0 08 . 0 01 . 0
03 . 0 01 . 0 04 . 0 2 01 . 0 08 . 0 005 . 0
6
6
4 6
2 3 2 3
·
− −
·
·

− ·
·
]
]
]

− +
,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

− + ·
·
+
+
·


σ
σ
σ
σ
A beam is constructed from four pieces of wood, glued together as shown. If the
moment acting on the cross section is M = 450 N⋅m, determine the resultant force
that bending stress produces on the top board A and on the side board B.
















20 mm
20 mm
200 mm
15 mm
A
200 mm
M = 40 kN⋅m
B
15 mm
( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )( )
kN
F
MPa
F
I
z M
I
y M
m
I
RB
B
RA
A
y
Y
Z
Z
A
y
5 . 1
1000
015 . 0 24 . 0 34 . 410334
410 . 0
10 316 . 1
12 . 0 450
0
0
0
0 0
10 316 . 1
24 . 0 015 . 0
12
1
2 11 . 0 02 . 0 2 . 0 02 . 0 2 . 0
12
1
2
4
4 4
3 2 3
·
·
·
+ ·
·
·
+ ·
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·


σ
σ
σ
The beam is made from three boards nailed together as shown. If the moment
acting on the cross section is M = 600 N⋅m, determine the maximum bending
stress in the beam. Sketch a three-dimensional view of the stress distribution acting
over the cross section.

















M = 600 N⋅m
20 mm
25 mm
200 mm
20 mm
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )
( )
MPa
I
Mc
m
I
m C
m y
A
A y
y
06 . 2
10 53 . 24
11875 . 0 600
10 53 . 34
05625 . 0 1 . 0 15 . 0 02 . 0 15 . 0 02 . 0
12
1
2
0125 . 0 05625 . 0 025 . 0 24 . 0 025 . 0 24 . 0
12
1
11875 . 0 05625 . 0 175 . 0
05625 . 0
02 . 0 15 . 0 2 24 . 0 025 . 0
02 . 0 15 . 0 1 . 0 2 24 . 0 025 . 0 0125 . 0
6
max
4 6
2 3
2 3
·
·
·
·
]
]
]

− +
+
]
]
]

− + ·
· − ·
·
+
+
·
Σ
Σ
·


σ
If the internal moment acting on the cross section of the strut has a magnitude of M
= 800 N⋅m and is directed as shown, determine the bending stress at points A and
B. The location z of the centroid C of the strut’s cross-sectional area must be
determined. Also, specify the orientation of the neutral axis.
















z
y
12 mm
M = 800 N⋅m
12 mm
200 mm
200 mm
150 mm
z
12 mm
60°
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
° − ·
]
]
]

·
·
− ·

+
− −
·
·
− −
+

·
·
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

+ ·
·
]
]
]

− + ·
· − ·
·
+
+
·


− −
− −


1 . 87
30 tan
10 3374 . 16
10 18869 . 0
tan
tan tan
13 . 1
10 3374 . 16
0366 . 0 82 . 692
10 11869 . 0
2 . 0 400
38 . 4
10 3374 . 16
1134 . 0 82 . 692
10 1886 . 0
2 . 0 400
10 18869 . 0
4 . 0 012 . 0
12
1
194 . 0 012 . 0 138 . 0 012 . 0 138 . 0
12
1
2
10 3374 . 16
0366 . 0 081 . 0 012 . 0 4 . 0 012 . 0 4 . 0
12
1
1134 . 0 0366 . 0 15 . 0
366 . 0
138 . 0 012 . 0 2 4 . 0 012 . 0
138 . 0 012 . 0 081 . 0 2 4 . 0 012 . 0 006 . 0
6
3
6 3
6 3
4 3
3
2 3
4 6
2 3
α
α
θ α
σ
σ
Y
Z
B
A
Z
Y
I
I
MPa
MPa
m
I
m
I
m C
m
z
The axle of the freight car is subjected to wheel loadings of 20 kip. If it is
supported by two journal bearings at C and D, determine that maximum bending
stress developed at the center of the axle, where the diameter is 5.5 in.



( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
ksi
r
Mr
I
Mc
kip R
R
Fy
kip R
R
M
D
D
C
C
D
24 . 12
75 . 2
200 4
4
20
20 20 20
0
20
80 20 70 20
0
3
4
·
·
·
·
·
· − +
· Σ
·
· +
· Σ
σ
π
π
σ
6-74. Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 1.5-in.-diameter shaft
which is subjected to the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B
support only vertical forces.



( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
Ksi
d
I
d
Mr
d
I
I
Mc
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
B
B
Y
A
A
B
6 . 13
5 . 1
5 . 7 4500 64
64
64
4
2
610
90 300 400
0
90
15 300 18 400 30
0
4
4
4
4
·
·
· ·

,
`

.
|
· ·
·
− + ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· Σ
π
π
π
π
σ
6-75. Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to
the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B support only vertical
forces, and the allowable bending stress is σ
allow
= 22 ksi.




Given:

?
22
·
·
d
Ksi σ

Solution:


( ) ( ) ( )
lb R
R
F
lb R
R
M
B
B
Y
A
A
B
610
90 300 400
0
90
15 300 18 400 30
0
·
− + ·
· Σ
·
− ·
· Σ



( )
( )
in d
d
d
d
d
d
r
Mr
I
d
M
I
Mc
28 . 1
1 . 2
22000
144000
4500 32
22
32 4
2
4
;
32
3
3
3
3
3
4 3
·
·
·
·
·

,
`

.
|
· · ·
·
π
π
π
π
π π
σ
σ
Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 30-mm-diameter shaft
which is subjected to the concentrated forces. The sleeve bearings at A and B
support only vertical forces.












0.8 m 1.2 m 0.6 m
600 N 400 N
A B
( )
( )
2
3
3
2
3
3
/ 181
030 . 0
480 32
32
4
32 4
2
;
m N
d
M
r
Mr
d
d
I
I
Mc
·
·
·
·
·

,
`

.
|
· ·
σ
π
π
π
π
π
σ
6-79. The steel shaft has a circular cross section with a diameter of 2 in. It is
supported on smooth journal bearings A and B, which exert only vertical reactions
on the shaft. Determine the absolute maximum bending stress if it is subjected to
the pulley loadings shown.




































( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
ksi
r
M
r
Mr
I
Mc
lb R
R
M
lb R
R
M
B
B
A
A
A
B
4 . 20
1
16000 4
4
4
650
20 500 40 300 60 800 80
0
650
20 500 40 300 60 500 80
; 0
3
3 4
·
·
· · ·
·
+ + ·
· Σ
·
+ + ·
· Σ
σ
π
π π
σ












Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 20mm diameter pin. The
smooth pin is supported by two leaves A and B and subjected to a compressive
load of 0.4kN/m caused by bar C. Determine the intensity of the distributed load
w
o
of the leaves on the pin and draw the shear and moment diagrams for the pin.
























( )
( )
( )
kPa
m
I
I
Mc
331
10 853 . 7
01 . 0 00026 . 0
10 853 . 7
4
01 . 90
max
9
max
4 9
4
·
·
·
·
·


σ
σ
π
σ
2.6x10-3 kN⋅m
60 mm 20 mm 20 mm
wo wo
0.4 kN/m












If the beam ABC has square cross-section 6in by 6in, determine the absolute
bending stress in the beam. The 20kip load must be replaced by equivalent
loadings at point C on the axis of the beam.































( )( )
( )( )
ksi
I
Mc
in I
I
6 . 15
108
12 3 68 . 46
108
6 6
12
1
max
max
4
3
·
·
·
·
·
σ
σ
6-67. If the crane boom ABC has a rectangular cross-section with the base of 2in a
height of 3in, determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the boom. The
engine crane is used to support the engine, which has a weight of 1200 lb.





































( )( )
( )
ksi
in kip
ft
in
lb
kip
ft lb M
in
I
24
5 . 4
5 . 1 72
. 72
12
1000
. 6000
5 . 4
3 2
12
1
max
4
3
·
·
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
·
·
σ
6-86. The simply supported beam is made from four ¾ in diameter rod w/c are
bounded as shown determine the maximum bending stress in the beam due to the
loading shown.





































( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
ksi
d
M
in lb ft lb
d
M
r
Mr
in
in in d
lb R
M
lb R
R
M
B
A
A
A
B
4 . 2
2
1920 32
32
. 1920 . 160
32
4
2
4
4
1
4
4
3
80
0
80
2 80 8 80 10
0
3
3
3 3
·
·
·
·
· ·
·
− ·
·
· Σ
·
+ ·
· Σ
π
π
σ
π π
σ


6-48. The beam is made from three boards nailed together as shown. If the moment
acting on the cross-section is M=600N.m, determine the resultant force bending
stress produces on the top board.




































( )( )( )
N F
F
kPa stress Ave
kPa y
y
R
R
591 . 3
1000 / 240 25 5 . 598
5 . 598
2
252 945
.
252
75 . 93
945
25
·
·
·
+
·
·
·
5-59. The beam is subjected to a moment M=30lb.ft. Determine the bending stress
at points A and B. Also, sketch a three dimensional view of the stress distribution
acting over the entire cross-sectional area.



































(Mindanao State University-General Santos City, Philippines)
BSEE-(G.R.F) students 2004
( )( ) ( )( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
psi
psi
in
I
in
y
D
A
977 . 32
367 . 4
4 . 0 12 30
35 . 214
367 . 4
4 . 1 4 12 30
367 . 4
4 . 1 2 3 1
2
1
36
3
2 9 . 0 2
12
1 2
4 . 1
1 3 5 . 0 2 1 2
2 1 3 5 . 0 2 5 . 0 1 2
4
2
3
2
2
·
·
·

·
·
]
]
]

− +

,
`

.
|
+ + ·
·
+
+
·
σ
σ