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Gsm Scanner

Gsm Scanner

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gsm - THC Wiki

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gsm

The GSM Software Project

CURRENT ACTIVITIES (2008-04-04): 1. Merging gsmsp's channel decoding and gsmdecode into gsm-tvoid (2008-04-04 DONE) 1. Implementing channel hopping on USRP chip

Contenuti 1. LICENSE 2. About 1. What we want to do 2. Who we are 3. Howto use this site 4. Contact 5. Legal Issues 3. NEWS 4. The Projects 1. The GSM Receiver Project 2. The GSM Sending and Channel Hopping Project 3. The OpenTsm Project 4. The A5 Cracking Project 5. The GSM Decoding Project 6. The Debug Trace Project 7. The SimCom Trace Project 8. The UMTS/3G Project 9. The SIM Tookit Research Project 5. The GSM/USRP Receiver Project 1. Priorities 2. Wanted 3. Different approaches 4. Project Stages and Schedule 1. Receiving Stages 2. Tips and Tricks 5. Hardware requirements / Where to buy 6. First Steps 1. Understanding GSM 2. Beginners Guide to GSM in MatLab

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3. Analyzing GSM data in Octave by Piotr 4. Analyzing BS signals with Gnu Radio 5. Challenge 1 1. Tore's results 2. Frank J.'s results 3. SignalScamp's results 6. OT460 Trace Mobile - An Excursion 7. Installing GnuRadio / Cygwin 8. NetMonitor 9. BTS searching by Robert 10. Build your own Antenna - by Robert 7. Design Proposal 8. ISI, Timing Recovery and others 9. Viterbi and Channel Estimation and Equalization 10. The Nokia Approach 1. Decoding SMS 2. Decoding TCH 11. The Ericcson TEMS Approach 12. The Vitel TSM30 Approach 13. The MADos Approach 14. Mysteries 1. Mystery 1: TMSI f 2. Mystery 2: Unknown RRM 06 07 3. Mystery: Pseudo Length 0 but data 15. Converting ARFCN to Frequency 6. RELEASES 1. Tips and Tricks 2. Sample Data for peoples without USRP 3. Developer Source Code Access 4. GSSM 5. GSM tvoid 6. GSMSP 7. Gsmdecode 7. HELP 1. Donations 2. Who can help 3. How to help 8. Links 1. Similiar Projects 2. Specs & Docs 3. Suggested reading 4. Hardware

1. LICENSE
GSM Software Project License Version 1, January 2007

All code, information or data [from now on "data"]

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available from the GSM Software Project or any other project linked from this or other pages is owned by the creator who created the data. The copyright, license right, distribution right and any other rights lies with the creator. It is prohibitied to use the data without the written agreement of the creator. This included using ideas in other projects (commercial or not commercial). Where data was created by more than 1 creator a written agreement from each of the creators has to be obtained. If the creator decides to release the data under a difference license (like GPL) then he is free to do so. This license is for all data not covered by a license. Please contact steve [at] segfault.net for any questions.

2. About
2.1. What we want to do We want to bring together all the folks that are interested in building a gsm receiver. GSM is the worlds largest mobile phone standard. GSM 2.5 is currently in use and some countries are (slowly) migrating to GSM 3 (3G, UMTS, ..). Available GSM analyzer cost a shitload of money for no good reason. Our goal is to build a GSM analyzer for less than $1000. From there we have an unlimited number of possibilties of what we can do: 1. Understand GSM and verify the implementation and what kind of data is flying through the ether. 2. Analyzing debug traces from dct3 mobiles See DCT3 Debug Trace Project. 3. Track/Locate a gsm mobile. This can be done with just 1 GSMSP receiver. 4. Crack A5 and proof to the public that GSM is insecure. See A5 Cracking Project. 5. Create our own baby cells. Imagine running your own BaseStation in your house, university campus, convention or local area. Calling inside the baby cell would be free and calling others via an asterisk/skype gateway would be extremly cheap. 6. Analyze and learn about OTA messages that the operator use to upgrade our phones (without our knowledge). (That's sim toolkit, ringtones, logos, ...) 7. We can detect if a GSM MitM attack is happening in our area. (e.g. we can detect if somebody else is sniffing a conversation in a 7+ miles radius). A seperate Project is designing their own RF board to receive GSM signals. Please take a look at http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/rfboard. 2.2. Who we are

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This is a research project by people who feel passionate about GSM and gnuradio. We started this because we could not find a site where people can share ideas about homebuild GSM receivers/scanners and we think gsm software receivers are a cool thing to have. And DECT too... 2.3. Howto use this site There is a mailinglist for discussions. To subscribe send an empty email to gsm-subscribe@lists.segfault.net . To retrieve an archive please send a mail to gsm-get@lists.segfault.net for the last 30 messages. Please read the ezmlm howto for other commands. Please feel free to edit this page and add your comments and ideas. Please start your comments with "(yyyy/mm/dd, name, comment here)". Use our web-share at http://www.segfault.net/gsm/resources to upload and share files with others. There are some photos online at http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/photos. 2.4. Contact I can be reached at steve at segfault.net. (PGP Key) Some of us are hanging out on the freenode IRC channel #gnuradio and #gsm. 2.5. Legal Issues I have consulted a lawyer in London to find out if what we do is legal or not. These are the results: There is no direct law that forbids what we are doing (Companies like Nokia and Sagem are doing exactly the same: Manufacturing GSM scanners that anyone can buy). These are the legal implications in UK: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Security Research in general is not forbidden. Designing a GSM receiver is ALLOWED (Nokia does it. Sagem does it). Publishing the design/research is ALLOWED. Receiving GSM signals is ALLOWED. Decoding (e.g. cracking) your own GSM signals is ALLOWED Decoding somebodys else GSM signals is NOT allowed (DANGER). Setting up a baby cell is allowed if you aquire a license (Any bank building in Canary Warf/London runs its own GSM baby cell).

The bottom line is: Publishing the research is ok. As long as you receive your own traffic and only send after you got the license you are on good ground. This is based on UK law. European law is similiar (if not more relaxed). USA law might be completly different and I highly advice to check with a lawyer. If you do so please let me know the results.

3. NEWS

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2008/06/13 Lyrtech Releases GSM Femto Cell SDR SDK 2008/04/04 Sending and Channel Hopping Project started. 2008/03/31 First Pictures of A5 Cracker available. 2008/03/12 SIM Toolkit Research Project started. 2008/01/06 SimCom Trace Project started. 2007/12/13 Piotr shows how to simulate a GSM decoder in Octave 2007/11/21 [http;//wiki.thc.org/gsm/umts UMTS Project] started. 2007/10/22 Split into sub-projects. GSM Decoder Project online 2007/10/12 Pawel's GSM Scanner Tutorial 2007/08/16 OpenTSM Project started. 2007/08/14 CCC Camp07 GSM Software Project and A5 Cracking Talk online. 2007/08/04 TSM Challenge updated. 2007/07/25 How to build your own GSM antenna - UPDATED VERSION. 2007/07/11 Photo section online. Add your own photos and screenshots. 2007/07/09 gssm-v0.1.1a released. 2007/07/02 How to build your own GSM antenna. 2007/07/01 gsm-tvoid-0.0.2 released. 2007/06/25 gsm-tvoid-0.0.1 released. 2007/06/08 gsmdecode-0.7bis released. 2007/06/05 GSMSP released. Alternative GSM implementation. 2007/06/04 GSSM released. Alpha but stable. 2007/05/22 Wanted Section added. 2007/05/20 gsmdecode-0.5 released (with SMS decoding support) 2007/04/27 gsmdecode-0.4 released. 2007/04/16 Decoded SMS published and gsmdecode-0.2. 2007/04/11 Nokia DCT3 Trace Mobile results and ideas online 2007/04/01 Finding a BaseStation with the USRP by Robert 2007/03/13 gsmsp v0.0.1a released (alpha alpha) 2007/03/02 MatLab Toolkit and a Beginners Guide of how to analyze GSM data released. 2007/02/19 Tore won the Challenge. His results are public. Also published some infos regarding the OT460 Trace Mobile. 2007/02/16 Survey started. Please fill out and help us understand who/what we are/need. 2007/02/08 Challenge started to win a USRP + Extensions. Deadline is Sun 18th of February 2007 23:59. 2007/01/25 We decided for the USRP (www.ettus.com). (Chip vendors do not like us and wont give us documentation. Motivation++. You may hide the docs from us but you can not hide the GSM frames from us!) 2007/01/12 Tore joined our team as first RF engineer. Welcome on board Tore! 2007/01/10 THC donated $999 as a research fund! Please contact me if you can donate ettus hardware or help otherwise.

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2007/01/10 Project announced. 2007/01/04 wiki online

4. The Projects
This wiki started as a project for receiving GSM signals. Over time many other projects surfaced. Each of the projects deserves its own wiki. A short description and link to the wiki are listed here. 4.1. The GSM Receiver Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm This project is about receiving GSM signals using the USRP. 4.2. The GSM Sending and Channel Hopping Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/tx This project is about sending GSM signals using the USRP and implementing channel hopping for receiving. 4.3. The OpenTsm Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/opentsm Its goal is to modify the firmware of the Vitel TSM30 mobile phone. It will enable us to receive (trace) and send traffic and have fund with the mobile network. 4.4. The A5 Cracking Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/cracking_a5 The project is about cracking (decrypting) the A5/1 encryption algorithm used in GSM. 4.5. The GSM Decoding Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/decode The project is about decoding and converting data from the Traffic CHannle (TCH). The project's goal is to convert the speech channel data into PCM/WAV/MP3 and the SMS data into text files. 4.6. The Debug Trace Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/debugtrace The project is about using a nokia 3310 or similiar phone and turning it into a trace mobile. The webpage lists examples traces. Please submit interesting traces. 4.7. The SimCom Trace Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/simcom The project is about using a SIM5210 module to receive debug information from the digital baseband. This debug information includes beacon and possibly TCH traffic. 4.8. The UMTS/3G Project Location: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/umts The project just started and is about how UMTS works. The goal is to receive/send on UMTS and assess the security of UMTS.

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4.9. The SIM Tookit Research Project Locatoin: http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/simtoolkit The project is about understanding how the SIM works and what's possible with the SIM. It's related to security and applets that are installed remotely (via OTA) by the operator.

5. The GSM/USRP Receiver Project
5.1. Priorities An overview of our 4 most urgent problems. This chart changes over time. It shows what people are currently doing. (last updated: 2007/04/20).

1. Viterbi / ISI: This is the single most important stuff people are currently working on. This can either fail the project or make it a success. The mission is to get better (error-free) bit data out of the GSM signal. We are currently suffering from high bit errors. 2. Channel Hopping: Required if we want to go beyond camping on the BCCH. The theory is there. It has to be tested. (Especially if it's fast enough and/or if we have to flush the USRP buffer?!) 3. Release: If we pack our source into a release tar-ball other people will be able to play around with it and come back with better ideas. 4. Misc: Everything not covered above (like channel decoding) 5.2. Wanted If you can help with any of the items below please contact steve or write on the mailinglist! 1. 2. 3. 4. Viterbi / ISI help Comp128v3 source or binary dump from any GSM baseband chip. GEA / GRPS encryption algorithm or source/binary from any GSM baseband chip. CDMA documentation.

5.3. Different approaches

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I see three different ways to get this done: 1. Use a commercial baseband transceiver chip (silabs.com? analog.com?). (Requires electronic engineer and those folks seem to be rare). 2. Use the USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) board from Ettus and develop the rest in software (C++ python) and/or verilog (firmware of USRP). (Still requires electronic engineer /ettus person. We are software developers. Anyone?) 3. Patch the Baseband Processor of an existing mobile phone (possible but not portable). 4. Attach the baseband signal of an existing mobile phone to a digitizer (for example the USRP or a simpeler AD/DA converter board with at least 1 Mhz samplerate) (This option is also not very portable and hard to connect to those tiny traces (has been tried). The best shot is using a very old big phone but then you only get the low 900 Mhz band (and not the 1800/1900 Mhz band)) (comment: 3 and 4 are also dead-ends in the long run as we would only be able to receive but certainly never be able to transmit. Both approaches also limit us to 1 channel (not?)) 5. Using a nokia phone or the MC351i from Siemens. For both devices is it possible to update the firmware on the baseband processor. This would mean we would have to disassemble the firmware and do binary patching. Probably limited to 1 channel (but we can use 128 phones at the same time:>). Not as flexible as the USRP. 6. Use Analog's development board. This way we do not have to bother with DSP and can use example source! 7. The Sagem OT460 is a trace phone which connects via USB to a PC. It comes with monitoring software. It captures data from the Control Channel (Channel Dm, uplink + downlink) and transfers the captured date in realtime to the PC. 8. A Watkins Johnson 8691A receiver can trace 6 phone calls at the same time. It requires PC software that is impossible to get. The company currently refused that they even manufactures this device. 9. The IZT CCT is a commercial multiband receiver with a bandwith of 16 mbit. It's connected via Ethernet. tkrauze@o2.pl is working on this one. We currently believe that the USRP is the cheaper solution but we are keen to compare results. 10. Using http://www.comblock.com/ hardware to capture data to a IQ file, then using MATLAB and the modified GSMSim scripts to parse the file. Perhaps convert the COMBLOCK IQ file to the format from USRP for use with the GNURadio software. (Comblock setup RF amp >> COM-3006 >> COM-8002 >> COM-5003) Using USRP and software is the right way to go. Vanu Inc apperently got a software gsm modem working (but not using ettus?!). PC's are fast enough. See gnu-radio list archive and search for Vanu. What about MAX2323 Eval kit? 5.4. Project Stages and Schedule Stage 1: Proof of Concept device that can read 'raw' GSM traffic from at least 1 channel. Stage 2: Decode GSM traffic. Display all non-crypted information (BaseStation, Signal strength, Call-request, SMS, ...)

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Stage 3: Decipher GSM traffic. (wuha) Stage 4: Send GSM traffic. and a litte time later a DECT (european standard for cordless phones) receiver. DECT is unencrypted in the most cases. Comment from a RF engineer: About Stage 1. It seems not too difficult to develop the device that can read from air. Channel switching can be easily done using PLL based LO. The most critical part here is the DSP based GMSK demodulation. Do we have DSP-friendly people here? About Ready-to-use hardware. GSM air interface has very special requirements (band filter, LNA, AGC etc). It is nearly impossible to satisfy them using general purpose RF hardware. As for me, it should be dedicated device. There are two options here: to develop it from zero point using basic blocks (LNA, Mixer, Quadrature decoder etc) OR to use a semi-dedicated ICs which combine some needed functionality. I don't think we can use any of mass-volume GSM-chipset because it will be absolutelly unflexible, thus useless. 2007/01/25 Comment from an electrical engineer: Last year I looked into doing GSM receive operation only, and concluded that the easiest solution would be to use the USRP paired with a suitable RF daughterboard. They have a daughterboard that will tune the PCS band (receive only). The IF bandwidth is wide @ 43 MHz, but the USRP has a very large dynamic range. Also, GMSK is constant envelope, so if the A/D saturates it shouldn't be the end of things. I doubt it would meet all the GSM RF requirements, but it might be close enough to work, albeit with worse noise figure etc. However I remember thinking that the FPGA resources might be too limiting for the high-rate signal processing. More investigation would be necessary. 5.4.1. Receiving Stages 1. Send signal through low-pass/fir filter 2. Send filtered signals through GMSK block (already implemented in gnu-radio) 3. Differentially deocde the bitstream - Find FCCH, SCH (get channel config, FrameNumber, ...) - 3GPP TS 04.03 MS-BSS interface, Channel structures - 3GPP TS 44.004 Layer 1 - General requirements - 3GPP TS 04.05 MS-BSS interface, Data Link layer - General aspects - 3GPP TS 04.06 MS-BSS interface, Data Link Layer - 3GPP TS 44.018 Layer 3 specs - Radio Resource Control (was 04.18, referenced by 04.08) - 3GPP TS 45.002 Multiplexing and multiple access on the radio path (was 0502) - 3GPP TS 05.03 Channel coding 4. 5. 6. 7. Concatenate GSM bursts De-interleave the correct blocks. Viterbi decode the blocks Check/Correct bit errors with FIRE code

8. Parse GSM messages - GSM 04.07 Layer 3 - General aspects - 3GPP TS 23.108 Layer 3 specs - Core network protocols, stage 2 - 3GPP TS 24.008 Layer 3 specs - Core network protocols, stage 3

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5.4.2. Tips and Tricks A collection of random tips and tricks. 1. RF interface - EMPTY 2. Decoding packets I - Search for the FCCH before the bits are differentialy decoded. Search for the 64 bit SCH trainigsequence before the differential decoding as well. This speeds up the process. Accepts FCCH's and SCH's with up to 11 bit errors (or even more?). - Once you know where the 156 bit bursts start always set the first 3 bit to 0. These first 3 bits are the training bit and ought to be 0. 5% of my received data has a bit error in the training bit. Otherwise the differential decoding process will propagate a bit error in the first 3 bits through the entire burst. - Skip dummy bursts (do not differential decode, do not de-interleave, do not convolution decode it). 5.5. Hardware requirements / Where to buy (Offical approach. Receive only. visit ettus sales.) USRP board (700 USD) DBSRX daugtherboard (150 USD) LP0926 900 Mhz - 2.6 Ghz Log Periodic PCB Antenna (35 USD) SMA-M to SMA-M Cable (20 USD) Optional Antenna: Low Noise Amplifier ($79.00) Antenna All-Band Yagi ($209.95) Build your own GSM antenna. http://www.imo.de/cgi-bin/verteiler.pl?url=gsm-antennas_e.html Note: A different antenna is required depending on the frequency range. You should have one for GSM900 and another one for GSM1800. The same antenna wont work on both frequency ranges. 5.6. First Steps GSM Frequencies: 850 MHz [US rural areas] (824.2 - 848.8 MHz Tx; 869.2 - 893.8 MHz Rx) P-GSM (914.8 Mhz Tx, 925 - 959.8 Mhz Rx, Channel 0 - 124) P-GSM extension 880 - 889.8 Mhz Tx;925 - 934.8 Mhz Rx, Channel 975 - 1023) GSM-R [Railway] (876 - 879.8 Mhz Tx; 921 - 924.8 Mhz Rx, Channel 955 - 974) 1800 MHz [Europe] (1710.2 - 1784.8 MHz Tx; 1805.2 - 1879.8 MHz Rx) 1900 MHz [US city] (1850.2 - 1909.8 MHz Tx; 1930.2 - 1989.8 MHz Rx) See also GSM/3GPP 05.05 and apicture of gsm frequencies. Europe used 900Mhz only and later also started to use 1800Mhz. US started with 1900Mhz

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and later used 850Mhz. 850 Mhz is mostly used in rural areas but sometimes can be found in cities. T-Mobile is not available on the 850Mhz. The frequency for receiving data from the BTS to the mobile is 45Mhz above the TX frequency. 5.6.1. Understanding GSM These two articles give a fairly good understanding of how GSM looks like. 1. http://www.pulsewan.com/data101/gsm_basics.htm 2. http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/t.pagtzis/wireless/gsm/radio.html Another good article is availabe at http://www2.informatik.hu-berlin.de/~goeller/. I recommend reading the book "Signaling in Mobile Radio Communication" ISBN-10 3-936318-24-7, ISBN-13 978-3-936318-24-1. It comes with a GSM analyzing software (OTDrivePC) and many live off-the-air example traces that can be analyzed with OTDrivePc. It's a real mind-opener. 5.6.2. Beginners Guide to GSM in MatLab We are proud to release a complete MatLab example and documentation of how to analyze USRP GSM data dumps in MatLab. The Beginners Guide to analzying GSM data in MatLab is part of the toolkit and contains step-by-step instructions on how to use MatLab and how to interpret the decodec GSM bursts. Toolkit: GSMSP_Analyzing_GSM_data_in_MatLab.zip This toolkit is based on the fantastic work from Jan and Arne. Please check out their Matlab GSM Simulator as well. If you need help understanding MatLab please read The MatLab Manual. 5.6.3. Analyzing GSM data in Octave by Piotr Download: GSMSP_Analyzing_GSM_data_in_Octave.tar.bz2 I've prepared version of "GSMSP Analyzing GSM data in Matlab" which runs under Octave with installed octave-forge functions. To use it under *buntu you should install gnuplot and octave-forge (it depends on octave2.1). Run command:
$ sudo apt-get install octave-forge gnuplot

My changes: 1. little changes in plots from plotframe2.m and find_fcch.m 2. files doing similar things are now placed in their own directories 3. new function file resample.m written by me - works like this from Matlab. This was

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needed because resample function from Octave doesn't work with GSMsim. I think GSMsim is good reference implementation of Viterbi Equalizer for GSM. Tvoid has written already functions which works like this from files find_fcch.m, find_sch.m, calc_freq_offset.m and xlat_freq.m. I think we can use Viterbi Equalizer which works like this from GSMsim and put it in functions of Tvoid release – in get_sch_burst() and get_norm_burst() (or in equalize()). Regards Piotr Krysik 5.6.4. Analyzing BS signals with Gnu Radio Pawel uploaded a 945.6 Mhz USRP dump(Warsaw). Screenshot from life application (not the recorded dump above): 1. Screenshot 1 2. Screenshot 2 3. Screenshot 3 On the screenshots we can see frequency correction FCCH packet (only zeros are transmitted), and Training Sequence # 4 (1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0) in the middle of two different packets. After fm demodulation block, due to differencial modulation in gsm, we can interpret high value of signal as a repeated bit and lower value of signal as a changed bit. One bit lasts about 3.69 microseconds, so you will have to switch to different scale/div. Use Pawel's gnu radio script fix to read the data from a file (and not from a live feed). 5.6.5. Challenge 1 This is a challenge and the winner get's a FREE starter kit ($975): USRP DBSRX Antenna Cable Deadline: Sunday 18th of February 2007 The Challenge: Get most information out of Robert's samples. The one who can identify most frames and information from Robert's samples wins the challenge and gets the FREE USRP Starter Kit. To take part in the challenge please submit:

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The frames you could identify Other information you found out from the samples (signal strength, number of basestations, base station identify, ....) List of programs and tools you used. Short Explanation to steve at segfault.net before the 18th of February 2007 23:59. Your work will be submitted to the Mailinglist and published on our website (http://www.thc.org/gsm) I'll announce the winner of the USRP Starter Kit on the 19th! The next big step is to get it working with gnu-radio.
5.6.5.1. Tore's results

Tore uses MatLab and the GSMsim plugins to extract informations from robert's off-the-air captures. Using the GSMsim plugin helps him to extract a lot of information in a short period of time. Sample Analysis Whitepaper. Matlab files.
5.6.5.2. Frank J.'s results

Also fank J.'s decides to use MatLab. Here are his results.
5.6.5.3. SignalScamp's results

Here are SignalScamp's Results. He uses MatLab to analyse robert_dbsrx_941.0Mhz_128.cfile. The three graphics show his results. Bursts: chart1.png FCH in Slot0: chart2.png Slot0: chart3.png 5.6.6. OT460 Trace Mobile - An Excursion The Sagem OT460 does not offer the full functionality that we require. It is limited to the GSM Dm channel and can not transmit. Nevertheless it's an exciting device that comes with a powerfull analyzing software. The Sagem OT460 is a Trace Mobile. It connects to the PC via a USB cable. It can capture live data from the GSM Dm Channel. It captures frames from the entire GSM band at the same time. It comes with software to display and analyize the captures frames. It cost around 3499 EUR and is sold by sagem.com or www.ers.fr. The OT460 is visible as a COM port under windows. It is possible to write custom software to configure and retrieve information from the OT460. An outdated protocol abstract is available. The full spec of the protocol is available for developers directly from sagem.com

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(you have to buy a OT460 first). Dr.-Ing. Joachim Goeller was so friendly to capture some data for us. He used his own tool (EDGEView) to analyze the data and disassemble the packets. Here is a Screenshot of the OTDrive Capture Software in action. The first example is a off-the-air capture: MOC.txt - the captured data (raw) MOC-Translated.rtf - the data analyzed (with EDGEView) The second example is a capture when a phone was turned on, pin entered and then turned off again: OnOff.txt - the captured data (raw) OnOff-All.rtf - the analyzed data OnOff-RR-NAS-LAPDm.rtf - the analyzed Link Access Procedure D channel We might be able to use his EDGEView software to analyze our data as well. We can benchmark our captures against the OT460 device. EDGEView is the successor of GSMView. GSMView is available on a CD that come with the "Signaling in Mobile Radio Communication" Book. The EDGEView description files are available at http://www.segfault.net/gsm/EDGEView. The will become handy when we want to parse GSM messages. 5.6.7. Installing GnuRadio / Cygwin I do not recommend using Windows / cygwin. Use Linux (ubuntu or gentoo) instead. This is a short howto install gnu-radio and usrp under windows / cygwin. If you run into problems please ask me or modify this text. There are a couple of install guides on the net. They are all incomplete: 1. http://gnuradio.org/trac/wiki/CygwinInstallMain 2. http://www.comsec.com/wiki?Cygwin These are the steps that worked for me: Extract all source packages to /tmp. Source packages are installed with ./configure, make all install. It only depends on the parameters... 1. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin 2. export PYTHONPATH=/usr/local/lib/python2.4/site-packages/ 3. Install cygwin with python, swig, pkg-config 4. install sdcc from http://sdcc.sf.net 5. Install Boost C++ from http://www.boost.org 6. Install LibUSB-Win32 to C:\LibUSB-Win32 (libusb-win32-filter-bin-0.1.12.0.exe)

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(Note: Apperently you can also just install libusb-win from the cygwin setup). - cd /cygdrive/c/LibUSB-Win32/src - make all - cp libusb0.sys libusb0.dll /tmp/gnuradio-3.0.2/usrp - now follow USRP Install Guide. 7. Install Cppunit with this patch - cd cppunit-1.10.2; patch -p1 -u <../cppunit-win32.patch - ./configure --enable-shared --disable-static - make LDFLAGS=-no-undefined all install 8. Install fftw-3.1.2 - ./configure - make LDFLAGS=-noundefined all install 9. Install gnuradio-3.0.2. - There is a conflict with the max() and min() macros and windows.h include from LibUSB-Win32. Apply this patch. - CFLAGS="-I/cygdrive/c/LibUSB-Win32/include" LDFLAGS="-L/cygdrive /c/LibUSB-Win32/lib/gcc" libusbwin32path="/cygdrive/c/LibUSB-Win32/bin" ./configure --with-boost-include-dir=/tmp/boost_1_33_1 --with-md-cpu=generic --disable-static --enable-usrp --enable-gr-usrp - make CPPFLAGS="-I/cygdrive/c/LibUSB-Win32/include" - make CPPFLAGS="-I/cygdrive/c/LibUSB-Win32/include" install Use the example from Josh page to test your gnu-radio installation. 5.6.8. NetMonitor Nokia phones can be used in Monitor mode. The NetMonitor software displays all kind of usefull information. It helps you to find out your current TMSI, the BCH you are on, the distance the the base station, neighbouring cells, signal strength and much more. Search in google for the software or use these links: NetMonitor (OperatorFtdwk39v7.sis) NetMonitor Guide I used the netmonitor to confirm which beacon carrier i was able to find and to filter only packets for my TMSI. edited: Not only Nokia phones can be used in net monitor mode, but majority of phones can be used, just check google or forum.gsmhosting.com about your phone. 5.6.9. BTS searching by Robert Robert wrote a nice article on how to find a Base station manually using a USRP. His article is available at http://273k.net/gsm/find-a-gsm-base-station-manually-using-a-usrp/. It gives you a good introduction into the tools and some nice graphical results. 5.6.10. Build your own Antenna - by Robert Robert explains how to build your own GSM antenne at http://273k.net/gsm/designing-

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and-building-a-gsm-antenna/. 5.7. Design Proposal We talked via phone to better understand where our problem is and how we can split it into smaller pieces. Below is the email from Achilleas.
I spent some time looking at the Matlab code that was available on the wiki and the uploaded off-the-air samples. I think I have a much better understanding of what is going on now. Here is how I envision a first-cut implementation of a receiver that processes a single GSM frequency channel from the Base station to the Mobiles. 1) The outermost loop (process) acquires FCCH bursts and uses them to perform rough frequency correction (non-coherent operation) and rough burst alignement. This process essentially cuts the input stream into blocks of GUARD+156.25*OSR+GUARD samples (OSR=samples/bit), each respresenting a burst (padded from left and right so that you don't miss anything due to missallignment). 2) Next, SCH bursts are used (those follow FCCH bursts after 8 bursts) for acquisition/tracking/estimation of a) bit timing b) channel impulse response Simple least-squares (LS) channel estimation (oversampled) and timing estimation (accuracy of 1 sample) can easily be done here (they worked fine for me). Both estimates seem to be pretty stable between two SCH bursts, so at this point I do not even see a need for tracking. Note1: ISI is significant. Modeling the GMSK signal as a filtered MSK signal you get channel estimates of the form: 0.0568 0.0455 0.0038 0.0127 0.0174 0.0175 0.0170

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0.0298 0.0308 0.1146 0.1289 0.1687 0.1898 0.1904 0.1917 0.1296 0.1186 0.0552 0.0303 0.0053 0.0184 0.0196 0.0563 0.0397 (this is the absolute values of the estimated channel for OSR=4). Note2: I also noticed a slight drift (successive channel estimates differing by a constant phase) which suggests that the frequency correction is not perfect. The result is an unknown phase (almost constant) within a burst. This was observed both on: GSMSP_20070204_robert_dbsrx_953.6MHz_64.cfile GSMSP_20070204_robert_dbsrx_941.0MHz_128.cfile but not on GSMSP_20070204_robert_dbsrx_953.6MHz_128.cfile The SCH burst can be further demodulated to extract the information about which training sequence is used in this cell. In fact I was able to find that by simply correlating normal bursts with all 6 possible training sequences and find the best match, so one can avoid this step...so that physical layer processing does not depend on higher layer information (but ultimately this cannot be avoided...) Once timing information has been extracted (accuracy of 1 sample) and a channel estimate is there, all other bursts can be processed in the following way (this also holds for the SCH burst itself): Matched filtering, symbol-spaced sampling followed by your favorite

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detection technique (Viterbi, DFE, etc) to extract the information on the MSK signal, followed by the differential processing to extract the actual information bits. So as a first order of business I see the implementation of 1 and 2a, 2b. I haven't given much thought as to what is the most efficient way to implement this in gnuradio, but I may do that if I get some time...

5.8. ISI, Timing Recovery and others This section is all about M&M clock recovery and ISI. 1. Matched filtering and timing recovery in digital receivers - A good introduction. 2. Book: Heinrich Meyr; Marc Moeneclaey; Stefan Fechtel: "Digital Communication Receivers : Synchronization, Channel Estimation" 5.9. Viterbi and Channel Estimation and Equalization Piotr made a collection of documents that help to undestand Viterbi and channel equalization. 1. How I Learned To Love Trellis. This article was very helpful for me at the beginning. It explains what Inter Symbol Interferences (ISI) are and introduces the concept of detection signals which contain such distortion using Viterbi algorithm. 2. a MatLab implementation of a GSM Simulation Platform. Great documentation of receiver working in theory and, according to Tore's results, working in practice. Documentation contains brief theory of estimating channel impulse response and MLSE. 3. GSM Simulator in Octave and Source. Octave is open source software available for everyone and has similar to MATLAB syntax. This implementation doesn't include synchronization (GSMsim has same form of finding first sample in a burst) but it has Least Squares channel estimation (GSMsim uses convolution of received sequence with known training sequence 4. Equalization in GSM using a priori information. first 30 pages of it contains interesting theory in a straightforward from a especially channel estimation. 5. 3GPP TS 05.05 "Radio Access Network; Radio transmission and and Reception. some raw data from ETSI regarding this topic, for example typical channel impulse responses in Annex C 6. Soft output M-algorithm equalizer and trellis-coded modulation for mobile radio communication. Algorithm with reduced complexity. 7. Adaptive T-Algorithm in MLSD/MLSDE Receivers for Fading Channels. Another reduced-complexity algorithm. 8. Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Estimation of Digital Sequences in the Presence of Intersymbol Interference. Very theoretical and hard to read article which introduced MLSE detection.

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9. Channel Estimation Modeling. Least squares channel estimation and iterative channel estimation. 10. http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/pubdb/views/edoc_download.php/2522/pdf/imm2522.pdf. Viterbi in UMTS. We know of two open source projects that implement the algorithm: 1. http://www.vovida.org/protocols/gsml/. The GSM Source Module Library (GSML) provides a library of modules which can be used to implement the GSM Signalling protocols. 2. http://www.wireless3g4free.com/. 100% Software implementation of a UMTS receiver stack using Real Time Linux (RTLinux). 5.10. The Nokia Approach The main development is happening on the USRP hardware. Nevertheless it seems that significant amount of data can be gathered by using a off the shelf nokia handset. Frank and Saugumas have choosen to investigate further and see what's possible. TODO: 1. Can we enable TCH (traffic) frames? 2. Why do we not see the number that is beeing called in the Call Setup message? Advantages: Simple and quick Follows channel hopping Disadvantages: Only 1 tuner (e.g. Can only listen to 1 frequency). Works only with (old) DCT3 mobiles (like the nokia 3310 and 3410) Receives only uplink frames that the mobiles sends. Can not receive uplink frames that other mobiles send. Can not send frames. Receive only. In 2003 there was the Blacksphere Project. They reversed the undocumented debug protocol of DCT3 mobile phones. It is possible to enable a debug trace and receive many of the layer2/layer3 frames. The latest project update to the dct3 debug tracer can be found at http://tudor.rdslink.ro /blacksphere/nokia.htm. Nokia's Netmonitor can be used on the phone the tune to a certain BTS. It's currently unknown if a *bus command exists to change the tuner to a different frequency. Gammu is a command line tool which we prefer. There exists also a gui (N-Monitor by Anderas Schmidt) for any DCT3 trace mobile. Please see Nuukiaworld for more details. This command can be used to enable layer2/layer3 tracing. It generates the file out.xml and a lot of debug output.

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gammu --nokiadebug nhm5_587.txt v20-25,v18-19

The out.xml file can then be parsed with gsmdecode:
gsmdecode -x <out.xml

The best mobile for testing is the Nokia 3310. You need a special MBUS data cable (NK-33) available at http://ucables.com/ref/NK-33. If you are using a USB to SERIAL adapter you must configure it on com1 or com2. The debug trace forwards most layer2/layer3 frames that the mobile processes. This includes the BCCH on the beacon frequency on the downlink and most frames the mobile sends (uplink). It does not forward TCH (traffic) frames. Here are two traces. call_init.xml sms.xml sms2.xml (SMS content "abc") call_1525.xml We have created a sub project for sharing traces. Please take a look at the DCT3 Debug Trace Project and submit your traces to me. Download: http://www.gammu.org We are using version 1.15.90. To make it work under windows you must install the windows binary and copy the nhm5_587.txt file from the source distribution into your c:\Program Files\Gammu 1.15.90\bin\ directory. 5.10.1. Decoding SMS This trace was generated with a Nokia DCT3. It's downlink only. A SMS was send from the mobile to the mobile. The decoding was done with gsmdecode-0.2.tar.gz . I only display the relevant information for the receiving part of the SMS. If you are interested in the BCCH messages (BBis format, Immediate Assignment etc etc) please run gsmdecode with the -i command. The trace file: sms2.xml The following commands have been used to analyze the sms2.xml file:
gsmdecode -x <sms2.xml >sms2.txt

Some Facts: OpenGPA does not decode the interesting messages. We used our own decoder (gsmdecode). It seems that SMS are send encrypted from the BTS to the MS. See 3GPP 04.11 Appendix F, Figure F2 for exchange of messages See 3GPP 03.38 for SMS data coding

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Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are all SMS send encrypted? Why is the destination length value wrong? Why do we receive a TMSI realloc message? Coincident? Why dont we see a AUTH REQ message? Why does the Paging Response from the BTS contain the IMEI and not the TMSI? This should not happen especially because the MS just send a SMS and the system should know the TMSI by now. IMEIs should not appear on the network! 6. Negotiation only shows A5/3 and A5/2. What happened to A2/1? How is that negotiated? SDCCH, Page response Message.
000: 01 73 41 06 27 03 03 33 001: 02 74 66 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 01 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 01 ------0- C/R: Response 0: 01 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 01 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 73 ------11 Unnumbered Frame 1: 73 ---1---- P 1: 73 011-00-- UA frame (Unnumbered achknowledgement) 2: 41 -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 41 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 41 010000-- Length: 16 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 27 0-100111 RRpagingResponse 4: 27 -x------ Send sequence number: 0 5: 03 -----011 Ciphering key sequence: 3 5: 03 -000---- Ciphering key sequence: 0 6: 03 00000011 MS Classmark 2 length: 3 7: 33 -01----- Revision Level: Phase 2 7: 33 ---1---- Controlled early classmark sending: Implemented 7: 33 -----011 RF power class capability: Class 4 8: 19 -1------ Pseudo Sync Capability: not present 8: 19 --01---- SS Screening: Phase 2 error handling 8: 19 ----1--- Mobile Terminated Point to Point SMS: supported 8: 19 -----0-- VoiceBroadcastService: not supported 8: 19 ------0- VoiceGroupCallService: not supported 8: 19 -------1 MS supports E-GSM or R-GSM: supported 9: 81 1------- CM3 option: supported 9: 81 --0----- LocationServiceValueAdded Capability: not supported - 19 81 08 29 64 30 07 01

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9: 81 ----0--- SoLSA Capability: not supported 9: 81 ------0- A5/3 not available 9: 81 -------1 A5/2: available 11: 29 -----001 Type of identity: IMSI 12: 64 -------- ID(7/odd): 246037010204766

Note: The Auth Request Message is missing here. Is this because the mobile is already authenticated to the BTS because we send a SMS before? SDCCH, Cipher Mode Command Message
000: 03 20 0d 06 35 01 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 20 -------0 Information Frame 1: 20 ----000- N(S), Sequence counter: 0 1: 20 ---0---- P 1: 20 001----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 1 2: 0d -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 0d ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 0d 000011-- Length: 3 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 35 00110101 RRciphModCmd 5: 01 ----000- Cipher: A5/1 5: 01 -------1 Start ciphering 5: 01 ---0---- Cipher Response: IMEISV shall not be included - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

Note: Not sure why next message is a TMSI realloc. Not needed but maybe the BTS decided that it should also assign a new TMSI to the mobile. Good as well. SDCCH, TMSI Realloc
000: 03 42 35 05 1a 42 f6 30 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 42 -------0 Information Frame 1: 42 ----001- N(S), Sequence counter: 1 1: 42 ---0---- P - 00 04 05 f4 2d 81 fb 3e

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1: 42 010----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 2 2: 35 -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 35 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 35 001101-- Length: 13 3: 05 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 05 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 05 ----0101 Mobile Management Message (non GPRS) 4: 1a 00------ SendSequenceNumber: 0 4: 1a --011010 TMSI Realloc Command 5: 42 246 6: f6 03f 8: 00 4 Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code [0x0004] Local Area Code

11: f4 -----100 Type of identity: TMSI/P-TMSI 12: 2d -------- ID(4/even): 2D81FB3E

SDCCH, SABM (SAPI=3) message:
000: 0f 00 53 19 01 22 01 00 001: 00 16 04 0b 91 73 60 0: 0f -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 0f ------1- C/R: Command 0: 0f ---011-- SAPI: SMS and SS 0: 0f -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 00 -------0 Information Frame 1: 00 ----000- N(S), Sequence counter: 0 1: 00 ---0---- P 1: 00 000----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 0 2: 53 -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 53 ------1- M, segmentation: Y 2: 53 010100-- Length: 20 3: 19 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 19 -001---- 1 TransactionID 3: 19 ----1001 SMS messages 4: 01 00000001 Type: CP-DATA 5: 22 00100010 Length: 34 6: 01 00000001 Parameter 7: 00 00000000 Parameter 8: 07 00000111 SMSC Address Length: 7 9: 91 1------- Extension 9: 91 -001---- International Number 9: 91 ----0001 Numbering plan: ISDN/telephone (E164/E.163) 10: 73 -------- Number(6): 37068499199 16: 00 00000000 TP-MTI, TP-MMS, TP-SRI, TP-UDIH, TP-RP: 0 17: 16 00010110 Reference number: 22 18: 04 00000100 Parameter - 07 91 73 60 48 99 91 f9

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19: 0b 00001011 Destination Address Length: 11 20: 91 1------- Extension 20: 91 -001---- International Number 20: 91 ----0001 Numbering plan: ISDN/telephone (E164/E.163) 21: 73 -------- Number(10): 3706

Note: The 'segmentation' flag is set. Next SABM message is part of this message. I had to decode this message manualle. gsmdecode-0.2 does not support segmentation yet. SDCCH: SABM (SAPI=3) message [continued]
000: 0f 02 45 67 95 67 f6 00 001: 03 61 f1 18 2b 2b 2b 0: 0f -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 0f ------1- C/R: Command 0: 0f ---011-- SAPI: SMS and SS 0: 0f -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 02 -------0 Information Frame 1: 02 ----001- N(S), Sequence counter: 1 1: 02 ---0---- P 1: 02 000----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 0 2: 45 -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 45 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 45 010001-- Length: 17 3: 67 -------- Number(continoues, 8 left): 7659766 7: 00 -------- Protocol Identifier: 0 8: 00 00------ Data Coding Sheme: 0x00 8: 00 --0----- Uncompressed 8: 00 ---0---- Bit 0, 1 are reserved (no class!) 8: 00 ----00-- Default Alphabet 8: 00 ------00 (reserved or sim specific) 9: 00 -------- 7 octets Parameters (unknown meaning?!) 16: 03 ------11 CP-DATA Length: 3 17: 61 -------- Data: "abc" (GSM 03.38) - 00 70 40 21 02 63 43 21

Note: Why is length of destination address set to 11? It's only 6 bytes long. SDCCH, CP-ACK
000: 0f 44 09 19 04 2b 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 0f -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 0f ------1- C/R: Command 0: 0f ---011-- SAPI: SMS and SS 0: 0f -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 44 -------0 Information Frame - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

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1: 44 ----010- N(S), Sequence counter: 2 1: 44 ---0---- P 1: 44 010----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 2 2: 09 -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 09 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 09 000010-- Length: 2 3: 19 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 19 -001---- 1 TransactionID 3: 19 ----1001 SMS messages 4: 04 00000100 Type: CP-ACK

SDCCH, Channel Release (all done!)
000: 03 64 0d 06 0d 00 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 64 -------0 Information Frame 1: 64 ----010- N(S), Sequence counter: 2 1: 64 ---0---- P 1: 64 011----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 3 2: 0d -------1 EL, Extended Length: yes [FIXME] 2: 0d ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 0d 000011-- Length: 3 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 0d 00001101 Channel Release 5: 00 00000000 RR-Cause (reason of event) = Normal event - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

5.10.2. Decoding TCH We wanted to find out if the Nokia DCT3 mobile in trace mode also forwards TCH frames to the Computer. We did not receive any. Does his have to be enabled specificly? Download: attachment:call_1525.xml The MS called the number 1525 and stayed connected for 2-3 seconds. The xml file contains uplink and downlink traffic as sniffed by default DCT3 tracer. Some interesting packets below. Question: 1. I could not find where to phone calls 1525 (e.g. the number itself. anyone?) SDCCH, from BTS to MS:
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000: 01 73 35 05 24 31 03 33 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

- 19 81 05 f4 2e 48 41 15

0: 01 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 01 ------0- C/R: Response 0: 01 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 01 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 73 ------11 Unnumbered Frame 1: 73 ---1---- P 1: 73 011-00-- UA frame (Unnumbered achknowledgement) 2: 35 -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 35 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 35 001101-- Length: 13 3: 05 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 05 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 05 ----0101 Mobile Management Message (non GPRS) 4: 24 00------ SendSequenceNumber: 0 4: 24 --100100 MMcmServiceRequest 5: 31 -011---- Ciphering key sequence: 3 5: 31 ----0001 Request Service Type: MS originated call 6: 03 00000011 MS Classmark 2 length: 3 7: 33 -01----- Revision Level: Phase 2 7: 33 ---1---- Controlled early classmark sending: Implemented 7: 33 -----011 RF power class capability: Class 4 8: 19 -1------ Pseudo Sync Capability: not present 8: 19 --01---- SS Screening: Phase 2 error handling 8: 19 ----1--- Mobile Terminated Point to Point SMS: supported 8: 19 -----0-- VoiceBroadcastService: not supported 8: 19 ------0- VoiceGroupCallService: not supported 8: 19 -------1 MS supports E-GSM or R-GSM: supported 9: 81 1------- CM3 option: supported 9: 81 --0----- LocationServiceValueAdded Capability: not supported 9: 81 ----0--- SoLSA Capability: not supported 9: 81 ------0- A5/3 not available 9: 81 -------1 A5/2: available 11: f4 -----100 Type of identity: TMSI/P-TMSI 12: 2e -------- ID(4/even): 2E484115

SDCCH, from BTS to MS:
000: 03 20 0d 06 35 11 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

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0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 20 -------0 Information Frame 1: 20 ----000- N(S), Sequence counter: 0 1: 20 ---0---- P 1: 20 001----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 1 2: 0d -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 0d ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 0d 000011-- Length: 3 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 35 00110101 RRciphModCmd 5: 11 ----000- Cipher: A5/1 5: 11 -------1 Start ciphering 5: 11 ---1---- Cipher Response: IMEISV shall be included

SDCCH, from BTS to MS:
000: 03 86 21 06 2e 0d c3 ff 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 86 -------0 Information Frame 1: 86 ----011- N(S), Sequence counter: 3 1: 86 ---0---- P 1: 86 100----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 4 2: 21 -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 21 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 21 001000-- Length: 8 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 2e 00101110 RRassignCommand 5: 0d -----101 Timeslot: 5 5: 0d 00001--- TCH/F + ACCHs 6: c3 110----- Training sequence code: 6 6: c3 ---000-- Single Channel 7: ff ........ Absolute RF channel number: 1023 8: 05 ----0101 Power Level: 5 10: 21 00100001 Channel Mode: TCH/F or TCH/H rev 2 - 05 63 21 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

SDCCH, from BTS to MS:

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000: 03 22 19 83 01 1e 02 ea 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

- 88 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 22 -------0 Information Frame 1: 22 ----001- N(S), Sequence counter: 1 1: 22 ---0---- P 1: 22 001----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 1 2: 19 -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 19 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 19 000110-- Length: 6 3: 83 1------- Direction: To originating site 3: 83 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 83 ----0011 Call control. call related SS messages 4: 01 00------ Send Sequence Number: 0 4: 01 --000001 Call Alerting 6: 02 00000010 L of IE Progress Indicator: 2 7: ea -11----- Coding standard: GSM-PLMNS 7: ea ----1010 Location: Network beyong interworking point 8: 88 -0001000 Progress: In-band information or appr. pattern available

SDCCH, from BTS to MS:
000: 03 24 09 83 07 2b 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 24 -------0 Information Frame 1: 24 ----010- N(S), Sequence counter: 2 1: 24 ---0---- P 1: 24 001----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 1 2: 09 -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 09 ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 09 000010-- Length: 2 3: 83 1------- Direction: To originating site 3: 83 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 83 ----0011 Call control. call related SS messages 4: 07 00------ Send Sequence Number: 0 4: 07 --000111 Call Connect - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

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SDCCH, from BTS to MS:
000: 03 88 0d 06 0d 00 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 03 -------1 Extended Address: 1 octet long 0: 03 ------1- C/R: Command 0: 03 ---000-- SAPI: RR, MM and CC 0: 03 -00----- Link Protocol Disciminator: normal GSM (not Cell Broadcasting) 1: 88 -------0 Information Frame 1: 88 ----100- N(S), Sequence counter: 4 1: 88 ---0---- P 1: 88 100----- N(R), Retransmission counter: 4 2: 0d -------1 EL, Extended Length: y 2: 0d ------0- M, segmentation: N 2: 0d 000011-- Length: 3 3: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 3: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 3: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 4: 0d 00001101 Channel Release 5: 00 00000000 RR-Cause (reason of event) = Normal event - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

5.11. The Ericcson TEMS Approach Various Ericcson phones can be used for tracing. Womax is using the t28s together with the tems-investigation software. Screenshots: 1. Cipher Mode Complete Command 2. Classmark Change More: 1. http://www.ericsson.com/solutions/tems/index.shtml 5.12. The Vitel TSM30 Approach This project has been moved to http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/opentsm. The goal is to modify and compile the source of the TSM30 and reflash it with our modifications. Projects are turning the TSM30 into a trace mobile and sending custom gsm messages. This in itself is cool. The research will also help us getting the USRP to send gsm messages and maybe building our own basestation. 5.13. The MADos Approach MADos is a free open source OS for the Nokia DCT-3 series. We would like to evaluate if we can modify the source and send/receive gsm messages. Download Source: MADos.rar Links:

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http://www.g3gg0.de/wordpress/projects/mados/ http://nokix.pasjagsm.pl/help/blacksphere/sub_250software/sub_mados.htm It seems that there is not DSP message control with MADos (yet). Little information about reversing the protocol between MCU and DSP is here: http://nokix.pasjagsm.pl /help/blacksphere/sub_100hardware/sub_dsp/sub_mdi.htm 5.14. Mysteries This is a collection of mysteries. Here we collect everything that we can not explain. SOLVE A MYSTERY TODAY - EDIT THIS SECTION AND EXPLAIN IT! 5.14.1. Mystery 1: TMSI f BCCH carrier. I see Radio Resource Management -> Paging Request Type 1 that contain a TMSI that is set to 'f'. I see hundrets of these packtes. Why f?
000: 15 06 21 00 01 f0 2b 2b 001: 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 0: 15 000101-- Pseudo Length: 5 1: 06 0------- Direction: From originating site 1: 06 -000---- 0 TransactionID 1: 06 ----0110 Radio Resouce Management 2: 21 00100001 Paging Request Type 1 3: 00 ------00 Page Mode: Normal paging 5: f0 -----000 Type of identity: No Identity - 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b 2b

The lenght is set to 1. This means one octet follows: Just the type of identity but no actual number. 1. Question: What is f in 0xf0? Answer: "1111" = end marker code (3GPP TS 24.008, Table 10.5.4) 2. Question: Why is this sent? Anser: Sent to fill idle time on the CCCH. 5.14.2. Mystery 2: Unknown RRM 06 07 Received:
05 06 07 c0 1c 04 aa 63 43 74 7f e0 12 e8 4a bc ... 05 = Pseudo Length 1 (hu?) 06 = Protocol discriminator: RRM 07 = Hu? what this?

1. Question: Why is pseudo length set to 1 but i still see valid data? It can not be 1 in the first place because no layer 3 message is only 1 byte long 2. Question: What is 07? 5.14.3. Mystery: Pseudo Length 0 but data

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Received (2 examples):
01 06 03 df f4 a0 00 00 00 00 00 00 ... 01 06 00 80 f7 81 70 db 09 13 69 26 ... 01 = Pseudo Length 0

Length is set to 0 but packet contains data. 1. Question: Anything hidden in here? 2. Answer: These are Rest Octets. They are a GSM extention. Some rest octets and their coding are defined in GSM 04.08:10.5.2.16. Putting data in the rest octets came about with GPRS. In order to maintain compatibility with GSM, GPRS information can be transmitted in the rest octets and a GPRS capable phone will use the information, but a GSM phone will ignore it. 5.15. Converting ARFCN to Frequency GSM-935:
frequency = 935 + 0.2 * ARFCN Example (ARFCN == 27): 940.4 = 935 + 0.2 * 27

GSM-1800:
frequency = 1805.2 + 0.2 * (ARFCN - 512) Example (ARFCN == 591): 1821 = 1805.2 + (591 - 512)

6. RELEASES
6.1. Tips and Tricks 1. All releases are tested on live networks in the United Kingdom and the US (and many other countries). 2. First find a beacon carrier. Either use the method that robert describes or use the Netmonitor to check your current beacon channel and calculate the frequency from it. 3. Even when you have a perfect looking beacon carrier you might not receive any traffic. This is because of Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI). Try to enhance the signal quality by using a directional antenna (yagi). 4. Try setting decimation to 64 (or 32) in gsm_run.py (for gsmsp release) or in gssm_usrp.py (for gssm release). 6.2. Sample Data for peoples without USRP You can analyze GSM traffic without a USRP as well. A lot of people captures data and uploaded them to the webserver at http://www.segfault.net/gsm/resources. You can download any of the files and analyze them with any of our releases even without a USRP. If you are interested in any particular frequency range please ask on the mailinglist for somebody to sample a file for you.
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If you own a USRP you can create your own capture file (cfile) like this (10 seconds, frequence 940.4Mhz):
usrp_rx_cfile.py -d 112 -f 940.4M -N 5714280 myfirstdump.cfile

6.3. Developer Source Code Access The team releases stable tar packages every once in a while. They are listed below. There is also a anonymous git repository for the latest version:
$ git clone git://romeo.thc.org/gsm.git gsm

Compile gsm-tvoid and gsmdecode by running in both directories:
./bootstrap ./configure make

To analyze the example dump file from robert pipe the output of gsm-tvoid into gsmdecode:
cd gsm-tvoid/src/pyton ./gsm_scan.py -SN -pd -d 112 -I GSMSP_940.8Mhz_118.cfile | ../../../gsmdecode/src/gsmdecode -i

Write-access is given to active developers. To become an active developer you must submit one useful patches to the mailinglist first. To create a patch please execute:
git diff >myname.diff

6.4. GSSM 2007/07/09 GSSM is joshua's release of a USRP GSM implementation. Please see http://wiki.thc.org /gsm/gssm for the release notes. Receiving all messages on beacon channel Patch to analyze messages in wireshark. Linux only. Requires tap + wireshark for analyzing packets. Download: gssm-v0.1.1a.tar.bz2. 6.5. GSM tvoid 2007/07/01 This is Tempest Void's GSM Software Project release. This is the most stable release and the latest version is available from the git server.

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Calculate Frequency correction Does not use GMSK block anymore. Until today the best bit receiver. Fixed 1-bit DFE to remove Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI) Channel and Message decoding (layer1). The release is availabe at http://wiki.thc.org/gsm/tvoid. You should use this release if you want to: Learn about the RF part Learn about ISI and 1bit DFE's. Learn how to calculate frequency offsets. Experiment without GMSK Quick start to analyze a cfile dump:
cd gsm-tvoid/src/python ./gsm_scan.py -SN -pd -d 112 -I myfirstdump.cfile | ../../../gsmdecode/src/gsmdecode -i

6.6. GSMSP A GNU radio GSM Software implementation. This is probably the easier package to start with. Difference to GSSM: 1. Compiles under windows/cygwin and linux/gentoo 2. Works without wireshark. Come with a build in packet analyzer. 3. Does not support live capture Download: gsmsp-0.2a.tar.gz 6.7. Gsmdecode Gsmdecode is used to decode the gsm messages from the gammu trace log and a nokia dct3 mobile. In the future GSMSP outputs the data in a format that gsmdecode can decode or we directly implement it into GSMSP (as a library). 2007/06/08 Download: gsmdecode-0.7bis.tar.gz source SIM Toolkit support Concatenated SMS supported (e.g. sms longer than 140 octets). Service request support (e.g. *#100# requests). Other layer 3 support (long (23+ octet) RR messages, ...) Older versions: 2007/04/16 Download: gsmdecode-0.2.tar.gz 2007/04/19 Download: gsmdecode-0.3.tar.gz 2007/04/27 Download: gsmdecode-0.4 source or windows binary 2007/05/21 Download: gsmdecode-0.5 source or win32 binary

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7. HELP
7.1. Donations Go to http://www.segfault.net/gsm/ if you like what we are doing. Your sponsorship is appreciated. Contact steve [at] segfault.net for details or bank account information. 7.2. Who can help People passionate about GSM. Baseband engineers. GnuRadio enthusiasts and Ettus programmers. 7.3. How to help Subscribe to the mailinglist. Write here if you have any information that can be helpful. Contact me: steve at segfault.net Let's get together the people who work on similar projects. Add links of similar projects below. You can also talk to some of us on IRC, join #gnuradio on irc.freenode.net.

8. Links
8.1. Similiar Projects iPhone JerrySIM (from http://code.google.com/p/iphone-elite/wiki/JerrySim). Executing shellcode on the gsm baseband. Homebrew mobile phone club GnuRadio, the software that makes it all possible. Eric's GnuRadio Presentation (video, 108 MB) USPR and gnu Radio Projects SMS Receiver Project http://www.eccpage.com/ Example source for Viterbi, convolutional decoding, CRC, ... MADos Free OS for Nokia DCT3 phones Building a Super Receiver using a TV receiver http://www.vovida.org - a open-source GSM Signalling Protocol stack. (also contains viterbi equalization, voice codecs, mm/cc/rr layer 1 message parsing, ...) Lyrtech Femto Cell SDR Video 8.2. Specs & Docs 3GPP Specs Baseband specs GSM encryption algorithms and flaws Bruce Schneier on A5 security GSM frequency range A5/3 Encryption Algorithms for GSM and EDGE, and the GEA3 Encryption

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Algorithm for GPRS UK GSM info / photos (BTS) and CellIds UK Mobile Phone Base Station Database Pinpointing a DE Mobile Phone Base Station Estimating the Computational Requirements of a Software GSM Base Station A Brief Overview of the GSM Radio Interface 8.3. Suggested reading Understanding Digital Signal Processing in 7 pages Pawel's GSM Scanner Tutorial DSP, Suggested reading, Richard Lyons book Goeller: GSM control channel GSM Switching, Services, and Protocols (READ IT!) MatLab Manual Article & Video Sniffing GSM off the air 8.4. Hardware silabs.com Silabs GSM transceiver chip USRP board Analog GSM baseband chip CP028 ozzi clock

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