Organizational Behavior

Schermerhorn, Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn
Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University

Chapter 1 Study Questions
What is organizational behavior and why is it important? What are organizations like as work settings? What is the nature of managerial work? How do we learn about organizational behavior?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 2

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Workplace success depends on:
– Respect for people. – Understanding of human behavior in complex

organizational systems.
– Individual commitment to flexibility,

creativity, and learning.
– Individual willingness to change.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 3

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Organizations and their members are challenged to:
– Simultaneously achieve high performance and

high quality of life. – Embrace ethics and social responsibility. – Respect the vast potential of demographic and cultural diversity among people. – Recognize the impact of globalization.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 4

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Organizational behavior. – Study of human behavior in organizations. – A multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 5

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important?

Pick up Figure 1.1 from the textbook.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1

6

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Reasons for importance of scientific thinking. – The process of data collection is controlled and systematic. – Proposed explanations are carefully tested. – Only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 7

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important?
Contingency approach. – Tries to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled. – Important contingency variables include:
• Environment. • Technology. • Tasks. • Structure. • People.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 8

Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Modern workplace trends.
Commitment to ethical behavior. Importance of human capital. Demise of “command and control.” Emphasis on teamwork. Pervasive influence of information technology. – Respect for new workforce expectations. – Changing definition of “jobs” and “career.”
– – – – –
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 9

Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings?

An organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1

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Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. Missions and mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. Mission statements communicate:
– A clear sense of the domain in which the

organization’s products and services fit. – A vision and sense of future aspirations.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 11

Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? A strategy is a comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. Key managerial responsibilities include strategy formulation and implementation. Knowledge of OB is essential to effectively strategy implementation.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 12

Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 13 .

employees. – Interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes conflict. and local communities are key stakeholders. – Executive leadership often focuses on balancing multiple stakeholder expectations. and institutions having an interest in an organization’s performance. – Customers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 14 .Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Stakeholders. – People. owners. regulators. groups. suppliers.

Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational culture and diversity. Respect people and workforce diversity.. Encourage risk taking. – Positive organizational cultures: • • • • • Have a high-performance orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 15 . – Success in business world is tied to valuing diversity. Emphasize innovation. Emphasize teamwork. – Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members.

– Goal approach focuses on outputs. – Internal process approach focuses on the transformation process. – Systems resource approach focuses on inputs. – Strategic contingencies approach focuses on impact on key stakeholders.Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational effectiveness approaches. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 16 .

– Short-run emphasis on goal accomplishment. and stakeholder satisfaction. – Intermediate-run emphasis on organization’s adaptability and development potential. – Long-run emphasis on survival.Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Longitudinal views of organizational effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 17 . resource utilization.

or team leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 18 .Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managers perform jobs that involve directly supporting the work efforts of others. coach. Managers assume roles such as coordinator.

and enthusiastic. committed. – An effective manager is one whose organizational unit. – Key results of effective management: • Task performance. or team consistently achieves its goals while its members remain capable. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 19 .Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? The management process. group. • Job satisfaction.

Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 20 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 21 . – Managers spend a lot of time communicating. – Managers are often interrupted. – Managers work mostly with other people. – Managerial work is fragmented and variable.Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? The nature of managerial work. – Managers are busy people. – Managers work long hours.

Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 22 .

– Action mind-set — managing change. – Analytic mind-set — managing organizational operations and decisions. – Worldly mind-set — managing in a global context. – Collaborative mind-set — managing relationships.Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managerial mind-sets. – Reflective mind-set — managing one’s self. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 23 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 24 . • Conceptual. – Categories of skills. • Human.Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managerial skills and competencies. • Technical. – A skill is an ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance.

Organizational learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 25 .Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from experience.

Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 26 .

Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 27 .

Chapter 2 Study Questions What is a high-performance organization? What is multiculturalism. and how can workforce diversity be managed? How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 28 .

and customer-oriented. – Thrive on learning and enable members to grow and develop. – Are achievement-. and respect diversity. quality-.Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? High-performance organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 29 . – Mobilize the talents of self-directed work teams. as well as being sensitive to the external environment. – Value and empower people. – Use cutting-edge technologies to achieve success.

groups. Value creation. and other organizations affected by an organization’s performance.Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Stakeholders. – The extent to which an organization satisfies the needs of strategic constituencies. – The individuals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 30 .

Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 31 .

can it be done better? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 32 . – A total commitment to: • High-quality results. • Continuous improvement. – Doing all tasks right the first time. • Customer satisfaction. – Continuous improvement focuses on two questions: • Is it necessary? • If so. – Meeting customers’ needs.Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Total quality management (TQM).

energies. – People whose minds rather than physical capabilities create value for the organization. creativity.Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Human capital. ideas. competencies. – The performance potential of the expertise. and commitments. and commitment within an organization’s workforce. Knowledge workers. knowledge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 33 . Intellectual capital. – The economic value of people with job-relevant abilities.

Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Empowerment. to use their talents and knowledge to make decisions that affect their work. individually and in groups. – Allows people. Social capital. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 34 . – The performance potential represented in the relationships maintained among people at work.

– Uncertainty highlights the importance of organizational learning. – High-performance organizations are designed for organizational learning.Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Learning and high-performance cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 35 . – A learning organization has a culture that values human capital and invigorates learning for performance enhancement.

Study Question 1: What is a highperformance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 36 .

– Refers to pluralism and respect for diversity and individual differences in the workplace. and sexual orientation. gender. Multiculturalism. race. and how can workforce diversity be managed? Workforce diversity. Inclusivity. – The degree to which the organization’s culture respects and values diversity.Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism. – Describes differences among people with respect to age. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 37 . physical ability. ethnicity.

– Verbal abuse. and how can workforce diversity be managed? Diversity biases in the workplace. – Pay discrimination. – Discrimination. – Sexual harassment. – Prejudice.Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism. – The glass ceiling effect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 38 .

and how can workforce diversity be managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 39 .Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism.

A diversity mature organization is created when: – Managers ensure the effective and efficient utilization of employees in pursuit of the corporate mission.Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 40 . and how can workforce diversity be managed? Managing diversity. Well-managed workforce diversity increases human capital. – Managers consider how their behaviors affect diversity. – Developing a work environment and organizational culture that allows all organization members to reach their full potential.

The public demands that people in organizations act according to high moral standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 41 .Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ethical behavior. – “Good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in a particular setting.

” Moral managers. Amoral managers.Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Immoral managers. – Ethics is simply not on this manager’s “radar screen. – Incorporate ethical principles and goals into their personal behavior . – Do not subscribe to any ethical principles. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 42 . pursuit of self-interest.

Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 43 .

– Individualism view –– best serving long-term self-interests. – Justice view –– fair and impartial in the treatment of all people. – Utilitarian view –– the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 44 .Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ways of thinking about ethical behavior. – Moral-rights view –– respects and protects the fundamental rights of all human beings.

regardless of demographic differences. – Interactional justice –– treating people affected by a decision with dignity and respect.Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Different types of justice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 45 . – Distributive justice –– treating people the same under a policy. – Procedural justice –– properly following rules and procedures in all cases.

– Occur when someone must choose whether or not to pursue a course of action that. although offering the potential of personal or organizational benefit or both. may be considered unethical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 46 .Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ethical dilemmas.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 47 . – Pretending the behavior is not really unethical or illegal.Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Rationalizations for unethical behavior. – Saying the behavior is really in the organization’s or person’s best interest. – Presuming that superiors will support and protect you. – Assuming the behavior is acceptable if others don’t find out about it.

• Corporate social responsibility. – The obligation of organizations to behave in ethical and moral ways as institutions of the broader society.Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Organizational social responsibility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 48 . – A whistleblower exposes others’ wrongdoings in order to preserve high ethical standards. – Managers should commit organizations to: • Pursuit of high productivity.

and financial reporting by Boards of Directors.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership. – Corporate governance. – Society expects and demands ethical decisions and actions from businesses and other social institutions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 49 . • The active oversight of management decisions. corporate strategy.

credible.” and of being “right” and not “wrong. – Integrity. and consistent in putting one’s values into practice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 50 . • Making business and organizational decisions with high moral standards that meet the ethical test of being “good” and not “bad.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership (cont.” . – Ethics leadership.). • Acting in ways that are always honest.

• Commitment to quality of work life is an important value within organizational behavior. • The overall quality of human experience in the workplace. – Quality of work life. • Theory Y provides the theoretical underpinnings for contemporary quality of work life concepts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 51 .Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior.

Hope. – Positive organizational behavior focuses on practices that value human capacities and encourage their full utilization. – Positive organizational behavior is based on the core capacities of: • • • • Confidence. Optimism.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior (cont.). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 52 . Resilience.

product markets. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 53 . – Globalization. and business competition. job migration. – Job migration. • The worldwide interdependence of resource flows.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Globalization. and organizational transformation. • The shifting of jobs from one nation to another.

Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Globalization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 54 . job migration. – Job migration and global outsourcing have contributed to organizations redesigning themselves for high performance in a changed world. • Involves employers cutting back on domestic jobs and replacing them with contract workers in other nations.). – Global outsourcing. and organizational transformation (cont.

• Relatively small core group of permanent. – Shamrock organizations.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning. • Part-timers hired by core group on an as-needed basis. full-time employees with critical skills. • Outside operators contracting to core group to perform essential daily activities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 55 .

accepting responsibility. and continually learning from experience.). – Personal management. exercising initiative.Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning (cont. • Observing and reflecting on one’s own behavior and acting in ways that adapt to the situation. – Self-monitoring. • Understand one’s self. working well with others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 56 .

Chapter 3 Study Questions Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? How does cultural diversity affect people at work? What is a global view on organizational learning? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 57 .

Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Most organizations must achieve high performance within a complex and competitive global environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 58 . Globalization refers to the complex economic networks of international competition. and product markets. resource suppliers.

Movement of valuable skills and investments.Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Forces of globalization. – Rapid growth in information technology and – – – – – electronic communication. Increasing job migration among nations. Impact of multicultural workforces. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 59 . Increasing cultural diversity. Implications of immigration.

Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Globalization is contributing to the emergence of regional economic alliances. – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 60 . – European Union (EU). Important regional alliances. – Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC).

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 61 . – Movement of jobs from one location or country to another. Off shoring. – Contracting out work to persons in other countries. Job migration. – Contracting out of work rather than accomplishing it with a full-time permanent workforce.Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Outsourcing.

Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Global managers. Have a global mindset. Have a global attitude. Are culturally adaptable and often multilingual. Think with a worldview and are able to map strategy in the global context. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 62 . – Know how to conduct business in multiple – – – – countries.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 63 . – The learned. – Cultural intelligence is the ability to identify.” – Helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one another. understand.Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Culture. and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations. shared way of doing things in a particular society. – The “software of the mind.

– Low-context cultures — the message is conveyed by the words used. – Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Language. – High-context cultures — words convey only a limited part of the message. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 64 . – Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as a major determinant of thinking.

– Polychronic cultures. • Linear view of time. • No pressure for immediate action or performance. • Circular view of time. – Monochronic cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 65 . • Emphasis on the present. • Create pressure for action and performance.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Time orientation. • Long-range goals and planning are important.

– Proxemics. • Reveals important cultural differences. – Concept of personal space varies across cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 66 .Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Use of space. – Space is arranged differently in different cultures. • The study of how people use space to communicate.

– Influences conduct of economic matters.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Religion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 67 . – Can be a very visible aspect of culture. – Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior. – A major element of culture.

Individualism-collectivism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 68 . – Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes. Masculinity-femininity. – Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: • • • • • Power distance. Uncertainty avoidance. Long-term/short-term orientation.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Values and national culture.

– Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden. – Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Power distance. – Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations. – The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 69 .

– Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France. – The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. – Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations. – Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Uncertainty avoidance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 70 .

– The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests. – Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico. – Example of an individualistic culture — United States. – Preferences for working individually or in groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 71 .Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Individualism-collectivism.

– Example of a feminine culture — Thailand.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Masculinity-femininity. – The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 72 . – Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships. – Example of a masculine culture — Japan.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 73 . – Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Long-term/short-term orientation. – Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States. – The tendency of a culture to emphasize future- oriented values versus present-oriented values. – Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea.

Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 74 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 75 . – Ethnocentrism — assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the best ways of doing things. – Parochialism — assuming that the ways of one’s own culture are the only ways of doing things.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Understanding cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism.

Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 76 .

or on relationships and flexibility. or on group interests and consensus. • Relative emphasis on rules and consistency. • Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 77 . – Individualism versus collectivism.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people. – Universalism versus particularism.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 78 .Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont. • Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment. – Specific versus diffuse. or on involvement with the whole person. or on emotion and expressed feelings. • Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement. – Neutral versus affective.).

or on ascribed status. – Achievement versus prescription.Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 79 . • Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status.).

Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward time. present. – Sequential view of time. • Time consists of an interrelated past. • Time is a passing series of events. – Synchronic view of time. and future. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 80 .

– Outer-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it. • Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 81 .Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment. – Inner-directed cultures.

– Have enormous economic power and impact. – Bring benefits and controversies to host countries.Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Multinational corporation (MNC). – A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 82 . – Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home.

– Styles of leadership. • Can be very costly for employers. – Expatriates. and controlling vary from country to country. organizing. • Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success. planning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 83 .Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Multicultural workforces and expatriates. decision making. • People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time. motivation.

Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 84 .

• Corruption and bribery. – Ethical challenges result from: • Cultural diversity.Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Ethical behavior across cultures. • Variations in governments and legal systems. • Poor working conditions. • Business support of repressive governments. – Prominent current issues. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 85 . • Child and prison labor. • Sweatshops.

Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 86 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 87 . – Beyond the threshold.Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism. – Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect fundamental human rights. foundations. and needs of different cultures. businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions.

– The process of acquiring the knowledge necessary to adapt to a changing environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 88 . – The ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational adaptation.Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Organizational learning. Global organizational learning.

Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Are management theories universal? – Answer is “no.” – Cultural influences should be carefully considered in transferring theories and their applications across cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 89 .

– Global organizational learning should identify best practices around the world. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 90 . – Potential high-performance benchmarks exist throughout the world.Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Best practices around the world. – Cultural diversity enriches global organization learning.

and why are they important? What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 91 .Chapter 4 Study Questions What is personality? How do personalities differ? What are value and attitude differences among individuals.

and feels. acts. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors.Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality. thinks. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 92 . – The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others.

Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 93 .

– Heredity sets the limits on the development of – – – – – personality characteristics. Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context. Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality.Study Question 1: What is personality? Heredity and environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 94 . Social factors include family life. About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. religion. Environment determines development within these limits. and many kinds of formal and informal groups.

Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 95 .

and emotional adjustments.Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality and the self-concept. personal conceptions. and spiritual or moral beings. – Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical. • Self-efficacy. • The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits. social. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 96 . values and motives. • Self-esteem. – Personality dynamics.

broad-minded. – Openness to experience. – Extraversion • Being outgoing. • Being responsible. persistent. – Agreeableness. dependable. – Conscientiousness. • Being unworried. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 97 . cooperative. relaxed. – Emotional stability. assertive. trusting. • Being good-natured.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? “Big Five” personality dimensions. curious. sociable. secure. • Being imaginative.

Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Social traits. – An important social trait is problem-solving style. • The way a person goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions. – Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 98 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 99 . – Getting and organizing data for use. – Intuitive-type individuals like new problems and dislike routine.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Information gathering in problem solving. – Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 100 .Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Information evaluation in problem solving. – Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected. – Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions. – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people.

Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 101 .

– Key traits.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Personal conception traits. • • • • Locus of control. – The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 102 . Machiavellianism. Authoritarianism/dogmatism. Self-monitoring.

– The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. – Externals.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Locus of control. • More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 103 . • More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. – Internals.

Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 104 .

• Tendency to view the world as a threatening place. • Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority. – Dogmatism.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Authoritarianism/dogmatism. – Authoritarianism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 105 .

Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? People with a high-Machiavellian personality: – Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 106 . – Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations. or others’ opinions. – Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. – Are rarely swayed by loyalty. – Try to exploit loosely structured situations. past promises. – Are skilled at influencing others. friendships.

– Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 107 . – Are unlikely to lie or cheat.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? People with a low-Machiavellian personality: – Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations.

– Low self-monitors.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Self-monitoring. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors. – A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 108 . • Sensitive to external cues. – High self-monitors. • Behave differently in different situations.

and perfectionism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 109 . desire for achievement.Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Emotional adjustment traits. • Characterized by impatience. – How much an individual experiences distress or displays unacceptable acts. – Type A orientation. – Type B orientation. • Characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events.

– Parents. – Values influence behavior and attitudes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 110 . – Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. and external reference groups can influence individual values. teachers.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. friends. and why are they important? Values. – Values develop as a product of learning and experiences.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 111 . and why are they important? Pick up Figure 4.5 from the textbook.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals.

Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. – Economic values. – Religious values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 112 . – Theoretical values. – Aesthetic values. and why are they important? Gordon Allport’s values categories. – Social values. – Political values.

and why are they important? Maglino’s categories of workplace values.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. – Helping and concern for others. – Honesty. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 113 . – Achievement. – Fairness.

– An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 114 . and why are they important? Attitudes.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. – Are more specific and less stable than values. – Are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values.

and why are they important? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 115 .Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 116 . and why are they important? The attitude-behavior relationship is stronger when: – Attitudes and behaviors are more specific. – The person has experience with the attitude. – There is freedom to carry out the behavioral intent.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals.

– Cognitive dissonance. • Changing future behavior. and why are they important? Attitudes and cognitive consistency. • Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior.Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. • Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. – Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: • Changing the underlying attitude. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 117 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 118 .Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals. – Dissonance reduction choices are influenced by: • The degree of control a person has over the situation. • The magnitude of the rewards involved.). and why are they important? Attitudes and cognitive consistency (cont.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 119 . – The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different from one another.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Workforce diversity. – Respecting individuals’ perspectives and contributions and promoting a shared sense of organizational vision and identity. Challenge of workforce diversity.

the possibility of stereotyping and discrimination increases. – Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis for stereotypes.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? As workforce diversity increases. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 120 .

– Affirmative action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 121 . • Remedial actions for proven discrimination or statistical imbalance in workforce.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Equal employment opportunity. • No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally protected groups. – Nondiscriminatory employment decisions.

Important demographic characteristics for the workplace.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Demographic characteristics. Race. – – – – – Gender. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 122 . Ethnicity. Age. Able-bodiedness. – The background characteristics that help shape what a person becomes.

Learning ability. Analytical skills. Competitive drive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 123 . Sociability.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender. – No consistent differences between men and women in: • • • • • • Problem-solving abilities. Motivation.

– As compared to men. women: • Are more conforming. • Are more democratic as leaders. • Have lower expectations of success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 124 .). • Have higher absenteeism.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender (cont.

– Small businesses tend to value older workers.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Age. tend to perform well. and have low turnover. – Age discrimination lawsuits are increasingly common in the United States. – Older workers are more susceptible to stereotyping. – Aging workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 125 . be absent less. who are usually older. – Experienced workers.

most disabled persons are unemployed. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 126 .Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Able-bodiedness. – More firms are likely to hire disabled workers in the future. – Most disabled persons want to work. – Despite evidence of effective job performance.

– Race cannot be a BFOQ. – African Americans. – Potential for stereotypes and discrimination can adversely affect career opportunities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 127 . Asian Americans.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Racial and ethnic groups. and Hispanic Americans make up an everincreasing percentage of the American workforce.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 128 . – Avoid linking demographics to stereotypes. – Respect and deal with the needs and concerns of people with different demographics. – Demography is not a good indicator of individual-job fits.Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Important lessons regarding demographic characteristics.

– Includes relevant knowledge and skills. Ability. – A person’s capability of learning something. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 129 .Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Aptitude. – A person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job.

Chapter 5 Study Questions What is the perception process? What are common perceptual distortions? How can perceptions be managed? What is attribution theory? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 130 .

– The process by which people select. interpret. retrieve.Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Perception. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 131 . – People process information inputs into responses involving feeling and action. organize. – The quality or accuracy of a person’s perceptions has a major impact on responses. and respond to information.

Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 132 .

Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 133 .

Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 134 .

• Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness. – Two types of selective screening. – Selective screening. • Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that is available. • Controlled processing.Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information attention and selection. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 135 .

• Person schemas. • Script schemas.Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organization of information. – Types of schemas: • Self schemas. • Person-in-situation schemas. – Schemas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 136 . • Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience.

– People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 137 .Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information interpretation. – Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped.

– Attention and selection. – Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used. organization.Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information retrieval. and interpretation are part of memory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 138 .

Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 139 .

or object belongs. situation. – Individual differences are obscured. – Combines information based on the category or class to which a person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 140 .Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Stereotypes or prototypes. – Strong impact at the organization stage.

– Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 141 . – Likely to occur in the organization stage. – Important in the performance appraisal process.Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Halo effects.

– The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation. or attitudes. – Perception checking with other persons can help counter the adverse impact of selective perception. values.Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Selective perception. or object that are consistent with one’s needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 142 . – Strongest impact is at the attention stage. person.

– Especially likely to occur in interpretation stage. – The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals.Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Projection. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 143 . – Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy.

– People must be aware of the impact of contrast effects in many work settings Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 144 .Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Contrast effects. – Occur when an individual is compared to other people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower.

– The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find.Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Self-fulfilling prophecy.” – Can have either positive or negative outcomes. – Also called the “Pygmalion effect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 145 . – Managers should adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work.

• Are sensitive to other people’s use of impression management. – A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 146 .Study Question 3: How can perceptions be managed? Impression management. – Successful managers: • Use impression management to enhance their own images.

• Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 147 . • Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage. – Managers should: • Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage.Study Question 3: How can perceptions be managed? Distortion management.

– Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event.Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: – Understand the causes of a certain event. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 148 . – Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.

Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Factors influencing internal and external attributions. – Consistency — whether an individual responds the same way across time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 149 . – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s behavior across situations. – Consensus — likelihood of others responding in a similar way.

– Attributing success to the influence of situational factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 150 .Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Fundamental attribution error. – Applies to the evaluation of someone’s else behavior. – Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors.

– Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior. – Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 151 . – Attributing success to the influence of personal factors.Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Self-serving bias.

– Be aware of perceptual distortions.Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. – Be aware of self and impression management. – Try to see a situation as others would. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 152 . – Be aware of attribution theory implications. – Be aware of different kinds of schemas. – Seek a wide range of differing information. – Be self-aware.

Chapter 6 Study Questions What is motivation? What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 153 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 154 . – Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action. – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. direction. – Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth.Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level. and persistence of effort expended at work.

– Process theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people seek to fulfill. – Reinforcement theories. • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive processes. • Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 155 .Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories. – Content theories.

Each theory offers a slightly different view. Major content theories. – Two-factor theory. – ERG theory. – Acquired needs theory. – Hierarchy of needs theory.Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 156 . – Motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs.

Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 157 .

– Existence needs. • Desire for continued personal growth and development. – Growth needs. • Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. – Relatedness needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 158 .Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory. • Desire for physiological and material well-being.

• The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. or to be responsible for others. – Need for power (nPower). – Need for achievement (nAch). • The desire to control others. to influence their behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 159 . or to master complex tasks.Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory. – Need for affiliation (nAff). to solve problems. • The desire to do something better or more efficiently.

Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 160 .

The chapter focuses on two process theories: – Equity theory.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Process theories. – Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action. – Expectancy theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 161 .

– Felt negative inequity. – People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others. – Felt positive inequity.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Equity theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 162 . • Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs.

– Change the outcomes received. – Change the comparison person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 163 . – Psychologically distort the comparisons. – Leave the situation. – Take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person. – Change work inputs.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors.

– Communicate clear evaluations for any rewards given. – Recognize that equity comparisons are inevitable in the workplace. – Communicate comparison points that are appropriate in the situation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 164 . – Anticipate felt negative inequities when rewards are given.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity comparisons. – Communicate an appraisal of performance on which the reward is based.

Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 165 .

Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy. – Motivation is sharply reduced when. instrumentality. expectancy. – Motivation is high when expectancy and instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive. instrumentality. Motivational implications of expectancy theory. and valence (M = E x I x V). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 166 . or valence approach zero.

– Positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by some other person. – Positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 167 . Intrinsic rewards.

– Maintain an inventory of rewards that have the potential to serve as positive reinforcers. – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. – Recognize individual differences in the rewards that will have a positive value for each person.Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 168 .

Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 169 . – Let each person know exactly what must be done to receive a desirable reward. set clear target antecedents and give performance feedback. – Allocate rewards contingently and immediately upon the appearance of the desired behaviors.). – Allocate rewards wisely in terms of scheduling the delivery of positive reinforcement.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 170 . – The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. level. and persistence of an individual’s behavior.Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement. – Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction.

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 171 .

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect. – Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences of behavior. – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 172 .

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 173 .

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). – Uses four basic strategies: • • • • Positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement. Extinction. Punishment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 174 . – The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior.

– The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 175 . – A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves. – Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers.Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement.

– Law of immediate reinforcement.Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 176 . • The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited. – Law of contingent reinforcement. • The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited.

• Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited. – Continuous reinforcement. • Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 177 .Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement. – Intermittent reinforcement.

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 178 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 179 . – The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting.Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement. – Also known as avoidance.

– The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings.Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 180 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 181 .Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment. – Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and low satisfaction. – Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source. – Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction.

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction. – The behavior is not unlearned. it simply is not exhibited. – The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 182 . – The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again.

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 183 .

Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement usage. – Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? – Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? – Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? – How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 184 .

job satisfaction. and performance related? What are job-design approaches? How are technology and job design related? What alternative work arrangements are used today? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 185 .Chapter 7 Study Questions How are motivation.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 186 . and performance related? Job satisfaction. – Job satisfaction can be assessed: • By managerial observation and interpretation.Study Question 1: How are motivation. – The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. job satisfaction. • Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires.

– Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. job satisfaction. – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 187 .Study Question 1: How are motivation. and performance related? Implications of key work decisions for job satisfaction. • Three alternative relationships between performance and satisfaction. • Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover.

make them happy. – Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. and performance related? Argument: satisfaction causes performance.Study Question 1: How are motivation. – Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 188 . job satisfaction.

– Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance. – Rewards link performance with later satisfaction.Study Question 1: How are motivation. job satisfaction. and performance related? Argument: performance causes satisfaction. then satisfaction will follow. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 189 . – Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period.

• Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. • High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance.Study Question 1: How are motivation. job satisfaction. • Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 190 . – Managerial implications. and performance related? Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance.

Study Question 1: How are motivation. job satisfaction. and performance related? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 191 .

Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 192 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 193 .Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small. • Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. • Intent is to increase efficiency. – Job simplification. repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs.

• Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers.Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job rotation. • Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 194 . – Job enlargement.

Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Job enrichment. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 195 . and personal growth into the job. recognition. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. achievement. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility.

Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Ways to increase job depth. Provide complete units of work. Maximize job freedom. Allow workers to control. Increase performance accountability. Provide performance feedback. Help workers become task experts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 196 . – – – – – – – – Allow workers to plan. Increase task difficulty.

– Job enrichment can be very costly.Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches? Concerns about job enrichment. • Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact of competitive pay and enriched jobs. – Controversy concerning whether pay must be increased when jobs are enriched. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 197 .

Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 198 .

one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. – Task identity. • Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual.Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics. – Skill variety. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 199 . • Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work.

– Task significance. – Autonomy. and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out. independence. • Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general.Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). • Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 200 .

). . – Job feedback.Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont. • Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 201 .

the core job characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – Combined together. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 202 .Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Motivating potential score. – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics.

• Experienced meaningfulness of work. three critical psychological states are positively influenced. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched. • Knowledge of actual results of work activities.Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Critical psychological states. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 203 . – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes. • Experienced responsibility for work outcomes.

which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: – Employee growth-need strength is high.Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states. – The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 204 . – Employee context satisfaction exists.

Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 205 .

Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications of enriching jobs. – Not everyone’s job should be enriched. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 206 . – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment. – Job enrichment can apply to groups.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 207 . – Essential for new developments in job design. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems. given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace.Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Sociotechnical systems.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 208 . – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions. – Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products.Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Flexible manufacturing systems.

– This approach for improving workflows and job designs is driven by one question: • What is necessary and what else can be eliminated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 209 . and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – Process reengineering is the analysis. streamlining.Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Workflow and process reengineering.

Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 210 . – “4/40” is most common form.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 211 . – Disadvantages. and possible union opposition.Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks (cont. • For workers: added time off. customer complaints. • For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Advantages.). • For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. • For organizations: work scheduling problems.

and greater sense of responsibility. – Advantages: • For workers: shorter commuting time. and turnover. more leisure time. more commitment. and higher performance. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. • For organizations: less absenteeism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 212 .Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. tardiness. more job satisfaction.

– Advantages. • For workers: less burnout and higher energy level. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 213 .Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Job sharing. • For organizations. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work.

• Virtual office. – Variants of telecommuting. – Telecommuting. • Hoteling.Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. • Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 214 . • Flexiplace.

Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Advantages of telecommuting. comforts of home. Disadvantages of telecommuting. and improved employee satisfaction. and choice of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle. and technical difficulties with computer linkages. – For workers: isolation from co-workers. – For workers: flexibility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 215 . decreased identification with work team. – For organizations: costs savings. efficiency.

– Temporary part-time work. – Permanent part-time work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 216 . • An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week.Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Part-time work. • An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week.

and better management of retention quality. Disadvantages of part-time work. – For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs. failure to qualify for benefits. – For organizations: lower labor costs. ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle. and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 217 . – For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work.Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Advantages of part-time work.

Chapter 8 Study Questions What is goal setting? What is performance appraisal? What are compensation and rewards? What are human resource development and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 218 .

Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 219 .

is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals. or knowledge of results. – Task feedback. – Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are less difficult ones. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 220 . – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or general ones.Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 221 . – Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when the people have the abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy required to accomplish them.).Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines (cont. – Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 222 .Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting and MBO. – MBO is consistent with the goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham model. – MBO establishes performance goals consistent with higher level work unit and organizational objectives. – Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate.

Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 223 .

• Top-down goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 224 . • Individual goals instead of group goals. – Too much paperwork. • Goals that are easily stated in objective terms. in documenting goals and accomplishments.Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Potential problems with MBO. – MBO may need to be implemented organization-wide. – Too much emphasis on: • Goal-oriented rewards and punishments.

– Helps both the manager and subordinate maintain the organization-job-employee characteristics match – The process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback upon which performance adjustments can be made. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 225 .Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Performance appraisal.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 226 . – Justify rewards.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Functions of performance appraisal. – Define ratee’s needed development experiences. – Define the specific job criteria against which performance will be measured. thereby differentiating between high and low performance. – Measure past job performance accurately.

– Evaluation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 227 .Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Two general purposes of good performance appraisal. • Concerned with such issues as promotions. – Feedback and development. terminations. and salary increases. • Let workers know their status relative to firm’s expectations and performance objectives. transfers.

– People other than immediate superior may have better information on certain aspects of ratee’s performance. – 360-degree evaluation provides appraisal information from multiple perspectives.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Who does the performance appraisal? – Traditionally done by ratee’s immediate superior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 228 .

– Activity measures. • Quality of work output. • Behavioral measures that are typically obtained from the evaluator’s observation and rating. – Output measures. • Quantity of work output. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 229 .Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Performance appraisal dimensions and standards.

• Raters compare each person with every other person. – Ranking. • Raters place a specific proportion of employees into each performance category. • Raters rank order people from best to worst. – Forced distribution.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Comparative methods of performance appraisal. – Paired comparisons. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 230 .

– Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). • Raters assign scores on a list of dimensions related to high performance outcomes in a given job.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal. • Rater records incidents of unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 231 . – Critical incident diary records. • Rater identifies observable job behaviors. – Graphic rating scales.

). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 232 . • Jointly established goals used as standards against which the subordinate’s performance is evaluated. • Rater rates each observable job behavior on a five- point frequency scale.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal (cont. – Management by objectives. – Behavioral observation scale (BOS).

Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? To be meaningful. Measurement errors can threaten the reliability or validity of performance appraisals. – Valid — actually measure people on relevant job content. an appraisal system must be: – Reliable — provide consistent results across time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 233 .

– Halo errors. – Leniency errors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 234 . • Raters tend to give everyone relatively high ratings. • Raters evaluate on several different dimensions and give a similar rating for each dimension.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively low ratings. – Strictness errors.

• Examples include leniency.). – Low differentiation errors. and central tendency errors. strictness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 235 . • Raters restrict themselves to a small part of the rating scale. – Central tendency errors. • Raters lump everyone together around the average or middle.Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.

Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal?
Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.).
– Recency errors. • Raters allow recent events to exercise undue

influence on ratings. – Personal bias errors. • Raters let personal biases, such as stereotypes, unduly influence the ratings. – Cultural bias errors. • Raters allow cultural differences of employees to influence the performance appraisal.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 236

Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal?
Ways to reduce rating errors in performance appraisals.
– Training raters to understand the evaluation process – – – –

and recognize errors. Ensuring that raters observe ratees on an ongoing basis. Not having the rater evaluate too many ratees. Ensuring the clarity and adequacy of performance dimensions and standards. Avoiding terms that have different meanings for different raters.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 237

Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems.
– Base appraisal on job requirements as

reflected in performance standards. – Ensure that employees clearly understand the performance standards. – Use clearly defined dimensions. – Use behaviorally-based dimensions supported by observable evidence.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 238

Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems (cont.).
– Avoid abstract trait names. – Ensure that scale anchors are brief and logically consistent. – Ensure that the system is valid and psychometrically sound. – Provide an appeal mechanism to handle appraisal disagreements.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 239

Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards?
Pay as an extrinsic reward.
– Pay can help organizations attract and retain

highly capable workers, and help satisfy and motivate these workers. – High levels of job performance must be viewed as the path through which high pay can be achieved. – Merit pay bases an individual’s salary or wage increase on the person’s performance.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 240

Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards?
Pay as an extrinsic reward (cont.).
– Merit pay should be based on realistic and

accurate measures of individual work performance. – Some people argue that merit pay plans ignore the high degree of task interdependence among employees.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8

241

Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards?
Creative pay practices.
– Skill-based pay. • Rewards people for acquiring and developing job-

relevant skills. – Gain-sharing plans. • Give workers an opportunity to share in productivity gains through increased earnings. – Profit-sharing plans. • Reward employees based on the entire organization’s performance
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 242

Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards?
Creative pay practices (cont.).
– Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). • Give company stock to employees or allow them to

purchase it at a price below market value – Lump-sum pay increases. • Provide wage or salary increase in one or more lump-sum payments. – Flexible benefit plans. • Allow workers to select benefits according to their individual needs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 243

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Human resource development (HRD) and the person-job fit.
– HRD and the person-job fit are key

contributing activities in performance management and rewards. – Human resource strategic planning provides the foundation for HRD and the person-job fit. – Staffing, training, and career planning and development are important functions in HRD and achieving a person-job fit.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 244

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Job analysis.
– The process and procedures used to collect and classify information about tasks the organization needs to complete. – Identifies the worker characteristics needed to perform the job. – Forms the basis for a job description and job specifications.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 245

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit?
Recruitment.
– The process of attracting the best qualified individuals

to apply for a given job.
– Typical recruitment steps.
• Advertisement of a position vacancy. • Preliminary contact with potential job candidates. • Preliminary screening to obtain a pool of candidates.

– Recruitment approaches are external or internal. – Realistic job previews.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 246

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Selection.
– A series of steps from initial applicant

screening to final hiring of the new employee. – Selection process.
• • • • •

Completing application materials. Conducting an interview. Completing any necessary tests. Doing a background investigation. Deciding to hire or not to hire.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 247

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 248 . – Occurs during and after completion of the staffing process. – Phases of socialization. – Process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture. • Anticipatory socialization.Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Socialization. • Change and acquisition. • Encounter.

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Training. • On-the-job training involves job instruction while performing the job in the actual workplace. and increasingly is done through e-training. • Off-the-job training commonly involves lectures. – Types of training. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 249 . and simulations. videos. – A set of activities that provides the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills.

Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 250 .

and retirement or the second adulthood stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 251 . • Advancement or the first adulthood stage. • Entry and establishment or the provisional adulthood stage. • Maintenance. . – Career stages reflect the different responsibilities and achievements associated with people’s working lives. – Life cycle and career stages. – The different problems and prospects of the adult life cycle affect people’s work and careers.Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Adult life cycle and career stages. withdrawal.

Chapter 9 Study Questions What is the nature of groups in organizations? What are the stages of group development? What are the foundations of group performance? How do groups make decisions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 252 .

In a true group.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? A group is a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 253 . members are mutually dependent on one another and interact with one another. Hot groups thrive in conditions of crisis and competition.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 254 . – Members satisfaction. • Members attain performance goals regarding quantity. quality. – Team viability. • Members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs. and timeliness of work results.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Effective groups achieve high levels of: – Task performance. • Members are sufficiently satisfied to continue working together on an ongoing basis.

– Groups help control their members. – Groups can make better decisions. – Groups help offset large organization size. – Groups can improve creativity. – Groups can increase commitments to action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 255 .Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? How groups help organizations – Groups are good for people.

– When there is no clear expert in a particular problem or task. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 256 . – When problem solving can be handled by a division of labor and the sharing of information. – When creativity and innovation are needed.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Situations in which groups are superior to individuals.

– Members’ contributions can help them experience self-esteem and personal involvement. – Groups are important sources of need satisfaction for their members. – Members can provide emotional support for each other in times of crisis or pressure.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Potential benefits for group members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 257 . – People learn from each other and share job skills and knowledge.

– The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually. • Individual contributions are less noticeable in the group context. • Some individuals prefer to see others carry the workload.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Social loafing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 258 . – Reasons for social loafing.

– Define member roles and tasks to maximize individual interests. – Raise accountability by identifying individuals’ performance contributions to the group. – Link individual rewards to performance contributions to the group. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 259 .Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Ways of preventing social loafing.

– Negatively affects task performance when the task is not well-learned. – Positively affects performance when a person is proficient on the task.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Social facilitation. – The tendency for a person’s behavior to be influenced by the presence of others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 260 .

Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Formal groups. – Officially designated to serve a specific organizational purpose. • Temporary work groups are task groups. • Permanent work groups are command groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 261 . – May be permanent or temporary. – The head of a formal group is responsible for the group’s performance and serves a “linkingpin” role.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 262 . • Formed to complete a specific task with a well-defined end point. – Project teams. – Cross-functional teams or task forces. – Virtual group. • Engage in special problem-solving efforts drawing on input of the functional areas.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Types of formal groups. • Members work together via computers.

– Types of informal groups. • Friendship groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 263 . – Emerge without being officially designated by the organization.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Informal groups. • Interest groups.

– Can satisfy needs that are thwarted or unmet by the formal group. and a sense of belonging. – Can help people get their jobs done. – Can speed up workflow by supplementing formal lines of authority.Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Effects of informal groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 264 . – Can provide members with social satisfaction. security.

Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 265 .

• Discovering what is considered acceptable behavior. – Initial entry of members to a group. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 266 .Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Forming stage. • Getting to know each other. • Determining the group’s real task. – Member challenges. • Defining group rules.

Clarification of members’ expectations. – Member challenges. – A period of high emotionality and tension among group members. Formation of coalitions and cliques. Understanding one another’s interpersonal styles. Giving attention to obstacles to group goals. • • • • • • Hostility and infighting. Finding ways to accomplish group goals while satisfying individual needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 267 .Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Storming stage.

• Being mistaken about reaching ultimate maturity . – Member challenges. – The point at which the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 268 . • Holding group together by maintaining a positive balance.Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Norming stage. • Letting the desire for group harmony obscure group problems.

• Adapting to changing opportunities and demands. • Continuing to improve relationships and performance. and well-functioning group. • Being motivated by group goals and achieving satisfaction. – Marks the emergence of a mature. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 269 . – Member challenges. organized. • Meeting complex tasks and conflicts in creative ways.Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Performing stage.

Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 270 .

• Willing to work together in the future. – A well-integrated group is: • Able to disband when its work is finished. – Particularly important for temporary groups.Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Adjourning stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 271 .

Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 272 .

and information requirements. – Tasks that are complex in technical demands require unique solutions and more information processing. difficulty. • Routineness.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Tasks. – Technical demands of a task. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 273 .

• Relations. and controversies over ends and means. – Social demands of a task. – Tasks that are complex in social demands involve difficulties in reaching agreement on goals or methods for accomplishing them. ego involvement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 274 .).Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Tasks (cont.

facilities. • Goals are focused too much on individuals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 275 . • Adequate resources. and resources. good work methods and procedures. unchallenging.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Goals. and the best technologies are not available. • Well-designed reward systems. – A group’s performance can suffer when: • Goals are unclear. or arbitrarily imposed. rewards. – Long-term performance relies on: • Appropriate goals. • Adequate budgets.

– The right technology must be available for the task at hand. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 276 .Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Technology. – Workflow technology can affect the way group members interact. – Provides the means to get work accomplished.

skills. • Heterogeneous groups may perform well if they effectively utilize a variety of experiences. and competencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 277 . and competencies. • Homogeneous groups may not perform well if they lack the requisite experiences.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics. skills. – A group must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance and problem solving.

). – Diversity-consensus dilemma. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 278 . • Increasing diversity among group members makes it harder for group members to work together.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont. even though the diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving.

Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont. • Identifies individual differences in how people relate to one another in groups. • Groups whose members have incompatible characteristics are likely to be less effective. • Groups whose members have compatible characteristics are likely to be more effective.). – FIRO-B theory. control. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 279 . • Based on needs to express and receive feelings of inclusion. and affection.

). • Occurs when a person’s position within the group is equivalent in status to positions held outside the group. – Status congruence. or standing in a group. problems will likely occur. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 280 .Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont. – Status. • When status incongruence is present. prestige. • A person’s relative rank.

and performance and satisfaction may decline. performance and member satisfaction increase up to a point. – As a group size continues to grow.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Group size. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 281 . – Can make a difference in a group’s effectiveness. – Problem-solving groups should have 5 to 7 members. – As group size increases. communication and coordination problems often set in.

Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Group dynamics concern the forces operating within groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. From a systems perspective. the throughputs for a group or team are group dynamics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 282 .

• Required behaviors — those that are formally defined and expected by the organization. • Emergent behaviors — those that group members display in addition to what the organization asks of them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 283 . – Work group behaviors.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on within groups.

• Interactions — interpersonal communications and contacts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 284 . • Activities — the things people do or the actions they take. or values held by group members. beliefs.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on within groups. – Member relationships. • Sentiments — the feelings. attitudes.

• Training members to work more cooperatively. • The dynamics that take place between two or more groups. • Refocusing members on a common enemy or goal. – Intergroup dynamics. • Refocusing rewards on contributions to the total organization and how much groups help each other.Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on between groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 285 . – Ways to achieve positive intergroup dynamics. • Negotiating directly.

Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 286 .

when the group finally accepts the idea. • The chairperson. • One idea after another is suggested without any discussion- taking place. all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation. or leader makes a decision for the group. – Decision by lack of response. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 287 . – Decision by authority rule. • Two or three people are able to dominate or “railroad” the group into making a decision to which they agree. – Decision by minority rule.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How groups make decisions. manager.

). – Decision by consensus.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How groups make decisions (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 288 . • Discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members and the other members agree to support it. – Decision by unanimity. – Decision by majority rule. • All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken. • Formal voting may take place. or members may be polled to find the majority viewpoint.

– More knowledge and expertise is applied to solve the problem. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 289 . – The final decision is better understood and accepted by all group members. – More commitment among all group members to make the final decision work.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Potential advantages of group decision making. – A greater number of alternatives are examined.

– Individuals may feel compelled to conform to the apparent wishes of the group.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Potential disadvantages of group decision making. – The group’s decision may be dominated by one individual or a small coalition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 290 . – Group decisions usually take longer to make.

– Create subgroups that each work on the same problem. – Have group members discuss issues with outsiders and report back. – Have the leader avoid seeming partial to one course of action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 291 .Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink. – Assign the role of critical evaluator to each group member.

). – Write alternative scenarios for the intentions of competing groups.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink (cont. – Assign someone to be a “devil’s advocate” at each meeting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 292 . – Invite outside experts to observe and react to group processes. – Hold “second-chance” meetings after consensus is apparently achieved.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 293 .Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How to improve group decisions. – Nominal group technique. – Brainstorming. • Puts people in small groups of six to seven members and asks everyone to respond individually and in writing to a “nominal” question. and they do so relatively quickly and without inhibitions. • Group members actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 294 .). • Group decision making takes place across great distances with the aid of group decision support systems. – Computer-mediated decision making.Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How to improve group decisions (cont. – Delphi technique. • Involves generating decision-making alternatives through a series of survey questionnaires.

Chapter 10 Study Questions What is a the nature of teams and teamwork? What is team building? How does team building improve performance? How do teams contribute to the highperformance workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 295 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 296 . Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations.Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? A team is a small group of people with complementary skills. who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable.

– Teams that recommend things. • Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks. • Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them. – Teams that run things.Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Types of teams. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 297 . – Teams that make or do things. • Have formal responsibility for leading other groups.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 298 .Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Teamwork occurs when group members actively work together in such a way that all their respective skills are well utilized to achieve a common purpose.

– They have the right mix of skills.Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of high performance teams. – They have strong core values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 299 . – They possess creativity. – They turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives.

viewpoints. gender. and creativity.Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with homogeneous membership. – Members can quickly build social relations and engage in the interactions needed for teamwork. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 300 . – Members are similar with respect to such variables as age. – Homogeneity may limit the team in terms of ideas. experience. and culture. race. ethnicity.

– Members are diverse in demography. life styles. experiences. – Diversity can help improve team problem solving and increase creativity.Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 301 . among other variables. – Diversity among team members may create performance difficulties early in the team’s life or stage of development. and cultures.

– Diversity can provide great advantages for high- performance organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 302 . – Enhanced performance potential is possible once short-run struggles are resolved.).Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership (cont.

Team building is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness.Study Question 2: What is team building? Work groups and teams must master challenges as they pass through the various stages of group development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 303 .

Study Question 2: What is team building? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 304 .

Study Question 2: What is team building? Approaches to team building. – Formal retreat approach. – Continuous improvement approach. or members take responsibility for ongoing team building. team leader. – Outdoor experience approach. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 305 . • The manager. • Team building occurs during an offsite retreat. • Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork.

– Goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 306 . – Control. – Relationships.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? New members are concerned about issues of: – Participation.

Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Behavior profiles of coping with individual entry problems. – Friendly helper. – Tough battler. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 307 . – Objective thinker.

– Distributive leadership is the sharing among team members of the responsibilities for task and maintenance contributions.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Task and maintenance leadership. – Sustained high performance requires meeting both task needs and maintenance needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 308 . – High-performance teams require distributed leadership.

Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 309 .

– Using the group as a forum for self-confession. – Horsing around when there is work to be done. – Withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with others. – Trying to compete for attention and recognition.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Groups members should avoid the following disruptive behaviors: – Being overly aggressive toward other members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 310 . – Talking too much about irrelevant matters.

– Role ambiguity — occurs when a person is uncertain about his/her role. – Role underload — occurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 311 . – A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Roles and role dynamics. – Role overload — occurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work.

• Interrole conflict.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Roles and role dynamics (cont. • Person-role conflict.). • Intersender role conflict. – Role conflict — occurs when a person is unable to meet conflicting expectations. – Forms of role conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 312 . • Intrasender role conflict.

Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 313 .

Norms are rules or standards of conduct. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 314 . Managers and leaders should help their groups adopt positive norms that support organizational goals.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Norms represent beliefs about how group or team members are expected to behave.

Organizational and personal pride norms. Improvement and change norms. Support and helpfulness norms. Ethics norms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 315 .Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Key norms that can have positive or negative implications. – – – – – – Performance norms. High-achievement norms.

Group size is small. Members agree on common goals. and backgrounds.Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team High team cohesiveness occurs when: – – – – – – – Members are similar in age. Members work on interdependent tasks. Groups experience performance success or crisis. Members respect each others’ competencies. Groups are physically isolated from others. attitudes. needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 316 .

Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 317 .

Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 318 .

or cost. – Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. • Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality. • A special type of employee involvement team.Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Problem-solving teams. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 319 . productivity. – Quality circle.

– Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 320 . – Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units. – Used to overcome functional silos problem.Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Cross-functional teams.

Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Advantages of virtual teams. – . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 321 . – Communication is possible among people separated by great distances. – Interaction and decision making are focused on facts and objective information rather than emotional considerations. – Cost-effectiveness and speed where members are unable to meet easily face-to-face. – Computer power fulfills typical team needs for information processing and decision making.

– The lack of personal contact between team members. – Group decisions are made in a limited social context.Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of virtual teams. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 322 .

Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 323 .

– Production flexibility and faster response to technological change. – Reduced absenteeism and turnover. – Improved work attitudes and quality of work life.Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Advantages of self-managing teams. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 324 . – Productivity and quality improvements.

Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of self-managing teams. – Structural changes in job classifications and management levels eliminate the need for first-line supervisors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 325 . – Supervisors who are displaced by self-managing teams may feel threatened. – Managers must learn to deal with teams rather than individuals.

Chapter 11 Study Questions What is leadership and how does it differ from management? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership ? What are attributional approaches to leadership? What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 326 .

Persons in managerial positions may be involved with both management and leadership.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Management promotes stability or enables the organization to run smoothly. Both management and leadership are needed for organizational success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 327 . Leadership promotes adaptive or useful changes.

Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership is a special case of interpersonal influence that gets an individual or group to do what the leader or manager wants done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 328 . – Formal leadership. Forms of leadership. – Informal leadership.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 329 .Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership. – New leadership perspectives. – Trait and behavioral perspectives. – Situational contingency perspectives. – Attributional perspectives.

– Great person-trait approach. • Earliest approach in studying leadership. • Tried to determine the traits that characterized great leaders. • Predicting leader or organizational outcomes. – Assume that traits play a key role in: • Differentiating between leaders and nonleaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 330 .Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Trait theories.

Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Pick up Figure 11. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 331 .1 from the textbook.

– Focus on leader behaviors rather than traits. – Major behavioral theories. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. • • • • Michigan leadership studies. Ohio State leadership studies. Leadership Grid. – Assume that leader behaviors are crucial for explaining performance and other organizational outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 332 .Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Behavioral theories.

– Production-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on getting the work done.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies. – Employee-centered supervisors have more productive work groups than productioncentered supervisors. – Employee-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 333 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 334 . • Concerned with people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers. • Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. – Effective leaders should be high on both consideration and initiating structure. – Initiating structure.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies. – Consideration.

– Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 335 . – Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure. • 1 reflects minimum concern. • 9 reflects maximum concern.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid. – A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 336 . • 1/1 — low concern for production. • 1/9 — low concern for production.). • 9/9 — high concern for production. low concern for people. high concern for people. • 9/1 — high concern for production. low concern for people. high concern for people. – Five key Grid combinations. • 5/5 — moderate concern for production.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid (cont. moderate concern for people.

” – Different relationships with “in group” and “out group. – Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers.Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. – LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 337 .

The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies.Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 338 . Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – – – – Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Major situational contingency theories. House’s path-goal theory of leadership.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 339 . – Situational control. – Position power. • Is a function of: – Leader-member relations.Study Question 2: What are the situational contingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model. • The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. – Task structure.

• Low-LPC leaders have a task-motivated style. • High-LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated style. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 340 .Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.). – Least preferred co-worker (LPC) score reflects a person’s leadership style.

Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 341 .

• Group support of the leader. and supported. • Experience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 342 . – A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: • The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency. • Stress.Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – Leader directiveness is most helpful for performance when the leader is competent. relaxed.

found between these two sets of goals. or paths. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 343 . – Emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links. – Rooted in the expectancy model of motivation.Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal theory of leadership.

Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 344 .

– Directive leadership will have a positive impact on subordinates when tasks are ambiguous and the opposite effect when tasks are clear.Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions. stressful. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 345 . unpleasant. – Supportive leadership will increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on tasks that are highly repetitive. or frustrating.

nonrepetitive tasks. – Participative leadership will promote satisfaction on nonrepetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates.).Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions (cont. – Achievement-oriented leadership will encourage subordinates to strive for higher performance standards and to have more confidence in their ability to meet challenging goals when subordinates are working at ambiguous. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 346 .

Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 347 .

Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 348 .

Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Attribution theory provides a competing perspective to the traditional leadership theory assumption that leadership and its substantive effects can be identified and measured objectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 349 . Attribution theory suggests that leadership is influenced by attempts to understand causes of and assess responsibilities for behavior.

– The closer that a leader’s behavior matches the prototype held by the followers.Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Leadership prototypes. – People’s mental image of what a model leader should look like. – Mix of specific and general characteristics. – Prototypes may differ by country and national culture. the more favorable the leader’s relations and key outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 350 .

– Top leaders of organizations have little impact on profits and effectiveness compared to environmental and industry forces. qualities to leadership.Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Exaggeration of the leadership difference. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 351 . – Much of the impact of top leaders is symbolic. almost magical. – The romance of leadership refers to people attributing romantic.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 352 . – Characteristics of charismatic leaders include: • High need for power. • High feelings of self-efficacy. • Conviction in the moral rightness of their beliefs. can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. – Charismatic leaders. by force of their personal abilities.Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Charismatic approaches to leadership.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 353 . – Dark side.Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Dark side versus bright side of charismatic leadership. • Leaders focus on themselves. • Leaders empower followers. • Emphasizes personalized power. • Emphasizes socialized power. – Bright side.

– Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo. – Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision.Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Conger and Kanungo’s three-stage charismatic leadership model. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 354 . – Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved.

Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 355 .

Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Transactional leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 356 . Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions. Passive management by exception. Active management by exception. – Leader-follower exchanges involve: • • • • Use of contingent rewards. – Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers.

Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Transformational leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 357 . generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission. and stir followers to look beyond self-interests. Individualized consideration. • • • • Charisma. Intellectual stimulation. Inspiration. – Dimensions of transformational leadership. – Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests.

• A productive. – Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors. motivated performance. supportive climate. – Conditions for creating and maintaining team performance. • Commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation.Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Leadership in self-managing work teams. • Adequate resources. • Efficient. • Competent. goal-directed effort. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 358 .

Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Can people be trained in the new leadership? – People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 359 . – Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills. – Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 360 . – Applies at all levels of organizational leadership. – Dark-side charismatics can have negative effects on followers. – Not always needed.Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Is new leadership always good? – Not always good. – Needs to be used in conjunction with traditional leadership.

obedience. and formal authority intertwined in an organization? What is empowerment? What is organizational politics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 361 .Chapter 12 Study Questions What are power and influence in an organization? How are power.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 362 . Influence. – The ability to get someone to do something you want done. – Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Power. – The ability to make things happen in the way you want.

– Coercive power. – Information power.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Position power derives from a person’s position in the organizational hierarchy. – Legitimate power. Types of position power. – Process power. – Reward power. – Representative power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 363 .

– The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. – The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards and administer punishment to control other people.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Reward power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 364 . Coercive power.

Process power. – The control over methods of production and analysis that a manager has due to being in a position to influence how inputs are transformed into outputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 365 .Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Legitimate power. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the boss has the “right of command” to control other people.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 366 . – The access to and/or control of information. .Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Information power. – The formal right conferred by the firm to speak for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm. Representative power.

– Expert power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 367 . Types of personal power. – Rational persuasion.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Personal power derives from individual sources. – Referent power.

experience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 368 .Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Expert power. Rational persuasion. – The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it. – The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge. or judgment that the other person does not have but needs.

Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Referent power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 369 . – The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source.

Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 370 .

– Attempting to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways to build position power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 371 . – Increasing task relevance of one’s own activities and work unit’s activities. – Demonstrating work unit relevance to organizational goals and needs.

• Learning ways to negotiate. and project involvement. – Building expertise. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 372 . and attractive personal appearance. and understand goals and means that others accept. – Learning political savvy.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways to build personal power. • Pleasant personality characteristics. participation in professional associations. persuade. • Advanced training and education. agreeable behavior patterns. – Enhancing likeability.

– Expanding contacts with senior people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 373 . – Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways that managers increase the visibility of their job performance. – Sending out notices of accomplishment. – Making oral presentations of written work. – Participating in problem-solving task forces.

Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Controlling decision premises. decision premises. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 374 . – Executives attempt to control. or at least influence. – A decision premise is a basis for defining the problem and for selecting among alternatives. – Executives who want to increase their power will make their goals and needs clear and bargain effectively.

Bargaining.Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Common techniques for exercising relational influence. Assertiveness. – – – – – – – Reason. Higher authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 375 . Sanctions. Friendliness. Coalition.

Study Question 2: How are power. and formal authority intertwined in an organization? Important practical issues in the exercise of power and formal authority. what determines the limits of obedience? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 376 . – Why should subordinates respond to a manager’s authority (or “right to command”)? – Given that subordinates are willing to obey. obedience.

and formal authority intertwined in an organization? The Milgram experiments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 377 . – Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure. – The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure. – Basic conclusion was that people tend to comply with and be obedient to authority. obedience. even if they believe they are endangering the life of another person.Study Question 2: How are power.

Study Question 2: How are power. – Must believe that it is consistent with the organization’s purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 378 . – Must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying it out. the subordinate: – Can and must understand it. and formal authority intertwined in an organization? For a directive from a superior to be accepted as authoritative. obedience. – Must believe that it is consistent with his or her personal interests.

Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization?

Zone of indifference.
– In exchange for certain inducements,

subordinates recognize the authority of the organization and its managers to direct their behavior in certain ways. – A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 379

Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12

380

Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Empowerment.
– The process by which managers help others to

acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.
– Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups. – Empowerment emphasizes the ability to make things happen.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 381

Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Changing position power.
– Moving power down the hierarchy alters the

existing pattern of position power.
– Changing this pattern raises the following

important questions:
• Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and

sanctions based on task accomplishment?
• Has their new right to act been legitimized with

formal authority?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 382

Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Expanding the zone of indifference.
– Management needs to recognize the current

zone of indifference and systematically move to expand it.
– Management should show how empowerment

will benefit people and provide the needed inducement.
– .
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 383

Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie.
– Employees need to be trained to expand their

power and their new influence potential.
– The key is to change from a view stressing

power over others to one emphasizing the use of power to get things done.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12

384

Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie.
– Clearer definition of roles and responsibilities

helps managers empower others.
– All mangers need to emphasize different ways

of exercising influence.
– Special support may be needed for individuals

to become comfortable.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 385

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics.
– Emphasizes self-interest and the use of

nonsanctioned means. – Organizational politics is defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 386

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Alternate tradition of organizational politics.
– Politics is a necessary function resulting from

differences in the self-interests of individuals. – Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests. – Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 387

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12

388

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Subunit power.
– Line units are typically more powerful than

are staff groups. – Units toward the top of the organizational hierarchy are often more powerful than those toward the bottom. – Power differentials are not as pronounced among units at or near the same level in an organization.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 389

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Political actions for influencing lateral, intergroup relationships.
– Workflow linkages. – Service linkages. – Advisory linkages. – Auditing linkages. – Approval linkages.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 390

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Important aspects of corporate political strategy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 391 . – Corporate political strategy should be targeted toward turning the government from a regulator against industry to a protector of it. – Need to make decisions about when and how to get involved in the public policy processes. – Absence of a political strategy can be damaging.

Common techniques for avoiding action and risk taking. – Depersonalization.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Avoidance is quite common where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. – Playing dumb. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 392 . – Working to the rules. – Stalling.

– Passing the buck. • Blaming the problem on uncontrollable events. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 393 .Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Common techniques for redirecting accountability and responsibility. – Rewriting history. – Redirecting. – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). • Escalating commitment. • Scapegoating. – Preparing a blind memo.

– Defending turf results when: • Managers seek to increase their power by expanding the jobs their groups perform. – Defending turf is a time-honored tradition in most large organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 394 . • Competing interests exist among various departments and groups.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Defending turf.

– An important power problem arises from the separation of owners and managers.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Agency theory. – Public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are self-interested. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 395 . – Managers are “agents” of the owners.

– By protecting stockholder interests. – Stockholders have a clear interest in greater returns. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 396 . all the interests of society are served.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Key arguments of agency theory. – Managers are self-interested and must be controlled.

– The establishment of a strong. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 397 . – Pay plan incentives that align the interests of management and stockholders.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Types of controls instituted for agents. – Stockholders with a large stake in the firm taking an active role on the board. independent board of directors.

Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Resource dependencies. – The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 398 . The resource dependence of an organization increases as: – Needed resources become more scarce. – Outsiders have more control over needed resources. – There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders.

– The pattern of authority. and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. • Who should and should not be involved in key choices • Boundaries for acceptable implementation. • How issues will be defined. influence. – Organizational governance establishes the following: • What is important. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 399 .Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Organizational governance.

– Organizational governance is too closely tied to the short-term interests of stockholders and the pay of the CEO.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Negative views of organizational governance. – Unbalanced organizational governance by some United States corporations may limit their ability to manage global operations effectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 400 .

S.Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Positive views of organizational governance. firms extends well beyond the limited interests of the owners. – Choosing to be ethical often involves considerable personal sacrifice. – The governance of U. the criterion of overwhelming factors should be invoked. – Organization governance should be based on three ethical criteria. – When the three ethical criteria cannot be fulfilled. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 401 .

Chapter 13 Study Questions What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication? What are current issues in organizational communication? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 402 .

Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 403 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 404 .Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Feedback and communication. – Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. – Giving feedback often is associated with one or more persons communicating an evaluation of what another person has said or done. – 360-degree feedback.

– Limit how much feedback the receiver gets at one time.Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Guidelines for effective constructive feedback. – Be accurate. not general. – Give feedback directly and in a spirit of mutual trust. use clear examples. check validity with others. – Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to accept it. – Focus on things that the receiver can control. – Be specific. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 405 .

• Do not follow an organization’s hierarchy of authority. – Formal channels.Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Communication channels. • The grapevine is an informal channel through which rumors and unofficial information pass. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 406 . – Informal channels. • Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority.

– The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. written memos. electronic chat rooms. – Leanest channels — posted notices and bulletins.Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Channel richness. and letters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 407 . E-mail. – Richest channels — face-to-face communication. – Moderately rich channels — telephone.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 408 . upward.Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Organizational communication is the specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. – Downward. Information flows: – Through formal and informal structures. and laterally.

Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13

409

Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Effective and efficient communication.
– Effective communication.
• The accuracy of communication.

– Efficient communication.
• The cost of communication.

– Effectiveness does not guarantee efficiency or

vice versa.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 410

Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication?
Nonverbal communication. – Occurs through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. – Gives clues to what a person is really thinking. – Two important aspects of nonverbal communication.
• Kinesics  the study of gestures and body

postures. • Proxemics  the study of how space is utilized.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 411

Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Active listening.
– Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. – Everyone needs to develop good skills in

active listening.
– Active listening is the ability to help the

source of a message say what he or she really means.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 412

Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Guidelines for active listening.
– Listen for content. – Listen for feelings. – Respond to feelings. – Note all cues. – Reflect back.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 413

Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Cross-cultural communication.
– Ethnocentrism. • The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others. – Cross-cultural communication challenges. • Language differences. • Use of gestures. – One of the best ways to understand cultural

differences is to learn some of the language.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 414

Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication?
Physical distractions.
– Any aspect of the physical setting in which

communication takes place.
– Can interfere with communication

effectiveness.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13

415

Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication?
Semantic problems.
– Involves a poor choice or use of words. – Use the KISS principle of communication.
• “Keep it short and simple.”

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13

416

Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication?
Mixed messages.
– Occur when a person’s words communicate

one thing while actions or body language communicates another.
– Nonverbals add important insights in face-to-

face meetings.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 417

Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication?
Absence of feedback.
– One-way communication flows from sender to

receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback.
– Two-way communication goes from sender to

receiver and back again.
– Two-way communication is more effective

than one-way communication.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 418

Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication?
Status effects.
– Status differences create potential communication

barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks .
– Mum effect. • Occurs when people are reluctant to transmit bad

news.
– Management by wandering around (MBWA). • Getting out of the office to directly communicate

with others as they do their jobs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 419

Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication?
Advances in information technologies enable organizations to:
– Distribute information much faster. – Make more information available. – Allow broader and more immediate access to

information. – Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. – Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 420

– Information overload. – Technologies are impersonal. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 421 .Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication? Potential disadvantages of electronic communications. – Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. – Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication.

• Men are socialized to be competitive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 422 . – Mean and women are socialized into different communication styles. aggressive.Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication? Communication and social context. which may cause communication problems. and individualistic. • Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication.

and creativity affect decision making? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 423 .Chapter 14 Study Questions What is the decision-making process in organizations? What are the useful decision-making models? How do intuition. judgment.

Chapter 14 Study Questions (cont.) How do you manage the decision-making process? What are some of the current issues in decision making? How do you infuse ethics into the decisionmaking process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 424 .

Study Question 1: What is the decisionmaking process in organizations? Decision making is the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity. Steps in systematic decision making. – Implement the preferred course of action. and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity. – Choose a preferred course of action. – Evaluate the results and follow up as necessary. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 425 . – Identify and analyze alternative courses of action. – Recognize and define the problem or opportunity.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 426 . but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence. Risk decision environments.Study Question 1: What is the decisionmaking process in organizations? Certain decision environments. – Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action. – Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation.

• The information technology requirements needed for analyzing and making decisions. – Described as a rapidly changing setting in terms of: • External conditions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 427 .Study Question 1: What is the decisionmaking process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments. • The people who influence problem and choice definitions. – Exist when managers have so little information on hand that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes.

• Reputation risks are threats to a brand or to the firm’s reputation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 428 . • Operational risks are threats inherent in the technologies used to reach business success. – Can be described in terms of types of risks encountered by the organization. • Strategic risks are threats to overall business success.Study Question 1: What is the decisionmaking process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments (cont.).

• Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 429 . – Nonprogrammed decisions. • Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand. – Programmed decisions.Study Question 1: What is the decisionmaking process in organizations? Types of decisions.

Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 430 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 431 . knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences. and then chooses the optimum solution.Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Classical decision theory assumes the manager faces a clearly defined problem. Widespread application of classical decision theory is restricted by bounded rationality.

It assumes the manager acts only in terms of what is perceived about a given situation. though it can be used toward the bottom of many firms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 432 . and then chooses a satisficing solution.Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Classical decision theory does not appear to fit well in the modern business world. Behavioral decision theory accepts the notion of bounded rationality.

• Many problems go unsolved. and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization. participants.Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? The garbage can model. • Different individuals may do choice making and implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 433 . – A model of decision making that views problems. solutions. – The garbage can model highlights two important organizational facts of life.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 434 . and choose preferred solutions.Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Decision making realities. – Bounded rationality and cognitive limitations affect the way people define problems. – Decision making information may not be available. identify alternatives.

). – Decisions should be ethical. – Decisions must be made under risk and uncertainty. – Most decision making in organizations goes beyond step-by-step rational choice.Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Decision making realities (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 435 .

– The ability to know or recognize quickly and readily the possibilities of a given situation. judgment.Study Question 3: How do intuition. – A key element of decision making under risk and uncertainty. and creativity affect decision making? Intuition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 436 .

– Simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” used to make decisions. – Make it easier to to deal with uncertainty and limited information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 437 . judgment.Study Question 3: How do intuition. and creativity affect decision making? Judgmental heuristics.

– Anchoring and adjustment heuristic.Study Question 3: How do intuition. and creativity affect decision making? Types of heuristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 438 . • Bases a decision on incremental adjustments to an initial value determined by historical precedent or some reference point. – Representativeness heuristic. • Bases a decision on similarity to past occurrences that are easily remembered. judgment. • Bases a decision on similarities between an event and stereotypes of similar occurrences. – Availability heuristic.

Study Question 3: How do intuition. and creativity affect decision making? General judgmental biases in decision making. – Confirmation trap. • The tendency to overestimate the degree to which an event that has already taken place could have been predicted. • The tendency to seek confirmation for what is already thought to be true and to not search for disconfirming information. judgment. – Hindsight trap. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 439 .

– Illumination – Verification.Study Question 3: How do intuition. – Concentration. – Incubation. – Preparation. and creativity affect decision making? Stages in the creative thinking process. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 440 . judgment.

training. – Encouraging analogical reasoning. divergent ideas. – Developing a physical space that encourages fun. judgment. and perspectives. and creativity affect decision making? Ways of fostering creativity. – Diversifying teams to include members with different backgrounds. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 441 .Study Question 3: How do intuition. – Establishing high expectations for creativity. – Recording all ideas so that the same ones are not rediscovered. – Stressing periods of silent reflection.

judgment. – Individuals are motivated by and derive satisfaction from task accomplishment.Study Question 3: How do intuition. – There are opportunities for creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 442 . willingness to engage in divergent thinking. as many constraints as possible are eliminated. and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when: – Linguistic ability. and rewards are provided for creative efforts. and intelligence are present.

and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when (cont.Study Question 3: How do intuition.): – The decision maker emphasizes engagement in the creative process and counsels individuals to share their ideas with others. judgment. contact others with different views. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 443 . and be prepared to make considerable changes. – The decision maker encourages subordinates to recognize ambiguity.

ask and answer the following questions: – Is the problem easy to deal with? – Might the problem resolve itself? – Is this my decision to make? – Is this a solvable problem within the context of the organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 444 .Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? In choosing problems to address.

– Managers use participation too infrequently. – Subordinates may believe the manager is imposing his or her will rather than working for everyone’s interests. – Managers too often copy others’ choices and try to sell them to subordinates. – Managers may focus on the problems they see rather than the outcomes they want.Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Reasons for decision making failure. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 445 .

Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 446 .

Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Key problem attributes in the Vroom. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 447 . Yetton. – Subordinate information. – Goal congruence. – The amount of information the leader has. – Subordinate conflict. and Jago decision making framework. – The commitment needed from subordinates. – The required quality of the decision. – Commitment probability.

and Jago decision making framework. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 448 . Yetton. – Variant 2  manager obtains the necessary information from others and then decides.Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Authority decisions in the Vroom. – Manager or team leader uses information that he or she possesses and decides what to do without involving others. – Variant 1  manager solves the problem or makes the decision alone.

makes a final choice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 449 . based on this information and its interpretation.Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Consultative decisions in the Vroom. – Variant 1  manager seeks input from others individually and then makes a decision. and Jago decision making framework. Yetton. – Manager or team leader solicits input from other people and then. – Variant 2  manager seeks input from others collectively and then makes a decision.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 450 . – Manager or team leader consults with others and allows them to help make the final choice.Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Group decisions in the Vroom. Yetton. and Jago decision making framework.

– Good decision makers are willing to reverse previous decisions. – The natural desire to continue on a selected course of action reinforces escalating commitment. even though it is not working.Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Knowing when to quit. – Tendency to escalate commitments often outweighs the willingness to disengage from them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 451 . – Escalating commitment is the tendency to continue and renew effort on a previously chosen course of action.

– Multifunctional understanding is increasingly important. and adaptable organizational forms. more flexible. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 452 . – Business units are becoming smaller in size. – The nature of “work” is in a state of flux.Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Workplace trends affecting organizational decision makers. – New. – Workers with both technical knowledge and team skills are increasingly desirable.

Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making. – Expert systems support decision making by following “either-or” rules to make deductions. – Artificial intelligence is the study of how computers can be programmed to think like human beings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 453 .

– Information technology does not deal with issues raised by the garbage can model.). – Fuzzy logic and neural networks reason inductively. – Computer support for decision making.Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 454 .

” – North American culture stresses decisiveness.Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Cultural factors and decision making. speed. – Culture is “the way in which a group of people solves problems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 455 . and the individual selection of alternatives. – The most important impact of culture on decision making concerns which issues are elevated to the status of problems solvable within the firm. – Other cultures place less emphasis on individual choice than on developing implementations that work.

– Monitor ethical performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 456 . – Reward ethical behavior. – Publicize ethical efforts. – Involve employees in identifying ethical issues. – Establish procedures for reporting violations.Study Question 6: How do you infuse ethics into the decision-making process? Ways to infuse ethics into decision making. – Develop a code of ethics and follow it.

Study Question 6: How do you infuse ethics into the decision-making process? Morality is involved in: – Choosing problems. – Estimating the impacts of decision alternatives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 457 . – Deciding who should be involved in making decisions. An effective decision needs to solve a problem as well as match moral values and help others. – Selecting an alternative for implementation.

Chapter 15 Study Questions What is conflict? How can conflict be managed successfully? What is negotiation? What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 458 .

– Emotional antagonisms cause frictions between individuals or groups.Study Question 1: What is conflict? Conflict occurs whenever: – Disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 459 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 460 . – Emotional conflict. • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. fear. • Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger. dislike.Study Question 1: What is conflict? Types of conflict. etc. – Substantive conflict. resentment. mistrust.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 461 . • Approach-approach conflict. • Avoidance-avoidance conflict. – Intrapersonal conflicts.Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict. • Actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations. • Approach-avoidance conflict.

Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont. – Interpersonal conflict. – Intergroup conflict. • Occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another.). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 462 . • Occurs among members of different teams or groups.

• Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating in the same markets. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 463 . – Interorganizational conflict.Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). • Encompasses disagreements that exist between any two or more organizations.

Study Question 1: What is conflict? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 464 .

Study Question 1: What is conflict?
Potential benefits of functional conflict.
– Surfaces important problems so they can be

addressed.
– Causes careful consideration of decisions. – Causes reconsideration of decisions. – Increases information available for decision

making.
– Provides opportunities for creativity.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 465

Study Question 1: What is conflict?
Potential disadvantages of dysfunctional conflict.
Diverts energies. Harms group cohesion. Promotes interpersonal hostilities. Creates overall negative environment. Can decrease work productivity and job satisfaction. – Can contribute to absenteeism and job turnover.
– – – – –
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 466

Study Question 1: What is conflict?
Culture and conflict.
– Culture and cultural differences must be

considered for their conflict potential.
– Individuals who are not able to recognize and

respect the impact of culture may contribute to emergence of dysfunctional situations
– Cross-cultural sensitivity helps defuse

dysfunctional conflict and capture advantages that constructive conflict may offer.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 467

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

468

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict.
– Vertical conflict. • Occurs between hierarchical levels. – Horizontal conflict. • Occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level. – Line-staff conflict. • Involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 469

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.).
– Role conflicts. • Occur when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting. – Workflow interdependencies. • Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals. – Domain ambiguities. • Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority .
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 470

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.).
– Resource scarcity. • When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer. – Power or value asymmetries. • Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

471

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches.
– Reduced interdependence.
• Adjusting the level of interdependency among

units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist.
• Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin roles.

– Appeal to common goals.
• Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting

parties on one mutually desirable conclusion.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 472

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches (cont.).
– Hierarchical referral.
• Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more

senior managers to reconcile.

– Altering scripts and myths.
• Superficial management of conflict by using

behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 473

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

474

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Lose-lose conflict.
– Avoidance. • Everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. – Accommodation or smoothing. • Involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. – Compromise. • Each party gives up something of value, but neither party’s desires are fully satisfied
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 475

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-lose conflict.
– Competition.
• One party achieves a victory through the use of

force, superior skills, or domination.

– Authoritative command.
• Use of formal authority to dictate a solution and

specify who gains what and who loses what.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

476

Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-win conflict. • Recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention. and it stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. • Collaboration and problem solving are preferred to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit. – Collaboration or problem solving. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 477 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 478 . – Establish a process whereby both parties see a responsibility to be open and honest about facts and feelings. – Be acceptable to both parties.Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-win solutions should: – Achieve each other’s goals.

– Collaboration requires time and energy. – Collaboration may not be feasible if the organization’s culture does not value cooperation. – Both parties to the conflict need to be assertive and cooperative.Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Potential disadvantages of collaboration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 479 .

Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Negotiation goals and outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 480 . • Outcomes that relate to content issues. – Relationship goals. • Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded. – Substance goals.

– Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 481 . • Harmony.Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Effective negotiation. – Criteria for an effective negotiation. • Quality. • Efficiency.

– The unethical negotiator may be targeted for revenge. negotiators should strive for high ethical standards. – Unethical negotiating actions may become habitual. – Negotiators’ rationalizations for questionable ethical behavior are offset by long-run negative consequences.Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Ethical aspects of negotiation. – To maintain good working relationships. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 482 .

Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 483 . – Group negotiation. • Manager negotiates directly with one other person. – Two-party negotiation. • Manager is part of a group whose members are negotiating.

Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation (cont.). – Constituency negotiation. with each party representing a broader constituency. • Manager is involved in negotiation with other persons. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 484 . – Intergroup negotiation. • Manager is part of a group that is negotiating with another group.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 485 . Integrative negotiation. – Parties try to enlarge the available pie. – Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties. – Focuses on the merits of the issues.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – Sometimes called principled negotiation. – Parties try to claim certain portions of the existing pie.

• Each party holds out to get its own way. • One party is willing to make concessions to the other party to get things over. – The key question is: “Who is going to get this resource?” – “Hard” distributive negotiation. – “Soft” distributive negotiation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 486 .Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation.

and permits a broader range of alternative solutions to be considered. – The key question is: “How can the resource best be utilized?” – Is less confrontational than distributive negotiation. – Opportunity for a true win-win solution. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 487 .Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Integrative negotiation.

– Willingness to share information with the other party. – Willingness to trust the other party.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Attitudinal foundations of integrative agreements. – Willingness to ask concrete questions of the other party. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 488 .

– Ability to focus on interests rather than positions. – Ability to avoid making premature judgments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 489 . – Ability to keep alternative creation separate from evaluation. – Ability to separate the people from the problem. – Ability to judge possible agreements on an objective set of criteria or standards.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Behavioral foundations of integrative agreements.

Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Information foundations of integrative agreements. – Each party must achieve an understanding of what the other party values. – Each party must know what he or she will do if an agreement can’t be reached. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 490 . – Each party must determine what is personally important in the situation.

– Possibility of escalating commitment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 491 . – Communication problems can cause difficulties during a negotiation. – Myth of the fixed pie.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Common negotiation pitfalls. – Negotiators often develop overconfidence in their positions. • Hearing problem. • Telling problem.

– Arbitration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 492 . • A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes. • A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties. – Alternative dispute resolution.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation.

• A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 493 . – Mediation.Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation (cont.

Chapter 16 Study Questions What is organizational change? What change strategies are used in organizations? How is resistance to change best managed? How do organizations innovate? How does stress affect people in change environments? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 494 .

Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Transformational change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 495 . – Organizations experiencing transformational change undergo a significant shift in basic characteristic features. – Results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems. – Described as radical change or frame-breaking change.

new technologies.Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Incremental change or frame-bending change. – Continuous improvement through incremental change is an important asset. – Introduction of new products. and new systems and processes. – Part of the organization’s natural evolution in building on the existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 496 .

Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Change agents. – Individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system. – Success of change efforts depends in part on change agents. – Being an effective change agent means being a great change leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 497 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 498 . – Occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction. – Appropriate goal is to act quickly to minimize the negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits.Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Unplanned change. and such change may be disruptive.

Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Planned change. – The result of specific efforts by a change agent. • Performance gaps represent problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 499 . – Direct response to someone’s perception of a performance gap. • A performance gap is the discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 500 .Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Organizational forces for change. – Organizational life cycle. – Political nature of organizations. – Organization-environment relationships.

Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 501 .

– No sense of urgency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 502 . – No powerful guiding coalition. – Failure to celebrate short-term wins. – No compelling vision. – Failure to communicate the vision. – Failure to build on accomplishments. – Failure to empower others to act.Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Reasons for failure of transformational change. – Failure to institutionalize results.

Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Phases of planned change. – Unfreezing. – Changing. • Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change. • Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors. • Maintaining momentum and eventually institutionalizing the change. – Refreezing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 503 .

Study Question 2: What change strategies are used in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 504 .

– Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 505 . – Alternative views of resistance. • Something that must be overcome for change to be successful.Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to change. • Feedback that can be used to facilitate achieving change objectives.

– Bad timing.Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Why people resist change. – Lack of resources. – No reasons to change. – Lack of good information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 506 . – Fear for loss of power. – Fear for loss of security. – Fear of the unknown. – Habit.

all those affected should know how it satisfies the following criteria: • Benefit. • Complexity. • Triability. effort. – People may reject a change because they believe it is not worth their time. or attention.Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change itself. • Compatibility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 507 . – To deal with resistance to the change itself.

– Rational persuasion strategy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 508 .Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change strategy. – Shared-power strategy. • Likely resistance among individuals who resent management by “command” or the use of threatened punishment. • Likely resistance if it appears manipulative and insincere. • Likely resistance when the data are suspect or the expertise of advocates is unclear. – Force-coercion strategy.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 509 . – Resistance to the change agent is directed at the person implementing the change and often involves personality and other differences.Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change agent.

– Manipulation and cooptation.Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? How to deal with resistance. – Facilitation and support. – Negotiation and agreement. – Participation and support. – Explicit and implicit coercion. – Education and communication. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 510 .

Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 511 .

– The introduction of new and better work methods and operations. – The introduction of new or improved goods or services to better meet customer needs. Product innovations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 512 . Process innovations.Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Innovation. – The process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice.

Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 513 .

Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Features of innovative organizations. – Top-management support for innovation. – Strategies and cultures that are built around a commitment to innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 514 . – Staffing with a clear commitment to innovation. – Structures that support innovation.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 515 . or opportunities. – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress. constraints.

– Types of stressors.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Source of stress. • Work-related stressors. • The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals. – Stressors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 516 . • Life stressors.

Ethical dilemmas. Career developments. Role conflicts. Role ambiguities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 517 . Interpersonal problems. – – – – – – – Task demands. Physical setting.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Work-related stressors.

– Economic difficulties. – Individual’s needs. – Individual’s personality. – Personal affairs. – Family events. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 518 . – Individual’s capabilities.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Life stressors.

• Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization. • Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization. – Constructive stress (or eustress). • A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions. – Destructive stress (or distress). – Job burnout. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 519 .Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress and performance.

Substance abuse. – Stress can harm people’s physical and psychological health. • • • • • • • • • Heart attack. Depression. Overeating. – Health problems associated with stress. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 520 . Migraine headache. Stroke. Muscle aches.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress and health. Ulcers. Hypertension. – Managers and team leaders should be alert to signs of excessive stress.

– Once stress has reached a destructive point.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress management. special techniques of stress management can be implemented. • Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place. – Stress prevention. – Stress management. • Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 521 .

– Employee assistance programs.). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 522 . – Personal wellness. • Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related stress. • Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program.Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress management (cont.

Chapter 17 Study Questions What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? What are the basic attributes of organizations? How is work organized and coordinated? What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 523 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 524 . – The process of positioning the organization in the competitive environment and implementing actions to compete successfully.Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Strategy. • Choices regarding goals and the way the firm organizes to accomplish them. – A pattern in a stream of decisions.

– Choosing the types of contributions the firm intends to make to society. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 525 .Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Elements of conventional strategy decisions. – Exactly what the firm will provide to others. – Precisely whom the firm will serve.

– Enable organizations to gain legitimacy. and more discretion for their non-societal goals and operating practices. – Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources. – Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society.Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Societal goals. a social right to operate. markets. and products. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 526 . individuals.

• A written statement of organizational purpose.Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Societal contributions and mission statements. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 527 . – A good mission statement identifies whom the firm will serve and how it will go about accomplishing its societal purpose. – A firm’s societal contribution is often part of its mission statement.

Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Output goals. – Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements. – Define the type of business the organization is pursuing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 528 .

Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Systems goals. productivity. stability. – Systems goals must often be balanced against one another. flexibility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 529 . – Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential. prestige. and human resource maintenance. harmony. – Typical systems goals include growth.

– Provide flexibility in devising ways to meet important targets. – Form a basis for dividing the work of the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 530 . – Be used to balance the demands. constraints.Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Well-defined systems goals can: – Focus managers’ attention on what needs to be done. and opportunities facing the firm.

Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Successful organizations develop a structure consistent with the pattern of goals established by senior management. The formal structure shows the planned configuration of positions. The formal structure of the firm is also known as the division of labor. job duties. and the lines of authority among different parts of the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 531 .

Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Vertical specialization. – Creates a hierarchy of authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 532 . • An arrangement of work positions in order of increasing authority. – Organization charts are diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations. – A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made.

Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 533 .

Span of control. – The number individuals reporting to a supervisor. – A listing of who reports to whom up and down the organization. – Each person has only one boss and each unit one leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 534 . Unity of command.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Chain of command.

Staff units. – Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 535 . – Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Line units.

– External staff units. • Assist the line units in performing their functions. – Internal staff units. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 536 . – External line units. • Maintain outside linkages. • Transform raw materials and information into products and services.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Internal versus external units. • Assist the line units with outside linkages and act to buffer internal operations. – Internal line units.

Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 537 .

Most organizations use a variety of means to specialize the vertical division of labor. Use of information technology to streamline operations and reduce staff. Best pattern of vertical specialization depends on environment. and goals. size. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 538 .Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Some firms are outsourcing many of their staff functions. technology.

• Measuring results against standards. – Deals with: • Setting standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 539 .Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Control. • Instituting corrective action. – The set of mechanisms used to keep actions or outputs within predetermined limits.

– Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined targets.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Output controls. – Promote flexibility and creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 540 . – Part of overall method of managing by exception.

– Types of process controls.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Process controls. • Formalization and standardization. • Policies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 541 . • Total quality management controls. and rules. – Specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished. procedures.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 542 .Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Policies. – Policies. and rules. procedures. – Procedures. show which aspects of a task are most important. • Identify the best method for performing a task. or outline how an individual is to be rewarded. • Guidelines for action that outline important objectives and broadly indicate how activities are to be carried out.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 543 . – Rules. procedures. and rules are often used as substitutes for direct managerial supervision. procedures. • Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed. and rules (cont. or indicate what cannot be done. – Policies.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Policies.).

and rules to guide behavior and decision making. Standardization. procedures. – The written documentation of policies.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Formalization. – The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that uniform actions occur. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 544 .

– Create a consistency of purpose in the company to innovate. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 545 . – Learn a new philosophy of quality to improve every system. put resources into research and education. – Require statistical evidence of process control and eliminate financial controls on production. and into maintaining equipment and new production aids.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management.

Improve supervision to develop inspired leaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 546 . Use statistical methods to isolate the sources of trouble. Drive out fear and instill learning. Break down barriers between departments. Institute modern on-the-job training. – Require statistical evidence of control in purchasing – – – – – parts.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management (cont.).

on the above 13 points. – Constantly revamp work methods.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management (cont.). – Create a structure that will push. every day. – Institute massive training programs for employees in statistical methods. – Eliminate numerical goals and slogans. – Retrain people in new skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 547 .

– Centralization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 548 . • Degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management. – Decentralization. • Degree to which the authority to make decisions is given to lower levels in an organization’s hierarchy.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Centralization and decentralization.

– Quicker response to a series of unrelated problems. – Assists in on-the-job training of subordinates for higher-level positions – Encourages participation in decision making.Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Benefits of decentralization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 549 . – Higher subordinate satisfaction.

– Often referred to as departmentation.Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Horizontal specialization. – A division of labor that establishes specific work units or groups within an organization. – Whenever managers divide tasks and group similar types of skills and resources together. they must also be concerned with coordination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 550 .

Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 551 .

Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 552 .

Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 553 .

more efficient and effective methods of coordination are required. – As the organization grows. – Smaller organizations rely on management hierarchy for coordination. – Within a unit.Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Coordination. much of the coordination is handled by its manager. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 554 . – The set of mechanisms that an organization uses to link the actions of its units into a consistent pattern.

– Produce synergy by promoting dialogue. and experiences. innovation. and learning. both within and across units. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 555 . – Mix of personal coordination methods should be tailored to subordinates. skills. discussion. abilities. creativity.Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Personal methods of coordination. – Common personal methods of coordination are direct contact between and among organizational members and committee memberships.

– Historical use of specialized departments to coordinate across units.Study Question 3: How is work organized and coordinated? Impersonal methods of coordination. – Often are refinements and extensions of process controls. – Produce synergy by stressing consistency and standardization so that individual pieces fit together. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 556 . – Contemporary use of matrix departmentation and management information systems for coordination.

hierarchical control. – Relies on a division of labor.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Bureaucracy. the characteristics of which were defined by the German sociologist Max Weber. promotion by merit with career opportunities for employees. – An ideal form of organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 557 . and administration by rule.

Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 558 .

and procedures. – Emphasizes vertical specialization and control. and use well-documented control systems. – Often used with a low cost leader strategy. specifies techniques for decision making. policies.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Mechanistic type of bureaucracy (machine bureaucracy). – Stresses rules. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 559 .

Limitations of the mechanistic type.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Benefits of the mechanistic type. – Employees dislike rigid designs. which makes work motivation problematic. – Efficiency. – Unions may further solidify rigid designs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 560 . – Hinders organization’s capacity to adjust to subtle environmental changes or new technologies. – Key employees may leave.

– Horizontal specialization.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Organic type of bureaucracy (professional bureaucracy). and those that do exist are not highly formalized. or innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 561 . – Used to pursue strategies that emphasize product quality. quick response to customers. – Procedures are minimal.

– Good for problem solving and serving individual customer needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 562 . Limitations of the organic type.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Benefits of the organic type. – Centralized direction by senior management is less intense. – Less efficient than mechanistic type. – Good at detecting external changes and adjusting to new technologies. – Restricted capacity to respond to central management direction.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 563 . – Conglomerate. – Divisional firm. • A single corporation that contains a number of unrelated businesses. • Composed of quasi-independent divisions so that different divisions can be more or less organic or mechanistic.Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? Common types of hybrid structures.

Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures? The conglomerate simultaneously illustrates three key points that will be the focus of Chapter 18. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 564 . – There is no one best structure. – All structures are combinations of the basic elements. – The firm does not stand alone but is part of a larger network of firms that compete against other networks.

Chapter 18 Study Questions What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? What is information technology and how is it used? Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 565 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 566 . Strategy for growth and survival. Environment. – The choice of an appropriate organizational design depends on the firm’s: • • • • Size. Operations and information technology. – The process of choosing and implementing a structural configuration.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational design.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 567 .Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? The structural configuration of organizations should: – Enable senior executives to emphasize the skills and abilities that their firms need to compete. – Allow individuals to experiment. and to remain agile and dynamic in a rapidly changing world. grow. and develop competencies so that the strategy of the firm can evolve.

– Even with co-evolution.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Co-evolution. – Shaping capabilities via the organization’s design is a dynamic aspect of co-evolution. – The firm can adjust to external changes even as it shapes some of the challenges facing it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 568 . managers must maintain a recognizable pattern of choices in organizational design.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 569 .Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational size. – As the number of employees increase. – The design of small firms is directly influenced by core operations technology. – Larger firms have many core operations technologies in a variety of specialized units. the possible interconnections among them increase even more.

Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? The simple design for smaller units and firms. – A configuration involving one or two ways of specializing individuals and units. and responsiveness to a central manager. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 570 . – Vertical specialization and control emphasize levels of supervision without elaborate formal mechanisms. flexibility. – Appropriate for many smaller firms because of simplicity.

knowledge. and disseminate information for translating it into knowledge. and techniques that creates a product or service output. artifacts. – Information technology. store.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational design must be adjusted to fit technological opportunities and requirements. and systems used to gather. analyze. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 571 . • The combination of resources. procedures. – Operations technology. • The combination of machines.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 572 . • Uncertainty as to how to produce desired outcomes. – Technologies classified according to the degree of specification and degree of interdependence of work units.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Thomson’s view of technology. – Intensive technology.

• The way to produce desired outcomes is known and broken down into a number of sequential steps.). – Long-linked technology. – Mediating technology. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 573 . • Links parties that want to become interdependent.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Thomson’s view of technology (cont.

• The organization produces a few products using considerable automation.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Woodward’s view of technology. – Continuous-process technology. • The organization produces one or a few products through an assembly line system. – Mass production. – Small-batch production. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 574 . • The organization tailor makes a variety of custom products to fit customer specifications.

). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 575 . • Successful small-batch and continuous-process plants have flexible structures with small work groups at the bottom. – The proper matching of structure and technology is critical to organizational success.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Woodward’s view of technology (cont. • Successful mass production operations are rigidly structured and have large work groups at the bottom.

– An appropriate structural design when managers and employees do not know the appropriate way to service a client or produce a particular product.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? Adhocracy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 576 .

and procedures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 577 . policies. – Virtually no formal controls. – Extreme horizontal specialization. – Shared decision making among members. – Substantial decentralization.Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? An adhocracy is characterized by: – Few rules. – Few levels of management.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 578 .Study question 1: What is organizational design and how is it linked to strategy? An adhocracy is useful when: – The tasks facing the firm vary considerably and provide many exceptions. – Problems are difficult to define and solve.

– IT provides a partial substitute for: • Some operations. – IT provides a strategic capability. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 579 .Study Question 2:What is information technology and how is it used? Why IT makes a difference. • Some process controls. • Some impersonal methods of coordination. – IT provides a capability for transforming information to knowledge for learning.

– Initial implementation of IT often displaced routine. • Brought some marginal changes in organizational design.Study Question 2:What is information technology and how is it used? Information technology as a substitute. highly specified. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 580 . – A second wave of substitution replaced process controls and informal coordination mechanisms with IT. and repetitious jobs. • Did not alter fundamental character or design of the organization.

speed of responsiveness. – IT provides individuals the information they need to plan.Study Question 2:What is information technology and how is it used? Information technology as a strategic capability. and control their own operations. coordinate with others. and effectiveness of operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 581 . – IT has been used to improve the efficiency. – This new strategic IT capability resulted from IT being broadly available to everyone. make choices.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 582 . – IT encourages the development of a “virtual” network. – IT transforms how people manage.Study Question 2:What is information technology and how is it used? IT and learning. – IT systems empower individuals and expand their jobs.

the adhocracy design became problematic. • Actual delivery of products and services rested more on responsiveness to clients and maintaining efficiency than on continual innovation. – As the dot-coms grew. • Limits on the size of an effective adhocracy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 583 . – Many dot-com firms adopted some variation of adhocracy.Study Question 2:What is information technology and how is it used? IT and e-business.

distributors. legal-political. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 584 . economic.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Understanding the environment is important because an organization is an open system. Specific environment. General environment. government agencies. – The set of cultural. – The owners. and educational conditions found in the areas in which the organization operates. suppliers. and competitors with which an organization must interact to grow and survive.

as reflected in: • Degree of richness. – More complex environments provide more problems and opportunities. – The magnitude of problems and opportunities in the organization’s environment. • Degree of uncertainty.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental complexity. • Degree of interdependence. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 585 .

• Those on whom the organization relies are prospering.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental richness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 586 . • Individuals are improving their education. – The environment is richer when: • The economy is growing. – The opposite of richness is decline. – A rich environment has more opportunities and dynamism.

• Organization may absorb or buffer demands of powerful external elements. – Linkage between environmental independence and organization design may be subtle and indirect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 587 .Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental interdependence. • Organization may co-opt powerful outsiders.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 588 . – Uncertainty and volatility can be particularly damaging to large bureaucracies. – Adhocracy may be needed extreme uncertainty and volatility.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental uncertainty. – A more organic form is the appropriate organizational design response to uncertainty and volatility.

firms must learn to co-evolve by altering their environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 589 . Two important ways of co-evolution: – Management of networks.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? In a complex global economy. – Development of alliances.

outsourcing is developing as a specialized form of network organization. • Bank-centered keiretsu. – Networks are called keiretsu in Japan. • Vertical keiretsu.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Networks and alliances around the world. – In the United States. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 590 . – Informal combines or cartels exist in Europe but are illegal in the United States except in rare cases.

Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Interfirm alliances. – Alliances are quite common in high technology industries. – Announced cooperative agreements or joint ventures between two independent firms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 591 . both the alliance managers and sponsoring executives must be patient. and creative in pursuing goals. flexible. consequently. – Since firms cooperate rather than compete.

and experiences to thrive jointly. with a lead corporation. – A design option when internal and external contingencies are changing quickly.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Virtual organization. that pool skills. resources. – An ever-shifting constellation of firms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 592 .

– The partner network needs to develop and maintain an advanced IT.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Key to making a virtual organization work. – The production system needs to be in a partner network bound together by mutual trust and survival. – The lead firm must take responsibility for the whole network and coordinate member firm actions. and a common shared culture. trust and cross-owning of problems and solutions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 593 . – The lead corporation and the partners need to rethink how they are internally organized and managed.

– Actions to create a boundaryless organization. • Executives should systematically examine the organization and its processes. and geographic barriers that block desired action.Study Question 3: Can the design of the firm co-evolve with the environment? Boundaryless organization. external. horizontal. • Organization members should initiate a process of improving their cooperation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 594 . – A design option that eliminates vertical.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 595 . – Adjustment of organization’s and individual’s actions based on experience. and information retention in adapting successfully to changing circumstances.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Organizational learning. – The key to successful co-evolution. information interpretation. information distribution. – Process of knowledge acquisition.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 596 . if not ideal. • Reduces the number of decisions that need to be analyzed separately. • Establishes legitimacy or acceptance and narrows the choices requiring detailed explanation. – Occurs when managers copy what they believe are the successful practices of others – Is important to new firms.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Mimicry. solutions to many problems. • Provides workable.

– The major problem with emphasizing learning by doing is the inability to precisely forecast changes.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Experience. managers can also systematically embark on structured programs to capture the lessons to be learned. – Besides learning by doing. – A primary way to acquire knowledge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 597 .

Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 598 .

or firms to bring in useful knowledge. – The process of acquiring individuals. – Involves looking outside the firm and bringing back useful solutions. units. Grafting.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Scanning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 599 .

Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Common problems in information interpretation. – Self-serving interpretations. • A series of well-known routines for problem identification and alternative generation and analysis that are commonly used by a firm’s managers. • People seeing what they want to see. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 600 . – Managerial scripts. rather than seeing what is.

– Common myths. – Commonly held cause-effect relationships or assertions that cannot be empirically supported. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 601 . Single organizational truth. Presumption of competence.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Organizational myths. Denial of tradeoffs.

– Formal organizational structures. – External archives. – Internal information technologies. – Ecology. – Transformation mechanisms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 602 .Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Information retention mechanisms. – Organizational culture. – Individuals.

– A pattern of deteriorating performance that is followed by even further deterioration. • Detachment. • Hubris. • Organizational inertia.Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Deficit cycles. – Factors associated with deficit cycles. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 603 .

Study Question 4: How does a firm learn and continue to learn over time? Benefit cycles. – The firm develops adequate mechanisms for learning. – Firms can successfully co-evolve by initiating a benefit cycle. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 604 . – A pattern of successful adjustment followed by further improvements.

Chapter 19 Study Questions What is organizational culture? How do you understand an organizational culture? How can the organizational culture be managed? How can you use organizational development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 605 .

values. – The system of shared actions. – No two organizational cultures are identical.Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Organizational culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 606 . – Called corporate culture in the business setting. and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? External adaptation. • Creating explanations for not meeting goals. • Separating eternal forces based on importance. – Involves reaching goals and dealing with outsiders regarding tasks to be accomplished. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 607 . – Important aspects of external adaptation. • Developing ways to measure accomplishments. methods used to achieve the goals. and methods of coping with success and failure.

– – – – – – – – – What is the real mission? How do we contribute? What are our goals? How do we reach our goals? What external forces are important? How do we measure results? What do we do if specific targets are not met? How do we tell others how good we are? When do we quit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 608 .Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? External adaptation involves answering important goal-related questions regarding coping with reality.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 609 .Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Internal integration. • Developing an understanding of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. – Deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of matching methods of working and living together. • Deciding who is a member and who is not. • Separating friends from enemies. – Important aspects of working together.

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Internal integration involves answering important questions associated with living together. – What is our unique identity? – How do we view the world? – Who is a member? – How do we allocate power. and authority? – How do we communicate? – What is the basis for friendship? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 610 . status.

– A group of individuals with a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly reject the surrounding culture. Counterculture.Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Subculture. – A group of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 611 .

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Problems associated with subcultural divisions within the larger culture. – The firm may encounter extreme difficulty in coping with broader cultural changes. – Subordinate groups are likely to form into a counterculture pursuing self-interests. – Embracing natural divisions from the larger culture may lead to difficulty in international operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 612 .

– Step 5: The organization must actively work to eliminate identity-based interpersonal conflict. – Step 3: The organization must integrate the informal networks. – Step 2: The organization should fully integrate its structure. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 613 .Study Question 1: What is organizational culture? Taylor Cox’s five step program. – Step 4: The organization should break the linkage between naturally occurring group identity and organizational identity. – Step 1: The organization should develop pluralism.

Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 614 .

– Any object. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 615 . – Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members. Rites. Rituals.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Sagas. – Systems of rites. – Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments. or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning. Cultural symbols. act.

Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Culture often specifies rules and roles. – Roles. • Where individual members stand in the social system. – Rules. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 616 . • The various types of actions that are appropriate.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 617 . – May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage. – Tie the organization to the important values of society. – Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Shared values.

– A widely shared real understanding of what the firm stands for. and adherence to job duties. – A concern for individuals over rules. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 618 . procedures. policies.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures. often embodied in slogans. – A recognition of heroes whose actions illustrate the company’s shared philosophy and concerns.

). – A belief that what employees and managers do is important and that it is essential to share information and ideas.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures (cont. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 619 . – A belief in ritual and ceremony as important to members and to building a common identity. – A well-understood sense of the informal rules and expectations so that employees and managers know what is expected of them.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 620 . – Myths can facilitate experimentation and creativity.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Organizational myths. – Myths allow managers to govern. – Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically. – Myths enable managers to redefine impossible problems.

– National cultural values may become embedded in expectations of organization members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 621 . – Widely held common assumptions may be traced to the larger culture of the host society.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? National culture influences.

Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed? Strategies for managing corporate culture. – Use of organizational development techniques to modify specific elements of the culture. – Managers help modify observable culture. and common assumptions directly. shared values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 622 .

Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed? Why a well-developed management philosophy is important. – Provides a consistent way for approaching new and novel situations. – Helps hold individuals together by showing them a known path to success. – Establishes generally understood boundaries on all members of the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 623 .

reinforcing. – Fostering a culture that addresses questions of external adaptation and internal integration. and changing organizational culture. – Changing the lessons to be drawn from common stories. – Directly modifying the visible aspects of culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 624 . – Setting the tone for a culture and for cultural change.Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed? Strategies for building.

• Without recognizing the importance of individuals. – Trying to change people’s values from the top down: • While keeping the ways in which the organization operates the same. – Attempting to revitalize an organization by dictating major changes and ignoring shared values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 625 . and changing culture. reinforcing.Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed? Mistakes that managers can make in building.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organization development (OD). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 626 . – The application of behavioral science knowledge in a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change in its external environment and to increase its internal problem-solving capabilities.

– Used to improve organizational performance.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizational development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 627 . – Seeks to achieve change so the organization’s members maintain the culture and longer-run organizational effectiveness. – Designed to work on both issues of external adaptation and internal integration.

• Respect for the complexity of an organization as a system of interdependent parts. • Belief that groups can be good for both people and organizations. • Respect for people and their capabilities. – Group level.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Underlying assumptions of OD. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 628 . – Individual level. – Organizational level.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organization development goals. • Mainly deal with issues of external adaptation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 629 . – Process goals. – Outcome goals. • Mainly deal with issues of internal integration.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 630 . Moving decision making where relevant information is available. Allowing people to exercise self-direction and selfcontrol. OD helps by: – Creating an open problem solving climate. – Supplementing formal authority with knowledge and – – – – competence. Increasing the sense of organizational ownership.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? In pursuing outcome and process goals. Building trust and maximizing collaboration.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Action research. feeding it back to the members for action planning. and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data after the planned actions have been taken. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 631 . – The process of systematically collecting data on an organization.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 632 .

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 633 .

– Survey feedback. • Activities for quickly determining how an organization can be improved and taking initial actions for betterment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 634 . – Confrontation meetings. • Collection and feedback of data to organization members for action planning purposes.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions (cont.). • Realigning the organization’s structure or major subsystems. • Using representative organizational members in periodic small group problem-solving sessions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 635 . – Structural redesign. – Collateral organization.

• Activities to improve the functioning of key group processes. – Intergroup team building.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Group and intergroup OD interventions. • Activities to improve the functioning or two or more groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 636 . – Process consultation. • Activities to improve the functioning of a group. – Team building.

• Structured opportunities for individuals to work with managers or staff experts on career issues. – Career planning. – Role negotiation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 637 .Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Individual OD interventions. • Creating long-term congruence between individual goals and organizational career opportunities. • Clarifying expectations in working relationships. – Job redesign.

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